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Sample records for emwmf waste lot

  1. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) Site-Specific Health and Safety Plan, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, N.C. Bechtel Jacobs

    2008-04-21

    The Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) policy is to provide a safe and healthy workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The implementation of this policy requires that operations of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF), located one-half mile west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex, be guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to environment, safety and health (ES&H) issues. The BJC governing document for worker safety and health, BJC/OR-1745, 'Worker Safety and Health Program', describes the key elements of the BJC Safety and Industrial Hygiene (IH) programs, which includes the requirement for development and implementation of a site-specific Health and Safety Plan (HASP) where required by regulation (refer also to BJC-EH-1012, 'Development and Approval of Safety and Health Plans'). BJC/OR-1745, 'Worker Safety and Health Program', implements the requirements for worker protection contained in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 851. The EMWMF site-specific HASP requirements identifies safe operating procedures, work controls, personal protective equipment, roles and responsibilities, potential site hazards and control measures, site access requirements, frequency and types of monitoring, site work areas, decontamination procedures, and outlines emergency response actions. This HASP will be available on site for use by all workers, management and supervisors, oversight personnel and visitors. All EMWMF assigned personnel will be briefed on the contents of this HASP and will be required to follow the procedures and protocols as specified. The policies and procedures referenced in this HASP apply to all EMWMF operations activities. In addition the HASP establishes ES&H criteria for the day-to-day activities to prevent or minimize any adverse effect on the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable

  2. Environmental Survey Report for the ETTP: Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) Haul Road Corridor, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-12-20

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveys conducted within the corridor of a temporary haul road (''Haul Road'') to be constructed from East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) to the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) located just west of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Environmental surveys were conducted by natural resource experts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory who routinely assess the significance of various project activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). ORNL assistance to the Haul Road Project included environmental assessments necessary to determine the best route for minimizing impacts to sensitive resources such as wetlands or rare plants. Once the final route was chosen, environmental surveys were conducted within the corridor to evaluate the impacts to sensitive resources that could not be avoided. The final Haul Road route follows established roads and a power-line corridor to the extent possible (Fig. 1). Detailed explanation regarding the purpose of the Haul Road and the regulatory context associated with its construction is provided in at least two major documents and consequently is not presented here: (1) Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Disposal of Oak Ridge Reservation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Waste, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (January 2005, DOE/OR/01-2194&D2), and (2) Environmental Monitoring Plan for The ETTP to EMWMF Haul Road for the Disposal of Oak Ridge Reservation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Waste, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (April 2005, BJC/OR-2152). The focus of this report is a description of the sensitive resources to be impacted by Haul Road construction. Following a short description of the methods used for the environmental surveys, results and observations are presented in the following subsections: (1) General description

  3. HOW TO DEAL WITH WASTE ACCEPTANCE UNCERTAINTY USING THE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FORECASTING AND ANALYSIS CAPABILITY SYSTEM (WACFACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redus, K. S.; Hampshire, G. J.; Patterson, J. E.; Perkins, A. B.

    2002-01-01

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria Forecasting and Analysis Capability System (WACFACS) is used to plan for, evaluate, and control the supply of approximately 1.8 million yd3 of low-level radioactive, TSCA, and RCRA hazardous wastes from over 60 environmental restoration projects between FY02 through FY10 to the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). WACFACS is a validated decision support tool that propagates uncertainties inherent in site-related contaminant characterization data, disposition volumes during EMWMF operations, and project schedules to quantitatively determine the confidence that risk-based performance standards are met. Trade-offs in schedule, volumes of waste lots, and allowable concentrations of contaminants are performed to optimize project waste disposition, regulatory compliance, and disposal cell management

  4. HOW TO DEAL WITH WASTE ACCEPTANCE UNCERTAINTY USING THE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FORECASTING AND ANALYSIS CAPABILITY SYSTEM (WACFACS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redus, K. S.; Hampshire, G. J.; Patterson, J. E.; Perkins, A. B.

    2002-02-25

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria Forecasting and Analysis Capability System (WACFACS) is used to plan for, evaluate, and control the supply of approximately 1.8 million yd3 of low-level radioactive, TSCA, and RCRA hazardous wastes from over 60 environmental restoration projects between FY02 through FY10 to the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). WACFACS is a validated decision support tool that propagates uncertainties inherent in site-related contaminant characterization data, disposition volumes during EMWMF operations, and project schedules to quantitatively determine the confidence that risk-based performance standards are met. Trade-offs in schedule, volumes of waste lots, and allowable concentrations of contaminants are performed to optimize project waste disposition, regulatory compliance, and disposal cell management.

  5. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Proxy Waste Lot Profile 6.999 for Building K-25 West Wing, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby V.P.

    2009-02-12

    In 1989, the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), which includes the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) National Priorities List. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (DOE 1992), effective January 1, 1992, now governs environmental restoration activities conducted under CERCLA at the ORR. Following signing of the FFA, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the state of Tennessee signed the Oak Ridge Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement on June 18, 2002. The purpose of this agreement is to define a streamlined decision-making process to facilitate the accelerated implementation of cleanup, resolve ORR milestone issues, and establish future actions necessary to complete the accelerated cleanup plan by the end of fiscal year 2008. While the FFA continues to serve as the overall regulatory framework for remediation, the Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement supplements existing requirements to streamline the decision-making process. Decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities of Bldg. K-25, the original gaseous diffusion facility, is being conducted by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) on behalf of the DOE. The planned CERCLA action covering disposal of building structure and remaining components from the K-25 building is scheduled as a non-time-critical CERCLA action as part of DOE's continuous risk reduction strategy for ETTP. The K-25 building is proposed for D&D because of its poor physical condition and the expense of surveillance and maintenance activities. The K-25/K-27 D&D Project proposes to dispose of the commingled waste listed below from the K-25 west side building structure and remaining components and process gas equipment and piping at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) under waste disposal proxy lot (WPXL) 6.999: (1) Building structure (e.g. concrete floors [excluding basement

  6. Data sharing report characterization of the surveillance and maintenance project miscellaneous process inventory waste items Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign to target certain items associated with URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing for final disposal. This waste was generated during processing, surveillance, and maintenance activities associated with the facilities identified in the process knowledge (PK) provided in Appendix A. A list of items for sampling and analysis were generated from a subset of materials identified in the WHP populations (POPs) 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, plus a small number of items not explicitly addressed by the WHP. Specifically, UCOR S&M project personnel identified 62 miscellaneous waste items that would require some level of evaluation to identify the appropriate pathway for disposal. These items are highly diverse, relative to origin; composition; physical description; contamination level; data requirements; and the presumed treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF). Because of this diversity, ORAU developed a structured approach to address item-specific data requirements necessary for acceptance in a presumed TSDF that includes the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF)—using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile—the Y-12 Sanitary Landfill (SLF) if appropriate; Energy

  7. Calculation Package for the Analysis of Performance of Cells 1-6, with Underdrain, of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales D.

    2010-03-30

    This calculation package presents the results of an assessment of the performance of the 6 cell design of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The calculations show that the new cell 6 design at the EMWMF meets the current WAC requirement. QA/QC steps were taken to verify the input/output data for the risk model and data transfer from modeling output files to tables and calculation.

  8. Lessons Learned From a Decade of Design, Construction, and Operations of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee - 12062

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Joe [Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) is the Department of Energy's on-site disposal facility for radioactive and hazardous waste generated by the CERCLA cleanup of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). EMWMF recently completed building out to its maximum site capacity and is approaching a decade of operating experience. In meeting the challenges of design, construction, and operation of a mixed waste and low-level radioactive waste disposal facility within the framework of CERCLA, the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) project team learned valuable lessons that may be beneficial to other disposal facilities. Since project inception in 1998, the scope of the effort includes five regulator-approved designs, four phases of construction, and utilization of half of EMWMF's 1.63 M m{sup 3} of airspace during disposal of waste streams from across the ORR. Funding came from the broadest possible range of sources - privatization, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, and two funding appropriation accounts. In the process of becoming the cost effective disposal outlet for the majority of the ORR cleanup waste, EMWMF overcame numerous challenges. Lessons learned were a key factor in achieving that success. Many of EMWMF's challenges are common to other disposal facilities. Sharing the successes and lessons learned will help other facilities optimize design, construction, and operations. (author)

  9. Annual Report for 2008 - 2009 Detection Monitoring at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker J.R.

    2010-03-01

    This annual Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR) presents results of environmental monitoring performed during fiscal year (FY) 2009 (October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2009) at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF is an operating state-of-the-art hazardous waste landfill located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Appendix A, Fig. A.1). Opened in 2002 and operated by a DOE prime contractor, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC), the EMWMF was built specifically to accommodate disposal of acceptable solid wastes generated from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial actions for former waste sites and buildings that have been impacted by past DOE operations on the ORR and at DOE sites off the ORR within the state of Tennessee. Environmental monitoring at the EMWMF is performed to detect and monitor the impact of facility operations on groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air quality and to determine compliance with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) specified in governing CERCLA decision documents. Annually, the EMR presents an evaluation of the groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air monitoring data with respect to the applicable EMWMF performance standards. The purpose of the evaluation is to: (1) identify monitoring results that indicate evidence of a contaminant release from the EMWMF to groundwater, surface water, stormwater, or air, and (2) recommend appropriate changes to the associated sampling and analysis requirements, including sampling locations, methods, and frequencies; field measurements; or laboratory analytes that may be warranted in response to the monitoring data. Sect. 2 of this annual EMR provides background information relevant to environmental monitoring at the landfill, including

  10. Sophisticated lean gas management. A lot of synergies at the dry fermentation of the waste management services Uelzen; Ausgekluegeltes Schwachgasmanagement. Viele Synergien bei der Trockenfermentation des Abfallwirtschaftsbetrieb Uelzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Dorothee

    2013-04-01

    As part of the need for renewal of the composting facility of the waste management services Uelzen (Federal Republic of Germany), a biogas plant was planned which has to be low-emission and suitable for inhomogeneous biological wastes. The newly built biogas plant processes 12,000 tons of biological waste and green waste per year and is used for the heating of factory buildings, for composting and as a water treatment plant.

  11. Data sharing report characterization of population 7: Personal protective equipment, dry active waste, and miscellaneous debris, surveillance and maintenance project Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpenau, Evan M. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  12. Green Lot-Sizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Retel Helmrich (Mathijn Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe lot-sizing problem concerns a manufacturer that needs to solve a production planning problem. The producer must decide at which points in time to set up a production process, and when he/she does, how much to produce. There is a trade-off between inventory costs and costs associated

  13. How can water quality be improved when the urban waste water directive has been fulfilled? A case study of the Lot river (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Josette; Ramarson, Antsiva; Thieu, Vincent; Némery, Julien; Théry, Sylvain; Billen, Gilles; Coynel, Alexandra

    2018-02-15

    The Lot river, a major tributary of the downstream Garonne river, the largest river on the Northern side of the Pyrenees Mountains, was intensively studied in the 1970s. A pioneering program called "Lot Rivière Claire" provided a diagnosis of water quality at the scale of the whole watershed and proposed an ambitious program to manage nutrient pollution and eutrophication largely caused by urban wastewater releases. Later on, the implementation of European directives from 1991 to 2000 resulted in the nearly complete treatment of point sources of pollution in spite of a doubling of the basin's population. At the outlet of the Lot river, ammonium and phosphate contamination which respectively peaked to 1 mg N-NH 4 L -1 and 0.3 mg P-PO 4 L -1 in the 1980s returned to much lower levels in recent years (0.06 mg N-NH 4 L -1 and 0.02 mg P-PO 4 L -1 ), a reduction by a factor 15. However, during this time, nitrate contamination has regularly increased since the 1980s, from 0.5 to 1.2 mg N-NO 3 L -1 in average, owing to the intensification of agriculture and livestock farming. Application of the Riverstrahler model allowed us to simulate the water quality of the Lot drainage network for the 2002-2014 period. We showed that, with respect to algal requirements, phosphorus and silica are well balanced, but nitrogen remains largely in excess over phosphorus and silica. This imbalance can be problematic for the ecological status of the water bodies. Using the model, for simulating various scenarios of watershed management, we showed that improvement of urban wastewater treatment would not result in any significant change in the river's water quality. Even though arable land occupies a rather limited fraction of the watershed area, only the adoption of better farming practices or more radical changes in the agro-food system could reverse the trend of increasing nitrate contamination.

  14. Waste Acceptance Decisions and Uncertainty Analysis at the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redus, K. S.; Patterson, J. E.; Hampshire, G. L.; Perkins, A. B.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Attainment Team (AT) routinely provides the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations with Go/No-Go decisions associated with the disposition of over 1.8 million yd3 of low-level radioactive, TSCA, and RCRA hazardous waste. This supply of waste comes from 60+ environmental restoration projects over the next 15 years planned to be dispositioned at the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF WAC AT decision making process is accomplished in four ways: (1) ensure a clearly defined mission and timeframe for accomplishment is established, (2) provide an effective organization structure with trained personnel, (3) have in place a set of waste acceptance decisions and Data Quality Objectives (DQO) for which quantitative measures are required, and (4) use validated risk-based forecasting, decision support, and modeling/simulation tools. We provide a summary of WAC AT structure and performance. We offer suggestions based on lessons learned for effective transfer to other DOE

  15. Waste Acceptance Decisions and Uncertainty Analysis at the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redus, K. S.; Patterson, J. E.; Hampshire, G. L.; Perkins, A. B.

    2003-02-25

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Attainment Team (AT) routinely provides the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations with Go/No-Go decisions associated with the disposition of over 1.8 million yd3 of low-level radioactive, TSCA, and RCRA hazardous waste. This supply of waste comes from 60+ environmental restoration projects over the next 15 years planned to be dispositioned at the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF WAC AT decision making process is accomplished in four ways: (1) ensure a clearly defined mission and timeframe for accomplishment is established, (2) provide an effective organization structure with trained personnel, (3) have in place a set of waste acceptance decisions and Data Quality Objectives (DQO) for which quantitative measures are required, and (4) use validated risk-based forecasting, decision support, and modeling/simulation tools. We provide a summary of WAC AT structure and performance. We offer suggestions based on lessons learned for effective transfer to other DOE.

  16. Transmittal of the Calculation Package that Supports the Analysis of Performance of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Based 5-Cell Design Issued 8/14/09)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams M.J.

    2009-09-14

    This document presents the results of an assessment of the performance of a build-out of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF configuration that was assessed includes the as-constructed Cells 1 through 4, with a groundwater underdrain that was installed beneath Cell 3 during the winter of 2003-2004, and Cell 5, whose proposed design is an Addendum to Remedial Design Report for the Disposal of Oak Ridge Reservation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Waste, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DOE/OR/01-1873&D2/A5/R1. The total capacity of the EMWMF with 5 cells is about 1.7 million cubic yards. This assessment was conducted to determine the conditions under which the approved Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the EMWMF found in the Attainment Plan for Risk/Toxicity-Based Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2001a], as revised for constituents added up to October 2008, would remain protective of public health and safety for a five-cell disposal facility. For consistency, the methods of analyses and the exposure scenario used to predict the performance of a five-cell disposal facility were identical to those used in the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) and its addendum (DOE 1998a, DOE 1998b) to develop the approved WAC. To take advantage of new information and design changes departing from the conceptual design, the modeling domain and model calibration were upaded from those used in the RI/FS and its addendum. It should be noted that this analysis is not intended to justify or propose a change in the approved WAC.

  17. The dismantling of nuclear installations: The dismantling of nuclear installations at the CEA's Directorate for nuclear energy; The CEA's sanitation and dismantling works: example of one of the Marcoule UP1 program lots; Research and innovation in sanitation-dismantling; Global optimisation of the management of dismantling radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauet, Jean-Pierre; Piketty, Laurence; Moitrier, Cyril; Blanchard, Samuel; Soulabaille, Yves; Georges, Christine; Dutzer, Michel; Legee, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of four articles which addresses issues related to the dismantling of nuclear installations in France, notably for the different involved actors such as the CEA and the ANDRA. The authors more particularly address the issue and the general strategy of dismantling within the Directorate for nuclear energy of the CEA; comment the example of one of the Marcoule UP1 program lots to highlight sanitation and dismantling works performed by the CEA; discuss current research and innovation activities within the CEA regarding sanitation and dismantling; and comment how to globally optimise the management of radioactive wastes produced by dismantling activities

  18. 7 CFR 46.20 - Lot numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and entered on all sales tickets identifying and segregating the sales from the various shipments on hand. The lot number shall be entered on the sales tickets by the salesmen at the time of sale or by the produce dispatcher, and not by bookkeepers or others after the sales have been made. No lot number...

  19. 7 CFR 989.104 - Lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN... inspection after reconditioning (such as sorting or drying) and whose original lot identity is no longer...

  20. Reactionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellsén, Finnur

    2017-02-01

    As it is standardly conceived, Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) is a form of ampliative inference in which one infers a hypothesis because it provides a better potential explanation of one's evidence than any other available, competing explanatory hypothesis. Bas van Fraassen famously objected to IBE thus formulated that we may have no reason to think that any of the available, competing explanatory hypotheses are true. While revisionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection concede that IBE needs to be reformulated in light of this problem, reactionary responses argue that the Bad Lot Objection is fallacious, incoherent, or misguided. This paper shows that the most influential reactionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection do nothing to undermine the original objection. This strongly suggests that proponents of IBE should focus their efforts on revisionary responses, i.e. on finding a more sophisticated characterization of IBE for which the Bad Lot Objection loses its bite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The economic lot size and relevant costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbeij, M.H.; Jansen, R.A.; Grübström, R.W.; Hinterhuber, H.H.; Lundquist, J.

    1993-01-01

    In many accounting textbooks it is strongly argued that decisions should always be evaluated on relevant costs; that is variable costs and opportunity costs. Surprisingly, when it comes to Economic Order Quantities or Lot Sizes, some textbooks appear to be less straightforward. The question whether

  2. 7 CFR 993.104 - Lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... means any quantity of prunes delivered by one producer or one dehydrator to a handler on which... purposes of §§ 993.50 and 993.150 means: (1) With respect to in-line inspection either (i) the aggregate... identification (e.g., brand) if in consumer packages, and offered for inspection as a lot; or (ii) prunes...

  3. Exploring lot-to-lot variation in spoilage bacterial communities on commercial modified atmosphere packaged beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säde, Elina; Penttinen, Katri; Björkroth, Johanna; Hultman, Jenni

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the factors influencing meat bacterial communities is important as these communities are largely responsible for meat spoilage. The composition and structure of a bacterial community on a high-O 2 modified-atmosphere packaged beef product were examined after packaging, on the use-by date and two days after, to determine whether the communities at each stage were similar to those in samples taken from different production lots. Furthermore, we examined whether the taxa associated with product spoilage were distributed across production lots. Results from 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing showed that while the early samples harbored distinct bacterial communities, after 8-12 days storage at 6 °C the communities were similar to those in samples from different lots, comprising mainly of common meat spoilage bacteria Carnobacterium spp., Brochothrix spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus spp. Interestingly, abundant operational taxonomic units associated with product spoilage were shared between the production lots, suggesting that the bacteria enable to spoil the product were constant contaminants in the production chain. A characteristic succession pattern and the distribution of common spoilage bacteria between lots suggest that both the packaging type and the initial community structure influenced the development of the spoilage bacterial community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metal concentrations from permeable pavement parking lot in Edison, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements...

  5. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failed lots/rework procedure. 983.52 Section 983.52..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.52 Failed lots/rework procedure. (a) Substandard pistachios... committee may establish, with the Secretary's approval, appropriate rework procedures. (b) Failed lot...

  6. 40 CFR 52.128 - Rule for unpaved parking lots, unpaved roads and vacant lots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... six (6) percent for unpaved road surfaces or eight (8) percent for unpaved parking lot surfaces as... calculating percent cover.) (iii) Vegetative Density Factor. Cut a single, representative piece of vegetation... that are not covered by any piece of the vegetation. To calculate percent vegetative density, use...

  7. New methodology for dynamic lot dispatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Wei-Herng; Wang, Jiann-Kwang; Lin, Kuo-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Chin

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a new dynamic dispatching rule to improve delivery. The dynamic dispatching rule named `SLACK and OTD (on time delivery)' is developed for focusing on due date and target cycle time under the environment of IC manufacturing. This idea uses traditional SLACK policy to control long term due date and new OTD policy to reflect the short term stage queue time. Through the fuzzy theory, these two policies are combined as the dispatching controller to define the lot priority in the entire production line. Besides, the system would automatically update the lot priority according to the current line situation. Since the wafer dispatching used to be controlled by critical ratio that indicates the low customer satisfaction. And the overall slack time in the front end of the process is greater compared to that in the rear end of the process which reveals that the machines in the rear end are overloaded by rush orders. When SLACK and OTD are used the due date control has been gradually improved. The wafer with either a long stage queue time or urgent due date will be pushed through the overall production line instead of jammed in the front end. A demand pull system is also developed to satisfy not only due date but also the quantity of monthly demand. The SLACK and OTD rule has been implemented in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company for eight months with beneficial results. In order to clearly monitor the SLACK and OTD policy, a method called box chart is generated to simulate the entire production system. From the box chart, we can not only monitor the result of decision policy but display the production situation on the density figure. The production cycle time and delivery situation can also be investigated.

  8. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  9. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  10. A lot to look forward to

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    CERN moves from momentous year to momentous year, and although 2013 will be very different for us than 2012, there is still a lot to look forward to. As I write, the proton-lead run is just getting under way, giving the LHC experiments a new kind of data to investigate. But the run will be short, and our main activity this year will be the start of the LHC’s first long shutdown.   This is the first year I can remember in which all of CERN’s accelerators will be off. The reason is that there is much to be done: the older machines need maintenance, and the LHC has to be prepared for higher energy running. That involves opening up the interconnections between each of the machine’s 1,695 main magnet cryostats, consolidating all of the 10,170 splices carrying current to the main dipole and quadrupole windings, and a range of other work to improve the machine. The CERN accelerator complex will start to come back to life in 2014, and it’s fair to say that when...

  11. Thermo-hydro-geochemical modelling of the bentonite buffer. LOT A2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Clara; Salas, Joaquin; Arcos, David (Amphos 21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and waste management company (SKB) is conducting a series of long term buffer material (LOT) tests at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) to test the behaviour of the bentonite buffer under conditions similar to those expected in a KBS-3 deep geological repository for high level nuclear waste (HLNW). In the present work a numerical model is developed to simulate (i) the thermo-hydraulic, (ii) transport and (iii) geochemical processes that have been observed in the LOT A2 test parcel. The LOT A2 test lasted approximately 6 years, and consists of a 4 m long vertical borehole drilled in diorite rock, from the ground of the Aespoe HRL tunnel. The borehole is composed of a central heater, maintained at 130 deg C in the lower 2 m of the borehole, a copper tube surrounding the heater and a 100 mm thick ring of pre-compacted Wyoming MX-80 bentonite around the copper tube /Karnland et al. 2009/. The numerical model developed here is a 1D axis-symmetric model that simulates the water saturation of the bentonite under a constant thermal gradient; the transport of solutes; and, the geochemical reactions observed in the bentonite blocks. Two cases have been modelled, one considering the highest temperature reached by the bentonite (at 3 m depth in the borehole, where temperatures of 130 and 85 deg C have been recorded near the copper tube and near the granitic host rock, respectively) and the other case assuming a constant temperature of 25 deg C, representing the upper part of borehole, where the bentonite has not been heated. In the LOT A2 test, the initial partially saturated bentonite becomes progressively water saturated, due to the injection of Aespoe granitic groundwater at granite - bentonite interface. The transport of solutes during the bentonite water saturation stage is believed to be controlled by water uptake from the surrounding groundwater to the wetting front and, additionally, in the case of heated bentonite, by a cyclic evaporation

  12. Thermo-hydro-geochemical modelling of the bentonite buffer. LOT A2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, Clara; Salas, Joaquin; Arcos, David

    2010-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and waste management company (SKB) is conducting a series of long term buffer material (LOT) tests at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) to test the behaviour of the bentonite buffer under conditions similar to those expected in a KBS-3 deep geological repository for high level nuclear waste (HLNW). In the present work a numerical model is developed to simulate (i) the thermo-hydraulic, (ii) transport and (iii) geochemical processes that have been observed in the LOT A2 test parcel. The LOT A2 test lasted approximately 6 years, and consists of a 4 m long vertical borehole drilled in diorite rock, from the ground of the Aespoe HRL tunnel. The borehole is composed of a central heater, maintained at 130 deg C in the lower 2 m of the borehole, a copper tube surrounding the heater and a 100 mm thick ring of pre-compacted Wyoming MX-80 bentonite around the copper tube /Karnland et al. 2009/. The numerical model developed here is a 1D axis-symmetric model that simulates the water saturation of the bentonite under a constant thermal gradient; the transport of solutes; and, the geochemical reactions observed in the bentonite blocks. Two cases have been modelled, one considering the highest temperature reached by the bentonite (at 3 m depth in the borehole, where temperatures of 130 and 85 deg C have been recorded near the copper tube and near the granitic host rock, respectively) and the other case assuming a constant temperature of 25 deg C, representing the upper part of borehole, where the bentonite has not been heated. In the LOT A2 test, the initial partially saturated bentonite becomes progressively water saturated, due to the injection of Aespoe granitic groundwater at granite - bentonite interface. The transport of solutes during the bentonite water saturation stage is believed to be controlled by water uptake from the surrounding groundwater to the wetting front and, additionally, in the case of heated bentonite, by a cyclic evaporation

  13. 7 CFR 983.152 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failed lots/rework procedure. 983.152 Section 983.152..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.152 Failed lots/rework procedure. (a) Inshell rework procedure for aflatoxin. If inshell rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin regulations of this...

  14. 7 CFR 33.7 - Less than carload lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.7 Less than carload lot. Less than carload lot means a quantity of apples in packages not exceeding 20,000 pounds gross weight or 400...

  15. Tactical Production and Lot Size Planning with Lifetime Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raiconi, Andrea; Pahl, Julia; Gentili, Monica

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we face a variant of the capacitated lot sizing problem. This is a classical problem addressing the issue of aggregating lot sizes for a finite number of discrete periodic demands that need to be satisfied, thus setting up production resources and eventually creating inventories...

  16. La vallée du Lot en Lot-et-Garonne : inventaire topographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Mousset

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La remise en navigation du Lot est à l’origine du projet d’inventaire du patrimoine de la vallée dans sa partie lot-et-garonnaise1. L’ampleur du territoire - 12 cantons riverains2 - et de la perspective historique - du Moyen Age à nos jours - imposaient d’emblée rigueur et objectifs clairs : méthode raisonnée de l’inventaire topographique pour un bilan homogène du patrimoine, fondée sur une enquête systématique du paysage bâti et du mobilier public, sans a priori. Le premier résultat est un catalogue patrimonial sous forme de bases de données3. Mais ce corpus documentaire hétérogène et touffu n’est pas une addition de monographies : il peut et doit être interrogé et exploité comme un ensemble apportant une connaissance renouvelée du territoire. Sans prétendre réaliser une synthèse de la totalité des données pour l’ensemble de la vallée4, les exemples qui vont suivre illustreront la façon dont le travail d’inventaire apporte réponses et nouvelles interrogations, concernant notamment l’occupation du sol, les paysages et l’architecture de cette partie de l’Agenais. Recherche de l’empreinte d’une époque déterminée, examen de la permanence des paysages bâtis sur la longue durée et observation des traces de mutations et flexions historiques, sont un triple niveau d’analyse attendu dans le cadre d’un inventaire sur un vaste territoire rural.The plan to reintroduce navigation on the Lot in the part of the river that flows through the Lot-et-Garonne department was at the origins of a survey of the heritage along the course of the river. The geographical scope of the survey was large (12 cantons along the river and the period covered by the heritage extends from the Middle ages up to the present day. The variety of buildings to be covered required a rigorous approach and clear objectives. The method of the topographical inventory was tailored to the production of a homogenous heritage audit

  17. Competition under capacitated dynamic lot-sizing with capacity acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern

    2011-01-01

    Lot-sizing and capacity planning are important supply chain decisions, and competition and cooperation affect the performance of these decisions. In this paper, we look into the dynamic lot-sizing and resource competition problem of an industry consisting of multiple firms. A capacity competition...... production setup, along with inventory carrying costs. The individual production lots of each firm are limited by a constant capacity restriction, which is purchased up front for the planning horizon. The capacity can be purchased from a spot market, and the capacity acquisition cost fluctuates...

  18. Resenha de: Recueil des travaux historiques de Ferdinand Lot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes Simões de Paula

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available RECUEIL DES TRAVAUX HISTORIQUES DE FERDINAND LOT. Tome premier. Coleção "Hautes Études Médievales et Modernes". Centre de Recherches d'Histoire et de Philologie de la IVe Section de l'École Pratique des Hautes Études. Prefácio de Ch. Samaran e biografia por I. Vildé-Lot e M. Mahn-Lot. Publicado com o concurso do Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Genebra, Librairie Droz e Paris, Librairie Minard. In-89, XVIII -I- 780 pp

  19. Assumptions of acceptance sampling and the implications for lot contamination: Escherichia coli O157 in lots of Australian manufacturing beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiermeier, Andreas; Mellor, Glen; Barlow, Robert; Jenson, Ian

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this work were to determine the distribution and concentration of Escherichia coli O157 in lots of beef destined for grinding (manufacturing beef) that failed to meet Australian requirements for export, to use these data to better understand the performance of sampling plans based on the binomial distribution, and to consider alternative approaches for evaluating sampling plans. For each of five lots from which E. coli O157 had been detected, 900 samples from the external carcass surface were tested. E. coli O157 was not detected in three lots, whereas in two lots E. coli O157 was detected in 2 and 74 samples. For lots in which E. coli O157 was not detected in the present study, the E. coli O157 level was estimated to be contaminated carton, the total number of E. coli O157 cells was estimated to be 813. In the two lots in which E. coli O157 was detected, the pathogen was detected in 1 of 12 and 2 of 12 cartons. The use of acceptance sampling plans based on a binomial distribution can provide a falsely optimistic view of the value of sampling as a control measure when applied to assessment of E. coli O157 contamination in manufacturing beef. Alternative approaches to understanding sampling plans, which do not assume homogeneous contamination throughout the lot, appear more realistic. These results indicate that despite the application of stringent sampling plans, sampling and testing approaches are inefficient for controlling microbiological quality.

  20. Cellular Manufacturing System with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khannan, M. S. A.; Maruf, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Sutrisno, S.; Wibawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    Material Handling take as important role in Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS) design. In several study at CMS design material handling was assumed per pieces or with constant lot size. In real industrial practice, lot size may change during rolling period to cope with demand changes. This study develops CMS Model with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling. Integer Linear Programming is used to solve the problem. Objective function of this model is minimizing total expected cost consisting machinery depreciation cost, operating costs, inter-cell material handling cost, intra-cell material handling cost, machine relocation costs, setup costs, and production planning cost. This model determines optimum cell formation and optimum lot size. Numerical examples are elaborated in the paper to ilustrate the characterictic of the model.

  1. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 1972, two chemical elements which generate a lot of heat were removed from the high level waste tanks at Hanford. Called cesium and strontium, these elements had...

  2. Optimal Multi-Level Lot Sizing for Requirements Planning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Earle Steinberg; H. Albert Napier

    1980-01-01

    The wide spread use of advanced information systems such as Material Requirements Planning (MRP) has significantly altered the practice of dependent demand inventory management. Recent research has focused on development of multi-level lot sizing heuristics for such systems. In this paper, we develop an optimal procedure for the multi-period, multi-product, multi-level lot sizing problem by modeling the system as a constrained generalized network with fixed charge arcs and side constraints. T...

  3. Lot Sizing Based on Stochastic Demand and Service Level Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hajar shirneshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering its application, stochastic lot sizing is a significant subject in production planning. Also the concept of service level is more applicable than shortage cost from managers' viewpoint. In this paper, the stochastic multi period multi item capacitated lot sizing problem has been investigated considering service level constraint. First, the single item model has been developed considering service level and with no capacity constraint and then, it has been solved using dynamic programming algorithm and the optimal solution has been derived. Then the model has been generalized to multi item problem with capacity constraint. The stochastic multi period multi item capacitated lot sizing problem is NP-Hard, hence the model could not be solved by exact optimization approaches. Therefore, simulated annealing method has been applied for solving the problem. Finally, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the model, low level criterion has been used .

  4. Shelf life extension for the lot AAE nozzle severance LSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Shelf life extension tests for the remaining lot AAE linear shaped charges for redesigned solid rocket motor nozzle aft exit cone severance were completed in the small motor conditioning and firing bay, T-11. Five linear shaped charge test articles were thermally conditioned and detonated, demonstrating proper end-to-end charge propagation. Penetration depth requirements were exceeded. Results indicate that there was no degradation in performance due to aging or the linear shaped charge curving process. It is recommended that the shelf life of the lot AAE nozzle severance linear shaped charges be extended through January 1992.

  5. Improving aggregate behavior in parking lots with appropriate local maneuvers

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we study the ingress and egress of pedestrians and vehicles in a parking lot. We show how local maneuvers executed by agents permit them to create trajectories in constrained environments, and to resolve the deadlocks between them in mixed-flow scenarios. We utilize a roadmap-based approach which allows us to map complex environments and generate heuristic local paths that are feasible for both pedestrians and vehicles. Finally, we examine the effect that some agent-behavioral parameters have on parking lot ingress and egress. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Nuclear waste - a fresh perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammemagi, H.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Rather than looking at the nuclear waste problem in isolation, it should be viewed in the broader context of how society disposes of all of its wastes. A comparison of radioactive and non-radioactive wastes shows, contrary to popular perception, that the properties of these two waste types are actually very similar. However, the methods of regulation and management of the two waste types are very different. It is time that these differences were reconciled - both the nuclear and the non-nuclear waste industries have a lot to gain. There are three main categories of (non-nuclear) waste: municipal wastes, hazardous wastes, and industrial wastes. Rather than treating each of these waste types in separate, isolated compartments, there should be an integration of the principles and regulations involved in their management. The non-nuclear waste industry has much to learn from the nuclear approach

  7. The Lot Sizing and Scheduling of Sand Casting Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; van de Velde, S.L.; van de Velde, Steef

    2011-01-01

    We describe a real world case study that involves the monthly planning and scheduling of the sand-casting department in a metal foundry. The problem can be characterised as a single-level multi-item capacitated lot-sizing model with a variety of additional process-specific constraints. The main

  8. Activity Recognition and Localization on a Truck Parking Lot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Patino, L.; Burghouts, G.J.; Flizikowski, A.; Evans, M.; Gustafsson, D.; Petersson, H.; Schutte, K.; Ferryman, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a set of activity recognition and localization algorithms that together assemble a large amount of information about activities on a parking lot. The aim is to detect and recognize events that may pose a threat to truck drivers and trucks. The algorithms perform zone-based

  9. Can “Cleaned and Greened” Lots Take on the Role of Public Greenspace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan Heckert; Michelle Kondo

    2018-01-01

    Cities are increasingly greening vacant lots to reduce blight. Such programs could reduce inequities in urban greenspace access, but whether and how greened lots are used remains unclear. We surveyed three hundred greened lots in Philadelphia for signs of use and compared characteristics of used and nonused lots. We found physical signs of use that might be found in...

  10. Construction and Demolition Waste Characteristics in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The construction industry generates a lot of construction and demolition (C&D) waste which puts some challenges to its management. For example, currently, in many towns in Tanzania, there are no landfill sites for solid waste disposal; and as a consequence open air dumping sites are used. Dumping C&D waste puts ...

  11. Extending cluster Lot Quality Assurance Sampling designs for surveillance programs

    OpenAIRE

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance based on the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than ...

  12. COAP BASED ACUTE PARKING LOT MONITORING SYSTEM USING SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aarthi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle parking is the act of temporarily maneuvering a vehicle in to a certain location. To deal with parking monitoring system issue such as traffic, this paper proposes a vision of improvements in monitoring the vehicles in parking lots based on sensor networks. Most of the existing paper deals with that of the automated parking which is of cluster based and each has its own overheads like high power, less energy efficiency, incompatible size of lots, space. The novel idea in this work is usage of CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol which is recently created by IETF (draft-ietf-core-coap-18, June 28, 2013, CoRE group to develop RESTful application layer protocol for communications within embedded wireless networks. This paper deals with the enhanced CoAP protocol using multi hop flat topology, which makes the acuters feel soothe towards parking vehicles. We aim to minimize the time consumed for finding free parking lot as well as increase the energy efficiency

  13. Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Gayer, M. C.; Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil; T., Rodrigues D.; Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil; Denardin, E. L.G.; Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil; Roehrs, R.; Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil

    2014-01-01

    Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experimentGayer, M.C.1,2;Rodrigues, D.T.1,2; Escoto, D.F.1; Denardin, E.L.G.2, Roehrs, R.1,21Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, BrazilIntroduction: How to tell if an egg is rotten? How to calculate the volume of an egg? Because the rotten egg float? Why has this...

  14. Heritage plaza parking lots improvement project- Solar PV installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooks, Todd [Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, Palm Springs, CA (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI or the “Tribe”) installed a 79.95 kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system to offset the energy usage costs of the Tribal Education and Family Services offices located at the Tribe's Heritage Plaza office building, 90I Tahquitz Way, Palm Springs, CA, 92262 (the "Project"). The installation of the Solar PV system was part of the larger Heritage Plaza Parking Lot Improvements Project and mounted on the two southern carport shade structures. The solar PV system will offset 99% of the approximately 115,000 kWh in electricity delivered annually by Southern California Edison (SCE) to the Tribal Education and Family Services offices at Heritage Plaza, reducing their annual energy costs from approximately $22,000 annually to approximately $200. The total cost of the proposed solar PV system is $240,000.

  15. 9 CFR 381.191 - Distribution of inspected products to small lot buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... small lot buyers. 381.191 Section 381.191 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...; Exportation; or Sale of Poultry or Poultry Products § 381.191 Distribution of inspected products to small lot... small lot buyers (such as small restaurants), distributors or jobbers may remove inspected and passed...

  16. 21 CFR 203.38 - Sample lot or control numbers; labeling of sample units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... numbers; labeling of sample units. (a) Lot or control number required on drug sample labeling and sample... identifying lot or control number that will permit the tracking of the distribution of each drug sample unit... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sample lot or control numbers; labeling of sample...

  17. Water in the Balance: A Parking Lot Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, N. A.; Vitousek, S.

    2017-12-01

    The greater Chicagoland region has seen a high degree of urbanization since 1970. For example, between 1970-1990 the region experienced 4% population growth, a 35% increase in urban land use, and approximately 454 square miles of agricultural land was mostly converted into urban uses. Transformation of land into urban uses in the Chicagoland region has altered the stream and catchment response to rainfall events, specifically an increase in stream flashiness and increase in urban flooding. Chicago has begun to address these changes through green infrastructure. To understand the impact of green infrastructure at local, city-wide, and watershed scales, individual projects need to be accurately and sufficiently modeled. A traditional parking lot conversion into a porous parking lot at the University of Illinois at Chicago was modeled using SWMM and scrutinized using field data to look at stormwater runoff and water balance prior and post reconstruction. SWMM modeling suggested an 87% reduction in peak flow as well as a 100% reduction in flooding for a 24 hour, 1.72-inch storm. For the same storm, field data suggest an 89% reduction in peak flow as well as a 100% reduction in flooding. Modeling suggested 100% reductions in flooding for longer duration storms (24 hour+) and a smaller reduction in peak flow ( 66%). The highly parameterized SWMM model agrees well with collected data and analysis. Further effort is being made to use data mining to create correlations within the collected datasets that can be integrated into a model that follows a standardized formation process and reduces parameterization.

  18. Lot No. 1 of Frit 202 for DWPF cold runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This report was prepared at the end of 1992 and summarizes the evaluation of the first lot sample of DWPF Frit 202 from Cataphote Inc. Publication of this report was delayed until the results from the carbon analyses could be included. To avoid confusion the frit specifications presented in this report were those available at the end of 1992. The specifications were slightly modified early in 1993. The frit was received and evaluated for moisture, particle size distribution, organic-inorganic carbon and chemical composition. Moisture content and particle size distribution were determined on a representative sample at SRTC. These properties were within the DWPF specifications for Frit 202. A representative sample was submitted to Corning Engineering Laboratory Services for chemical analyses. The sample was split and two dissolutions prepared. Each dissolution was analyzed on two separate days. The results indicate that there is a high probability (>95%) that the silica content of this frit is below the specification limit of 77.0 ± 1.0 wt %. The average of the four analyzed values was 75.1 wt % with a standard deviation of 0.28 wt %. All other oxides were within the elliptical two sigma limits. Control standard frit samples were submitted and analyzed at the same time and the results were very similar to previous analyses of these materials

  19. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Record Dynamics and the Parking Lot Model for granular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibani, Paolo; Boettcher, Stefan

    Also known for its application to granular compaction (E. Ben-Naim et al., Physica D, 1998), the Parking Lot Model (PLM) describes the random parking of identical cars in a strip with no marked bays. In the thermally activated version considered, cars can be removed at an energy cost and, in thermal equilibrium, their average density increases as temperature decreases. However, equilibration at high density becomes exceedingly slow and the system enters an aging regime induced by a kinematic constraint, the fact that parked cars may not overlap. As parking an extra car reduces the available free space,the next parking event is even harder to achieve. Records in the number of parked cars mark the salient features of the dynamics and are shown to be well described by the log-Poisson statistics known from other glassy systems with record dynamics. Clusters of cars whose positions must be rearranged to make the next insertion possible have a length scale which grows logarithmically with age, while their life-time grows exponentially with size. The implications for a recent cluster model of colloidal dynamics,(S. Boettcher and P. Sibani, J. Phys.: Cond. Matter, 2011 N. Becker et al., J. Phys.: Cond. Matter, 2014) are discussed. Support rom the Villum Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Balancing Urban Biodiversity Needs and Resident Preferences for Vacant Lot Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine C. Rega-Brodsky

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban vacant lots are often a contentious feature in cities, seen as overgrown, messy eyesores that plague neighborhoods. We propose a shift in this perception to locations of urban potential, because vacant lots may serve as informal greenspaces that maximize urban biodiversity while satisfying residents’ preferences for their design and use. Our goal was to assess what kind of vacant lots are ecologically valuable by assessing their biotic contents and residents’ preferences within a variety of settings. We surveyed 150 vacant lots throughout Baltimore, Maryland for their plant and bird communities, classified the lot’s setting within the urban matrix, and surveyed residents. Remnant vacant lots had greater vegetative structure and bird species richness as compared to other lot origins, while vacant lot settings had limited effects on their contents. Residents preferred well-maintained lots with more trees and less artificial cover, support of which may increase local biodiversity in vacant lots. Collectively, we propose that vacant lots with a mixture of remnant and planted vegetation can act as sustainable urban greenspaces with the potential for some locations to enhance urban tree cover and bird habitat, while balancing the needs and preferences of city residents.

  2. Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gayer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experimentGayer, M.C.1,2;Rodrigues, D.T.1,2; Escoto, D.F.1; Denardin, E.L.G.2, Roehrs, R.1,21Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, BrazilIntroduction: How to tell if an egg is rotten? How to calculate the volume of an egg? Because the rotten egg float? Why has this characteristic rotten egg smell? Because the gray-green color is formed on the surface of the cooked egg yolk? These issues are commonplace and unnoticed in day-to-day. Our grandmothers know how to tell if an egg is rotten or not, you just put the egg in a glass of water. If it is rotten floating, sinking is good. But why this happens? That they do not know answer. With only one egg chemical reactions work, macromolecules (proteins, density, membranes and conservation of matter. Hydrogen sulphide is responsible for the aroma of a freshly cooked egg. This gas as they break down the molecules of albumin, a protein present in the egg is formed. The color comes from a sulfide precipitation, this time with the Fe2+ ion contained in the yolk (Fe2+ + S2  FeS. The use of simple and easy to perform experiments, correlating various knowledge proves a very useful tool in science education. Objectives: Develop multidisciplinary learning contents through the problem. Materials and methods: The teacher provides students with a boiled egg, salt, a syringe and a cup, a plate and water. The teacher lays the aforementioned issues for students and allows them to exchange information with each other, seeking answers through experimentation. Results and discussion: Students engaged with the activity and interaction of groups in order to solve the proposed problem. Still, through trial and error have sought in various ways to find the answers. This tool takes the student to

  3. Nutrient concentrations in leachate and runoff from dairy cattle lots with different surface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from agriculture persists as a water quality issue, and outdoor cattle lots can have a high loss potential. We monitored hydrology and nutrient concentrations in leachate and runoff from dairy heifer lots constructed with three surface materials (soil, sand, bark...

  4. Applications of the lots computer code to laser fusion systems and other physical optics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.; Wolfe, P.N.

    1979-01-01

    The Laser Optical Train Simulation (LOTS) code has been developed at the Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona under contract to Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). LOTS is a diffraction based code designed to beam quality and energy of the laser fusion system in an end-to-end calculation

  5. MODEL JOINT ECONOMIC LOT SIZE PADA KASUS PEMASOK-PEMBELI DENGAN PERMINTAAN PROBABILISTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakhid Ahmad Jauhari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider single vendor single buyer integrated inventory model with probabilistic demand and equal delivery lot size. The model contributes to the current literature by relaxing the deterministic demand assumption which has been used for almost all integrated inventory models. The objective is to minimize expected total costs incurred by the vendor and the buyer. We develop effective iterative procedures for finding the optimal solution. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the benefit of integration. A sensitivity analysis is performed to explore the effect of key parameters on delivery lot size, safety factor, production lot size factor and the expected total cost. The results of the numerical examples indicate that our models can achieve a significant amount of savings. Finally, we compare the results of our proposed model with a simulation model. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Pada penelitian ini akan dikembangkan model gabungan pemasok-pembeli dengan permintaan probabilistik dan ukuran pengiriman sama. Pada model setiap lot pemesanan akan dikirim dalam beberapa lot pengiriman dan pemasok akan memproduksi barang dalam ukuran batch produksi yang merupakan kelipatan integer dari lot pengiriman. Dikembangkan pula suatu algoritma untuk menyelesaikan model matematis yang telah dibuat. Selain itu, pengaruh perubahan parameter terhadap perilaku model diteliti dengan analisis sensitivitas terhadap beberapa parameter kunci, seperti ukuran lot, stok pengaman dan total biaya persediaan. Pada penelitian ini juga dibuat model simulasi untuk melihat performansi model matematis pada kondisi nyata. Kata kunci: model gabungan, permintaan probabilistik, lot pengiriman, supply chain

  6. LOD-a-lot : A queryable dump of the LOD cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, Javier D.; Beek, Wouter; Martínez-Prieto, Miguel A.; Arias, Mario

    2017-01-01

    LOD-a-lot democratizes access to the Linked Open Data (LOD) Cloud by serving more than 28 billion unique triples from 650, K datasets over a single self-indexed file. This corpus can be queried online with a sustainable Linked Data Fragments interface, or downloaded and consumed locally: LOD-a-lot

  7. A comparison of particle swarm optimizations for uncapacitated multilevel lot-sizin problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Y.; Kaku, I.; Tang, J.; Dellaert, N.P.; Cai, J.; Li, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The multilevel lot-sizing (MLLS) problem is a key production planning problem in the material requirement planning (MRP) system. The MLLS problem deals with determining the production lot sizes of various items appearing in the product structure over a given finite planning horizon to minimize the

  8. 21 CFR 610.1 - Tests prior to release required for each lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....1 Section 610.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... release required for each lot. No lot of any licensed product shall be released by the manufacturer prior... considered in determining whether or not the test results meet the test objective, except that a test result...

  9. The Potential and Beneficial Use of Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Systems Integrated with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems for Characterizing Disposal of Waste Debris to Optimize the Waste Shipping Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abercrombie, Robert K.; Buckner, Dooley Jr.; Newton, David D.

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system provides a portable and/or semi-portable means of accurately weighing vehicles and its cargo as each vehicle crosses the scales (while in motion), and determining (1) axle weights and (2) axle spacing for vehicles (for determination of Bridge Formula compliance), (3) total vehicle/cargo weight and (4) longitudinal center of gravity (for safety considerations). The WIM system can also weigh the above statically. Because of the automated nature of the WIM system, it eliminates the introduction of human errors caused by manual computations and data entry, adverse weather conditions, and stress. Individual vehicles can be weighed continuously at low speeds (approximately 3-10 mph) and at intervals of less than one minute. The ORNL WIM system operates and is integrated into the Bethel Jacobs Company Transportation Management and Information System (TMIS, a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) enabled information system). The integrated process is as follows: Truck Identification Number and Tare Weight are programmed into a RFID Tag. Handheld RFID devices interact with the RFID Tag, and Electronic Shipping Document is written to the RFID Tag. The RFID tag read by an RFID tower identifies the vehicle and its associated cargo, the specific manifest of radioactive debris for the uniquely identified vehicle. The weight of the cargo (in this case waste debris) is calculated from total vehicle weight information supplied from WIM to TMIS and is further processed into the Information System and kept for historical and archival purposes. The assembled data is the further process in downstream information systems where waste coordination activities at the Y-12 Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) are written to RFID Tag. All cycle time information is monitored by Transportation Operations and Security personnel.

  10. Evaluation of Radon Pollution in Underground Parking Lots by Discomfort Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Bu-Olayan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recent studies of public underground parking lots showed the influence of radon concentration and the probable discomfort caused by parking cars. Materials and Methods Radon concentration was measured in semi-closed public parking lots in the six governorates of Kuwait, using Durridge RAD7radon detector (USA. Results The peak radon concentration in the parking lots of Kuwait governorates was relatively higher during winter (63.15Bq/m3 compared to summer (41.73 Bq/m3. Radon in the evaluated parking lots revealed a mean annual absorbed dose (DRn: 0.02mSv/y and annual effective dose (HE: 0.06mSv/y.  Conclusion This study validated the influence of relative humidity and temperature as the major components of discomfort index (DI. The mean annual absorbed and effective dose  of radon in the evaluated parking lots were found below the permissible limits. However, high radon DRn and HE were reported when the assessment included the parking lots, the surrounding residential apartments, and office premises. Furthermore, the time-series analysis indicated significant variations of the seasonal and site-wise distribution of radon concentrations in the indoor evaluated parking lots of the six Kuwait governorates

  11. A Comparative Study on the Lot Release Systems for Vaccines as of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kentaro; Naito, Seishiro; Ochiai, Masaki; Konda, Toshifumi; Kato, Atsushi

    2017-09-25

    Many countries have already established their own vaccine lot release system that is designed for each country's situation: while the World Health Organization promotes for the convergence of these regulatory systems so that vaccines of assured quality are provided globally. We conducted a questionnaire-based investigation of the lot release systems for vaccines in 7 countries and 2 regions. We found that a review of the summary protocol by the National Regulatory Authorities was commonly applied for the independent lot release of vaccines, however, we also noted some diversity between countries, especially in regard to the testing policy. Some countries and regions, including Japan, regularly tested every lot of vaccines, whereas the frequency of these tests was reduced in other countries and regions as determined based on the risk assessment of these products. Test items selected for the lot release varied among the countries or regions investigated, although there was a tendency to prioritize the potency tests. An understanding of the lot release policy may contribute to improving and harmonizing the lot release system globally in the future.

  12. The 'Thinking a Lot' Idiom of Distress and PTSD: An Examination of Their Relationship among Traumatized Cambodian Refugees Using the 'Thinking a Lot' Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinton, D.E.; Reis, R.; de Jong, J.

    2015-01-01

    "Thinking a lot" (TAL)—also referred to as "thinking too much"—is a key complaint in many cultural contexts, and the current article profiles this idiom of distress among Cambodian refugees. The article also proposes a general model of how TAL generates various types of distress that then cause

  13. Lots of Small Stars Born in Starburst Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    study a starburst region on a star-by-star basis down to this low mass limit. For comparison, the most sensitive observations of the more distant Tarantula Nebula only reach down to a limit of about 1 solar mass. A most important conclusion of this study is that there are lots of sub-solar mass stars in NGC 3603 , i.e., contrary to several theoretical predictions, these low-mass stars do form in violent starbursts ! The overall age of stars in the contraction phase that are located in the innermost region of NGC 3603 was found to be 300,000 - 1,000,000 years. The counts clearly show that this cluster is well populated in sub-solar mass stars. The next steps The team describes these new results in a scientific article ( "Low-mass stars in the massive HII region NGC 3603 - Deep NIR imaging with ANTU/ISAAC") that will appear in the European research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics in December 1999. Further information about related work on NGC 3603 is available at a dedicated webpage. The present VLT data will now be used for continued studies during which the limits of detection and measurement will be further pushed by means of advanced image processing and analysis. It will also be interesting to look further into possible variations of the number of stars with a given mass over the observed field, not least, to compare the new results with other ongoing studies of different regions (although less massive), e.g. with the Hubble Space Telescope and its infrared instrument NICMOS or with ground-based Adaptive Optics instruments. Notes [1] The team consists of Bernhard Brandl (Principal Investigator; Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA), Wolfgang Brandner (University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA), Frank Eisenhauer (Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Anthony F.J. Moffat (Université de Montreal, Canada), Francesco Palla (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Florence, Italy) and Hans Zinnecker (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam

  14. Dying Stars Indicate Lots of Dark Matter in Giant Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    nebulae at once. In view of the very long exposure times needed, this is an absolute must in order to perform these observations within the available telescope time. Before the observations can begin, the exact positions of the planetary nebulae are measured. A metal mask is then prepared with holes that permit the light from these objects to pass into EMMI, but at the same time blocks most of the much brighter, disturbing light emitted the by Earth's atmosphere. With an additional optical filter, all but the green light is effectively filtered out; this further ``removes'' unwanted light and improves the chances of effective registration of the faint light from the planetary nebulae in NGC 1399. VELOCITIES OF PLANETARY NEBULAE IN NGC 1399 The careful preparations paid off and this observational strategy was successful. During two of the allocated nights (the third was lost due to bad weather), the Australian observers (Magda Arnaboldi and Ken Freeman) were able for the first time to measure individual velocities for 37 planetary nebulae in NGC 1399. Some of these are indicated on the picture that accompanies this Press Release. The difficulty of this observation is illustrated by the fact that in order to catch enough light from these faint objects, the total exposure time was no less than 5 hours and only one field on either side of the galaxy could be observed per night. Already at the telescope the astronomers realised that the new results are very exciting; this was fully confirmed by the following long and complicated process of data reduction. In fact, although the inner parts of this galaxy rotate quite slowly, the planetary nebulae in the outer regions are in rapid motion and clearly indicate a fast rotation of these parts of the galaxy. This new observation is just as expected from the above described theory for the formation of giant galaxies and therefore provides very strong support for this theory. LOTS OF DARK MATTER IN NGC 1399 Perhaps the most exciting

  15. Design Schematics for a Sustainable Parking Lot: Building 2-2332, ENRD Classroom, Fort Bragg, NC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stumpf, Annette

    2003-01-01

    ...) was tasked with planning a sustainable design "charrette" to explore and develop alternative parking lot designs that would meet Fort Bragg's parking needs, as well as its need to meet sustainable...

  16. PENENTUAN PRODUCTION LOT SIZES DAN TRANSFER BATCH SIZES DENGAN PENDEKATAN MULTISTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnawan Adi W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pengendalian dan perawatan inventori merupakan suatu permasalahan yang sering dihadapi seluruh organisasi dalam berbagai sektor ekonomi. Salah satu tantangan yang yang harus dihadapi dalam pengendalian inventori adalah bagaimana menentukan ukuran lot yang optimal pada suatu sistem produksi dengan berbagai tipe. Analisis batch produksi (production lot dengan pendekatan hybrid simulasi analitik merupakan salah satu penelitian mengenai ukuran lot optimal. Penelitian tersebut menggunakan pendekatan sistem singlestage dimana tidak adanya hubungan antar proses di setiap stage atau dengan kata lain, proses yang satu independen terhadap proses yang lain. Dengan menggunakan objek penelitian yang sama dengan objek penelitian diatas, penelitian ini kemudian mengangkat permasalahan penentuan ukuran production lot dengan pendekatan multistage. Pertama, dengan menggunakan data-data yang sama dengan penelitian sebelumnya ditentukan ukuran production lot yang optimal dengan metode programa linier. Selanjutnya ukuran production lot digunakan sebegai input simulasi untuk menentukan ukuran transfer batch. Rata-rata panjang antrian dan waktu tunggu menjadi ukuran performansi yang digunakan sebagai acuan penentuan ukuran transfer batch dari beberapa alternatif ukuran yang ada. Pada penelitian ini, ukuran production lot yang dihasilkan sama besarnya dengan demand tiap periode. Sedangkan untuk ukuran transfer batch, hasil penentuan dengan menggunakan simulasi kemudian dimplementasikan ke dalam model. Hasilnya adalah adanya penurunan inventori yang terjadi sebesar 76,35% untuk produk connector dan 50,59% untuk produk box connector dari inventori yang dihasilkan dengan pendekatan singlestage. Kata kunci : multistage, production lot, transfer batch     Abstract   Inventory maintenance and inventory control is a problem that often faced by all organization in many economic sectors. One of challenges that must be faced in inventory control is how to determine the

  17. MOTIVASI PEREMPUAN MEMBUKA USAHA SEKTOR INFORMAL DI DAYA TARIK WISATA TANAH LOT, TABANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Putu Aritiana Kumala Pratiwi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism in Tanah Lot has been able to open up opportunities for local women. The businesses that mostly cultivated by women are the selling of traditional snacks of klepon, postcards, and hairpins.Women who participate should reconsider their decision to choose a dual role, both as housewives and sellers in Tanah Lot.This article analyzes the motivation of Women in opening a business in Tanah Lot area.The results showed that the motivation of women to open a business in the informal sector in Tanah Lot, namely to be able to meet the physiological needs, safety needs, affiliations, appreciation, self-actualization, and add to work experience. The factors that affect women’s motivations are internal factors such as age, educational background, family income, and marital status. While the external factors namely selling location, the condition of selling place, and having their own income.

  18. A Heuristic Approach for Determining Lot Sizes and Schedules Using Power-of-Two Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Ekinci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining realistic and easy-to-schedule lot sizes in a multiproduct, multistage manufacturing environment. We concentrate on a specific type of production, namely, flow shop type production. The model developed consists of two parts, lot sizing problem and scheduling problem. In lot sizing problem, we employ binary integer programming and determine reorder intervals for each product using power-of-two policy. In the second part, using the results obtained of the lot sizing problem, we employ mixed integer programming to determine schedules for a multiproduct, multistage case with multiple machines in each stage. Finally, we provide a numerical example and compare the results with similar methods found in practice.

  19. Hybrid Discrete Differential Evolution Algorithm for Lot Splitting with Capacity Constraints in Flexible Job Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-level batch chromosome coding scheme is proposed to solve the lot splitting problem with equipment capacity constraints in flexible job shop scheduling, which includes a lot splitting chromosome and a lot scheduling chromosome. To balance global search and local exploration of the differential evolution algorithm, a hybrid discrete differential evolution algorithm (HDDE is presented, in which the local strategy with dynamic random searching based on the critical path and a random mutation operator is developed. The performance of HDDE was experimented with 14 benchmark problems and the practical dye vat scheduling problem. The simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm has the strong global search capability and can effectively solve the practical lot splitting problems with equipment capacity constraints.

  20. Single product lot-sizing on unrelated parallel machines with non-decreasing processing times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremeev, A.; Kovalyov, M.; Kuznetsov, P.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a problem in which at least a given quantity of a single product has to be partitioned into lots, and lots have to be assigned to unrelated parallel machines for processing. In one version of the problem, the maximum machine completion time should be minimized, in another version of the problem, the sum of machine completion times is to be minimized. Machine-dependent lower and upper bounds on the lot size are given. The product is either assumed to be continuously divisible or discrete. The processing time of each machine is defined by an increasing function of the lot volume, given as an oracle. Setup times and costs are assumed to be negligibly small, and therefore, they are not considered. We derive optimal polynomial time algorithms for several special cases of the problem. An NP-hard case is shown to admit a fully polynomial time approximation scheme. An application of the problem in energy efficient processors scheduling is considered.

  1. Simultaneous Optimal Placement of Distributed Generation and Electric Vehicle Parking Lots Based on Probabilistic EV Model

    OpenAIRE

    M.H. Amini; M. Parsa Moghaddam

    2013-01-01

    High penetration of distributed generations and the increasing demand for using electric vehicles provide a lot of issues for the utilities. If these two effective elements of the future power system are used in an unscheduled manner, it may lead to the loss increment in distribution networks, dramatically. In this paper, the simultaneous allocation of distributed generations (DGs) and electric vehicles (EVs) parking lots has been studied in a radial distribution network. A distribution netwo...

  2. Note sur l'histoire démographique de Douelle (Lot) 1676-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Fourastié

    1986-01-01

    Fourastié Jean. ? Note on the demographic history of Douelle (Lot) 1676-1914. This article summarizes the demographic data contained in a book about the village of Douelle in the department of the Lot. Both family reconstitution and genealogies have been used to ascertain the major demographic characteristics of this region during the 17th and 18th centuries : a high rate of endogamous marriages, few remarriages, declining birth rates before the Revolution, a very low number of illegitimate b...

  3. Solving a combined cutting-stock and lot-sizing problem with a column generating procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nonås, Sigrid Lise; Thorstenson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    In Nonås and Thorstenson [A combined cutting stock and lot sizing problem. European Journal of Operational Research 120(2) (2000) 327-42] a combined cutting-stock and lot-sizing problem is outlined under static and deterministic conditions. In this paper we suggest a new column generating solutio...... indicate that the procedure works well also for the extended cutting-stock problem with only a setup cost for each pattern change....

  4. Military Observer Mission Ecuador-Peru (MOMEP) Doing a Lot with a Little.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    IPS), URL: <htttp://web.maxwell.syr.edu.nativew...aphy/latinam/ ecuador /borderl6.html>, accessed 10 November 1996, pp. 1-2. 蔵 "Evacuees in Loja Number...OBSERVER MISSION ECUADOR -PERU (MOMEP) DOING A LOT WITH A LITTLE BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL KEVIN M. HIGGINS United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...MISSION ECUADOR -PERU (MOMEP) Doing A Lot With a Little by Lieutenant Colonel Kevin M. Higgins United States Army Naval Postgraduate School Special

  5. Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Burbank, T.L.; Ennis, T.E.; Bashara, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coaltar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ??g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ??g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ??g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ??g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Evaluation of coverage of enriched UF6 cylinder storage lots by existing criticality accident alarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; Dobelbower, M.C.; Woollard, J.E.; Sutherland, P.J.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is leased from the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), a government corporation formed in 1993. PORTS is in transition from regulation by DOE to regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One regulation is 10 CFR Part 76.89, which requires that criticality alarm systems be provided for the site. PORTS originally installed criticality accident alarm systems in all building for which nuclear criticality accidents were credible. Currently, however, alarm systems are not installed in the enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) cylinder storage lots. This report analyzes and documents the extent to which enriched UF 6 cylinder storage lots at PORTS are covered by criticality detectors and alarms currently installed in adjacent buildings. Monte Carlo calculations are performed on simplified models of the cylinder storage lots and adjacent buildings. The storage lots modelled are X-745B, X-745C, X745D, X-745E, and X-745F. The criticality detectors modelled are located in building X-343, the building X-344A/X-342A complex, and portions of building X-330 (see Figures 1 and 2). These criticality detectors are those located closest to the cylinder storage lots. Results of this analysis indicate that the existing criticality detectors currently installed at PORTS are largely ineffective in detecting neutron radiation from criticality accidents in most of the cylinder storage lots at PORTS, except sometimes along portions of their peripheries

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Coastal Communities on Waste Management in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Essuman, Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Waste management has been a worldwide issue which most countries are finding the best ways of dealing with. Managing waste improperly poses threat to the health of individuals and the environment. Ghana as a developing country, its coastal communities are faced with a lot of challenges regarding waste management due to actions towards waste management. This research seeks to examine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of coastal communities on waste management and how their actions have a...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Square-mile, section-wide, property ownerhip parcel and lot-block boundaries. Includes original platted lot lines. These coverages are maintained interactively by GIS staff. Primary attributes include Parcel IDS (Control, Key, and PIN), platted lot and, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2008. Square-mile, section-wide, property ownerhip parcel and lot-block boundaries. Includes original platted lot...

  9. Ammonia losses and nitrogen partitioning at a southern High Plains open lot dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Richard W.; Cole, N. Andy; Hagevoort, G. Robert; Casey, Kenneth D.; Auvermann, Brent W.

    2015-06-01

    Animal agriculture is a significant source of ammonia (NH3). Cattle excrete most ingested nitrogen (N); most urinary N is converted to NH3, volatilized and lost to the atmosphere. Open lot dairies on the southern High Plains are a growing industry and face environmental challenges as well as reporting requirements for NH3 emissions. We quantified NH3 emissions from the open lot and wastewater lagoons of a commercial New Mexico dairy during a nine-day summer campaign. The 3500-cow dairy consisted of open lot, manure-surfaced corrals (22.5 ha area). Lactating cows comprised 80% of the herd. A flush system using recycled wastewater intermittently removed manure from feeding alleys to three lagoons (1.8 ha area). Open path lasers measured atmospheric NH3 concentration, sonic anemometers characterized turbulence, and inverse dispersion analysis was used to quantify emissions. Ammonia fluxes (15-min) averaged 56 and 37 μg m-2 s-1 at the open lot and lagoons, respectively. Ammonia emission rate averaged 1061 kg d-1 at the open lot and 59 kg d-1 at the lagoons; 95% of NH3 was emitted from the open lot. The per capita emission rate of NH3 was 304 g cow-1 d-1 from the open lot (41% of N intake) and 17 g cow-1 d-1 from lagoons (2% of N intake). Daily N input at the dairy was 2139 kg d-1, with 43, 36, 19 and 2% of the N partitioned to NH3 emission, manure/lagoons, milk, and cows, respectively.

  10. INTEGRATION OF PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY IN THE LEAN MANUFACTURING CONDITIONS ACCORDING TO THE LOT FOR LOT METHOD LOGIC - RESULTS OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Domański

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The review of literature and observations of business practice indicate that integration of production and supply is not a well-developed area of science. The author notes that the publications on the integration most often focus on selected detailed aspects and are rather postulative in character. This is accompanied by absence of specific utilitarian solutions (tools which could be used in business practice. Methods: The research was conducted between 2009 and 2010 in a company in Wielkopolska which operates in the machining sector. The solution of the research problem is based on the author's own concept - the integration model. The cost concept of the solution was built and verified (case study on the basis of conditions of a given enterprise (industrial data. Results: Partial verifiability of results was proved in the entire set of selected material indexes (although in two cases out of three the costs differences to the disadvantage of the lot-for-lot method were small. In case of structure of studied product range, a significant conformity of results in the order of 67% was achieved for items typically characteristic for the LfL method (group AX. Conclusions: The formulated research problem and the result of its solution (only 6 material items demand a lot (orthodoxy in terms of implementation conditions. The concept of the solution has a narrow field of application in the selected organizational conditions (studied enterprise. It should be verified by independent studies of this kind at other enterprises.

  11. Deflection test evaluation of different lots of the same nickel-titanium wire commercial brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Gaby Neves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the elastic properties of the load-deflection ratio of orthodontic wires of different lot numbers and the same commercial brand. Methods: A total of 40 nickel-titanium (NiTi wire segments (Morelli OrtodontiaTM - Sorocaba, SP, Brazil, 0.016-in in diameter were used. Groups were sorted according to lot numbers (lots 1, 2, 3 and 4. 28-mm length segments from the straight portion (ends of archwires were used. Deflection tests were performed in an EMIC universal testing machine with 5-N load cell at 1 mm/minute speed. Force at deactivation was recorded at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm deflection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare differences between group means. Results: When comparing the force of groups at the same deflection (3, 2 and 1 mm, during deactivation, no statistical differences were found. Conclusion: There are no changes in the elastic properties of different lots of the same commercial brand; thus, the use of different lots of the orthodontic wires used in this research does not compromise the final outcomes of the load-deflection ratio.

  12. Deflection test evaluation of different lots of the same nickel-titanium wire commercial brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Murilo Gaby; Lima, Fabrício Viana Pereira; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maio; Rezende, Fernanda Soares; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the elastic properties of the load-deflection ratio of orthodontic wires of different lot numbers and the same commercial brand. A total of 40 nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire segments (Morelli Ortodontia™--Sorocaba, SP, Brazil), 0.016-in in diameter were used. Groups were sorted according to lot numbers (lots 1, 2, 3 and 4). 28-mm length segments from the straight portion (ends) of archwires were used. Deflection tests were performed in an EMIC universal testing machine with 5-N load cell at 1 mm/minute speed. Force at deactivation was recorded at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm deflection. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare differences between group means. When comparing the force of groups at the same deflection (3, 2 and 1 mm), during deactivation, no statistical differences were found. There are no changes in the elastic properties of different lots of the same commercial brand; thus, the use of different lots of the orthodontic wires used in this research does not compromise the final outcomes of the load-deflection ratio.

  13. Selection of seed lots of Pinus taeda L. for tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pascoal Golle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify the fungi genera associated with three Pinus taeda L. seed lots and to assess the sanitary and physiological quality of these lots for use as selection criteria for tissue culture and evaluate the in vitro establishment of explants from seminal origin in different nutritive media. It was possible to discriminate the lots on the sanitary and physiological quality, as well as to establish in vitro plants of Pinus taeda from cotyledonary nodes obtained from aseptic seed germination of a selected lot by the sanitary and physiological quality higher. The nutritive media MS, ½ MS and WPM were equally suitable for this purpose. For the sanitary analysis the fungal genera Fusarium, Penicillium and Trichoderma were those of the highest sensitivity. For the physiological evaluation were important the variables: abnormal seedlings, strong normal seedlings; length, fresh and dry weight of strong normal seedlings. The analyzes were favorable to choose lots of seeds for in vitro culture and all culture media were adequate for the establishment of this species in tissue culture.

  14. Healthcare waste management: current practices in selected healthcare facilities, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbongwe, Bontle; Mmereki, Baagi T; Magashula, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare waste management continues to present an array of challenges for developing countries, and Botswana is no exception. The possible impact of healthcare waste on public health and the environment has received a lot of attention such that Waste Management dedicated a special issue to the management of healthcare waste (Healthcare Wastes Management, 2005. Waste Management 25(6) 567-665). As the demand for more healthcare facilities increases, there is also an increase on waste generation from these facilities. This situation requires an organised system of healthcare waste management to curb public health risks as well as occupational hazards among healthcare workers as a result of poor waste management. This paper reviews current waste management practices at the healthcare facility level and proposes possible options for improvement in Botswana.

  15. A non-permutation flowshop scheduling problem with lot streaming: A Mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rossit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the use of lot streaming in non-permutation flowshop scheduling problems. The objective is to minimize the makespan subject to the standard flowshop constraints, but where it is now permitted to reorder jobs between machines. In addition, the jobs can be divided into manageable sublots, a strategy known as lot streaming. Computational experiments show that lot streaming reduces the makespan up to 43% for a wide range of instances when compared to the case in which no job splitting is applied. The benefits grow as the number of stages in the production process increases but reach a limit. Beyond a certain point, the division of jobs into additional sublots does not improve the solution.

  16. Neuro-ophthalmology of late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, J C; Shapiro, B E; Han, Y H; Kumar, A N; Garbutt, S; Keller, E L; Leigh, R J

    2004-11-23

    Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS) is an adult-onset, autosomal recessive, progressive variant of GM2 gangliosidosis, characterized by involvement of the cerebellum and anterior horn cells. To determine the range of visual and ocular motor abnormalities in LOTS, as a prelude to evaluating the effectiveness of novel therapies. Fourteen patients with biochemically confirmed LOTS (8 men; age range 24 to 53 years; disease duration 5 to 30 years) and 10 age-matched control subjects were studied. Snellen visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis, and visual fields were measured, and optic fundi were photographed. Horizontal and vertical eye movements (search coil) were recorded, and saccades, pursuit, vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), vergence, and optokinetic (OK) responses were measured. All patients showed normal visual functions and optic fundi. The main eye movement abnormality concerned saccades, which were "multistep," consisting of a series of small saccades and larger movements that showed transient decelerations. Larger saccades ended earlier and more abruptly (greater peak deceleration) in LOTS patients than in control subjects; these changes can be attributed to premature termination of the saccadic pulse. Smooth-pursuit and slow-phase OK gains were reduced, but VOR, vergence, and gaze holding were normal. Patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS) show characteristic abnormalities of saccades but normal afferent visual systems. Hypometria, transient decelerations, and premature termination of saccades suggest disruption of a "latch circuit" that normally inhibits pontine omnipause neurons, permitting burst neurons to discharge until the eye movement is completed. These measurable abnormalities of saccades provide a means to evaluate the effects of novel treatments for LOTS.

  17. A hybrid adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm applied to a lot-sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Laurent Flindt; Spoorendonk, Simon

    This paper presents a hybrid of a general heuristic framework that has been successfully applied to vehicle routing problems and a general purpose MIP solver. The framework uses local search and an adaptive procedure which choses between a set of large neighborhoods to be searched. A mixed integer...... of a solution and to investigate the feasibility of elements in such a neighborhood. The hybrid heuristic framework is applied to the multi-item capacitated lot sizing problem with dynamic lot sizes, where experiments have been conducted on a series of instances from the literature. On average the heuristic...

  18. AD620SQ/883B Total Ionizing Dose Radiation Lot Acceptance Report for RESTORE-LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Noah; Campola, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A Radiation Lot Acceptance Test was performed on the AD620SQ/883B, Lot 1708D, in accordance with MIL-STD-883, Method 1019, Condition D. Using a Co-60 source 4 biased parts and 4 unbiased parts were irradiated at 10 mrad/s (0.036 krad/hr) in intervals of approximately 1 krad from 3-10 krads, and ones of 5 krads from 10-25 krads, where it was annealed while unbiased at 25 degrees Celsius, for 2 days, and then, subsequently, annealed while biased at 25 degrees celsius, for another 7 days.

  19. Analysis of portfolio optimization with lot of stocks amount constraint: case study index LQ45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Liem; Chendra, Erwinna; Sukmana, Agus

    2018-01-01

    To form an optimum portfolio (in the sense of minimizing risk and / or maximizing return), the commonly used model is the mean-variance model of Markowitz. However, there is no amount of lots of stocks constraint. And, retail investors in Indonesia cannot do short selling. So, in this study we will develop an existing model by adding an amount of lot of stocks and short-selling constraints to get the minimum risk of portfolio with and without any target return. We will analyse the stocks listed in the LQ45 index based on the stock market capitalization. To perform this analysis, we will use Solver that available in Microsoft Excel.

  20. Wastes options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, M.

    1992-01-01

    After a description of the EEC environmental policy, some wastes families are described: bio-contaminant wastes (municipal and industrial), hospitals wastes, toxic wastes in dispersed quantities, nuclear wastes (radioactive and thermal), plastics compounds wastes, volatiles organic compounds, hydrocarbons and used solvents. Sources, quantities and treatments are given. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  1. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  2. Safety, immunogenicity, and lot-to-lot consistency of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children, adolescents, and adults: A randomized, controlled, phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorna-Carlos, Josefina B; Nolan, Terry; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Santos, Jaime; Montalban, M Cecilia; de Looze, Ferdinandus J; Eizenberg, Peter; Hall, Stephen; Dupuy, Martin; Hutagalung, Yanee; Pépin, Stéphanie; Saville, Melanie

    2015-05-15

    Inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) containing two influenza A strains and one strain from each B lineage (Yamagata and Victoria) may offer broader protection against seasonal influenza than inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (IIV3), containing a single B strain. This study examined the safety, immunogenicity, and lot consistency of an IIV4 candidate. This phase III, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial in children/adolescents (9 through 17 years) and adults (18 through 60 years) was conducted in Australia and in the Philippines in 2012. The study was double-blind for IIV4 lots and open-label for IIV4 vs IIV3. Children/adolescents were randomized 2:2:2:1 and adults 10:10:10:1 to receive one of three lots of IIV4 or licensed IIV3. Safety data were collected for up to 6 months post-vaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition and seroneutralization antibody titers were assessed pre-vaccination and 21 days post-vaccination. 1648 adults and 329 children/adolescents received IIV4, and 56 adults and 55 children/adolescents received IIV3. Solicited reactions, unsolicited adverse events, and serious adverse events were similar for IIV3 and IIV4 recipients in both age groups. Injection-site pain, headache, malaise, and myalgia were the most frequently reported solicited reactions, most of which were mild and resolved within 3 days. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or deaths were reported. Post-vaccination antibody responses, seroconversion rates, and seroprotection rates for the 3 strains common to both vaccines were comparable for IIV3 and IIV4 in both age groups. Antibody responses to IIV4 were equivalent among vaccine lots and comparable between age groups for each of the 4 strains. IIV4 met all European Medicines Agency immunogenicity criteria for adults for all 4 strains. In both age groups, IIV4 was well tolerated and caused no safety concerns, induced robust antibody responses to all 4 influenza strains, and met all EMA immunogenicity

  3. Determination of supplier-to-supplier and lot-to-lot variability in glycation of recombinant human serum albumin expressed in Oryza sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant E Frahm

    Full Text Available The use of different expression systems to produce the same recombinant human protein can result in expression-dependent chemical modifications (CMs leading to variability of structure, stability and immunogenicity. Of particular interest are recombinant human proteins expressed in plant-based systems, which have shown particularly high CM variability. In studies presented here, recombinant human serum albumins (rHSA produced in Oryza sativa (Asian rice (OsrHSA from a number of suppliers have been extensively characterized and compared to plasma-derived HSA (pHSA and rHSA expressed in yeast (Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The heterogeneity of each sample was evaluated using size exclusion chromatography (SEC, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and capillary electrophoresis (CE. Modifications of the samples were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. The secondary and tertiary structure of the albumin samples were assessed with far U/V circular dichroism spectropolarimetry (far U/V CD and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. Far U/V CD and fluorescence analyses were also used to assess thermal stability and drug binding. High molecular weight aggregates in OsrHSA samples were detected with SEC and supplier-to-supplier variability and, more critically, lot-to-lot variability in one manufactures supplied products were identified. LC-MS analysis identified a greater number of hexose-glycated arginine and lysine residues on OsrHSA compared to pHSA or rHSA expressed in yeast. This analysis also showed supplier-to-supplier and lot-to-lot variability in the degree of glycation at specific lysine and arginine residues for OsrHSA. Both the number of glycated residues and the degree of glycation correlated positively with the quantity of non-monomeric species and the chromatographic profiles of the samples. Tertiary structural changes were observed for most OsrHSA samples which

  4. Hydrologic and Pollutant Removal Performance of a Full-Scale, Fully Functional Permeable Pavement Parking Lot

    Science.gov (United States)

    In accordance with the need for full-scale, replicated studies of permeable pavement systems used in their intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes to evaluate these systems, the EPA’s Urb...

  5. Meta-Heuristics for Dynamic Lot Sizing: a review and comparison of solution approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Jans (Raf); Z. Degraeve (Zeger)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractProofs from complexity theory as well as computational experiments indicate that most lot sizing problems are hard to solve. Because these problems are so difficult, various solution techniques have been proposed to solve them. In the past decade, meta-heuristics such as tabu search,

  6. 9 CFR 351.19 - Refusal of certification for specific lots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal of certification for specific lots. 351.19 Section 351.19 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  7. Performance of engineered soil and trees in a parking lot bioswale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingfu Xiao; Gregory McPherson

    2011-01-01

    A bioswale integrating an engineered soil and trees was installed in a parking lot to evaluate its ability to reduce storm runoff, pollutant loading, and support tree growth. The adjacent control and treatment sites each received runoff from eight parking spaces and were identical except that there was no bioswale for the control site. A tree was planted at both sites...

  8. 78 FR 43753 - Inspection and Weighing of Grain in Combined and Single Lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... USGSA regulations for shiplots, unit trains, and lash barges. This final rule allows for breaks in... the loading of the lot must be reasonably continuous, with no consecutive break in loading to exceed... superseded; (iii) The location of the grain, if at rest, or the name(s) of the elevator(s) from which or into...

  9. How well do we understand nitrous oxide emissions from open-lot cattle systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas that is produced in manure. Open lot beef cattle feedyards emit nitrous oxide but little information is available about exactly how much is produced. This has become an important research topic because of environmental concerns. Only a few methods are ava...

  10. The finite horizon economic lot sizing problem in job shops : the multiple cycle approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouenniche, J.; Bertrand, J.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the multi-product, finite horizon, static demand, sequencing, lot sizing and scheduling problem in a job shop environment where the planning horizon length is finite and fixed by management. The objective pursued is to minimize the sum of setup costs, and work-in-process and

  11. Manufacturability: from design to SPC limits through "corner-lot" characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Timothy J.; Baker, James C.; Wesneski, Lisa; Black, Robert S.; Rothenbury, Dave

    2005-01-01

    Texas Instruments" Digital Micro-mirror Device, is used in a wide variety of optical display applications ranging from fixed and portable projectors to high-definition television (HDTV) to digital cinema projection systems. A new DMD pixel architecture, called "FTP", was designed and qualified by Texas Instruments DLPTMTM Group in 2003 to meet increased performance objectives for brightness and contrast ratio. Coordination between design, test and fabrication groups was required to balance pixel performance requirements and manufacturing capability. "Corner Lot" designed experiments (DOE) were used to verify "fabrication space" available for the pixel design. The corner lot technique allows confirmation of manufacturability projections early in the design/qualification cycle. Through careful design and analysis of the corner-lot DOE, a balance of critical dimension (cd) "budgets" is possible so that specification and process control limits can be established that meet both customer and factory requirements. The application of corner-lot DOE is illustrated in a case history of the DMD "FTP" pixel. The process for balancing test parameter requirements with multiple critical dimension budgets is shown. MEMS/MOEMS device design and fabrication can use similar techniques to achieve agressive design-to-qualification goals.

  12. Flexible interaction of plug-in electric vehicle parking lots for efficient wind integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydarian-Forushani, E.; Golshan, M.E.H.; Shafie-khah, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Interactive incorporation of plug-in electric vehicle parking lots is investigated. • Flexible energy and reserve services are provided by electric vehicle parking lots. • Uncertain characterization of electric vehicle owners’ behavior is taken into account. • Coordinated operation of parking lots can facilitate wind power integration. - Abstract: The increasing share of uncertain wind generation has changed traditional operation scheduling of power systems. The challenges of this additional variability raise the need for an operational flexibility in providing both energy and reserve. One key solution is an effective incorporation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the power system operation process. To this end, this paper proposes a two-stage stochastic programming market-clearing model considering the network constraints to achieve the optimal scheduling of conventional units as well as PEV parking lots (PLs) in providing both energy and reserve services. Different from existing works, the paper pays more attention to the uncertain characterization of PLs takes into account the arrival/departure time of PEVs to/from the PL, the initial state of charge (SOC) of PEVs, and their battery capacity through a set of scenarios in addition to wind generation scenarios. The results reveal that although the cost saving as a consequence of incorporating PL to the grid is below 1% of total system cost, however, flexible interactions of PL in the energy and reserve markets can promote the integration of wind power more than 13.5%.

  13. A basic period approach to the economic lot scheduling problem with shelf life considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soman, C.A.; van Donk, D.P.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Almost all the research on the economic lot scheduling problem (ELSP) considering limited shelf life of products has assumed a common cycle approach and an unrealistic assumption of possibility of deliberately reducing the production rate. In many cases, like in food processing industry where

  14. Sequencing, lot sizing and scheduling in job shops: the common cycle approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouenniche, J.; Boctor, F.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the multi-product, finite horizon, static demand, sequencing, lot sizing and scheduling problem in a job shop environment where the objective is to minimize the sum of setup and inventory holding costs while satisfying the demand with no backlogging. To solve this problem, we

  15. Aligning workload control theory and practice : lot splitting and operation overlapping issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, Nuno O.; Land, Martin J.; Carmo-Silva, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of lot splitting in the context of workload control (WLC). Past studies on WLC assumed that jobs released to the shop floor proceed through the different stages of processing without being split. However, in practice, large jobs are often split into smaller transfer

  16. Precipitation and runoff water quality from an urban parking lot and implications for tree growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. H. Pham; H. G. Halverson; G. M. Heisler

    1978-01-01

    The water quality of precipitation and runoff from a large parking lot in New Brunswick, New Jersey was studied during the early growing season, from March to June 1976. Precipitation and runoff from 10 storms were analyzed. The runoff was higher in all constituents considered except for P, Pb, and Cu. Compared with published values for natural waters, sewage effluent...

  17. 7 CFR 56.37 - Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. 56.37... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Identifying and Marking Products § 56.37...

  18. Rapid assessment of antimicrobial resistance prevalence using a Lot Quality Assurance sampling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leth, Frank; den Heijer, Casper; Beerepoot, Marielle; Stobberingh, Ellen; Geerlings, Suzanne; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires rapid surveillance tools, such as Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS). LQAS classifies AMR as high or low based on set parameters. We compared classifications with the underlying true AMR prevalence using data on 1335 Escherichia coli isolates

  19. Alternate Methods of Effluent Disposal for On-Lot Home Sewage Systems. Special Circular 214.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Several alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches and oversized absorption areas are discussed. Site characteristics and preparation are outlined. Each alternative is accompanied by a diagram…

  20. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2 tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1 week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants. The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste and the low content of paper make Greenlandic waste much different from Danish household waste. The moisture content, calorific value and chemical composition (55 elements, of which 22 were below detection limits) were determined for each material fraction. These characteristics were similar to what has been found for material fractions in Danish household waste. The chemical composition and the calorific value of the plastic fraction revealed that this fraction was not clean but contained a lot of biowaste. The established waste composition is useful in assessing alternative waste management schemes for household waste in Greenland.

  1. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  2. Multidrug resistance among new tuberculosis cases: detecting local variation through lot quality-assurance sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedt, Bethany Lynn; van Leth, Frank; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank; van Gemert, Wayne; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Lyepshina, Svitlana; Egwaga, Saidi; Cohen, Ted

    2012-03-01

    Current methodology for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) surveys endorsed by the World Health Organization provides estimates of MDR TB prevalence among new cases at the national level. On the aggregate, local variation in the burden of MDR TB may be masked. This paper investigates the utility of applying lot quality-assurance sampling to identify geographic heterogeneity in the proportion of new cases with multidrug resistance. We simulated the performance of lot quality-assurance sampling by applying these classification-based approaches to data collected in the most recent TB drug-resistance surveys in Ukraine, Vietnam, and Tanzania. We explored 3 classification systems- two-way static, three-way static, and three-way truncated sequential sampling-at 2 sets of thresholds: low MDR TB = 2%, high MDR TB = 10%, and low MDR TB = 5%, high MDR TB = 20%. The lot quality-assurance sampling systems identified local variability in the prevalence of multidrug resistance in both high-resistance (Ukraine) and low-resistance settings (Vietnam). In Tanzania, prevalence was uniformly low, and the lot quality-assurance sampling approach did not reveal variability. The three-way classification systems provide additional information, but sample sizes may not be obtainable in some settings. New rapid drug-sensitivity testing methods may allow truncated sequential sampling designs and early stopping within static designs, producing even greater efficiency gains. Lot quality-assurance sampling study designs may offer an efficient approach for collecting critical information on local variability in the burden of multidrug-resistant TB. Before this methodology is adopted, programs must determine appropriate classification thresholds, the most useful classification system, and appropriate weighting if unbiased national estimates are also desired.

  3. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  4. Analysis Of Liquid Waste Management At Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang's Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Hartini, Resi; Hasyim, Hamzah; Ainy, Asmaripa

    2011-01-01

    Background : The hospital is an institution that service activities of preventive, curative, rehabilitative and promotive health. These activities produce solid, liquid, and gas waste. Liquid waste can cause diseases and environment pollution so need special waste management. Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang's Hospital producea lot of liquid waste. Method : This study is a descriptive research with qualitative approach. Sources of information consist four informants. The research are using dept...

  5. Chemical analysis of DC745 Materials: DEV Lot 1 reinvestigation; barcodes P053387, P053388, and P053389

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirmyer, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-09

    This report serves as a follow up to our initial development lot 1 chemical analysis report (LA-UR-16-21970). The purpose of that report was to determine whether or not certain combinations of resin lots and curing agent lots resulted in chemical differences in the final material. One finding of that report suggested that pad P053389 was different from the three other pads analyzed. This report consists of chemical analysis of P053387, P053388, and a reinvestigation of P053389 all of which came from the potentially suspect combination of resin and curing agents lot. The goal of this report is to determine whether the observations relating to P053389 were isolated to that particular pad or systemic to that combination of resin and curing agent lot. The following suite of analyses were performed on the pads: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The overall conclusions of the study are that pads P053387 and P053388 behave more consistently with the pads of other resin lot and curing agent lot combinations and that the chemical observations made regarding pad P053389 are isolated to that pad and not representative of an issue with that resin lot and curing agent lot combination.

  6. Statistical validation of reagent lot change in the clinical chemistry laboratory can confer insights on good clinical laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min-Chul; Kim, So Young; Jeong, Tae-Dong; Lee, Woochang; Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

    2014-11-01

    Verification of new lot reagent's suitability is necessary to ensure that results for patients' samples are consistent before and after reagent lot changes. A typical procedure is to measure results of some patients' samples along with quality control (QC) materials. In this study, the results of patients' samples and QC materials in reagent lot changes were analysed. In addition, the opinion regarding QC target range adjustment along with reagent lot changes was proposed. Patients' sample and QC material results of 360 reagent lot change events involving 61 analytes and eight instrument platforms were analysed. The between-lot differences for the patients' samples (ΔP) and the QC materials (ΔQC) were tested by Mann-Whitney U tests. The size of the between-lot differences in the QC data was calculated as multiples of standard deviation (SD). The ΔP and ΔQC values only differed significantly in 7.8% of the reagent lot change events. This frequency was not affected by the assay principle or the QC material source. One SD was proposed for the cutoff for maintaining pre-existing target range after reagent lot change. While non-commutable QC material results were infrequent in the present study, our data confirmed that QC materials have limited usefulness when assessing new reagent lots. Also a 1 SD standard for establishing a new QC target range after reagent lot change event was proposed. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Changing the values of parameters on lot size reorder point model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hung-Chi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Just-In-Time (JIT philosophy has received a great deal of attention. Several actions such as improving quality, reducing setup cost and shortening lead time have been recognized as effective ways to achieve the underlying goal of JIT. This paper considers the partial backorders, lot size reorder point inventory system with an imperfect production process. The objective is to simultaneously optimize the lot size, reorder point, process quality, setup cost and lead time, constrained on a service level. We assume the explicit distributional form of lead time demand is unknown but the mean and standard deviation are given. The minimax distribution free approach is utilized to solve the problem and a numerical example is provided to illustrate the results. .

  8. A software development for establishing optimal production lots and its application in academic and business environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valencia Mendez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent global economic downturn has increased an already perceived need in organizations for cost savings. To cope with such need, companies can opt for different strategies. This paper focuses on optimizing processes and, more specifically, determining the optimal lot production. To determine the optimal lot of a specific production process, a new software was developed that not only incorporates various productive and logistical elements in its calculations but also affords users a practical way to manage the large number of input parameters required to determine the optimal batch. The developed software has not only been validated by several companies, both Spanish and Mexican, who achieved significant savings, but also used as a teaching tool in universities with highly satisfactory results from the point of view of student learning. A special contribution of this work is that the developed tool can be sent to the interested reader free of charge upon request.

  9. Perception that "everything requires a lot of effort": transcultural SCL-25 item validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Nicolas; Hassan, Ghayda; Rousseau, Cécile; Chenguiti, Khalid

    2009-09-01

    This brief report illustrates how the migration context can affect specific item validity of mental health measures. The SCL-25 was administered to 432 recently settled immigrants (220 Haitian and 212 Arabs). We performed descriptive analyses, as well as Infit and Outfit statistics analyses using WINSTEPS Rasch Measurement Software based on Item Response Theory. The participants' comments about the item You feel everything requires a lot of effort in the SCL-25 were also qualitatively analyzed. Results revealed that the item You feel everything requires a lot of effort is an outlier and does not adjust in an expected and valid fashion with its cluster items, as it is over-endorsed by Haitian and Arab healthy participants. Our study thus shows that, in transcultural mental health research, the cultural and migratory contexts may interact and significantly influence the meaning of some symptom items and consequently, the validity of symptom scales.

  10. An improved hierarchical A * algorithm in the optimization of parking lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wu, Junjuan; Wang, Ying

    2017-08-01

    In the parking lot parking path optimization, the traditional evaluation index is the shortest distance as the best index and it does not consider the actual road conditions. Now, the introduction of a more practical evaluation index can not only simplify the hardware design of the boot system but also save the software overhead. Firstly, we establish the parking lot network graph RPCDV mathematical model and all nodes in the network is divided into two layers which were constructed using different evaluation function base on the improved hierarchical A * algorithm which improves the time optimal path search efficiency and search precision of the evaluation index. The final results show that for different sections of the program attribute parameter algorithm always faster the time to find the optimal path.

  11. A review of lot streaming in a flow shop environment with makespan criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gómez-Gasquet

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper reviews current literature and contributes a set of findings that capture the current state-of-the-art of the topic of lot streaming in a flow-shop. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review to capture, classify and summarize the main body of knowledge on lot streaming in a flow-shop with makespan criteria and, translate this into a form that is readily accessible to researchers and practitioners in the more mainstream production scheduling community. Findings and Originality/value: The existing knowledge base is somewhat fragmented. This is a relatively unexplored topic within mainstream operations management research and one which could provide rich opportunities for further exploration. Originality/value: This paper sets out to review current literature, from an advanced production scheduling perspective, and contributes a set of findings that capture the current state-of-the-art of this topic.

  12. Two parameter-tuned metaheuristic algorithms for the multi-level lot sizing and scheduling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.T. Fatemi Ghomi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of lot sizing and scheduling problem for n-products and m-machines in flow shop environment where setups among machines are sequence-dependent and can be carried over. Many products must be produced under capacity constraints and allowing backorders. Since lot sizing and scheduling problems are well-known strongly NP-hard, much attention has been given to heuristics and metaheuristics methods. This paper presents two metaheuristics algorithms namely, Genetic Algorithm (GA and Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA. Moreover, Taguchi robust design methodology is employed to calibrate the parameters of the algorithms for different size problems. In addition, the parameter-tuned algorithms are compared against a presented lower bound on randomly generated problems. At the end, comprehensive numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. The results showed that the performance of both GA and ICA are very promising and ICA outperforms GA statistically.

  13. Brive-la-Gaillarde (Corrèze). Îlot Massénat

    OpenAIRE

    Ollivier, Julien

    2018-01-01

    La fouille archéologique de l’îlot Massénat a été entreprise à l’été 2016, en préalable à la construction de logements et de locaux à vocation commerciale avec parking semi-enterré. Elle a porté sur une surface d’environ 900 m2 et a duré 2 mois avec une équipe de 5 archéologues. Le site, diagnostiqué en 2004 (dir. J. Roger, Inrap), est localisé au sud du Puy Saint-Pierre, où ont été découverts tous les vestiges de l’occupation antique de Brive, encore mal caractérisée. L’îlot est par ailleurs...

  14. 3. A 40-years record of the polymetallic pollution of the Lot River system, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audry, S.; Schäfer, J.; Blanc, G.; Veschambre, S.; Jouanneau, J.-M.

    2003-04-01

    The Lot River system (southwest France) is known for historic Zn and Cd pollution that originates from Zn ore treatment in the small Riou-Mort watershed and affects seafood production in the Gironde Estuary. We present a sedimentary record from 2 cores taken in a dam lake downstream of the Riou-Mort watershed covering the evolution of metal inputs into the Lot River over the past 40 years (1960-2001). Depth profiles of Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations are comparable indicating common sources and transport. The constant Zn/Cd ratio (˜50) observed in the sediment cores is similar to that in SPM from the Riou-Mort watershed, indicating the dominance of point source pollution upon the geochemical background signal. Cadmium, Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations in the studied sediment cores show an important peak in 42-44 cm depth with up to 300 mg.kg-1 (Cd), 10,000 mg.kg-1 (Zn), 150 mg.kg-1 (Cu) and 930 mg.kg-1 (Pb). These concentrations are much higher than geochemical background values; For example, Cd concentrations are more than 350-fold higher than those measured in the same riverbed upstream the confluence with the Riou-Mort River. This peak coincides with the upper 137Cs peak resulting from the Chernobyl accident (1986). Therefore, this heavy metal peak is attributed to the latest accidental Cd pollution of the Lot-River in 1986. Several downward heavy metal peaks reflect varying input probably due to changes in industrial activities within the Riou-Mort watershed. Given mean sedimentation rate of about 2 cm.yr-1, the record suggests constant and much lower heavy metal concentrations since the early nineties due to restriction of industrial activities and remediation efforts in the Riou-Mort watershed. Nevertheless, Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations in the upper sediment remain high, compared to background values from reference sites in the upper Lot River system.

  15. Making Marble Tracks Can Involve Lots of Fun as Well as STEM Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Marble tracks are a very popular toy and big ones can be found in science centres in many countries. If children want to make a marble track themselves it is quite a job. It takes a long time, they can take up a lot of space and most structures are quite fragile, as the materials used can very quickly prove unfit for the task and do not last very…

  16. A DESIGN STUDY OF AN INNOVATIVE BARRIER SYSTEM FOR PERSONAL PARKING LOTS

    OpenAIRE

    BÖRKLÜ, Hüseyin; KALYON, Sadık

    2018-01-01

    The increase in the number of cars made it necessary to protectthe parking areas. This research includes a literature review aboutcommercially available barriers, which are arm barriers, rising bollards, chainbarriers, automatic and manual private barriers from the point of common andside-by-side parking lots. Their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated.After the literature review work, a design requirements list for a car parkprotector, which includes important and strong properties of ...

  17. Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the scale model of open dairy lots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Luyu; Cao, Wei; Shi, Zhengxiang; Li, Baoming; Wang, Chaoyuan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Kristensen, Simon

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the impacts of major factors on carbon loss via gaseous emissions, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from the ground of open dairy lots were tested by a scale model experiment at various air temperatures (15, 25, and 35 °C), surface velocities (0.4, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.2 m sec(-1)), and floor types (unpaved soil floor and brick-paved floor) in controlled laboratory conditions using the wind tunnel method. Generally, CO2 and CH4 emissions were significantly enhanced with the increase of air temperature and velocity (P emissions, which were also affected by air temperature and soil characteristics of the floor. Although different patterns were observed on CH4 emission from the soil and brick floors at different air temperature-velocity combinations, statistical analysis showed no significant difference in CH4 emissions from different floors (P > 0.05). For CO2, similar emissions were found from the soil and brick floors at 15 and 25 °C, whereas higher rates were detected from the brick floor at 35 °C (P emission from the scale model was exponentially related to CO2 flux, which might be helpful in CH4 emission estimation from manure management. Gaseous emissions from the open lots are largely dependent on outdoor climate, floor systems, and management practices, which are quite different from those indoors. This study assessed the effects of floor types and air velocities on CO2 and CH4 emissions from the open dairy lots at various temperatures by a wind tunnel. It provided some valuable information for decision-making and further studies on gaseous emissions from open lots.

  18. Exponential Smoothing for Multi-Product Lot-Sizing With Heijunka and Varying Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Grimaud Frédéric; Dolgui Alexandre; Korytkowski Przemyslaw

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss a multi-product lot-sizing problem for a job shop controlled with a heijunka box. Demand is considered as a random variable with constant variation which must be absorbed somehow by the manufacturing system, either by increased inventory or by flexibility in the production. When a heijunka concept (production leveling) is used, fluctuations in customer orders are not transferred directly to the manufacturing system allowing for a smoother production and better production capac...

  19. Choosing a Cluster Sampling Design for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Hund, Lauren; Bedrick, Edward J.; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys are commonly used for monitoring and evaluation in resource-limited settings. Recently several methods have been proposed to combine LQAS with cluster sampling for more timely and cost-effective data collection. For some of these methods, the standard binomial model can be used for constructing decision rules as the clustering can be ignored. For other designs, considered here, clustering is accommodated in the design phase. In this paper, we comp...

  20. APPLICATION OF LOT QUALITY ASSURANCE SAMPLING FOR ASSESSING DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMMES - EXAMINATION OF SOME METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. RAMESH RAO

    2011-01-01

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), a statistical tool in industrial setup, has been in use since 1980 for monitoring and evaluation of programs on disease control / immunization status among children / health workers performance in health system. While conducting LQAS in the field, there are occasions, even after due care of design, there are practical and methodological issues to be addressed before it is recommended for implementation and intervention. LQAS is applied under the assumpti...

  1. Optimal Lot Sizing with Scrap and Random Breakdown Occurring in Backorder Replenishing Period

    OpenAIRE

    Ting, Chia-Kuan; Chiu, Yuan-Shyi; Chan, Chu-Chai

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with determination of optimal lot size for an economic production quantity model with scrap and random breakdown occurring in backorder replenishing period. In most real-life manufacturing systems, generation of defective items and random breakdown of production equipment are inevitable. To deal with the stochastic machine failures, production planners practically calculate the mean time between failures (MTBF) and establish the robust plan accordingly, in terms of opt...

  2. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter formation of wastes and basic concepts of non-radioactive waste management are explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: People in Peril; Self-regulation of nature as a guide for minimizing and recycling waste; The current waste management situation in the Slovak Republic; Categorization and determination of the type of waste in legislative of Slovakia; Strategic directions waste management in the Slovak Republic.

  3. Transportation and Production Lot-size for Sugarcane under Uncertainty of Machine Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudtachat Kanchala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated transportation and production lot size problems is important effect to total cost of operation system for sugar factories. In this research, we formulate a mathematic model that combines these two problems as two stage stochastic programming model. In the first stage, we determine the lot size of transportation problem and allocate a fixed number of vehicles to transport sugarcane to the mill factory. Moreover, we consider an uncertainty of machine (mill capacities. After machine (mill capacities realized, in the second stage we determine the production lot size and make decision to hold units of sugarcane in front of mills based on discrete random variables of machine (mill capacities. We investigate the model using a small size problem. The results show that the optimal solutions try to choose closest fields and lower holding cost per unit (at fields to transport sugarcane to mill factory. We show the results of comparison of our model and the worst case model (full capacity. The results show that our model provides better efficiency than the results of the worst case model.

  4. Study of Different Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Soybean Seed Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Reza ROUHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseeds are more susceptible to deterioration due to membrane disruption, high free fatty acid level in seeds and free radical production. These factors are tended to less vigorous seed. Priming treatments have been used to accelerate the germination and seedling growth in most of the crops under normal and stress conditions. For susceptible and low vigor soybean seed, this technique would be a promising method. At first, in separate experiment, effects of hydropriming for (12, 24, 36 and 48 h with control (none prime were evaluated on germination traits of soybean seed lots cv. �Sari� (include 2 drying method and 3 harvest moisture. Then, next experiment was conducted to determination the best combination of osmopriming in soybean seed lots, hence 3 osmotic potential level (-8, -10 and -12 bar at 4 time (12, 24, 36 and 48 h were compared. Analysis of variance showed that, except for seedling dry weight, the other traits include standard germination, germination rate, seedling length and vigor index were influenced by osmopriming. Hydropriming had no effect on these traits and decreased rate of germination. Finally the best combination of osmopriming were osmotic potential -12 bar at 12 hours for time, that submitted acceptable result in all conditions and recommended for soybean seed lots cv. �Sari�.

  5. Study of Different Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Soybean Seed Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Reza ROUHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseeds are more susceptible to deterioration due to membrane disruption, high free fatty acid level in seeds and free radical production. These factors are tended to less vigorous seed. Priming treatments have been used to accelerate the germination and seedling growth in most of the crops under normal and stress conditions. For susceptible and low vigor soybean seed, this technique would be a promising method. At first, in separate experiment, effects of hydropriming for (12, 24, 36 and 48 h with control (none prime were evaluated on germination traits of soybean seed lots cv. Sari (include 2 drying method and 3 harvest moisture. Then, next experiment was conducted to determination the best combination of osmopriming in soybean seed lots, hence 3 osmotic potential level (-8, -10 and -12 bar at 4 time (12, 24, 36 and 48 h were compared. Analysis of variance showed that, except for seedling dry weight, the other traits include standard germination, germination rate, seedling length and vigor index were influenced by osmopriming. Hydropriming had no effect on these traits and decreased rate of germination. Finally the best combination of osmopriming were osmotic potential -12 bar at 12 hours for time, that submitted acceptable result in all conditions and recommended for soybean seed lots cv. Sari.

  6. Clustered lot quality assurance sampling to assess immunisation coverage: increasing rapidity and maintaining precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Andrews, Nick; Ronveaux, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Vaccination programmes targeting disease elimination aim to achieve very high coverage levels (e.g. 95%). We calculated the precision of different clustered lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) designs in computer-simulated surveys to provide local health officers in the field with preset LQAS plans to simply and rapidly assess programmes with high coverage targets. We calculated sample size (N), decision value (d) and misclassification errors (alpha and beta) of several LQAS plans by running 10 000 simulations. We kept the upper coverage threshold (UT) at 90% or 95% and decreased the lower threshold (LT) progressively by 5%. We measured the proportion of simulations with d unvaccinated individuals if the coverage was LT% (pLT) to calculate alpha (1-pLT). We divided N in clusters (between 5 and 10) and recalculated the errors hypothesising that the coverage would vary in the clusters according to a binomial distribution with preset standard deviations of 0.05 and 0.1 from the mean lot coverage. We selected the plans fulfilling these criteria: alpha LQAS plans dividing the lot in five clusters with N = 50 (5 x 10) and d = 4 to evaluate programmes with 95% coverage target and d = 7 to evaluate programmes with 90% target. These plans will considerably increase the feasibility and the rapidity of conducting the LQAS in the field.

  7. Solving portfolio selection problems with minimum transaction lots based on conditional-value-at-risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, E. P.; Rosadi, D.

    2017-01-01

    Portfolio selection problems conventionally means ‘minimizing the risk, given the certain level of returns’ from some financial assets. This problem is frequently solved with quadratic or linear programming methods, depending on the risk measure that used in the objective function. However, the solutions obtained by these method are in real numbers, which may give some problem in real application because each asset usually has its minimum transaction lots. In the classical approach considering minimum transaction lots were developed based on linear Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD), variance (like Markowitz’s model), and semi-variance as risk measure. In this paper we investigated the portfolio selection methods with minimum transaction lots with conditional value at risk (CVaR) as risk measure. The mean-CVaR methodology only involves the part of the tail of the distribution that contributed to high losses. This approach looks better when we work with non-symmetric return probability distribution. Solution of this method can be found with Genetic Algorithm (GA) methods. We provide real examples using stocks from Indonesia stocks market.

  8. Solving lot-sizing problem with quantity discount and transportation cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy H. I.; Kang, He-Yau; Lai, Chun-Mei

    2013-04-01

    Owing to today's increasingly competitive market and ever-changing manufacturing environment, the inventory problem is becoming more complicated to solve. The incorporation of heuristics methods has become a new trend to tackle the complex problem in the past decade. This article considers a lot-sizing problem, and the objective is to minimise total costs, where the costs include ordering, holding, purchase and transportation costs, under the requirement that no inventory shortage is allowed in the system. We first formulate the lot-sizing problem as a mixed integer programming (MIP) model. Next, an efficient genetic algorithm (GA) model is constructed for solving large-scale lot-sizing problems. An illustrative example with two cases in a touch panel manufacturer is used to illustrate the practicality of these models, and a sensitivity analysis is applied to understand the impact of the changes in parameters to the outcomes. The results demonstrate that both the MIP model and the GA model are effective and relatively accurate tools for determining the replenishment for touch panel manufacturing for multi-periods with quantity discount and batch transportation. The contributions of this article are to construct an MIP model to obtain an optimal solution when the problem is not too complicated itself and to present a GA model to find a near-optimal solution efficiently when the problem is complicated.

  9. Three Permeable Pavements Performances for Priority Metal Pollutants and Metals associated with Deicing Chemicals from Edison Parking Lot, NJ - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each p...

  10. Three Permeable Pavements Performances for Priority Metal Pollutants and Metals Associated with Deicing Chemicals from Edison Parking Lot, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each p...

  11. Mentha spicata L. infusions as sources of antioxidant phenolic compounds: emerging reserve lots with special harvest requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Ingride; Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-10-12

    Mentha spicata L., commonly known as spearmint, is widely used in both fresh and dry forms, for infusion preparation or in European and Indian cuisines. Recently, with the evolution of the tea market, several novel products with added value are emerging, and the standard lots have evolved to reserve lots, with special harvest requirements that confer them with enhanced organoleptic and sensorial characteristics. The apical leaves of these batches are collected in specific conditions having, then, a different chemical profile. In the present study, standard and reserve lots of M. spicata were assessed in terms of the antioxidants present in infusions prepared from the different lots. The reserve lots presented the highest concentration in all the compounds identified in relation to the standard lots, with 326 and 188 μg mL -1 of total phenolic compounds, respectively. Both types of samples presented rosmarinic acid as the most abundant phenolic compound, at concentrations of 169 and 101 μg mL -1 for reserve and standard lots, respectively. The antioxidant activity was higher in the reserve lots which had the highest total phenolic compounds content, with EC 50 values ranging from 152 to 336 μg mL -1 . The obtained results provide scientific information that may allow the consumer to make a conscientious choice.

  12. The use of knowledge-based Genetic Algorithm for starting time optimisation in a lot-bucket MRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwan, Muhammad; Purnomo, Andi

    2016-01-01

    In production planning, Material Requirement Planning (MRP) is usually developed based on time-bucket system, a period in the MRP is representing the time and usually weekly. MRP has been successfully implemented in Make To Stock (MTS) manufacturing, where production activity must be started before customer demand is received. However, to be implemented successfully in Make To Order (MTO) manufacturing, a modification is required on the conventional MRP in order to make it in line with the real situation. In MTO manufacturing, delivery schedule to the customers is defined strictly and must be fulfilled in order to increase customer satisfaction. On the other hand, company prefers to keep constant number of workers, hence production lot size should be constant as well. Since a bucket in conventional MRP system is representing time and usually weekly, hence, strict delivery schedule could not be accommodated. Fortunately, there is a modified time-bucket MRP system, called as lot-bucket MRP system that proposed by Casimir in 1999. In the lot-bucket MRP system, a bucket is representing a lot, and the lot size is preferably constant. The time to finish every lot could be varying depends on due date of lot. Starting time of a lot must be determined so that every lot has reasonable production time. So far there is no formal method to determine optimum starting time in the lot-bucket MRP system. Trial and error process usually used for it but some time, it causes several lots have very short production time and the lot-bucket MRP would be infeasible to be executed. This paper presents the use of Genetic Algorithm (GA) for optimisation of starting time in a lot-bucket MRP system. Even though GA is well known as powerful searching algorithm, however, improvement is still required in order to increase possibility of GA in finding optimum solution in shorter time. A knowledge-based system has been embedded in the proposed GA as the improvement effort, and it is proven that the

  13. Radioactive wastes in Oklo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Flores R, J.H.; Pena, P.; Lopez, A.

    2006-01-01

    The acceptance of the Nuclear Energy as electric power supply implies to give answer to the population on the two main challenges to conquer in the public opinion: the nuclear accidents and the radioactive wastes. Several of the questions that are made on the radioactive wastes, its are the mobility migration of them, the geologic stability of the place where its are deposited and the possible migration toward the aquifer mantels. Since the half lives of the radioactive waste of a Nuclear Reactor are of several hundred of thousands of years, the technical explanations to the previous questions little convince to the public in general. In this work summary the results of the radioactive waste generated in a natural reactor, denominated Oklo effect that took place in Gabon, Africa, it makes several thousands of millions of years, a lot before the man appeared in the Earth. The identification of at least 17 reactors in Oklo it was carried out thanks to the difference in the concentrations of Uranium 235 and 238 prospective, and to the analysis of the non-mobility of the radioactive waste in the site. It was able by this way to determine that the reactors with sizes of hardly some decimeter and powers of around 100 kilowatts were operating in intermittent and spontaneous form for space of 150,000 years, with operation cycles of around 30 minutes. Recent studies have contributed information valuable on the natural confinement of the radioactive waste of the Oklo reactors in matrixes of minerals of aluminum phosphate that caught and immobilized them for thousands of millions of years. This extracted information from the nature contributes guides and it allows 'to verify' the validity of the current proposals on the immobilization of radioactive wastes of a nuclear reactor. This work presents in clear and accessible form to the public in general on the secure 'design', operation, 'decommissioning' and 'storage' of the radioactive waste of the reactors that the nature put

  14. THE APPLICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    MR. YASHODHAN ARVIND JAGTAP; DIGVIJAY PRAMOD BHOSALE

    2017-01-01

    Disposal of plastic waste in the environment is considered to be a big problem because it is very low in biodegradability and its presence is large. Chocolate, chocolate, chips, handbags, cold drink bottles and other plastic packaging can cause major environmental and economic problems. They consume a lot of energy and other natural resources and exhaust the environment in various ways. In recent years, the use of industrial waste to replace a part of conventional concrete aggregate is being ...

  15. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)

  16. Negotiation-based Order Lot-Sizing Approach for Two-tier Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuan; Lin, Hao Wen; Chen, Xili; Murata, Tomohiro

    This paper focuses on a negotiation based collaborative planning process for the determination of order lot-size over multi-period planning, and confined to a two-tier supply chain scenario. The aim is to study how negotiation based planning processes would be used to refine locally preferred ordering patterns, which would consequently affect the overall performance of the supply chain in terms of costs and service level. Minimal information exchanges in the form of mathematical models are suggested to represent the local preferences and used to support the negotiation processes.

  17. Where is my car? Examining wayfinding behavior in a parking lot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mora

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines wayfinding behavior in an extended parking lot belonging to one of the largest shopping malls in Santiago, Chile. About 500 people were followed while going to the mall and returning from it, and their trajectories were mapped and analyzed. The results indicate that inbound paths were, in average, 10% shorter that outbound paths, and that people stopped three times more frequently when leaving the mall than when accessing it. It is argued that these results are in line with previous research on the subject, which stress the importance of environmental information in shaping people`s behavior.

  18. Exponential Smoothing for Multi-Product Lot-Sizing With Heijunka and Varying Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaud Frédéric

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we discuss a multi-product lot-sizing problem for a job shop controlled with a heijunka box. Demand is considered as a random variable with constant variation which must be absorbed somehow by the manufacturing system, either by increased inventory or by flexibility in the production. When a heijunka concept (production leveling is used, fluctuations in customer orders are not transferred directly to the manufacturing system allowing for a smoother production and better production capacity utilization. The problem rather is to determine a tradeoff between the variability in the production line capacity requirement and the inventory level.

  19. Radioactive waste management at nuclear power plant Cernavoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raducea, D.

    2002-01-01

    Many human activities generate waste, but people are worried about wastes produced in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Their concern is an unjustified fear toward the hazards from radioactive waste, probably because in any country generating electric power by NPPs a lot of attention is paid to relevant parties involved in radioactive waste management. Significant attention is also given to the management of radioactive waste at the Cemavoda NPP. The general approach required for the collection, handling, conditioning and storage of radioactive wastes, while maintaining acceptable levels of safety for workers, members of the public and the environment, is conceptually established. The overall programme provides the necessary facilities to adequately manage solid radioactive waste from Cemavoda NPP Unit 1 and will be capable of expansion when other units are brought into service. (author)

  20. Waste management in small hospitals: trouble for environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepak

    2012-07-01

    Small hospitals are the grassroots for the big hospital structures, so proper waste management practices require to be initiated from there. Small hospitals contribute a lot in the health care facilities, but due to their poor waste management practices, they pose serious biomedical waste pollution. A survey was conducted with 13 focus questions collected from the 100 hospital present in Dehradun. Greater value of per day per bed waste was found among the small hospitals (178 g compared with 114 g in big hospitals), indicating unskilled waste management practices. Small hospitals do not follow the proper way for taking care of segregation of waste generated in the hospital, and most biomedical wastes were collected without segregation into infectious and noninfectious categories.

  1. Waste management, waste resource facilities and waste conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, waste management concept, waste management system, biomass and bio-waste resources, waste classification, and waste management methods have been reviewed. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The waste management system consists of the whole set of activities related to handling, treating, disposing or recycling the waste materials. General classification of wastes is difficult. Some of the most common sources of wastes are as follows: domestic wastes, commercial wastes, ashes, animal wastes, biomedical wastes, construction wastes, industrial solid wastes, sewer, biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable wastes, and hazardous wastes.

  2. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  3. Further observations on comparison of immunization coverage by lot quality assurance sampling and 30 cluster sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Jain, D C; Sharma, R S; Verghese, T

    1996-06-01

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) and standard EPI methodology (30 cluster sampling) were used to evaluate immunization coverage in a Primary Health Center (PHC) where coverage levels were reported to be more than 85%. Of 27 sub-centers (lots) evaluated by LQAS, only 2 were accepted for child coverage, whereas none was accepted for tetanus toxoid (TT) coverage in mothers. LQAS data were combined to obtain an estimate of coverage in the entire population; 41% (95% CI 36-46) infants were immunized appropriately for their ages, while 42% (95% CI 37-47) of their mothers had received a second/ booster dose of TT. TT coverage in 149 contemporary mothers sampled in EPI survey was also 42% (95% CI 31-52). Although results by the two sampling methods were consistent with each other, a big gap was evident between reported coverage (in children as well as mothers) and survey results. LQAS was found to be operationally feasible, but it cost 40% more and required 2.5 times more time than the EPI survey. LQAS therefore, is not a good substitute for current EPI methodology to evaluate immunization coverage in a large administrative area. However, LQAS has potential as method to monitor health programs on a routine basis in small population sub-units, especially in areas with high and heterogeneously distributed immunization coverage.

  4. Lot quality assurance sampling techniques in health surveys in developing countries: advantages and current constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, C F; Black, R E

    1991-01-01

    Traditional survey methods, which are generally costly and time-consuming, usually provide information at the regional or national level only. The utilization of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology, developed in industry for quality control, makes it possible to use small sample sizes when conducting surveys in small geographical or population-based areas (lots). This article describes the practical use of LQAS for conducting health surveys to monitor health programmes in developing countries. Following a brief description of the method, the article explains how to build a sample frame and conduct the sampling to apply LQAS under field conditions. A detailed description of the procedure for selecting a sampling unit to monitor the health programme and a sample size is given. The sampling schemes utilizing LQAS applicable to health surveys, such as simple- and double-sampling schemes, are discussed. The interpretation of the survey results and the planning of subsequent rounds of LQAS surveys are also discussed. When describing the applicability of LQAS in health surveys in developing countries, the article considers current limitations for its use by health planners in charge of health programmes, and suggests ways to overcome these limitations through future research. It is hoped that with increasing attention being given to industrial sampling plans in general, and LQAS in particular, their utilization to monitor health programmes will provide health planners in developing countries with powerful techniques to help them achieve their health programme targets.

  5. Why gerontology and geriatrics can teach us a lot about mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G

    2018-05-15

    Gerontology, geriatrics, and mentoring have a lot in common. The prototype of this role was Mentor, an older adult in Homer's The Odyssey, who was enlisted to look after Odysseus' son, Telemachus, while his father was away fighting the Trojan War. Portrayed as an older man, the name "mentor" literally means "a man who thinks," which is not a bad characterization generally for faculty members in gerontology! In particular, gerontological and geriatrics education can teach us a lot about the importance of mentoring and provide some critical insights into this role: (1) the importance of interprofessional leadership and modeling, (2) the application of the concept of "grand-generativity" to mentoring, (3) "it takes a community" to be effective in mentoring others, and (4) the need to tailor mentorship styles to the person and the situation. This discussion explores these topics and argues that gerontological and geriatrics educators have a particularly important role and responsibility in mentoring students, colleagues, and administrators related to the very future of our field.

  6. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Parking Lot Lighting in Leavenworth, KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Michael; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Curry, Ku' uipo

    2011-05-06

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a commercial parking lot lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-State Lighting Technology GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The parking lot is for customers and employees of a Walmart Supercenter in Leavenworth, Kansas and this installation represents the first use of the LED Parking Lot Performance Specification developed by the DOE’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance. The application is a parking lot covering more than a half million square feet, lighted primarily by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Metal halide wall packs were installed along the building facade. This site is new construction, so the installed baseline(s) were hypothetical designs. It was acknowledged early on that deviating from Walmart’s typical design would reduce the illuminance on the site. Walmart primarily uses 1000W pulse-start metal halide (PMH) lamps. In order to provide a comparison between both typical design and a design using conventional luminaires providing a lower illuminance, a 400W PMH design was also considered. As mentioned already, the illuminance would be reduced by shifting from the PMH system to the LED system. The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES) provides recommended minimum illuminance values for parking lots. All designs exceeded the recommended illuminance values in IES RP-20, some by a wider margin than others. Energy savings from installing the LED system compared to the different PMH systems varied. Compared to the 1000W PMH system, the LED system would save 63 percent of the energy. However, this corresponds to a 68 percent reduction in illuminance as well. In comparison to the 400W PMH system, the LED system would save 44 percent of the energy and provide similar minimum illuminance values at the time of relamping. The LED system cost more than either of the PMH systems when comparing initial costs

  7. Mining wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, J.

    1981-01-01

    In this article mining wastes means wastes obtained during extraction and processing of uranium ores including production of uraniferous concentrates. The hazards for the population are irradiation, ingestion, dust or radon inhalation. The different wastes produced are reviewed. Management of liquid effluents, water treatment, contamined materials, gaseous wastes and tailings are examined. Environmental impact of wastes during and after exploitation is discussed. Monitoring and measurements are made to verify that ICRP recommendations are met. Studies in progress to improve mining waste management are given [fr

  8. Stability measures for rolling schedules with applications to capacity expansion planning, master production scheduling, and lot sizing

    OpenAIRE

    Kimms, Alf

    1996-01-01

    This contribution discusses the measurement of (in-)stability of finite horizon production planning when done on a rolling horizon basis. As examples we review strategic capacity expansion planning, tactical master production schedulng, and operational capacitated lot sizing.

  9. Comparison of Firefly algorithm and Artificial Immune System algorithm for lot streaming in -machine flow shop scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vijay Chakaravarthy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lot streaming is a technique used to split the processing of lots into several sublots (transfer batches to allow the overlapping of operations in a multistage manufacturing systems thereby shortening the production time (makespan. The objective of this paper is to minimize the makespan and total flow time of -job, -machine lot streaming problem in a flow shop with equal and variable size sublots and also to determine the optimal sublot size. In recent times researchers are concentrating and applying intelligent heuristics to solve flow shop problems with lot streaming. In this research, Firefly Algorithm (FA and Artificial Immune System (AIS algorithms are used to solve the problem. The results obtained by the proposed algorithms are also compared with the performance of other worked out traditional heuristics. The computational results shows that the identified algorithms are more efficient, effective and better than the algorithms already tested for this problem.

  10. Post-depositional redistribution of trace metals in reservoir sediments of a mining/smelting-impacted watershed (the Lot River, SW France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audry, Stephane; Grosbois, Cecile; Bril, Hubert; Schaefer, Joerg; Kierczak, Jakub; Blanc, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Mining/smelting wastes and reservoir sediment cores from the Lot River watershed were studied using mineralogical (XRD, SEM-EDS, EMPA) and geochemical (redox dynamics, selective extractions) approaches to characterize the main carrier phases of trace metals. These two approaches permitted determining the role of post-depositional redistribution processes in sediments and their effects on the fate and mobility of trace metals. The mining/smelting wastes showed heterogeneous mineral compositions with highly variable contents of trace metals. The main trace metal-bearing phases include spinels affected by secondary processes, silicates and sulfates. The results indicate a clear change in the chemical partitioning of trace metals between the reservoir sediments upstream and downstream of the mining/smelting activities, with the downstream sediments showing a 2-fold to 5-fold greater contribution of the oxidizable fraction. This increase was ascribed to stronger post-depositional redistribution of trace metals related to intense early diagenetic processes, including dissolution of trace metal-bearing phases and precipitation of authigenic sulfide phases through organic matter (OM) mineralization. This redistribution is due to high inputs (derived from mining/smelting waste weathering) at the water-sediment interface of (i) dissolved SO 4 promoting more efficient OM mineralization, and (ii) highly reactive trace metal-bearing particles. As a result, the main trace metal-bearing phases in the downstream sediments are represented by Zn- and Fe-sulfides, with minor occurrence of detrital zincian spinels, sulfates and Fe-oxyhydroxides. Sequestration of trace metals in sulfides at depth in reservoir sediments does not represent long term sequestration owing to possible resuspension of anoxic sediments by natural (floods) and/or anthropogenic (dredging, dam flush) events that might promote trace metal mobilization through sulfide oxidation. It is estimated that, during a major

  11. Westinghouse waste simulation and optimization software tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennicken, Kim; Aign, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    Applications for dynamic simulation can be found in virtually all areas of process engineering. The tangible benefits of using dynamic simulation can be seen in tighter design, smoother start-ups and optimized operation. Thus, proper implementation of dynamic simulation can deliver substantial benefits. These benefits are typically derived from improved process understanding. Simulation gives confidence in evidence based decisions and enables users to try out lots of 'what if' scenarios until one is sure that a decision is the right one. In radioactive waste treatment tasks different kinds of waste with different volumes and properties have to be treated, e.g. from NPP operation or D and D activities. Finding a commercially and technically optimized waste treatment concept is a time consuming and difficult task. The Westinghouse Waste Simulation and Optimization Software Tool will enable the user to quickly generate reliable simulation models of various process applications based on equipment modules. These modules can be built with ease and be integrated into the simulation model. This capability ensures that this tool is applicable to typical waste treatment tasks. The identified waste streams and the selected treatment methods are the basis of the simulation and optimization software. After implementing suitable equipment data into the model, process requirements and waste treatment data are fed into the simulation to finally generate primary simulation results. A sensitivity analysis of automated optimization features of the software generates the lowest possible lifecycle cost for the simulated waste stream. In combination with proven waste management equipments and integrated waste management solutions, this tool provides reliable qualitative results that lead to an effective planning and minimizes the total project planning risk of any waste management activity. It is thus the ideal tool for designing a waste treatment facility in an optimum manner

  12. Westinghouse waste simulation and optimization software tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennicken, Kim; Aign, Jorg [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Applications for dynamic simulation can be found in virtually all areas of process engineering. The tangible benefits of using dynamic simulation can be seen in tighter design, smoother start-ups and optimized operation. Thus, proper implementation of dynamic simulation can deliver substantial benefits. These benefits are typically derived from improved process understanding. Simulation gives confidence in evidence based decisions and enables users to try out lots of 'what if' scenarios until one is sure that a decision is the right one. In radioactive waste treatment tasks different kinds of waste with different volumes and properties have to be treated, e.g. from NPP operation or D and D activities. Finding a commercially and technically optimized waste treatment concept is a time consuming and difficult task. The Westinghouse Waste Simulation and Optimization Software Tool will enable the user to quickly generate reliable simulation models of various process applications based on equipment modules. These modules can be built with ease and be integrated into the simulation model. This capability ensures that this tool is applicable to typical waste treatment tasks. The identified waste streams and the selected treatment methods are the basis of the simulation and optimization software. After implementing suitable equipment data into the model, process requirements and waste treatment data are fed into the simulation to finally generate primary simulation results. A sensitivity analysis of automated optimization features of the software generates the lowest possible lifecycle cost for the simulated waste stream. In combination with proven waste management equipments and integrated waste management solutions, this tool provides reliable qualitative results that lead to an effective planning and minimizes the total project planning risk of any waste management activity. It is thus the ideal tool for designing a waste treatment facility in an optimum manner

  13. Long term test of buffer material at the Aespoe HRL, LOT project. Final report on the A0 test parcel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnland, Ola; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern; Faelth, Billy; Jansson, Mats; Eriksen, Trygve E.; Svaerdstroem, Kjell; Rosborg, Bo; Muurinen, Arto

    2011-02-01

    In the Swedish repository concept for nuclear waste (KBS-3 concept), the spent nuclear fuel will be stored in copper canisters surrounded by compacted bentonite. The decaying power of the fuel will increase the temperature in the repository which, in combination with the uptake of ground-water, could be expected to produce minor mineralogical changes in the bentonite. The ongoing LOT test series at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory are focused on identifying and quantifying any mineralogical alterations in the bentonite exposed to typical repository-like conditions. Further, buffer-related processes concerning copper corrosion, cation transport, and bacterial survival/activity are studied. In total, the LOT project includes seven test parcels, which contain a central Cu-tube surrounded by cylindrical bentonite blocks to a total diameter of 30 cm as well as temperature, total pressure, water pressure and humidity sensors. In each test parcel, an electrical heater placed inside the copper tube is used to simulate the heat generation from the decaying spent fuel. Three test parcels (S1 to S3) have been exposed to standard KBS-3 conditions (maximum temperature below 100 deg C) and three parcels (A1 to A3) to adverse conditions (maximum temperature below ∼140 deg C). Both the standard and the adverse test series include short term tests (1 to 2 years), medium term tests (> 5 years) and long term tests (> 10 years). The present report concerns an additional short term test, thereby the designation A0, which was exposed to adverse conditions for approximately 1.5 years. Cu-coupons, 134 Cs and 57 Co tracers and specific chemical agents were placed in the bentonite at defined positions. After field exposure, the entire test parcel was released from the rock by overlapping percussion drilling and wire sawing. The parcel was lifted and divided at the test site and the bentonite material was sampled for specified analyses. The main aspects of the various tests and analyses may

  14. Long term test of buffer material at the Aespoe HRL, LOT project. Final report on the A0 test parcel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, Ola; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern; Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Jansson, Mats; Eriksen, Trygve E.; Svaerdstroem, Kjell (KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rosborg, Bo (Studsvik AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Rosborg Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Muurinen, Arto (VTT, Espoo (Finland))

    2011-02-15

    In the Swedish repository concept for nuclear waste (KBS-3 concept), the spent nuclear fuel will be stored in copper canisters surrounded by compacted bentonite. The decaying power of the fuel will increase the temperature in the repository which, in combination with the uptake of ground-water, could be expected to produce minor mineralogical changes in the bentonite. The ongoing LOT test series at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory are focused on identifying and quantifying any mineralogical alterations in the bentonite exposed to typical repository-like conditions. Further, buffer-related processes concerning copper corrosion, cation transport, and bacterial survival/activity are studied. In total, the LOT project includes seven test parcels, which contain a central Cu-tube surrounded by cylindrical bentonite blocks to a total diameter of 30 cm as well as temperature, total pressure, water pressure and humidity sensors. In each test parcel, an electrical heater placed inside the copper tube is used to simulate the heat generation from the decaying spent fuel. Three test parcels (S1 to S3) have been exposed to standard KBS-3 conditions (maximum temperature below 100 deg C) and three parcels (A1 to A3) to adverse conditions (maximum temperature below approx140 deg C). Both the standard and the adverse test series include short term tests (1 to 2 years), medium term tests (> 5 years) and long term tests (> 10 years). The present report concerns an additional short term test, thereby the designation A0, which was exposed to adverse conditions for approximately 1.5 years. Cu-coupons, 134Cs and 57Co tracers and specific chemical agents were placed in the bentonite at defined positions. After field exposure, the entire test parcel was released from the rock by overlapping percussion drilling and wire sawing. The parcel was lifted and divided at the test site and the bentonite material was sampled for specified analyses. The main aspects of the various tests and analyses

  15. Nuclear waste - where to go?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornsiepen, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The question of the final di9sposal of nuclear waste is a problem of international importance. The solution of the problem is of increasing urgency; the discussion is controversial and implies a lot of emotions. In Germany there is consensus that the nuclear wastes have to be disposed within the country in deep geological formations. This kind of final disposal is predominantly a geological problem and has to be solved from the geological point of view. The geologist Ulrich Dornsiepen presents the problems of the final disposal in an objective way without ideology and generally understandable. Such a presentation is necessary since the public information and participation is demanded but the open geological questions and their scientific solutions are never explained for the public. [de

  16. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  17. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs

  18. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  19. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  20. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals can still harm human health and the environment. When you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint thinner. U.S. residents ...

  2. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous types of waste are produced by the nuclear industry ranging from high-level radioactive and heat-generating, HLW, to very low-level, LLW and usually very bulky wastes. These may be in solid, liquid or gaseous phases and require different treatments. Waste management practices have evolved within commercial and environmental constraints resulting in considerable reduction in discharges. (UK)

  3. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  4. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr

  5. Use of Occupancy Sensors in LED Parking Lot and Garage Applications: Early Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael; Royer, Michael P.; Sullivan, Greg P.

    2012-11-07

    Occupancy sensor systems are gaining traction as an effective technological approach to reducing energy use in exterior commercial lighting applications. Done correctly, occupancy sensors can substantially enhance the savings from an already efficient lighting system. However, this technology is confronted by several potential challenges and pitfalls that can leave a significant amount of the prospective savings on the table. This report describes anecdotal experiences from field installations of occupancy sensor controlled light-emitting diode (LED) lighting at two parking structures and two parking lots. The relative levels of success at these installations reflect a marked range of potential outcomes: from an additional 76% in energy savings to virtually no additional savings. Several issues that influenced savings were encountered in these early stage installations and are detailed in the report. Ultimately, care must be taken in the design, selection, and commissioning of a sensor-controlled lighting installation, else the only guaranteed result may be its cost.

  6. Optimal pricing and lot-sizing decisions under Weibull distribution deterioration and trade credit policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problem of simultaneous determination of retail price and lot-size (RPLS under the assumption that the supplier offers a fixed credit period to the retailer. It is assumed that the item in stock deteriorates over time at a rate that follows a two-parameter Weibull distribution and that the price-dependent demand is represented by a constant-price-elasticity function of retail price. The RPLS decision model is developed and solved analytically. Results are illustrated with the help of a base example. Computational results show that the supplier earns more profits when the credit period is greater than the replenishment cycle length. Sensitivity analysis of the solution to changes in the value of input parameters of the base example is also discussed.

  7. Comparison of heuristics for an economic lot scheduling problem with deliberated coproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar I. Vidal-Carreras

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We built on the Economic Lot Scheduling Problem Scheduling (ELSP literature by making some modifications in order to introduce new constraints which had not been thoroughly studied with a view to simulating specific real situations. Specifically, our aim is to propose and simulate different scheduling policies for a new ELSP variant: Deliberated Coproduction. This problem comprises a product system in an ELSP environment in which we may choose if more than one product can be produced on the machine at a given time. We expressly consider the option of coproducing two products whose demand is not substitutable. In order to draw conclusions, a simulation model and its results were developed in the article by employing modified Bomberger data which include two items that could be produced simultaneously.

  8. Assessment of Seed Germination and Dormancy of Thirty Seeds Lots of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R Ehyaee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of medicinal plants due to ecological adaptation to environmental conditions have several types of dormancy. Hence, it's necessary to recognize ecological factors that affect dormancy and provide optimum conditions for germination in medicinal plant species. Thirty seed lots were used to estimate germination and dormancy of medicinal plants. Treatments were KNO3, (2% and scarification of seeds by sand paper, hypochlorite sodium and removing the seed coat with four replicates of 25 seeds. Maximum and minimum germination observed in H2O for Digitalis purpure 100% and Saponaria officinalis 0%. In KNO3 treatment, Portulaca oleracea had the highest germination of 91% and Hyocyamus niger had no any germinated seeds. In sand paper treatment, the Saponaria officinalis and Datura stramonium had maximum, 33% and minimum 0% germination respectively.

  9. New Mathematical Model and Algorithm for Economic Lot Scheduling Problem in Flexible Flow Shop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zohali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the lot sizing and scheduling problem for a number of products in flexible flow shop with identical parallel machines. The production stages are in series, while separated by finite intermediate buffers. The objective is to minimize the sum of setup and inventory holding costs per unit of time. The available mathematical model of this problem in the literature suffers from huge complexity in terms of size and computation. In this paper, a new mixed integer linear program is developed for delay with the huge dimentions of the problem. Also, a new meta heuristic algorithm is developed for the problem. The results of the numerical experiments represent a significant advantage of the proposed model and algorithm compared with the available models and algorithms in the literature.

  10. Tracking of Vehicle Movement on a Parking Lot Based on Video Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján HALGAŠ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with topic of transport vehicles identification for dynamic and static transport based on video detection. It explains some of the technologies and approaches necessary for processing of specific image information (transport situation. The paper also describes a design of algorithm for vehicle detection on parking lot and consecutive record of trajectory into virtual environment. It shows a new approach to moving object detection (vehicles, people, and handlers on an enclosed area with emphasis on secure parking. The created application enables automatic identification of trajectory of specific objects moving within the parking area. The application was created in program language C++ with using an open source library OpenCV.

  11. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis in Terego county, northern Uganda, 1996: a lot quality assurance sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutin, Yvan J F; Legros, Dominique; Owini, Vincent; Brown, Vincent; Lee, Evan; Mbulamberi, Dawson; Paquet, Christophe

    2004-04-01

    We estimated the pre-intervention prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg) trypanosomiasis using the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methods in 14 parishes of Terego County in northern Uganda. A total of 826 participants were included in the survey sample in 1996. The prevalence of laboratory confirmed Tbg trypanosomiasis adjusted for parish population sizes was 2.2% (95% confidence interval =1.1-3.2). This estimate was consistent with the 1.1% period prevalence calculated on the basis of cases identified through passive and active screening in 1996-1999. Ranking of parishes in four categories according to LQAS analysis of the 1996 survey predicted the prevalences observed during the first round of active screening in the population in 1997-1998 (P LQAS were validated by the results of the population screening, suggesting that these survey methods may be useful in the pre-intervention phase of sleeping sickness control programs.

  12. Lot quality assurance sampling for monitoring immunization programmes: cost-efficient or quick and dirty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, P

    1993-09-01

    In recent years Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS), a method derived from production-line industry, has been advocated as an efficient means to evaluate the coverage rates achieved by child immunization programmes. This paper examines the assumptions on which LQAS is based and the effect that these assumptions have on its utility as a management tool. It shows that the attractively low sample sizes used in LQAS are achieved at the expense of specificity unless unrealistic assumptions are made about the distribution of coverage rates amongst the immunization programmes to which the method is applied. Although it is a very sensitive test and its negative predictive value is probably high in most settings, its specificity and positive predictive value are likely to be low. The implications of these strengths and weaknesses with regard to management decision-making are discussed.

  13. Rapid assessment of antimicrobial resistance prevalence using a Lot Quality Assurance sampling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leth, Frank; den Heijer, Casper; Beerepoot, Mariëlle; Stobberingh, Ellen; Geerlings, Suzanne; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-04-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires rapid surveillance tools, such as Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS). LQAS classifies AMR as high or low based on set parameters. We compared classifications with the underlying true AMR prevalence using data on 1335 Escherichia coli isolates from surveys of community-acquired urinary tract infection in women, by assessing operating curves, sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of any set of LQAS parameters was above 99% and between 79 and 90%, respectively. Operating curves showed high concordance of the LQAS classification with true AMR prevalence estimates. LQAS-based AMR surveillance is a feasible approach that provides timely and locally relevant estimates, and the necessary information to formulate and evaluate guidelines for empirical treatment.

  14. Measurements of the Cosmic Radiation Doses at Board of Aircraft of Polish Airlines LOT. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.; Budzanowski, M.; Horwacik, T.; Marczewska, B.; Olko, P.

    2000-12-01

    Radiation doses received by a group of 30 pilots of the Polish Airlines LOT were investigated between July and October 2000. The measurement of the low-LET component of the cosmic radiation, lasting in average 2 months, was performed with 7 LiF:Mg,Ti and 7 L iF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent detectors. The neutron component was measured with the thermoluminescent albedo cassettes. Additionally for all flights, records of altitude profiles were kept and effective doses were then calculated with the CARI-6 computer code. In total, about 560 flights were included in the calculations. The highest obtained dose was about 0.8 mSv in 2 months. Results of calculations are mostly consistent with the results of measurements. (author)

  15. [Acceptance of lot sampling: its applicability to the evaluation of the primary care services portfolio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Picazo Ferrer, J

    2001-05-15

    To determine the applicability of the acceptance of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) in the primary care service portfolio, comparing its results with those given by classic evaluation. Compliance with the minimum technical norms (MTN) of the service of diabetic care was evaluated through the classic methodology (confidence 95%, accuracy 5%, representativeness of area, sample of 376 histories) and by LQAS (confidence 95%, power 80%, representativeness of primary care team (PCT), defining a lot by MTN and PCT, sample of 13 histories/PCT). Effort, information obtained and its operative nature were assessed. 44 PCTs from Murcia Primary Care Region. Classic methodology: compliance with MTN ranged between 91.1% (diagnosis, 95% CI, 84.2-94.0) and 30% (repercussion in viscera, 95% CI, 25.4-34.6). Objectives in three MTN were reached (diagnosis, history and EKG). LQAS: no MTN was accepted in all the PCTs, being the most accepted (42 PCT, 95.6%) and the least accepted (24 PCT, 55.6%). In 9 PCT all were accepted (20.4%), and in 2 none were accepted (4.5%). Data were analysed through Pareto charts. Classic methodology offered accurate results, but did not identify which centres were those that did not comply (general focus). LQAS was preferable for evaluating MTN and probably coverage because: 1) it uses small samples, which foment internal quality-improvement initiatives; 2) it is easy and rapid to execute; 3) it identifies the PCT and criteria where there is an opportunity for improvement (specific focus), and 4) it can be used operatively for monitoring.

  16. Storm water runoff for the Y-12 Plant and selected parking lots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.T.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of storm water runoff from the Y-12 Plant and selected employee vehicle parking lots to various industry data is provided in this document. This work is an outgrowth of and part of the continuing Non-Point Source Pollution Elimination Project that was initiated in the late 1980s. This project seeks to identify area pollution sources and remediate these areas through the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) process as managed by the Environmental Restoration Organization staff. This work is also driven by the Clean Water Act Section 402(p) which, in part, deals with establishing a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for storm water discharges. Storm water data from events occurring in 1988 through 1991 were analyzed in two reports: Feasibility Study for the Best Management Practices to Control Area Source Pollution Derived from Parking Lots at the DOE Y-12 Plant, September 1992, and Feasibility Study of Best Management Practices for Non-Point Source Pollution Control at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, February 1993. These data consisted of analysis of outfalls discharging to upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the confines of the Y-12 Plant (see Appendixes D and E). These reports identified the major characteristics of concern as copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nitrate (as nitrogen), zinc, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), fecal coliform, and aluminum. Specific sources of these contaminants were not identifiable because flows upstream of outfalls were not sampled. In general, many of these contaminants were a concern in many outfalls. Therefore, separate sampling exercises were executed to assist in identifying (or eliminating) specific suspected sources as areas of concern

  17. Electronic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    E-waste amount is growing at about 4% annually, and has become the fastest growing waste stream in the industrialized world. Over 50 million tons of e-waste are produced globally each year, and some of them end up in landfills causing danger of toxic chemicals leakage over time. E-waste is also sent to developing countries where informal processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) causes serious health and pollution problems. A huge interest in recovery of valuable metals from WEEE is clearly visible in a great number of scientific, popular scientific publications or government and industrial reports.

  18. Biogas from organically high polluted industrial waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, H

    1985-06-01

    Organically high polluted waste water sets special claims for an economical purification and the process treatment. Up to now these waste waters are being purified by anaerobic processes with simultaneous biogas generation. The fourstep anaerobic degradation is influenced by a lot of important parameters. Extensive researchers in the field of anaerobic microbiology has improved the knowledge of the fundamental principles. Parallel the reactor technology is developed worldwide. In general it seems that the fixed-film-reactor with immobilized bacteria has the best future to purify organically high polluted industrial waste water with short retention times under stable operation conditions.

  19. Hazardous and mixed waste management at UMTRA sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampill, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    During the early stages of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, there were some serious questions regarding the ownership of and consequently the responsibility for disposal of hazardous wastes at UMTRA sites. In addition to State and Indian Tribe waste disposal regulations, UMTRA must also conform to guidelines established by the NRC, OSHA, EPA, and DOT. Because of the differing regulatory thrusts of these agencies, UMTRA has to be vigilant in order to ensure that the disposal of each parcel of waste material is in compliance with all regulations. Mixed-waste disposal presents a particularly difficult problem. No single agency is willing to lay claim to the regulation of mixed-wastes, and no conventional waste disposal facility is willing to accept it. Consequently, the disposal of each lot of mixed-waste at UMTRA sites must be handled on a case by case basis. A recently published position paper which spells out UMTRA policy on waste materials indicates that wastes found at UMTRA sites are either residual radioactive wastes, or mixed-wastes, or for the disposal of hazardous waste is determined by the time the original material arrived. If it arrived prior to the termination of the AEC uranium supply contract, its disposal is the responsibility of UMTRA. If it arrived after the end of the contract, the responsibility for disposal lies with the former operator

  20. Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    the subject property is for the purpose of adding a parking lot to serve the increase in customer vehicles that is occurring as the 9940 Main Complex is more heavily utilized, and as the 2009 Expansion areas come online as operational training facilities. The subject property would be used only for parking, not for testing or training activities. The parking lot would have a gravel surface. Current and future work at the 9940 Main Complex involves arming, fuzing, and firing of explosives and the testing of explosive systems components in both terrestrial and aquatic settings. It also involves specialized training activities for a variety of first responder customers, both DOE and non-DOE agencies. The approach was to perform a document search, supplemented by a visual site inspection, to identify potential environmental contamination associated with the property. Factors evaluated included hazardous substances; petroleum products and derivatives; environmental restoration sites; areas of concern; storage tanks; oil/water separators; grease traps; wash racks; waste tanks; pesticides; military munitions/ordnance; medical or bio-hazardous waste; radioactive waste; solid/municipal waste; indoor air quality; groundwater; wastewater treatment, collection, and disposal/discharge; drinking water quality; utilities; asbestos; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); radon; lead-based paint; cultural resources; floodplains; and natural/biological resources. Each of these factors is evaluated separately in Section 5, Findings for Subject Property. The property categorization for this subject property would be considered Category 1- “An area or real property where no storage, release, or disposal of hazardous substances or petroleum products or their derivatives has occurred into the environment or structures or disposed on the subject property (including no migration of these substances from adjacent properties).” There appears to be sufficient information to categorize the subject

  1. LOT Project long term test of buffer material at the Aespoe HRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnland, O.; Olsson, S.; Dueck, A.; Birgersson, M.; Nilsson, U.; Hernan-Haakansson, T.; Pedersen, K.; Eriksson, S.; Eriksen, T.; Eriksson, S.; Rosborg, B.; Muurinen, A.; Rousset, D.; Mosser-Ruck, R.; Cathelineau, M.; Villieras, F.; Pelletier, M.; Kaufold, S.; Dohrmann, R.; Fernandez, R.; Maeder, U.; Koroleva, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonite clay has been proposed as buffer material in several concepts for HLW repositories. The decaying spent fuel in the HLW canisters will increase temperature of the bentonite buffer. A number of laboratory test series, made by different research groups, have resulted in various bentonite alteration models. According to these models no significant alteration of the buffer is expected to take place at the prevailing physico-chemical conditions in the proposed Swedish KBS-3 repository, neither during, nor after water saturation. The ongoing LOT test series is focused on quantifying the mineralogical alteration in the buffer in a repository like environment at the Aespoe HRL. Further, buffer related processes concerning bacterial survival/activity, cation transport, and copper corrosion are studied. In total, the LOT test series includes seven test parcels, of which three are exposed to standard KBS-3 conditions and four test parcels are exposed to adverse conditions. Each test parcel contains a central Cu-tube surrounded by bentonite cylinder rings with a diameter of 30 cm, additional test material (Cu coupons, 60 Co tracers, bacteria etc) and instruments. Electrical heaters were place within the copper tube in order to simulate effect of decaying power from the spent fuel. The entire test parcels were released from the rock after the field exposure by overlapping boring and the bentonite material was analyzed with respect to: - physical properties (water content, density, swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity, rheology); - mineralogical alteration in the bentonite; - distribution of added substances (e.g diffusional transport of 60 Co); - copper corrosion; - bacterial survival/activity. Two one year tests were started in 1996 and terminated in 1998. The results from tests and analyses are presented in SKB TR-00-22. The remaining four test parcels were installed during the fall 1999 plus one additional one

  2. Waste -92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekwall, K.

    1992-11-01

    The report gives a review of waste incineration in Sweden today, including environmental and legal aspects. 21 incinerator plants are in use, producing heat to district heating network and, to a minor part, electric power. In 1991 1.31 Mton household waste and 0.35 Mton industrial waste were incinerated producing 4.4 Twh of energy. In a few cities 30-40 percent of the district heat comes from waste incineration. The theoretical and practical potentials for energy production in Sweden are estimated to 7 respective 5 TWh for household waste and 9 respective 5-6 TWh for industrial waste. Landfill gas is extracted at about 35 sites, with a yearly production of 0.3 TWh which corresponds to 3-5 percent of the potentially recoverable quantity. (8 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.)

  3. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...

  4. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste

  5. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  6. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  7. Wasting away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzman, L.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of radioactive waste disposal are discussed, with particular reference to the following: radiation hazards from uranium mill tailings; disposal and storage of high-level wastes from spent fuel elements and reprocessing; low-level wastes; decommissioning of aged reactors; underground disposal, such as in salt formations; migration of radioactive isotopes, for example into ground water supplies or into the human food chain. (U.K.)

  8. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  9. Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2006-01-01

    The Productivity Commission’s inquiry report into ‘Waste Management’ was tabled by Government in December 2006. The Australian Government asked the Commission to identify policies that would enable Australia to address market failures and externalities associated with the generation and disposal of waste, and recommend how resource efficiencies can be optimised to improve economic, environmental and social outcomes. In the final report, the Commission maintains that waste management policy sh...

  10. A multi-phase algorithm for a joint lot-sizing and pricing problem with stochastic demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenny Li, Hongyan; Thorstenson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    to a practically viable approach to decision-making. In addition to incorporating market uncertainty and pricing decisions in the traditional production and inventory planning process, our approach also accommodates the complexity of time-varying cost and capacity constraints. Finally, our numerical results show......Stochastic lot-sizing problems have been addressed quite extensively, but relatively few studies also consider marketing factors, such as pricing. In this paper, we address a joint stochastic lot-sizing and pricing problem with capacity constraints and backlogging for a firm that produces a single...... that the multi-phase heuristic algorithm solves the example problems effectively....

  11. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Shafique; Reeho Kim; Kwon Kyung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale...

  12. Polyurethane Production from Waste Bale Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim BİLİCİ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the methods of eliminating the pollution from wastes of the materials produced as much as the production methods are important. This requires efficiently use of sources economical and ecologically. Polyester based polymers, which is one of the most important consumed plastic materials in the world, have lots of number of recycling methods. Basically it is called chemical and physical recycling. Chemical recycle methods include glycolysis, aminolysis, methanolysis, hydrolysis and etc.. In this study aromatic polyester polyols produced from bale fiber wastes via glycolysis method. Zinc Acetate used as a catalysts and diethylene glycol used for the glycolysis reaction and moiety of glycol investigated as an experimental parameter. Polyurethane material produced via obtained polyol and TDI (Toluene di Isocyanate reaction. Obtained polyurethane material investigated via FTIR and TGA and compared with the commercial polyurethane. As a result, it has been decided that glycolysis is usable and applicable method for the waste bale fibers.

  13. Standard practice for sampling special nuclear materials in multi-container lots

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides an aid in designing a sampling and analysis plan for the purpose of minimizing random error in the measurement of the amount of nuclear material in a lot consisting of several containers. The problem addressed is the selection of the number of containers to be sampled, the number of samples to be taken from each sampled container, and the number of aliquot analyses to be performed on each sample. 1.2 This practice provides examples for application as well as the necessary development for understanding the statistics involved. The uniqueness of most situations does not allow presentation of step-by-step procedures for designing sampling plans. It is recommended that a statistician experienced in materials sampling be consulted when developing such plans. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standar...

  14. A joint economic lot-sizing problem with fuzzy demand, defective items and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, W. A.; Laksono, P. W.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a joint economic lot-sizing problem consisting of a vendor and a buyer was proposed. A buyer ordered products from a vendor to fulfill end customer’s demand. A produced a batch of products, and delivered it to the buyer. The production process in the vendor was imperfect and produced a number of defective products. Production rate was assumed to be adjustable to control the output of vendor’s production. A continuous review policy was adopted by the buyer to manage his inventory level. In addition, an average annual demand was considered to be fuzzy rather than constant. The proposed model contributed to the current inventory literature by allowing the inclusion of fuzzy annual demand, imperfect production emission cost, and adjustable production rate. The proposed model also considered carbon emission cost which was resulted from the transportation activity. A mathematical model was developed for obtaining the optimal ordering quantity, safety factor and the number of deliveries so the joint total cost was minimized. Furthermore, an iterative procedure was suggested to determine the optimal solutions.

  15. Sampling and analysis plan for the former Atomic Energy Commission bus lot property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities proposed in support of an initial investigation of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) bus lot property currently owned by Battelle Memorial Institute. The purpose of the proposed sampling and analysis activity is to investigate the potential for contamination above established action levels. The SAP will provide defensible data of sufficient quality and quantity to support recommendations of whether any further action within the study area is warranted. To assist in preparing sampling plans and reports, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) has published Guidance on Sampling and Data Analysis Methods. To specifically address sampling plans for petroleum-contaminated sites, Ecology has also published Guidance for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites. Both documents were used as guidance in preparing this plan. In 1992, a soil sample was taken within the current study area as part of a project to remove two underground storage tanks (USTs) at Battelle's Sixth Street Warehouse Petroleum Dispensing Station (Section 1.3). The results showed that the sample contained elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the heavy distillate range. This current study was initiated in part as a result of that discovery. The following topics are considered: the historical background of the site, current site conditions, previous investigations performed at the site, an evaluation based on the available data, and the contaminants of potential concern (COPC)

  16. Use of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to Ascertain Levels of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jezmir

    Full Text Available To classify the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in two different geographic settings in western Kenya using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS methodology.The prevalence of drug resistance was classified among treatment-naïve smear positive TB patients in two settings, one rural and one urban. These regions were classified as having high or low prevalence of MDR-TB according to a static, two-way LQAS sampling plan selected to classify high resistance regions at greater than 5% resistance and low resistance regions at less than 1% resistance.This study classified both the urban and rural settings as having low levels of TB drug resistance. Out of the 105 patients screened in each setting, two patients were diagnosed with MDR-TB in the urban setting and one patient was diagnosed with MDR-TB in the rural setting. An additional 27 patients were diagnosed with a variety of mono- and poly- resistant strains.Further drug resistance surveillance using LQAS may help identify the levels and geographical distribution of drug resistance in Kenya and may have applications in other countries in the African Region facing similar resource constraints.

  17. Effect of some parameters in the response of the Perspex 3042, Lot L amber dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto M, E.F.; Barrera G, G.

    2004-01-01

    The answer of the dosimetric systems is affected by several factors, for what should know as these factors they influence in each one of the different dosimetric systems and by this way to minimize its effect in the value of the absorbed dose and to obtain exact dose values. One of the dosimetric systems more used in the high dose dosimetry like routine dosemeter for the control of the irradiation process are the Perspex dosemeters, for their speed in the obtaining the information, their easy manipulation and the precision that they present. To this dosemeters group they belong the same as the Red and Clear the Amber, which are adequate for the measurement of the radiation dose in the range of high doses. The objective of the present work is to obtain the calibration curves of the dosemeters Amber Perspex 3042, Lot L under our work conditions, like they are the irradiation temperatures and of storage and to know the influence of the rate dose in the value of the absorbed dose for different measurement wavelengths, as well as, the relationship among the one post-irradiation time and the specific absorbance value induced in function of the absorbed dose. (Author)

  18. Stochastic Lot-Sizing under Carbon Emission Control for Profit Optimisation in MTO Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggravating global warming has heightened the imminent need by the world to step up forceful efforts on curbing emission of greenhouse gases. Although manufacturing is a major resource of carbon emission, few research works have studied the impacts of carbon constraints on manufacturing, leading to environmentally unsustainable production strategies and operations. This paper incorporates carbon emission management into production planning for make-to-order (MTO manufacturing. This paper proposes a model that solves lot-sizing problems to maximise profits under carbon emission caps. The model adopts stochastic interarrival times for customer orders to enhance the practicality of the results for real-world manufacturing. Numerical experiments show that reducing carbon emission undercuts short-term profits of a company. However, it is conducive to the company’s market image as being socially responsible which would attract more customers who concern about environmental protection. Hence, reducing carbon emission in manufacturing is beneficial to long-term profitability and sustainability. The results provide managerial insights into manufacture operations for balancing profitability and carbon control.

  19. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based Automobile License Plate Recognition System for Institutional Parking Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Dasilva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, also known as drones have many applications and they are a current trend across many industries. They can be used for delivery, sports, surveillance, professional photography, cinematography, military combat, natural disaster assistance, security, and the list grows every day. Programming opens an avenue to automate many processes of daily life and with the drone as aerial programmable eyes, security and surveillance can become more efficient and cost effective. At Barry University, parking is becoming an issue as the number of people visiting the school greatly outnumbers the convenient parking locations. This has caused a multitude of hazards in parking lots due to people illegally parking, as well as unregistered vehicles parking in reserved areas. In this paper, we explain how automated drone surveillance is utilized to detect unauthorized parking at Barry University. The automated process is incorporated into Java application and completed in three steps: collecting visual data, processing data automatically, and sending automated responses and queues to the operator of the system.

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for the former Atomic Energy Commission bus lot property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities proposed in support of an initial investigation of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) bus lot property currently owned by Battelle Memorial Institute. The purpose of the proposed sampling and analysis activity is to investigate the potential for contamination above established action levels. The SAP will provide defensible data of sufficient quality and quantity to support recommendations of whether any further action within the study area is warranted. To assist in preparing sampling plans and reports, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) has published Guidance on Sampling and Data Analysis Methods. To specifically address sampling plans for petroleum-contaminated sites, Ecology has also published Guidance for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites. Both documents were used as guidance in preparing this plan. In 1992, a soil sample was taken within the current study area as part of a project to remove two underground storage tanks (USTs) at Battelle`s Sixth Street Warehouse Petroleum Dispensing Station (Section 1.3). The results showed that the sample contained elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the heavy distillate range. This current study was initiated in part as a result of that discovery. The following topics are considered: the historical background of the site, current site conditions, previous investigations performed at the site, an evaluation based on the available data, and the contaminants of potential concern (COPC).

  1. International reactions after the resumption of nuclear tests: lot of noise for nothing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesquieu, E. de

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, the French President announced that France would perform an ultimate campaign of nuclear tests before a complete banishment as soon as spring 1996. The campaign effectively ended on time and six tests took place between September 5, 1995 and January 27, 1996. The disarmament process went on and the international negotiations in progress at that time were not affected by the French policy. However, this campaign has caused a strong emotion, if not in the entire World, at least in part of the planet and in particular in Western Europe. This report analyses the reactions from the different governments and from the public opinion and shows their impact on the French diplomacy. Content: Part 1 - general considerations: 1 - lot of noise for nothing?: the objectives of French diplomacy; the acts (a quasi lack of sanctions, a temporary degradation of our relations with a limited number of countries); the rhetoric (diplomatic regrets in first time, slip-ups in the second time, the public opinion weight); 2 - the lessons learnt: the opinion and the management of the foreign policy (the image of France, the communication fight); the geopolitical lessons (European Union: community solidarity and European defense; the South Pacific area); 3 - a case study: Japan: the time of uncertainties (domestic situation, external policy); the Japanese reactions after the tests resumption. Part 2 - synthesis of reactions after the resumption of nuclear tests by France: Pacific bordering countries (South Pacific, Latin America); Western Europe countries; non-European countries; Conclusions

  2. Capacity Analysis Of Parking Lot And Volume Of Vehicle Toward Sustainable Parking Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sugiyanto; Guntur Octavianto, Andrew; Guntur Aritonang, Edison; Nova Imaduddin, Malya; Dedi; Rilaningrum, Magfira

    2017-10-01

    The development of human's population is having effect on the increase of facilities and transportation needs. One of the primary problems is the availability of parking area. This has occurred in Universitas Indonesia (UI), mainly in Salemba Campus. The availability of land is not as equal as the number of vehicles, which are to be parked, that is why the convenience of students, lecturers and employees at UI is unsatisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to know the level of parking convenience that is affected by the capacity of parking lots and the volume of vehicles in UI Salemba Campus. The results of this research indicate Salemba campus's parking index. The motor index is still in the category of medium (index 0.945) and the car parking index has less category with a parking index 0.485. While with the location of research object being behind the UI Salemba campus, the results obtained were both the motor and the car are still in the category of “enough” with the parking index of, that is 0.657 for the motor and 0.777 for the car. So theoretically, the parking management at Salemba Campus is in an unsustainable parking degree because, if there is no long-term solution, it will increase congestion in the surrounding area and intensify the dissatisfaction of existing parking users.

  3. Choosing a Cluster Sampling Design for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Hund

    Full Text Available Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS surveys are commonly used for monitoring and evaluation in resource-limited settings. Recently several methods have been proposed to combine LQAS with cluster sampling for more timely and cost-effective data collection. For some of these methods, the standard binomial model can be used for constructing decision rules as the clustering can be ignored. For other designs, considered here, clustering is accommodated in the design phase. In this paper, we compare these latter cluster LQAS methodologies and provide recommendations for choosing a cluster LQAS design. We compare technical differences in the three methods and determine situations in which the choice of method results in a substantively different design. We consider two different aspects of the methods: the distributional assumptions and the clustering parameterization. Further, we provide software tools for implementing each method and clarify misconceptions about these designs in the literature. We illustrate the differences in these methods using vaccination and nutrition cluster LQAS surveys as example designs. The cluster methods are not sensitive to the distributional assumptions but can result in substantially different designs (sample sizes depending on the clustering parameterization. However, none of the clustering parameterizations used in the existing methods appears to be consistent with the observed data, and, consequently, choice between the cluster LQAS methods is not straightforward. Further research should attempt to characterize clustering patterns in specific applications and provide suggestions for best-practice cluster LQAS designs on a setting-specific basis.

  4. Use of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to Ascertain Levels of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezmir, Julia; Cohen, Ted; Zignol, Matteo; Nyakan, Edwin; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Gardner, Adrian; Kamle, Lydia; Injera, Wilfred; Carter, E Jane

    2016-01-01

    To classify the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in two different geographic settings in western Kenya using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) methodology. The prevalence of drug resistance was classified among treatment-naïve smear positive TB patients in two settings, one rural and one urban. These regions were classified as having high or low prevalence of MDR-TB according to a static, two-way LQAS sampling plan selected to classify high resistance regions at greater than 5% resistance and low resistance regions at less than 1% resistance. This study classified both the urban and rural settings as having low levels of TB drug resistance. Out of the 105 patients screened in each setting, two patients were diagnosed with MDR-TB in the urban setting and one patient was diagnosed with MDR-TB in the rural setting. An additional 27 patients were diagnosed with a variety of mono- and poly- resistant strains. Further drug resistance surveillance using LQAS may help identify the levels and geographical distribution of drug resistance in Kenya and may have applications in other countries in the African Region facing similar resource constraints.

  5. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) for monitoring leprosy elimination in an endemic district in Tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, B N; Subbiah, M; Boopathi, K; Ramakrishnan, R; Gupte, M D

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines whether the health administration can use lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) for identifying high prevalence areas for leprosy for initiating necessary corrective measures. The null hypothesis was that leprosy prevalence in the district was at or above ten per 10,000 and the alternative hypothesis was that it was at or below five per 10,000. A total of 25,500 individuals were to be examined with 17 as an acceptable maximum number of cases (critical value). Two-stage cluster sample design was adopted. The sample size need not be escalated as the estimated design effect was 1. During the first phase, the survey covered a population of 4,837 individuals out of whom 4,329 (89.5%) were examined. Thirty-five cases were detected and this number far exceeded the critical value. It was concluded that leprosy prevalence in the district should be regarded as having prevalence of more than ten per 10,000 and further examination of the population in the sample was discontinued. LQAS may be used as a tool by which one can identify high prevalence districts and target them for necessary strengthening of the programme. It may also be considered for certifying elimination achievement for a given area.

  6. Lot quality assurance sampling for screening communities hyperendemic for Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabarijaona, L P; Boisier, P; Ravaoalimalala, V E; Jeanne, I; Roux, J F; Jutand, M A; Salamon, R

    2003-04-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) was evaluated for rapid low cost identification of communities where Schistosoma mansoni infection was hyperendemic in southern Madagascar. In the study area, S. mansoni infection shows very focused and heterogeneous distribution requiring multifariousness of local surveys. One sampling plan was tested in the field with schoolchildren and several others were simulated in the laboratory. Randomization and stool specimen collection were performed by voluntary teachers under direct supervision of the study staff and no significant problem occurred. As expected from Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, all sampling plans allowed correct identification of hyperendemic communities and of most of the hypoendemic ones. Frequent misclassifications occurred for communities with intermediate prevalence and the cheapest plans had very low specificity. The study confirmed that LQAS would be a valuable tool for large scale screening in a country with scarce financial and staff resources. Involving teachers, appeared to be quite feasible and should not lower the reliability of surveys. We recommend that the national schistosomiasis control programme systematically uses LQAS for identification of communities, provided that sample sizes are adapted to the specific epidemiological patterns of S. mansoni infection in the main regions.

  7. Choosing a Cluster Sampling Design for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Bedrick, Edward J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys are commonly used for monitoring and evaluation in resource-limited settings. Recently several methods have been proposed to combine LQAS with cluster sampling for more timely and cost-effective data collection. For some of these methods, the standard binomial model can be used for constructing decision rules as the clustering can be ignored. For other designs, considered here, clustering is accommodated in the design phase. In this paper, we compare these latter cluster LQAS methodologies and provide recommendations for choosing a cluster LQAS design. We compare technical differences in the three methods and determine situations in which the choice of method results in a substantively different design. We consider two different aspects of the methods: the distributional assumptions and the clustering parameterization. Further, we provide software tools for implementing each method and clarify misconceptions about these designs in the literature. We illustrate the differences in these methods using vaccination and nutrition cluster LQAS surveys as example designs. The cluster methods are not sensitive to the distributional assumptions but can result in substantially different designs (sample sizes) depending on the clustering parameterization. However, none of the clustering parameterizations used in the existing methods appears to be consistent with the observed data, and, consequently, choice between the cluster LQAS methods is not straightforward. Further research should attempt to characterize clustering patterns in specific applications and provide suggestions for best-practice cluster LQAS designs on a setting-specific basis.

  8. Use of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) to estimate vaccination coverage helps guide future vaccination efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, K P; Guthmann, J P; Fermon, F; Nargaye, K D; Grais, R F

    2008-03-01

    Inadequate evaluation of vaccine coverage after mass vaccination campaigns, such as used in national measles control programmes, can lead to inappropriate public health responses. Overestimation of vaccination coverage may leave populations at risk, whilst underestimation can lead to unnecessary catch-up campaigns. The problem is more complex in large urban areas where vaccination coverage may be heterogeneous and the programme may have to be fine-tuned at the level of geographic subunits. Lack of accurate population figures in many contexts further complicates accurate vaccination coverage estimates. During the evaluation of a mass vaccination campaign carried out in N'Djamena, the capital of Chad, Lot Quality Assurance Sampling was used to estimate vaccination coverage. Using this method, vaccination coverage could be evaluated within smaller geographic areas of the city as well as for the entire city. Despite the lack of accurate population data by neighbourhood, the results of the survey showed heterogeneity of vaccination coverage within the city. These differences would not have been identified using a more traditional method. The results can be used to target areas of low vaccination coverage during follow-up vaccination activities.

  9. Mineralogy of the A2 test parcel bentonite lot project at Aespoe HRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Siv; Karnland, Ola

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The ongoing LOT test series at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden is focused on quantifying the mineralogical alteration in the buffer in a repository-like environment. The LOT A2 test parcel was exposed to temperatures up to 130 deg. C for almost 6 years. The parcel was retrieved in 2006 and the bentonite has thereafter been analyzed and tested. The chemical and mineralogical characteristics of bentonite from defined positions in the parcel were compared with reference materials. The aim of the study was to elucidate how the bentonite has altered. The present study concern two bentonite blocks from the hottest section and one block from the cool section of the test parcel. The entire volume of the two warm blocks 09 and 11 was exposed to temperatures > 80 deg. C, and the innermost 4 centimeters to temperatures exceeding 100 deg. C. Block no. 33 was never exposed to temperatures exceeding 30 deg. C, apart from the innermost centimeter. The blocks were sampled contiguously at five positions along the radius from the warm copper tube to the rock. Both the bulk material and the clay fraction of the bentonite samples have been analyzed. The chemical composition of the reference and the parcel bentonite was determined by ICP emission spectrometry (AES) and ICP mass spectrometry (MS). Total carbon and sulfur were determined by evolved gas analysis (EGA). Carbonate carbon was determined as CO 2 evolved on treatment with hot 15% HCl. Prior to the chemical analysis of the clay fractions, carbonates were removed by treatment with an acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer with pH 5. The purified clay was thereafter converted to homo-ionic Na-clay by repeated washings with 1 M NaCl solution and excess salts were removed by repeated centrifuge-washing with water followed by dialysis. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bulk materials and of clay fractions was determined by exchange with copper-(II)- triethylene

  10. Integrated scheduling of renewable generation and electric vehicles parking lot in a smart microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honarmand, Masoud; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated operation of renewable generation and electric vehicles is presented. • The capability of electric vehicles in providing reserve has been analyzed. • A new electric vehicles charging/discharging management system is proposed. • The technical features of electric vehicle’s batteries are considered. - Abstract: Integration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) into the electric power system may bring up many technical issues. The power system may put at risk the security and reliability of operation due to intermittent nature of renewable generation and uncontrolled charging/discharging procedure of EVs. In this paper, an energy resources management model for a microgrid (MG) is proposed. The proposed method considers practical constraints, renewable power forecasting errors, spinning reserve requirements and EVs owner satisfaction. A case study with a typical MG including 200 EVs is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed energy resource scheduling method satisfies financial and technical goals of parking lot as well as the security and economic issues of MG. Moreover, EV owners could earn profit by discharging their vehicles’ batteries or providing the reserve capacity and finally have desired State Of Charge (SOC) in the departure time

  11. The Assessment of Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Generated From The Fuel Reprocessing Plant Using Chemical Coagulation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuncoro Arief, H; M Birmano, Dj

    1998-01-01

    Reprocessing of nuclear spent fuel produced 8 lot of radioactive liquid waste still bearing uranium and transuranium. The assessment of the radioactive liquid waste treatment with FeCI 3 as coagulant has been done. Decontamination factor and separation efficiency can be calculated from known activities of initial and post-treatment wastes. It can be concluded that some factors i.e. pH of treatment process, quantity of coagulant, mixing rate, and mixing time have influenced the treatment product

  12. Recycling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P I.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is being realized that if environmental quality is to be improved the amount of waste generated by man has to be substantially reduced. There are two ways this can be achieved. First, by conserving materials and energy, and sacrificing economic growth, a solution that is completely unacceptable because it would mean some form of rationing, mass unemployment, and collapse of society as it is known. The second way to reduce the volume of waste is by planned recycling, re-use, and recovery. Already the reclamation industry recovers, processes, and turns back for re-use many products used by industry and thereby reduces the UK's import bill for raw materials. In the book, the author sets out the various ways materials may be recovered from industrial and municipal wastes. The broad technology of waste management is covered and attention is focused on man's new resources lying buried in the mountains of industrial wastes, the emissions from stocks, the effluents and sludges that turn rivers into open sewers, and municipal dumps in seventeen chapters. The final chapter lists terms and concepts used in waste technology, organizations concerned with waste management, and sources of information about recycling waste. (MCW)

  13. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soule, H.F.

    1975-01-01

    Current planning for the management of radioactive wastes, with some emphasis on plutonium contaminated wastes, includes the provision of re-positories from which the waste can be safely removed to permanent disposal. A number of possibilities for permanent disposal are under investigation with the most favorable, at the present time, apparently disposal in a stable geological formation. However, final choice cannot be made until all studies are completed and a pilot phase demonstrates the adequacy of the chosen method. The radioactive wastes which result from all portions of the fuel cycle could comprise an important source of exposure to the public if permitted to do so. The objectives of the AEC waste management program are to provide methods of treating, handling and storing these wastes so that this exposure will not occur. This paper is intended to describe some of the problems and current progress of waste management programs, with emphasis on plutonium-contaminated wastes. Since the technology in this field is advancing at a rapid pace, the descriptions given can be regarded only as a snapshot at one point in time. (author)

  14. Sawmill "Waste"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred C. Simmons; Adna R. Bond

    1955-01-01

    Sawmills have the reputation of being very wasteful in converting logs and bolts into lumber and timbers. Almost everyone has seen the great heaps of sawdust and slabs that collect at sawmills. Frequently the question is asked, "Why doesn't somebody do something about this terrible waste of wood?"

  15. Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; B-Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  16. Treatment of Decommissioning Combustible Wastes with Incineration Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y. Min; Yang, D. S.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The aim of the paper is current status of management for the decommissioning radioactive combustible and metal waste in KAERI. In Korea, two decommissioning projects were carried out for nuclear research facilities (KRR-1 and KRR-2) and a uranium conversion plant (UCP). Through the two decommissioning projects, lots of decommissioning wastes were generated. Decommissioning waste can be divided into radioactive waste and releasable waste. The negative pressure of the incineration chamber remained constant within the specified range. Off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measures gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits. The achieved average volume reduction ratio during facility operation is about 1/65.

  17. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  18. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  19. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pligt, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    This chapter present a brief overview of the current situation of siting radioactive wastes. This is followed by an overview of various psychological approaches attempting to analyse public reactions to nuclear facilities. It will be argued that public reactions to nuclear waste factilities must be seen in the context of more general attitudes toward nuclear energy. The latter are not only based upon perceptions of the health and environmental risks but are built on values, and sets of attributes which need not be similar to the representations o the experts and policy-makers. The issue of siting nuclear waste facilities is also embedded in a wider moral and political domain. This is illustrated by the importance of equity issues in siting radioactive wastes. In the last section, the implications of the present line of argument for risk communication and public participation in decisions about siting radioactive wastes will be briefly discussed. (author). 49 refs

  20. Hydrologic and Pollutant Removal Performance of a Full-Scale, Fully Functional Permeable Pavement Parking Lot - paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    To meet the need for long-term, full-scale, replicated studies of permeable pavement systems used in their intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes to evaluate these systems, the EPA’s Urb...

  1. Note on "An efficient approach for solving the lot-sizing problem with time-varying storage capacities"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. van den Heuvel; J.M. Gutierrez (Jose Miguel); H.C. Hwang (Hark-Chin)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn a recent paper Gutiérrez et al. (2008) show that the lot-sizing problem with inventory bounds can be solved in O(T log T) time. In this note we show that their algorithm does not lead to an optimal solution in general.

  2. Note on "An efficient approach for solving the lot-sizing problem with time-varying storage capacities"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van den Heuvel (Wilco); J.M. Gutierrez (Jose Miguel); H.C. Hwang (Hark-Chin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn a recent paper Gutierrez et al. (2008) show that the lot-sizing problem with inventory bounds can be solved in O(T log T) time. In this note we show that their algorithm does not lead to an optimal solution in general.

  3. Detection and genetic identification of pestiviruses in Brazilian lots of fetal bovine serum collected from 2006 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle L. Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study performed a genetic identification of pestiviruses contaminating batches of fetal bovine serum (FBS produced in Brazil from 2006 to 2014. Seventy-three FBS lots were screened by a RT-PCR targeting the 5’untranslated region (UTR of the pestivirus genome. Thirty-nine lots (53.4% were positive for pestivirus RNA and one contained infectious virus. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5’UTR revealed 34 lots (46.6% containing RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1, being 23 BVDV-1a (5’ UTR identity 90.8-98.7%, eight BVDV-1b (93.9-96.7% and three BVDV-1d (96.2- 97.6%. Six lots (8.2% contained BVDV-2 (90.3-100% UTR identity being two BVDV-2a; three BVDV-2b and one undetermined. Four FBS batches (5.5% were found contaminated with HoBi-like virus (98.3 to 100%. Five batches (6.8% contained more than one pestivirus. The high frequency of contamination of FBS with pestivirus RNA reinforce the need for systematic and updated guidelines for monitoring this product to reduce the risk of contamination of biologicals and introduction of contaminating agents into free areas.

  4. TERRITORIALISATION DU RISQUE SANITAIRE : : Les "immeubles tuberculeux" de l' îlot insalubre Saint Gervais(1894-1930)

    OpenAIRE

    Fijalkow , Yankel

    1996-01-01

    International audience; Etude statistique sur la réalité de la dynamique de contagion tuberculeuse dans l'îlot insalubre n° 16 de Paris. Conjonction des données statistiques avec les volontés politiques de la municipalité parisienne avant 1945.

  5. An efficient computational method for a stochastic dynamic lot-sizing problem under service-level constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarim, S.A.; Ozen, U.; Dogru, M.K.; Rossi, R.

    2011-01-01

    We provide an efficient computational approach to solve the mixed integer programming (MIP) model developed by Tarim and Kingsman [8] for solving a stochastic lot-sizing problem with service level constraints under the static–dynamic uncertainty strategy. The effectiveness of the proposed method

  6. A hybrid algorithm for solving the economic lot and delivery scheduling problem in the common cycle case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Ju, S.

    2006-01-01

    The ELDSP problem is a combined lot sizing and sequencing problem. A supplier produces and delivers components of different types to a consumer in batches. The task is to determine the cycle time, i.e., the time between deliveries, which minimizes the total cost per time unit. This includes the d...

  7. 7 CFR 42.141 - Obtaining Operating Characteristic (OC) curve information for skip lot sampling and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices... sampling plan for normal condition of container inspection from Table I or Table I-A of § 42.109. (b) For a... procedures. For example, let's assume the lot size is 6,001 to 12,000 containers, and we use the single...

  8. Lack of evidence for the presence of emerging HoBi-like viruses in North American fetal bovine serum lots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The detection of HoBi-like virus in fetal bovine serum (FBS) labeled as United States of America (USA) origin, but packaged in Europe, raised concerns that HoBi-like virus may have entered the USA. In this study, 90 lots of FBS originating in North America (NA) were screened for pestivirus antigen ...

  9. An assessment of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to evaluate malaria outcome indicators: extending malaria indicator surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Caitlin; Pagano, Marcello; Hedt, Bethany L; Kilian, Albert; Ratcliffe, Amy; Mabunda, Samuel; Valadez, Joseph J

    2010-02-01

    Large investments and increased global prioritization of malaria prevention and treatment have resulted in greater emphasis on programme monitoring and evaluation (M&E) in many countries. Many countries currently use large multistage cluster sample surveys to monitor malaria outcome indicators on a regional and national level. However, these surveys often mask local-level variability important to programme management. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) has played a valuable role for local-level programme M&E. If incorporated into these larger surveys, it would provide a comprehensive M&E plan at little, if any, extra cost. The Mozambique Ministry of Health conducted a Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) in June and July 2007. We applied LQAS classification rules to the 345 sampled enumeration areas to demonstrate identifying high- and low-performing areas with respect to two malaria program indicators-'household possession of any bednet' and 'household possession of any insecticide-treated bednet (ITN)'. As shown by the MIS, no province in Mozambique achieved the 70% coverage target for household possession of bednets or ITNs. By applying LQAS classification rules to the data, we identify 266 of the 345 enumeration areas as having bednet coverage severely below the 70% target. An additional 73 were identified with low ITN coverage. This article demonstrates the feasibility of integrating LQAS into multistage cluster sampling surveys and using these results to support a comprehensive national, regional and local programme M&E system. Furthermore, in the recommendations we outlined how to integrate the Large Country-LQAS design into macro-surveys while still obtaining results available through current sampling practices.

  10. The Effect of Priming Treatments on Germination and Seedling Performance of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea Seed Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren OZDEN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to test the effect of a priming combination on the seed germination percentage and seedling emergence performance of purslane under climate chamber and field conditions. Four purslane seed lots were treated according five different methods, which were T1: Seeds kept at a hundred percent relative humidity for four hours at 20 °C; T2: Seeds kept at a hundred percent relative humidity for four hours at 20 °C, and then soaked in distilled water for 8 hours at 5 °C; T3: Seeds kept at a hundred percent relative humidity for four hours at 20 °C, and then soaked in distilled water for 8 hours at 20 °C; T4: Seeds soaked in distilled water for 8 hours at 5 °C; T5: Seeds soaked in distilled water for 8 hours at 20 °C; and C: Control (untreated. Seed germination was calculated for 14 days at 20 °C, seedling emergence percentages were calculated in the climatically-controlled chamber for 21 days at 22 °C, and in the field for 35 days at 15-25 °C. The highest seed germination (94% and seedling emergence in the climatically-controlled chamber (87% and field (82% were obtained from seeds that had been kept at a hundred percent relative humidity for four hours at 20 °C, then soaked in distilled water for eight hours at 5 °C. Results indicated that farm-priming, can be an efficient priming method in purslane seeds.

  11. Multiple category-lot quality assurance sampling: a new classification system with application to schistosomiasis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Casey; Valadez, Joseph J; Brooker, Simon J; Pagano, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Originally a binary classifier, Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) has proven to be a useful tool for classification of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni into multiple categories (≤10%, >10 and LQAS (MC-LQAS) have not received full treatment. We explore the analytical properties of MC-LQAS, and validate its use for the classification of S. mansoni prevalence in multiple settings in East Africa. We outline MC-LQAS design principles and formulae for operating characteristic curves. In addition, we derive the average sample number for MC-LQAS when utilizing semi-curtailed sampling and introduce curtailed sampling in this setting. We also assess the performance of MC-LQAS designs with maximum sample sizes of n=15 and n=25 via a weighted kappa-statistic using S. mansoni data collected in 388 schools from four studies in East Africa. Overall performance of MC-LQAS classification was high (kappa-statistic of 0.87). In three of the studies, the kappa-statistic for a design with n=15 was greater than 0.75. In the fourth study, where these designs performed poorly (kappa-statistic less than 0.50), the majority of observations fell in regions where potential error is known to be high. Employment of semi-curtailed and curtailed sampling further reduced the sample size by as many as 0.5 and 3.5 observations per school, respectively, without increasing classification error. This work provides the needed analytics to understand the properties of MC-LQAS for assessing the prevalance of S. mansoni and shows that in most settings a sample size of 15 children provides a reliable classification of schools.

  12. Multiple category-lot quality assurance sampling: a new classification system with application to schistosomiasis control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Olives

    Full Text Available Originally a binary classifier, Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS has proven to be a useful tool for classification of the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni into multiple categories (≤10%, >10 and <50%, ≥50%, and semi-curtailed sampling has been shown to effectively reduce the number of observations needed to reach a decision. To date the statistical underpinnings for Multiple Category-LQAS (MC-LQAS have not received full treatment. We explore the analytical properties of MC-LQAS, and validate its use for the classification of S. mansoni prevalence in multiple settings in East Africa.We outline MC-LQAS design principles and formulae for operating characteristic curves. In addition, we derive the average sample number for MC-LQAS when utilizing semi-curtailed sampling and introduce curtailed sampling in this setting. We also assess the performance of MC-LQAS designs with maximum sample sizes of n=15 and n=25 via a weighted kappa-statistic using S. mansoni data collected in 388 schools from four studies in East Africa.Overall performance of MC-LQAS classification was high (kappa-statistic of 0.87. In three of the studies, the kappa-statistic for a design with n=15 was greater than 0.75. In the fourth study, where these designs performed poorly (kappa-statistic less than 0.50, the majority of observations fell in regions where potential error is known to be high. Employment of semi-curtailed and curtailed sampling further reduced the sample size by as many as 0.5 and 3.5 observations per school, respectively, without increasing classification error.This work provides the needed analytics to understand the properties of MC-LQAS for assessing the prevalance of S. mansoni and shows that in most settings a sample size of 15 children provides a reliable classification of schools.

  13. Global review of health care surveys using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS), 1984-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan E; Valadez, Joseph J

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a global review on the use of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) to assess health care services, health behaviors, and disease burden. Publications and reports on LQAS surveys were sought from Medline and five other electronic databases; the World Health Organization; the World Bank; governments, nongovernmental organizations, and individual scientists. We identified a total of 805 LQAS surveys conducted by different management groups during January 1984 through December 2004. There was a striking increase in the annual number of LQAS surveys conducted in 2000-2004 (128/year) compared with 1984-1999 (10/year). Surveys were conducted in 55 countries, and in 12 of these countries there were 10 or more LQAS surveys. Geographically, 317 surveys (39.4%) were conducted in Africa, 197 (28.5%) in the Americas, 115 (14.3%) in the Eastern Mediterranean, 114 (14.2%) in South-East Asia, 48 (6.0%) in Europe, and 14 (1.8%) in the Western Pacific. Health care parameters varied, and some surveys assessed more than one parameter. There were 320 surveys about risk factors for HIV/AIDS/sexually transmitted infections; 266 surveys on immunization coverage, 240 surveys post-disasters, 224 surveys on women's health, 142 surveys on growth and nutrition, 136 surveys on diarrheal disease control, and 88 surveys on quality management. LQAS surveys to assess disease burden included 23 neonatal tetanus mortality surveys and 12 surveys on other diseases. LQAS is a practical field method which increasingly is being applied in assessment of preventive and curative health services, and may offer new research opportunities to social scientists. When LQAS data are collected recurrently at multiple time points, they can be used to measure the spatial variation in behavior change. Such data provide insight into understanding relationships between various investments in social, human, and physical capital, and into the effectiveness of different public health strategies in achieving

  14. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste, as a unavoidable remnant from the use of radioactive substances and nuclear technology. It is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed to protect humans and the environment. The main bulk of radioactive waste must be permanently disposed in engineered repositories. Appropriate safety standards for repository design and construction are required along with the development and implementation of appropriate technologies for the design, construction, operation and closure of the waste disposal systems. As backend of the fuel cycle, resolving the issue of waste disposal is often considered as a prerequisite to the (further) development of nuclear energy programmes. Waste disposal is therefore an essential part of the waste management strategy that contributes largely to build confidence and helps decision-making when appropriately managed. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to enable safe and secure disposal of RW related to the development of national RWM strategies, including planning and long-term project management, the organisation of international peer-reviews for research and demonstration programmes, the improvement of the long-term safety of existing Near Surface Disposal facilities including capacity extension, the selection of potential candidate sites for different waste types and disposal options, the characterisation of potential host formations for waste facilities and the conduct of preliminary safety assessment, the establishment and transfer of suitable technologies for the management of RW, the development of technological solutions for some specific waste, the building of confidence through training courses, scientific visits and fellowships, the provision of training, expertise, software or hardware, and laboratory equipment, and the assessment of waste management costs and the provision of advice on cost minimisation aspects

  15. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  16. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Zitian; Liu Fuchu; Long Wei

    2014-01-01

    A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The wast...

  17. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworschak, H.; Mannone, F.; Rocco, P.

    1995-01-01

    The presence of tritium in tritium-burning devices to be built for large scale research on thermonuclear fusion poses many problems especially in terms of occupational and environmental safety. One of these problems derives from the production of tritiated wastes in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. All these wastes need to be adequately processed and conditioned to minimize tritium releases to an acceptably low occupational and environmental level and consequently to protect workers and the public against the risks of unacceptable doses from exposure to tritium. Since all experimental thermonuclear fusion devices of the Tokomak type to be built and operated in the near future as well as all experimental activities undertaken in tritium laboratories like ETHEL will generate tritiated wastes, current strategies and practices to be applied for the routine management of these wastes need to be defined. Adequate background information is provided through an exhaustive literature survey. In this frame alternative tritiated waste management options so far investigated or currently applied to this end in Europe, USA and Canada have been assessed. The relevance of tritium in waste containing gamma-emitters, originated by the neutron activation of structural materials is assessed in relation to potential final disposal options. Particular importance has been attached to the tritium retention efficiency achievable by the various waste immobilization options. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Waste segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    A scoping study has been undertaken to determine the state-of-the-art of waste segregation technology as applied to the management of low-level waste (LLW). Present-day waste segregation practices were surveyed through a review of the recent literature and by means of personal interviews with personnel at selected facilities. Among the nuclear establishments surveyed were Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and plants, nuclear fuel cycle plants, public and private laboratories, institutions, industrial plants, and DOE and commercially operated shallow land burial sites. These survey data were used to analyze the relationship between waste segregation practices and waste treatment/disposal processes, to assess the developmental needs for improved segregation technology, and to evaluate the costs and benefits associated with the implementation of waste segregation controls. This task was planned for completion in FY 1981. It should be noted that LLW management practices are now undergoing rapid change such that the technology and requirements for waste segregation in the near future may differ significantly from those of the present day. 8 figures

  19. An approach using Lagrangian/surrogate relaxation for lot-sizing with transportation costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Molina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study a distribution and lot-sizing problem that considers costs with transportation to a company warehouse as well as, inventory, production and setup costs. The logistic costs are associated with necessary containers to pack produced items. The company negotiates a long-term contract in which a fixed cost per period is associated with the transportation of the items. On the other hand, a limited number of containers are available with a lower cost than the average cost. If an occasional demand increase occurs, other containers can be utilized; however, their costs are higher. A mathematical model was proposed in the literature and solved using the Lagrangian heuristic. Here, the use of the Lagrangian/surrogate heuristic to solve the problem is evaluated. Moreover, an extension of the literature model is considered adding capacity constraints and allowing backlogging. Computational tests show that Lagrangian/surrogate heuristics are competitive, especially when the capacity constraints are tight.Neste trabalho estuda-se um problema de dimensionamento de lotes e distribuição que envolve além de custos de estoques, produção e preparação, custos de transportes para o armazém da empresa. Os custos logísticos estão associados aos contêineres necessários para empacotar os produtos produzidos. A empresa negocia um contrato de longo prazo onde um custo fixo por período é associado ao transporte dos itens, em contrapartida um limite de contêineres é disponibilizado com custo mais baixo que o custo padrão. Caso ocorra um aumento ocasional de demanda, novos contêineres podem ser utilizados, no entanto, seu custo é mais elevado. Um modelo matemático foi proposto na literatura e resolvido utilizando uma heurística Lagrangiana. No presente trabalho a resolução do problema por uma heurística Lagrangiana/surrogate é avaliada. Além disso, é considerada uma extensão do modelo da literatura adicionando

  20. Choosing between rocks, hard places and a lot more. The economic interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldorsen, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    decisions: for deciding whether or not to explore or develop, for choosing between exploration prospects ('rocks') in a licensing round, for choosing between basins or countries ('places') in which one wants to explore and produce, and for choosing between development concepts, recovery mechanisms, plateau rates, ... (and a lot more), in field development planning. Due to the largely unpredictable nature of the subsurface and the future oil price, the concepts of 'risk' (=possibility of a financial loss or an unachieved objective) and unfortunately, to a lesser extent 'grisk' (possibility of a financial gain in excess of the objective) are quite central in the oil business. Illustrations of 'risk' and 'grisk' will be presented. 24 refs

  1. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) for monitoring a leprosy elimination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, M D; Narasimhamurthy, B

    1999-06-01

    In a statistical sense, prevalences of leprosy in different geographical areas can be called very low or rare. Conventional survey methods to monitor leprosy control programs, therefore, need large sample sizes, are expensive, and are time-consuming. Further, with the lowering of prevalence to the near-desired target level, 1 case per 10,000 population at national or subnational levels, the program administrator's concern will be shifted to smaller areas, e.g., districts, for assessment and, if needed, for necessary interventions. In this paper, Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), a quality control tool in industry, is proposed to identify districts/regions having a prevalence of leprosy at or above a certain target level, e.g., 1 in 10,000. This technique can also be considered for identifying districts/regions at or below the target level of 1 per 10,000, i.e., areas where the elimination level is attained. For simulating various situations and strategies, a hypothetical computerized population of 10 million persons was created. This population mimics the actual population in terms of the empirical information on rural/urban distributions and the distribution of households by size for the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Various levels with respect to leprosy prevalence are created using this population. The distribution of the number of cases in the population was expected to follow the Poisson process, and this was also confirmed by examination. Sample sizes and corresponding critical values were computed using Poisson approximation. Initially, villages/towns are selected from the population and from each selected village/town households are selected using systematic sampling. Households instead of individuals are used as sampling units. This sampling procedure was simulated 1000 times in the computer from the base population. The results in four different prevalence situations meet the required limits of Type I error of 5% and 90% Power. It is concluded that

  2. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This scientific document presents an introduction to the nuclear wastes problems, the separation process and the transmutation, the political and technical aspects of the storage, the radioprotection standards and the biological effects. (A.L.B.)

  3. Waste Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  4. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the Department of Energy's management of underground single-shell waste storage tanks at its Hanford, Washington, site. The tanks contain highly radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous liquid and solid wastes from nuclear materials production. Hundreds of thousands of gallons of these wastes have leaked, contaminating the soil, and a small amount of leaked waste has reached the groundwater. DOE does not collect sufficient data to adequately trace the migration of the leaks through the soil, and studies predicting the eventual environmental impact of tank leaks do not provide convincing support for DOE's conclusion that the impact will be low or nonexistent. DOE can do more to minimize the environmental risks associated with leaks. To reduce the environmental impact of past leaks, DOE may be able to install better ground covering over the tanks to reduce the volume of precipitation that drains through the soil and carries contaminants toward groundwater

  5. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Managing radioactive wastes used to be a peripheral activity for the French atomic energy commission (Cea). Over the past 40 years, it has become a full-fledged phase in the fuel cycle of producing electricity from the atom. In 2005, the national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) presented to the government a comprehensive overview of the results drawn from 15 years of research. This landmark report has received recognition beyond France's borders. By broadening this agency's powers, an act of 28 June 2006 acknowledges the progress made and the quality of the results. It also sets an objective for the coming years: work out solutions for managing all forms of radioactive wastes. The possibility of recovering wastes packages from the disposal site must be assured as it was asked by the government in 1998. The next step will be the official demand for the creation of a geological disposal site in 2016

  6. Regulatory framework for radioactive waste disposal in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    Full text: To fulfill the obligations assumed by Romania by joining to the international convention and treaty as well as for implementing the European Commission legislative framework a lot of regulations was already issued or are under the development. The National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control as regulatory authority in nuclear field in Romania considered the process of developing regulations in order to detail the requirements for safe management of radioactive waste. (authors)

  7. Regulatory framework for radioactive waste disposal in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    To fulfill the obligations assumed by Romania by joining to the international convention and treaty as well as for implementing the European Commission legislative framework a lot of regulations was already issued or are under the development. The National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control as regulatory authority in nuclear field in Romania considered the process of developing regulations in order to detail the requirements for safe management of radioactive waste. (authors)

  8. A very high energy imaging for radioactive wastes processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, V.; Pettier, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The X imaging occurs at a lot of steps of the radioactive wastes processing: selection for conditioning, physical characterization with a view to radiological characterization, quality control of the product before storage, transport or disposal. Size and volume of the objects considered here necessitate to work with very high energy systems. Here is shown, through some examples, in which conditions this X imaging is carried out as well as the contribution of the obtained images. (O.M.)

  9. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  10. Training-methodical guide on radioecology and radiation waste management in the Kazakhstan conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The guide is compiled with purpose to render assistance to specialists, secondary schools' teachers for elder classes' pupils and population on radioecology and radiation waste management for understanding of a more deep problems in this field. The guide consists of a lot of illustrative and tabular materials including of results of the authors own investigations

  11. Use of waste heat from a dairy for heating of a community house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehn, C

    1976-01-01

    In a dairy, a lot of cooling capacity is needed. This article describes how this waste heat can be used for heating a community house including a sport establishment and producing hot water for that house. Four different technical solutions are discussed; (1) floor heat, (2) heat transfer connected to the ventilation, (3) regenerative heat exchanger, and (4) use of heat pumps.

  12. Radioactive waste management at Cernavoda NPP after 5 years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raducea, D.

    2002-01-01

    Many human activities generate waste but people are worried about those produced in nuclear power plants. Their concern is an unjustified fear toward the hazard from radioactive wastes because any country, which produces electrical power in this way, pays a lot of attention of all relevant parties involved in radioactive waste management. The same policy is applied for Cernavoda NPP. Our concept establishes the general approach required for the collection, handling, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste from Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and will be ready for expansion when other units are brought into service. Among others, a major objective is to reduce the radioactive waste production and volume. In this regard we are trying to improve as much as possible our procedures and radioactive wastes management. Further, it will be presented the radioactive waste management, including the improvements in our program and the future plans.(author)

  13. 1993 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkendall, J.R.; Engel, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    More important than waste generation numbers, the pollution prevention and waste minimization successes achieved at Hanford in 1993 have reduced waste and improved operations at the Site. Just a few of these projects are: A small research nuclear reactor, unused and destined for disposal as low level radioactive waste, was provided to a Texas University for their nuclear research program, avoiding 25 cubic meters of waste and saving $116,000. By changing the slope on a asphalt lot in front of a waste storage pad, run-off rainwater was prevented from becoming mixed low level waste water, preventing 40 cubic meters of waste and saving $750,000. Through more efficient electrostatic paint spraying equipment and a solvent recovery system, a paint shop reduced hazardous waste by 3,500 kilograms, saving $90,800. During the demolition of a large decommissioned building, more than 90% of the building's material was recycled by crushing the concrete for use on-Site and selling the steel to an off-Site recycler, avoiding a total of 12,600 metric tons of waste and saving $450,000. Additionally, several site-wide programs have avoided large quantities of waste, including the following: Through expansion of the paper and office waste recycling program which includes paper, cardboard, newspaper, and phone books, 516 metric tons of sanitary waste was reduced, saving $68,000. With the continued success of the excess chemicals program, which finds on-Site and off-Site customers for excess chemical materials, hazardous waste was reduced by 765,000 liters of liquid chemicals and 50 metric tons of solid chemicals, saving over $700,000 in disposal costs

  14. A Hybrid Algorithm for Solving the Economic Lot and Delivery Scheduling Problem in the Common Cycle Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ju, Suquan; Clausen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The ELDSP problem is a combined lot sizing and sequencing problem. A supplier produces and delivers components of different component types to a consumer in batches. The task is to determine the cycle time, i.e. that time between deliveries, which minimizes the total cost per time unit. This incl......The ELDSP problem is a combined lot sizing and sequencing problem. A supplier produces and delivers components of different component types to a consumer in batches. The task is to determine the cycle time, i.e. that time between deliveries, which minimizes the total cost per time unit....... This includes the determination of the production sequence of the component types within each cycle. We investigate the computational behavior of two published algorithms, a heuristic and an optimal algorithm. With large number of component types, the optimal algorithm has long running times. We devise a hybrid...

  15. A user equilibrium, traffic assignment model of network route and parking lot choice, with search circuits and cruising flows

    OpenAIRE

    LEURENT, Fabien; BOUJNAH, Houda

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a novel network model of parking and route choice. Parking supply is represented by parking type, management strategy including the fare, capacity and occupancy rate of parking lot, and network location, in relation to access routes along the roadway network. Trip demand is segmented according to origin-destination pair, the disposal of private parking facilities and the individual preferences for parking quality of service. Each traveller is assumed to make a two stage cho...

  16. Transgressions des frontières maritimes. Le cas des îlots du Dodécanèse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokia Olympitou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce texte on constate que les îlots de la Mer Égée, qui se trouvent à petite distance des îles peuplées, constituaient une aide complémentaire pour les habitants des îles voisines car ils leur offraient quelques arpents de terre de plus, pour la culture ou l'élevage, et quelques milles anglais de côtes pour la pêche. Sur ces petits bouts de terre, l'habitat n'a jamais eu de caractéristiques permanentes qui auraient pu entraîner la formation de localités durables. Pour surpasser la frontière maritime on demandait des savoir-faire et des moyens de navigation que même les sociétés insulaires qui n'ont jamais exploité la mer pour leur survie, c'est-à-dire celles des agriculteurs et des éleveurs qui ne voyageaient pas et qui n'étaient pas familiers à la mer, pouvaient cependant acquérir. Étant donné que l'intervention et l'usage humains sont les éléments qui forgent la physionomie de l'espace, la "grande" île peuplée a toujours été le point de référence de chaque îlot. Les îlots "collés" à l'île voisine, comme par exemple Telendos, Alimnia et Saria de Dodécanèse, suivaient le sort de leur voisin, à moins qu'une particularité -comme le cas de l'îlot de Gyali, ne lui ait donné un autre type d'évolution.

  17. Lot quality assurance sampling of sputum acid-fast bacillus smears for assessing sputum smear microscopy centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, N; Murthy, B N; Prabhakaran, E; Sivagamasundari, S; Vasanthan, Samuel; Perumal, M; Govindaraju, R; Chauhan, L S; Wares, Fraser; Santha, T; Narayanan, P R

    2005-02-01

    Assessment of 12 microscopy centers in a tuberculosis unit by blinded checking of eight sputum smears selected by using a lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method and by unblinded checking of all positive and five negative slides, among the slides examined in a month in a microscopy centre, revealed that the LQAS method can be implemented in the field to monitor the performance of acid-fast bacillus microscopy centers in national tuberculosis control programs.

  18. Tribal Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  19. Application of lot quality assurance sampling for leprosy elimination monitoring--examination of some critical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, M D; Murthy, B N; Mahmood, K; Meeralakshmi, S; Nagaraju, B; Prabhakaran, R

    2004-04-01

    The concept of elimination of an infectious disease is different from eradication and in a way from control as well. In disease elimination programmes the desired reduced level of prevalence is set up as the target to be achieved in a practical time frame. Elimination can be considered in the context of national or regional levels. Prevalence levels depend on occurrence of new cases and thus could remain fluctuating. There are no ready pragmatic methods to monitor the progress of leprosy elimination programmes. We therefore tried to explore newer methods to answer these demands. With the lowering of prevalence of leprosy to the desired level of 1 case per 10000 population at the global level, the programme administrators' concern will be shifted to smaller areas e.g. national and sub-national levels. For monitoring this situation, we earlier observed that lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS), a quality control tool in industry was useful in the initially high endemic areas. However, critical factors such as geographical distribution of cases and adoption of cluster sampling design instead of simple random sampling design deserve attention before LQAS could generally be recommended. The present exercise was aimed at validating applicability of LQAS, and adopting these modifications for monitoring leprosy elimination in Tamil Nadu state, which was highly endemic for leprosy. A representative sample of 64000 people drawn from eight districts of Tamil Nadu state, India, with maximum allowable number of 25 cases was considered, using LQAS methodology to test whether leprosy prevalence was at or below 7 per 10000 population. Expected number of cases for each district was obtained assuming Poisson distribution. Goodness of fit for the observed and expected cases (closeness of the expected number of cases to those observed) was tested through chi(2). Enhancing factor (design effect) for sample size was obtained by computing the intraclass correlation. The survey actually

  20. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons below coal-tar-sealed parking lots and effects on stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoggins, M.; McClintock, N.L.; Gosselink, L.; Bryer, P. [City Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Parking-lot pavement sealants recently have been recognized as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stream sediments in Austin, Texas. Laboratory and field studies have shown that PAHs in sediments can be toxic to aquatic organisms and can degrade aquatic communities. After identifying increases in concentrations of PAHs in sediments below seal-coated parking lots, we investigated whether the increases had significant effects on stream biota in 5 Austin streams. We sampled sediment chemistry and biological communities above and below the point at which stormwater runoff from the parking lots discharged into the streams, thus providing 5 upstream reference sites and 5 downstream treatment sites. Differences between upstream and downstream concentrations of total PAH ranged from 3.9 to 32 mg/kg. Analysis of the species occurrence data from pool and riffle habitats indicated a significant decrease in community health at the downstream sites, including decreases in richness, intolerant taxa, Diptera taxa, and density. In pool sediments, Chironomidae density was negatively correlated with PAH concentrations, whereas Oligochaeta density responded positively to PAH concentrations. In general, pool taxa responded more strongly than riffle taxa to PAHs, but riffle taxa responded more broadly than pool taxa. Increases in PAH sediment-toxicity units between upstream and downstream sites explained decreases in taxon richness and density in pools between upstream and downstream sites.

  1. Measurements on cation exchange capacity of bentonite in the long-term test of buffer material (LOT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Determination of cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite in the LOT experiment was the topic of this study. The measurements were performed using the complex of copper(II) ion with trietylenetetramine [Cu(trien)] 2+ as the index cation. Testing of the determination method suggested that (i) drying and wetting of the bentonite, and (ii) exchange time affect the obtained result. The real CEC measurements were carried out with the bentonite samples taken from the A2 parcel of the LOT experiment. The CEC values of the LOT samples were compared with those of the reference samples taken from the same bentonite batch before the compaction of the blocks for the experiment. The conclusions drawn have been made on the basis of the results determined with the wet bentonite samples using the direct exchange of two weeks with 0.01 M [Cu(trien)] 2+ solution because this method gave the most complete cation exchange in the CEC measurements. The differences between the samples taken from different places of the A2 parcel were quite small and close to the accuracy of the method. However, it seems that the CEC values of the field experiment are somewhat higher than the CEC of the reference samples and the values of the hot area are higher than those obtained from the low temperature area. It is also obvious that the variation of CEC increases with increasing temperature. (orig.)

  2. The acoustic climate at the rest and service areas – parking lots by the Silesian section of A4 motorway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert WIESZAŁA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the state of the acoustic climate at the rest and service areas (MOPs situated by A4 motorway in Silesia The analysis includes the research results conducted at these parking lots from May till August 2010. The research was conducted with the digital noise meter, which was connected with the computer during measurement. The research results indicate the essential differences in the noise intensity between the particular rest and service area reaching up to 12 dB(A, in spite of the similar value of the traffic noise in all of the places where the research was conducted. It was assumed that the level of noise on each of the parking lots should be similar to standing norms for the recreation areas i.e. below 55 dB(A. The research conducted at 4 MOPs indicated that only at two of them, MOP Halemba and Wirek, these norms are fulfilled. The lack of the proper anti-noise protection in the form of the sound absorbing screens at the parking lots situated by the motorway causes the situation in which the level of noise at the places devoted to rest highly decreases the possibility to relax before the next stage of a journey.

  3. Treatment of liquid radioactive waste: Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, R.

    1982-01-01

    About 10.000 m 3 of low active liquid waste (LLW) arise in the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. Chemical contents of this liquid waste are generally not declared. Resulting from experiments carried out in the Center during the early sixties, the evaporator facility was built in 1968 for decontamination of LLW. The evaporators use vapor compression and concentrate recirculation in the evaporator sump by pumps. Since 1971 the medium active liquid waste (MLW) from the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK) was decontaminated in this evaporator facility, too. By this time the amount of low liquid waste (LLW) had been decontaminated without mentionable interruptions. Afterwards a lot of interruptions of operations occurred, mainly due to leakages of pumps, valves and pipes. There was also a very high radiation level for the operating personnel. As a consequence of this experience a new evaporator facility for decontamination of medium active liquid waste was built in 1974. This facility started operation in 1976. The evaporator has natural circulation and is heated by steam through a heat exchanger. (orig./RW)

  4. Review: Utilization of Waste From Coffee Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Bartošová, Alica; Soldán, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.

  5. Lots of Brass, Lots of Colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Those entering the foyer ahead of the brass concert find several installations on the ground floor of the Copenhagen Opera House. Each installation explores the relationship between music and color, and there are musical instruments (trombones) available for people to play. On a large TV screen......, streams of colored particles represent the musical sounds that are picked up by a microphone when playing the trombone. People are also invited to take their own ‘particle LED light’ into the concert hall and use them to accompany the music. When seated, the link becomes obvious: Music and colors become...

  6. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the Department of Energy is to annually determine whether the waste disposal fee will produce sufficient revenues to offset the total estimated costs of the waste disposal program. In its June 1987 assessment, DOE recommended that the fee remain unchanged even though its analysis showed that at an inflation rate of 4 percent the current fee would result in end-of-program deficits ranging from $21 billion to $76 billion in 2085. The 1988 assessment calls for reduced total costs because of program changes. Thus, DOE may be able to begin using a realistic inflation rate in determining fee adequacy in 1988 without proposing a major fee increase

  7. Waste processing air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases

  8. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  9. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  10. Immune responses to a recombinant, four-component, meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) in adolescents: a phase III, randomized, multicentre, lot-to-lot consistency study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, Kirsten P; McVernon, Jodie; Richmond, Peter C; Marshall, Helen; Nissen, Michael; August, Allison; Percell, Sandra; Toneatto, Daniela; Nolan, Terry

    2015-09-22

    For decades, a broadly effective vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has remained elusive. Recently, a four-component recombinant vaccine (4CMenB) has been developed and is now approved in Europe, Canada, Australia and some Latin American countries. This phase III, randomized study evaluated the lot consistency, early immune responses and the safety profile of 4CMenB in 11 to 17-year-old adolescents in Australia and Canada (NCT01423084). In total, 344 adolescents received two doses of one of 2 lots of 4CMenB, 1-month apart. Immunogenicity was assessed before, 2-weeks and 1-month following the second vaccination. Serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) was measured against three reference strains 44/76-SL, 5/99 and NZ98/254, selected to express one of the vaccine antigens; Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), factor H binding protein (fHbp) and porin A (PorA) containing outer membrane vesicle (OMV), respectively. Responses to the Neisseria heparin binding antigen (NHBA) were assessed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Local and systemic reactions were recorded for 7 days following each vaccination; unsolicited adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Immunological equivalence of the two lots of 4CMenB was established at 1-month. At baseline, ≤7% of participants had hSBA titers ≥5 to all three reference strains. Two weeks following the second dose of 4CMenB, all participants had hSBA titers ≥5 against fHbp and NadA compared with 84-96% against the PorA reference strains. At 1-month, corresponding proportions were 99%, 100% and 70-79%, respectively. Both lots were generally well tolerated and had similar adverse event profiles. Two doses of 4CMenB had an acceptable safety profile and induced a robust immune response in adolescents. Peak antibody responses were observed at 14 days following vaccination. While a substantial non-uniform antigen-dependent early decline in antibody titers was seen thereafter, a

  11. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  12. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  13. Prevalence study of yaws in the Democratic Republic of Congo using the lot quality assurance sampling method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Gerstl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Until the 1970s the prevalence of non-venereal trepanomatosis, including yaws, was greatly reduced after worldwide mass treatment. In 2005, cases were again reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We carried out a survey to estimate the village-level prevalence of yaws in the region of Equator in the north of the country in order to define appropriate strategies to effectively treat the affected population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a community-based survey using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method to classify the prevalence of active yaws in 14 groups of villages (lots. The classification into high, moderate, or low yaws prevalence corresponded to World Health Organization prevalence thresholds for identifying appropriate operational treatment strategies. Active yaws cases were defined by suggestive clinical signs and positive rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination serological tests. The overall prevalence in the study area was 4.7% (95% confidence interval: 3.4-6.0. Two of 14 lots had high prevalence (>10%, three moderate prevalence (5-10% and nine low prevalence (<5%.. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although yaws is no longer a World Health Organization priority disease, the presence of yaws in a region where it was supposed to be eradicated demonstrates the importance of continued surveillance and control efforts. Yaws should remain a public health priority in countries where previously it was known to be endemic. The integration of sensitive surveillance systems together with free access to effective treatment is recommended. As a consequence of our study results, more than 16,000 people received free treatment against yaws.

  14. Performance of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Method Compared to Surveillance for Identifying Inadequately-performing Areas in Matlab, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, S.M.A.; Roy, Nikhil; Streatfield, P. Kim

    2007-01-01

    This paper compared the performance of the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method in identifying inadequately-performing health work-areas with that of using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data and examined the feasibility of applying the method by field-level programme supervisors. The study was carried out in Matlab, the field site of ICDDR,B, where a HDSS has been in place for over 30 years. The LQAS method was applied in 57 work-areas of community health workers i...

  15. Characterization of tomato apical stunt viroid isolated from a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Koenraadt, H M S; Westenberg, M; Roenhorst, J W

    2017-06-01

    Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd) has been identified in a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum produced in Taiwan. It is the first finding of TASVd in this plant species. The isolate could be discriminated from all reported isolates of TASVd based on its nucleotide sequence, which showed only 94.8% identity with the most related genotype of TASVd. This discrimination was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Inoculation of a RNA extract of contaminated seeds to healthy pepper plants showed that the infectivity of the viroid had remained over time. Nevertheless, no transmission to seedlings was observed.

  16. A new approach for solving capacitated lot sizing and scheduling problem with sequence and period-dependent setup costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Chaieb Memmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We aim to examine the capacitated multi-item lot sizing problem which is a typical example of a large bucket model, where many different items can be produced on the same machine in one time period. We propose a new approach to determine the production sequence and lot sizes that minimize the sum of start up and setup costs, inventory and production costs over all periods.Design/methodology/approach: The approach is composed of three steps. First, we compute a lower bound on total cost. Then we propose a three sub-steps iteration procedure. We solve optimally the lot sizing problem without considering products sequencing and their cost. Then, we determine products quantities to produce each period while minimizing the storage and variable production costs. Given the products to manufacture each period, we determine its correspondent optimal products sequencing, by using a Branch and Bound algorithm. Given the sequences of products within each period, we evaluate the total start up and setup cost. We compare then the total cost obtained to the lower bound of the total cost. If this value riches a prefixed value, we stop. Otherwise, we modify the results of lot sizing problem.Findings and Originality/value: We show using an illustrative example, that the difference between the total cost and its lower bound is only 10%. This gap depends on the significance of the inventory and production costs and the machine’s capacity. Comparing the approach we develop with a traditional one, we show that we manage to reduce the total cost by 30%.Research limitations/implications: Our model fits better to real-world situations where production systems run continuously. This model is applied for limited number of part types and periods.Practical implications: Our approach determines the products to manufacture each time period, their economic amounts, and their scheduling within each period. This outcome should help decision makers bearing expensive

  17. Five Years Progress on Waste Management of Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Shigeo; Katoh, Kazuyuki; Okano, Kenta

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: • A huge amount of off-site specified waste is planned to be managed by constructing and operating interim storage facilities. However, there still needs a lot of initiatives to recover the 1F nuclear accident. • On-site management of solid waste generated by the accident should be sustained as long-term key activities, such as safe storage, characterization, processing and disposal of various wastes. • Effective collaborations among NDF, TEPCO, IRID, JAEA, other domestic and international organizations and companies are strongly requested to tackle challenging projects on 1F decommissioning.

  18. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  19. Harmful Waste Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Mun Bong; Lee, Shi Jin; Park, Jun Seok; Yoon, Seok Pyo; Lee, Jae Hyo; Jo, Byeong Ryeol

    2008-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of processing harmful waste, including concerned law and definition of harmful waste, current conditions and generation of harmful waste in Korea, international condition of harmful waste, minimizing of generation of harmful waste, treatment and storage. It also tells of basic science for harmful waste disposal with physics, chemistry, combustion engineering, microbiology and technique of disposal such as physical, chemical, biological process, stabilizing and solidification, incineration and waste in landfill.

  20. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafique

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge. In this field study, various real storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of grass swale for managing rainfall runoff in an urban area. From the analysis of field experiments, grass swale showed the significant rainfall runoff retention in different rain events. Grass swale markedly reduced total rainfall runoff volume and peak flow during the small storm events of intensity about 30 mm/h. From the analysis, on average rainfall runoff retention from the grass swale was found around 40 to 75% during the various small rain events. From the results, we can say that grass swale is a stormwater mitigation practice which can help avoid flash flooding problems in urban areas.

  1. Development toward rapid and efficient screening for high performance hydrolysate lots in a recombinant monoclonal antibody manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Pierce, Karisa M

    2012-07-01

    Plant-derived hydrolysates are widely used in mammalian cell culture media to increase yields of recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, these chemically varied and undefined raw materials can have negative impact on yield and/or product quality in large-scale cell culture processes. Traditional methods that rely on fractionation of hydrolysates yielded little success in improving hydrolysate quality. We took a holistic approach to develop an efficient and reliable method to screen intact soy hydrolysate lots for commercial recombinant mAb manufacturing. Combined high-resolution (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) analysis led to a prediction model between product titer and NMR fingerprinting of soy hydrolysate with cross-validated correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.87 and root-mean-squared-error of cross-validation RMSECV% of 11.2%. This approach screens for high performance hydrolysate lots, therefore ensuring process consistency and product quality in the mAb manufacturing process. Furthermore, PLS analysis was successful in discerning multiple markers (DL-lactate, soy saccharides, citrate and succinate) among hydrolysate components that positively and negatively correlate with titer. Interestingly, these markers correlate to the metabolic characteristics of some strains of taxonomically diverse lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Thus our findings indicate that LAB strains may exist during hydrolysate manufacturing steps and their biochemical activities may attribute to the titer enhancement effect of soy hydrolysates. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  2. Cluster lot quality assurance sampling: effect of increasing the number of clusters on classification precision and operational feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayasu, Hiromasa; Brown, Alexandra E; Nzioki, Michael M; Gasasira, Alex N; Takane, Marina; Mkanda, Pascal; Wassilak, Steven G F; Sutter, Roland W

    2014-11-01

    To assess the quality of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has used cluster lot quality assurance sampling (C-LQAS) methods since 2009. However, since the inception of C-LQAS, questions have been raised about the optimal balance between operational feasibility and precision of classification of lots to identify areas with low SIA quality that require corrective programmatic action. To determine if an increased precision in classification would result in differential programmatic decision making, we conducted a pilot evaluation in 4 local government areas (LGAs) in Nigeria with an expanded LQAS sample size of 16 clusters (instead of the standard 6 clusters) of 10 subjects each. The results showed greater heterogeneity between clusters than the assumed standard deviation of 10%, ranging from 12% to 23%. Comparing the distribution of 4-outcome classifications obtained from all possible combinations of 6-cluster subsamples to the observed classification of the 16-cluster sample, we obtained an exact match in classification in 56% to 85% of instances. We concluded that the 6-cluster C-LQAS provides acceptable classification precision for programmatic action. Considering the greater resources required to implement an expanded C-LQAS, the improvement in precision was deemed insufficient to warrant the effort. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho; Kyung-Ho, Kwon

    2018-03-16

    This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge. In this field study, various real storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of grass swale for managing rainfall runoff in an urban area. From the analysis of field experiments, grass swale showed the significant rainfall runoff retention in different rain events. Grass swale markedly reduced total rainfall runoff volume and peak flow during the small storm events of intensity about 30 mm/h. From the analysis, on average rainfall runoff retention from the grass swale was found around 40 to 75% during the various small rain events. From the results, we can say that grass swale is a stormwater mitigation practice which can help avoid flash flooding problems in urban areas.

  4. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho; Kyung-Ho, Kwon

    2018-01-01

    This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge. In this field study, various real storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of grass swale for managing rainfall runoff in an urban area. From the analysis of field experiments, grass swale showed the significant rainfall runoff retention in different rain events. Grass swale markedly reduced total rainfall runoff volume and peak flow during the small storm events of intensity about 30 mm/h. From the analysis, on average rainfall runoff retention from the grass swale was found around 40 to 75% during the various small rain events. From the results, we can say that grass swale is a stormwater mitigation practice which can help avoid flash flooding problems in urban areas. PMID:29547567

  5. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  6. Radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhout, F

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author).

  7. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy has proposed a draft plan for investigating the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site to determine if it suitable for a waste repository. This fact sheet provides information on the status of DOE's and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's efforts to streamline what NRC expects will be the largest and most complex nuclear-licensing proceeding in history, including the development of an electronic information management system called the Licensing Support System

  8. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the information gained from retrieval projects, the decision was made to perform an analysis of all the available incinerators to determine which was best suited for processing the INEL waste. A number of processes were evaluated for incinerators currently funded by DOE and for municipal incinerators. Slagging pyrolysis included the processes of three different manufacturers: Andco-Torrax, FLK and Purox

  9. Desain Ilustrasi Foto Pada Baju Kaos Dengan Media Fotografi Digital Pendukung Pariwisata Budaya Di Pura Tanah Lot Dan Taman Ayun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Saryana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan industri kreatif dengan menerapkan fotografi digital melalui pengembangan produk instan dengan desain ilustrasi foto pada baju kaos. Pemilihan Obyek wisata Pura Tanah Lot Tabanan dan Pura Taman Ayun Badung Bali, dijadikan obyek penelitian karena obyek wisata tersebut selalu ramai dikunjungi wisatawan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi, wawancara dan studi pustaka. Data yang diperoleh dari hasil observasi dan wawancara dianalisis dengan menggunakan metode penciptaan seni, sehingga hasil análisis dapat dijadikan pedoman atau konsep dasar dalam pengembangan produk sovenir baju kaos. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan (1 Mengidentifikasi berbagai jenis sovenir baju kaos yang dijual pada kawasan obyek wisata Tanah Lot Tabanan dan Pura Taman Ayun Badung Bali, baik dari bahan, desain ilustrasinya serta teknik pembuatannya. (2 Menganalisis harga, tingkat penjualan, serta bahan, desain ilustrasinya dan teknik pembuatannya.  (3. Melakukan eksperimen desain ilustrasi foto dengan fotografi digital dan pengolahan melalui komputer. (4 Pembuatan ilustrasi foto dan menerapkannya dengan fotografi dan sablon digital pada baju kaos. This research started with observation of several tourism destinations  in Bali such as Tanah Lot in Tabanan and Taman Ayun Badung. The observation is that by taking pictures of tourists and then selling it on photo printed  paper, profit margins are minimized. Furthermore, selling t-shirts as souvenirs on which the design is lacking in representation of the location show restricted and minimized monetization capabilities. Based on these observations, the researcher intends to conduct research while creating an innovative product which is capable of representing the aforementioned locations. Through implementation of digital photography and patternization modalities, designed photos can instantaneously be printed on the t-shirt, and automatically it may be worn by tourists. This

  10. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The Koeberg nuclear power station, planned to come on stream in 1984, is expected to save South Africa some six million t/annum of coal, and to contribute some 10 per cent of the country's electricity requirements. The use of nuclear energy will provide for growing national energy needs, and reduce high coal transport costs for power generation at the coast. In the long term, however, it gives rise to the controversial question of nuclear waste storage. The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) recently announced the purchase of a site in Namaqualand (NW Cape) for the storage of low-level radioactive waste. The Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Ltd, (NUCOR) will develop and operate the site. The South African Mining and Engineering Journal interviewed Dr P.D. Toens, manager of the Geology Department and Mr P.E. Moore, project engineer, on the subject of nuclear waste, the reasons behind Nucor's choice of site and the storage method

  11. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented on the environmental behavior of radioactive wastes. The management of high-level wastes and waste disposal methods were discussed. Some topics included were ore processing, coagulation, absorption and ion exchange, fixation, ground disposal, flotation, evaporation, transmutation and extraterrestrial disposal. Reports were given of the 226 Ra, 224 Ra and tritium activity in hot springs, 90 Sr concentrations in the groundwater and in White Oak Creek, radionuclide content of algae, grasses and plankton, radionuclides in the Danube River, Hudson River, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Columbia River and other surface waters. Analysis showed that 239 Pu was scavenged from Lake Michigan water by phytoplankton and algae by a concentration factor of up to 10,000. Benthic invertebrates and fish showed higher 239 Pu concentrations than did their pelagic counterparts. Concentration factors are also given for 234 Th, 60 Co, Fe and Mr in marine organisms. Two models for predicting the impact of radioactivity in the food chain on man were mentioned. In an accidental release from a light-water power reactor to the ocean, the most important radionuclides discharged were found to be 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and activation products 65 Zr, 59 Fe, and 95 Zr

  12. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  13. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Major and Trace Elements in Simulated Rainfall Runoff from Parking Lots, Austin, Texas, 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Wilson, Jennifer T

    2004-01-01

    Samples of creek bed sediment collected near seal-coated parking lots in Austin, Texas, by the City of Austin during 2001-02 had unusually elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs...

  14. National perspective on waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sources of nuclear wastes are listed and the quantities of these wastes per year are given. Methods of processing and disposing of mining and milling wastes, low-level wastes, decommissioning wastes, high-level wastes, reprocessing wastes, spent fuels, and transuranic wastes are discussed. The costs and safeguards involved in the management of this radioactive wastes are briefly covered in this presentation

  15. Long term test of buffer material at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, LOT project. Final report on the A2 test parcel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, Ola; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Birgersson, Martin; Nilsson, Ulf; Hernan-Haakansson, Tania (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden); Goeteborg Univ., Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Nilsson, Sara; Eriksen, Trygve E. (School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Nuclear chemistry, Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)); Rosborg, Bo (Rosborg Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2009-11-15

    In the Swedish repository concept for nuclear waste (KBS-3 concept), the spent nuclear fuel will be stored in copper canisters surrounded by compacted bentonite. The decaying power of the fuel will increase the temperature in the repository which, in combination with the uptake of ground-water, are expected to result in minor mineralogical changes in the bentonite. The ongoing LOT test series at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) are focused on identifying and quantifying such mineralogical alterations in the bentonite exposed to typical repository-like conditions. Further, buffer-related processes concerning copper corrosion, cation transport, and bacterial survival/activity are studied. In total, the LOT project includes seven test parcels, which contain a central Cu-tube surrounded by cylindrical bentonite blocks with a diameter of 30 cm, and gauges for temperature, total pressure, water pressure and humidity. Electrical heaters placed inside the copper tube are used to simulate the power from the decaying spent fuel. Three parcels are exposed to standard KBS-3 conditions (maximum temperature below 100 deg C) and four parcels to adverse conditions (maximum temperature below approx140 deg C). Both the standard and the adverse test series include short term tests (1 to 2 years), medium term tests (>5 years) and long term tests (>10 years). The present report concerns the A2 test parcel, which was a medium term test exposed to adverse conditions. Cu-coupons, 60Co tracers, bacteria and specific chemical substances were placed in the bentonite at defined positions. After field exposure, the entire test parcel was released from the rock by overlapping percussion drilling and wire sawing. The parcel was lifted and divided at test site and the bentonite material was sampled for specified analyses performed by nine different laboratories in five countries. The main aspects of the various tests and analyses may be summarized in the following items: - physical

  16. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C; Vigsoe, D [eds.

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  17. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  18. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  19. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  20. Greening waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ). Countries are moving waste up the waste management hierarchy away from landfilling towards waste prevention, reuse, recycling and recovery. According to the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA, 2012:5), around “70% of the municipal waste produced...

  1. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The subject is discussed, with special reference to the UK, under the headings: radiation; origins of the waste (mainly from nuclear power programme; gas, liquid, solid; various levels of activity); dealing with waste (methods of processing, storage, disposal); high-active waste (storage, vitrification, study of means of eventual disposal); waste management (UK organisation to manage low and intermediate level waste). (U.K.)

  2. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  3. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  4. Transuranic waste management program waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.S.; Crisler, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    To ensure that all technology necessary for long term management of transuranic (TRU) wastes is available, the Department of Energy has established the Transuranic Waste Management Program. A principal focus of the program is development of waste forms that can accommodate the very diverse TRU waste inventory and meet geologic isolation criteria. The TRU Program is following two approaches. First, decontamination processes are being developed to allow removal of sufficient surface contamination to permit management of some of the waste as low level waste. The other approach is to develop processes which will allow immobilization by encapsulation of the solids or incorporate head end processes which will make the solids compatible with more typical waste form processes. The assessment of available data indicates that dewatered concretes, synthetic basalts, and borosilicate glass waste forms appear to be viable candidates for immobilization of large fractions of the TRU waste inventory in a geologic repository

  5. Parking Lot Runoff Quality and Treatment Efficiency of a Stormwater-Filtration Device, Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwatich, Judy A.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment efficiency of a stormwater-filtration device (SFD) for potential use at Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) park-and-ride facilities, a SFD was installed at an employee parking lot in downtown Madison, Wisconsin. This type of parking lot was chosen for the test site because the constituent concentrations and particle-size distributions (PSDs) were expected to be similar to those of a typical park-and-ride lot operated by WisDOT. The objective of this particular installation was to reduce loads of total suspended solids (TSS) in stormwater runoff to Lake Monona. This study also was designed to provide a range of treatment efficiencies expected for a SFD. Samples from the inlet and outlet were analyzed for 33 organic and inorganic constituents, including 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Samples were also analyzed for physical properties, including PSD. Water-quality samples were collected for 51 runoff events from November 2005 to August 2007. Samples from all runoff events were analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment (SS). Samples from 31 runoff events were analyzed for 15 constituents, samples from 15 runoff events were analyzed for PAHs, and samples from 36 events were analyzed for PSD. The treatment efficiency of the SFD was calculated using the summation of loads (SOL) and the efficiency ratio methods. Constituents for which the concentrations and (or) loads were decreased by the SFD include TSS, SS, volatile suspended solids, total phosphorous (TP), total copper, total zinc, and PAHs. The efficiency ratios for these constituents are 45, 37, 38, 55, 22, 5, and 46 percent, respectively. The SOLs for these constituents are 32, 37, 28, 36, 23, 8, and 48 percent, respectively. The SOL for chloride was -21 and the efficiency ratio was -18. Six chemical constituents or properties-dissolved phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved zinc, total dissolved solids, dissolved chemical oxygen demand, and

  6. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.; Hooper, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of wastes, such as liquid radioactive effluents, it is known to remove radionuclides by successive in situ precipitation of cobalt sulphide, an hydroxide, barium sulphate and a transition element ferrocyanide, followed by separation of the thereby decontaminated effluent. In this invention, use is made of precipitates such as obtained above in the treatment of further fresh liquid radioactive effluent, when it is found that the precipitates have additional capacity for extracting radionuclides. The resulting supernatant liquor may then be subjected to a further precipitation treatment such as above. Decontamination factors for radionuclides of Ce, Ru, Sr and Cs have been considerably enhanced. (author)

  7. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    In September 1989, a New York commission charged with choosing a site for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility announced its intent to conduct limited investigations at five potential sites. In this paper the authors review the commission's site selection process. After discussions with your office, the authors agreed to determine if the commission's consideration and selection of the Taylor North site was consistent with its prescribed procedures for considering offered sites. The authors also agreed to identify technical and other issues that need to be addressed before the final site evaluation and the selection steps can be completed

  8. Waste remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-12-29

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  9. A Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for the Immobilization of Rare Earth Oxides from the Pyroprocessing Waste salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byung-Gil; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, Hwan-Young; Kim, In-Tae

    2008-01-01

    The fission product of rare earth (RE) oxide wastes are generates during the pyroprocess . Borosilicate glass or some ceramic materials such as monazite, apatite or sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) have been a prospective host matrix through lots of experimental results. Silicate glasses have long been the preferred waste form for the immobilization of HLW. In immobilization of the RE oxides, the developed process on an industrial scale involves their incorporation into a glass matrix, by melting under 1200 ∼ 1300 .deg. C. Instead of the melting process, glass powder sintering is lower temperature (∼ 900 .deg. C) required for the process which implies less demanding conditions for the equipment and a less evaporation of volatile radionuclides. This study reports the behaviors, direct vitrification of RE oxides with glass frit, glass powder sintering of REceramic with glass frit, formation of RE-apatite (or REmonazite) ceramic according to reaction temperature, and the leach resistance of the solidified waste forms

  10. Methodology for the economic evaluation of the application of the eolic energy and lot in the desalinization of sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros Ramirez, Cesar A.

    2007-01-01

    The methodology that is presented allows the preliminary evaluation of the cost of the water of sea ($/m3) of a non connected system to the net, fed with renewable energy (eolic and photovoltaic lot) or with an electric generator. The production capacities they are limited to the 100 m 3 /d. The desalinisation plant can be fed by a single energy source or for but of one of them, what will constitute in this last case a system with feeding hybrid. In all the cases it was considered the necessity of energy storage to inclination of batteries to exception of when the feeding was by means of a generator electric. In the annex a chart is presented with the result of the application of the methodology

  11. Lot quality assurance sampling to monitor supplemental immunization activity quality: an essential tool for improving performance in polio endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexandra E; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Nzioki, Michael M; Wadood, Mufti Z; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Quddus, Arshad; Walker, George; Sutter, Roland W

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring the quality of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) is a key tool for polio eradication. Regular monitoring data, however, are often unreliable, showing high coverage levels in virtually all areas, including those with ongoing virus circulation. To address this challenge, lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) was introduced in 2009 as an additional tool to monitor SIA quality. Now used in 8 countries, LQAS provides a number of programmatic benefits: identifying areas of weak coverage quality with statistical reliability, differentiating areas of varying coverage with greater precision, and allowing for trend analysis of campaign quality. LQAS also accommodates changes to survey format, interpretation thresholds, evaluations of sample size, and data collection through mobile phones to improve timeliness of reporting and allow for visualization of campaign quality. LQAS becomes increasingly important to address remaining gaps in SIA quality and help focus resources on high-risk areas to prevent the continued transmission of wild poliovirus. © Crown copyright 2014.

  12. Cluster designs to assess the prevalence of acute malnutrition by lot quality assurance sampling: a validation study by computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Casey; Pagano, Marcello; Deitchler, Megan; Hedt, Bethany L; Egge, Kari; Valadez, Joseph J

    2009-04-01

    Traditional lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methods require simple random sampling to guarantee valid results. However, cluster sampling has been proposed to reduce the number of random starting points. This study uses simulations to examine the classification error of two such designs, a 67x3 (67 clusters of three observations) and a 33x6 (33 clusters of six observations) sampling scheme to assess the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM). Further, we explore the use of a 67x3 sequential sampling scheme for LQAS classification of GAM prevalence. Results indicate that, for independent clusters with moderate intracluster correlation for the GAM outcome, the three sampling designs maintain approximate validity for LQAS analysis. Sequential sampling can substantially reduce the average sample size that is required for data collection. The presence of intercluster correlation can impact dramatically the classification error that is associated with LQAS analysis.

  13. Testing the robustness of deterministic models of optimal dynamic pricing and lot-sizing for deteriorating items under stochastic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishi, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Many models within the field of optimal dynamic pricing and lot-sizing models for deteriorating items assume everything is deterministic and develop a differential equation as the core of analysis. Two prominent examples are the papers by Rajan et al. (Manag Sci 38:240–262, 1992) and Abad (Manag......, we will try to expose the model by Abad (1996) and Rajan et al. (1992) to stochastic inputs; however, designing these stochastic inputs such that they as closely as possible are aligned with the assumptions of those papers. We do our investigation through a numerical test where we test the robustness...... of the numerical results reported in Rajan et al. (1992) and Abad (1996) in a simulation model. Our numerical results seem to confirm that the results stated in these papers are indeed robust when being imposed to stochastic inputs....

  14. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  15. Immersed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This document presents a brief overview of immersed radioactive wastes worldwide: historical aspects, geographical localization, type of wastes (liquid, solid), radiological activity of immersed radioactive wastes in the NE Atlantic Ocean, immersion sites and monitoring

  16. The temporality of waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna; Læssøe, Jeppe

    Waste is, indisputably, one of the key issues of environmental concerns of our times. In an environment and sustainability education perspective, waste offers concrete entry points to issues of consumption, sustainability and citizenship. Still, waste education has received relatively little...

  17. Growing Lots of Food Very Fast Can Hurt our Water for a Long Time, Longer Than You Might Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2016-12-01

    More people arrive here every day, and we keep trying to grow enough food for them to eat. We try to grow more and more by adding things that can hurt our water and our air. We try to keep track of these things that we add, but we don't understand where it all goes. We don't understand how much is in the ground. We don't understand how much is in the water under the ground. We don't understand how long the water will be bad, even after we stop adding things to help grow more food. Many people have tried to stop adding these things, or to stop these things from getting to the water, and they get sad when they have worked hard to do better but the water stays bad. In our work, we try to help people understand how to make the water better, even when they have to grow a lot of food. We have looked at the ground all around where people grow a lot of food, and have found that some of the bad things stay behind in the ground. This means that even when we work hard to make our water good, the things left in the ground might make our water stay bad for a long time. We tried to find out how long it would take to make our water good if we are working our hardest to be better. It will take longer than you might think, maybe three times as many years as you have fingers.

  18. Joint Economic Lot Sizing Optimization in a Supplier-Buyer Inventory System When the Supplier Offers Decremental Temporary Discounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Puspita Sari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses mathematical models of joint economic lot size optimization in a supplier-buyer inventory system in a situation when the supplier offers decremental temporary discounts during a sale period. Here, the sale period consists of n phases and the phases of discounts offered descend as much as the number of phases. The highest discount will be given when orders are placed in the first phase while the lowest one will be given when they are placed in the last phase. In this situation, the supplier attempts to attract the buyer to place orders as early as possible during the sale period. The buyers will respon these offers by ordering a special quantity in one of the phase. In this paper, we propose such a forward buying model with discount-proportionally-distributed time phases. To examine the behaviour of the proposed model, we conducted numerical experiments. We assumed that there are three phases of discounts during the sale period. We then compared the total joint costs of special order placed in each phase for two scenarios. The first scenario is the case of independent situation – there is no coordination between the buyer and the supplie-, while the second scenario is the opposite one, the coordinated model. Our results showed the coordinated model outperform the independent model in terms of producing total joint costs. We finally conducted a sensitivity analyzis to examine the other behaviour of the proposed model. Keywords: supplier-buyer inventory system, forward buying model, decremental temporary discounts, joint economic lot sizing, optimization.

  19. Occurrence of enrofloxacin in overflows from animal lot and residential sewage lagoons and a receiving-stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abua Ikem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enrofloxacin (ENRO, a fluoroquinolone, was quantified in overflows from an animal lot and residential sewage lagoons and in a receiving-stream (Gans Creek. The concentrations of ENRO in samples was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography − tandem mass spectrometry. In total, ninety samples including duplicates were analyzed during several monthly sampling campaigns. The samples collected represented the residential sewage lagoon overflow (RLO, animal lot lagoon overflow (ALLO, the combined overflows (RLO and ALLO, and Gans Creek (upstream, midstream and downstream positions. The frequency of detection of ENRO was 90% for RLO and 100% for both ALLO and Gans Creek. The highest concentration of ENRO (0.44 μg/L was found in ALLO sample collected during high precipitation. ENRO levels found in RLO samples ranged from < LOQ to 259 ng/L and the highest value observed also coincided with high flow. The levels of ENRO found in Gans Creek ranged from 17–216 ng/L. A preliminary ecotoxicological assessment was conducted through calculation of the risk quotients (RQs for organisms based on the ratio of the measured environmental concentrations in this study to the predicted-no-effect-concentrations (acute and chronic effect data. From the RQs, high risks were observed for Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanobacteria; RQ = 4.4; Anabaena flosaquae (cyanobacteria; RQ = 1.3; and Lemna minor (aquatic vascular plant; RQ = 2.0. The long-term effects of mixtures of PHCs on Gans Creek watershed are probable. Keywords: Environmental science, Pharmaceutical chemistry, Ecology

  20. Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniya Arushanyan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

  1. Waste Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream’s generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  2. Management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.; Volckaert, G.; Wacquier, W.

    1998-09-01

    The document gives an overview of of different aspects of radioactive waste management in Belgium. The document discusses the radioactive waste inventory in Belgium, the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste as well as activities related to the characterisation of different waste forms. A separate chapter is dedicated to research and development regarding deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. In the Belgian waste management programme, particular emphasis is on studies for disposal in clay. Main results of these studies are highlighted and discussed

  3. Waste Characterization Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.; Naranjo, Felicia Danielle

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream's generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  4. Municipal Solid Waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2010-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  5. The management of radioactive wastes produced by medical institutions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira

    1981-01-01

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals is faced with rather dark prospects. The reason is that the management of radioactive wastes does not work smoothly. In the present management system for low level radioactive wastes in Japan, the Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) plays the part of collecting them and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) plays that of treating them. The volume of radioactive wastes collected, however, is far greater than that treated. Correspondingly, JRIA has to store the excessive radioactive wastes. The construction of a new treatment facility is urgently needed and the search for a building lot goes on. All those concerned, the users and suppliers of radiopharmaceuticals, and so on, should be aware of the situation and cooperate to resolve the various problems concerning the management of radioactive wastes generated by themselves. (author)

  6. A Review on Landfill Management in the Utilization of Plastic Waste as an Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayah Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastes from landfills originate from many spheres of life. These are produces as a result of human activities either domestically or industrially. The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste of plastic. Hence, this paper aims review at utilizing of plastic as an alternative fuel.

  7. Participation of the ININ in the activities of radioactive waste management of the Laguna Verde Central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano L, M.; Rodriguez C, C.; Linares R, D.; Ramirez G, R.; Zarate M, N.

    2006-01-01

    From the beginning of the operation of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV) the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) has come supporting the CLV in the activities of administration of the humid and dry radioactive waste generated by the operation of the two units of the CLV, from the elaboration of procedures to the temporary storage in site, the implementation of a program of minimization and segregation of dry solid wastes, until the classification of the lots of humid waste and bulk dry wastes. In this work the description of the management activities of radioactive wastes carried out by the ININ in the facilities of the CLV to the date is presented, as well as some actions that they are had drifted in the future near, among those that it stands out the determination of the total alpha activity in humid samples by means of scintillation analysis. (Author)

  8. A Review on Landfill Management in the Utilization of Plastic Waste as an Alternative Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, Nurul; Syafrudin

    2018-02-01

    Wastes from landfills originate from many spheres of life. These are produces as a result of human activities either domestically or industrially. The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste of plastic. Hence, this paper aims review at utilizing of plastic as an alternative fuel.

  9. Utilisation of solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balu, K

    1978-07-01

    The prime solution to the present energy crisis is the recovery of latent energy from waste materials, for solid waste contains recoverable energy and it merely needs to be released. The paper is concerned with classification of solid waste, energy content of waste, methods of solid waste disposal, and chemical processing of solid waste. Waste disposal must be performed in situ with energy recovery. Scarcity of available land, pollution problem, and unrecovered latent energy restrict the use of the land-filling method. Pyrolysis is an effective method for the energy recovery and disposal problems. Chemical processing is suitable for the separated cellulosic fraction of the waste material.

  10. Potential for waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author focuses on wastes considered hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This chapter discusses wastes that are of interest as well as the factors affecting the quantity of waste considered available for waste reduction. Estimates are provided of the quantities of wastes generated. Estimates of the potential for waste reduction are meaningful only to the extent that one can understand the amount of waste actually being generated. Estimates of waste reduction potential are summarized from a variety of government and nongovernment sources

  11. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  12. Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Lucy J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2016-08-01

    Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18-40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household food waste. Cluster analysis of 24 food-related lifestyle factors identified 5 consumer groups. General linear modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the purchase frequency of convenience food and household food waste. From the cluster analysis, five distinct convenience profiles emerged comprising: 'epicures' (n = 135), 'traditional consumers' (n = 255), 'casual consumers' (n = 246), 'food detached consumers' (n = 151) and 'kitchen evaders' (n = 141). Casual consumers and kitchen evaders were the most reliant on convenience food and notably were the most wasteful. The demographic profile of kitchen evaders matched the population groups currently targeted by UK food waste policy. Casual consumers represent a new and distinct group characterised by "buy a lot and waste a lot" behaviour. Household size, packaging format, price-awareness and marketing all appear to influence levels of food waste. However, it seems that subtle behavioural and sociocultural factors also have impact. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors that mediate the positive association between the purchase of convenience food and reported food waste in order to inform food waste policy and initiatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Package materials, waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The schedules for waste package development for the various host rocks were presented. The waste form subtask activities were reviewed, with the papers focusing on high-level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel. The following ten papers were presented: (1) Waste Package Development Approach; (2) Borosilicate Glass as a Matrix for Savannah River Plant Waste; (3) Development of Alternative High-Level Waste Forms; (4) Overview of the Transuranic Waste Management Program; (5) Assessment of the Impacts of Spent Fuel Disassembly - Alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System; (6) Reactions of Spent Fuel and Reprocessing Waste Forms with Water in the Presence of Basalt; (7) Spent Fuel Stabilizer Screening Studies; (8) Chemical Interactions of Shale Rock, Prototype Waste Forms, and Prototype Canister Metals in a Simulated Wet Repository Environment; (9) Impact of Fission Gas and Volatiles on Spent Fuel During Geologic Disposal; and (10) Spent Fuel Assembly Decay Heat Measurement and Analysis

  14. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  15. The Integrated Waste Tracking Systems (IWTS) - A Comprehensive Waste Management Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert S. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    the changes were made. As regulations and permits change, and as the proliferation of personal computers flourish, procedures and data files begin to be stored in electronic databases. With many different organizations, contractors, and unique procedures, several dozen databases are used to track and maintain aspects of waste management. As one can see, the logistics of collecting and certifying data from all organizations to provide comprehensive information would not only take weeks to perform, but usually presents a variety of answers that require an immediate unified resolution. A lot of personnel time is spent scrubbing the data in order to determine the correct information. The issue of disparate data is a concern in itself, and is coupled with the costs associated with maintaining several separate databases. In order to gain waste management efficiencies across an entire facility or site, several waste management databases located among several organizations would need to be consolidated. The IWTS is a system to do just that, namely store and track containerized waste information for an entire site. The IWTS has proven itself at the INL since 1995 as an efficient, successful, time saving management tool to help meet the needs of both operations and management for hazardous and radiological containerized waste

  16. The Integrated Waste Tracking Systems (IWTS) - A Comprehensive Waste Management Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson

    2005-09-01

    the changes were made. As regulations and permits change, and as the proliferation of personal computers flourish, procedures and data files begin to be stored in electronic databases. With many different organizations, contractors, and unique procedures, several dozen databases are used to track and maintain aspects of waste management. As one can see, the logistics of collecting and certifying data from all organizations to provide comprehensive information would not only take weeks to perform, but usually presents a variety of answers that require an immediate unified resolution. A lot of personnel time is spent scrubbing the data in order to determine the correct information. The issue of disparate data is a concern in itself, and is coupled with the costs associated with maintaining several separate databases. In order to gain waste management efficiencies across an entire facility or site, several waste management databases located among several organizations would need to be consolidated. The IWTS is a system to do just that, namely store and track containerized waste information for an entire site. The IWTS has proven itself at the INL since 1995 as an efficient, successful, time saving management tool to help meet the needs of both operations and management for hazardous and radiological containerized waste. Other sites have also benefited from IWTS as it has been deployed at West Valley Nuclear Services Company DOE site as well as Ontario Power Ge

  17. Effects of ground surface decontamination on the air radiation dose rate. Results of a decontamination trial at a playground lot in a Fukushima residential area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency decontaminated schools, playgrounds, swimming pools, and houses in nonevacuated, less-contaminated areas in Fukushima for environmental restoration. A small, 150 m 2 playground lot in the residential area was chosen for decontamination demonstration, which used routinely available tools and commodities to carry out the work. The surfaces of playground lot equipment, such as swings, slides, and horizontal iron bars, were completely decontaminated by brushing with water and/or detergent. Side gutters around the playground lot were cleaned by removing the mud and then brushed and washed with a high-pressure water jet (7 MPa). The air dose rate at the playground lot was dominated by radiation from the ground surface and adjacent surroundings, such as apartments and rice fields. Two or three centimeters of the surface soil contaminated with cesium was removed manually with shovels, hoes, and other gardening tools. This significantly reduced the average air dose rate of the entire playground lot from 1.5 μSv/h before decontamination to 0.6 μSv/h. These results showed that ground surface decontamination can contribute measurably to the reduction in air dose rate in relatively small areas in residential areas. (author)

  18. Evaluation of primary immunization coverage of infants under universal immunization programme in an urban area of Bangalore city using cluster sampling and lot quality assurance sampling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punith K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Is LQAS technique better than cluster sampling technique in terms of resources to evaluate the immunization coverage in an urban area? Objective: To assess and compare the lot quality assurance sampling against cluster sampling in the evaluation of primary immunization coverage. Study Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. Study Setting: Areas under Mathikere Urban Health Center. Study Subjects: Children aged 12 months to 23 months. Sample Size: 220 in cluster sampling, 76 in lot quality assurance sampling. Statistical Analysis: Percentages and Proportions, Chi square Test. Results: (1 Using cluster sampling, the percentage of completely immunized, partially immunized and unimmunized children were 84.09%, 14.09% and 1.82%, respectively. With lot quality assurance sampling, it was 92.11%, 6.58% and 1.31%, respectively. (2 Immunization coverage levels as evaluated by cluster sampling technique were not statistically different from the coverage value as obtained by lot quality assurance sampling techniques. Considering the time and resources required, it was found that lot quality assurance sampling is a better technique in evaluating the primary immunization coverage in urban area.

  19. Evaluation of primary immunization coverage of infants under universal immunization programme in an urban area of bangalore city using cluster sampling and lot quality assurance sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Punith; K, Lalitha; G, Suman; Bs, Pradeep; Kumar K, Jayanth

    2008-07-01

    Is LQAS technique better than cluster sampling technique in terms of resources to evaluate the immunization coverage in an urban area? To assess and compare the lot quality assurance sampling against cluster sampling in the evaluation of primary immunization coverage. Population-based cross-sectional study. Areas under Mathikere Urban Health Center. Children aged 12 months to 23 months. 220 in cluster sampling, 76 in lot quality assurance sampling. Percentages and Proportions, Chi square Test. (1) Using cluster sampling, the percentage of completely immunized, partially immunized and unimmunized children were 84.09%, 14.09% and 1.82%, respectively. With lot quality assurance sampling, it was 92.11%, 6.58% and 1.31%, respectively. (2) Immunization coverage levels as evaluated by cluster sampling technique were not statistically different from the coverage value as obtained by lot quality assurance sampling techniques. Considering the time and resources required, it was found that lot quality assurance sampling is a better technique in evaluating the primary immunization coverage in urban area.

  20. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Department of Energy is awarding grants to the state of Nevada for the state's participation in DOE's program to investigate Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the disposal of civilian nuclear waste. This report has found that DOE's financial assistance budget request of $15 million for Nevada's fiscal year 1990 was not based on the amount the state requested but rather was derived by increasing Nevada's grant funds from the previous year in proportion to the increase that DOE requested for its own activities at the Nevada site. DOE's evaluations of Nevada's requests are performed too late to be used in DOE's budget formulation process because Nevada has been applying for financial assistance at about the same time that DOE submits its budget request to Congress

  1. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Privacy Act of 1974 restricts both the type of information on private individuals that federal agencies may maintain in their records and the conditions under which such information may be disclosed. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which must approve DOE plans to build a nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada, requires a quality assurance program to guarantee that studies of the site are done by qualified employees. Under such a program, the training and qualifications of DOE and contractor employees would be verified. This report reviews DOE's efforts to identify and resolve the implications of the Privacy Act for DOE's quality assurance program and how the delay in resolving Privacy Act issues may have affected preliminary work on the Yucca Mountain project

  2. Radioactive gaseous waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kazuo.

    1997-01-01

    In a radioactive gaseous waste processing device, a dehumidifier in which a lot of hollow thread membranes are bundled and assembled is disposed instead of a dehumidifying cooling device and a dehumidifying tower. The dehumidifier comprises a main body, a great number of hollow thread membranes incorporated in the main body, a pair of fixing members for bundling and fixing both ends of the hollow thread membranes, a pair of caps for allowing the fixing members to pass through and fixing them on both ends of the main body, an off gas flowing pipe connected to one of the caps, a gas exhaustion pipe connected to the other end of the cap and a moisture removing pipeline connected to the main body. A flowrate control valve is connected to the moisture removing pipeline, and the other end of the moisture removing pipeline is connected between a main condensator and an air extraction device. Then, cooling and freezing devices using freon are no more necessary, and since the device uses the vacuum of the main condensator as a driving source and does not use dynamic equipments, labors for the maintenance is greatly reduced to improve economical property. The facilities are reduced in the size thereby enabling to use space effectively. (N.H.)

  3. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  4. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste

  5. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation

  6. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste

  7. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 2, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1944-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  8. Waste management, final waste disposal, fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengeling, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    Out of the legal poblems that are currently at issue, individual questions from four areas are dealt with: privatization of ultimate waste disposal; distribution of responsibilities for tasks in the field of waste disposal; harmonization and systematization of regulations; waste disposal - principles for making provisions for waste disposal - proof of having made provisions for waste disposal; financing and fees. A distinction has to be made between that which is legally and in particular constitutionally imperative or, as the case may be, permissible, and issues where there is room for political decision-making. Ultimately, the deliberations on the amendment are completely confined to the sphere of politics. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Nuclear wastes, a questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Questionnaire giving basic information for the public on nuclear wastes and radioactive waste management. Risk and regulations to reduce the risk to permissible limits are more particularly developed. A survey of radioactive wastes is made along the fuel cycle: production, processing, transport, disposal to end on effect of waste management on the cost of nuclear kWh [fr

  10. Hazardous Waste Manifest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat, or dispose of the waste.

  11. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source special nuclear and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this document. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. This document has been revised to meet the interim status waste analysis plan requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173 303-300(5). When the final status permit is issued, permit conditions will be incorporated and this document will be revised accordingly

  12. Lot-Order Assignment Applying Priority Rules for the Single-Machine Total Tardiness Scheduling with Nonnegative Time-Dependent Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Gon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lot-order assignment is to assign items in lots being processed to orders to fulfill the orders. It is usually performed periodically for meeting the due dates of orders especially in a manufacturing industry with a long production cycle time such as the semiconductor manufacturing industry. In this paper, we consider the lot-order assignment problem (LOAP with the objective of minimizing the total tardiness of the orders with distinct due dates. We show that we can solve the LOAP optimally by finding an optimal sequence for the single-machine total tardiness scheduling problem with nonnegative time-dependent processing times (SMTTSP-NNTDPT. Also, we address how the priority rules for the SMTTSP can be modified to those for the SMTTSP-NNTDPT to solve the LOAP. In computational experiments, we discuss the performances of the suggested priority rules and show the result of the proposed approach outperforms that of the commercial optimization software package.

  13. Multi-period fuzzy mean-semi variance portfolio selection problem with transaction cost and minimum transaction lots using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Barati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-period models of portfolio selection have been developed in the literature with respect to certain assumptions. In this study, for the first time, the portfolio selection problem has been modeled based on mean-semi variance with transaction cost and minimum transaction lots considering functional constraints and fuzzy parameters. Functional constraints such as transaction cost and minimum transaction lots were included. In addition, the returns on assets parameters were considered as trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. An efficient genetic algorithm (GA was designed, results were analyzed using numerical instances and sensitivity analysis were executed. In the numerical study, the problem was solved based on the presence or absence of each mode of constraints including transaction costs and minimum transaction lots. In addition, with the use of sensitivity analysis, the results of the model were presented with the variations of minimum expected rate of programming periods.

  14. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of our activities have always produced waste products of one sort or another. Huxley gives a humorous account of wastes throughout antiquity. So it should come as no surprise that some radioactive materials end up as waste products requiring management and disposal. Public perception of nuclear waste hazards places them much higher on the ''worry scale'' than is justified by the actual hazard involved. While the public perception of these hazards appears to revolve mostly around high-level wastes, there are several other categories of wastes that must also be controlled and managed. The major sources of radioactive wastes are discussed

  15. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  16. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1978-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the present situation, from a Belgian standpoint, in the field of the radioactive wastes processing. It estimates the annual quantity of various radioactive waste produced per 1000 MW(e) PWR installed from the ore mining till reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The methods of treatment concentration, fixation, final storable forms for liquid and solid waste of low activity and for high level activity waste. The storage of radioactive waste and the plutonium-bearing waste treatement are also considered. The estimated quantity of wastes produced for 5450 MW(e) in Belgium and their destination are presented. (A.F.)

  17. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  18. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  19. Reduction of the waste from domestic production of the orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, K. A. M.

    2010-10-01

    The research subject is (reduction of the waste from domestic production of orange) we find there is a lot of wastage after harvest, because the process of packaging, loading, transportation, and store is not adequate. The purpose of this research is to solve this problem of wastage by following a number of steps after harvesting and pre-harvest process. This process is called COLD CHAIN. Cold chain is: cold store in production place, cold vehicles for transportation, cold room in the market, cold car for distribution, cold and freezer refrigerator home. After adopting the cold chain we achieved the following results: orange wastage is reduced, the orange quality improved. (Author)

  20. Cluster-sample surveys and lot quality assurance sampling to evaluate yellow fever immunisation coverage following a national campaign, Bolivia, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Pineda, Silvia; Halkyer, Percy; Crespo, Gladys; Andrews, Nick; Ronveaux, Olivier

    2009-03-01

    To estimate the yellow fever (YF) vaccine coverage for the endemic and non-endemic areas of Bolivia and to determine whether selected districts had acceptable levels of coverage (>70%). We conducted two surveys of 600 individuals (25 x 12 clusters) to estimate coverage in the endemic and non-endemic areas. We assessed 11 districts using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS). The lot (district) sample was 35 individuals with six as decision value (alpha error 6% if true coverage 70%; beta error 6% if true coverage 90%). To increase feasibility, we divided the lots into five clusters of seven individuals; to investigate the effect of clustering, we calculated alpha and beta by conducting simulations where each cluster's true coverage was sampled from a normal distribution with a mean of 70% or 90% and standard deviations of 5% or 10%. Estimated coverage was 84.3% (95% CI: 78.9-89.7) in endemic areas, 86.8% (82.5-91.0) in non-endemic and 86.0% (82.8-89.1) nationally. LQAS showed that four lots had unacceptable coverage levels. In six lots, results were inconsistent with the estimated administrative coverage. The simulations suggested that the effect of clustering the lots is unlikely to have significantly increased the risk of making incorrect accept/reject decisions. Estimated YF coverage was high. Discrepancies between administrative coverage and LQAS results may be due to incorrect population data. Even allowing for clustering in LQAS, the statistical errors would remain low. Catch-up campaigns are recommended in districts with unacceptable coverage.

  1. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  2. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  3. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  5. Nuclear waste solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, William J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition.

  6. Nuclear waste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition

  7. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  8. Radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1988-01-01

    For the Federal Government the safe disposal of waste from nuclear power plants constitutes the precondition for their further operation. The events in the year 1987 about the conditioning and transport of low activity waste and medium activity waste made it clear that it was necessary to intensify state control and to examine the structures in the field of waste disposal. A concept for the control of radioactive waste with negligible heat development (LAW) from nuclear installations is presented. (DG) [de

  9. Current R and D Status on High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo

    2008-11-15

    Current R and D status of such countries moving forward as the United States, Sweden, France, Japan and a few other countries for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in deep geological formation has been reviewed. Even though no HLW repositories have not practically constructed nor operated yet, lots of related R and D are being proceeded in many countries as well as in Korea. Through this brief review further progress is anticipated in this related R and D area in Korea.

  10. Assessing Local Risk of Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L Heidebrecht

    Full Text Available KwaZulu-Natal (KZN has the highest burden of notified multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR TB cases in South Africa. A better understanding of spatial heterogeneity in the risk of drug-resistance may help to prioritize local responses.Between July 2012 and June 2013, we conducted a two-way Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS study to classify the burden of rifampicin (RIF-resistant TB among incident TB cases notified within the catchment areas of seven laboratories in two northern and one southern district of KZN. Decision rules for classification of areas as having either a high- or low-risk of RIF resistant TB (based on proportion of RIF resistance among all TB cases were based on consultation with local policy makers.We classified five areas as high-risk and two as low-risk. High-risk areas were identified in both Southern and Northern districts, with the greatest proportion of RIF resistance observed in the northernmost area, the Manguzi community situated on the Mozambique border.Our study revealed heterogeneity in the risk of RIF resistant disease among incident TB cases in KZN. This study demonstrates the potential for LQAS to detect geographic heterogeneity in areas where access to drug susceptibility testing is limited.

  11. The effect of clustering on lot quality assurance sampling: a probabilistic model to calculate sample sizes for quality assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Mitsunaga, Tisha; Hund, Lauren; Olives, Casey; Pagano, Marcello

    2013-10-26

    Traditional Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) designs assume observations are collected using simple random sampling. Alternatively, randomly sampling clusters of observations and then individuals within clusters reduces costs but decreases the precision of the classifications. In this paper, we develop a general framework for designing the cluster(C)-LQAS system and illustrate the method with the design of data quality assessments for the community health worker program in Rwanda. To determine sample size and decision rules for C-LQAS, we use the beta-binomial distribution to account for inflated risk of errors introduced by sampling clusters at the first stage. We present general theory and code for sample size calculations.The C-LQAS sample sizes provided in this paper constrain misclassification risks below user-specified limits. Multiple C-LQAS systems meet the specified risk requirements, but numerous considerations, including per-cluster versus per-individual sampling costs, help identify optimal systems for distinct applications. We show the utility of C-LQAS for data quality assessments, but the method generalizes to numerous applications. This paper provides the necessary technical detail and supplemental code to support the design of C-LQAS for specific programs.

  12. Estimation after classification using lot quality assurance sampling: corrections for curtailed sampling with application to evaluating polio vaccination campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Casey; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-03-01

    To assess the bias incurred when curtailment of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is ignored, to present unbiased estimators, to consider the impact of cluster sampling by simulation and to apply our method to published polio immunization data from Nigeria. We present estimators of coverage when using two kinds of curtailed LQAS strategies: semicurtailed and curtailed. We study the proposed estimators with independent and clustered data using three field-tested LQAS designs for assessing polio vaccination coverage, with samples of size 60 and decision rules of 9, 21 and 33, and compare them to biased maximum likelihood estimators. Lastly, we present estimates of polio vaccination coverage from previously published data in 20 local government authorities (LGAs) from five Nigerian states. Simulations illustrate substantial bias if one ignores the curtailed sampling design. Proposed estimators show no bias. Clustering does not affect the bias of these estimators. Across simulations, standard errors show signs of inflation as clustering increases. Neither sampling strategy nor LQAS design influences estimates of polio vaccination coverage in 20 Nigerian LGAs. When coverage is low, semicurtailed LQAS strategies considerably reduces the sample size required to make a decision. Curtailed LQAS designs further reduce the sample size when coverage is high. Results presented dispel the misconception that curtailed LQAS data are unsuitable for estimation. These findings augment the utility of LQAS as a tool for monitoring vaccination efforts by demonstrating that unbiased estimation using curtailed designs is not only possible but these designs also reduce the sample size. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Using lot quality-assurance sampling and area sampling to identify priority areas for trachoma control: Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Mark; Mai, Nguyen Phuong; Quynh, Nguyen Quang; Nga, Nguyen Huy; Tai, Ha Huy; Long, Nguyen Hung; Minh, Tran Hung; Limburg, Hans

    2005-10-01

    To report on the use of lot quality-assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys undertaken within an area-sampling framework to identify priority areas for intervention with trachoma control activities in Viet Nam. The LQAS survey method for the rapid assessment of the prevalence of active trachoma was adapted for use in Viet Nam with the aim of classifying individual communes by the prevalence of active trachoma among children in primary school. School-based sampling was used; school sites to be sampled were selected using an area-sampling approach. A total of 719 communes in 41 districts in 18 provinces were surveyed. Survey staff found the LQAS survey method both simple and rapid to use after initial problems with area-sampling methods were identified and remedied. The method yielded a finer spatial resolution of prevalence than had been previously achieved in Viet Nam using semiquantitative rapid assessment surveys and multistage cluster-sampled surveys. When used with area-sampling techniques, the LQAS survey method has the potential to form the basis of survey instruments that can be used to efficiently target resources for interventions against active trachoma. With additional work, such methods could provide a generally applicable tool for effective programme planning and for the certification of the elimination of trachoma as a blinding disease.

  14. Using lot quality assurance sampling to assess measurements for growth monitoring in a developing country's primary health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, J J; Brown, L D; Vargas, W V; Morley, D

    1996-04-01

    Local supervisors used lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) during routine household visits to assess the technical quality of Costa Rican community-based health workers (CHW): measuring and recording weights of children, interpreting their growth trend and providing nutrition education to mothers. Supervisors sampled 10 households in each of 12 Health Areas (4-8 hours per area). No more than two performance errors were allowed for each CHW. This LQAS decision rule resulted in judgments with a sensitivity and specificity of about 95 percent. Three categories of results are reported: (1) CHW adequately weighed children, calculated ages, identified children requiring nutritional services, and used the growth chart. (2) They needed to improve referral, education, and documentation skills. (3) The lack of system support to regularly provide growth cards, supplementary feeding to identified malnourished children, and other essential materials may have discouraged some CHW resulting in them not applying their skills. Supervisors regularly using LQAS should, by the sixth round of supervision, identify at least 90 percent of inadequately performing CHW. This paper demonstrates the strength of LQAS, namely, to be used easily by low level local health workers to identify poorly functioning components of growth monitoring and promotion.

  15. Performance of the lot quality assurance sampling method compared to surveillance for identifying inadequately-performing areas in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, S M A; Roy, Nikhil; Streatfield, P Kim

    2007-03-01

    This paper compared the performance of the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method in identifying inadequately-performing health work-areas with that of using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data and examined the feasibility of applying the method by field-level programme supervisors. The study was carried out in Matlab, the field site of ICDDR,B, where a HDSS has been in place for over 30 years. The LQAS method was applied in 57 work-areas of community health workers in ICDDR,B-served areas in Matlab during July-September 2002. The performance of the LQAS method in identifying work-areas with adequate and inadequate coverage of various health services was compared with those of the HDSS. The health service-coverage indicators included coverage of DPT, measles, BCG vaccination, and contraceptive use. It was observed that the difference in the proportion of work-areas identified to be inadequately performing using the LQAS method with less than 30 respondents, and the HDSS was not statistically significant. The consistency between the LQAS method and the HDSS in identifying work-areas was greater for adequately-performing areas than inadequately-performing areas. It was also observed that the field managers could be trained to apply the LQAS method in monitoring their performance in reaching the target population.

  16. Assessing Local Risk of Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidebrecht, Christine L; Podewils, Laura J; Pym, Alexander; Mthiyane, Thuli; Cohen, Ted

    2016-01-01

    KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) has the highest burden of notified multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB cases in South Africa. A better understanding of spatial heterogeneity in the risk of drug-resistance may help to prioritize local responses. Between July 2012 and June 2013, we conducted a two-way Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) study to classify the burden of rifampicin (RIF)-resistant TB among incident TB cases notified within the catchment areas of seven laboratories in two northern and one southern district of KZN. Decision rules for classification of areas as having either a high- or low-risk of RIF resistant TB (based on proportion of RIF resistance among all TB cases) were based on consultation with local policy makers. We classified five areas as high-risk and two as low-risk. High-risk areas were identified in both Southern and Northern districts, with the greatest proportion of RIF resistance observed in the northernmost area, the Manguzi community situated on the Mozambique border. Our study revealed heterogeneity in the risk of RIF resistant disease among incident TB cases in KZN. This study demonstrates the potential for LQAS to detect geographic heterogeneity in areas where access to drug susceptibility testing is limited.

  17. Mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  18. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The state of Nevada opposed DOE's development of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As a result, disputes have arisen over how Nevada has spent financial assistance provided by DOE to pay the state's repository program costs. This report reviews Nevada's use of about $32 million in grant funds provided by DOE through June 1989 and found that Nevada improperly spent about $1 million. Nevada used as much as $683,000 for lobbying and litigation expenses that were unauthorized or were expressly prohibited by law, court decision, or grant terms; exceeded a legislative spending limit on socioeconomic studies by about $96,000; and used, contrary to grant terms, about $275,000 from one grant period to pay expenses incurred in the prior year. Also, Nevada did not always exercise adequate internal controls over grant funds, such as timely liquidation of funds advanced to contractors. A permissive approach to grant administration by DOE contributed to Nevada's inappropriate use of grant funds

  19. Review Paper on Application of Waste Plastic in Modifying Bitumen Properties

    OpenAIRE

    AdityaBhardwaj; Bal Krishna Keshav; AkulDev Singh

    2017-01-01

    Industrialisation and population is increasing day by day leading to the increase in the amount of waste plastic. Plastic is a non-biodegradable substance i.e. it is not decomposed by bacteria easily. So, dumping it causes soil pollution which leads to decrease in the fertility of soil. Another way of getting rid of plastic is by burning it, which also produces a lot of harmful gases and leads to increase in air pollution. Soil and air pollution both are harmful for the environment. Waste pla...

  20. The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Benjamin J.

    1978-01-01

    The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

  1. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  2. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from utilization of radioisotopes and each step of the nuclear fuel cycle and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. On the safe management of radioactive waste management, international safety standards are established such as ''The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management (IAEA)'' and T he Joint Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management . Basic steps of radioactive waste management consist of treatment, conditioning and disposal. Disposal is the final step of radioactive waste management and its safety is confirmed by safety assessment in the licensing process. Safety assessment means evaluation of radiation dose rate caused by radioactive materials contained in disposed radioactive waste. The results of the safety assessment are compared with dose limits. The key issues of radioactive waste disposal are establishment of long term national strategies and regulations for safe management of radioactive waste, siting of repository, continuity of management activities and financial bases for long term, and security of human resources. (Author)

  3. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed potato lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work of multiple organizations to improve seed potato health in U.S.A. and an example of change to reduce Potato virus Y in seed lots. In the United States, seed potato improvement starts with the individual seed potato grower. The seed grower also has resources that are available from university e...

  5. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Parking Lot Lighting at T.J.Maxx in Manchester, NH Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Michael; Goettel, Russell T.

    2010-06-29

    A report describing the process and results of replacing existing parking lot lighting, looking at a LED option with occupancy sensors, and conventional alternates. Criteria include payback, light levels, occupant satisfaction. This report is Phase I of II. Phase I deals with initial installation.

  6. LOT A2 Test, THC-modelling of bentonite buffer in a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itaelae, A.; Olin, M.; Rasilainen, K.; Pulkkanen, V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Finnish spent nuclear fuel disposal is planned to be based on the KBS-3V repository concept. Within this concept, the role of the bentonite buffer is considered to be central. The aim of this study was to model the evolution of the buffer during the thermal phase (heat-generating period of spent fuel), when the bentonite is only partially saturated initially, and the surrounding rock matrix is assumed to be fully saturated. It is essential to study how temperature will affect saturation and also how both of these affect the chemistry of bentonite. In order to make the modeling more concrete, an example experimental case was considered: Long Term Test of Buffer Materials (LOT) A2-parcel test at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden. In the A2-parcel the MX-80 bentonite was exposed to adverse (120-150 deg. C) temperature conditions and high temperature gradients. The test parcel diameter was smaller than in the actual KBS-3V deposition hole to speed up the saturation. The chemical behaviour of minerals causes their redistribution inside the bentonite. For example, according to the laboratory tests, gypsum dissolves and anhydrite precipitates near the heater-bentonite interface. Also, incoming groundwater affects the bentonite pore water and its properties. These changes may, in turn, influence the mechanical properties of the bentonite. A coupled Thermo-Hydro-Chemical (THC) model was applied, which means that all mechanical effects were ignored. The purpose of the model was first to achieve a satisfactory match between the model and experimental results, and, therefore, the time frame was limited to ten years (LOT A-2 parcel test lasted approximately 6 years). The system was simplified to 1-D in order to reduce the computational work, which can be very significant due to complex chemical calculations. The 1-D model results are reported in Itaelae (2009). The aim is to extend the calculations to 2-D

  7. Parking lot runoff quality and treatment efficiencies of a hydrodynamic-settling device in Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwatich, Judy A.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2012-01-01

    A hydrodynamic-settling device was installed in 2004 to treat stormwater runoff from a roof and parking lot located at the Water Utility Administration Building in Madison, Wis. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, the City of Madison, cities in the Waukesha Permit Group, Hydro International, Earth Tech, Inc., National Sanitation Foundation International, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, monitored the device from November 2005 through September 2006 to evaluate it as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program. Twenty-three runoff events monitored for flow volume and water quality at the device's inlet and outlet were used to calculate the percentage of pollutant reduction for the device. The geometric mean concentrations of suspended sediment (SS), "adjusted" total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), dissolved phosphorus (DP), total recoverable zinc (TZn), and total recoverable copper (TCu) measured at the inlet were 107 mg/L (milligrams per liter), 92 mg/L, 0.17 mg/L, 0.05 mg/L, 38 μg/L (micrograms per liter), and 12 μg/L, respectively, and these concentrations are in the range of values observed in stormwater runoff from other parking lots in Wisconsin and Michigan. Efficiency of the settling device was calculated using the efficiency ratio and summation of loads (SOL) methods. Using the efficiency ratio method, the device reduced concentrations of SS, and DP, by 19, and 15, percent, respectively. Using the efficiency ratio method, the device increased "adjusted" TSS and TZn concentrations by 5 and 19, respectively. Bypass occurred for 3 of the 23 runoff events used in this assessment, and the bypass flow and water-quality concentrations were used to determine the efficiency of the bypass system. Concentrations of SS, "adjusted" TSS, and DP were reduced for the system by 18, 5, and 18, respectively; however, TZn increased by 5

  8. A study on the utilization of chromic oxide wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Woong; Kim, Chi Kwon; Hwang, Seon Kook; Kim, Byung Gyu; Son, Jeong Soo; Nam, Chul Woo [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study was carried out to develop the optimum process for recovering precious and valuable metals from chrome oxide wastes. The following subjects such as, (1) feasibility on the recovery of precious and valuable metals, (2) recovery rate of precious and valuable metals, (3) purification of extracted precious and valuable metals, and (4) environmental aspects of recovery process, were investigated and the main results are as follows. (1) With Sem analysis of chrome oxide wastes, it was found that combustion process for eliminating oil and water in wastes, was necessary. (2) After leaching chrome oxide wastes with nitric acid and aqua regia, silver and gold were effectively separated and recovered. But a lot of silver and gold were remaining in the leaching residue. It was considered that chrome oxide powder was coated with organic materials during polishing stage and their products were insoluble in acidic solution. (3) The optimum process for separation and recovery of precious metal and production of new chrome oxide is consist of several process such as perchloric acid leaching, recovery of silver chloride, cementation for gold, reduction of chrome ion, and production of pure chrome oxide. (4) For separating chrome compound from the chrome oxide waste occurred in stainless steel polishing process, alkali roasting process was suggested. (author). 18 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Improving data quality and supervision of antiretroviral therapy sites in Malawi: an application of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Tenthani, Lyson; Mitchell, Shira; Chimbwandira, Frank M; Makombe, Simon; Chirwa, Zengani; Schouten, Erik J; Pagano, Marcello; Jahn, Andreas

    2012-07-09

    High quality program data is critical for managing, monitoring, and evaluating national HIV treatment programs. By 2009, the Malawi Ministry of Health had initiated more than 270,000 patients on HIV treatment at 377 sites. Quarterly supervision of these antiretroviral therapy (ART) sites ensures high quality care, but the time currently dedicated to exhaustive record review and data cleaning detracts from other critical components. The exhaustive record review is unlikely to be sustainable long term because of the resources required and increasing number of patients on ART. This study quantifies the current levels of data quality and evaluates Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) as a tool to prioritize sites with low data quality, thus lowering costs while maintaining sufficient quality for program monitoring and patient care. In January 2010, a study team joined supervision teams at 19 sites purposely selected to reflect the variety of ART sites. During the exhaustive data review, the time allocated to data cleaning and data discrepancies were documented. The team then randomly sampled 76 records from each site, recording secondary outcomes and the time required for sampling. At the 19 sites, only 1.2% of records had discrepancies in patient outcomes and 0.4% in treatment regimen. However, data cleaning took 28.5 hours in total, suggesting that data cleaning for all 377 ART sites would require over 350 supervision-hours quarterly. The LQAS tool accurately identified the sites with the low data quality, reduced the time for data cleaning by 70%, and allowed for reporting on secondary outcomes. Most sites maintained high quality records. In spite of this, data cleaning required significant amounts of time with little effect on program estimates of patient outcomes. LQAS conserves resources while maintaining sufficient data quality for program assessment and management to allow for quality patient care.

  10. Improving data quality and supervision of antiretroviral therapy sites in Malawi: an application of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedt-Gauthier Bethany L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High quality program data is critical for managing, monitoring, and evaluating national HIV treatment programs. By 2009, the Malawi Ministry of Health had initiated more than 270,000 patients on HIV treatment at 377 sites. Quarterly supervision of these antiretroviral therapy (ART sites ensures high quality care, but the time currently dedicated to exhaustive record review and data cleaning detracts from other critical components. The exhaustive record review is unlikely to be sustainable long term because of the resources required and increasing number of patients on ART. This study quantifies the current levels of data quality and evaluates Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS as a tool to prioritize sites with low data quality, thus lowering costs while maintaining sufficient quality for program monitoring and patient care. Methods In January 2010, a study team joined supervision teams at 19 sites purposely selected to reflect the variety of ART sites. During the exhaustive data review, the time allocated to data cleaning and data discrepancies were documented. The team then randomly sampled 76 records from each site, recording secondary outcomes and the time required for sampling. Results At the 19 sites, only 1.2% of records had discrepancies in patient outcomes and 0.4% in treatment regimen. However, data cleaning took 28.5 hours in total, suggesting that data cleaning for all 377 ART sites would require over 350 supervision-hours quarterly. The LQAS tool accurately identified the sites with the low data quality, reduced the time for data cleaning by 70%, and allowed for reporting on secondary outcomes. Conclusions Most sites maintained high quality records. In spite of this, data cleaning required significant amounts of time with little effect on program estimates of patient outcomes. LQAS conserves resources while maintaining sufficient data quality for program assessment and management to allow for quality patient

  11. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dele Abegunde

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012–2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. Design: We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs. The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. Results: None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Conclusions: Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care

  12. Associations with HIV testing in Uganda: an analysis of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling database 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Caroline; Beckworth, Colin; Hadden, Wilbur C; Ouma, Joseph; Lwanga, Stephen K; Valadez, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2003, Uganda used Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) to assist district managers collect and use data to improve their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS program. Uganda's LQAS-database (2003-2012) covers up to 73 of 112 districts. Our multidistrict analysis of the LQAS data-set at 2003-2004 and 2012 examined gender variation among adults who ever tested for HIV over time, and attributes associated with testing. Conditional logistic regression matched men and women by community with seven model effect variables. HIV testing prevalence rose from 14% (men) and 12% (women) in 2003-2004 to 62% (men) and 80% (women) in 2012. In 2003-2004, knowing the benefits of testing (Odds Ratio [OR] = 6.09, 95% CI = 3.01-12.35), knowing where to get tested (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.44-5.56), and secondary education (OR = 3.04, 95% CI = 1.19-7.77) were significantly associated with HIV testing. By 2012, knowing the benefits of testing (OR = 3.63, 95% CI = 2.25-5.83), where to get tested (OR = 5.15, 95% CI = 3.26-8.14), primary education (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.39-2.91), being female (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 2.53-3.62), and being married (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.17-2.8) were significantly associated with HIV testing. HIV testing prevalence in Uganda has increased dramatically, more for women than men. Our results concurred with other authors that education, knowledge of HIV, and marriage (women only) are associated with testing for HIV and suggest that couples testing is more prevalent than other authors.

  13. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Shoretire, Kamil; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Mohammed, Zainab; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Ganiyu, Akeem

    2015-01-01

    Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012-2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs). The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care level remain a priority, for intensive program scale-up to

  14. Comparing two survey methods of measuring health-related indicators: Lot Quality Assurance Sampling and Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoke, Sarah C; Mwai, Paul; Jeffery, Caroline; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Two common methods used to measure indicators for health programme monitoring and evaluation are the demographic and health surveys (DHS) and lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS); each one has different strengths. We report on both methods when utilised in comparable situations. We compared 24 indicators in south-west Uganda, where data for prevalence estimations were collected independently for the two methods in 2011 (LQAS: n = 8876; DHS: n = 1200). Data were stratified (e.g. gender and age) resulting in 37 comparisons. We used a two-sample two-sided Z-test of proportions to compare both methods. The average difference between LQAS and DHS for 37 estimates was 0.062 (SD = 0.093; median = 0.039). The average difference among the 21 failures to reject equality of proportions was 0.010 (SD = 0.041; median = 0.009); among the 16 rejections, it was 0.130 (SD = 0.010, median = 0.118). Seven of the 16 rejections exhibited absolute differences of 0.10 and 0.20 (mean = 0.261, SD = 0.083). There is 75.7% agreement across the two surveys. Both methods yield regional results, but only LQAS provides information at less granular levels (e.g. the district level) where managerial action is taken. The cost advantage and localisation make LQAS feasible to conduct more frequently, and provides the possibility for real-time health outcomes monitoring. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Food waste prevention - effects on greenhouse gas emissions and costs for waste producers and actions to reduce waste volume; Elintarvikejaetteen synnyn ehkaeisy. Vaikutukset kasvihuonekaasupaeaestoeihin ja jaetteen tuottajan kohtaamiin kustannuksiin sekae keinoja maeaeraen vaehentaemiseen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teerioja, N.; Anderson, R. [HSY, Helsinki (Finland); Heino, E.; Rasi, S. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    Wasted food causes a lot of environmental effects during its life cycle. These effects are unnecessary if the generated waste could have been avoided. In addition, the wasted food causes redundant costs for the waste producers. The objective of this study is to assess, on the basis of existing studies, how much it is possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and costs for waste producers in the HSY area by means of food waste prevention. The waste producers considered in this study are households, public sector, retail and other private sector. Additionally, concrete measures to prevent bio-waste are studied. The impacts of food waste prevention are assessed by defining the CO{sub 2}-eq- emissions per one food waste kilogram in three different life cycle phases: the early phase (from primary production to retail), the usage phase (from retail to the end user's waste bin) and waste treatment. The costs that waste producers face include purchase costs, usage phase costs (e.g. cooking and storing) and waste fees. Moreover, the total effects of food waste prevention are analyzed in a case study which includes two different cases in the year 2020: the base case and the prevention case. In the base case, the food waste volume is growing, among other things, concurrently with the population, while in the prevention case the food and bio-waste prevention is improved in such a way that the amount of food waste is 30% lower than in 2009. According to the results, one kg of food waste causes 2.9- 5.2 kg CO{sub 2}-eq- emissions during its life cycle depending on the sector. The variation results mainly from different waste compositions in the different sectors. The majority of the emissions are generated during the early phase of the life cycle. Correspondingly, one kg of food waste causes a cost of euro 3.60-8.90 for the waste producer depending on the sector. On average, two thirds of the costs result from purchases, but there is a great deal of variation between the

  16. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... should be managed accordingly. Another reason is that it has been documented that a large fraction of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. C&D waste may conveniently be divided into three subcategories: Buildings, roads and excavations. This chapter...

  17. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  18. Waste management progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    During the Cold War era, when DOE and its predecessor agencies produced nuclear weapons and components, and conducted nuclear research, a variety of wastes were generated (both radioactive and hazardous). DOE now has the task of managing these wastes so that they are not a threat to human health and the environment. This document is the Waste Management Progress Report for the U.S. Department of Energy dated June 1997. This progress report contains a radioactive and hazardous waste inventory and waste management program mission, a section describing progress toward mission completion, mid-year 1997 accomplishments, and the future outlook for waste management

  19. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  20. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  1. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  2. The study on the overseas recycling technology of the radioactive metallic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. R.; Jung, Y. S.; Sin, J. I.

    2002-01-01

    It was understood that regulation criteria for material release varied with countries and that international standards were not setup. But, most advanced countries are continuously studying on the recycling of metallic wastes for the purpose of the reuse of resources and disposal cost reduction. Practically, the advanced countries make a lot of cost profits compared with disposal as their metallic wastes are recycled and reused through technology like melting. In our case, the recycle criteria for radioactive waste containing radioactive nuclide with long half-life such as Cs-137(half-life: 30y) and Co-60(half-life: 5.26y) including others, which are generated from the nuclear fission or dismantling of nuclear facilities, are not yet established. Therefore, it is required that the recommendation and legalization of the regulatory criteria be carried out for the recycle and reuse of metallic wastes to be generated from the dismantling of domestic nuclear facilities in the future

  3. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  4. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Yamatani, Shoich; Watahara, Masashi; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  5. Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. Contents: - Foreword; - Key Points for Policy Makers; - Executive Summary; - Introduction; - Theme 1 - Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in Perspective; - Theme 2 - The Outlook for Wastes Arising from Coal and from Nuclear Power Generation; - Risk, Perceived Risk and Public Attitudes; - Concluding Discussion and Lessons Learnt; - Strategic Issues for Radioactive Waste; - Strategic Issues for Hazardous Waste; - Case Studies - The Management of Coal Ash, CO 2 and Mercury as Wastes; - Risk and Perceived Risk; - List of Participants; - List of Abbreviations. (authors)

  6. Aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The origin and types of radioactive waste, the objective and the fundamental principles of radioactive waste management and the classification of radioactive waste are presented. Problems of the radioactive waste management are analyzed. (authors)

  7. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  8. Wastes - Issue 2014. Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusler, Laurence; Moro-Goubely, Anne-Gaelle; Berthoin, Guillaume; Mathery, Christian; Galio, Pierre; Heyberger-Paroisse, Agnes

    2014-06-01

    This publication proposes numerous tables and graphs of data and indicators (and of their evolution) regarding wastes. It addresses waste prevention and production in France (concerned materials, waste production, waste origins, actions and measures for waste prevention, re-use), waste collection (for domestic, industrial wastes, cross-border exchanges, nuclear reactors), waste processing (of dangerous and non dangerous wastes), valorisation processes (sorting, recycling, composting, methanization), waste-based energy production, economy and costs of the waste management activity, and environmental impacts (atmospheric emissions, impact of recycling)

  9. Management of C&D waste from generation to final sink - do we forget the volatile harmful substances?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    extremely slowly during use. Therefore, the insulation material will still contain large quantities of CFC when the buildings reach the endof-life and are demolished. The management of C&D waste in relation to controlling the CFC releases is basically unregulated in contrast to end-of-life refrigerators...... activities and obtaining CFC destruction either through foam waste incineration or by controlled microbial processes in landfills receiving the foam waste. There are still a lot of unknown processes and factors that need to be investigated before cost-efficient strategies and technologies are finally......Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) are produced. Buildings in many countries are thermally insulated by insulation foam containing large amounts of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), which are both strong ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases. The CFCs are released...

  10. Experience in radioactive waste management of research centre-CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2001-01-01

    China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is the birthplace of China nuclear science and technology and the important base for nuclear science and technology implementing pioneering, basic and comprehensive studies. The major tasks and activities of CIAE are: (1) Fundamental research of nuclear science and technology; (2) Research and development of advanced nuclear energy; and (3) Application of nuclear technology. CIAE is equipped with three research reactors (15MW heavy water reactor, 3.5MW light water swimming pool reactor, 27kW neutron source reactor), four zero-power facilities, eleven accelerators, hot cells and a lot of glove boxes which produce various kinds of radioactive wastes. CIAE pays great attention to the safe management of radioactive waste. Many measurements were and are adopted. CIAE carries out the national policy of radioactive waste management and the international fundamental principles of radioactive waste management. To protect human body and environment both now and future generation minimizes the releasing amounts and activity, minimizes the solidified wastes to be disposed of. The principles of 'controlled generation, categorized collection, volume-reduction immobilization, reliable package, in-situ storage, safe transportation and disposal' are followed in managing LLW and ILW. The liquid wastes are separately treated by precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange or adsorption by organic or inorganic materials. The spent organic solvents are treated by incineration at a special incinerator. The low level radioactive gases and liquids can be discharged into the environment only when they are clean-up and permissible level is achieved. Such discharge is controlled by two factors: total discharge amount and specific activity. The solid wastes are separately collected in site according to their physical properties and specific activity. The storage waste is retrievable designed. The spent/sealed radiation sources are collected and stored with

  11. ITER waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosanvallon, S.; Na, B.C.; Benchikhoune, M.; Uzan, J. Elbez; Gastaldi, O.; Taylor, N.; Rodriguez, L.

    2010-01-01

    ITER will produce solid radioactive waste during its operation (arising from the replacement of components and from process and housekeeping waste) and during decommissioning (de-activation phase and dismantling). The waste will be activated by neutrons of energies up to 14 MeV and potentially contaminated by activated corrosion products, activated dust and tritium. This paper describes the waste origin, the waste classification as a function of the French national agency for radioactive waste management (ANDRA), the optimization process put in place to reduce the waste radiotoxicity and volumes, the estimated waste amount based on the current design and maintenance procedure, and the overall strategy from component removal to final disposal anticipated at this stage of the project.

  12. Radioactive wastes. Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)

  13. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.; Allen, C.R.; Kruger, O.L.; Weber, E.T.

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to immobilize pretreated Hanford high-level waste and transuranic waste in borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters. Testing is being conducted in the HWVP Technology Development Project to ensure that adapted technologies are applicable to the candidate Hanford wastes and to generate information for waste form qualification. Empirical modeling is being conducted to define a glass composition range consistent with process and waste form qualification requirements. Laboratory studies are conducted to determine process stream properties, characterize the redox chemistry of the melter feed as a basis for controlling melt foaming and evaluate zeolite sorption materials for process waste treatment. Pilot-scale tests have been performed with simulated melter feed to access filtration for solids removal from process wastes, evaluate vitrification process performance and assess offgas equipment performance. Process equipment construction materials are being selected based on literature review, corrosion testing, and performance in pilot-scale testing. 3 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Business unusual - Waste Act implementation: solid waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The preamble to the Waste Act (2008) is very clear that, as a result of this legislation, waste management in South Africa will never be the same again. This should send a clear message that ‘business as usual’ will no longer be sufficient....

  16. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall.

  17. Mixed Waste Focus Area - Waste form initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, R.; Waters, R.; Pohl, P.; Roach, J.

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI

  18. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall. 4 claims, 4 figures

  19. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  20. Solid waste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

  1. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  2. Radioactivity and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities must be reprocessed using specific treatments before packaging, storage and disposal. This digest paper gives first a classification of radioactive wastes according to their radionuclides content activity and half-life, and the amount of wastes from the different categories generated each year by the different industries. Then, the radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes is evaluated according to the reprocessing treatments used and to their environmental management (surface storage or burial). (J.S.)

  3. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.

    1994-01-01

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  4. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  5. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  6. Nuclear waste - where to go?; Atommuell - wohin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornsiepen, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    The question of the final di9sposal of nuclear waste is a problem of international importance. The solution of the problem is of increasing urgency; the discussion is controversial and implies a lot of emotions. In Germany there is consensus that the nuclear wastes have to be disposed within the country in deep geological formations. This kind of final disposal is predominantly a geological problem and has to be solved from the geological point of view. The geologist Ulrich Dornsiepen presents the problems of the final disposal in an objective way without ideology and generally understandable. Such a presentation is necessary since the public information and participation is demanded but the open geological questions and their scientific solutions are never explained for the public. [German] Die Frage der endgueltigen Lagerung von Atommuell ist ein Problem von nationaler Tragweite, dessen Loesung immer dringender wird, bisher aber sehr kontrovers diskutiert wird und mit vielen Emotionen verknuepft ist. Es besteht in Deutschland ein Konsens, diese Abfaelle innerhalb der Landesgrenzen dauerhaft in tief liegenden Gesteinsschichten abzulagern. Diese Art der Endlagerung ist aber in erster Linie ein geologisches Problem und so auch nur von geologischer Seite her zu loesen. Daher stellt der Geologe Ulrich Dornsiepen die Problematik der Endlagerung objektiv, ideologiefrei und allgemein verstaendlich dar. Ein solches Hoerbuch ist dringend noetig, da zwar die Information und Beteiligung breiter, betroffener Bevoelkerungsteile eingefordert, aber niemals versucht wird, die offenen geologischen Fragen und ihre wissenschaftliche Loesung verstaendlich zu machen.

  7. Biomedical waste management in India: Critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Priya; Mohi, Gursimran Kaur; Chander, Jagdish

    2018-01-01

    The safe and sustainable management of biomedical waste (BMW) is social and legal responsibility of all people supporting and financing health-care activities. Effective BMW management (BMWM) is mandatory for healthy humans and cleaner environment. This article reviews the recent 2016 BMWM rules, practical problems for its effective implementation, the major drawback of conventional techniques, and the latest eco-friendly methods for BMW disposal. The new rules are meant to improve the segregation, transportation, and disposal methods, to decrease environmental pollution so as to change the dynamic of BMW disposal and treatment in India. For effective disposal of BMWM, there should be a collective teamwork with committed government support in terms of finance and infrastructure development, dedicated health-care workers and health-care facilities, continuous monitoring of BMW practices, tough legislature, and strong regulatory bodies. The basic principle of BMWM is segregation at source and waste reduction. Besides, a lot of research and development need to be in the field of developing environmental friendly medical devices and BMW disposal systems for a greener and cleaner environment.

  8. Biomedical waste management in India: Critical appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Priya; Mohi, Gursimran Kaur; Chander, Jagdish

    2018-01-01

    The safe and sustainable management of biomedical waste (BMW) is social and legal responsibility of all people supporting and financing health-care activities. Effective BMW management (BMWM) is mandatory for healthy humans and cleaner environment. This article reviews the recent 2016 BMWM rules, practical problems for its effective implementation, the major drawback of conventional techniques, and the latest eco-friendly methods for BMW disposal. The new rules are meant to improve the segregation, transportation, and disposal methods, to decrease environmental pollution so as to change the dynamic of BMW disposal and treatment in India. For effective disposal of BMWM, there should be a collective teamwork with committed government support in terms of finance and infrastructure development, dedicated health-care workers and health-care facilities, continuous monitoring of BMW practices, tough legislature, and strong regulatory bodies. The basic principle of BMWM is segregation at source and waste reduction. Besides, a lot of research and development need to be in the field of developing environmental friendly medical devices and BMW disposal systems for a greener and cleaner environment. PMID:29403196

  9. Rock & Roll : Waste seperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beunder, L.; Rem, P.C.; Van Den Berg, R.

    2000-01-01

    Five hundred tonnes of glass, 1 million tonnes of plastic,14 million tonnes of building and demolition waste, 7 million tonnes of household waste, 3 million tonnes of packaging, 3.5 million tonnes of paper and board, and 300,000 old cars. All part of the annual harvest of waste materials in the

  10. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  11. Waste vs Resource Management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent global waste statistics show that in the order of 70% of all municipal waste generated worldwide is disposed at landfill, 11% is treated in thermal and Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities and the rest (19%) is recycled or treated by mechanical...

  12. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  13. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  14. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  15. Mine waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This book reports on mine waste management. Topics covered include: Performance review of modern mine waste management units; Mine waste management requirements; Prediction of acid generation potential; Attenuation of chemical constituents; Climatic considerations; Liner system design; Closure requirements; Heap leaching; Ground water monitoring; and Economic impact evaluation

  16. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  17. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the second part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) geotechnical assessment, 2) hydrogeology and waste containment, 3) thermal loading and 4) rock mechanics. (author)

  18. Swedish waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandwall, L.

    2004-01-01

    Sweden has a well-functioning organization for managing various types of radioactive waste. There is an interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, a final repository for low and intermediate level waste, and a specially-built vessel with transport casks and containers for shipping the radioactive waste between the nuclear installations. (author)

  19. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  20. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, W.

    1976-01-01

    The article cites and summarizes the papers on the topics: economic and ecological importance of waste management, reprocessing of nuclear fuel and recycling of uranium and plutonium, waste management and final storage, transports and organizational aspects of waste management, presented at this symposium. (HR/AK) [de

  1. Radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the French way to deal with nuclear wastes. 4 categories of radioactive wastes have been defined: 1) very low-level wastes (TFA), 2) low or medium-wastes with short or medium half-life (A), 3) low or medium-level wastes with long half-life (B), and 4) high-level wastes with long half-life (C). ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) manages 2 sites of definitive surface storage (La-Manche and Aube centers) for TFA-wastes. The Aube center allows the storage of A-wastes whose half-life is less than 30 years. This site will receive waste packages for 50 years and will require a regular monitoring for 300 years after its decommissioning. No definitive solutions have been taken for B and C wastes, they are temporarily stored at La Hague processing plant. Concerning these wastes the French parliament will have to take a decision by 2006. At this date and within the framework of the Bataille law (1991), scientific studies concerning the definitive or retrievable storage, the processing techniques (like transmutation) will have been achieved and solutions will be proposed. These studies are numerous, long and complex, they involve fresh knowledge in geology, chemistry, physics,.. and they have implied the setting of underground facilities in order to test and validate solutions in situ. This article presents also the transmutation technique. (A.C.)

  2. Ironing out industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a hazardous waste treatment known as the catalytic extraction process, which also stabilizes and reduces low-level radioactive wastes to a fraction of their original volume, easing their disposal. It uses molten iron and other metals to convert hazardous wastes into useful materials

  3. International waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the international waste management conference. Topics covered include: Quality assurance in the OCR WM program; Leading the spirit of quality; Dept. of Energy hazardous waste remedial actions program; management of hazardous waste projects; and System management and quality assurance

  4. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  5. Intake and feeding efficiency in feed-lot lambs Consumo e Eficiência Alimentar em Cordeiros Confinados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joadil Gonçalves Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the intake and feed efficiency in fed-lot sheep as function of the body weight (BW variation. Data from three experiments with 50 feedlot lambs maintained in individual metabolic cages and fed diets composed of 50:50 roughage:concentrate were used. The experiment lasted 120 days; every 21 days the animals were weighed and the dry matter intake and body weight change were daily done. The intake was determined by checking daily the feed offer level and orts. The increased in animals body weight incremented the dry matter intake in 30.8g/kg of body weight/day, but promoted reduction of 0.0318% when the intake was expressed as percentage of BW. In addition, the advance of body weight affected negatively the feed conversion (FC, where animals with BW of 30 kg showed estimated FC of 4.55 of dry matter/kg of BW gain, while animals with BW of 45 kg have would food conversion of 7.03 kg of DM/kg of BW gain.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o consumo e a eficiência alimentar em ovinos confinados em função da variação no peso vivo (PV. Foram utilizados dados de três experimentos com cordeiros em confinamento, 50 animais no total, mantidos em gaiolas individuais para estudos de metabolismo, alimentados com dietas de relação volumoso: concentrado 50:50. Durante o experimento (120 dias, os animais foram monitorados quanto ao consumo diário de matéria seca e à variação de peso vivo, por meio de pesagens realizadas a cada 21 dias. O consumo foi determinado pelo monitoramento diário da oferta de alimento e das sobras. Com o do peso vivo dos animais aumentou o consumo de matéria seca em 29,38g/kg de PV/dia, mas promoveu redução de 0,0318% quando expresso em porcentagem do PV. Além disso, o avanço do PV afetou negativamente a conversão alimentar (CA, de modo que animais com 30kg de PV apresentaram CA estimada de 4,55kg de MS/kg de PV ganho, enquanto animais com peso

  6. Countdown to 2015: Tracking Maternal and Child Health Intervention Targets Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in Bauchi State Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Sadauki, Habib; Bassi, Amos; Kabo, Ibrahim A; Abdulkarim, Masduq

    2015-01-01

    Improving maternal and child health remains a top priority in Nigeria's Bauchi State in the northeastern region where the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) are as high as 1540 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births respectively. In this study, we used the framework of the continuum of maternal and child care to evaluate the impact of interventions in Bauchi State focused on improved maternal and child health, and to ascertain progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. At baseline (2012) and then at follow-up (2013), we randomly sampled 340 households from 19 random locations in each of the 20 Local Government Areas (LGA) of Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria, using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) technique. Women residents in the households were interviewed about their own health and that of their children. Estimated LGA coverage of maternal and child health indicators were aggregated across the State. These values were then compared to the national figures, and the differences from 2012 to 2014 were calculated. For several of the indicators, a modest improvement from baseline was found. However, the indicators in the continuum of care neither reached the national average nor attained the 90% globally recommended coverage level. The majority of the LGA surveyed were classifiable as high priority, thus requiring intensified efforts and programmatic scale up. Intensive scale-up of programs and interventions is needed in Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria, to accelerate, consolidate and sustain the modest but significant achievements in the continuum of care, if MDGs 4 and 5 are to be achieved by the end of 2015. The intentional focus of LGAs as the unit of intervention ought to be considered a condition precedent for future investments. Priority should be given to the re-allocating resources to program areas and regions where coverage has been low. Finally, systematic considerations

  7. Operational feasibility of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) as a tool in routine process monitoring of filariasis control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanamail, P; Subramanian, S; Srividya, A; Ravi, R; Krishnamoorthy, K; Das, P K

    2006-08-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) with two-stage sampling plan was applied for rapid monitoring of coverage after every round of mass drug administration (MDA). A Primary Health Centre (PHC) consisting of 29 villages in Thiruvannamalai district, Tamil Nadu was selected as the study area. Two threshold levels of coverage were used: threshold A (maximum: 60%; minimum: 40%) and threshold B (maximum: 80%; minimum: 60%). Based on these thresholds, one sampling plan each for A and B was derived with the necessary sample size and the number of allowable defectives (i.e. defectives mean those who have not received the drug). Using data generated through simple random sampling (SRSI) of 1,750 individuals in the study area, LQAS was validated with the above two sampling plans for its diagnostic and field applicability. Simultaneously, a household survey (SRSH) was conducted for validation and cost-effectiveness analysis. Based on SRSH survey, the estimated coverage was 93.5% (CI: 91.7-95.3%). LQAS with threshold A revealed that by sampling a maximum of 14 individuals and by allowing four defectives, the coverage was >or=60% in >90% of villages at the first stage. Similarly, with threshold B by sampling a maximum of nine individuals and by allowing four defectives, the coverage was >or=80% in >90% of villages at the first stage. These analyses suggest that the sampling plan (14,4,52,25) of threshold A may be adopted in MDA to assess if a minimum coverage of 60% has been achieved. However, to achieve the goal of elimination, the sampling plan (9, 4, 42, 29) of threshold B can identify villages in which the coverage is LQAS are more cost-effective than SRSH to detect a village with a given level of coverage. The cost per village was US dollars 76.18 under SRSH. The cost of LQAS was US dollars 65.81 and 55.63 per village for thresholds A and B respectively. The total financial cost of classifying a village correctly with the given threshold level of LQAS could be reduced by

  8. Countdown to 2015: Tracking Maternal and Child Health Intervention Targets Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in Bauchi State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dele Abegunde

    Full Text Available Improving maternal and child health remains a top priority in Nigeria's Bauchi State in the northeastern region where the maternal mortality ratio (MMR and infant mortality rate (IMR are as high as 1540 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births respectively. In this study, we used the framework of the continuum of maternal and child care to evaluate the impact of interventions in Bauchi State focused on improved maternal and child health, and to ascertain progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5.At baseline (2012 and then at follow-up (2013, we randomly sampled 340 households from 19 random locations in each of the 20 Local Government Areas (LGA of Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria, using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS technique. Women residents in the households were interviewed about their own health and that of their children. Estimated LGA coverage of maternal and child health indicators were aggregated across the State. These values were then compared to the national figures, and the differences from 2012 to 2014 were calculated.For several of the indicators, a modest improvement from baseline was found. However, the indicators in the continuum of care neither reached the national average nor attained the 90% globally recommended coverage level. The majority of the LGA surveyed were classifiable as high priority, thus requiring intensified efforts and programmatic scale up.Intensive scale-up of programs and interventions is needed in Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria, to accelerate, consolidate and sustain the modest but significant achievements in the continuum of care, if MDGs 4 and 5 are to be achieved by the end of 2015. The intentional focus of LGAs as the unit of intervention ought to be considered a condition precedent for future investments. Priority should be given to the re-allocating resources to program areas and regions where coverage has been low. Finally, systematic

  9. Establishment of cooperation basis of joint research on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hee Chul; Cho, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Yoo, J. H.; Yun, H. C.; Lee, D. G.

    2005-08-01

    Molten salt oxidation, MSO for short, is a robust technology that can effectively treat mixed waste (radioactive waste including hazardous metals or organics). It can safely and economically treat the difficult wastes such as not-easily destroyable toxic organic waste, medical waste, chemical warfare and energetic materials such as propellant and explosives, all of which are not easily treated by an incinerator or other currently existing thermal treatment system. Therefore, molten salt oxidation technology should be developed and utilized to treat a lot of niche waste stored in the nuclear and environmental industries. So, if we put the MSO technology to practical use by Korea-Vietnam joint research, we can reduce R and D fund for MSO technology by ourselves and we can expect an export of the outcome of nuclear R and D in Korea. For Establishment of cooperation basis of joint research concerning molten salt oxidation technology between KOREA and VIETNAM, in this research, We invited two Vietnamese researchers and we introduced our experimental scale molten salt oxidation system in order to let them understand molten salt oxidation technology. We also visited Viet man and we consulted about molten salt oxidation process. We held seminar on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology, discussed on the joint research on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology and finally we wrote MOU for joint research

  10. Establishment of cooperation basis of joint research on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hee Chul; Cho, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Yoo, J. H.; Yun, H. C.; Lee, D. G

    2005-08-01

    Molten salt oxidation, MSO for short, is a robust technology that can effectively treat mixed waste (radioactive waste including hazardous metals or organics). It can safely and economically treat the difficult wastes such as not-easily destroyable toxic organic waste, medical waste, chemical warfare and energetic materials such as propellant and explosives, all of which are not easily treated by an incinerator or other currently existing thermal treatment system. Therefore, molten salt oxidation technology should be developed and utilized to treat a lot of niche waste stored in the nuclear and environmental industries. So, if we put the MSO technology to practical use by Korea-Vietnam joint research, we can reduce R and D fund for MSO technology by ourselves and we can expect an export of the outcome of nuclear R and D in Korea. For Establishment of cooperation basis of joint research concerning molten salt oxidation technology between KOREA and VIETNAM, in this research, We invited two Vietnamese researchers and we introduced our experimental scale molten salt oxidation system in order to let them understand molten salt oxidation technology. We also visited Viet man and we consulted about molten salt oxidation process. We held seminar on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology, discussed on the joint research on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology and finally we wrote MOU for joint research.

  11. Biomass Briquette Investigation from Pterocarpus Indicus Leaves Waste as an Alternative Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggono, Willyanto; Sutrisno; Suprianto, Fandi D.; Evander, Jovian

    2017-10-01

    Indonesia is a tropical country located in Southeast Asia. Indonesia has a lot of variety of plant species which are very useful for life. Pterocarpus indicus are commonly used as greening and easily found everywhere in Surabaya city because of its characteristics that they have dense leaves and rapid growth. Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste would be a problem for residents of Surabaya and disturbing the cleanliness of the Surabaya city. Therefore, the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste would be used as biomass briquettes. This research investigated the calorific value of biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste, the effect of tapioca as an adhesive material to the calorific value of biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste, the optimum composition for Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste biomass briquette as an alternative renewable fuel and the property of the optimum resulted biomass briquette using ultimate analysis and proximate analysis based on the ASTM standard. The calorific value biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste were performed using an oxygen bomb calorimeter at various composition of Pterocarpus indicus from 50% to 90% rising by 10% for each experiment. The experimental results showed that the 90% raw materials (Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste)-10% adhesive materials (tapioca) mixtures is the optimum composition for biomass briquette Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste. The lower the percentage of the mass of tapioca in the biomass briquettes, the higher calorific value generated.

  12. Waste inventory, waste characteristics and waste repositories in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, K.

    1997-01-01

    There are two types of repositories for the low level radioactive wastes in Japan. One is a trench type repository only for concrete debris generated from the dismantling of the research reactor. According to the safety assurance system, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has disposed of the concrete debris arose from the dismantling of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR). The other type is the concreted pit with engineered barriers. Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center has this type of repository mainly for the power plant wastes. Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (JNFL) established by electric power companies is the operator of the LLW disposal project. JNFL began the storage operation in 1992 and buried approximately 60,000 drums there. Two hundred thousand drums of uniformly solidified, waste may be buried ultimately. 4 refs, 3 tabs

  13. Finnish expert report on best available techniques in slaughterhouses and installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, E.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide information about Finnish slaughterhouses and installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste. The Finnish slaughterhouses slaughter mainly pigs, cattle, and poultry. Rendering plants and fur animal feed production plants treat animal derived waste generated in Finland. The slaughterhouses and installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste consume a lot of electricity and heat, whereas they can save energy by recovering residual heat in-situ. Slaughtering consumes a lot of water and produces a high amount of wastewater. Wastewater has a high biological oxygen demand (BOD) because it contains a lot of proteins and fat. To minimize the pollution load it is important to avoid blood and fat entering the drainage. All the slaughterhouses and most of the installations for the disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste discharge their wastewater to the municipal sewer after pre-treatment. The use of boilers to produce hot water and industrial steam is the main source of air emissions. The storage, handling and treatment of by-products and wastes as well as wastewater treatment and singeing are potential sources of foul odours. (orig.)

  14. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  15. Management of solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; Stinton, L. H.

    1980-04-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were of solid waste. The current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste are highlighted. Capital operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options.

  16. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  17. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slansky, C.M.

    1975-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste is produced at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) during the recovery of spent highly enriched nuclear fuels. Liquid waste is stored safely in doubly contained tanks made of steel. The liquid waste is calcined to a solid and stored safely in a retrievable form in doubly contained underground bins. The calcine can be treated further or left untreated in anticipation of ultimate storage. Fluidized bed calcination has been applied to many kinds of high-level waste. The environmental impact of high-level waste management at the ICcP has been negligible and should continue to be negligible. 13 refs

  18. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC, several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  19. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, F.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is given of the report of an Expert Group appointed in 1976 to consider the 1959 White Paper 'The Control of Radioactive Wastes' in the light of the changes that have taken place since it was written and with the extended remit of examining 'waste management' rather than the original 'waste disposal'. The Group undertook to; review the categories and quantities present and future of radioactive wastes, recommend the principles for the proper management of these wastes, advise whether any changes in practice or statutory controls are necessary and make recommendations. (UK)

  20. Management of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This chapter introduces the range of solid waste materials produced in the mining and mineral processing industries, with particular reference to Australia. The waste materials are characterised and their important geotechnical engineering properties are discussed. Disposal management techniques for metalliferous, coal, heavy mineral sand, fly ash and bauxite solid wastes are described. Geo-technical techniques for the management of potential contaminants are presented. Minimisation and utilisation of solid wastes, and the economics of solid waste management, are discussed from the perspectives of policy, planning, costing and rehabilitation. 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.; Dayal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Major tasks in this NRC-sponsored program include: (1) an evaluation of the acceptability of low-level solidified wastes with respect to minimizing radionuclide releases after burial; and (2) an assessment of the influence of pertinent environmental stresses on the performance of high-integrity radwaste container (HIC) materials. The waste form performance task involves studies on small-scale laboratory specimens to predict and extrapolate: (1) leachability for extended time periods; (2) leach behavior of full-size forms; (3) performance of waste forms under realistic leaching conditions; and (4) leachability of solidified reactor wastes. The results show that leach data derived from testing of small-scale specimens can be extrapolated to estimate leachability of a full-scale specimen and that radionuclide release data derived from testing of simulants can be employed to predict the release behavior of reactor wastes. Leaching under partially saturated conditions exhibits lower releases of radionuclides than those observed under the conventional IAEA-type or ANS 16.1 leach tests. The HIC assessment task includes the characterization of mechanical properties of Marlex CL-100, a candidate radwaste high density polyethylene material. Tensile strength and creep rupture tests have been carried out to determine the influence of specific waste constituents as well as gamma irradiation on material performance. Emphasis in ongoing tests is being placed on studying creep rupture while the specimens are in contact with a variety of chemicals including radiolytic by-products of irradiated resin wastes. 12 references 6 figures, 2 tables

  2. Waste container and method for containing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akira; Matsushita, Mitsuhiro; Doi, Makoto; Nakatani, Seiichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a waste container, water-proof membranes and rare earth element layers are formed on the inner surface of a steel plate concrete container in which steel plates are embedded. Further, rear earth element detectors are disposed each from the inner side of the steel plate concrete container by way of a pressure pipe to the outer side of the container. As a method for actually containing wastes, when a plurality of vessels in which wastes are fixed are collectively enhoused to the waste container, cussioning materials are attached to the inner surface of the container and wastes fixing containers are stacked successively in a plurality of rows in a bag made of elastic materials. Subsequently, fixing materials are filled and tightly sealed in the waste container. When the waste container thus constituted is buried underground, even if it should be deformed to cause intrusion of rain water to the inside of the container, the rare earth elements in the container dissolved in the rain water can be detected by the detectors, the containers are exchanged before the rain water intruding to the inner side is leached to the surrounding ground, to previously prevent the leakage of radioactive nuclides. (K.M.)

  3. Ten questions on nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.; Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors give explanations and answers to ten issues related to nuclear wastes: when a radioactive material becomes a waste, how radioactive wastes are classified and particularly nuclear wastes in France, what are the risks associated with radioactive wastes, whether the present management of radioactive wastes is well controlled in France, which wastes are raising actual problems and what are the solutions, whether amounts and radio-toxicity of wastes can be reduced, whether all long life radionuclides or part of them can be transmuted, whether geologic storage of final wastes is inescapable, whether radioactive material can be warehoused over long durations, and how the information on radioactive waste management is organised

  4. Solid waste study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ''Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel

  5. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  6. SOLID WASTE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAUL G. ORTIZ - COLEMAN RESEARCH CORP/COMPA INDUSTRIES

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ``Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel.

  7. EPRI waste processing projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) manages research for its sponsoring electric utilities in the United States. Research in the area of low level radioactive waste (LLRW) from light water reactors focuses primarily on waste processing within the nuclear power plants, monitoring of the waste packages, and assessments of disposal technologies. Accompanying these areas and complimentary to them is the determination and evaluation of the sources of nuclear power plants radioactive waste. This paper focuses on source characterization of nuclear power plant waste, LLRW processing within nuclear power plants, and the monitoring of these wastes. EPRI's work in waste disposal technology is described in another paper in this proceeding by the same author. 1 reference, 5 figures

  8. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base

  9. Tank waste treatment science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFemina, J.P.; Blanchard, D.L.; Bunker, B.C.; Colton, N.G.; Felmy, A.R.; Franz, J.A.; Liu, J.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site require that many technical and scientific principles be combined for effectively managing and disposing the variety of wastes currently stored in underground tanks. Based on these principles, pretreatment technologies are being studied and developed to separate waste components and enable the most suitable treatment methods to be selected for final disposal of these wastes. The Tank Waste Treatment Science Task at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is addressing pretreatment technology development by investigating several aspects related to understanding and processing the tank contents. The experimental work includes evaluating the chemical and physical properties of the alkaline wastes, modeling sludge dissolution, and evaluating and designing ion exchange materials. This paper gives some examples of results of this work and shows how these results fit into the overall Hanford waste remediation activities. This work is part of series of projects being conducted for the Tank Waste Remediation System

  10. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  11. Nuclear waste landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors explore the time dimension in nuclear waste disposal, with the hope of untangling future land use issues for a full range of radioactive waste facilities. The longevity and hazards presented by nuclear reactor irradiated (spent) fuel and liquid reprocessing waste are well known. Final repositories for these highly radioactive wastes, to be opened early in the 21st Century, are to be located deep underground in rural locations throughout the developed world. Safety concerns are addressed by engineered and geological barriers containing the waste containers, as well as through geographic isolation from heavily populated areas. Yet nuclear power plants (as well as other applications of atomic energy) produce an abundance of other types of radioactive wastes. These materials are generally known as low level wastes (LLW) in the United States, though their level of longevity and radioactivity can vary dramatically

  12. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  13. Wastes in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As human space activities have created more wastes on low and high Earth orbits over the past 50 years than the solar system injected meteorites over billions of years, this report gives an overview of this problem. It identifies the origins of these space debris and wastes (launchers, combustion residues, exploitation wastes, out-of-use satellites, accidental explosions, accidental collisions, voluntary destructions, space erosion), and proposes a stock list of space wastes. Then, it distinguishes the situation for the different orbits: low Earth orbit or LEO (traffic, presence of the International Space Station), medium Earth orbits or MEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes), geostationary Earth orbit or GEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes). It also discusses wastes and bacteria present on the moon (due to Apollo missions or to crash tests). It evokes how space and nuclear industry is concerned, and discusses the re-entry issue (radioactive boomerang, metallic boomerang). It also indicates elements of international law

  14. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  15. Thermal plasma waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, Joachim; Murphy, Anthony B

    2008-01-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications. (topical review)

  16. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses induced by scarification vaccination of human volunteers with a new lot of the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, D M; Galloway, A; Sandstrom, G; Bolt, C R; England, M J; Nelson, G O; Williams, J C

    1992-01-01

    Tularemia is a disease caused by the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. We evaluated a new lot of live F. tularensis vaccine for its immunogenicity in human volunteers. Scarification vaccination induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Indications of a positive immune response after vaccination included an increase in specific antibody levels, which were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunoblot assays, and the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to respond to whole F. tularensis bacteria as recall antigens. Vaccination caused a significant rise (P less than 0.05) in immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM titers. Lymphocyte stimulation indices were significantly increased (P less than 0.01) in vaccinees 14 days after vaccination. These data verify that this new lot of live F. tularensis vaccine is immunogenic. Images PMID:1400988

  17. An economic lot and delivery scheduling problem with the fuzzy shelf life in a flexible job shop with unrelated parallel machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dousthaghi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an economic lot and delivery scheduling problem (ELDSP in a fuzzy environment with the fuzzy shelf life for each product. This problem is formulated in a flexible job shop with unrelated parallel machines, when the planning horizon is finite and it determines lot sizing, scheduling and sequencing, simultaneously. The proposed model of this paper is based on the basic period (BP approach. In this paper, a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model is presented and then it is changed into two models in the fuzzy shelf life. The main model is dependent to the multiple basic periods and it is difficult to solve the resulted proposed model for large-scale problems in reasonable amount of time; thus, an efficient heuristic method is proposed to solve the problem. The performance of the proposed model is demonstrated using some numerical examples.

  18. Lot quality assurance sampling for monitoring coverage and quality of a targeted condom social marketing programme in traditional and non-traditional outlets in India

    OpenAIRE

    Piot, Bram; Mukherjee, Amajit; Navin, Deepa; Krishnan, Nattu; Bhardwaj, Ashish; Sharma, Vivek; Marjara, Pritpal

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study reports on the results of a large-scale targeted condom social marketing campaign in and around areas where female sex workers are present. The paper also describes the method that was used for the routine monitoring of condom availability in these sites. Methods The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method was used for the assessment of the geographical coverage and quality of coverage of condoms in target areas in four states and along selected national highways in...

  19. Choosing a design to fit the situation: how to improve specificity and positive predictive values using Bayesian lot quality assurance sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Olives, Casey; Pagano, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Background Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is a provably useful tool for monitoring health programmes. Although LQAS ensures acceptable Producer and Consumer risks, the literature alleges that the method suffers from poor specificity and positive predictive values (PPVs). We suggest that poor LQAS performance is due, in part, to variation in the true underlying distribution. However, until now the role of the underlying distribution in expected performance has not been adequately examined.

  20. Evaluation of immunization coverage by lot quality assurance sampling compared with 30-cluster sampling in a primary health centre in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, J.; Jain, D. C.; Sharma, R. S.; Verghese, T.

    1996-01-01

    The immunization coverage of infants, children and women residing in a primary health centre (PHC) area in Rajasthan was evaluated both by lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) and by the 30-cluster sampling method recommended by WHO's Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). The LQAS survey was used to classify 27 mutually exclusive subunits of the population, defined as residents in health subcentre areas, on the basis of acceptable or unacceptable levels of immunization coverage among inf...