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Sample records for emulsion cloud chamber

  1. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae-ik [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Division of Heavy Ion Clinical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seyjoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Chiyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sungkoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Byeong, E-mail: sblee@ncc.re.kr [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kwak, Jungwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hyun [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jung Sook [Department of refinement education, Dongseo University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jung Keun [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Incerti, Sebastien [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Université Bordeaux 1, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2015-04-15

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  2. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion

  3. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the 'NETSCAN' method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  4. Kinematical analysis with the Emulsion Cloud Chamber in the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Capua, F

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA experiment aims at measuring for the first time neutrino oscil- lation in appearance mode through the detection of ni-tau in an almost pure niμ beam produced at CERN SPS (CNGS), 730 km far from the detector. The ni-tau appearance signal is identified through the measurement of the decay daughter particles of the " lepton produced in CC ni-tau interactions. Since the short-lived " particle has, at the energy of the beam, an average decay length shorter than a 1 mm, a micrometric detection resolution is needed. The OPERA appara- tus is hybrid, using nuclear emulsion as high precision tracker and electronic detectors for the time stamp, event localization in the target and muon recon- struction. The Emulsion Cloud Chamber technique fulfils the requirement of a microscopic resolution together with a large target mass. The kinematical analysis allowed by this technique is described.

  5. Cloud Chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gfader, Verina

    Cloud Chamber takes its roots in a performance project, titled The Guests 做东, devised by Verina Gfader for the 11th Shanghai Biennale, ‘Why Not Ask Again: Arguments, Counter-arguments, and Stories’. Departing from the inclusion of the biennale audience to write a future folk tale, Cloud Chamber......: fiction and translation and translation through time; post literacy; world picturing-world typing; and cartographic entanglements and expressions of subjectivity; through the lens a social imaginary of worlding or cosmological quest. Art at its core? Contributions by Nikos Papastergiadis, Rebecca Carson...

  6. Cloud chamber photographs of the cosmic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Rochester, George Dixon

    1952-01-01

    Cloud Chamber Photographs of the Cosmic Radiation focuses on cloud chamber and photographic emulsion wherein the tracks of individual subatomic particles of high energy are studied. The publication first offers information on the technical features of operation and electrons and cascade showers. Discussions focus on the relationship in time and space of counter-controlled tracks; techniques of internal control of the cloud chamber; cascade processes with artificially-produced electrons and photons; and nuclear interaction associated with an extensive shower. The manuscript then elaborates on

  7. Peltier-based cloud chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nar, Sevda Yeliz; Cakir, Altan

    2018-02-01

    Particles produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation and reactions can be identified through various methods. One of these methods that has been effective in the last century is the cloud chamber. The chamber makes visible cosmic particles that we are exposed to radiation per second. Diffusion cloud chamber is a kind of cloud chamber that is cooled by dry ice. This traditional model has some application difficulties. In this work, Peltier-based cloud chamber cooled by thermoelectric modules is studied. The new model provided uniformly cooled base of the chamber, moreover, it has longer lifetime than the traditional chamber in terms of observation time. This gain has reduced the costs which spent each time for cosmic particle observation. The chamber is an easy-to-use system according to traditional diffusion cloud chamber. The new model is portable, easier to make, and can be used in the nuclear physics experiments. In addition, it would be very useful to observe Muons which are the direct evidence for Lorentz contraction and time expansion predicted by Einsteins special relativity principle.

  8. Experimental project - Cloud chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour, Elena; Quinchard, Gregory; Soudon, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This document reports an academic experimental project dealing with the general concepts of radioactivity and their application to the cloud room experiment. The author first recalls the history of the design and development of a cloud room, and some definitions and characteristics of cosmic radiation, and proposes a description of the principle and physics of a cloud room. The second part is a theoretical one, and addresses the involved particles, the origins of electrons, and issues related to the transfer of energy (Bremsstrahlung effect, Bragg peak). The third part reports the experimental work with the assessment of a cloud droplet radius, the identification of a trace for each particle (alphas and electrons), and the study of the magnetic field deviation

  9. Study on target interactions in emulsion chamber - Brasil-Japan emulsion chamber collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, M.; Santos, C.; Bellandi Filho, J.; Chinellato, J. A.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Lattes, C. M. G.; Marques, A.; Menon, M. J.; Navia, C. E.; Sawayanagi, K.

    Experimental results are presented from observations of 80 target nuclear interactions where the total gamma-ray energy is greater than or equal to 20 TeV. Evidence is presented for the existence of two types of interactions; the interpretation is given on the basis of a fire-ball model. Two-story emulsion chambers exposed at Mount Chacaltaya, in Bolivia (5,220 m above sea level), are used. Gamma rays from nuclear interactions in the target layer of petroleum pitch (1/3 of the nuclear mean free path in thickness) are detected through observations of the electron showers generated by them in the lower chamber

  10. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  11. Neutrino Interactions in a Hybrid Emulsion - Bubble Chamber Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbladt, Robert Ludwig [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1981-05-01

    target consisting of 22 - 1 liter stacks of cryogenically sensitive nuclear emulsion has been exposed inside the 15 Foot Bubble Chamber to the Fermilab wide-band neutrino beam. A hybrid system of emulsion plus bubble chamber was used to find and analyze neutrino interactions with nuclei in the emulsion target. The average multiplicity of charged minimum ionization tracks of the 45 events was found to be 6.8 ± 0.5. The normalized multiplicity with respect to neutrino - proton interactions at the same average hadronic center of mass energy was found to be 1.3 ± 0.2. When compared to neutrino - proton interactions, the rapidity distribution shows a clear signal for intranuclear cascading in the target fragmentation region. Measured rapidity and multiplicity distributions are compared with predictions of the Growth of Longitudinal Distances Model of Nikolaev and the Coherent Tube Model.

  12. Accelerated search of gamma-quantum families in a X-ray emulsion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takibaev, Zh.S.; Bajgubekov, A.S.; Sadykov, T.Kh.

    1977-01-01

    The criteria are derived allowing to considerably accelerate the process of detecting the pure gamma-quantum families. The suitable criterion is the apparent size of the distribution of black spots due to electromagnetic cascades inside a circle of specific radius. The results of assaying 27 gamma-families with energies above 3 TeV generated in a target above the chamber are presented. The method of search for the target families suggested in this paper allows to cut four-fold the roentgen-emulsion cloud chamber treatment time

  13. Cloud chamber development for didactic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straube, B; Carrillo, M; Mangussi J

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this project was the design and construction of an Expansion Cloud Chamber from daily use material in order to make visible during a lesson, the trajectories of particles emitted by a radioactive material (author)

  14. How to build a cloud chamber?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    The cloud chamber had its heyday in the first half of last century and allowed the discovery of new particles such as the anti-electron, the muon and the neutral and the charged kaon. The bubble chamber replaced it in the mid fifties. This article recalls the principle of the cloud chamber and shows, in a detailed way, how to proceed to build one with on-the-shelf materials. This design is based on the use of isopropanol whose liquefaction through the form of droplets materializes the track of the particle and on the use of combined Peltier cells (instead of CO 2 snow) to cool the chamber. This cloud chamber has been successfully used in schools to observe particles mainly electrons, alphas and muons generated by cosmic rays. (A.C.)

  15. Developing Cloud Chambers with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Ryo; Tan, Nobuaki; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji

    The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry-ice-free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical details of the chamber are described. We also argue how the project have affected student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project has taken steps of professional researchers, i.e., in planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we have learnt that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.

  16. Photographic emulsion versus bubble chambers in charm and beauty searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacton, J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of visual detectors in the search for charm and other flavors. The photographic emulsion and the bubble chamber techniques are compared. The main difficulties encounted in searching for charmed and beautiful hadrons are related to the short lifetimes of these particles and to their small production cross-sections, even at SPS energies. Resolution, visibility, the data analysis rate, and exposure time are considered. Most of the charmed hadrons present a large variety of decay modes of which only a fraction has been identified to date. First results from CESR indicate that the average charged particle multiplicity in the hadronic decay of beautiful hadrons is as high as 6.31 + or - 0.35; no B meson decay has yet been kinematically reconstructed. The case of hadronic charmed particle production at SPS energies is examined. The data show that 1) the bubble chamber technique (high resolution or holographic optics) is well suited to the study of charmed hadrons with lifetimes in the range 10 -13 to 10 -12 s; 2) searches for beautiful hadrons remain presently a domain for triggered emulsion experiments due to the smallness of the production cross-sections (provided the lifetime is not much shorter than 10 -14 s); and 3) for particles of lifetimes shorter than a few times 10 -14 s the emulsion technique is still without competitor

  17. Characteristics of emulsion chamber family events produced at low heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, G.; Jing, C.; Zhu, Q.; Ding, L.

    1985-01-01

    The uncertainty of primary cosmic ray composition at 10 to the 14th power -10 to the 16th power eV is well known making the study of nuclear interaction mechanisms more difficult. Experimentally if one can identify effectively the family events produced at low heights, then an induced by primary protons might be separated. In this paper an attempt is made to simulate a family of events under the conditions of a mountain emulsion chamber experiments using a reasonable model. The aim is to search for the dependence of some experimentally observable quantities on the interaction height

  18. Measurement and three dimensional reconstruction of particle tracks in emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, S.

    1989-01-01

    A software package for making fast and accurate measurements of particle tracks in emulsion chambers is described. In a chamber, which is designed for high particle multiplicities, the emulsion layers are interspersed with air and placed perpendicular to the beam direction during exposure. (orig.)

  19. Study on superhigh energy γ-ray family events with large-scale Fe emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Jingru; Lu Suiling; Su Shi

    1990-01-01

    Using a large-scale iron emulsion chamber, a big γ-ray family event with observed energy ΣE r = 7631 TeV was obtained. This paper described the advantages of iron emulsion chamber for studying big families and the characteristics of the event observed, together with a comparison with the Monte-Carlo simulation results

  20. Temperature uniformity in the CERN CLOUD chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets experiment at CERN (European Council for Nuclear Research investigates the nucleation and growth of aerosol particles under atmospheric conditions and their activation into cloud droplets. A key feature of the CLOUD experiment is precise control of the experimental parameters. Temperature uniformity and stability in the chamber are important since many of the processes under study are sensitive to temperature and also to contaminants that can be released from the stainless steel walls by upward temperature fluctuations. The air enclosed within the 26 m3 CLOUD chamber is equipped with several arrays (strings of high precision, fast-response thermometers to measure its temperature. Here we present a study of the air temperature uniformity inside the CLOUD chamber under various experimental conditions. Measurements were performed under calibration conditions and run conditions, which are distinguished by the flow rate of fresh air and trace gases entering the chamber at 20 and up to 210 L min−1, respectively. During steady-state calibration runs between −70 and +20 °C, the air temperature uniformity is better than ±0.06 °C in the radial direction and ±0.1 °C in the vertical direction. Larger non-uniformities are present during experimental runs, depending on the temperature control of the make-up air and trace gases (since some trace gases require elevated temperatures until injection into the chamber. The temperature stability is ±0.04 °C over periods of several hours during either calibration or steady-state run conditions. During rapid adiabatic expansions to activate cloud droplets and ice particles, the chamber walls are up to 10 °C warmer than the enclosed air. This results in temperature differences of ±1.5 °C in the vertical direction and ±1 °C in the horizontal direction, while the air returns to its equilibrium temperature with a time constant of about 200 s.

  1. Hadron component in families observed with the Mt. Fuji thick type emulsion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Eiichi

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of hadron component was made on the families detected with the thick type emulsion chamber exposed at Mt. Fuji. The thickness of the emulsion chamber was 70 c.u of Pb. The collecting power was 17 m 2 year. The character of hadrons in the families and their correlations with accompanying gamma-rays are shown. The energy spectra of ten families with number of gamma-ray not less than 5, gamma energy sum not less than 20 TeV and number of Pb jet not less than 5 minimum energy = 2 TeV, and their lateral distribution were investigated. These thick type emulsion chamber data are useful for the analysis of gamma-ray families observed by the thin type emulsion chamber. (Yoshimori, M.)

  2. Cloud chamber researches in nuclear physics and cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackett, P.

    1984-01-01

    An extract from Blackett's Nobel Prize speech of 1948, this recounts the work done by the author on particle tracks in a Wilson cloud chamber in 1932 at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. In particular he studied the energetic particles in cosmic rays using a cloud chamber and camera. The improvements to the equipment are recounted and photographs of cosmic ray showers taken with it are shown. (UK)

  3. The present status of Brazil-Japan Collaboration on Chacaltaya Emulsion chamber experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawayanagi, K.

    1983-01-01

    A short guide of the recent results in Brazil-Japan Collaboration on Chacaltaya Emulsion Chamber Experiments is given. An emphasis is laid on the comparison of the cosmic ray data with the p sup(-)-p Collider's results. (Author) [pt

  4. The cloud chamber. A wonderful instrument for discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    The author proposes an overview of the various applications and discoveries based on the use of the cloud chamber or Wilson chamber: blood flow rate measurements, investigation of alpha radiation (interaction of an alpha particle with gas atoms), investigation of beta radioactivity with the evidence of the existence of the neutrino, confirmation of a relativistic effect, discovery of the neutron in the 1930's, uranium fission, evidence of the cosmic origin of a ionizing radiation in the 1930's. The author briefly evokes the technological evolutions of these cloud chambers

  5. Simple structure diffusion cloud chamber for educational purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrehuss, Gy.; Molnar, B.

    1982-01-01

    A simple structure diffusion cloud chamber was designed and built with educational aim. The source of alpha particles is Am-241 radioisotope smeared on steel foil, the source of vapor is a felt disc saturated with methanol. Five minutes after covering the chamber the system achieves the thermodynamic equilibrium and alpha particle tracks of 5 cm length become visible in the centre of the chamber. Life-time of a track is about 0.5-1 second, the frequency is 2-3 tracks/s. The presented diffusion chamber can be built simply and easily, using cheap common materials and components. (D.Gy.)

  6. Beam Measurements of a CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2001-01-01

    A striking correlation has recently been observed between global cloud cover and the flux of incident cosmic rays. The effect of natural variations in the cosmic ray flux is large, causing estimated changes in the Earth's energy radiation balance that are comparable to those attributed to greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution. However a direct link between cosmic rays and cloud formation has not been unambiguously established. We therefore propose to experimentally measure cloud (water droplet) formation under controlled conditions in a test beam at CERN with a CLOUD chamber, duplicating the conditions prevailing in the troposphere. These data, which have never been previously obtained, will allow a detailed understanding of the possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds and confirm, or otherwise, a direct link between cosmic rays, global cloud cover and the Earth's climate. The measurements will, in turn, allow more reliable calculations to be made of the residual e...

  7. Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal Effect for High-Energy Electrons Observed with Emulsion Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Kenji; Yanagisawa, K; Kobayashi, T; Sato, Y; Nishimura, J

    We have performed high-energy electron observations using balloon-borne emulsion chambers, and derived the cosmic-ray electron spectrum in the energy range from 30 GeV to 3 TeV. For the calibration of the emulsion chambers, we have also carried out beam tests of 50 GeV, 200 GeV, and 250 GeV electrons at CERN-SPS. The Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect predicts the reduction of amplitude for bremsstrahlung photon emission. It affects to the depth of the first electron-positron pair of the electron-induced shower, the so-called shower starting point. In the emulsion chambers, we can measure the shower starting points for high- energy electrons with the position resolution of 1 m m. From the observations of accelerator-beam electrons of 200 GeV and 250 GeV, and cosmic-ray electrons above 400 GeV, we found the direct evidence of suppression of the bremsstrahlung cross sections due to the LPM effect.

  8. Development of Cloud Chamber by Using Peltier Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Jong Kwan; Kwon, Jin Young; Park, Sang Tae

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we developed the newly cloud chamber apparatus by using Peltier device to apply nuclear physics experiment in high school or university. We observed the cosmic rays track by using the developed apparatus and a camcorder. And we compared and analyzed the acquired data. From the results, we acquired the following conclusions and suggestions : First, it is very difficult to observe the cosmic rays track in the typical cloud chamber because of the low frequency of it. But in the newly developed cloud chamber we can observe easily the cosmic rays track owing to the high frequency of it. Second, when we do the experiment with the newly developed apparatus, we found that the cosmic rays track happens well under the condition that the temperature of the upper place of cooling plate must be below 5 degree Celsius with more than isopropanol 1.04X10 -5 ml.mm -3 . Third, the newly developed apparatus will be improved to have better precision by controlling the temperature of cooling plate in the cloud chamber by current intensity. Therefore we think that it is very useful to use the newly developed apparatus in the nuclear physics experiment in high school or university.

  9. Development of Cloud Chamber by Using Peltier Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jong Kwan [Jae Hyun High School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jin Young [Jeon Min High School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Tae [Dept. of Physics Education, Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    In this research, we developed the newly cloud chamber apparatus by using Peltier device to apply nuclear physics experiment in high school or university. We observed the cosmic rays track by using the developed apparatus and a camcorder. And we compared and analyzed the acquired data. From the results, we acquired the following conclusions and suggestions : First, it is very difficult to observe the cosmic rays track in the typical cloud chamber because of the low frequency of it. But in the newly developed cloud chamber we can observe easily the cosmic rays track owing to the high frequency of it. Second, when we do the experiment with the newly developed apparatus, we found that the cosmic rays track happens well under the condition that the temperature of the upper place of cooling plate must be below 5 degree Celsius with more than isopropanol 1.04X10{sup -5}ml.mm{sup -3}. Third, the newly developed apparatus will be improved to have better precision by controlling the temperature of cooling plate in the cloud chamber by current intensity. Therefore we think that it is very useful to use the newly developed apparatus in the nuclear physics experiment in high school or university.

  10. Measurement of optical blurring in a turbulent cloud chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Corey D.; Ciochetto, David S.; Cantrell, Will H.; Roggemann, Michael C.; Shaw, Raymond A.

    2016-10-01

    Earth's atmosphere can significantly impact the propagation of electromagnetic radiation, degrading the performance of imaging systems. Deleterious effects of the atmosphere include turbulence, absorption and scattering by particulates. Turbulence leads to blurring, while absorption attenuates the energy that reaches imaging sensors. The optical properties of aerosols and clouds also impact radiation propagation via scattering, resulting in decorrelation from unscattered light. Models have been proposed for calculating a point spread function (PSF) for aerosol scattering, providing a method for simulating the contrast and spatial detail expected when imaging through atmospheres with significant aerosol optical depth. However, these synthetic images and their predicating theory would benefit from comparison with measurements in a controlled environment. Recently, Michigan Technological University (MTU) has designed a novel laboratory cloud chamber. This multiphase, turbulent "Pi Chamber" is capable of pressures down to 100 hPa and temperatures from -55 to +55°C. Additionally, humidity and aerosol concentrations are controllable. These boundary conditions can be combined to form and sustain clouds in an instrumented laboratory setting for measuring the impact of clouds on radiation propagation. This paper describes an experiment to generate mixing and expansion clouds in supersaturated conditions with salt aerosols, and an example of measured imagery viewed through the generated cloud is shown. Aerosol and cloud droplet distributions measured during the experiment are used to predict scattering PSF and MTF curves, and a methodology for validating existing theory is detailed. Measured atmospheric inputs will be used to simulate aerosol-induced image degradation for comparison with measured imagery taken through actual cloud conditions. The aerosol MTF will be experimentally calculated and compared to theoretical expressions. The key result of this study is the

  11. Simple Cloud Chambers Using a Freezing Mixture of Ice and Cooking Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Kyohei; Kubota, Miki; Kamata, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We have developed much simpler cloud chambers that use only ice and cooking salt instead of the dry ice or ice gel pack needed for the cloud chambers produced in our previous work. The observed alpha-ray particle tracks are as clear as those observed using our previous cloud chambers. The tracks can be observed continuously for about 20?min, and…

  12. Explosion-induced combustion of hydrocarbon clouds in a chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A L

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of the detonation of a solid HE-charge with a non-premixed cloud of hydro-carbon fuel in a chamber was studied in laboratory experiments. Soap bubbles filled with a flammable gas were subjected to the blast wave created by the detonation of PETN-charges (0.2 g < mass < 0.5 g). The dynamics of the combustion system were investigated by means of high-speed photography and measurement of the quasi-static chamber pressure

  13. [Study of high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions with a Magnetic-Interferometric-Emulsion-Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) has been analyzing 200 GeV/n S + Pb collision events with a Magnetic-Interactive-Emulsion-Chamber (MAGIC). The objectives of the research are to learn the nature of nuclear matter at high density of particles and to develop an all-particle tracking system for very high particle densities. To advance the study further, the detector capability has been improved so as to allow the best utilization of all-particle measurements. A design study for Pb + Pb interactions at 160 GeV/n was made for planned experiments in 1993

  14. Calculation of nondiffused proximity functions from cloud-chamber data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.

    1987-01-01

    To a large extent the cloud chamber is an ideal microdosimetric device: by measuring the positions of ionizing events in charged-particle tracks one can generate - with a flexibility matched only by Monte-Carlo simulations-any microdosimetric quantity of interest, ranging from lineal energy spectra (in volumes of practically arbitrary shape and size) to proximity functions, that is, distributions of distances between energy transfer points in the track. Cloud-chamber data analyzed in such ways have been indeed reported for a variety of radiations. In view of these clear advantages it is certainly surprising that, within the microdosimetric community, only one group (at Harwell, UK) is actively involved in such work and that, furthermore, cloud-chamber results are used essentially only as a testing ground for Monte-Carlo calculations. It appears that this reluctance can be traced to the fact that the tracks are distorted by the diffusion of droplets during their growth. This diffusion - which is of the order of several nanometers (in unit-density material), although rather insignificant vis-a-vis conventional microdosimetry, can be a serious limitation in view of modern theories of radiation action which emphasize energy deposition events at the nanometer level. The purpose of this research activity is to show that, using a rather straight-forward mathematical procedure, one can unfold the effect of diffusion from proximity functions. Since the nondiffused proximity function can be used to calculate other microdosimetric quantities an important limitation of the cloud-chamber data can thus be avoided

  15. An example of radiation-education experiment using a new-type handy cloud chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushita, Kouhei

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a new-type handy cloud chamber to overcome shortcomings in the conventional handy cloud chambers. The new-type handy cloud chamber has such advantages as: no dangerous parts or tools are used; can be assembled quickly; has a wider observation window; much less expensive, etc. We have also prepared a new text for this cloud-chamber kit to explain the basic theory of radiation and radioisotopes, which is divided into two levels for children and for adults. Using this new-type handy cloud chamber, we propose an example of an educational experiment on radiation and radioisotopes which can be carried out within one hour. (author)

  16. Corona discharge induced snow formation in a cloud chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jingjing; Wang, Tie-Jun; Li, Ruxin; Du, Shengzhe; Sun, Haiyi; Liu, Yonghong; Tian, Ye; Bai, Yafeng; Liu, Yaoxiang; Chen, Na; Wang, Jingwei; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, S L; Xu, Zhizhan

    2017-09-18

    Artificial rainmaking is in strong demand especially in arid regions. Traditional methods of seeding various Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) into the clouds are costly and not environment friendly. Possible solutions based on ionization were proposed more than 100 years ago but there is still a lack of convincing verification or evidence. In this report, we demonstrated for the first time the condensation and precipitation (or snowfall) induced by a corona discharge inside a cloud chamber. Ionic wind was found to have played a more significant role than ions as extra CCN. In comparison with another newly emerging femtosecond laser filamentation ionization method, the snow precipitation induced by the corona discharge has about 4 orders of magnitude higher wall-plug efficiency under similar conditions.

  17. New method to analyze super-family events observed with emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenomori, M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a clustering method to analyze family events observed with emulsion chambers at high mountains. The main purpose of this analysis is to estimate the main production height of individual events, angular spread of gamma-rays in each event and so on. These enable them to investigate hadronic interactions at energies over 10 16 eV inaccessible by the present high-energy accelerators. they examined their clustering method using Monte Carlo events, and found that for the family events whose production height is low (within 2-3 km above the observation point in air), their production heights and lateral spreads are well reproduced. They further applied their method to the super-family events (ΣE γ > 1000 TeV) observed with emulsion chambers at Mt. Kanbala (5500 m above sea-level). The results seem to suggest that particle production with large transverse momentum occurs with considerable frequency even in the fragmentation region in the energy region over 10 16 eV

  18. Satellite retrieval of cloud condensation nuclei concentrations by using clouds as CCN chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Zheng, Youtong; Hashimshoni, Eyal; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Jefferson, Anne; Pöhlker, Christopher; Yu, Xing; Zhu, Yannian; Liu, Guihua; Yue, Zhiguo; Fischman, Baruch; Li, Zhanqing; Giguzin, David; Goren, Tom; Artaxo, Paulo; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative effect at a global scale requires simultaneous satellite retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and cloud base updraft velocities (Wb). Hitherto, the inability to do so has been a major cause of high uncertainty regarding anthropogenic aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative forcing. This can be addressed by the emerging capability of estimating CCN and Wb of boundary layer convective clouds from an operational polar orbiting weather satellite. Our methodology uses such clouds as an effective analog for CCN chambers. The cloud base supersaturation (S) is determined by Wb and the satellite-retrieved cloud base drop concentrations (Ndb), which is the same as CCN(S). Validation against ground-based CCN instruments at Oklahoma, at Manaus, and onboard a ship in the northeast Pacific showed a retrieval accuracy of ±25% to ±30% for individual satellite overpasses. The methodology is presently limited to boundary layer not raining convective clouds of at least 1 km depth that are not obscured by upper layer clouds, including semitransparent cirrus. The limitation for small solar backscattering angles of <25° restricts the satellite coverage to ∼25% of the world area in a single day. PMID:26944081

  19. On the new technique of X-ray-emulsion chamber data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingaryan, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The modern installations for cosmic ray studies register the spatial and energy characteristics of various particles. One has to solve the problems of selecting the strong interaction models or determining the primary radiation chemical composition under conditions of high a priori uncertainty, when there is practically nothing known about the probability distribution function form in the indication space. In this paper the universal methods are reported that allow one with most confidence to select the optimal feature complexes and to make statistical decisions on the experimental data relation to one or the other model. The methods are tested on the problem of discriminating #betta#-families produced by primary protons or iron nuclei and registered by X-ray emulsion chambers

  20. Summary of exotic cosmic-ray events observed with the Mt. Fuji emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, M.; Amenomori, M.; Konishi, E.

    1982-01-01

    The characters of peculiar gamma-ray families observed by a total of 700 m 2 year exposure of emulsion chambers at Mt.Fuji are presented. Their peculiarities are investigated in terms of clusterization and intercorrelation of various quantities of families. Double core families having clearly separated cores are selected by the cluster analysis method, and their structures are discussed in connection with large Pt and the type of incident primaries. The cluster analysis method is also applied to the examination of large multiplicity events so that we are free the limitation of spatial resolution. From the analysis of intercorrelation, it is stressed that the experimental data show larger fluctuations than expected ones from some model calculations

  1. Emulsion chamber response and PCR mass composition according to the PAMIR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchkov, V.S.; Borisov, A.S.; Denisova, V.G.; Guseva, Z.M.; Kanevskaya, E.A.; Kogan, M.G.; Maximenko, V.M.; Morozov, A.E.; Mukhamedshin, R.A.; Pyatovsky, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The response of the X-ray emulsion chamber (XREC) is analyzed. The code GEANT 3.21 has been adopted for simulating the measurement procedure in the PAMIR XREC experiment. The contribution of below threshold gamma-quanta, the mutual influence of neighboring electromagnetic cascades in gamma-families, identification against a background by Raleigh's criterion are taken into account. Our earlier publications overestimated the family energy by about (10-20)% and the real family angular distribution is less steeper than the measured one. Consequently, the gamma-family intensity should be reduced by 1.10-1.15 times. It means, that the Pamir experiment estimate of the PCR proton fraction in the energy region 1-100PeV slowly decreases from 25% to 20%.

  2. Nuclear interactions of super high energy cosmic-rays observed by mountain emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Here is presented a summary of joint discussions on the results of three mountain experiments with large-scale emulsion chambers, at Pamir, Mt. Fuji and Chacaltaya. The observation covers gamma-quanta, hadrons and their clusters (called ''families''). Following topics are covered concerning on characteristics of nuclear interactions in energy region of 10 14 - 10 16 eV: 1) rapid dissipation seen in atmospheric diffusion of high energy cosmic-rays, 2) multiplicity and p sub(t) increase in produced pimesons in the fragmentation region, 3) existence of large p sub(t) jets, 4) extremely-hadron-rich family of Centauro type, 5) exotic phenomena at extremely high energy region beyond 10 16 eV. (author)

  3. Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schnaiter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the origin of small-scale ice crystal complexity and its influence on the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT. A new experimental procedure was applied to grow and sublimate ice particles at defined super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for temperatures in the −40 to −60 °C range. The experiments were performed for ice clouds generated via homogeneous and heterogeneous initial nucleation. Small-scale ice crystal complexity was deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the latest version of the Small Ice Detector (SID-3. It was found that a high crystal complexity dominates the microphysics of the simulated clouds and the degree of this complexity is dependent on the available water vapor during the crystal growth. Indications were found that the small-scale crystal complexity is influenced by unfrozen H2SO4 / H2O residuals in the case of homogeneous initial ice nucleation. Angular light scattering functions of the simulated ice clouds were measured by the two currently available airborne polar nephelometers: the polar nephelometer (PN probe of Laboratoire de Métérologie et Physique (LaMP and the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS-HALO probe of KIT. The measured scattering functions are featureless and flat in the side and backward scattering directions. It was found that these functions have a rather low sensitivity to the small-scale crystal complexity for ice clouds that were grown under typical atmospheric conditions. These results have implications for the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds and for the radiative transfer through these clouds.

  4. Characterisation of organic contaminants in the CLOUD chamber at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Schnitzhofer, R; Breitenlechner, M; Jud, W; Heinritzi, M; Menezes, L-P; Duplissy, J; Guida, R; Haider, S; Kikby, J; Mathot, S; Minginette, P; Onnela, A; Walther, H; Wasem, A; Hansel, A; CLOUD Team

    2014-01-01

    The CLOUD experiment (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) investigates the nucleation of new particles and how this process is influenced by galactic cosmic rays in an electropolished, stainless-steel environmental chamber at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). Since volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can act as precursor gases for nucleation and growth of particles, great efforts have been made to keep their unwanted background levels as low as possible and to quantify them. In order to be able to measure a great set of VOCs simultaneously in the low parts per trillion (pptv) range, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used. Initially the total VOC background concentration strongly correlated with ozone in the chamber and ranged from 0.1 to 7 parts per billion (ppbv). Plastic used as sealing material in the ozone generator was found to be a major VOC source. Especially oxygen-containing VOCs were generated together with ozone. These parts were replaced by stainless steel after ...

  5. Study of energy determination of gamma-ray observed with an emulsion chamber with a large gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, Tamiki; Otsuka, Taeko; Masaoka, Akiko

    1982-01-01

    The development of large size emulsion chambers has been made to study very high energy events. For this purpose, the chambers with exchangeable light sensitive layers are considered. The chambers have large gap for the exchange. In this case, it becomes hard to determine the energy of cascade shower. In this report, the authors describe on the experimental examples observed at Mt. Chacaltaya. The effect of a gap was investigated by these examples, and the simulation method by Okamoto and Shibata was applied to the chamber. The chamber used for the observation consisted of the top chamber of 11 c.u. and the bottom chamber of 15 c.u. There was a large gap of 170 cm between two chambers. Twelve showers in three families observed by this system were analyzed. The difference between the blackness in the top and bottom films was studied quantitatively. The blackness was calibrated for the electron density. Four methods of energy determination were studied. Among them, a method to employ the sum of the maximum blackness of a top film and that of a bottom one was used for the analysis. This method seemed to be more reliable than the old method. It was found by a simulation calculation that the recovery of shower in the bottom chamber was seen not only by hardrons but also by gamma-ray. (Kato, T.)

  6. How to build a cloud chamber?; Comment realiser une chambre a bouillard?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariaud, C. [Lycee Rene Descartes, 37000 Tours (France)

    2012-01-15

    The cloud chamber had its heyday in the first half of last century and allowed the discovery of new particles such as the anti-electron, the muon and the neutral and the charged kaon. The bubble chamber replaced it in the mid fifties. This article recalls the principle of the cloud chamber and shows, in a detailed way, how to proceed to build one with on-the-shelf materials. This design is based on the use of isopropanol whose liquefaction through the form of droplets materializes the track of the particle and on the use of combined Peltier cells (instead of CO{sub 2} snow) to cool the chamber. This cloud chamber has been successfully used in schools to observe particles mainly electrons, alphas and muons generated by cosmic rays. (A.C.)

  7. Particle production in very-high-energy cosmic-ray emulsion chamber events: Usual and unusual events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, C.G.S.; Halzen, F.; Salles, C.

    1995-01-01

    We show that a simple scaling model of very forward particle production, consistent with accelerator and air shower data, can describe the overall features of the very-high-energy interactions recorded with emulsion chambers. The rapidity and transverse momentum distribution of the secondaries are quantitatively reproduced. This is somewhat surprising after numerous claims that the same data implied large scaling violations or new dynamics. Interestingly, we cannot describe some of the Centauro events, suggesting that these events are anomalous independently of their well-advertised unusual features such as the absence of neutral secondaries

  8. Investigation of Central Pb-Pb Interactions at Energies of 160 GeV/Nucleon with the Help of the Emulsion Magnetic Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU15 \\\\ \\\\ The aim of this experiment is to investigate high energy heavy ion central collisions by the use of emulsion magnetic chamber with high spatial resolution. The emulsion chamber consists of 50~emulsion layers 50~microns thick each coated on 25~microns mylar base. A thin lead target plate 300~microns thick is installed immediately in front of the first emulsion layer. It is placed in the transverse magnetic field B~$\\sim$~2~Tesla and is to be installed perpendicularly to Pb nucleus beam. This set-up enables to measure full 3-momenta and charge signs of secondary particles. \\\\ \\\\Specific goal is to carry out detailed analysis of individual events with super high multiplicity of secondaries. These data are to be used for investigation of properties of super hot/dense matter, in particular to look for and analyze possible manifestations of quark-gluon plasma in central Pb-Pb collisions at energies of 160~GeV/nucleon.

  9. Evaluation of tecniques for controlling UF6 release clouds in the GAT environmental chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    Studies designed to characterize the reaction between UF 6 and atmospheric moisture, evaluate environmental variables of UF 6 cloud formation and ultimate cloud fate, and UF 6 release cloud control procedure have been conducted in the 1200 cu. ft. GAT environmental chamber. In earlier chamber experiments, 30 separate UF 6 release tests indicated that variations of atmospheric conditions and sample sizes had no significant effect on UO 2 F 2 particle size distribution, release cloud formation, or cloud settling rates. During the past year, numerous procedures have been evaluated for accelerating UF 6 cloud knockdown in a series of 37 environmental chamber releases. Knockdown procedures included: coarse water spray; air jet; steam spray (electrostatically charged and uncharged); carbon dioxide; Freon-12; fine water mist (uncharged); boric acid mist (charged and uncharged); and an ionized dry air stream. UF 6 hydrolysis cloud settling rates monitored by a laser/powermeter densitometer, indicated the relative effectiveness of various cloud knockdown techniques. Electrostatically charged boric acid/water mist, and electrostatically ionized dry air were both found to be very effective, knocking down the UO 2 F 2 release cloud particles in two to five minutes. Work to adapt these knockdown techniques for use under field conditions is continuing, taking into account recovery of the released uranium as well as nuclear criticality constraints

  10. Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jingjing; Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Haiyi; Wang, Wentao; Ge, Xiaochun; Li, Chuang; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2012-04-01

    Using 1 kHz, 9 mJ femtosecond laser pulses, we demonstrate laser-filamentation-induced spectacular snow formation in a cloud chamber. An intense updraft of warm moist air is generated owing to the continuous heating by the high-repetition filamentation. As it encounters the cold air above, water condensation and large-sized particles spread unevenly across the whole cloud chamber via convection and cyclone like action on a macroscopic scale. This indicates that high-repetition filamentation plays a significant role in macroscopic laser-induced water condensation and snow formation.

  11. Strange particles: production by Cosmotron beams as observed in diffusion cloud chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Proton beams, from the 1GeV Cosmotron accelerator at Brookhaven, were used in the 1950s to produce strange particles. One big leap forward technologically was the development of the diffusion cloud chamber which made detecting particle tracks more accurate and sensitive. A large co-operative team worked on its development. By the mid 1950s enough tracks had been observed to show the associated production of strange particles. It was the same Brookhaven workers who developed the eighty-inch hydrogen bubble chamber which took the first photograph of the long predicted omega minus particle at the end of the decade. (UK)

  12. Analysis of the big halo event observed by Pamir emulsion chamber -P3B-90-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Seibun

    1986-01-01

    There is observed a big air family (named as 'P3B-90') with a large halo by Pamir carbon chamber, called P3B, in USSR-Japan joint experiment at Pamir plateau (4370 m above sea level). Total observed energy of this halo is estimated to be 19000 TeV. It penetrates through both the upper and the lower chamber without decreasing its size. Such strong penetrative power is due to the existence of many hadrons in the halo region which are produced through the atmospheric successive interactions. The energy ratio of hadronic part to electromagnetic part is 1/3 and it is nearly equal to the case of 'Andromeda' observed in Chacaltaya experiment. On the other hand, 298 shower spots (>1 TeV) with total observed energy 1163 TeV are found within about 30 cm of radius from the center of the family. Among the observed shower spots, 45 spots are identified as hadronic ones, whose total observed energy is 345 TeV and 253 spots are electromagnetic ones with total observed energy 818 TeV. There exists a large difference in the power index of the energy spectrum between the electromagnetic and the hadronic components. That is, the hadronic component has a harder spectrum than the electromagnetic component. It shows that there exist a lot of hadrons in high energy region among the observed shower spots. This seems to be a general tendency of the super-high energy families. (author)

  13. A review of optical measurements at the aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Robert; Linke, Claudia; Naumann, Karl-Heinz; Schnaiter, Martin; Vragel, Marlen; Gangl, Martin; Horvath, Helmuth

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of recent studies on the optical properties of aerosol and cloud particles that have been conducted at the AIDA facility of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere). Reflecting the broad accessible temperature range of the AIDA chamber which extends from ambient temperature down to 183 K, the investigations feature a broad diversity of research topics, such as the wavelength-dependence of the specific absorption cross sections of soot and mineral dust aerosols at room temperature, depolarization and infrared extinction measurements of ice crystal clouds generated at temperatures below 235 K, and the optical properties of polar stratospheric cloud constituents whose formation was studied in chamber experiments at temperatures well below 200 K. After reviewing the AIDA research activity of the past decade and introducing the optical instrumentation of the AIDA facility, this paper presents illustrative examples of ongoing and already published work on optical measurements of soot aerosols, mineral dust particles, and ice crystal clouds.

  14. submitter Phase transition observations and discrimination of small cloud particles by light polarization in expansion chamber experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Nichman, Leonid; Järvinen, Emma; Ignatius, Karoliina; Höppel, Niko Florian; Dias, Antonio; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Tröstl, Jasmin; Wagner, Andrea Christine; Wagner, Robert; Williamson, Christina; Yan, Chao; Connolly, Paul James; Dorsey, James Robert; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Hoyle, Christopher Robert; Kristensen, Thomas Bjerring; Steiner, Gerhard; McPherson Donahue, Neil; Flagan, Richard; Gallagher, Martin William; Kirkby, Jasper; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, António

    2016-01-01

    Cloud microphysical processes involving the ice phase in tropospheric clouds are among the major uncertainties in cloud formation, weather, and general circulation models. The detection of aerosol particles, liquid droplets, and ice crystals, especially in the small cloud particle-size range below 50 μm, remains challenging in mixed phase, often unstable environments. The Cloud Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarization (CASPOL) is an airborne instrument that has the ability to detect such small cloud particles and measure the variability in polarization state of their backscattered light. Here we operate the versatile Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber facility at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to produce controlled mixed phase and other clouds by adiabatic expansions in an ultraclean environment, and use the CASPOL to discriminate between different aerosols, water, and ice particles. In this paper, optical property measurements of mixed-phase clouds and viscous secondary ...

  15. On the possibility of obtaining non-diffused proximity functions from cloud-chamber data: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.

    1988-01-01

    Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods are applied to an inversion problem which consists of unfolding diffusion from proximity functions calculated from cloud-chamber data. The solution appears to be relatively insensitive to statistical errors in the data (an important feature) given the limited number of tracks normally available from cloud-chamber measurements. It is the first time, to our knowledge, that such methods are applied to microdosimetry. (author)

  16. Laboratory and Cloud Chamber Studies of Formation Processes and Properties of Atmospheric Ice Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, T.; Abdelmonem, A.; Benz, S.; Brinkmann, M.; Möhler, O.; Rzesanke, D.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Wagner, R.

    2009-04-01

    The formation of ice in tropospheric clouds controls the evolution of precipitation and thereby influences climate and weather via a complex network of dynamical and microphysical processes. At higher altitudes, ice particles in cirrus clouds or contrails modify the radiative energy budget by direct interaction with the shortwave and longwave radiation. In order to improve the parameterisation of the complex microphysical and dynamical processes leading to and controlling the evolution of tropospheric ice, laboratory experiments are performed at the IMK Karlsruhe both on a single particle level and in the aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA. Single particle experiments in electrodynamic levitation lend themselves to the study of the interaction between cloud droplets and aerosol particles under extremely well characterized and static conditions in order to obtain microphysical parameters as freezing nucleation rates for homogeneous and heterogeneous ice formation. They also allow the observation of the freezing dynamics and of secondary ice formation and multiplication processes under controlled conditions and with very high spatial and temporal resolution. The inherent droplet charge in these experiments can be varied over a wide range in order to assess the influence of the electrical state of the cloud on its microphysics. In the AIDA chamber on the other hand, these processes are observable under the realistic dynamic conditions of an expanding and cooling cloud- parcel with interacting particles and are probed simultaneously by a comprehensive set of analytical instruments. By this means, microphysical processes can be studied in their complex interplay with dynamical processes as for example coagulation or particle evaporation and growth via the Bergeron - Findeisen process. Shortwave scattering and longwave absorption properties of the nucleating and growing ice crystals are probed by in situ polarised laser light scattering measurements and infrared extinction

  17. Survival and ice nucleation activity of bacteria as aerosols in a cloud simulation chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, P.; Joly, M.; Schaupp, C.; Attard, E.; Möhler, O.; Morris, C. E.; Brunet, Y.; Delort, A.-M.

    2015-06-01

    The residence time of bacterial cells in the atmosphere is predictable by numerical models. However, estimations of their aerial dispersion as living entities are limited by a lack of information concerning survival rates and behavior in relation to atmospheric water. Here we investigate the viability and ice nucleation (IN) activity of typical atmospheric ice nucleation active bacteria (Pseudomonas syringae and P. fluorescens) when airborne in a cloud simulation chamber (AIDA, Karlsruhe, Germany). Cell suspensions were sprayed into the chamber and aerosol samples were collected by impingement at designated times over a total duration of up to 18 h, and at some occasions after dissipation of a cloud formed by depressurization. Aerosol concentration was monitored simultaneously by online instruments. The cultivability of airborne cells decreased exponentially over time with a half-life time of 250 ± 30 min (about 3.5 to 4.5 h). In contrast, IN activity remained unchanged for several hours after aerosolization, demonstrating that IN activity was maintained after cell death. Interestingly, the relative abundance of IN active cells still airborne in the chamber was strongly decreased after cloud formation and dissipation. This illustrates the preferential precipitation of IN active cells by wet processes. Our results indicate that from 106 cells aerosolized from a surface, one would survive the average duration of its atmospheric journey estimated at 3.4 days. Statistically, this corresponds to the emission of 1 cell that achieves dissemination every ~ 33 min m-2 of cultivated crops fields, a strong source of airborne bacteria. Based on the observed survival rates, depending on wind speed, the trajectory endpoint could be situated several hundreds to thousands of kilometers from the emission source. These results should improve the representation of the aerial dissemination of bacteria in numeric models.

  18. A low-pressure cloud chamber to study the spatial distribution of ionizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, D.C.; Marshall, M.

    1977-01-01

    To further the understanding of the biological effects of radiation a knowledge of the spatial distribution of ionizations in small volumes is required. A cloud chamber capable of resolving the droplets formed on individual ions in the tracks of low-energy electrons has been constructed. It is made to high-vacuum specifications and contains a mixture of permanent gases and vapours, unsaturated before expansion, at a total pressure of 10 kPa. Condensation efficiencies close to 100% are obtained without significant background from condensation on uncharged particles and molecular aggregates. This paper describes the chamber, associated equipment and method of operation and discusses the performance of the system. Photographs of the droplets produced from the interaction of low-energy X-rays in the chamber gas for various modes of operation are presented. The mean energy loss per ion pair for electrons produced by the interaction of Al X-rays in the chamber gas (8130 Pa H 2 , 700 Pa C 2 H 5 OH, 690 Pa H 2 O, 400 Pa He, 70 Pa air) has been measured as 29.8 +- 0.7 eV per ion pair compared with a calculated value of 29.6 +- 0.4 eV per ion pair. (author)

  19. Direct observation of charmed-particle pairs produced in 340 GeV/c negative-pion interactions in an emulsion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchi, H.; Hoshino, K.; Miyanishi, M.; Niu, K.; Niwa, K.; Shibuya, H.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Tasaka, S.; Maeda, Y.; Kimura, H.

    1981-01-01

    Among secondaries of 4323 interactions produced in an emulsion chamber exposed to a 340 GeV/c negative ion beam of CERN-SPS, 4 pairs of charmed particles were detected. The mean lifetime of D 0 (D 0 -bar) and the inclusive production cross-section of a charmed particle pair by 340 GeV/c pions were evaluated as (3.1sub(-1.6)sup(+ 2.0)) x 10 - 13 sec and 44 +- 22 μb. (author)

  20. Direct observation of charmed-particle pairs produced in 340 GeV/c negative-pion interactions in an emulsion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchi, H; Hoshino, K; Miyanishi, M; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Shibuya, H; Yanagisawa, Y [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ushida, N [Faculty of Education, Aichi University of Education, Kariya, Aichi (Japan); Tasaka, S [Tokyo Univ., Tanashi (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Maeda, Y

    1981-06-06

    Among secondaries of 4323 interactions produced in an emulsion chamber exposed to a 340 GeV/c negative ion beam of CERN-SPS, 4 pairs of charmed particles were detected. The mean lifetime of D/sup 0/(D/sup 0/-bar) and the inclusive production cross-section of a charmed particle pair by 340 GeV/c pions were evaluated as (3.1sub(-1.6)sup(+ 2.0)) x 10/sup -13/ sec and 44 +- 22 ..mu..b.

  1. Development of a turn-key cloud chamber in collaboration with non-academic science enthusiasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenkel, Jessica; Harrington, Meghan; Bellis, Matthew; Waldman, Ariel; Bergey, Nathan; Cooper, Ivan; Bombosch, Juliane

    2014-03-01

    Science Hack Day is an event that brings together scientists and science enthusiasts for 24 hours to ``hack'' a science project. These events serve two purposes. The first and most obvious is to provide a structured environment for science outreach. Academics and researchers have the opportunity for ``boots-on-the-ground'' interactions with the general public. The second purpose, though more challenging, is to enable science enthusiasts to donate their skills so that they are able to push back to educators and researchers in a fashion that that benefits their work. We discuss our experiences at the 2013 San Francisco Science Hack Day at the California Academy of Sciences. We worked with attendees of the conference to create a cloud chamber that worked with Peltier thermocoolers, rather than dry ice. In this fashion, we educated attendees about radiation and particle physics, while also benefitting from the experience and knowledge of the attendees in constructing the device. This ``turn-key'' cloud chamber is now in use at Siena College as an outreach and educational device. The properties of this device and the story of its construction will be presented. Representing CMS.

  2. Decoherence and Determinism in a One-Dimensional Cloud-Chamber Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparenberg, Jean-Marc; Gaspard, David

    2018-03-01

    The hypothesis (Sparenberg et al. in EPJ Web Conf 58:01016, [1]. https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/20135801016) that the particular linear tracks appearing in the measurement of a spherically-emitting radioactive source in a cloud chamber are determined by the (random) positions of atoms or molecules inside the chamber is further explored in the framework of a recently established one-dimensional model (Carlone et al. Comm Comput Phys 18:247, [2]. https://doi.org/10.4208/cicp.270814.311214a). In this model, meshes of localized spins 1/2 play the role of the cloud-chamber atoms and the spherical wave is replaced by a linear superposition of two wave packets moving from the origin to the left and to the right, evolving deterministically according to the Schrödinger equation. We first revisit these results using a time-dependent approach, where the wave packets impinge on a symmetric two-sided detector. We discuss the evolution of the wave function in the configuration space and stress the interest of a non-symmetric detector in a quantum-measurement perspective. Next we use a time-independent approach to study the scattering of a plane wave on a single-sided detector. Preliminary results are obtained, analytically for the single-spin case and numerically for up to 8 spins. They show that the spin-excitation probabilities are sometimes very sensitive to the parameters of the model, which corroborates the idea that the measurement result could be determined by the atom positions. The possible origin of decoherence and entropy increase in future models is finally discussed.

  3. Numerical simulations of mixing conditions and aerosol dynamics in the CERN CLOUD chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Voigtländer, J; Rondo, L; Kürten, A; Stratmann, F

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of galactic cosmic rays on aerosols and clouds, the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) project was established. Experiments are carried out at a 26.1 m3 tank at CERN (Switzerland). In the experiments, the effect of ionizing radiation on H2SO4 particle formation and growth is investigated. To evaluate the experimental configuration, the experiment was simulated using a coupled multidimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) – particle model. In the model the coupled fields of gas/vapor species, temperature, flow velocity and particle properties were computed to investigate mixing state and mixing times of the CLOUD tank's contents. Simulation results show that a 1-fan configuration, as used in first experiments, may not be sufficient to ensure a homogeneously mixed chamber. To mix the tank properly, two fans and sufficiently high fan speeds are necessary. The 1/e response times for instantaneous changes of wall temperature and saturation ratio were found to be in the order of fe...

  4. OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY ELECTRONS FROM 30 GeV TO 3 TeV WITH EMULSION CHAMBERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan); Komori, Y. [Faculty of Health and Social Services, Kanagawa University of Human Services, Yokosuka 238-0013 (Japan); Yoshida, K.; Yanagisawa, K. [College of Systems Engineering and Science, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama 337-8570 (Japan); Nishimura, J.; Yamagami, T.; Saito, Y. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara 229-8510 (Japan); Tateyama, N. [Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Yuda, T. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Wilkes, R. J., E-mail: tadasik-112850@jasper.dti.ne.jp, E-mail: komori-y@kuhs.ac.jp, E-mail: yoshida@shibaura-it.ac.jp, E-mail: nisimura@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: tateyama@n.kanagawa-u.ac.jp, E-mail: yuda@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: wilkes@u.washington.edu [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We have performed a series of cosmic-ray electron observations using balloon-borne emulsion chambers since 1968. While we previously reported the results from subsets of the exposures, the final results of the total exposures up to 2001 are presented here. Our successive experiments have yielded a total exposure of 8.19 m{sup 2} sr day at altitudes of 4.0-9.4 g cm{sup -2}. The performance of the emulsion chambers was examined by accelerator beam tests and Monte Carlo simulations, and the on-board calibrations were carried out by using the flight data. In this work, we present the cosmic-ray electron spectrum in the energy range from 30 GeV to 3 TeV at the top of the atmosphere, which is well represented by a power-law function with an index of -3.28 {+-} 0.10. The observed data can also be interpreted in terms of diffusive propagation models. The evidence of cosmic-ray electrons up to 3 TeV suggests the existence of cosmic-ray electron sources at distances within {approx}1 kpc and times within {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} yr ago.

  5. The role of ions in new particle formation in the CLOUD chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of secondary particles in the atmosphere accounts for more than half of global cloud condensation nuclei. Experiments at the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets chamber have underlined the importance of ions for new particle formation, but quantifying their effect in the atmosphere remains challenging. By using a novel instrument setup consisting of two nanoparticle counters, one of them equipped with an ion filter, we were able to further investigate the ion-related mechanisms of new particle formation. In autumn 2015, we carried out experiments at CLOUD on four systems of different chemical compositions involving monoterpenes, sulfuric acid, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia. We measured the influence of ions on the nucleation rates under precisely controlled and atmospherically relevant conditions. Our results indicate that ions enhance the nucleation process when the charge is necessary to stabilize newly formed clusters, i.e., in conditions in which neutral clusters are unstable. For charged clusters that were formed by ion-induced nucleation, we were able to measure, for the first time, their progressive neutralization due to recombination with oppositely charged ions. A large fraction of the clusters carried a charge at 1.5 nm diameter. However, depending on particle growth rates and ion concentrations, charged clusters were largely neutralized by ion–ion recombination before they grew to 2.5 nm. At this size, more than 90 % of particles were neutral. In other words, particles may originate from ion-induced nucleation, although they are neutral upon detection at diameters larger than 2.5 nm. Observations at Hyytiälä, Finland, showed lower ion concentrations and a lower contribution of ion-induced nucleation than measured at CLOUD under similar conditions. Although this can be partly explained by the observation that ion-induced fractions decrease towards lower ion concentrations, further investigations

  6. Using the thermal diffusion cloud chamber to study the ion-induced nucleation by radon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yefei.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal diffusion cloud chamber is steady-state device and has been extensively used for nucleation research. In order to study the ion-induced nucleation by radon decay, a new chamber was designed with improved both upper and bottom plates, the system of circulating fluid, the gasketting, the temperature measurement and the insulation. An alternative method of using oxygen as carrier gas was examined. Therefore, the heavy carrier gas including nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon and air can be used to study radon radiolysis-induced nucleation for the water or organic compounds in the TDCC. The effects of the pressure and temperature ranges on the density, supersaturation, temperature and partial pressure profile for the water-oxygen-helium in the TDCC have been examined. Based on the classical theory, the rate profile of ion-induced nucleation by radon decays was calculated and compared with the homogeneous nucleation. From measured indoor concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), thermodynamic theory models were used to assess the possibility that these compounds will form ultrafine particles in indoor air by ion-induced nucleation. The energy, number of molecules and equilibrium radius of clusters have been calculated based on Such and Thomson theories. These two sets of values have been compared. Ion cluster radii corresponding to 1--3 VOC molecules are in range of 3--5 x 10 -8 cm. 43 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Emulsions inside Gargamelle

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    A feasibility test was made with a 2.5 litre emulsion stack installed within the chamber. The stack was contained in a thermally insulated aluminium alloy pressure vessel (photo). See Annual Report 1978 p. 79 Fig. 5.

  8. Technical Note: A numerical test-bed for detailed ice nucleation studies in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Cotton

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere aerosol and cloud chamber of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe can be used to test the ice forming ability of aerosols. The AIDA chamber is extensively instrumented including pressure, temperature and humidity sensors, and optical particle counters. Expansion cooling using mechanical pumps leads to ice supersaturation conditions and possible ice formation. In order to describe the evolving chamber conditions during an expansion, a parcel model was modified to account for diabatic heat and moisture interactions with the chamber walls. Model results are shown for a series of expansions where the initial chamber temperature ranged from −20°C to −60°C and which used desert dust as ice forming nuclei. During each expansion, the initial formation of ice particles was clearly observed. For the colder expansions there were two clear ice nucleation episodes. In order to test the ability of the model to represent the changing chamber conditions and to give confidence in the observations of chamber temperature and humidity, and ice particle concentration and mean size, ice particles were simply added as a function of time so as to reproduce the observations of ice crystal concentration. The time interval and chamber conditions over which ice nucleation occurs is therefore accurately known, and enables the model to be used as a test bed for different representations of ice formation.

  9. Laser-filamentation-induced water condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber filled with different ambient gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonghong; Sun, Haiyi; Liu, Jiansheng; Liang, Hong; Ju, Jingjing; Wang, Tiejun; Tian, Ye; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Yi; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin

    2016-04-04

    We investigated femtosecond laser-filamentation-induced airflow, water condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber filled respectively with air, argon and helium. The mass of snow induced by laser filaments was found being the maximum when the chamber was filled with argon, followed by air and being the minimum with helium. We also discussed the mechanisms of water condensation in different gases. The results show that filaments with higher laser absorption efficiency, which result in higher plasma density, are beneficial for triggering intense airflow and thus more water condensation and precipitation.

  10. On-line determination of ammonia at low pptv mixing ratios in the CLOUD chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, F; Mathot, S; Baltensperger, U

    2012-01-01

    A new instrument for the on-line determination of ammonia was developed. Since ammonia is a rather sticky compound, sampling losses were minimised with a new sam- pling device where the ammonia was transferred to the liq- uid phase only 5 mm after the inlet tip. The liquid phase was then analyzed by long pathlength absorption spectrophotom- etry using the Berthelot reaction with phenol and hypochlo- rite as reagents. The measurements were made during the CLOUD3 campaign at CERN where the influence of ammo- nia on the nucleation rate was studied. At stable conditions the detection limit reached with this instrument was 35 pptv (air flow rate of 2 l min − 1 , liquid flow rate of 0.3 ml min − 1 ), although occasionally the instrument was affected by back- ground problems. The range of mixing ratios during this campaign was varied from the background contamination ( < 35 pptv) up to around 2 ppbv. The measured ammonia concentration was correlated with the rate of ammonia in- jected into the chamber, but wi...

  11. Study of the effects induced by lead on the emulsion films of the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anokhina, A.; Ariga, A.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bay, F.; Bergnoli, A.; Bersani Greggio, F.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Amato, G.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Declais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dulach, B.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Franceschi, A.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V.I.; Galkin, V.A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Golubkov, D.; Gornoushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gusev, G.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, Caren; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hiramatsu, S.; Hoshino, Kaoru; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kawai, T.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Kimura, M.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, Andrea; Lutter, G.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuoka, H.; Mauri, N.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Ryzhikov, D.; Sato, Y.; Sato, O.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Sugonyaev, V.; Taira, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Togo, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tufanli, S.; Ushida, N.; Valieri, C.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2008-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment is based on the use of the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC). In the OPERA ECC, nuclear emulsion films acting as very high precision tracking detectors are interleaved with lead plates providing a massive target for neutrino interactions. We report on studies related to the effects occurring from the contact between emulsion and lead. A low radioactivity lead is required in order to minimize the number of background tracks in emulsions and to achieve the required performance in the reconstruction of neutrino events. It was observed that adding other chemical elements to the lead, in order to improve the mechanical properties, may significantly increase the level of radioactivity on the emulsions. A detailed study was made in order to choose a lead alloy with good mechanical properties and an appropriate packing technique so as to have a low enough effective radioactivity.

  12. Investigation concerning the existence of quarks near the nuclei of great air showers with the help of a cloud chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemken, U.

    1974-01-01

    In order to compare the results of McCusker's (1969) experiment, this paper presents an experiment with improved technical details. For this purpose, a large cloud chamber in connection with the Kiel air shower set-up was available. First, the expected quark induced ionisation has been determined by a calibration measurement on minimum ionising muons. These data are in extremely good agreement with values from the literature. Then, measurements in air showers with a mean primary energy of 10 16 eV have been performed during an effective measuring time of 66 days. The mean distance from the nucleus amounts to about 9 m. In contradiction to the quark abundance of McCusker, which predicts six quarks for the Kiel set-up, no track was found with 'quark suspicion'. Some tracks with low droplet densities could be explained already in a preliminary stage of the evaluation by normal cloud chamber effects. (orig.) [de

  13. A basic radiation-education method using a handy-type cloud chamber and natural radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushita, K. N.

    2010-10-01

    Nuclear human resources development becomes increasingly important due to the world trend of expanding nuclear energy utilization in this century. At the Nuclear Human Resource Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, many kinds of nuclear and radiation education have been conducted consistently and continuously through its half-century history though having several organizational changes. High level education is required for the specialists of nuclear technology including nuclear power plants operators and engineers, while basic knowledge on nuclear energy and, specially, on radiations and radioisotopes should be given to school students and public. Besides lectures on radiation and radioisotopes, some basic experiments are useful to understand what are radiations and radioisotopes. One of such basic experiments is the cloud chamber experiment. It is a great fun and excitement even for small children as one can actually see the radiation tracks by his/her naked eyes at hand. While there are many types of cloud chambers, we have developed a new-type cloud chamber to use for the radiation education and training s. Using the new-type cloud chamber, we have further developed a new method of this experiment so that the participants can more deeply understand the phenomena and the nature of radiation and radioisotopes. In this method, using a radiation source of natural uranium ore and gaseous radiation source containing Rn-220 obtained from thorium-containing material, they not only observe the radiation tracks but also measure the length and count the number of the tracks. Then they can calculate the energy of the radiation (alpha ray) and can estimate the half-life of the radioisotope (Rn-220). This method can be applied for high-school and general university students as well as for the public as a useful and effective method in the radiation education. (Author)

  14. A basic radiation-education method using a handy-type cloud chamber and natural radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushita, K. N., E-mail: Kushita.kouhei@iaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Human Resource Development Center, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 309-1195 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Nuclear human resources development becomes increasingly important due to the world trend of expanding nuclear energy utilization in this century. At the Nuclear Human Resource Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, many kinds of nuclear and radiation education have been conducted consistently and continuously through its half-century history though having several organizational changes. High level education is required for the specialists of nuclear technology including nuclear power plants operators and engineers, while basic knowledge on nuclear energy and, specially, on radiations and radioisotopes should be given to school students and public. Besides lectures on radiation and radioisotopes, some basic experiments are useful to understand what are radiations and radioisotopes. One of such basic experiments is the cloud chamber experiment. It is a great fun and excitement even for small children as one can actually see the radiation tracks by his/her naked eyes at hand. While there are many types of cloud chambers, we have developed a new-type cloud chamber to use for the radiation education and training s. Using the new-type cloud chamber, we have further developed a new method of this experiment so that the participants can more deeply understand the phenomena and the nature of radiation and radioisotopes. In this method, using a radiation source of natural uranium ore and gaseous radiation source containing Rn-220 obtained from thorium-containing material, they not only observe the radiation tracks but also measure the length and count the number of the tracks. Then they can calculate the energy of the radiation (alpha ray) and can estimate the half-life of the radioisotope (Rn-220). This method can be applied for high-school and general university students as well as for the public as a useful and effective method in the radiation education. (Author)

  15. Cosmic-ray cloud-chamber contributions to the discovery of the strange particles in the decade 1947-1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochester, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper looks at the discovery and investigation of strange particles in the 1950s and points to the importance of two factors in achieving this, namely, penetrating-shower selection and counter control in cloud chambers. Experiments at Pic-du-Mide are detailed as is the Bagneres de Bigorre conference and concludes with some of the work done on charged strange particles. (UK)

  16. A Study of the Link between Cosmic Rays and Clouds with a Cloud Chamber at the CERN PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laakso, L K; Lehtipalo, K; Miettinen, P K; Duarte branco da silva santos, F; Stojkov, Y; Jud, W; Wurm, F; Pinterich, T; Dommen, J; Curtius, J; Kreissl, F C; Minginette, P; Azeredo lima, J M; Kulmala, M T; Petaja, T T; Volkamer, R M; Schafer, M; Rodrigues tome, A; Viisanen, Y A; Onnela, A T O; Kristic, R; Ehrhart, S K; Amorim, A J; Maksumov, O; Kupc, A; Sitals, R P; Dunne, E M; Riipinen, I A; Downard, A J; Virtanen, A; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Schuchmann, S; Kvashnin, A; Hansel, A; Gonzalez carracedo, L R; Vrtala, A; Schallhart, S; Yan, C; Stratmann, F; Pinto mogo, S I; Makhmutov, V; Riccobono, F; Weingartner, E P; Kurten, C A; Rondo, L; Ruuskanen, T M; Finkenzeller, H F; Laaksonen, A J; De menezes, L; Hauser, D; Kajos, M K; Schmitt, T M; Mathot, S; Wasem, A; Guida, R; Metzger, A E; Baltensperger, U; Kirkby, J; Duplissy, J; Franchin, A; Rorup, B; Flagan, R C; Wex, H D

    2002-01-01

    Three recent independent observations suggest that galactic cosmic rays may exert a significant influence on the climate. Firstly, satellite data suggest a positive correlation between variations of cosmic ray intensity and the fraction of Earth covered by low clouds. Secondly, palaeoclimatic data provide extensive evidence for an association between cosmic ray intensity and climate over the last 10 kyr and at earlier times. Finally, the presence of ion-induced nucleation of new aerosol in the atmosphere is supported by recent observations. If cosmic rays do indeed enhance aerosol production and low cloud formation, this could exert a strong cooling influence on the radiative energy balance of Earth. Physical mechanisms by which cosmic rays may affect aerosol and clouds have been proposed and modelled, but definitive experiments are lacking. The aim of CLOUD is to investigate the nature and significance of cosmic ray-aerosol-cloud mechanisms under controlled laboratory conditions using the T11 beam at the CER...

  17. Laser-filament-induced snow formation in a subsaturated zone in a cloud chamber: experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jingjing; Sun, Haiyi; Sridharan, Aravindan; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan; Chin, See Leang

    2013-12-01

    1 kHz, 2 mJ, 45 fs, 800 nm laser pulses were fired into a laboratory diffusion cloud chamber through a subsaturated zone (relative humidity ∼73%, T ∼ 4.3 °C). After 60 min of laser irradiation, an oval-shaped snow pile was observed right below the filament center and weighed ∼12.0 mg. The air current velocity at the edge of the vortices was estimated to be ∼16.5 cm/s. Scattering scenes recorded from the side show that filament-induced turbulence were formed inside the cloud chamber with two vortices below the filament. Two-dimensional simulations of the air flow motion in two cross sections of the cloud chamber confirm that the turbulent vortices exist below the filament. Based upon this simulation, we deduce that the vortices indeed have a three-dimensional elliptical shape. Hence, we propose that inside vortices where the humidity was supersaturated or saturated the condensation nuclei, namely, HNO(3), N(2)(+), O(2)(+) and other aerosols and impurities, were activated and grew in size. Large-sized particles would eventually be spun out along the fast moving direction towards the cold plate and formed an oval-shaped snow pile at the end.

  18. A study of the link between cosmic rays and clouds with a cloud chamber at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Fastrup, B; Lillestøl, Egil; Thorn, E; Bosteels, Michel; Gonidec, A; Harigel, G G; Kirkby, Jasper; Mele, S; Minginette, P; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Schinzel, D; Seidl, W; Grundsøe, P; Marsh, N D; Polny, J; Svensmark, H; Viisanen, Y; Kurvinen, K L; Orava, Risto; Hämeri, K; Kulmala, M; Laakso, I; Mäkelä, J M; O'Dowd, C D; Afrosimov, V; Basalaev, A; Panov, M; Laaksonen, B D; Joutsensaari, J; Ermakov, V; Makhmutov, V S; Maksumov, O; Pokrevsky, P; Stozhkov, Yu I; Svirzhevsky, N S; Carslaw, K; Yin, Y; Trautmann, T; Arnold, F; Wohlfrom, K H; Hagen, D; Schmitt, J; Whitefield, P; Aplin, K; Harrison, R G; Bingham, R; Close, Francis Edwin; Gibbins, C; Irving, A; Kellett, B; Lockwood, M; Petersen, D; Szymanski, W W; Wagner, P E; Vrtala, A; CERN. Geneva. SPS-PS Experiments Committee

    2000-01-01

    Recent satellite data have revealed a surprising correlation between galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity and the fraction of the Earth covered by clouds. If this correlation were to be established by a causal mechanism, it could provide a crucial step in understanding the long-sought mechanism connecting solar and climate variability. The Earth's climate seems to be remarkably sensitive to solar activity, but variations of the Sun's electromagnetic radiation appear to be too small to account for the observed climate variability. However, since the GCR intensity is strongly modulated by the solar wind, a GCR-cloud link may provide a sufficient amplifying mechanism. Moreover if this connection were to be confirmed, it could have profound consequences for our understanding of the solar contributions to the current global warming. The CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) project proposes to test experimentally the existence a link between cosmic rays and cloud formation, and to understand the microphysical me...

  19. Design of a new multi-phase experimental simulation chamber for atmospheric photosmog, aerosol and cloud chemistry research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new simulation chamber has been built at the Interuniversitary Laboratory of Atmospheric Systems (LISA. The CESAM chamber (French acronym for Experimental Multiphasic Atmospheric Simulation Chamber is designed to allow research in multiphase atmospheric (photo- chemistry which involves both gas phase and condensed phase processes including aerosol and cloud chemistry. CESAM has the potential to carry out variable temperature and pressure experiments under a very realistic artificial solar irradiation. It consists of a 4.2 m3 stainless steel vessel equipped with three high pressure xenon arc lamps which provides a controlled and steady environment. Initial characterization results, all carried out at 290–297 K under dry conditions, concerning lighting homogeneity, mixing efficiency, ozone lifetime, radical sources, NOy wall reactivity, particle loss rates, background PM, aerosol formation and cloud generation are given. Photolysis frequencies of NO2 and O3 related to chamber radiation system were found equal to (4.2 × 10−3 s−1 for JNO2 and (1.4 × 10−5 s−1 for JO1D which is comparable to the solar radiation in the boundary layer. An auxiliary mechanism describing NOy wall reactions has been developed. Its inclusion in the Master Chemical Mechanism allowed us to adequately model the results of experiments on the photo-oxidation of propene-NOx-Air mixtures. Aerosol yields for the α-pinene + O3 system chosen as a reference were determined and found in good agreement with previous studies. Particle lifetime in the chamber ranges from 10 h to 4 days depending on particle size distribution which indicates that the chamber can provide high quality data on aerosol aging processes and their effects. Being evacuable, it is possible to generate in this new chamber

  20. Multiple production around 1000 TeV observed in the emulsion chamber experiments at Mt. Fuji and linkage experiments with air shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Syoji

    1980-01-01

    The multiple production around 1000 TeV is discussed in this paper by using the experimental data at Mt. Fuji and the results of the Monte Carlo simulation. Six events with the total energy more than 1000 TeV were observed in the emulsion chamber (EC) exposed for 600 m 2 year at Mt. Fuji. Various Monte Carlo calculations with the scaling model were performed. The relation between the transverse momentum and The Feynman scaling law is discussed. The frequency of the total gamma energy spectrum and the lateral distribution of the family were compared with the calculation. In the case that protons are dominant in primary cosmic ray, the multiplicity in the interaction increased according to 1/4 th power of energy. In the case of heavy nuclei, the experimental results can be reproduced by assuming the increase of cross-section, when the scaling holds. It is still hard to make definite conclusion on the break of scaling. Simultaneous observation of air family and air shower is proposed. (Kato, T.)

  1. Hadronic interactions at energies around 103 TeV inferred from the large-scale emulsion chamber experiment at Mt. Fuji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, M.; Amenomori, M.; Konishi, E.

    1981-01-01

    Details of experimental results, obtained with the large-scale emulsion chambers at Mt. Fuji (3776 m above sea level), are presented to investigate the hadronic interactions at energies around 10 3 TeV, comparing with the Monte Carlo simulation based on various assumed interaction models and primary particles. It may be briefly summarized as 1) Scaling in the fragmentation region can be valid up to 10 3 TeV at least only if the primary particles are mixed, with significant amounts of heavy nuclei at energies over 10 14 eV, 2) Cross sections should continue to increase with energy up to 10 3 TeV, at least, at almost the same rate as that obtained at lower energies, 3) There exist some evidence to indicate remarkable production of particles or jets with high P sub(t) of several GeV/c at energies around 10 3 TeV, 4) Hadron to gamma-ray ratios in the observed family events remain almost within the scope of simulation prediction. Other interesting characters of family events are also discussed. (author)

  2. New Particle Formation in an Urban Atmosphere: The Role of Various Ingredients Investigated in the CLOUD Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltensperger, U.; Xiao, M.; Hoyle, C.; Dada, L.; Garmash, O.; Stolzenburg, D.; Molteni, U.; Lehtipalo, K.; El-Haddad, I.; Dommen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role on climate via aerosol-radiation interaction and aerosol-cloud interaction. The latter is strongly influenced by new particle formation (NPF). The physical and chemical mechanisms behind the NPF process are still under investigation. Great advancements were made in resolving chemical and physical mechanisms of NPF with a series of experiments conducted at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber facility at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland), including binary nucleation of sulfuric acid - water, ternary nucleation of sulfuric acid - water with ammonia or dimethylamine as well as oxidation products (highly oxygenated molecules, HOMs) from biogenic precursors with and without the presence of sulfuric acid. Here, we investigate possible NPF mechanisms in urban atmospheres, where large populations are exposed to high aerosol concentrations; these mechanisms are still missing and are urgently needed. Urban atmospheres are highly polluted with high concentrations of SO2, ammonia, NOx and volatile organic vapors from anthropogenic activity as well as with high particle concentrations, which provide a high condensation sink for condensable gases. Aromatic hydrocarbons from industrial activities, traffic and residential combustion are present at high concentrations and contribute significantly to photochemical smog in the urban environment.The experiments were conducted at the CLOUD chamber facility during the CLOUD11 campaign in fall 2016. Three aromatic hydrocarbons were selected: toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (1,2,4-TMB) and naphthalene (NPT). Experiments were also conducted with mixtures of the three aromatic hydrocarbons to better represent the urban atmosphere. All the experiments were conducted in the presence of sulfuric acid concentrations with or without the addition of ammonia and NOx. New particle formation rates and early growth rates derived for each precursor and their mixture, together with sulfuric acid and

  3. Cloud Experiment. View inside the chamber with Jasper Kirkby, Head leader of the project.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    CLOUD, the cutting-edge physics experiment that will shed light on climate-related matters, has finished its assembly phase and is starting taking data using a beam of protons from the Proton Synchrotron.

  4. A comparison of the stability of beverage cloud emulsions formulated with different gum acacia- and starch-based emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, S J; Reineccius, G A; Peppard, T L

    2010-06-01

    The performance of several hydrocolloids (3 gum acacias, 1 modified gum acacia, and 3 modified starches) in stabilizing beverage emulsions and corresponding model beverages was investigated employing different core materials, emulsifier usage levels, and storage temperatures. Concentrated emulsions were prepared using orange terpenes or Miglyol 812 (comprising medium-chain triglycerides, MCT) weighted 1:1 with ester gum, stored at 25 or 35 degrees C, and analyzed on days 0, 1, and 3. On day 3, model beverages were made from each emulsion, stored at both temperatures, and analyzed weekly for 4 wk. Stability of concentrated emulsions was assessed by measuring mean particle size and by visual observations of ringing; beverage stability was judged similarly and also by loss of turbidity. Particle size measurements showed concentrated emulsions containing gum acacia or modified gum acacia with either core material were stable over 3 d storage at both temperatures whereas those made with modified starches were not, destabilization being faster at 35 degrees C. Beverages based on orange terpenes, in contrast to Miglyol, yielded smaller mean particle sizes, both on manufacture and during storage, regardless of hydrocolloid used. Visual observations of ringing generally supported this finding. Modified gum acacia was evaluated at both recommended and higher usage levels, stability increasing in the latter case. In general, all gum acacia and modified gum acacia emulsifiers were superior in stability to those based on modified starches, at either temperature, for orange terpene-based beverages. In Miglyol-based beverages, similar results were seen, except 1 modified starch performed as well as the gum acacia products.

  5. submitter Modeling the thermodynamics and kinetics of sulfuric acid-dimethylamine-water nanoparticle growth in the CLOUD chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlm, L; Schobesberger, S; Praplan, A P; Kim, J; Tikkanen, O -P; Lawler, M J; Smith, J N; Tröstl, J; Acosta Navarro, J C; Baltensperger, U; Bianchi, F; Donahue, N M; Duplissy, J; Franchin, A; Jokinen, T; Keskinen, H; Kirkby, J; Kürten, A; Laaksonen, A; Lehtipalo, K; Petäjä, T; Riccobono, F; Rissanen, M P; Rondo, L; Schallhart, S; Simon, M; Winkler, P M; Worsnop, D R; Virtanen, A; Riipinen, I

    2016-01-01

    Dimethylamine (DMA) has a stabilizing effect on sulfuric acid (SA) clusters, and the SA and DMA molecules and clusters likely play important roles in both aerosol particle formation and growth in the atmosphere. We use the monodisperse particle growth model for acid-base chemistry in nanoparticle growth (MABNAG) together with direct and indirect observations from the CLOUD4 and CLOUD7 experiments in the cosmics leaving outdoor droplets (CLOUD) chamber at CERN to investigate the size and composition evolution of freshly formed particles consisting of SA, DMA, and water as they grow to 20 nm in dry diameter. Hygroscopic growth factors are measured using a nano-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA), which combined with simulations of particle water uptake using the thermodynamic extended-aerosol inorganics model (E-AIM) constrain the chemical composition. MABNAG predicts a particle-phase ratio between DMA and SA molecules of 1.1–1.3 for a 2 nm particle and DMA gas-phase mixing ratio...

  6. The origin of the cloud chamber;Les mysteres de la chambre a brouillard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadel, K. [Palais de la Decouverte, Dept. de Physique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-09-15

    This article draws the story of the Wilson chamber. In the second half of the 19. century, a general trend among scientists in Great-Britain was still the observation and the imitation of nature, this romantic approach was launched by Goethe 50 years before. In 1895, Wilson as a young physicist tried to reproduce fog in laboratory. His challenge was to reduce the role of dust particles in the Aitken method: the expansion of wet-saturated air loaded with dust particles creates fog. In 1896, at the Cavendish laboratory, he discovered that ions could be very efficient 'dust particles' to condensate vapor and in 1898 he wrote that the expansion method is probably one of the most sensitive method to detect radiation emitted by radioactive materials. The Wilson chamber got a full success only from the twenties and was intensively used for 30 years in particles and nuclear physics laboratories. This detector allowed the experimental discovery of the positron, the muon and strange particles. (A.C.)

  7. Application of the monazite radiation source to the petri dish-type cloud chamber and the influence of several factors on occurrence of tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Issei; Sago, Yutaka; Mori, Chizuo

    2012-01-01

    Monazite radiation source (2.5 mmΦ) proved to be useful as a radiation source of cloud chamber without the dispersion of powder or its adhesion because of a sintered body. After the track appeared within one minute after having put the petri dish on the dry ice, the number increased rapidly followed by the tendency to decrease gradually after that. The tracks can be observed for about 20 minutes after cooled with dry ice. The size of dry ice should be chosen to enter the inside of the bottom edge of the petri dish. The same number of tracks as using conventional mantle radiation source was obtained by utilizing 3 pieces of monazite sintered body separated mutually by about 7.5 mm. Hence the petri dish-type cloud chamber with the monazite sintered body as radiation source revealed to make the observation of track easy and prompt. (author)

  8. Continuum Regime Motion of a Growing Droplet in Opposing Thermo-Diffusiophoretic and Gravitational Fields of a Thermal Diffusion Cloud Chamber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakanov, S. P.; Smolík, Jiří; Zaripov, S. K.; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2001), s. 341-350 ISSN 0021-8502 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/97/1198 Grant - others:RFBR(RU) 99-01-00-169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : thermal diffusion cloud chamber * droplet growth * continuum regime Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2001

  9. The search for primary particle tracks in nucleon-nucleus interactions with gamma ray energy ΣEγ ≥ 3 TeV registered in stratospheric X-ray emulsion chambers using data of the RUNJOB experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayarnaya I.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here the result of a retreatment of data from the RUNJOB (RUssia-Nippon JOint Balloon experiment of nucleon-nucleus interactions registered in stratospheric X-ray emulsion chambers (REC using a new method for searching and tracing of galactic particles in nuclear emulsions. In about halfcof these interactions (∼ 50 recorded in REC RUNJOB‘96-3B, RUNJOB‘97-6A and RUNJOB‘99-11A,B with energy released in the electromagnetic component ΣEγ ≥ 3 TeV and ΣEγ ≥ 5 TeV respectively, single charged particle tracks are not found within the search area defined individually by the particle track location accuracy. The absence of primary proton tracks is consistent with the original treatment of the RUNJOB experimental data. There is a difference in the zenith angular distribution for two groups of events in which a single charged particle track is observed or absent. The average penetration depth of the primary particles in REC to the interaction vertex in the zenith angle range from 60∘ to 79∘ differs by a factor two for these groups.

  10. A new laboratory facility to study the interactions of aerosols, cloud droplets/ice crystals, and trace gases in a turbulent environment: The Π Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, W. H., II; Chang, K.; Ciochetto, D.; Niedermeier, D.; Bench, J.; Shaw, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    A detailed understanding of gas-aerosol-cloud interaction within the turbulent atmosphere is of prime importance for an accurate understanding of Earth's climate system. As one example: While every cloud droplet began as an aerosol particle, not every aerosol particle becomes a cloud droplet. The particle to droplet transformation requires that the particle be exposed to some critical concentration of water vapor, which differs for different combinations of particle size and chemical composition. Similarly, the formation of ice particles in mixed phase clouds is also catalyzed by aerosol particles. Even in the simplest scenarios it is challenging to gain a full understanding of the aerosol activation and ice nucleation processes. At least two other factors contribute significantly to the complexity observed in the atmosphere. First, aerosols and cloud particles are not static entities, but are continuously interacting with their chemical environment, and therefore changing in their properties. Second, clouds are ubiquitously turbulent, so thermodynamic and compositional variables, such as water vapor or other trace gas concentrations, fluctuate in space and time. Indeed, the coupling between turbulence and microphysical processes is one of the major research challenges in cloud physics. We have developed a multiphase, turbulent reaction chamber, (dubbed the Π Chamber, after the internal volume of 3.14 cubic meters) designed to address the problems outlined above. It is capable of pressures ranging from sea level to ~ 100 mbar, and can sustain temperatures of +40 to -55 ºC. We can independently control the temperatures on the surfaces of three heat transfer zones. This allows us to establish a temperature gradient between the floor and ceiling inducing Rayleigh-Benard convection and inducing a turbulent environment. Interior surfaces are electropolished stainless steel to facilitate cleaning before and after chemistry experiments. At present, supporting

  11. Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement for the design and prototyping of a machine for laser treatment of metallic vacuum chamber walls for electron cloud mitigation at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement for the design and prototyping of a machine for laser treatment of metallic vacuum chamber walls for electron cloud mitigation at the High Luminosity LHC

  12. Study of charm production in the forward cone at energy ELab ∼ 75 TeV with a two-storey X-ray emulsion chamber exposed at, mountain altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisov A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the cosmic ray hadron excess observed in a deep uniform lead X-ray emulsion chamber (XREC at depths larger than 70 radiation lengths is analyzed. We present preliminary experimental data on the absorption of cosmic ray hadrons in the two-storey XREC with a large air gap exposed at the Tien Shan mountains. The design of the chamber was especially invented to prove the hypothesis on a substantial increase of the charm particle production cross section with energy at ELab ∼ 75 TeV as the main source of the darkness spot excess observed on X-ray films. Experimental data obtained with both a 2-storey XREC and a deep uniform XREC are compared with simulation results calculated with the FANSY 1.0 model. The comparison reveals a qualitative agreement between experimental and simulated data under the assumption of high values of charm particle production cross section at ELab ∼ 75 TeV in the forward kinematic region at xLab > 0.1.

  13. Exact and near backscattering measurements of the linear depolarisation ratio of various ice crystal habits generated in a laboratory cloud chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen R.; Connolly, Paul J.; Webb, Ann R.; Baran, Anthony J.

    2016-07-01

    Ice clouds were generated in the Manchester Ice Cloud Chamber (MICC), and the backscattering linear depolarisation ratio, δ, was measured for a variety of habits. To create an assortment of particle morphologies, the humidity in the chamber was varied throughout each experiment, resulting in a range of habits from the pristine to the complex. This technique was repeated at three temperatures: -7 °C, -15 °C and -30 °C, in order to produce both solid and hollow columns, plates, sectored plates and dendrites. A linearly polarised 532 nm continuous wave diode laser was directed through a section of the cloud using a non-polarising 50:50 beam splitter. Measurements of the scattered light were taken at 178°, 179° and 180°, using a Glan-Taylor prism to separate the co- and cross-polarised components. The intensities of these components were measured using two amplified photodetectors and the ratio of the cross- to co-polarised intensities was measured to find the linear depolarisation ratio. In general, it was found that Ray Tracing over-predicts the linear depolarisation ratio. However, by creating more accurate particle models which better represent the internal structure of ice particles, discrepancies between measured and modelled results (based on Ray Tracing) were reduced.

  14. Role of visualization of nuclear radiation in public education on atomic energy. Visualization of natural nuclear radiation using a cloud chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Junichi H.; Fujita, Fumiyuki; Narabayashi, Tadashi

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear radiation is indispensable tool, i.e., medical diagnostic systems and industrial nondestructive measurement systems, for our life. On the other hand, ordinary people sometimes have bad image for nuclear radiation. To improve this undesirable situation, many individuals and groups keep holding public educational meeting on nuclear radiation. For this purpose, visualization of natural nuclear radiation by a cloud chamber is very effective way; participants feel existence of nuclear radiation directly. In this talk, public educational activity of Hokkaido University and Japan Atomic Energy Society Hokkaido branch will be reported. (author)

  15. Parallel 3-D image processing for nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Toshiyuki

    2001-01-01

    The history of nuclear plate was explained. The first nuclear plate was named as pellicles covered with 600 μm of emulsion in Europe. In Japan Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC) using thin emulsion (50 μm) type nuclear plate was developed in 1960. Then, the semi-automatic analyzer (1971) and automatic analyzer (1980), Track Selector (TS) with memory stored 16 layer images in 512 x 512 x 16 pixel were developed. Moreover, NTS (New Track Selector), speeding up analyzer, was produced for analysis of results of CHORUS experiment in 1996. Simultaneous readout of 16 layer images had been carried out, but UTS (Ultra Track Selector) made possible to progressive treatment of 16 layers of some data and determination of traces in all angles. Direct detection of tau neutrino (VT) was studied by DONUT (FNAL E872) using UTS and nuclear plate. Neutrino beam was produced by 800 GeV proton beam hitting the fixed target. About 1100 phenomena of neutrino reactions were observed during six months of irradiation. 203 phenomena were detected. 4 examples were shown in this paper. OPERA experiment by SK is explained. (S.Y.)

  16. Exact and near backscattering measurements of the linear depolarisation ratio of various ice crystal habits generated in a laboratory cloud chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Helen R.; Connolly, Paul J.; Webb, Ann R.; Baran, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Ice clouds were generated in the Manchester Ice Cloud Chamber (MICC), and the backscattering linear depolarisation ratio, δ, was measured for a variety of habits. To create an assortment of particle morphologies, the humidity in the chamber was varied throughout each experiment, resulting in a range of habits from the pristine to the complex. This technique was repeated at three temperatures: −7 °C, −15 °C and −30 °C, in order to produce both solid and hollow columns, plates, sectored plates and dendrites. A linearly polarised 532 nm continuous wave diode laser was directed through a section of the cloud using a non-polarising 50:50 beam splitter. Measurements of the scattered light were taken at 178°, 179° and 180°, using a Glan–Taylor prism to separate the co- and cross-polarised components. The intensities of these components were measured using two amplified photodetectors and the ratio of the cross- to co-polarised intensities was measured to find the linear depolarisation ratio. In general, it was found that Ray Tracing over-predicts the linear depolarisation ratio. However, by creating more accurate particle models which better represent the internal structure of ice particles, discrepancies between measured and modelled results (based on Ray Tracing) were reduced. - Highlights: • Linear depolarisation ratio was measured for various crystal habits. • Measurements were taken at 178°, 179° and 180°. • Various crystal properties were modelled and tested in ray tracing. • Measured and modelled results are discussed. • Modelled results are generally found to overpredict LDR.

  17. The Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC): INP measurements at conditions relevant for mixed-phase clouds at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacher, Larissa; Lohmann, Ulrike; Boose, Yvonne; Zipori, Assaf; Herrmann, Erik; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Steinbacher, Martin; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we describe the Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC) as a new instrument to measure ambient ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations for conditions relevant to mixed-phase clouds. Laboratory verification and validation experiments confirm the accuracy of the thermodynamic conditions of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) in HINC with uncertainties in T of ±0.4 K and in RH with respect to water (RHw) of ±1.5 %, which translates into an uncertainty in RH with respect to ice (RHi) of ±3.0 % at T > 235 K. For further validation of HINC as a field instrument, two measurement campaigns were conducted in winters 2015 and 2016 at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ; Switzerland, 3580 m a. s. l. ) to sample ambient INPs. During winters 2015 and 2016 the site encountered free-tropospheric conditions 92 and 79 % of the time, respectively. We measured INP concentrations at 242 K at water-subsaturated conditions (RHw = 94 %), relevant for the formation of ice clouds, and in the water-supersaturated regime (RHw = 104 %) to represent ice formation occurring under mixed-phase cloud conditions. In winters 2015 and 2016 the median INP concentrations at RHw = 94 % was below the minimum detectable concentration. At RHw = 104 %, INP concentrations were an order of magnitude higher, with median concentrations in winter 2015 of 2.8 per standard liter (std L-1; normalized to standard T of 273 K and pressure, p, of 1013 hPa) and 4.7 std L-1 in winter 2016. The measurements are in agreement with previous winter measurements obtained with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC) of 2.2 std L-1 at the same location. During winter 2015, two events caused the INP concentrations at RHw = 104 % to significantly increase above the campaign average. First, an increase to 72.1 std L-1 was measured during an event influenced by marine air, arriving at the JFJ from the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea. The contribution from anthropogenic or other

  18. Study on short-lived particles with emulsion techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentis, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments on measuring the lifetimes are reviewed and the decay mechanisms for c-, b-quark, tau-lepton and charmed hadron are disclosed by means of emulsion chambers and hybride techniques (HT) of the emulsion-spectrometer type. The dominant development of hybride emulsion technique is traced beginning with the early experiments on measuring the lifetime of particles with emulsion (approximately 10 -13 s) and emulsion chambers. The layouts of arrangement of emulsions, counters and chambers are presented. Experiments on neutrino beams in the Fermilab and CERN using a foot bubble chamber and the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) are briefly described. HT experiments with a muon beam and neutrino beams in the Fermilab, with a photon beam in CERN with the use of the modified Omega are considered in detail. The results on measuring the lifetimes of the particles investigated are presented. The lengths of decay tracks, hypothetical decays, fitted masses, leVels of permissible limit of kinematic analysis, pulses of charmed baryons and intrinsic lifetimes of candidates for decay Λsub(c)sup(+), D +- , D 0 , F + - mesons are tabulated. The maximum likelihood method has been applied to determine the lifetimes from complete data on decays. It is noted that new developments in the field of semiconductor detectors and automation of emulsion measurements can extend possibilities of HT for investigation of both charmed

  19. New particle formation in the sulfuric acid–dimethylamine–water system: reevaluation of CLOUD chamber measurements and comparison to an aerosol nucleation and growth model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kürten

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets chamber study showed that sulfuric acid and dimethylamine produce new aerosols very efficiently and yield particle formation rates that are compatible with boundary layer observations. These previously published new particle formation (NPF rates are reanalyzed in the present study with an advanced method. The results show that the NPF rates at 1.7 nm are more than a factor of 10 faster than previously published due to earlier approximations in correcting particle measurements made at a larger detection threshold. The revised NPF rates agree almost perfectly with calculated rates from a kinetic aerosol model at different sizes (1.7 and 4.3 nm mobility diameter. In addition, modeled and measured size distributions show good agreement over a wide range of sizes (up to ca. 30 nm. Furthermore, the aerosol model is modified such that evaporation rates for some clusters can be taken into account; these evaporation rates were previously published from a flow tube study. Using this model, the findings from the present study and the flow tube experiment can be brought into good agreement for the high base-to-acid ratios (∼ 100 relevant for this study. This confirms that nucleation proceeds at rates that are compatible with collision-controlled (a.k.a. kinetically controlled NPF for the conditions during the CLOUD7 experiment (278 K, 38 % relative humidity, sulfuric acid concentration between 1  ×  106 and 3  ×  107 cm−3, and dimethylamine mixing ratio of ∼  40 pptv, i.e., 1  ×  109 cm−3.

  20. New particle formation in the sulfuric acid-dimethylamine-water system: reevaluation of CLOUD chamber measurements and comparison to an aerosol nucleation and growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürten, Andreas; Li, Chenxi; Bianchi, Federico; Curtius, Joachim; Dias, António; Donahue, Neil M.; Duplissy, Jonathan; Flagan, Richard C.; Hakala, Jani; Jokinen, Tuija; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Onnela, Antti; Rissanen, Matti P.; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Stozhkov, Yuri; Tröstl, Jasmin; Ye, Penglin; McMurry, Peter H.

    2018-01-01

    A recent CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber study showed that sulfuric acid and dimethylamine produce new aerosols very efficiently and yield particle formation rates that are compatible with boundary layer observations. These previously published new particle formation (NPF) rates are reanalyzed in the present study with an advanced method. The results show that the NPF rates at 1.7 nm are more than a factor of 10 faster than previously published due to earlier approximations in correcting particle measurements made at a larger detection threshold. The revised NPF rates agree almost perfectly with calculated rates from a kinetic aerosol model at different sizes (1.7 and 4.3 nm mobility diameter). In addition, modeled and measured size distributions show good agreement over a wide range of sizes (up to ca. 30 nm). Furthermore, the aerosol model is modified such that evaporation rates for some clusters can be taken into account; these evaporation rates were previously published from a flow tube study. Using this model, the findings from the present study and the flow tube experiment can be brought into good agreement for the high base-to-acid ratios (˜ 100) relevant for this study. This confirms that nucleation proceeds at rates that are compatible with collision-controlled (a.k.a. kinetically controlled) NPF for the conditions during the CLOUD7 experiment (278 K, 38 % relative humidity, sulfuric acid concentration between 1 × 106 and 3 × 107 cm-3, and dimethylamine mixing ratio of ˜ 40 pptv, i.e., 1 × 109 cm-3).

  1. Rheology of attractive emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sujit S; Gerrard, Dustin D; Rhodes, Travers S; Mason, Thomas G; Weitz, David A

    2011-10-01

    We show how attractive interactions dramatically influence emulsion rheology. Unlike the repulsive case, attractive emulsions below random close packing, φ(RCP), can form soft gel-like elastic solids. However, above φ(RCP), attractive and repulsive emulsions have similar elasticities. Such compressed attractive emulsions undergo an additional shear-driven relaxation process during yielding. Our results suggest that attractive emulsions begin to yield at weak points through the breakage of bonds, and, above φ(RCP), also undergo droplet configurational rearrangements.

  2. The Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC: INP measurements at conditions relevant for mixed-phase clouds at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lacher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we describe the Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC as a new instrument to measure ambient ice-nucleating particle (INP concentrations for conditions relevant to mixed-phase clouds. Laboratory verification and validation experiments confirm the accuracy of the thermodynamic conditions of temperature (T and relative humidity (RH in HINC with uncertainties in T of ±0.4 K and in RH with respect to water (RHw of ±1.5 %, which translates into an uncertainty in RH with respect to ice (RHi of ±3.0 % at T > 235 K. For further validation of HINC as a field instrument, two measurement campaigns were conducted in winters 2015 and 2016 at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ; Switzerland, 3580 m a. s. l.  to sample ambient INPs. During winters 2015 and 2016 the site encountered free-tropospheric conditions 92 and 79 % of the time, respectively. We measured INP concentrations at 242 K at water-subsaturated conditions (RHw = 94 %, relevant for the formation of ice clouds, and in the water-supersaturated regime (RHw = 104 % to represent ice formation occurring under mixed-phase cloud conditions. In winters 2015 and 2016 the median INP concentrations at RHw = 94 % was below the minimum detectable concentration. At RHw = 104 %, INP concentrations were an order of magnitude higher, with median concentrations in winter 2015 of 2.8 per standard liter (std L−1; normalized to standard T of 273 K and pressure, p, of 1013 hPa and 4.7 std L−1 in winter 2016. The measurements are in agreement with previous winter measurements obtained with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC of 2.2 std L−1 at the same location. During winter 2015, two events caused the INP concentrations at RHw = 104 % to significantly increase above the campaign average. First, an increase to 72.1 std L−1 was measured during an event influenced by marine air, arriving at the JFJ

  3. Development of an automatic scanning system for nuclear emulsion analysis in the OPERA experiment and study of neutrino interactions location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrabito, L.

    2007-10-01

    Following Super Kamiokande and K2K experiments, Opera (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tracking Apparatus), aims to confirm neutrino oscillation in the atmospheric sector. Taking advantage of a technique already employed in Chorus and in Donut, the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC), Opera will be able to observe the ν μ → ν τ oscillation, through the ν τ appearance in a pure ν μ beam. The Opera experiment, with its ∼ 100000 m 2 of nuclear emulsions, needs a very fast automatic scanning system. Optical and mechanics components have been customized in order to achieve a speed of about 20 cm 2 /hour per emulsion layer (44 μm thick), while keeping a sub-micro-metric resolution. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the optimization of 4 scanning systems at the French scanning station, based in Lyon. An experimental study on a dry objective scanning system has also been realized. The obtained results show that the performances of dry scanning are similar with respect to the traditional oil scanning, so that it can be successfully used for Opera. The second part of this work was devoted to the study of the neutrino interaction location and reconstruction strategy actually used in Opera. A dedicated test beam was performed at CERN in order to simulate Opera conditions. The obtained results definitely confirm that the proposed strategy is well adapted for tau search. (author)

  4. Simulated Field Trials Using an Indoor Aerosol Test Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semler, D. D; Roth, A. P; Semler, K. A; Nolan, P. M

    2004-01-01

    .... In this method, the aerosol chamber control software manipulates circulation fan speeds, chamber vacuum and agent spray times to produce a simulated dynamic cloud within the aerosol test chamber...

  5. Simulated Field Trials Using An Indoor Aerosol Test Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semler, D. D; Roth, A. P; Semler, K. A; Nolan, P. M

    2004-01-01

    .... In this method, the aerosol chamber control software manipulates circulation fan speeds, chamber vacuum and agent spray times to produce a simulated dynamic cloud within the aerosol test chamber...

  6. Recent Emulsion Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariga, A.

    2011-01-01

    Emulsion technologies are very much developed in the last decade and still developing in both the emulsion gel and the data taking. Emulsion detectors are suitable for the neutrino experiments because they can distinguish all 3 flavors of neutrino. The OPERA experiment, a recent pillar in the emulsion experiments aiming at the first observation of the neutrino oscillation in CNGS beam in appearance mode, is running, showing the good capability to separate 3 flavor neutrino interactions. In this poster, the recent developments and prospects of the emulsions for the next generation experiments are reported.

  7. On CLOUD nine

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The team from the CLOUD experiment - the world’s first experiment using a high-energy particle accelerator to study the climate - were on cloud nine after the arrival of their new three-metre diameter cloud chamber. This marks the end of three years’ R&D and design, and the start of preparations for data taking later this year.

  8. Development of an automatic scanning system for nuclear emulsion analysis in the OPERA experiment and study of neutrino interactions location; Developpement d'un systeme ultra rapide pour le scan des emulsions nucleaires d'OPERA et etude sur la localistion des vertex de l'interaction des neutrinos a l'aide de ce systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrabito, L

    2007-10-15

    Following Super Kamiokande and K2K experiments, Opera (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tracking Apparatus), aims to confirm neutrino oscillation in the atmospheric sector. Taking advantage of a technique already employed in Chorus and in Donut, the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC), Opera will be able to observe the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation, through the {nu}{sub {tau}} appearance in a pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. The Opera experiment, with its {approx} 100000 m{sup 2} of nuclear emulsions, needs a very fast automatic scanning system. Optical and mechanics components have been customized in order to achieve a speed of about 20 cm{sup 2}/hour per emulsion layer (44 {mu}m thick), while keeping a sub-micro-metric resolution. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the optimization of 4 scanning systems at the French scanning station, based in Lyon. An experimental study on a dry objective scanning system has also been realized. The obtained results show that the performances of dry scanning are similar with respect to the traditional oil scanning, so that it can be successfully used for Opera. The second part of this work was devoted to the study of the neutrino interaction location and reconstruction strategy actually used in Opera. A dedicated test beam was performed at CERN in order to simulate Opera conditions. The obtained results definitely confirm that the proposed strategy is well adapted for tau search. (author)

  9. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  10. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilbert, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns ionization chambers with particular reference to air-equivalent ionization chambers. In order to ensure that similar chambers have similar sensitivities and responses the surface of the chamber bounding the active volume carries a conducting material, which may be a colloidal graphite, arranged in the form of lines so that the area of the conducting material occupies only a small proportion of the area of said surface. (U.S.)

  11. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  12. Electrochemically driven emulsion inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johans, Christoffer; Kontturi, Kyösti

    2007-09-01

    It is shown that emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants can be inverted by controlling the electrical potential across the oil-water interface. The potential dependent partitioning of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by cyclic voltammetry at the 1,2-dichlorobenzene|water interface. In the emulsion the potential control was achieved by using a potential-determining salt. The inversion of a 1,2-dichlorobenzene-in-water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by SDS was followed by conductometry as a function of added tetrapropylammonium chloride. A sudden drop in conductivity was observed, indicating the change of the continuous phase from water to 1,2-dichlorobenzene, i.e. a water-in-1,2-dichlorobenzene emulsion was formed. The inversion potential is well in accordance with that predicted by the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation if the interfacial potential is appropriately accounted for.

  13. Ussing Chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Wortelboer, H.; Verhoeckx, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Ussing chamber system is named after the Danish zoologist Hans Ussing, who invented the device in the 1950s to measure the short-circuit current as an indicator of net ion transport taking place across frog skin (Ussing and Zerahn, Acta Physiol Scand 23:110-127, 1951). Ussing chambers are

  14. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  15. Drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yosuke

    1977-01-01

    Drift chamber is becoming an important detector in high energy physics as a precision and fast position detector because of its high spatial resolution and count-rate. The basic principle is that it utilizes the drift at constant speed of electrons ionized along the tracks of charged particles towards the anode wire in the nearly uniform electric field. The method of measuring drift time includes the analog and digital ones. This report describes about the construction of and the application of electric field to the drift chamber, mathematical analysis on the electric field and equipotential curve, derivation of spatial resolution and the factor for its determination, and selection of gas to be used. The performance test of the chamber was carried out using a small test chamber, the collimated β source of Sr-90, and 500 MeV/C electron beam from the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron in the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Most chambers to date adopted one dimensional read-out, but it is very advantageous if the two dimensional read-out is feasible with one chamber when the resolution in that direction is low. The typical methods of delay line and charge division for two dimensional read-out are described. The development of digital read-out system is underway, which can process the signal of a large scale drift chamber at high speed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Emulsions from Aerosol Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengelmolen; Vincent; Hassall

    1997-12-01

    An electrostatic emulsification apparatus has been designed for the purpose of studying diffusion from oil droplets which have a mean size in the range of approximately 1.5-3.5 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of 40-50%. The emulsification technique involves the collection of a spray of electrically charged oil droplets onto a rotating water film which is sustained from a reservoir. In this way, emulsions with volume fractions of approximately 10(-3) are produced within several minutes at oil flow rates of around 10(-2) ml min-1. Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to assess droplet size distributions for the sprays and emulsions. Results show that the mean emulsion droplet size was smaller than the mean spray droplet size by several orders of magnitude. At flow rates around 10(-2) ml min-1, the spray droplet size distribution was little affected by the applied potential between about -4.20 and -4.65 kV (mean droplet size between approximately 7.6 and 7.8 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of approximately 20%), whereas the mean droplet size of the corresponding emulsion decreased more rapidly with applied potential. Above an applied potential of approximately -4.30 kV, which corresponded to an emulsion droplet size below approximately 2 &mgr;m, the measured volume fraction of the emulsion decreased with respect to the volume fraction as calculated on the basis of total amount of injected oil. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  17. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  18. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R&D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion.

  20. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R and D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion

  1. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type X-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is placed next to the anode and is maintained at a voltage intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting towards the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  2. Ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although a variety of solid-state and chemical methods for measuring radiation dose have been developed in recent decades and calorimetry can now provide an absolute standard of reference, ionization dosimetry retains its position as the most widely used, most convenient, and, in most situations, most accurate method of measuring either exposure or absorbed dose. The ionization chamber itself is the central element in this system of dosimetry. In this chapter the principles governing the construction and operation of ionization chambers of various types are examined. Since the ionization chambers now in general use are nearly all of commercial manufacture, the emphasis is on operating characteristics and interpretation of measurements rather than on details of construction, although some knowledge of the latter is often required when applying necessary corrections to the measured quantities. Examples are given of the construction of typical chambers designed for particular purposes, and the methods of calibrating them are discussed

  3. Integrated, Continuous Emulsion Creamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Wesley G; Hackler, Amber L; Cavett, Valerie J; Price, Alexander K; Paegel, Brian M

    2017-12-19

    Automated and reproducible sample handling is a key requirement for high-throughput compound screening and currently demands heavy reliance on expensive robotics in screening centers. Integrated droplet microfluidic screening processors are poised to replace robotic automation by miniaturizing biochemical reactions to the droplet scale. These processors must generate, incubate, and sort droplets for continuous droplet screening, passively handling millions of droplets with complete uniformity, especially during the key step of sample incubation. Here, we disclose an integrated microfluidic emulsion creamer that packs ("creams") assay droplets by draining away excess oil through microfabricated drain channels. The drained oil coflows with creamed emulsion and then reintroduces the oil to disperse the droplets at the circuit terminus for analysis. Creamed emulsion assay incubation time dispersion was 1.7%, 3-fold less than other reported incubators. The integrated, continuous emulsion creamer (ICEcreamer) was used to miniaturize and optimize measurements of various enzymatic activities (phosphodiesterase, kinase, bacterial translation) under multiple- and single-turnover conditions. Combining the ICEcreamer with current integrated microfluidic DNA-encoded library bead processors eliminates potentially cumbersome instrumentation engineering challenges and is compatible with assays of diverse target class activities commonly investigated in drug discovery.

  4. Charge identification of highly ionizing particles in desensitized nuclear emulsion using high speed read-out system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshito, T.; Kodama, K.; Yusa, K.; Ozaki, M.; Amako, K.; Kameoka, S.; Murakami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Aoki, S.; Ban, T.; Fukuda, T.; Naganawa, N.; Nakamura, T.; Natsume, M.; Niwa, K.; Takahashi, S.; Kanazawa, M.; Kanematsu, N.; Komori, M.; Sato, S.; Asai, M.; Koi, T.; Fukushima, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibasaki, M.; Shibuya, H.

    2006-01-01

    We performed an experimental study of charge identification of heavy ions from helium to carbon having energy of about 290MeV/u using an emulsion chamber. Emulsion was desensitized by means of forced fading (refreshing) to expand a dynamic range of response to highly charged particles. For the track reconstruction and charge identification, the fully automated high speed emulsion read-out system, which was originally developed for identifying minimum ionizing particles, was used without any modification. Clear track by track charge identification up to Z=6 was demonstrated. The refreshing technique has proved to be a powerful technique to expand response of emulsion film to highly ionizing particles

  5. Automated track recognition and event reconstruction in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deines-Jones, P.; Aranas, A.; Cherry, M.L.; Dugas, J.; Kudzia, D.; Nilsen, B.S.; Sengupta, K.; Waddington, C.J.; Wefel, J.P.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wosiek, B.

    1997-01-01

    The major advantages of nuclear emulsion for detecting charged particles are its submicron position resolution and sensitivity to minimum ionizing particles. These must be balanced, however, against the difficult manual microscope measurement by skilled observers required for the analysis. We have developed an automated system to acquire and analyze the microscope images from emulsion chambers. Each emulsion plate is analyzed independently, allowing coincidence techniques to be used in order to reject background and estimate error rates. The system has been used to analyze a sample of high-multiplicity Pb-Pb interactions (charged particle multiplicities ∝ 1100) produced by the 158 GeV/c per nucleon 208 Pb beam at CERN. Automatically measured events agree with our best manual measurements on 97% of all the tracks. We describe the image analysis and track reconstruction techniques, and discuss the measurement and reconstruction uncertainties. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of Multiallelic CNVs by Emulsion Haplotype Fusion PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Jess; Armour, John A L

    2017-01-01

    Emulsion-fusion PCR recovers long-range sequence information by combining products in cis from individual genomic DNA molecules. Emulsion droplets act as very numerous small reaction chambers in which different PCR products from a single genomic DNA molecule are condensed into short joint products, to unite sequences in cis from widely separated genomic sites. These products can therefore provide information about the arrangement of sequences and variants at a larger scale than established long-read sequencing methods. The method has been useful in defining the phase of variants in haplotypes, the typing of inversions, and determining the configuration of sequence variants in multiallelic CNVs. In this description we outline the rationale for the application of emulsion-fusion PCR methods to the analysis of multiallelic CNVs, and give practical details for our own implementation of the method in that context.

  7. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  8. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  10. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. Cleaning fluid emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikryl, J; Kotyza, R; Krulikovsky, J; Mjartan, V; Valisova, I

    1981-09-15

    Composition of cleaning fluid emulsion are presented for drilling small diameter wells in clay soils, at high drill bit rotation velocity. The emulsions have lubricating properties and the abilty to improve stability of the drilled soil. The given fluids have a high fatty acid content with 12-24 carbon atoms in a single molecule, with a predominance of resinous acids 1-5% in mass, and having been emulsified in water or clay suspension without additives, or in a clay suspension with high-molecular polymer additives (glycobate cellulose compounds and/or polysaccharides, and/or their derivatives) in an amount of 0.1-3% per mass; thinning agents - huminite or lignite compounds in the amount of 0.01 to 0.5% in mass; weighting material - barite or lime 0.01 to 50% per mass; medium stabilizers - organic poly-electrolyte with polyacrylate in the amount of 0.05 to 2% in mass, or alkaline chloride/alkaline-ground metals 1-10% per mass. A cleaning emulsion fluid was prepared in the laboratory according to the given method. Add 3 kg tall oil to a solution of 1 kg K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ per 100 l of water. Dynamic viscosity was equal to 1.4 x 10-/sup 3/ Pa/s. When drilling in compacted clay soils, when the emulsions require improved stability, it is necessary to add the maximum amount of tall oil whose molecules are absorbed by the clay soil and increase its durability.

  12. Study of Particle Production and Nuclear Fragmentation in Collisions of $^{16}$O Beams with Emulsion Nuclei at 13-200 A GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    .SK 2\\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is to study, on an event by event basis, multiplicities of produced charged particles, pseudo-rapidity density distributions globally and in selected regions of pseudo-rapidity, density fluctuations, multiplicity and angular distributions of nuclear fragments and recoiling protons (30-400~A~MeV) and cross sections for production and interation of light and medium (Z=2-8) projectile fragments. \\\\ \\\\ The detectors are emulsion chambers as well as conventional emulsion stacks. The emulsion chambers consist of several layers of a plastic substrate, each coated with nuclear emulsion on both sides. Since the best measurement accuracy is obtained for the particles with the smallest emission angles, this design is especially suited for the pseudo-rapidity determination. The emulsion stacks, of both high and low sensitivity, have been exposed in the conventional way, with the beam parallel to the emulsion sheets. These stacks are used to study the fragmentation of the interaction n...

  13. Charm studies in emulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinin, Sergey

    Neutrino-nucleon scattering is an effective way to investigate the inner structure of the nucleon, to extract the Standard Model parameters and to explore heavy quarks production dynamics. In the last decades, several experiments have been constructed to study weak interactions of neutrinos with nucleons. One of them was CERN-WA95 experiment operated by the CHORUS collaboration. It is based on a hybrid detector with nuclear emulsion as a target followed by electronic devices. Nuclear emulsion provides three dimensional spatial information with an outstanding resolution of the order of one micron. Therefore, it is ideal to detect short-lived particles. A special technique has been developed to reconstruct events in the emulsion which allows to perform a detailed investigation of events such as charmed hadrons production by neutrinos. As a result, the backround in the selected charm sample is up to six times lower compared to similar experiments. Such a method also permits to make direct measurements of some qu...

  14. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  15. Creating nanoscale emulsions using condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Ingrid F; Anand, Sushant; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2017-11-08

    Nanoscale emulsions are essential components in numerous products, ranging from processed foods to novel drug delivery systems. Existing emulsification methods rely either on the breakup of larger droplets or solvent exchange/inversion. Here we report a simple, scalable method of creating nanoscale water-in-oil emulsions by condensing water vapor onto a subcooled oil-surfactant solution. Our technique enables a bottom-up approach to forming small-scale emulsions. Nanoscale water droplets nucleate at the oil/air interface and spontaneously disperse within the oil, due to the spreading dynamics of oil on water. Oil-soluble surfactants stabilize the resulting emulsions. We find that the oil-surfactant concentration controls the spreading behavior of oil on water, as well as the peak size, polydispersity, and stability of the resulting emulsions. Using condensation, we form emulsions with peak radii around 100 nm and polydispersities around 10%. This emulsion formation technique may open different routes to creating emulsions, colloidal systems, and emulsion-based materials.

  16. High energy exotic interactions observed by Chacaltaya emulsion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinellato, J.A.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Bellandi Filho, J.

    1984-01-01

    Exotic events like Centauros, Chirons and Geminions which appears in cosmic ray interactions of the Brazil-Japan Collaboration at Chacaltaya are presented. Genetic hypothesis on how these kind of events are produced are discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  17. Radiation induced emulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannett, V.T.; Stahel, E.P.

    1990-01-01

    High energy radiation is particularly favored for the initiation of emulsion polymerization. The yield of free radicals, for example, from the radiolysis of the aqueous phase, is high; G(radical) values of 5-7. In addition, the rather special kinetics associated with emulsion polymerization lead, in general, to very large kinetic chain lengths, even with 'non-ideal' monomers such as vinyl acetate. Together, high polymerization rates at low doses become possible. There are some important advantages of radiation polymerization compared with chemical initiators, such as potassium persulfate. Perhaps the most important among them is the temperature independence of the initiation step. This makes low temperature polymerization very accessible. With monomers such as vinyl acetate, where chain termination to monomer is predominant, low temperatures lead to often highly desirable higher molecular weights. With styrene, the classical ideally behaved monomer, there are the advantages such as, for example, the feasibility of using cationic monomers. These and some attendant disadvantages are discussed in detail, including pilot plant studies

  18. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  19. Microfluidic emulsion separation-simultaneous separation and sensing by multilayer nanofilm structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, P; Truman, P; Stamm, M [Leibniz-Institut fuer Polymerforschung Dresden e V, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Varnik, F; Zikos, G [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Stiepeler Strasse 129, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Moulin, J-F; Mueller-Buschbaum, P, E-mail: uhlmannp@ipfdd.de [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, LS E13, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-05-11

    Emulsion separation is of high relevance for filtration applications, liquid-liquid-partitioning of biomolecules like proteins and recovery of products from droplet microreactors. Selective interaction of various components of an emulsion with substrates is used to design microfluidic flow chambers for efficient separation of emulsions into their individual components. Our lab-on-a-chip device consists of an emulsion separation cell with an integrated silicon sensor chip, the latter allowing the detection of liquid motion via the field-effect signal. Thus, within our lab-on-a-chip device, emulsions can be separated while the separation process is monitored simultaneously. For emulsion separation a surface energy step gradient, namely a sharp interface between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts of the separation chamber, is used. The key component of the lab-on-a-chip system is a multilayer and multifunctional nanofilm structure which not only provides the surface energy step gradient for emulsion separation but also constitutes the functional parts of the field-effect transistors. The proof-of-principle was performed using a model emulsion consisting of immiscible aqueous and organic solvent components. Droplet coalescence was identified as a key aspect influencing the separation process, with quite different effects during separation on open surfaces as compared to slit geometry. For a detailed description of this observation, an analytical model was derived and lattice Boltzmann computer simulations were performed. By use of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) interfacial nanostructures during gold nanoparticle deposition in a flow field were probed to demonstrate the potential of GISAXS for in situ investigations during flow.

  20. Characterization of flaxseed oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-En; Choo, Wee-Sim

    2015-07-01

    The emulsifying capacity of surfactants (polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80 and soy lecithin) and proteins (soy protein isolate and whey protein isolate) in flaxseed oil was measured based on 1 % (w/w) of emulsifier. Surfactants showed significantly higher emulsifying capacity compared to the proteins (soy protein isolate and whey protein isolate) in flaxseed oil. The emulsion stability of the flaxseed oil emulsions with whey protein isolate (10 % w/w) prepared using a mixer was ranked in the following order: 1,000 rpm (58 min) ≈ 1,000 rpm (29 min) ≈ 2,000 rpm (35 min) >2,000 rpm (17.5 min). The emulsion stability of the flaxseed oil emulsions with whey protein isolate (10 % w/w) prepared using a homogenizer (Ultra Turrax) was independent of the speed and mixing time. The mean particle size of the flaxseed oil emulsions prepared using the two mixing devices ranged from 23.99 ± 1.34 μm to 47.22 ± 1.99 μm where else the particle size distribution and microstructure of the flaxseed oil emulsions demonstrated using microscopic imaging were quite similar. The flaxseed oil emulsions had a similar apparent viscosity and exhibited shear thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior. The flaxseed oil emulsions had L* value above 70 and was in the red-yellow color region (positive a* and b* values).

  1. Study on some characteristics of nuclear emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonglian, Liu; Jinqin, Han; Huichang, Liu [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Atomic Energy

    1993-11-01

    The authors describe the variation of some characteristics of the nuclear emulsion such as sensitivity, fog density and latent image stability influenced by adding ascorbic acid into the finished emulsion N-4. A comparative study of latent image stability is made between Fuji ET-7B nuclear emulsion and authors' under different temperature and relative humidity. The result indicates that the addition of ascorbic acid obviously improves the latent image stability of the emulsion N-4. The Fuji ET-7B emulsion and the emulsion N-4 containing ascorbic acid have similar latent image fading quality at lower temperature while the Japanese sample does have better quality at room temperature.

  2. Isotachophoresis with emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goet, G.; Baier, T.; Hardt, S.; Sen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study on isotachophoresis (ITP) in which an emulsion is used as leading electrolyte (LE) is reported. The study aims at giving an overview about the transport and flow phenomena occurring in that context. Generally, it is observed that the oil droplets initially dispersed in the LE are collected at the ITP transition zone and advected along with it. The detailed behavior at the transition zone depends on whether or not surfactants (polyvinylpyrrolidon, PVP) are added to the electrolytes. In a system without surfactants, coalescence is observed between the droplets collected at the ITP transition zone. After having achieved a certain size, the droplets merge with the channel walls, leaving an oil film behind. In systems with PVP, coalescence is largely suppressed and no merging of droplets with the channel walls is observed. Instead, at the ITP transition zone, a droplet agglomerate of increasing size is formed. In the initial stages of the ITP experiments, two counter rotating vortices are formed inside the terminating electrolyte. The vortex formation is qualitatively explained based on a hydrodynamic instability triggered by fluctuations of the number density of oil droplets. PMID:24404037

  3. Computation of shear-induced collective-diffusivity in emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malipeddi, Abhilash Reddy; Sarkar, Kausik

    2017-11-01

    The shear-induced collective-diffusivity of drops in an emulsion is calculated through simulation. A front-tracking finite difference method is used to integrate the Navier-Stokes equations. When a cloud of drops is subjected to shear flow, after a certain time, the width of the cloud increases with the 1/3 power of time. This scaling of drop-cloud-width with time is characteristic of (sub-)diffusion that arises from irreversible two-drop interactions. The collective diffusivity is calculated from this relationship. A feature of the procedure adopted here is the modest computational requirement, wherein, a few drops ( 70) in shear for short time ( 70 strain) is found to be sufficient to get a good estimate. As far as we know, collective-diffusivity has not been calculated for drops through simulation till now. The computed values match with experimental measurements reported in the literature. The diffusivity in emulsions is calculated for a range of Capillary (Ca) and Reynolds (Re) numbers. It is found to be a unimodal function of Ca , similar to self-diffusivity. A sub-linear increase of the diffusivity with Re is seen for Re < 5 . This work has been limited to a viscosity matched case.

  4. Doriot Climatic Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers are two, 60-feet long, 11-feet high, 15-feet wide chambers that are owned and operated by NSRDEC. The Doriot Climatic Chambers are among...

  5. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  6. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-chambered ionisation detector enables the amount of radiation entering each chamber from a single radioactive, eg β, source to be varied by altering the proportion of the source protruding into each chamber. Electrodes define chambers and an extended radioactive source is movable to alter the source length in each chamber. Alternatively, the source is fixed relative to outer electrodes but the central electrode may be adjusted by an attached support altering the chamber dimensions and hence the length of source in each. Also disclosed are a centrally mounted source tiltable towards one or other chamber and a central electrode tiltable to alter chamber dimensions. (U.K.)

  7. Chemistry and technology of emulsion polymerisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herk, van A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsion polymerisation produces high value polymers in a low cost, environmentally friendly process. The drive to develop environmentally benign production methods for polymers has resulted in widespread development and implementation of the emulsion polymerisation technique. In addition, when

  8. Bulk-loaded emulsion explosives technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.G. [Blasting Analysis International, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The largest use of emulsion explosives and emulsion-Anfo blends is in surface mining operations. An emulsion explosive is a two-phase system: the inner phase is madeup of an oxidizer solution; the outer phase is made up of oils or an oil/wax blend. Emulsion Anfo blends have been used to expand drill patterns, increase fragmentation, and provide extra energy for blast casting. 3 tabs.

  9. Microfluidic methods to study emulsion formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijlwijk, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Emulsions are dispersions of one liquid in another that are commonly used in various products, and methods such as high-pressure homogenisers and colloid mills are used to form emulsions. The size and size distribution of emulsion droplets are important for the final product properties and thus

  10. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet

  11. Inverted emulsion drilling fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, I; Astanei, E; Mireanu, G; Orosz, M; Popescu, F; Vasile, I

    1979-07-28

    The subject of the invention is the method of obtaining inverted drilling fluid which is required during stripping of a productive bed and ending of a well where difficulties develop during drilling of the argillaceous rock. Example: in a reservoir with capacity 30 m/sup 3/, 10 m/sup 3/ of diesel fuel are added. A total of 1000 kg of emulsifier are added to the diesel fuel consisting of: 85 mass% of a mixture of sodium and potassium salts of fatty acids, residues of fatty acids or naphthene acids with high molecular weight taken in proportion of 10:90; 5 mass% of a mixture of polymers with hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties obtained by mixing 75 mass% of polyethylene oxide with molecular weight 10,000 and 25 mass% of propylene oxide with molecular weight 15,000, and 10 mass% of salt on alkaline earth metal (preferably calcium chloride). The mixture is mixed into complete dissolving. Then 1200 kg of filtering accelerator are added obtained from concentrated sulfuric acid serving for sulfur oxidation, asphalt substance with softening temperature 85-104/sup 0/C and fatty acids C/sub 10/-C/sub 20/ taken in a proportion of 23.70 and 7 mass% The mixture obtained in this manner is neutralized by adding calcium hydroxide and equal quantities of alumina and activated bentonite clay in a concentration of 1-10 mass%, more preferably 5 mass% in relation to the initial mixture. The obtained mass is mixed until complete dispersion, after which 200 kg of organophilic clay are added obtained from bentonite of the type montmorillonite of sodium by processing with derivate obtained from amine of the type of the quaternary base of ammonium salt, and agent of hydrophobization of the type of fatty alcohols, fatty acids, nonion surfactants of the block-polymer type. After complete dispersion of the organophilic clay, 100 kg of stabilizer of emulsion of the surfactant type was added with molecular weight of 250010,000, more preferably 5000, in concentration of 0.1-5.0 mass%, more

  12. Modelling of Emulsion Flow in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Kassem, J.H. [UAE University (United Arab Emirates); Farouq Ali, S.M. [UAE University (United Arab Emirates)

    1995-06-01

    Oil recovery methods predominantly involve emulsion formation. Oil recovery simulation requires the incorporation of emulsion characteristics and flow in porous media, in order to optimize oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs. This paper explored the nature and rheology of emulsions, and evaluated several models of flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. It also summarized in situ emulsion formation in porous media. A model for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian emulsion fluid flow was proposed, with special emphasis on pore size, and tortuosity in the porous media.

  13. High-conversion emulsion polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxwell, I.A.; Verdurmen, E.M.F.J.; German, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The four important factors that det. the rate of emulsion polymn. are the propagation rate coeff., the latex-particle concn., the monomer concn. in the latex particles, and the free-radical concn. in the latex particles. Both theor. considerations and exptl. evidence suggested that the important

  14. Modeling of emulsion copolymer microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doremaele, G.H.J.; Herk, van A.M.; German, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    A model is developed to describe stages II and III of batch emulsion copolymn., and its predictive capabilities are investigated by application to the system styrene-Me acrylate. The main reaction site is the monomer-swollen polymer particle. Copolymn. rate and copolymer microstructure (molar

  15. Glove box chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, M.E.; Cox, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    An environmental chamber is described which enables an operator's hands to have direct access within the chamber without compromising a special atmosphere within such chamber. A pair of sleeves of a flexible material are sealed to the chamber around associated access apertures and project outwardly from such chamber. Each aperture is closed by a door which is openable from within the sleeve associated therewith so that upon an operator inserting his hand and arm through the sleeve, the operator can open the door to have access to the interior of the chamber. A container which is selectively separable from the remainder of the chamber is also provided to allow objects to be transferred from the chamber without such objects having to pass through the ambient atmosphere. An antechamber permitting objects to be passed directly into the chamber from the ambient atmosphere is included. (auth)

  16. Research on the influence of ozone dissolved in the fuel-water emulsion on the parameters of the CI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojs, M. K.; Orliński, P.; Kamela, W.; Kruczyński, P.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the results of empirical research on the impact of ozone dissolved in fuel-water emulsion on combustion process and concentration of toxic substances in CI engine. The effect of ozone presence in the emulsion and its influence on main engine characteristics (power, torque, fuel consumption) and selected parameters that characterize combustion process (levels of pressures and temperatures in combustion chamber, period of combustion delay, heat release rate, fuel burnt rate) is shown. The change in concentration of toxic components in exhausts gases when engine is fueled with ozonized emulsion was also identified. The empirical research and their analysis showed significant differences in the combustion process when fuel-water emulsion containing ozone was used. These differences include: increased power and efficiency of the engine that are accompanied by reduction in time of combustion delay and beneficial effects of ozone on HC, PM, CO and NOX emissions.

  17. Injection and Combustion of RME with Water Emulsions in a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cisek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ways of using the fully-digitised triggerable AVL VideoScope 513D video system for analysing the injection and combustion inside a diesel engine cylinder fuelled by RME with water emulsions.The research objects were: standard diesel fuel, rapeseed methyl ester (RME and RME – water emulsions. With the aid of a helical flow reactor, stable emulsions with the water fraction up to 30 % weight were obtained, using an additive to prevent the water from separating out of the emulsion.An investigation was made of the effect of the emulsions on exhaust gas emissions (NOX, CO and HC, particulate matter emissions, smoke and the fuel consumption of a one-cylinder HD diesel engine with direct injection. Additionally, the maximum cylinder pressure rise was calculated from the indicator diagram. The test engine was operated at a constant speed of 1 600 rpm and 4 bar BMEP load conditions. The fuel injection and combustion processes were observed and analysed using endoscopes and a digital camera. The temperature distribution in the combustion chamber was analysed quantitatively using the two-colour method. The injection and combustion phenomena were described and compared.A way to reduce NOX formation in the combustion chamber of diesel engines by adding water in the combustion zone was presented. Evaporating water efficiently lowers the peak flame temperature and the temperature in the post-flame zone. For diesel engines, there is an exponential relationship between NOX emissions and peak combustion temperatures. The energy needed to vaporize the water results in lower peak temperatures of the combusted gases, with a consequent reduction in nitrogen oxide formation. The experimental results show up to 50 % NOX emission reduction with the use of 30% water in an RME emulsion, with unchanged engine performance.

  18. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A.; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P.; Siddiqui, Rafat A.

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction. PMID:23016123

  19. Steroidal compounds in commercial parenteral lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2012-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn(®) II, Liposyn(®) III, Lipofundin(®) MCT, Lipofundin(®) N, Structolipid(®), Intralipid(®), Ivelip(®) and ClinOleic(®). Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  20. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat A. Siddiqui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  1. Dual ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, J.; Turlej, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Dual ionization chambers are provided for use with an electronic smoke detector. The chambers are separated by electrically-conductive partition. A single radiation source extends through the partition into both chambers, ionizing the air in each. The mid-point current of the device may be balanced by adjusting the position of the source

  2. Atmospheric cloud physics laboratory project study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, W. E.; Stephen, L. A.; Usher, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    Engineering studies were performed for the Zero-G Cloud Physics Experiment liquid cooling and air pressure control systems. A total of four concepts for the liquid cooling system was evaluated, two of which were found to closely approach the systems requirements. Thermal insulation requirements, system hardware, and control sensor locations were established. The reservoir sizes and initial temperatures were defined as well as system power requirements. In the study of the pressure control system, fluid analyses by the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory were performed to determine flow characteristics of various orifice sizes, vacuum pump adequacy, and control systems performance. System parameters predicted in these analyses as a function of time include the following for various orifice sizes: (1) chamber and vacuum pump mass flow rates, (2) the number of valve openings or closures, (3) the maximum cloud chamber pressure deviation from the allowable, and (4) cloud chamber and accumulator pressure.

  3. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microfluidic methods to study emulsion formation

    OpenAIRE

    Muijlwijk, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Emulsions are dispersions of one liquid in another that are commonly used in various products, and methods such as high-pressure homogenisers and colloid mills are used to form emulsions. The size and size distribution of emulsion droplets are important for the final product properties and thus need to be controlled. Rapid coalescence of droplets during emulsification increases droplet size and widens the size distribution, and therefore needs to be prevented. To increase stability of emulsio...

  5. Double chamber ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uman, M.F.; Winnard, J.R.; Winters, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    The ion source is comprised of two discharge chambers one of which is provided with a filament and an aperture leading into the other chamber which in turn has an extraction orifice. A low voltage arc discharge is operated in an inert gas atmosphere in the filament chamber while an arc of higher voltage is operated in the second ionization chamber which contains a vapor which will give the desired dopant ion species. The entire source is immersed in an axial magnetic field parallel to a line connecting the filament, the aperture between the two chambers and the extraction orifice. (author)

  6. How emulsions composition and structure affect sensory perception of low-viscosity model emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.; Zoet, F.D.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Aken, van G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The oral residence time of low-viscosity emulsions, like milk, is relatively short. Despite this short residence time, people can easily perceive differences between these emulsions. Our research is dedicated to unravel the oral behaviour of emulsions in relation to sensory perception. The aim of

  7. Cloud Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthing, Hans Henrik

    Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing.......Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing....

  8. Response of nuclear emulsions to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Pinkerton, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Heavy ion tracks in Ilford K-2 emulsion are simulated with a computer program which makes use of the delta-ray theory of track structure, and the special assumption that the response of this emulsion to gamma-rays is 8-or-more hit. The Ilford K-series of nuclear emulsions is produced from a parent stock called K.0 emulsion, sensitized to become K.1 to K.5, and desensitized to become K-1 to K-3. Our simulations demonstrate that the emulsions K.5 through K.0 to K-1 are 1-or-more hit detectors, while K-2 is an 8-or-more hit detector. We have no data for K-3 emulsion. It would appear that emulsions of intermediate hittedness might be produced by an intermediate desensitization, to mimic or match the RBE-LET variations of biological cells, perhaps to produce a ''rem-dosimeter''. In the K-2 emulsion no developable gains are produced by stopping H, He, and Li ions. The emulsion has ''threshold-like'' properties, resembling etchable track detectors. It should prove useful in the measurement of high LET dose in a strong low LET background, as for pions or neutrons. Since it can be expected to accumulate and repair ''sub-lethal damage'', to display the ion-kill and gamma-kill inactivation modes, the grain-count and track width regimes, it may serve to model biological effects. (auth)

  9. Asphalt emulsion; Asphalt nyuzai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. [Toa Doro Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-28

    The emulsification, manufacture, type, applications, etc. of asphalt emulsion were introduced. The emulsification of asphalt is obtained by mixing heated asphalt into an emulsification liquid where emulsifier is added to water and then agitating it. The emulsifier has both hydrophilic and lipophilic parts in the same molecule, prevents collision between asphalt particles after being arranged properly on the surface of asphalt particles, and prevent separation into water and asphalt. The emulsion is available for penetration and for mixing depending on applications and can be classified into cation emulsion, anion emulsion, and nonionic emulsion according to the property. The emulsion is mainly applied to road pavement, reaching approximately 90 % of the total manufactured emulsion. It is also used for other areas such as the filler of a slab race of each bullet train of Sanyo, Tohoku, and Jyoetsu and is also applied to the formation of a water-proof layer by spraying a high-concentration emulsion with rubber, agricultural water channels using asphalt emulsion and nonwoven cloth, etc. in civil engineering and agricultural fields. 2 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Some method of treating experimental data from X-ray chamber experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalak, W.; Sroka, J.

    1977-01-01

    The procedure of studying the scaling law conservation using the cosmic radiation data from emulsion chambers is presented. The gamma-ray families are selected and processed in order to investigate the cascade development dependency on the primary particle energy. The most meaningful gamma family characteristics are proposed. (S.B.)

  11. Aerosol-cloud feedbacks in a turbulent environment: Laboratory measurements representative of conditions in boundary layer clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, W. H.; Chandrakar, K. K.; Karki, S.; Kinney, G.; Shaw, R.

    2017-12-01

    Many of the climate impacts of boundary layer clouds are modulated by aerosol particles. As two examples, their interactions with incoming solar and upwelling terrestrial radiation and their propensity for precipitation are both governed by the population of aerosol particles upon which the cloud droplets formed. In turn, clouds are the primary removal mechanism for aerosol particles smaller than a few micrometers and larger than a few nanometers. Aspects of these interconnected phenomena are known in exquisite detail (e.g. Köhler theory), but other parts have not been as amenable to study in the laboratory (e.g. scavenging of aerosol particles by cloud droplets). As a complicating factor, boundary layer clouds are ubiquitously turbulent, which introduces fluctuations in the water vapor concentration and temperature, which govern the saturation ratio which mediates aerosol-cloud interactions. We have performed laboratory measurements of aerosol-cloud coupling and feedbacks, using Michigan Tech's Pi Chamber (Chang et al., 2016). In conditions representative of boundary layer clouds, our data suggest that the lifetime of most interstitial particles in the accumulation mode is governed by cloud activation - particles are removed from the Pi Chamber when they activate and settle out of the chamber as cloud droplets. As cloud droplets are removed, these interstitial particles activate until the initially polluted cloud cleans itself and all particulates are removed from the chamber. At that point, the cloud collapses. Our data also indicate that smaller particles, Dp defined through the use of the Dämkohler number, the ratio of the characteristic turbulence timescale to the cloud's microphysical response time. Chang, K., et al., 2016. A laboratory facility to study gas-aerosol-cloud interactions in a turbulent environment: The Π Chamber. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00203.1

  12. NEG coating of the non-standard LSS vacuum chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Costa-Pinto, P

    2005-01-01

    The vacuum chambers of nearly all the warm magnets of the LHC (MBXW, MQW, MSI, MSD, etc…) will be coated with a Ti-Zr-V thin film by magnetron sputtering. The NEG coating is necessary to provide uniform pumping speed along the chambers and to suppress electron cloud instabilities and dynamic outgassing. The about 300 chambers will be coated using the existing facility, developed for the production of the standard LSS chambers, after minor modifications mainly due to the different cross sections. In order to cope with the present installation schedule, the production planning will allow processing of different families of chambers in parallel by using two or three coating systems simultaneously. After a brief introduction to the Ti-Zr-V characteristics and performances, the coating facility and strategy will be illustrated as well as the possible conflicts due to uncertainties in the planning of the experimental beam pipes and the standard LSS chambers.

  13. Nuclear emulsion and high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hancheng; Zhang Donghai

    2008-01-01

    The history of the development of nuclear emulsion and its applications in high-energy physics, from the discovery of pion to the discovery of tau neutrino, are briefly reviewed in this paper. A new stage of development of nuclear-emulsion technique is discussed

  14. Streamer chamber: pion decay

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    The real particles produced in the decay of a positive pion can be seen in this image from a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. A magnetic field is added to cause the decay products to follow curved paths so that their charge and momentum can be measured.

  15. Prototype multiwire proportional chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Chambers of this type were initially developed within the Alpha project (finally not approved). They were designed such to minimize the radiation length with a view to a mass spectrometer of high resolution meant to replace the Omega detector. The chambers were clearly forerunners for the (drift) chambers later built for R606 with the novel technique of crimping the wires. See also photo 7510039X.

  16. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  17. DORIOT CLIMATIC CHAMBERS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Doriot Climatic Chambers reproduce environmental conditions occurring anywhere around the world. They provide an invaluable service by significantly reducing the...

  18. Gas microstrip chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.M.; Barasch, E.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Demroff, H.P.; Elliott, S.M.; Howe, M.R.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; Pang, Y.; Smith, D.D.; Wahl, J.; Wu, Y.; Yue, W.K.; Gaedke, R.M.; Vanstraelen, G.

    1992-01-01

    The gas microstrip chamber has been developed from concept to experimental system during the past three years. A pattern of anode and grid lines are microfabricated onto a dielectric substrate and configured as a high-resolution MWPC. Four recent developments are described: Suitable plastic substrates and lithography techniques for large-area chambers; non-planar silicon-based chambers for 20 μm resolution; integrated on-board synchronous front-end electronics and data buffering; and a porous silicon active cathode for enhanced efficiency and time response. The microstrip chamber appears to be a promising technology for applications in microvertex, tracking spectrometer, muon spectrometer, and transition radiation detection. (orig.)

  19. Food enrichment with marine phospholipid emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    marine PL emulsions with and without addition of fish oil. The oxidative stability of marine PL emulsions was significantly influenced by the chemical composition of marine PL used for emulsions preparation. For instance, emulsions with good oxidative stability could be obtained when using raw materials...... with high purity, low fish oil content and high PL, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content. In addition, non-enzymatic browning reactions may also affect the oxidative stability of the marine PL emulsion. These reactions included Strecker degradation and pyrrolization, and their occurrence were due......Many studies have shown that marine phospholipids (PL) provide more advantages than fish oil. They seem to have better bioavailability, better resistance towards oxidation and higher content of eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids than fish oil, which essentially contains triglycerides...

  20. Destabilization of emulsions by natural minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songhu; Tong, Man; Wu, Gaoming

    2011-09-15

    This study developed a novel method to destabilize emulsions and recycle oils, particularly for emulsified wastewater treatment. Natural minerals were used as demulsifying agents, two kinds of emulsions collected from medical and steel industry were treated. The addition of natural minerals, including artificial zeolite, natural zeolite, diatomite, bentonite and natural soil, could effectively destabilize both emulsions at pH 1 and 60 °C. Over 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be removed after treatment. Medical emulsion can be even destabilized by artificial zeolite at ambient temperature. The mechanism for emulsion destabilization by minerals was suggested as the decreased electrostatic repulsion at low pH, the enhanced gathering of oil microdroplets at elevated temperature, and the further decreased surface potential by the addition of minerals. Both flocculation and coalescence were enhanced by the addition of minerals at low pH and elevated temperature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation of the electron cloud density in BEPC II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yudong; Guo Zhiyuan; Wang Jiuqing

    2004-01-01

    Electron Cloud Instability (ECI) may take place in positron storage ring when the machine is operated with multi-bunch positron beam. According to the actual shape of the vacuum chamber in the BEPC II, a program has been developed. With the code, authors can calculate the electron density in the chamber with different length of antechamber and the different secondary electron yield respectively. By the simulation, the possibility to put clearing electrodes in the chamber to reduce the electron density in the central region of the chamber is investigated. The simulation provides meaningful and important results for the BEPC II project and electron cloud instability research

  2. Ultrasonic splitting of oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; König, Ralf; Benes, Ewald

    1999-01-01

    Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions, the avai......Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions......, the available piezoelectric composite transducer technology was improved and a dedicated resonator with crossed plane wave sonication geometry has been developed. The resonator chamber is entirely made of aluminium or tempax glass and the PZT piezoceramic transducer delivers an acoustic energy flow density...... of up to 24 W/cm2 into the sonication volume. The chosen resonance frequency is kept stable by automatic frequency control utilizing the maximum true power criterion. Physically and chemically well-defined low and high density pure laboratory and also industrially used cooling-lubricating oil...

  3. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  4. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing has recently emerged as a subject of substantial industrial and academic interest, though its meaning and scope is hotly debated. For some researchers, clouds are a natural evolution towards the full commercialisation of grid systems, while others dismiss the term as a mere re-branding of existing pay-per-use technologies. From either perspective, 'cloud' is now the label of choice for accountable pay-per-use access to third party applications and computational resources on a massive scale. Clouds support patterns of less predictable resource use for applications and services a

  5. An electrodeless drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Duerdoth, I.; Rowe, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    We describe a chamber in which the drift field is controlled by the deposition of electrostatic charge on an insulating surface. The chamber operates with good efficiency and precision for observed drift distances of up to 45 cm, promises to be extremely robust and adaptable and offers a very cheap way of making particle detectors. (orig.)

  6. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Plastic flashtube chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisken, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the use and operation of plastic flashtube chambers. Gas leaks, electric pulsing, the glow discharge, and readout methods are considered. Three distinct problems with high rate applications deal with resolving time, dead time, and polarization/neutralization of the chamber

  8. Climatic chamber ergometer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Atkins, AR

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and calibration of an ergometer for exercising subjects during calorimetric studies in the climate chamber, are described. The ergometer is built into the climatic chamber and forms an integral part of the whole instrumentation system foe...

  9. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  10. The Mobile Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Gregory; Cox, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a simulation chamber that represents a shift from the thermal-vacuum chamber stereotype. This innovation, currently in development, combines the capabilities of space simulation chambers, the user-friendliness of modern-day electronics, and the modularity of plug-and-play computing. The Mobile Chamber is a customized test chamber that can be deployed with great ease, and is capable of bringing payloads at temperatures down to 20 K, in high vacuum, and with the desired metrology instruments integrated to the systems control. Flexure plans to lease Mobile Chambers, making them affordable for smaller budgets and available to a larger customer base. A key feature of this design will be an Apple iPad-like user interface that allows someone with minimal training to control the environment inside the chamber, and to simulate the required extreme environments. The feedback of thermal, pressure, and other measurements is delivered in a 3D CAD model of the chamber's payload and support hardware. This GUI will provide the user with a better understanding of the payload than any existing thermal-vacuum system.

  11. DELPHI time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The time projection chamber is inserted inside the central detector of the DELPHI experiment. Gas is ionised in the chamber as a charged particle passes through, producing an electric signal from which the path of the particle can be found. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  12. Structured triglyceride emulsions in parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambrier, C; Lauverjat, M; Bouletreau, P

    2006-08-01

    Over the past 3 decades, various concepts for IV fat emulsions (IVFE) have been developed. A randomized, structured-lipid emulsion based on an old technology has recently become available. This structured-lipid emulsion is produced by mixing medium-chain triglycerides and long-chain triglycerides, then allowing hydrolysis to form free fatty acids, followed by random transesterification of the fatty acids into mixed triglyceride molecules. Studies in animals have shown an improvement in nitrogen balance with the use of these lipid emulsions. Only 8 human clinical studies with these products have been performed. The results of these human clinical studies have been less promising than the animal studies; however, an improvement in nitrogen balance and lipid metabolism exceeds results associated with infusion of long-chain triglycerides (LCT) or a physical mixture of long-chain triglycerides and medium-chain triglycerides (LCT-MCT). Structured-lipid emulsion seems to induce less elevation in serum liver function values compared with standard IVFEs. In addition, structured-lipid emulsions have no detrimental effect on the reticuloendothelial system. Further studies are necessary in order to recommend the use of structured-lipid emulsions. The clinical community hopes that chemically defined structured triglycerides will make it possible to determine the distribution of specific fatty acids on a specific position on the glycerol core and therefore obtain specific activity for a specific clinical situation.

  13. Kinetics of Crystallization in Polydisperse Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashchiev; Kaneko; Sato

    1998-12-01

    The kinetics of isothermal crystallization of the droplets in polydisperse emulsions are analyzed under the condition that each emulsion droplet gives birth to one nucleus only. Expressions are derived for the time dependences of the number of crystallized droplets and the fraction of crystallized droplet volume in the cases of either volume or surface nucleation of the crystals in the droplets. The time for half-crystallization is determined as a function of the emulsion polydispersity, and it is found that the more polydisperse the emulsion, the shorter this time in comparison with that for the corresponding monodisperse emulsion. Formulae are also obtained for the change of the velocity Kv of propagation of ultrasound through polydisperse emulsions during the time t of isothermal crystallization of the droplets in them. Good agreement is found between theory and experiment in an analysis of available Kv(t) data for crystallization in polydisperse palm oil-in-water and n-hexadecane-in-water emulsions. The results obtained are directly applicable to devitrification and polymorphic transformation of disperse solid phases. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  14. Extending temporary storage capacity with emulsion breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, I.; Guarino, A.; DeVitis, D.; Nolan, K.; Lewis, A.; Smith, B.; Lane, J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of emulsion breakers injected into an oil spill recovery system was examined in both laboratory testing and at the OHMSETT test facility. The tests were designed to assess the injection/mixing/settling regimes needed for optimum water-removal performance from a meso-stable water-in-oil emulsion with an oil spill demulsifier. Different types of injection locations and mixing technologies were examined, including skimmer heads, cargo lines, tank inlets, as well as static in-line and mechanical technologies. During laboratory testing, water-in-oil emulsions and free water was pumped through various lengths of piping loops, an in-line mixer and 8 settling tanks. Following the injection of a demulsifier, the fluid was decanted to observe the emulsion breaking. At the OHMSETT test facility, a Desmi Terminator skimmer recovered the same emulsion from a polluted water surface. Different slick thicknesses, wave heights and recovery rates were used. A demulsifier was also injected into the recovered fluid which was allowed to separate in recovery tanks. The demulsifier efficiency was then measured. It was determined that the demulsifier significantly reduced the volume of water in the recovery tanks and the water content of the remaining emulsion. If free water content was greater than 60 per cent, then the effect of the surfactant was greatly reduced. If no free water was present, the level of turbulence was insufficient to promote emulsion breaking. More than 33 per cent free water content is needed to reduce the bulk viscosity of the fluid and to promote emulsion breaking. The degree of emulsion breaking also increased with increasing mixing energy. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  15. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  16. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.

    2010-02-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called ``OPERA film'' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  17. Cloud Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every…

  18. Cloud Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Rama; Raths, David; Schaffhauser, Dian; Skelly, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    For many IT shops, the cloud offers an opportunity not only to improve operations but also to align themselves more closely with their schools' strategic goals. The cloud is not a plug-and-play proposition, however--it is a complex, evolving landscape that demands one's full attention. Security, privacy, contracts, and contingency planning are all…

  19. LHC Report: Out of the clouds

    CERN Multimedia

    Giovanni Rumolo, Giovanni Iadarola and Hannes Bartosik for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    In order for the LHC to deliver intense proton beams to the experiments, operators have to perform “scrubbing” of the beam pipes. This operation is necessary to reduce the formation of electron clouds, which would generate instabilities in the colliding beams.   Electron clouds are generated in accelerators running with positively charged particles when electrons - produced by the ionisation of residual molecules in the vacuum or by the photoelectric effect from synchrotron radiation - are accelerated by the beam field and hit the surface of the vacuum chamber producing other electrons. This avalanche-like process can result in the formation of clouds of electrons. Electron clouds are detrimental to the beam for a few reasons. First, the electrons impacting the walls desorb molecules and degrade the ultra-high vacuum in the beam chamber. Furthermore, they interact electromagnetically with the beam, leading to the oscillation and expansion of the particle bunches. This increases...

  20. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  1. Localized structures in vibrated emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, Claudio; Bruggeman, Jake; Pasquali, Matteo; Deegan, Robert D.

    2012-04-01

    We report our observations of localized structures in a thin layer of an emulsion subjected to vertical oscillations. We observe persistent holes, which are voids that span the layer depth, and kinks, which are fronts between regions with and without fluid. These structures form in response to a finite amplitude perturbation. Combining experimental and rheological measurements, we argue that the ability of these structures to withstand the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding fluid is due to convection within their rim. For persistent holes the oscillatory component of the convection generates a normal stress which opposes contraction, while for kinks the steady component of the convection generates a shear stress which opposes the hydrostatic stress of the surrounding fluid.

  2. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  3. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  4. Use of olive oil-in-water gelled emulsions in model turkey breast emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Öztürk, B.

    2017-09-01

    Today, gelled emulsion systems offer a novel possibility in lipid modification of meat products. In this study, we aimed to investigate the quality characteristics of model turkey emulsions that were prepared with olive oil-in-water gelled emulsion (GE) as partial or total beef fat replacer. The results indicated that while most of the GE treatments showed equivalent emulsion characteristics in terms of emulsion stability, water-holding capacity and cook yield, utilization of 100% GE as the lipid source could increase total expressible fluid of the model turkey emulsion and thus negatively affect the quality. Utilization of GE was effective in total fat reduction, as the model turkey emulsions formulated with more than 50% GE had significantly lower fat content compared to full-beef fat control model emulsion. However, beef fat replacement with GE produced considerable changes in colour parameters. Finally, it was concluded that utilization of GE as a partial beef fat replacer has good potential to enhance stability and reduce total fat in turkey meat emulsion products.

  5. Aging properties of Kodak type 101 emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohne, B.; Feldman, U.; Neupert, W.

    1984-01-01

    Aging tests for several batches of Kodak type 101 emulsion show that storage conditions significantly influence how well the film will maintain its sensitometric properties, with sensitivity and density increasing to a maximum during this period. Any further aging may result in higher fog levels and sensitivity loss. It is noted that storage in an environment free of photographically active compounds allows film property optimization, and that film batches with different sensitivities age differently. Emulsions with maximum 1700-A sensitivity are 2.5 times faster than those at the low end of the sensitivity scale. These sensitive emulsions exhibit significantly accelerated changes in aging properties. Their use in space applications requires careful consideration of time and temperature profiles, encouraging the use of less sensitive emulsions when the controllability of these factors is limited.

  6. Storage stability of marine phospholipids emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    Marine phospholipids (MPL) are believed to provide more advantages than fish oil from the same source. They are considered to have a better bioavailability, a better resistance towards oxidation and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic...... acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of using marine phospholipids emulsions as delivery system through investigation of the physical, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL emulsions with or without addition of fish oil....... The effect of initial Peroxide Value, total lipids, phospholipids and antioxidants content on stability of MPL emulsions were studied. The physical stability was investigated through measurement of particle size distribution and creaming stability, which involve measurement of changes (%) in emulsion volume...

  7. Acoustic-Levitation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Granett, D.; Lee, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Uncontaminated environments for highly-pure material processing provided within completely sealed levitation chamber that suspends particles by acoustic excitation. Technique ideally suited for material processing in low gravity environment of space.

  8. Optical spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    An optical spark chamber developed for use in the Omega spectrometer. On the left the supporting frame is exceptionally thin to allow low momentum particles to escape and be detected outside the magnetic field.

  9. Vacuum chamber 'bicone'

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This chamber is now in the National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, where it was exposed in an exhibit on the History of High Energy Accelerators (1977).

  10. Miniature ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, V.I.; Emelyanov, I.Y.; Ivanov, V.M.; Konstantinov, L.V.; Lysikov, B.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Rybakov, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature ionization chamber having a gas-filled housing which accommodates a guard electrode made in the form of a hollow perforated cylinder is described. The cylinder is electrically associated with the intermediate coaxial conductor of a triaxial cable used as the lead-in of the ionization chamber. The gas-filled housing of the ionization chamber also accommodates a collecting electrode shaped as a rod electrically connected to the center conductor of the cable and to tubular members. The rod is disposed internally of the guard electrode and is electrically connected, by means of jumpers passing through the holes in the guard electrode, to the tubular members. The tubular members embrace the guard electrode and are spaced a certain distance apart along its entire length. Arranged intermediate of these tubular members are spacers secured to the guard electrode and fixing the collecting electrode throughout its length with respect to the housing of the ionization chamber

  11. Reference ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Zielczynski, M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of ionization chamber devoted for the determination of the absolute value of the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent material. The special attention was paid to ensure that the volume of the active gas cavity was constant and well known. A specific property of the chamber design is that the voltage insulators are 'invisible' from any point of the active volume. Such configuration ensures a very good time stability of the electrical field and defines the active volume. The active volume of the chamber was determined with accuracy of 0.3%. This resulted in accuracy of 0.8% in determination of the absorbed dose in the layer of material adherent to the gas cavity. The chamber was applied for calibration purposes at radiotherapy facility in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (Russia) and in the calibration laboratory of the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk. (author)

  12. Gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  13. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Lippmann, C

    2013-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  14. Cloud Computing Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furht, Borko

    In the introductory chapter we define the concept of cloud computing and cloud services, and we introduce layers and types of cloud computing. We discuss the differences between cloud computing and cloud services. New technologies that enabled cloud computing are presented next. We also discuss cloud computing features, standards, and security issues. We introduce the key cloud computing platforms, their vendors, and their offerings. We discuss cloud computing challenges and the future of cloud computing.

  15. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-01-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  16. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  17. Special photographic emulsions for high LET dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.

    1978-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations into photographic emulsion dosimetry is to attempt to use the photographic emulsion to mimic the response of human tissues to high LET radiations. The program therefore requires that a systematic understanding of the response of mammalian cells to ionizing radiations be achieved. We have been concerned with differences in RBE and in radiation response to both high and LET radiations, and in the interrelationship between observations with these different radiations

  18. Sleeve reaction chamber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, M Allen [Berkeley, CA; Beeman, Barton V [San Mateo, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Hadley, Dean R [Manteca, CA; Landre, Phoebe [Livermore, CA; Lehew, Stacy L [Livermore, CA; Krulevitch, Peter A [Pleasanton, CA

    2009-08-25

    A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

  19. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Baun, Christian; Nimis, Jens; Tai, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a buzz-word in today's information technology (IT) that nobody can escape. But what is really behind it? There are many interpretations of this term, but no standardized or even uniform definition. Instead, as a result of the multi-faceted viewpoints and the diverse interests expressed by the various stakeholders, cloud computing is perceived as a rather fuzzy concept. With this book, the authors deliver an overview of cloud computing architecture, services, and applications. Their aim is to bring readers up to date on this technology and thus to provide a common basis for d

  20. Dynamic consideration of smog chamber experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Chuang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the α-pinene + ozone reaction that address particle nucleation show relatively high molar yields of highly oxidized multifunctional organic molecules with very low saturation concentrations that can form and grow new particles on their own. However, numerous smog-chamber experiments addressing secondary organic aerosol (SOA mass yields, interpreted via equilibrium partitioning theory, suggest that the vast majority of SOA from α-pinene is semivolatile. We explore this paradox by employing a dynamic volatility basis set (VBS model that reproduces the new-particle growth rates observed in the CLOUD experiment at CERN and then modeling SOA mass yield experiments conducted at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU. We find that the base-case simulations do overpredict observed SOA mass but by much less than an equilibrium analysis would suggest; this is because delayed condensation of vapors suppresses the apparent mass yields early in the chamber experiments. We further find that a second VBS model featuring substantial oligomerization of semivolatile monomers can match the CLOUD growth rates with substantially lower SOA mass yields; this is because the lighter monomers have a higher velocity and thus a higher condensation rate for a given mass concentration. The oligomerization simulations are a closer match to the CMU experiments than the base-case simulations, though they overpredict the observations somewhat. However, we also find that if the chemical conditions in CLOUD and the CMU chamber were identical, substantial nucleation would have occurred in the CMU experiments when in fact none occurred. This suggests that the chemical mechanisms differed in the two experiments, perhaps because the high oxidation rates in the SOA formation experiments led to rapid termination of peroxy radical chemistry.

  1. Dynamic consideration of smog chamber experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Wayne K.; Donahue, Neil M.

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies of the α-pinene + ozone reaction that address particle nucleation show relatively high molar yields of highly oxidized multifunctional organic molecules with very low saturation concentrations that can form and grow new particles on their own. However, numerous smog-chamber experiments addressing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass yields, interpreted via equilibrium partitioning theory, suggest that the vast majority of SOA from α-pinene is semivolatile. We explore this paradox by employing a dynamic volatility basis set (VBS) model that reproduces the new-particle growth rates observed in the CLOUD experiment at CERN and then modeling SOA mass yield experiments conducted at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). We find that the base-case simulations do overpredict observed SOA mass but by much less than an equilibrium analysis would suggest; this is because delayed condensation of vapors suppresses the apparent mass yields early in the chamber experiments. We further find that a second VBS model featuring substantial oligomerization of semivolatile monomers can match the CLOUD growth rates with substantially lower SOA mass yields; this is because the lighter monomers have a higher velocity and thus a higher condensation rate for a given mass concentration. The oligomerization simulations are a closer match to the CMU experiments than the base-case simulations, though they overpredict the observations somewhat. However, we also find that if the chemical conditions in CLOUD and the CMU chamber were identical, substantial nucleation would have occurred in the CMU experiments when in fact none occurred. This suggests that the chemical mechanisms differed in the two experiments, perhaps because the high oxidation rates in the SOA formation experiments led to rapid termination of peroxy radical chemistry.

  2. Microemulsion systems applied to breakdown petroleum emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuma de Castro Dantas, Tereza; Avelino Dantas Neto, Afonso; Ferreira Moura, Everlane [Deptos de Quimica e Eng. Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario s/n, 59072.970, Natal/RN Campinas (Brazil)

    2001-12-29

    Microemulsion systems obtained using commercial surfactants with demulsifier and emulsion prevention properties have been employed to break down Brazilian crude water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. These crude oils were supplied by the Brazilian oil company-PETROBRAS-and were characterized by the different Balance sheet of Sediment and Water (BSW) values of 48%, 36%, and 32%. The microemulsion systems formed in this study were composed of an aqueous phase (HCl 5.2% solution); an oil phase (toluene); a cosurfactant/surfactant (C/S) phase (isopropyl alcohol (C)/surfactants (S) with a ratio C/S of 9.0). The microemulsion efficiency to break down oil emulsions was evaluated by a direct contact method between the microemulsions and crude (W/O) emulsions. The Scheffe net statistical planning for mixtures was used to relate the component mass fractions to the relative breakdown of petroleum emulsions. The best composition of the microemulsion system for the complete breakdown of oil emulsions with high BSW values had the lowest C/S phase percentage.

  3. Experimental investigation on performance characteristics of a diesel engine using diesel-water emulsion with oxygen enriched air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baskar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines occupy a crucial position in automobile industry due to their high thermal efficiency and high power to weight ratio. However, they lag behind in controlling air polluting components coming out of the engine exhaust. Therefore, diesel consumption should be analyzed for future energy consumption and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines, which include biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions. Among them the diesel water emulsion is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency. But the major problem associated with emulsions is the ignition delay, since this is responsible for the power and torque loss. A reduction in NOx emission was observed due to reduction in combustion chamber temperature as the water concentration increases. However the side effect of emulsified diesel is a reduction in power which can be compensated by oxygen enrichment. The present study investigates the effects of oxygen concentration on the performance characteristics of a diesel engine when the intake air is enriched to 27% of oxygen and fueled by 10% of water diesel emulsion. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency was enhanced, combustion characteristics improved and there is also a reduction in HC emissions.

  4. Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    2013-01-01

    with technological changes, the paradigmatic pendulum has swung between increased centralization on one side and a focus on distributed computing that pushes IT power out to end users on the other. With the introduction of outsourcing and cloud computing, centralization in large data centers is again dominating...... the IT scene. In line with the views presented by Nicolas Carr in 2003 (Carr, 2003), it is a popular assumption that cloud computing will be the next utility (like water, electricity and gas) (Buyya, Yeo, Venugopal, Broberg, & Brandic, 2009). However, this assumption disregards the fact that most IT production......), for instance, in establishing and maintaining trust between the involved parties (Sabherwal, 1999). So far, research in cloud computing has neglected this perspective and focused entirely on aspects relating to technology, economy, security and legal questions. While the core technologies of cloud computing (e...

  5. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    A mobile cloud is a cooperative arrangement of dynamically connected communication nodes sharing opportunistic resources. In this book, authors provide a comprehensive and motivating overview of this rapidly emerging technology. The book explores how distributed resources can be shared by mobile...... users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds have the potential to enhance communications...... performance, improve utilization of resources and create flexible platforms to share resources in very novel ways. Energy efficient aspects of mobile clouds are discussed in detail, showing how being cooperative can bring mobile users significant energy saving. The book presents and discusses multiple...

  6. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-05-15

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.

  7. DELPHI Barrel Muon Chamber Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The module was used as part of the muon identification system on the barrel of the DELPHI detector at LEP, and was in active use from 1989 to 2000. The module consists of 7 individual muons chambers arranged in 2 layers. Chambers in the upper layer are staggered by half a chamber width with respect to the lower layer. Each individual chamber is a drift chamber consisting of an anode wire, 47 microns in diameter, and a wrapped copper delay line. Each chamber provided 3 signal for each muon passing through the chamber, from which a 3D space-point could be reconstructed.

  8. Radon diffusion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.; Boerner, E.; Lehmann, R.; Sarenio, O.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the detection of radioactive gases emitting alpha particles like radon, thoron and their alpha-decaying daughters by means of a diffusion chamber with a passive detector, preferably with a solid state track detector. In the chamber above and towards the detector there is a single metallized electret with negative polarity. The distance between electret and detector corresponds to the range of the alpha particles of radon daughters in air at the most. The electret collects the positively charged daughters and functions as surface source. The electret increases the sensitivity by the factor 4

  9. The Honeycomb Strip Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Harry van der; Buskens, Joop; Rewiersma, Paul; Koenig, Adriaan; Wijnen, Thei

    1991-06-01

    The Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC) is a new position sensitive detector. It consists of a stack of folded foils, forming a rigid honeycomb structure. In the centre of each hexagonal cell a wire is strung. Conducting strips on the foils, perpendicular to the wires, pick up the induced avalanche charge. Test results of a prototype show that processing the signals form three adjacent strips nearest to the track gives a spatial resolution better than 64 μm for perpendicular incident tracks. The chamber performance is only slightly affected by a magnetic field. (author). 25 refs.; 21 figs

  10. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector employs a single radiation source in a construction comprising at least two chambers with a center or node electrode. The radioactive source is associated with this central electrode, and its positioning may be adjusted relative to the electrode to alter the proportion of the source that protrudes into each chamber. The source may also be mounted in the plane of the central electrode, and positioned relative to the center of the electrode. The central electrode or source may be made tiltable relative to the body of the detector

  11. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  12. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  13. Enhancing saltiness in emulsion based foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lad Mita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of enhancing saltiness perception in emulsions and a liquid food formulated with the emulsions (ambient vegetable soup through increasing salt concentration in the continuous phase while retaining the fat content of the (aqueous continuous product was evaluated. This was accomplished by increasing the droplet phase volume using duplex emulsion technology. Viscosity and droplet size distribution was measured. Saltiness evaluation was based on simple paired comparison testing (2-Alternate Forced Choice tests, BS ISO 5495:2007. Results Single and duplex emulsions and emulsion-based products had comparable mean oil droplet diameters (25 to 30 μm; however, viscosity of the duplex emulsion systems was considerably higher. Sensory assessment of saltiness of emulsion pairs (2AFC indicated duplex technology enhanced saltiness perception compared to a single emulsion product at the same salt content (6.3 g/100 g in both simple emulsions and the formulated food product (P = 0.0596 and 0.0004 respectively although assessors noted the increased viscosity of the duplex systems. The formulated food product also contained pea starch particles which may have aided product mixing with saliva and thus accelerated tastant transport to the taste buds. Lowering salt content in the duplex systems (to levels of aqueous phase salt concentration similar to the level in the single systems resulted in duplex systems being perceived as less salty than the single system. It appears that the higher viscosity of the duplex systems could not be “overruled” by enhanced mixing through increased droplet phase volume at lowered salt content. Conclusions The results showed that salt reduction may be possible despite the added technology of duplex systems increasing the overall measured viscosity of the product. The changes in viscosity behavior impact mouthfeel, which may be exploitable in addition to the contribution towards salt

  14. Automated batch emulsion copolymerization of styrene and butyl acrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mballa Mballa, M.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Heuts, J.P.A.; Herk, van A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method for carrying out emulsion copolymerization using an automated synthesizer. For this purpose, batch emulsion copolymerizations of styrene and butyl acrylate were investigated. The optimization of the polymerization system required tuning the liquid transfer method,

  15. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... archiving. The Soft Clouding Project is part of LARM - a major infrastructure combining research in and access to sound and radio archives in Denmark. In 2012 the LARM infrastructure will consist of more than 1 million hours of radio, combined with metadata who describes the content. The idea is to analyse...... the concept of ‘infrastructure’ and ‘interface’ on a creative play with the fundamentals of LARM (and any sound archive situation combining many kinds and layers of data and sources). This paper will present and discuss the Soft clouding project from the perspective of the three practices and competencies...

  16. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  17. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  18. The KLOE drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.

    2002-01-01

    The design and construction of the large drift chamber of the KLOE experiment is presented. The track reconstruction is described, together with the calibration method and the monitoring systems. The stability of operation and the performance are studied with samples of e + e - , K S K L and K + K - events

  19. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  20. Drift Chambers detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs

  1. OPAL Muon Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the 4 experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 to 2000. This is a slice of the outermost layer of OPAL : the muon chambers. This outside layer detects particles which are not stopped by the previous layers. These are mostly muons.

  2. Improvements in ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Zubal, C.

    1980-01-01

    A method of reducing mechanical vibrations transmitted to the parallel plate electrodes of ionization chamber x-ray detectors, commonly used in computerized x-ray axial tomography systems, is described. The metal plate cathodes and anodes are mounted in the ionizable gas on dielectric sheet insulators consisting of a composite of silicone resin and glass fibres. (UK)

  3. LEP Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is a cut-out of a LEP vacuum chamber for dipole magnets showing the beam channel and the pumping channel with the getter (NEG) strip and its insulating supports. A water pipe connected to the cooling channel can also be seen at the back.The lead radiation shield lining is also shown. See also 8305563X.

  4. MISSING: BUBBLE CHAMBER LENS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Would the person who borrowed the large bubble chamber lens from the Microcosm workshops on the ISR please return it. This is a much used piece from our object archives. If anybody has any information about the whereabouts of this object, please contact Emma.Sanders@cern.ch Thank you

  5. Ion chamber instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    An electrical ionization chamber is described having a self-supporting wall of cellular material which is of uniform areal density and formed of material, such as foamed polystyrene, having an average effective atomic number between about 4 and about 9, and easily replaceable when on the instrument. (auth)

  6. Review of straw chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, W.H.

    1990-03-01

    This is a review of straw chambers used in the HRS, MAC, Mark III, CLEO, AMY, and TPC e + e - experiments. The straws are 6--8 mm in diameter, operate at 1--4 atmospheres and obtain resolutions of 45--100 microns. The designs and constructions are summarized and possible improvements discussed

  7. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  8. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  9. Supralinearity and particle discrimination in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Larsson, L.; Pinkerton, F.E.; Benton, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear emulsions may be desensitized in manufacture and/or may be so processed as to discriminate against small latent image sites; to yield supralinear sensitometric response after x-irradiation; and to discriminate against lightly ionizing radiations in favor of heavily ionizing particles. In a circumstance where one electron passing through an emulsion grain is unlikely to generate a latent image sufficiently large to yield a visible grain after development, some larger number of electrons is required, resulting in 'many-hit' statistics, supralinearity, and particle discrimination: for lightly ionizing particles are not likely to generate more than one delta-ray (secondary electron) in their passage through or near a grain. Since these properties are analogous to the response of many biological cells to ionizing radiations, such emulsion-developer combinations have the potential to mimic the response of biological systems to particulate radiations of different charge and speed. (author)

  10. Radiation processing of polymer emulsion, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo; Katakai, Akio; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1983-01-01

    Radiation induced emulsion copolymerization of strong acid monomer was investigated to reduce the curing temperature of core shell particle emulsion having N-(n-butoxymethyl) acrylamide (NBM) moities in shell part. The strong acid monomers used were 3-chloro-2-acidphosphoxypropyl methacrylate, acid-phosphoxyethyl methacrylate, 2-acrylamide-2-methyl-propane sulfonic acid, and sodium p-styrenesulfonate. Curing was remarkably promoted by the presence of copolymerized strong acid monomer in shell part. Tensile strength of the film cured at 120 0 C was identical with that of conventional NBM core-shell emulsion film cured at 160 0 C. However, the water absorbing capacity of the film cured at 120 0 C was extremely high. The water resistance was found to increase with decreasing the amount of adsorbed polyelectrolyte on the particle surface. (author)

  11. Lithium aluminate spheroids prepared by emulsion procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateos, A.G.; DiBello, P.M.; Zaleski, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Lithium aluminate powders were prepared by emulsion evaporation method. The procedure involved preparation of water-in-oil emulsion, with the aqueous phase being a solution of Li and Al nitrates. The mixed salts precursor crystallized to gamma-LiAlO 2 at 700C. Single phase LiAlO 2 occurred as μm spherical particles with average crystallite size of 81 angstrom and surface area of 14 M 2 /g. After prolonged heating at 900C, the aluminate powder crystallite size grew by 5 times with a reduction in particle porosity. The emulsion technique promotes close control of particle size and shape of product and the technique facilitates chemical reaction of constituents and sinterability of resulting product

  12. Formulation and characterization of a multiple emulsion containing 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to prepare a stable multiple emulsion containing a skin anti-aging agent and using paraffin oil. Vitamin C, was incorporated into the inner aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) multiple emulsion at a concentration of 1%. Multiple emulsion was prepared by two step method. Stability ...

  13. Food emulsions as delivery systems for flavor compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Biliaderis, Costas G; Miao, Song

    2017-10-13

    Food flavor is an important attribute of quality food, and it largely determines consumer food preference. Many food products exist as emulsions or experience emulsification during processing, and therefore, a good understanding of flavor release from emulsions is essential to design food with desirable flavor characteristics. Emulsions are biphasic systems, where flavor compounds are partitioning into different phases, and the releases can be modulated through different ways. Emulsion ingredients, such as oils, emulsifiers, thickening agents, can interact with flavor compounds, thus modifying the thermodynamic behavior of flavor compounds. Emulsion structures, including droplet size and size distribution, viscosity, interface thickness, etc., can influence flavor component partition and their diffusion in the emulsions, resulting in different release kinetics. When emulsions are consumed in the mouth, both emulsion ingredients and structures undergo significant changes, resulting in different flavor perception. Special design of emulsion structures in the water phase, oil phase, and interface provides emulsions with great potential as delivery systems to control flavor release in wider applications. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of flavor release from emulsions, and how emulsions can behave as delivery systems for flavor compounds to better design novel food products with enhanced sensorial and nutritional attributes.

  14. The role of electrostatics in saliva-induced emulsion flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silletti, Erika; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Norde, Willem; Van Aken, George A.

    Upon consumption food emulsions undergo different processes, including mixing with saliva. It has been shown that whole saliva induces emulsion flocculation [van Aken, G. A., Vingerhoeds, M. H., & de Hoog, E. H. A. (2005). Colloidal behaviour of food emulsions under oral conditions. In E. Dickinson

  15. Cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use Internet and Web-based technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes how cloud computing can be used in nursing education.

  16. Cloud Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... There are several types of services available on a cloud. We describe .... CPU speed has been doubling every 18 months at constant cost. Besides this ... Plain text (e.g., email) may be read by anyone who is able to access it.

  17. Phase B-final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL). A spacelab mission payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Progress in the development of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory is outlined. The fluid subsystem, aerosol generator, expansion chamber, optical system, control systems, and software are included.

  18. Multiwire proportional chamber development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, R. F.; Pollvogt, U.; Eskovitz, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The development of large area multiwire proportional chambers, to be used as high resolution spatial detectors in cosmic ray experiments is described. A readout system was developed which uses a directly coupled, lumped element delay-line whose characteristics are independent of the MWPC design. A complete analysis of the delay-line and the readout electronic system shows that a spatial resolution of about 0.1 mm can be reached with the MWPC operating in the strictly proportional region. This was confirmed by measurements with a small MWPC and Fe-55 X-rays. A simplified analysis was carried out to estimate the theoretical limit of spatial resolution due to delta-rays, spread of the discharge along the anode wire, and inclined trajectories. To calculate the gas gain of MWPC's of different geometrical configurations a method was developed which is based on the knowledge of the first Townsend coefficient of the chamber gas.

  19. Radial semiconductor drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The conditions under which the energy resolution of a radial semiconductor drift chamber based detector system becomes dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current have been investigated. To minimise the drift chamber dark current attention should be paid to carrier generation at Si/SiO 2 interfaces. This consideration conflicts with the desire to reduce the signal risetime: a higher drift field for shorter signal pulses requires a larger area of SiO 2 . Calculations for the single shaping and pseudo Gaussian passive filters indicate that for the same degree of signal risetime sensitivity in a system dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current, the pseudo Gaussian filter gives only a 3% improvement in signal/noise and 12% improvement in rate capability compared with the single shaper performance. (orig.)

  20. Nanocellulose-stabilized Pickering emulsions and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Shuji; Togawa, Eiji; Kuroda, Katsushi

    2017-01-01

    Pickering emulsion, which is an emulsion stabilized by solid particles, offers a wide range of potential applications because it generally provides a more stable system than surfactant-stabilized emulsion. Among various solid stabilizers, nanocellulose may open up new opportunities for future Pickering emulsions owing to its unique nanosizes, amphiphilicity, and other favorable properties (e.g. chemical stability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and renewability). In this review, the preparation and properties of nanocellulose-stabilized Pickering emulsions are summarized. We also provide future perspectives on their applications, such as drug delivery, food, and composite materials.

  1. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  2. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  3. How to teach radiation by a cloud chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Now we use nuclear energy and take advantage of properties of radiation in many cases in our life. But curiously, background radiation isn't known to many people. And they believe that even if it is only a few level of radiation, it is dangerous for our health. I think the education about background radiation is very important and effective to understand radiation. (author)

  4. The Mystery “Well”: A Natural Cloud Chamber?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hovorka, J.; Holub, R.F.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Bendl, J.; Hopke, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 81, MAR 2015 (2015), s. 70-74 ISSN 0021-8502 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : underground spaces * aerosol * precipitation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2015

  5. Double chambered right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure

  6. Double chambered right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure.

  7. Argus drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, M; Nagovizin, V; Hasemann, H; Michel, E; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Wurth, R; Kim, P

    1983-11-15

    The ARGUS detector came into operation at the DORIS-II e/sup +/s/sup -/ storage ring at the end of 1982. Its two meter long drift chamber contains 5940 sense and 24588 field wires organized in uniform 18x18.8 mm/sup 2/ drift cells filling the whole volume. These cells form 36 layers, 18 of which provide stereo views. Each sense wire is equipped with a single hit TDC and ADC for coordinate and dE/dx measurements. The chamber is operated with propane to improve momentum and dE/dx resolution. The drift chamber design and initial performance are presented. With a very crude space-time relation approximation and without all the necessary corrections applied a spatial resolution of about 200 ..mu..m was obtained for half of the drift cell volume. Further corrections should improve this result. An intrinsic dE/dx resolution of 4.2% and an actual resolution of 5% were obtained for cosmic muons and also for Bhabha scattered electrons. An actual dE/dx resolution of 5.6% was obtained for pions from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation data with almost no track selection. A relativistic rise of 30% was observed in good agreement with theory. The long-term stability is still to be investigated.

  8. Argus target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienecker, F. Jr.; Glaros, S.S.; Kobierecki, M.

    1975-01-01

    A target chamber for application in the laser fusion program must satisfy some very basic requirements. (1) Provide a vacuum on the order of 10 -6 torr. (2) Support a microscopically small target in a fixed point in space and verify its location within 5 micrometers. (3) Contain an adjustable beam focusing system capable of delivering a number of laser beams onto the target simultaneously, both in time and space. (4) Provide access for diagnostics to evaluate the results of target irradiation. (5) Have flexibility to allow changes in targets, focusing optics and number of beams. The ARGUS laser which is now under construction at LLL will have a target chamber which meets these requirements in a simple economic manner. The chamber and auxiliary equipment are described, with reference to two double beam focusing systems; namely, lenses and ellipsoidal mirrors. Provision is made for future operation with four beams, using ellipsoidal mirrors for two-sided illumination and lens systems for tetragonal and tetrahedral irradiation

  9. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  10. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions as potential drug carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhas, J.M.; Goodman, R.L.; Moore, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    PFC emulsions have excellent oxygen transporting properties and have been reported to enhance the response of murine tumors to both radiation and BCNU. While the presently available emulsions are far too toxic to the immune system to be used in cancer therapy, they can be used to investigate the overall potential of this approach. As an example, the authors have found that these emulsions can alter drug availability. The lipophilicity of both the PFC and the drug in question determine the partitioning of the drug between the organic and aqueous phases of an emulsion. In vitro, this can reduce drug effectiveness by reducing the amount of drug available to the cells. In vivo, however, this partitioning may produce sustained drug exposure, which could be of benefit in cancer therapy and other applications. In brief, as the drug is absorbed from the circulating aqueous phase, additional drug would leach from the PFC, thereby providing a sustained drug exposure similar to that obtained with liposomes. While a great deal more work will be required to evaluate the practicality of this approach, the existence of this phenomenon must be taken into account in both the design and interpretation of efficacy studies in which anesthetics, chemotherapeutics, etc are employed

  11. CMS emulsion pictures during LS1

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Ferdinando, Donato

    2013-01-01

    These images were taken at the CMS experimental cavern during Long Shutdown 1, installing pinhole cameras at different points of the cavern and exposing them for days. The development of the film was done by Donato di Ferdinando from INFN Bologna. A pinhole camera is a light-tight box where a small hole is made (diameter of the order of microns); a light-sensitive material is set in the back of the hole. As sensitive material a nuclear emulsion film from the OPERA experiment was used. It is a special photographic emulsion optimized (silver grains enriched) for the detection of charged particles. A very large amount of nuclear emulsions where used in Opera experiment, at the Gran Sasso Underground Labs; nuclear emulsions must detect the charged tau-leptons emerging from the interaction between the "oscillated" tau-neutrino coming from the pure muon-neutrino beam produced at CERN (the CNGS beam). The oscillations theory of neutrino expects that muon neutrinos oscillate to tau-neutrinos and due to this behavior ...

  12. HEAVY-OIL PRODUCTION USING EMULSION FLOODING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... American Petroleum Institute, EOR = Enhanced Oil Recovery, GOR = Gas Oil Ratio ... concentration, 166.003 is the constant (molar mass of ... (molar mass of CaCO3),1M is the constant value. ... volume of prepared oil-in-water emulsion, that.

  13. Radiation dosimetry and spectrometry with superheated emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Errico, Francesco

    2001-01-01

    Detectors based on emulsions of overexpanded halocarbon droplets in tissue equivalent aqueous gels or soft polymers, known as 'superheated drop detectors' or 'bubble (damage) detectors', have been used in radiation detection, dosimetry and spectrometry for over two decades. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction of several instruments for individual and area monitoring: passive integrating meters based on the optical or volumetric registration of the bubbles, and active counters detecting bubble nucleations acoustically. These advances in the instrumentation have been matched by the progress made in the production of stable and well-specified emulsions of superheated droplets. A variety of halocarbons are employed in the formulation of the detectors, and this permits a wide range of applications. In particular, halocarbons with a moderate degree of superheat, i.e. a relatively small difference between their operating temperature and boiling point, can be used in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry since they are only nucleated by energetic heavy ions such as those produced by fast neutrons. More recently, halocarbons with an elevated degree of superheat have been utilised to produce emulsions that nucleate with much smaller energy deposition and detect low linear energy transfer radiations, such as photons and electrons. This paper reviews the detector physics of superheated emulsions and their applications in radiation measurements, particularly in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry

  14. Characteristics of Nano-emulsion for Cold Thermal Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumoto, Koji; Kawaji, Masahiro; Kawanami, Tsuyoshi

    Phase change emulsion (PCE) is novel kind of heat storage and heat transfer fluids. It has characteristics as follows; greater apparent specific heat and higher heat transfer abilities in the phase change temperature range than conventional single phase heat transfer fluid. In this paper, a phase change emulsion, which has droplet diameter distribution of nanometer, were prepared. The Nano-emulsion was formed by low energy emulsification methods, as known the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method. Physical properties, such as viscosity, diameter and its distribution of emulsion were investigated. Especially, the relationships between preparation method and the concentration of surfactant have been discussed in detail. The results show that the viscosity of the Nano-emulsion is lower than the micro-emulsion, which was made by same mixing ratio of surfactant and concentration of phase change material. In addition, the Nano-emulsion clarified that stability was higher than microemulsions.

  15. Criteria for controlled atmosphere chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.N.

    1980-03-01

    The criteria for design, construction, and operation of controlled atmosphere chambers intended for service at ORNL are presented. Classification of chambers, materials for construction, design criteria, design, controlled atmosphere chamber systems, and operating procedures are presented. ORNL Safety Manual Procedure 2.1; ORNL Health Physics Procedure Manual Appendix A-7; and Design of Viewing Windows are included in 3 appendices

  16. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  17. Cloud management and security

    CERN Document Server

    Abbadi, Imad M

    2014-01-01

    Written by an expert with over 15 years' experience in the field, this book establishes the foundations of Cloud computing, building an in-depth and diverse understanding of the technologies behind Cloud computing. In this book, the author begins with an introduction to Cloud computing, presenting fundamental concepts such as analyzing Cloud definitions, Cloud evolution, Cloud services, Cloud deployment types and highlighting the main challenges. Following on from the introduction, the book is divided into three parts: Cloud management, Cloud security, and practical examples. Part one presents the main components constituting the Cloud and federated Cloud infrastructure(e.g., interactions and deployment), discusses management platforms (resources and services), identifies and analyzes the main properties of the Cloud infrastructure, and presents Cloud automated management services: virtual and application resource management services. Part two analyzes the problem of establishing trustworthy Cloud, discuss...

  18. Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa

    1996-09-01

    Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

  19. Cloud time

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwood, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The ‘Cloud’, hailed as a new digital commons, a utopia of collaborative expression and constant connection, actually constitutes a strategy of vitalist post-hegemonic power, which moves to dominate immanently and intensively, organizing our affective political involvements, instituting new modes of enclosure, and, crucially, colonizing the future through a new temporality of control. The virtual is often claimed as a realm of invention through which capitalism might be cracked, but it is precisely here that power now thrives. Cloud time, in service of security and profit, assumes all is knowable. We bear witness to the collapse of both past and future virtuals into a present dedicated to the exploitation of the spectres of both.

  20. Synthetic Polymers at Interfaces: Monodisperse Emulsions Multiple Emulsions and Liquid Marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guanqing

    The adsorption of polymeric materials at interfaces is an energetically favorable process which is investigated in much diversified fields, such as emulsions, bubbles, foams, liquid marbles. Pickering emulsion, which is emulsion stabilized by solid particles has been investigated for over one century and preparation of Pickering emulsion with narrow size distribution is crucial for both the theoretical study of the stabilization mechanism and practical application, such as templated fabrication of colloidosomes. The precise control over the size and functionality of polymer latices allows the preparation of monodisperse Pickering emulsions with desired sizes through SPG membrane emulsification at rather rapid rate compared to microfludic production. Double or multiple emulsions have long been investigated but its rapid destabilization has always been a major obstacle in applying them into practical applications. The modern living polymerization techniques allow us to prepare polymers with designed structure of block copolymers which makes it possible to prepare ultra-stable multiple emulsions. The precise tuning of the ratio of hydrophobic part over the hydrophilic can unveil the stabilization mechanism. Liquid marble is a new type of materials of which liquid droplets are coated by dry particles. The coating of an outer layer of dry particles renders the liquid droplets non-sticky at solid surface which is useful in transportation of small amount of liquid without leakage at extreme low friction force. The property of liquid marbles relies largely on the stabilizers and the drying condition of polymeric latices is shown to have great influence on the property of liquid marbles. Firstly, an introduction to the interfacial and colloidal science with special attention to topics on emulsions, multiple emulsion and liquid marbles is given in Chapter 1. The unique features of an interface and a discussion on the definition of colloids are introduced prior to the

  1. The Case Of The Elusive Electron Cloud

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Fig. 1 Electron cloud following a controlled beam bump. 'Elementary my dear Watson, you see this footprint proves it was the butler in the foyer with the butcher's knife.' Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes may at first appear a long way from particle physics, but first appearances are often deceiving... The mysteries behind the 'Electron Cloud Effect', a dangerous electron multiplication phenomenon which could possibly limit the LHC's performance, have recently been under a detective level investigation that is yielding data that would make even the valiant Holmes balk. The electron cloud, a group of free floating electrons in the collider, is caused by electron multiplication on the vacuum chamber wall and was first observed in 1976. The cloud that develops is a serious problem because it can lead to beam growth, increased gas release from the collider surface, and a supplementary heat load to the LHC cryogenic system. The phenomenon has been observed since 1999 in the SPS where unexpected pressure...

  2. Vacuum Chambers for LEP sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows sections of the LEP vacuum chambers to be installed in the dipole magnets (left) and in the quadrupoles (right). The dipole chamber has three channels: the beam chamber, the pumping duct where the NEG (non-evaporabe getter) is installed and the water channel for cooling (on top in the picture). The pumping duct is connected to the beam chamber through holes in the separating wall. The thick lead lining to shield radiation can also be seen. These chambers were manufactured as extruded aluminium alloy profiles.

  3. Lipid globule size in total nutrient admixtures prepared in three-chamber plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, David F; Thoma, Andrea; Franke, Rolf; Klütsch, Karsten; Nehne, Jörg; Bistrian, Bruce R

    2009-04-01

    The stability of injectable lipid emulsions in three-chamber plastic (3CP) bags, applying the globule-size limits established by United States Pharmacopeia ( USP ) chapter 729, was studied. A total of five premixed total nutrient admixture (TNA) products packaged in 3CP bags from two different lipid manufacturers containing either 20% soybean oil or a mixture of soybean oil and medium-chain-triglyceride oil as injectable lipid emulsions were tested. Two low-osmolarity 3CP bags and three high-osmolarity 3CP bags were studied. All products were tested with the addition of trace elements and multivitamins. All additive conditions (with and without electrolytes) were tested in triplicate at time 0 (immediately after mixing) and at 6, 24, 30, and 48 hours after mixing; the bags were stored at 24-26 degrees C. All additives were equally distributed in each bag for comparative testing, applying both globule sizing methods outlined in USP chapter 729. Of the bags tested, all bags from one manufacturer were coarse emulsions, showing signs of significant growth in the large-diameter tail when mixed as a TNA formulation and failing the limits set by method II of USP chapter 729 from the outset and throughout the study, while the bags from the other manufacturer were fine emulsions and met these limits. Of the bags that failed, significant instability was noted in one series containing additional electrolytes. Injectable lipid emulsions provided in 3CP bags that did not meet the globule-size limits of USP chapter 729 produced coarser TNA formulations than emulsions that met the USP limits.

  4. Review of wire chamber aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Space plasma simulation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Scientific results of experiments and tests of instruments performed with the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber and its facility are reviewed in the following six categories. 1. Tests of instruments on board rockets, satellites and balloons. 2. Plasma wave experiments. 3. Measurements of plasma particles. 4. Optical measurements. 5. Plasma production. 6. Space plasms simulations. This facility has been managed under Laboratory Space Plasma Comittee since 1969 and used by scientists in cooperative programs with universities and institutes all over country. A list of publications is attached. (author)

  6. Stability of Streamer Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Masato; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeharu; Kohno, Hirobumi

    1982-08-01

    The quality of tracks obtained from a streamer chamber is studied through the measurement of the streamer brightness. The stability of streamer tracks depends on the value of the high voltage applied and its shape. By using a single conical-type spark gap as the pulse shaper, stable brightness of the streamer tracks is attained. The data on the streamer brightness are compared with the result by Bulos et al. and it is found that the brightness is more strongly affected by field parameters than in their result.

  7. Stability of streamer chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Masato; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sugiyama, Tsunetoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeharu; Kohno, Hirobumi.

    1982-01-01

    The quality of tracks obtained from a streamer chamber is studied through the measurement of the streamer brightness. The stability of streamer tracks depends on the value of the high voltage applied and its shape. By using a single conical-type spark gap as the pulse shaper, stable brightness of the streamer tracks is attained. The data on the streamer brightness are compared with the result by Bulos et al. and it is found that the brightness is more strongly affected by field parameters than in their result. (author)

  8. Essentials of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, K

    2014-01-01

    ForewordPrefaceComputing ParadigmsLearning ObjectivesPreambleHigh-Performance ComputingParallel ComputingDistributed ComputingCluster ComputingGrid ComputingCloud ComputingBiocomputingMobile ComputingQuantum ComputingOptical ComputingNanocomputingNetwork ComputingSummaryReview PointsReview QuestionsFurther ReadingCloud Computing FundamentalsLearning ObjectivesPreambleMotivation for Cloud ComputingThe Need for Cloud ComputingDefining Cloud ComputingNIST Definition of Cloud ComputingCloud Computing Is a ServiceCloud Computing Is a Platform5-4-3 Principles of Cloud computingFive Essential Charact

  9. LS1 Report: the clouds are lifting

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    To combat the problem of electron clouds, which perturbate the environment of the particle beams in our accelerators, the Vacuum team have turned to amorphous carbon. This material is being applied to the interior of 16 magnets in the SPS during LS1 and will help prevent the formation of the secondary particles which are responsible for these clouds.   This photo shows the familiar coils of an SPS dipole magnet in brown. The vacuum chamber is the metallic rectangular part in the centre. The small wheeled device you can see in the vacuum chamber carries the hollow cathodes  along the length of the chamber. When a particle beam circulates at high energy in a vacuum chamber, it unavoidably generates secondary particles. These include electrons produced by the ionisation of residual molecules in the vacuum or indirectly generated by synchrotron radiation. When these electrons hit the surface of the vacuum chamber, they produce other electrons which, through an avalanche-like process, re...

  10. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  11. Cardiac chamber scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goretzki, G.

    1981-01-01

    The two methods of cardiac chamber scintiscanning, i.e. 'first pass' and 'ECG-triggered' examinations, are explained and compared. Two tables indicate the most significant radiation doses of the applied radio tracers, i.e. 99m-Tc-pertechnetate and 99m-Tc-HSA, to which a patient is exposed. These averaged values are calculated from various data given in specialised literature. On the basis of data given in literature, an effective half-life of approximately 5 hours in the intravascular space was calculated for the erythrocytes labelled with technetium 99m. On this basis, the radiation doses for the patients due to 99m-Tc-labelled erythrocytes are estimated. The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods applied for cardiac chamber scintiscanning are put into contrast and compared with the advantages and disadvantages of the quantitative X-ray cardiography of the left heart. The still existing problems connected with the assessment of ECG-triggered images are discussed in detail. The author performed investigations of his own, which concerned the above-mentioned problems. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Results from the CERN pilot CLOUD experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duplissy, J.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Aplin, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    is involved in the nucleation of atmospheric aerosols. However, sulphuric acid alone is not able to explain the observed rapid growth rates, which suggests the presence of additional trace vapours in the aerosol chamber, whose identity is unknown. By analysing the charged fraction, a few of the aerosol bursts...... are needed in controlling the experimental variables and in the reproducibility of the experiments. Finally, concerning technical aspects, the most important lessons for the CLOUD design include the stringent requirement of internal cleanliness of the aerosol chamber, as well as maintenance of extremely...

  13. Decascading in analysis of gamma family characteristics obtained in X-ray emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrotnyak, Ya.A.; Tomashevskij, A.; Yushkevich, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation is to ascertain how decascading (D) restores the initial characteristics of γ-quanta families and how this restoration depends on the choice of the parameter D associated with the altitude of γ-quanta generation. This investigation shows to what extent D is useful in analysing families formed in several acts at different altitudes. In casting Monte Carlo lots for separate events a nuclear act model is used in the form of successive Hasegawa's H-quanta. The calculations have been made for primary nucleon energies of 200, 400, 800, and 1600 TeV and for generation altitudes of 560, 1100, and 2200 m above the sea level (the adopted observation level is 4500 m above the sea level). It is considered that the use of the D method largely eliminates the effect of electromagnetic cascade processes in the atmosphere on the characteristics of ''pure'' families. In the case of ''impure'' families this elimination is also considerable. D must increase the sensitivity of the characteristics of experimental and artificial γ-families to the elementary act parameters

  14. System of two-coordinate cylindrical proportional chambers with resistive cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, V.B.; Peryshkin, A.N.; Red'ko, I.Yu.; Serednyakov, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    A system of two-coordinate cylindrical proportional chambers is developed for experiments on studying the e + e - annihilation. The system consists of 6 independent proportional chambers of semicylindrical configuration with a gap between anode and cathode equal to 5 mm. The diameter of an external chnsamber equals 25 cm and its length cotitutes 40 cm. Anode wires 20 μm in-diameter are fixed in parallel to the system axis with a pitch of 2-3 mm. The use of a resisti ve cothode permitting to maintain the anode wires and delay circuits under the ground potential is one of the specific feabures of the given chamber. The resistive layer is produced by sputtering the aquadag aqueous suspension with the polyvinylacetate emulsion on a fibregrass-textolite. 8 delay circuits is mounted outside of each chamber from the side of the cathode. A functional flowsheet of a data readout system is given. The track angte is determined directiy according to the numbers of operated wires; coordinates along the axis are determined by means of the delay circuits placed outside the chamber near the resistive cathode. The accuracy of the coordinate measurement in both directions constitutes about 1 mm. Each chamber permits to measure the coordinates of several particles, if they entry into different delay circuits. The proportional chambers are filled with the mixture of Ar+30%CO 2 . Anode and cathode efficiencies in the plateau region (150-250) exceed 99%

  15. A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion and Commercial Food Supplement Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Phing Khor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO. In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4. C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV, which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  16. Emulsion characteristics, chemical and textural properties of meat systems produced with double emulsions as beef fat replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem; Öztürk, Burcu; Urgu, Müge

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, double emulsions are stated to have a promising potential in low-fat food production, however, there are very few studies on their possible applications in meat matrices. We aimed to investigate the quality of beef emulsion systems in which beef fat was totally replaced by double emulsions (W1/O/W2) prepared with olive oil and sodium caseinate (SC) by two-step emulsification procedure. Incorporation of W1/O/W2 emulsion resulted in reduced lipid, increased protein content, and modified fatty acid composition. W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments had lower jelly and fat separation, higher water-holding capacity and higher emulsion stability than control samples with beef fat. Increased concentrations of W1/O/W2 emulsions resulted in significant changes in texture parameters. TBA values were lower in W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments than control treatment after 60days of storage. In conclusion, our study confirms that double emulsions had promising impacts on modifying fatty acid composition and developing both technologically and oxidatively stable beef emulsion systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cloud Computing, Tieto Cloud Server Model

    OpenAIRE

    Suikkanen, Saara

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what is cloud computing. To be able to make wise decisions when moving to cloud or considering it, companies need to understand what cloud is consists of. Which model suits best to they company, what should be taken into account before moving to cloud, what is the cloud broker role and also SWOT analysis of cloud? To be able to answer customer requirements and business demands, IT companies should develop and produce new service models. IT house T...

  18. A rapid method for creating qualitative images indicative of thick oil emulsion on the ocean's surface from imaging spectrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, K. Eric; Swayze, Gregg A.; Leifer, Ira; McCubbin, Ian B.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Green, Robert O.; Lundeen, Sarah R.; Sarture, Charles M.; Steele, Denis; Ryan, Thomas; Bradley, Eliza S.; Roberts, Dar A.; ,

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a method to create color-composite images indicative of thick oil:water emulsions on the surface of clear, deep ocean water by using normalized difference ratios derived from remotely sensed data collected by an imaging spectrometer. The spectral bands used in the normalized difference ratios are located in wavelength regions where the spectra of thick oil:water emulsions on the ocean's surface have a distinct shape compared to clear water and clouds. In contrast to quantitative analyses, which require rigorous conversion to reflectance, the method described is easily computed and can be applied rapidly to radiance data or data that have been atmospherically corrected or ground-calibrated to reflectance. Examples are shown of the method applied to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer data collected May 17 and May 19, 2010, over the oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon offshore oil drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico.

  19. Rheology essentials of cosmetic and food emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Brummer, Rüdiger

    2006-01-01

    Cosmetic emulsions exist today in many forms for a wide variety of applications, including face and hand creams for normal, dry or oily skin, body milks and lotions, as well as sun-block products. Keeping track of them and their properties is not always easy despite informative product names or partial names (e.g. hand or face cream) that clearly indicate their use and properties. This practical manual provides a detailed overview that describes the key properties and explains how to measure them using modern techniques. Written by an expert in flows and flow properties, it focuses on the application of rheological (flow) measurements to cosmetic and food emulsions and the correlation of these results with findings from other tests. Beginning with a brief history of rheology and some fundamental principles, the manual describes in detail the use of modern viscometers and rheometers, including concise explanations of the different available instruments. But the focus remains on practical everyday lab procedure...

  20. Radiation processing of polymer emulsion, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo; Katakai, Akio; Ito, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Naohiro; Araki, Kunio

    1983-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate was polymerized in emulsion by Co-60 γ-rays below 19 deg C in a batch reactor by using sodium lauryl sulfate as emulsifier. The conversion-time curves of the polymerization system showed two rate regions, i.e., a fact conversion rate in early stage, and a much slower rate in latter stage. The change in rate occurred at about 70 % conversion. The molecular weight of product polymer decreased with increasing conversion during the course of polymerization in latter stage, in contrast to the behavior in early stage. The distribution of the monomer in emulsion in latter stage was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The decrease of the molecular weight with conversion is due to the radiation-induced degradation of product polymer accelerated by the monomers absorbed in the polymer particles. (author)

  1. Blue skies for CLOUD

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Through the recently approved CLOUD experiment, CERN will soon be contributing to climate research. Tests are being performed on the first prototype of CLOUD, an experiment designed to assess cosmic radiation influence on cloud formation.

  2. Track theory and nuclear photographic emulsions for Dark Matter searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditlov, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of possibilities of nuclear emulsions for Dark Matter search, particles of which can produce slow recoil-nuclei. Tracks of such recoil-nuclei in developed nuclear emulsion consist from several emulsion grains. The analysis was carried out with Monte-Carlo calculations made on the basis of the Track Theory and the various factors influencing Dark Matter particles registration efficiency were investigated. Problems, which should be solved for optimal utilization of nuclear emulsions in Dark Matter search, were formulated. B ody - Highlights: ► Specific features of Dark Matter Search in nuclear photographic emulsions. ► Track theory for WIMP search in nuclear emulsions. ► Primary efficiency for single WIMP registration. ► Properties of primary WIMP registration efficiency. ► Primary registration efficiency of WIMP flow

  3. Relativistic nuclear photographic emulsion for multilayer piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, K.S.; Romanovskaya, K.M.; Razorenova, I.F.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear photoemulsion layers having a high sensitivity to relativistic singly charged particles, a high sensitivity stability, time stability of the latent image, as well as a high constancy of the emulsion thickness within the limits of the layer, were developed and fabricated for a large nuclear photoemulsion stack that was exposed in space during the experiments carried out on the artificial earth satellite ''Intercosmos-6''

  4. Perfection of the individual photographic emulsion dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudain, G.

    1960-01-01

    A photographic dosimeter making possible the measurement of γ radiation doses of from 10 mr up to 800 r by means of 3 emulsion bands of varying sensitivity stuck to the same support is described. The dosimeter has also a zone for marking and a test film insensitive to radiation. This requires a photometric measurement by diffuse reflection an d makes it possible to measure doses with an accuracy of 20 per cent. (author) [fr

  5. Moving towards Cloud Security

    OpenAIRE

    Edit Szilvia Rubóczki; Zoltán Rajnai

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing hosts and delivers many different services via Internet. There are a lot of reasons why people opt for using cloud resources. Cloud development is increasing fast while a lot of related services drop behind, for example the mass awareness of cloud security. However the new generation upload videos and pictures without reason to a cloud storage, but only few know about data privacy, data management and the proprietary of stored data in the cloud. In an enterprise environment th...

  6. Diogene pictorial drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.

    1984-01-01

    A pictorial drift chamber, called DIOGENE, has been installed at Saturne in order to study central collisions of high energy heavy ions. It has been adapted from the JADE internal detector, with two major differences to be taken into account. First, the center-of-mass of these collisions is not identical to the laboratory reference frame. Second, the energy loss and the momentum ranges of the particles to be detected are different from the ones in JADE. It was also tried to keep the cost as small as possible, hence the choice of minimum size and minimum number of sensitive wires. Moreover the wire planes are shifted from the beam axis: this trick helps very much to quickly reject the bad tracks caused by the ambiguity of measuring drift distances (positive or negative) through times (always positive)

  7. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  8. Simulation of chamber experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    The description of the system of computer simulation of experiments conducted by means of track detectors with film data output is given. Considered is the principle of organization of computer model of the chamber experiment comprising the following stages: generation of events, generation of measurements, ge-- neration of scanning results, generation of distorbions, generated data calibration, filtration, events reconstruction, kinematic identification, total results tape formation, analysis of the results. Generation programs are formed as special RAM-files, where the RAM-file is the text of the program written in FORTRAN and divided into structural elements. All the programs are a ''part of the ''Hydra'' system. The system possibilities are considered on the base of the CDSC-6500 computer. The five-beam event generation, creation data structure for identification and calculation by the kinematic program take about 1s of CDC-6500 computer time [ru

  9. Nucleation in bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harigel, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    Various sources and mechanisms for bubble formation in superheated liquids are discussed. Bubble chambers can be filled with a great variety of liquids, such as e.g. the cryogenic liquids hydrogen, deuterium, neon, neon/hydrogen mixtures, argon, nitrogen, argon/nitrogen mixtures, or the warm liquids propane and various Freon like Freon-13B1. The superheated state is normally achieved by a rapid movement of an expansion piston or membrane, but can also be produced by standing ultrasonic waves, shock waves, or putting liquids under tension. Bubble formation can be initiated by ionizing particles, by intense (laser) light, or on rough surfaces. The creation of embryonic bubbles is not completely understood, but the macroscopic growth and condensation can be calculated, allowing to estimate the dynamic heat load [fr

  10. Electron Cloud Effect in the Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M

    2004-01-01

    Beam induced multipacting, driven by the electric field of successive positively charged bunches, may arise from a resonant motion of electrons, generated by secondary emission, bouncing back and forth between opposite walls of the vacuum chamber. The electron-cloud effect (ECE) has been observed or is expected at many storage rings [1]. In the beam pipe of the Damping Ring (DR) of a linear collider, an electron cloud is produced initially by ionization of the residual gas and photoelectrons from the synchrotron radiation. The cloud is then sustained by secondary electron emission. This electron cloud can reach equilibrium after the passage of only a few bunches. The electron-cloud effect may be responsible for collective effects as fast coupled-bunch and single-bunch instability, emittance blow-up or incoherent tune shift when the bunch current exceeds a certain threshold, accompanied by a large number of electrons in the vacuum chamber. The ECE was identified as one of the most important R and D topics in the International Linear Collider Report [2]. Systematic studies on the possible electron-cloud effect have been initiated at SLAC for the GLC/NLC and TESLA linear colliders, with particular attention to the effect in the positron main damping ring (MDR) and the positron Low Emittance Transport which includes the bunch compressor system (BCS), the main linac, and the beam delivery system (BDS). We present recent computer simulation results for the main features of the electron cloud generation in both machine designs. Thus, single and coupled-bunch instability thresholds are estimated for the GLC/NLC design

  11. Cloud-Top Entrainment in Stratocumulus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Cloud entrainment, the mixing between cloudy and clear air at the boundary of clouds, constitutes one paradigm for the relevance of small scales in the Earth system: By regulating cloud lifetimes, meter- and submeter-scale processes at cloud boundaries can influence planetary-scale properties. Understanding cloud entrainment is difficult given the complexity and diversity of the associated phenomena, which include turbulence entrainment within a stratified medium, convective instabilities driven by radiative and evaporative cooling, shear instabilities, and cloud microphysics. Obtaining accurate data at the required small scales is also challenging, for both simulations and measurements. During the past few decades, however, high-resolution simulations and measurements have greatly advanced our understanding of the main mechanisms controlling cloud entrainment. This article reviews some of these advances, focusing on stratocumulus clouds, and indicates remaining challenges.

  12. Cloud Infrastructure & Applications - CloudIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistio, Anthony; Reich, Christoph; Doelitzscher, Frank

    The idea behind Cloud Computing is to deliver Infrastructure-as-a-Services and Software-as-a-Service over the Internet on an easy pay-per-use business model. To harness the potentials of Cloud Computing for e-Learning and research purposes, and to small- and medium-sized enterprises, the Hochschule Furtwangen University establishes a new project, called Cloud Infrastructure & Applications (CloudIA). The CloudIA project is a market-oriented cloud infrastructure that leverages different virtualization technologies, by supporting Service-Level Agreements for various service offerings. This paper describes the CloudIA project in details and mentions our early experiences in building a private cloud using an existing infrastructure.

  13. Mathematical Approach in Rheological Characterizing of Asphalt Emulsion Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different emulsion residues, such as SS1HP, HFE90, and SS-1VH (trackless, and a base asphalt binder (PG 64-22 are compared to characterize rheological properties by using DSR test. In order to capture the emulsion properties, different frequencies (from 1 to 100 rad/sec at a 10% constant shear rate and temperatures (from −45°C to 75°C with 15°C increments were applied. Then, a master curve for shear modulus was plotted for each emulsion. The transition of the HFE90 emulsion from viscous to elastic behavior occurs at lower temperatures, compared to the other materials. This emulsion is known for performing in a wider temperature range as shown in the results. The trackless emulsion presents an elastic behavior at intermediate temperatures. This product is known as having very fast setting and high resistance to shear stresses. The trackless emulsion presents the highest viscous and elastic modulus, followed by the PG 64-22 binder, SS1HP, and HFE90 emulsion. Shear strength test results show a behavior between trackless emulsion and SS1HP similar to the frequency sweep test results performed by DSR.

  14. Studies with a safflower oil emulsion in total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K. H.; Deitel, M.

    1981-01-01

    The prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency and the provision of adequate amounts of energy are two major concerns in total parenteral nutrition. Since earlier preparations of fat emulsion used to supplement the usual regimen of hypertonic glucose and amino acids have widely varying clinical acceptability, a new product, a safflower oil emulsion available in two concentrations (Liposyn), was evaluated. In four clinical trials the emulsion was used as a supplement to total parenteral nutrition. In five surgical patients 500 ml of the 10% emulsion infused every third day prevented or corrected essential fatty acid deficiency; however, in some cases in infusion every other day may be necessary. In 40 patients in severe catabolic states the emulsion provided 30% to 50% of the energy required daily: 10 patients received the 10% emulsion for 14 to 42 days, 9 patients received each emulsion in turn for 7 days, and 21 patient received the 20% emulsion for 14 to 28 days. All the patients survived and tolerated the lipid well; no adverse clinical effects were attributable to the lipid infusions. Transient mild, apparently clinically insignificant abnormalities in the results of one or more liver function tests and eosinophilia were observed in some patients. Thus, the safflower oil emulsion, at both concentrations, was safe and effective as a source of 30% to 50% of the energy required daily by seriously ill patients. PMID:6799182

  15. Increasing of registering capacity of nuclear emulsion for autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskaya, K.M.; Savvateeva, J.P.; Tolkacheva, E.N.

    1977-01-01

    The ways of increasing detecting power of the type M nuclear emulsion gel have been investigated in these studies. There have been found conditions under which type M emulsion sensitivity increased by 15 to 20% without increasing fog grain background. The stability of photographic sensitivity during emulsion gel storage increased by two times. The prevention of latent image fading (by means of layer moisture content) decreased to 1.2% and increasing the detecting power of the emulsion (by means of exposure temperature) by up to 37 0 C. The exposure time of tritium labelled autographs has been decreased to about 20%. (author)

  16. The choice of homogenisation equipment affects lipid oxidation in emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    in emulsions has been shown to be affected by the emulsification conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of homogenisation equipment (microfluidizer vs. two-stage valve homogeniser) on lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared with two different milk proteins....... Emulsions were prepared at pH 7 with similar droplet sizes. Results showed that the oxidative stability of emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate was not influenced by the type of homogeniser used. In contrast, the type of homogenisation equipment significantly influenced lipid oxidation when whey protein...

  17. Field testing of asphalt-emulsion radon-barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Elmore, M.R.; Nelson, D.A.; Voss, C.F.; Koehmstedt, P.L.

    1981-09-01

    Three years of laboratory and field testing have demonstrated that asphalt emulsion seals are effective radon diffusion barriers. Both laboratory and field tests in 1979, 1980 and 1981 have shown that an asphalt emulsion seal can reduce radon fluxes by greater than 99.9%. The effective diffusion coefficient for the various asphalt emulsion admix seals averages about 10 -6 cm 2 /s. The 1981 joint field test is a culmination of all the technology developed to date for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. Preliminary results of this field test and the results of the 1980 field test are presented. 18 figures, 6 tables

  18. Tweens demulsification effects on heavy crude oil/water emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Hayati Roodbari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The demulsification role of Tweens (nonionic polymers was determined in the separation of water from heavy crude oil emulsion. According to the previous researches, these nonionic polymers, having hydrophilic and lipophilic groups, are appropriate for making oil in water emulsion. In this research their effects in certain concentrations on demulsifying of water in crude oil emulsion were proved. High molecular weight, alkenes’ chains and groups of ketone and ester in these polymers can improve their performance for the demulsification of water in crude oil emulsion. Their efficiencies are improved with electronegative groups such as oxygen. They leave no corrosion effect because they are neutral and do not leave counter ions.

  19. Laboratory effectiveness testing of water-in-oil emulsion breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Bier, I.; Conrod, D.; Tennyson, E.

    1995-01-01

    The physics and chemistry of water-in-oil emulsions dominate the development of effectiveness tests. Emulsions are variable in stability--this variability is largely dependent on oil type and degree of weathering. These factors complicate the development of a test. Emulsions which have low stability will apparently break easily with chemical emulsion breakers. Broken emulsions will form a foam-like material, called rag, which retains water which is not part of the stable emulsions. Analytical methods used to determine the final stability of the broken or unbroken emulsion were evaluated. Measurements of water content and viscosity measurements show correlation to emulsion stability. Viscosity provides a more reliable measure of emulsion stability but water content measurements are more convenient and are largely used in this study. Twelve tests were developed in the past. Two testing methods have been developed to a usable stage. These tests are described and data using them provided. The effects of mixing time, agent amount, settling time and mixing energy on effectiveness results are presented

  20. Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVore, P. T. S.; Jiang, Y.; Lynch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud.org) is the first silicon photonics interactive web tool. Here we report new features of this tool including mode propagation parameters and mode distribution galleries for user specified waveguide dimensions and wavelengths.......Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud.org) is the first silicon photonics interactive web tool. Here we report new features of this tool including mode propagation parameters and mode distribution galleries for user specified waveguide dimensions and wavelengths....

  1. The little holographic bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, A.

    1983-01-01

    The lifetime study of the charmed particles has readvanced the idea to use holography for the little fast-cycle bubble chambers. A pilot experiment has been realised in 1982 with a little bubble chamber filled up with freon-115. 40000 holograms have been recorded [fr

  2. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-01-01

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  3. The CLEO III drift chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, D; Briere, R A; Chen, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Csorna, S; Dickson, M; Dombrowski, S V; Ecklund, K M; Lyon, A; Marka, S; Meyer, T O; Patterson, J R; Sadoff, A; Thies, P; Thorndike, E H; Urner, D

    2002-01-01

    The CLEO group at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring has constructed and commissioned a new central drift chamber. With 9796 cells arranged in 47 layers ranging in radius from 13.2 to 79 cm, the new drift chamber has a smaller outer radius and fewer wires than the drift chamber it replaces, but allows the CLEO tracking system to have improved momentum resolution. Reduced scattering material in the chamber gas and in the inner skin separating the drift chamber from the silicon vertex detector provides a reduction of the multiple scattering component of the momentum resolution and an extension of the usable measurement length into the silicon. Momentum resolution is further improved through quality control in wire positioning and symmetry of the electric fields in the drift cells which have provided a reduction in the spatial resolution to 88 mu m (averaged over the full drift range).

  4. Mixing Time, Inversion and Multiple Emulsion Formation in a Limonene and Water Pickering Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sawiak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that particle-stabilized emulsions comprised of limonene, water and fumed silica particles exhibit complex emulsification behavior as a function of composition and the duration of the emulsification step. Most notably the system can invert from being oil-continuous to being water-continuous under prolonged mixing. Here we investigate this phenomenon experimentally for the regime where water is the majority liquid. We prepare samples using a range of different emulsification times and we examine the final properties in bulk and via confocal microscopy. We use the images to quantitatively track the sizes of droplets and clusters of particles. We find that a dense emulsion of water droplets forms initially which is transformed, in time, into a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion with concomitant changes in droplet and cluster sizes. In parallel we carry out rheological studies of water-in-limonene emulsions using different concentrations of fumed silica particles. We unite our observations to propose a mechanism for inversion based on the changes in flow properties and the availability of particles during emulsification.

  5. Dark matter limits froma 15 kg windowless bubble chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydagis, Matthew Mark [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The COUPP collaboration has successfully used bubble chambers, a technology previously applied only to high-energy physics experiments, as direct dark matter detectors. It has produced the world's most stringent spin-dependent WIMP limits, and increasingly competitive spin-independent limits. These limits were achieved by capitalizing on an intrinsic rejection of the gamma background that all other direct detection experiments must address through high-density shielding and empirically-determined data cuts. The history of COUPP, including its earliest prototypes and latest results, is briefly discussed in this thesis. The feasibility of a new, windowless bubble chamber concept simpler and more inexpensive in design is discussed here as well. The dark matter limits achieved with a 15 kg windowless chamber, larger than any previous COUPP chamber (2 kg, 4 kg), are presented. Evidence of the greater radiopurity of synthetic quartz compared to natural is presented using the data from this 15 kg device, the first chamber to be made from synthetic quartz. The effective reconstruction of the three-dimensional positions of bubbles in a highly distorted optical field, with ninety-degree bottom lighting similar to cloud chamber lighting, is demonstrated. Another innovation described in this thesis is the use of the sound produced by bubbles recorded by an array of piezoelectric sensors as the primary means of bubble detection. In other COUPP chambers, cameras have been used as the primary trigger. Previous work on bubble acoustic signature differentiation using piezos is built upon in order to further demonstrate the ability to discriminate between alpha- and neutron-induced events.

  6. Dark matter limits from a 15 kg windowless bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydagis, Matthew Mark

    2010-01-01

    The COUPP collaboration has successfully used bubble chambers, a technology previously applied only to high-energy physics experiments, as direct dark matter detectors. It has produced the world's most stringent spin-dependent WIMP limits, and increasingly competitive spin-independent limits. These limits were achieved by capitalizing on an intrinsic rejection of the gamma background that all other direct detection experiments must address through high-density shielding and empirically-determined data cuts. The history of COUPP, including its earliest prototypes and latest results, is briefly discussed in this thesis. The feasibility of a new, windowless bubble chamber concept simpler and more inexpensive in design is discussed here as well. The dark matter limits achieved with a 15 kg windowless chamber, larger than any previous COUPP chamber (2 kg, 4 kg), are presented. Evidence of the greater radiopurity of synthetic quartz compared to natural is presented using the data from this 15 kg device, the first chamber to be made from synthetic quartz. The effective reconstruction of the three-dimensional positions of bubbles in a highly distorted optical field, with ninety-degree bottom lighting similar to cloud chamber lighting, is demonstrated. Another innovation described in this thesis is the use of the sound produced by bubbles recorded by an array of piezoelectric sensors as the primary means of bubble detection. In other COUPP chambers, cameras have been used as the primary trigger. Previous work on bubble acoustic signature differentiation using piezos is built upon in order to further demonstrate the ability to discriminate between alpha- and neutron-induced events.

  7. Studies of water-in-oil emulsions : testing of emulsion formation in OHMSETT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the stability of water-in-oil emulsions in the OHMSETT tank facility. The results were then compared with previous laboratory studies which suggested that the stability of emulsions can be grouped into four categories, stable, unstable, meso-stable and entrained. It has been determined that entrained emulsions can retain oil by viscous forces long enough for interfacial agents, resins and asphaltenes to stabilize the droplets. This paper also described the difference in viscosity between the 4 categories of emulsion stability. The OHMSETT tests were conducted in two series of one week each. The first series of tests were conducted in July and involved 12 experiments on 2 different types of oils which were placed at varying thicknesses on the water. The second set of tests were conducted in November and involved 12 experiments on 6 oils. The rheological properties of the oils were measured and compared to the same oils undergoing emulsification in the laboratory. The oils and water-in-oil states produced were found to have analogous properties between the laboratory and the first set of tests at the OHMSETT facility. All the oils tested produced entrained water-in-oil states in both the laboratory and the test tank. The energy in the two test conditions was found to be similar, with the OHMSETT emulsions similar to one produced in the laboratory at high energies. The second series of tests at OHMSETT did not result in the expected water in-oil- states. This unexpected result was most likely due to the residual surfactant from an earlier dispersant experiment. The study showed that the conditions for emulsion formation are analogous in the OHMSETT tank and in the laboratory tests. The level of energy is considered to be the major variant. It was concluded that the energy levels between the laboratory mixing experiments and the OHMSETT is similar. It was shown that surfactants left over from dispersant testing inhibited the formation

  8. Vertical microphysical profiles of convective clouds as a tool for obtaining aerosol cloud-mediated climate forcings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-12-23

    Quantifying the aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative effect at a global scale requires simultaneous satellite retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and cloud base updraft velocities (Wb). Hitherto, the inability to do so has been a major cause of high uncertainty regarding anthropogenic aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative forcing. This can be addressed by the emerging capability of estimating CCN and Wb of boundary layer convective clouds from an operational polar orbiting weather satellite. Our methodology uses such clouds as an effective analog for CCN chambers. The cloud base supersaturation (S) is determined by Wb and the satellite-retrieved cloud base drop concentrations (Ndb), which is the same as CCN(S). Developing and validating this methodology was possible thanks to the ASR/ARM measurements of CCN and vertical updraft profiles. Validation against ground-based CCN instruments at the ARM sites in Oklahoma, Manaus, and onboard a ship in the northeast Pacific showed a retrieval accuracy of ±25% to ±30% for individual satellite overpasses. The methodology is presently limited to boundary layer not raining convective clouds of at least 1 km depth that are not obscured by upper layer clouds, including semitransparent cirrus. The limitation for small solar backscattering angles of <25º restricts the satellite coverage to ~25% of the world area in a single day. This methodology will likely allow overcoming the challenge of quantifying the aerosol indirect effect and facilitate a substantial reduction of the uncertainty in anthropogenic climate forcing.

  9. Tuning Amphiphilicity of Particles for Controllable Pickering Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pickering emulsions with the use of particles as emulsifiers have been extensively used in scientific research and industrial production due to their edge in biocompatibility and stability compared with traditional emulsions. The control over Pickering emulsion stability and type plays a significant role in these applications. Among the present methods to build controllable Pickering emulsions, tuning the amphiphilicity of particles is comparatively effective and has attracted enormous attention. In this review, we highlight some recent advances in tuning the amphiphilicity of particles for controlling the stability and type of Pickering emulsions. The amphiphilicity of three types of particles including rigid particles, soft particles, and Janus particles are tailored by means of different mechanisms and discussed here in detail. The stabilization-destabilization interconversion and phase inversion of Pickering emulsions have been successfully achieved by changing the surface properties of these particles. This article provides a comprehensive review of controllable Pickering emulsions, which is expected to stimulate inspiration for designing and preparing novel Pickering emulsions, and ultimately directing the preparation of functional materials.

  10. Interplay between Colloids and Interfaces : Emulsions, Foams and Microtubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is the interplay between colloids and interfaces. The adsorption of colloids at fluid-fluid interfaces is the main topic and covers Chapters 2-6. Pickering emulsions where colloidal particles act as emulsion stabilizers in the absence of surfactants are studied in a

  11. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. 524... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains 5 milligrams (mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000859 in § 510...

  12. Multi-responsive ionic liquid emulsions stabilized by microgels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteillet, H.; Workamp, M.; Li, X.; Schuur, Boelo; Kleijn, J.M.; Leermakers, F.; Sprakel, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a complete toolbox to use responsive ionic liquid (IL) emulsions for extraction purposes. IL emulsions stabilized by responsive microgels are shown to allow rapid extraction and reversible breaking and re-emulsification. Moreover, by using a paramagnetic ionic liquid, droplets can be

  13. Pickering Emulsions for Food Applications: Background, Trends, and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berton-Carabin, C.C.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Particle-stabilized emulsions, also referred to as Pickering emulsions, have garnered exponentially increasing interest in recent years. This has also led to the first food applications, although the number of related publications is still rather low. The involved stabilization mechanisms are

  14. Aqueous polymer emulsions by chemical modifications of thermosetting alternating polyketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Youchun; Broekhuis, A. A.; Picchioni, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aqueous polymer emulsions were prepared by chemical modifications of thermosetting alternating polyketones in a one-pot reaction. Polymeric amines derived from the polyketones can act as polymeric surfactants for the self-emulsification of polyketones. The stability and structure of the emulsions

  15. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.

  16. Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Food Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant effects in food emulsions are influenced by many different factors, such as the composition of the aqueous phase and interface, the partitioning of the antioxidants between the different phases of the emulsion system, the antioxidant properties, and others. This ch...

  17. Microfluidic production of multiple emulsions and functional microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Tae Yong; Choi, Tae Min; Shim, Tae Soup; Frijns, Raoul A.M.; Kim, Shin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in microfluidics have enabled the controlled production of multiple-emulsion drops with onion-like topology. The multiple-emulsion drops possess an intrinsic core-shell geometry, which makes them useful as templates to create microcapsules with a solid membrane. High flexibility

  18. Synthesis of metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haorong [Albuquerque, NM; Song, Yujiang [Albuquerque, NM; Shelnutt, John A [Tijeras, NM; Medforth, Craig J [Winters, CA

    2011-12-13

    Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

  19. Nonionic emulsion-mediated synthesis of zeolite beta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zeolite beta synthesis was first carried out in a newly developed emulsion system containing nonionic polyoxyethylated alkylphenol surfactant, which showed interesting non-conventional features. Compared to the conventional hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite beta, the reported nonionic emulsion system showed a faster ...

  20. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  1. Formulation and stability of topical water in oil emulsion containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate the water in oil (W/O) emulsion of corn silk (CS) extract and to evaluate its stability at various storage conditions. Methods: Ethanol CS extract was prepared using maceration (cold) technique. A 4 % CS emulsion was prepared using varying concentrations of liquid paraffin, ABIL EM90 and water.

  2. Development of lamivudine containing multiple emulsions stabilized by gum odina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Kumar Jena

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a multiple emulsion (W/O/W of lamivudine was developed using a new biopolymer, gum odina (GOd to increase bioavailability and patient compliances. GOd was employed to stabilize both the interfaces of liquid membrane in both the external and internal aqueous phases. The developed W/O/W multiple emulsion of lamivudine was characterized by analyzing droplet size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI, sedimentation, viscosity, rheological properties, drug entrapment efficiency, in-vitro drug release and stability at various storage conditions. The results obtained were also compared with W/O/W multiple emulsion of lamivudine prepared using Tween 80 (a standard emulsion stabilizer. The drug entrapment efficiency of W/O/W multiple emulsion stabilized using GOd was measured as 91.60 ± 3.66% with sustained lamivudine release over a period of 6 h. Rheological and microscopic examinations indicated long term stability of the developed emulsion prepared using GOd. The results of the current study provide a promising scope to attain sustained drug release through the W/O/W multiple emulsions stabilized by GOd in antiviral therapies. Keywords: Gum odina, Lamivudine, Multiple emulsions

  3. Emulsion polymerization with high energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannett, V.T.; Stahel, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    High energy radiation, particularly that of cobalt-60 or caesium-137 gamma-rays, provides in principle an ideal initiator for emulsion polymerization. The high free radical yields from the radiolysis of the aqueous phase combined with the high kinetic chain lengths associated with emulsion polymerization lead to a highly effective utilization of the radiation. There are other important advantages compared with the use of chemical initiators such as potassium persulfate. These are outlined in the chapter, together with some attendant disadvantages. Radiation-induced initiation is temperature independent, and low temperature polymerizations can be conducted with ease. Monomers that mainly terminate their growing chains by chain transfer to monomer give higher molecular weights at lower temperatures. Industrially, vinyl acetate is an important example of such a monomer, and it has been studied using radiation initiation. Both laboratory and pilot plant studies have been carried out and reported. The results are summarized in this chapter. Styrene is the classical example of a material that under a number of conditions closely obeys the so-called ideal Smith-Ewart kinetics. It has been found that under similar conditions but substituting radiation for potassium persulfate as the initiator, ideal kinetics were closely followed. Most of the conventional and some non-standard vinyl and diene monomers have been studied to some extent with radiation-initiated polymerizations in emulsion. To conserve space however, this chapter presents and discusses the results obtained only with styrene and vinyl acetate, both in laboratory and pilot plant investigations. Other monomers and special situations are referenced either directly or to the other available reviews. (orig.)

  4. The CLOUD experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment as shown by Jasper Kirkby (spokesperson). Kirkby shows a sketch to illustrate the possible link between galactic cosmic rays and cloud formations. The CLOUD experiment uses beams from the PS accelerator at CERN to simulate the effect of cosmic rays on cloud formations in the Earth's atmosphere. It is thought that cosmic ray intensity is linked to the amount of low cloud cover due to the formation of aerosols, which induce condensation.

  5. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE IN CLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    Celina M. Olszak

    2014-01-01

    . The paper reviews and critiques current research on Business Intelligence (BI) in cloud. This review highlights that organizations face various challenges using BI cloud. The research objectives for this study are a conceptualization of the BI cloud issue, as well as an investigation of some benefits and risks from BI cloud. The study was based mainly on a critical analysis of literature and some reports on BI cloud using. The results of this research can be used by IT and business leaders ...

  6. Cloud Robotics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Koken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a rapidly evolving field that allows robots to offload computation-intensive and storage-intensive jobs into the cloud. Robots are limited in terms of computational capacity, memory and storage. Cloud provides unlimited computation power, memory, storage and especially collaboration opportunity. Cloud-enabled robots are divided into two categories as standalone and networked robots. This article surveys cloud robotic platforms, standalone and networked robotic works such as grasping, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and monitoring.

  7. Economical and environmentally safe treatment of emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, V

    1978-05-01

    The steady increase in the cost of the removal of emulsions and oil-containing liquid waste, as well as the rigid requirements concerning limiting values for discharge, have turned the disposal of spent cooling lubricants and oil-containing working fluids into a problem. The petroleum content in liquid waste is controlled with particular rigidity by the authorities. Ultrafiltration systems can keep the petroleum content at a very low level (< 2 mg/l) with great reliability. Ultrafiltration systems are easy to maintain, they have low operation costs and are easy to manipulate. The efficiency of a system is largely independent of its manipulation by the operating personnel.

  8. Heavy ion and hadron reactions in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1979-04-01

    Recent results from heavy ion and hadron reactions in emulsion are reviewed. General properties of hadron-reaction multiplicities and their correlation to the production of recoiling protons are given. Properties of pseudo-rapidity distributions of shower-particles especially the particle production in the central region of pseudo-rapidity will be discussed. Non-peripheral heavy ion reactions are compared to recent participant-spectator model calculations. Very energetic cosmic ray events will be examined in the light of recent results from hadron-nucleus reactions. (author)

  9. Cloud Processed CCN Suppress Stratus Cloud Drizzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate within cloud droplets increases the sizes and decreases the critical supersaturation, Sc, of cloud residual particles that had nucleated the droplets. Since other particles remain at the same sizes and Sc a size and Sc gap is often observed. Hudson et al. (2015) showed higher cloud droplet concentrations (Nc) in stratus clouds associated with bimodal high-resolution CCN spectra from the DRI CCN spectrometer compared to clouds associated with unimodal CCN spectra (not cloud processed). Here we show that CCN spectral shape (bimodal or unimodal) affects all aspects of stratus cloud microphysics and drizzle. Panel A shows mean differential cloud droplet spectra that have been divided according to traditional slopes, k, of the 131 measured CCN spectra in the Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) off the Central California coast. K is generally high within the supersaturation, S, range of stratus clouds (< 0.5%). Because cloud processing decreases Sc of some particles, it reduces k. Panel A shows higher concentrations of small cloud droplets apparently grown on lower k CCN than clouds grown on higher k CCN. At small droplet sizes the concentrations follow the k order of the legend, black, red, green, blue (lowest to highest k). Above 13 µm diameter the lines cross and the hierarchy reverses so that blue (highest k) has the highest concentrations followed by green, red and black (lowest k). This reversed hierarchy continues into the drizzle size range (panel B) where the most drizzle drops, Nd, are in clouds grown on the least cloud-processed CCN (blue), while clouds grown on the most processed CCN (black) have the lowest Nd. Suppression of stratus cloud drizzle by cloud processing is an additional 2nd indirect aerosol effect (IAE) that along with the enhancement of 1st IAE by higher Nc (panel A) are above and beyond original IAE. However, further similar analysis is needed in other cloud regimes to determine if MASE was

  10. Structure- and oil type-based efficacy of emulsion adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Manders, Frans; Schijns, Virgil E J C

    2006-06-29

    Oil-based emulsions are well-known immunopotentiators for inactivated, "killed" vaccines. We addressed the relationship between emulsion structure and levels of in vivo antibody formation to inactivated New Castle Disease virus (NDV) and Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) as antigens in 3-week-old chickens. The use of a polymeric emulsifier allowed for direct comparison of three types of emulsions, water-in-oil (W/O), oil-in-water (O/W) and W/O-in-water (W/O/W), while maintaining an identical content of components for each vehicle. They were prepared with either non-metabolizable, mineral oil or metabolizable, Miglyol 840. In addition, we assessed the inherent release capacity of each emulsion variant in vitro. Remarkably, we noted that W/O-type emulsions induced the best immune responses, while they released no antigen during 3 weeks. In general, mineral oil vaccines showed superior efficacy compared to Miglyol 840-based vaccines.

  11. Method validation and stability study of quercetin in topical emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Casagrande

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study validated a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for the quantitative evaluation of quercetin in topical emulsions. The method was linear within 0.05 - 200 μg/mL range with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997, and without interference in the quercetin peak. The detection and quantitation limits were 18 and 29 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precisions presented R.S.D. values lower than 2%. An average of 93% and 94% of quercetin was recovered for non-ionic and anionic emulsions, respectively. The raw material and anionic emulsion, but not non-ionic emulsion, were stable in all storage conditions for one year. The method reported is a fast and reliable HPLC technique useful for quercetin determination in topical emulsions.

  12. Progression of radical reactions on microscopic scale in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudsepp, Piret

    Understanding the progression of lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions from the aspect of the food quality and safety, consumer satisfaction and cleaner food label is of importance, because most of the food emulsions are oil-in-water emulsions. There is an increasing tendency in the food...... industry to incorporate unsaturated oils into food products, but that results in shortened shelf-life. Therefore, studying the factors and consequences of the oxidative instability provides beneficial insight into prolonging the antioxidative stage and inhibiting undergoing oxidation processes to improve...... the food quality and increase the shelflife of the food products. In the present work, lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions was studied via conventional analytical and via novel state-of-the-art techniques. For the first time, the effect of mixing emulsions made of saturated medium-chain triglyceride...

  13. Cold in-place recycling using solventless emulsion - phase IV (emulsion qualification and long-term field performance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report looks into how a successful Cold In-Place solventless emulsion behaves and how the emulsion : break test developed in Phase III of this project demonstrates that behavior. Modifications to the test have been : made to improve the consiste...

  14. Micro plate fission chamber development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Wen Zhongwei; Lin Jufang; Jiang Li; Liu Rong; Wang Dalun

    2014-01-01

    To conduct the measurement of neutron flux and the fission rate distribution at several position in assemblies, the micro plate fission chamber was designed and fabricated. Since the requirement of smaller volume and less structure material was taken into consideration, it is convinient, commercial and practical to use fission chamber to measure neutron flux in specific condition. In this paper, the structure of fission chamber and process of fabrication were introduced and performance test result was presented. The detection efficiency is 91.7%. (authors)

  15. Pelletron general purpose scattering chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Kerekette, S.S.; Navin, A.; Kumar, Suresh

    1993-01-01

    A medium sized stainless steel scattering chamber has been constructed for nuclear scattering and reaction experiments at the 14UD pelletron accelerator facility. It has been so designed that several types of detectors, varying from small sized silicon surface barrier detectors to medium sized gas detectors and NaI detectors can be conveniently positioned inside the chamber for detection of charged particles. The chamber has been planned to perform the following types of experiments : angular distributions of elastically scattered particles, fission fragments and other charged particles, angular correlations for charged particles e.g. protons, alphas and fission fragments. (author). 2 figs

  16. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Liu; W. Wu; M. P. Jensen; T. Toto

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surfaced-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fractio...

  17. Cosmic rays,Climate and the CERN CLOUD Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    For more than two centuries, scientists have been puzzled by observations of solar-climate variability yet the lack of any established physical mechanism. Some recent observations, although disputed, suggest that clouds may be influenced by cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind. The CLOUD experiment aims to settle the question of whether or not cosmic rays have a climatically-significant effect on clouds by carrying out a series of carefully-controlled measurements in a large cloud chamber exposed to a beam from the CERN PS. This talk will present the scientific motivation for CLOUD and the first results, which have recently been published in Nature (Kirkby et al. (2011). Role of sulphuric acid, ammonia and galactic cosmic rays in atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Nature 476, 429-433).

  18. Efficacy of a new topical cationic emulsion of cyclosporine A on dry eye clinical signs in an experimental mouse model of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daull, Philippe; Feraille, Laurence; Barabino, Stefano; Cimbolini, Nicolas; Antonelli, Sophie; Mauro, Virgine; Garrigue, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-12-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a complex, multifactorial pathology characterized by corneal epithelium lesions and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cationic emulsion of cyclosporine A (CsA) in a mouse model that mimics severe dry eye. Eight to 12-week-old female C57BL/6N mice with tail patches of scopolamine were housed in controlled environment chambers to induce dry eye. At day three, following dry eye confirmation by corneal fluorescein staining (CFS, score 0-15) and phenol red thread (PRT) lacrimation test, the mice (n = 10/gp) were either treated 3 times a day in both eyes with drug-free cationic emulsion, a 0.1% CsA cationic emulsion, or 1% methylprednisolone (positive control), or non-treated. Aqueous tear production and CFS scores were evaluated at baseline and throughout the treatment period. The lacrimation test confirmed the scopolamine-induced decrease in aqueous production by the lacrimal gland. A reduction of 59% in induced-CFS was observed following topical treatment with 0.1% CsA. The beneficial effect of the cationic emulsion vehicle itself on keratitis was also clearly evidenced by its better performance over 1% methylprednisolone, -36%, vs. -28% on the CFS scores, respectively. This study indicates that the cationic emulsion of CsA (0.1%) was a very effective formulation for the management of corneal epithelium lesions in a severe DED mouse model. In addition, it performed better than a potent glucocorticosteroid (1% methylprednisolone). This cationic emulsion of CsA (0.1%), combining CsA and a tear film oriented therapy (TFOT), i.e. with vehicle properties that mechanically stabilize the tear film, represents a promising new treatment strategy for the management of the signs of dry eye. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Rutting performance of cold bituminous emulsion mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Ahmad Kamil; Ali, Noor Azilatom; Shaffie, Ekarizan; Hashim, Wardati; Rahman, Zanariah Abd

    2017-10-01

    Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixture (CBEM) is an environmentally friendly alternative to hot mix asphalt (HMA) for road surfacing, due to its low energy requirements. However, CBEM has generally been perceived to be less superior in performance, compared to HMA. This paper details a laboratory study on the rutting performance of CBEM. The main objective of this study is to determine the Marshall properties of CBEM and to evaluate the rutting performance. The effect of cement in CBEM was also evaluated in this study. The specimens were prepared using Marshall Mix Design Method and rutting performance was evaluated using the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA). Marshall Properties were analysed to confirm compliance with the PWD Malaysia's specification requirements. The rutting performance for specimens with cement was also found to perform better than specimens without cement. It can be concluded that Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures (CBEM) with cement is a viable alternative to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) as their Marshall Properties and performance obtained from this study meets the requirements of the specifications. It is recommended that further study be conducted on CBEM for other performance criteria such as moisture susceptibility and fatigue.

  20. A new apparatus for track-analysis in nuclear track emulsion based on a CCD-camera device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganssauge, E.

    1993-01-01

    A CCD camera-based, image-analyzing system for automatic evaluation of nuclear track emulsion chambers is presented. The stage of a normal microscope moves using three remote controlled stepping motors with a step size of 0.25 μm. A CCD-camera is mounted on tope of the microscope in order to register the nuclear emulsion. The camera has a resolution capable of differentiating single emulsion-grains (0.6 μm). The camera picture is transformed from analogue to digital signals and stored by a frame grabber. Some background-picture elements can be eliminated by applying cuts on grey levels. The central computer processes the picture, correlates the single picture points, the coordinates and the grey-levels, such that in the end one has a unique assignment of each picture point to an address on the hard disk for a given plate. After repetition of this procedure for several plates by means of an appropriate software (for instance our vertex program [1]). the coordinates of the points are combined to tracks, and a variety of distributions like pseudorapidity-distributions can be calculated and presented on the terminal. (author)

  1. Hydrodynamics of a continuous vertical settling tank of the plate type with separation of extractive emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratov, V.M.; Lyubimov, V.K.; Rakovets, S.M.; Kucharina, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the results of an investigation of the continuous process of separation of extractive emulsion in a long vertical plate-like settling tank used in mixing-settling extractors. The object of study consisted of a section of the mixer-settler with pulsational mixing and a platelike settler 60 mm wide, 1000 mm long, and 300 mm high, made of acrylic plastic. The setup was used to demonstrate the circulation of each of the reagents (phases) in its own contour; they were injected into the mixing chamber by submersible centrifugal pumps, one placed in the volume with the light phase and the other in the volume with the heavy phase. After separation in the settling tank the liquid phases were each continuously poured into their own volume

  2. Cloud CCN feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Cloud microphysics affects cloud albedo precipitation efficiency and the extent of cloud feedback in response to global warming. Compared to other cloud parameters, microphysics is unique in its large range of variability and the fact that much of the variability is anthropogenic. Probably the most important determinant of cloud microphysics is the spectra of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) which display considerable variability and have a large anthropogenic component. When analyzed in combination three field observation projects display the interrelationship between CCN and cloud microphysics. CCN were measured with the Desert Research Institute (DRI) instantaneous CCN spectrometer. Cloud microphysical measurements were obtained with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Lockheed Electra. Since CCN and cloud microphysics each affect the other a positive feedback mechanism can result

  3. Proton beam monitor chamber calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomà, C; Meer, D; Safai, S; Lorentini, S

    2014-01-01

    The first goal of this paper is to clarify the reference conditions for the reference dosimetry of clinical proton beams. A clear distinction is made between proton beam delivery systems which should be calibrated with a spread-out Bragg peak field and those that should be calibrated with a (pseudo-)monoenergetic proton beam. For the latter, this paper also compares two independent dosimetry techniques to calibrate the beam monitor chambers: absolute dosimetry (of the number of protons exiting the nozzle) with a Faraday cup and reference dosimetry (i.e. determination of the absorbed dose to water under IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions) with an ionization chamber. To compare the two techniques, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to convert dose-to-water to proton fluence. A good agreement was found between the Faraday cup technique and the reference dosimetry with a plane-parallel ionization chamber. The differences—of the order of 3%—were found to be within the uncertainty of the comparison. For cylindrical ionization chambers, however, the agreement was only possible when positioning the effective point of measurement of the chamber at the reference measurement depth—i.e. not complying with IAEA TRS-398 recommendations. In conclusion, for cylindrical ionization chambers, IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams led to a systematic error in the determination of the absorbed dose to water, especially relevant for low-energy proton beams. To overcome this problem, the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers should be taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber. Within the current IAEA TRS-398 recommendations, it seems advisable to use plane-parallel ionization chambers—rather than cylindrical chambers—for the reference dosimetry of pseudo-monoenergetic proton beams. (paper)

  4. A small flat fission chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yijun; Wang Dalun; Chen Suhe

    1999-01-01

    With fission materials of depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, 239 Pu, and 237 Np, the authors have designed and made a series of small flat fission chamber. The authors narrated the construction of the fission chamber and its technological process of manufacture, and furthermore, the authors have measured and discussed the follow correct factor, self-absorption, boundary effect, threshold loss factor, bottom scatter and or so

  5. Advances on fission chamber modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filliatre, Philippe; Jammes, Christian; Geslot, Benoit; Veenhof, Rob

    2013-06-01

    In-vessel, online neutron flux measurements are routinely performed in mock-up and material testing reactors by fission chambers. Those measurements have a wide range of applications, including characterization of experimental conditions, reactor monitoring and safety. Depending on the application, detectors may experience a wide range of constraints, of several magnitudes, in term of neutron flux, gamma-ray flux, temperature. Hence, designing a specific fission chamber and measuring chain for a given application is a demanding task. It can be achieved by a combination of experimental feedback and simulating tools, the latter being based on a comprehensive understanding of the underlying physics. A computation route that simulates fission chambers, named CHESTER, is presented. The retrieved quantities of interest are the neutron-induced charge spectrum, the electronic and ionic pulses, the mean current and variance, the power spectrum. It relies on the GARFIELD suite, originally developed for drift chambers, and makes use of the MAGBOLTZ code to assess the drift parameters of electrons within the filling gas, and the SRIM code to evaluate the stopping range of fission products. The effect of the gamma flux is also estimated. Computations made with several fission chambers exemplify the possibilities of the route. A good qualitative agreement is obtained when comparing the results with the experimental data available to date. In a near future, a comprehensive experimental programme will be undertaken to qualify the route using the known neutron sources, mock-up reactors and wide choice of fission chambers, with a stress on the predictiveness of the Campbelling mode. Depending on the results, a refinement of the modelling and an effort on the accuracy of input data are also to be considered. CHESTER will then make it possible to predict the overall sensitivity of a chamber, and to optimize the design for a given application. Another benefit will be to increase the

  6. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  7. The OPAL vertex drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.R.; Elcombe, P.A.; Hill, J.C.; Roach, C.M.; Armitage, J.C.; Carnegie, R.K.; Estabrooks, P.; Hemingway, R.; Karlen, D.; McPherson, A.; Pinfold, J.; Roney, J.M.; Routenburg, P.; Waterhouse, J.; Hargrove, C.K.; Klem, D.; Oakham, F.G.; Carter, A.A.; Jones, R.W.L.; Lasota, M.M.B.; Lloyd, S.L.; Pritchard, T.W.; Wyatt, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A high precision vertex drift chamber has been installed in the OPAL experiment at LEP. The design of the chamber and the associated readout electronics is described. The performance of the system has been studied using cosmic ray muons and the results of these studies are presented. A space resolution of 50 μm in the drift direction is obtained using the OPAL central detector gas mixture at 4 bar. (orig.)

  8. Hybrid cloud for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Halper, Fern; Kirsch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Understand the cloud and implement a cloud strategy for your business Cloud computing enables companies to save money by leasing storage space and accessing technology services through the Internet instead of buying and maintaining equipment and support services. Because it has its own unique set of challenges, cloud computing requires careful explanation. This easy-to-follow guide shows IT managers and support staff just what cloud computing is, how to deliver and manage cloud computing services, how to choose a service provider, and how to go about implementation. It also covers security and

  9. Secure cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Samarati, Pierangela; Singhal, Anoop; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a range of cloud computing security challenges and promising solution paths. The first two chapters focus on practical considerations of cloud computing. In Chapter 1, Chandramouli, Iorga, and Chokani describe the evolution of cloud computing and the current state of practice, followed by the challenges of cryptographic key management in the cloud. In Chapter 2, Chen and Sion present a dollar cost model of cloud computing and explore the economic viability of cloud computing with and without security mechanisms involving cryptographic mechanisms. The next two chapters addres

  10. Clouds of Venus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knollenberg, R G [Particle Measuring Systems, Inc., 1855 South 57th Court, Boulder, Colorado 80301, U.S.A.; Hansen, J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York (USA). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Ragent, B [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, Calif. (USA). Ames Research Center; Martonchik, J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA); Tomasko, M [Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA)

    1977-05-01

    The current state of knowledge of the Venusian clouds is reviewed. The visible clouds of Venus are shown to be quite similar to low level terrestrial hazes of strong anthropogenic influence. Possible nucleation and particle growth mechanisms are presented. The Pioneer Venus experiments that emphasize cloud measurements are described and their expected findings are discussed in detail. The results of these experiments should define the cloud particle composition, microphysics, thermal and radiative heat budget, rough dynamical features and horizontal and vertical variations in these and other parameters. This information should be sufficient to initialize cloud models which can be used to explain the cloud formation, decay, and particle life cycle.

  11. PEP quark search proportional chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S I; Harris, F; Karliner, I; Yount, D [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA); Ely, R; Hamilton, R; Pun, T [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.; Guryn, W; Miller, D; Fries, R [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA)

    1981-04-01

    Proportional chambers are used in the PEP Free Quark Search to identify and remove possible background sources such as particles traversing the edges of counters, to permit geometric corrections to the dE/dx and TOF information from the scintillator and Cerenkov counters, and to look for possible high cross section quarks. The present beam pipe has a thickness of 0.007 interaction lengths (lambdasub(i)) and is followed in both arms each with 45/sup 0/ <= theta <= 135/sup 0/, ..delta..phi=90/sup 0/ by 5 proportional chambers, each 0.0008 lambdasub(i) thick with 32 channels of pulse height readout, and by 3 thin scintillator planes, each 0.003 lambdasub(i) thick. Following this thin front end, each arm of the detector has 8 layers of scintillator (one with scintillating light pipes) interspersed with 4 proportional chambers and a layer of lucite Cerenkov counters. Both the calculated ion statistics and measurements using He-CH/sub 4/ gas in a test chamber indicate that the chamber efficiencies should be >98% for q=1/3. The Landau spread measured in the test was equal to that observed for normal q=1 traversals. One scintillator plane and thin chamber in each arm will have an extra set of ADC's with a wide gate bracketing the normal one so timing errors and tails of earlier pulses should not produce fake quarks.

  12. Rheological Behaviour of Water-in-Light Crude Oil Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, H.; Taju Ariffin, T. S.; Yahya, E.

    2018-05-01

    Basically, emulsions consist of two immiscible liquids which have different density. In petroleum industry, emulsions are undesirable due to their various costly problems in term of transportation difficulties and production loss. A study of the rheological behaviour of light crude oil and its mixture from Terengganu were carried out using Antoon Paar MCR 301 rheometer operated at pressure of 2.5 bar at temperature C. Water in oil emulsions were prepared by mixing light crude oil with different water volume fractions (20%, 30% and 40%). The objectives of present paper are to study the rheological behaviour of emulsion as a fuction of shear rate and model analysis that fitted with the experimental data. The rheological models of Ostwald-De-Waele and Herschel-Bulkley were fitted to the experimental results. All models represented well the rheological data, with high values for the correlation coefficients. The result indicated that variation of water content influenced shear rate-shear stress rheogram of the prepared emulsions. In the case of 100% light crude oil, the study demonstrated non-Newtonian shear thickening behavior. However, for emulsion with different volume water ratios, the rheological behaviour could be well described by Herschel-Bulkley models due to the present of yield stress parameter (R2 = 0.99807). As a conclusion, rheological studies showed that volume water ratio have a great impact on the shear stress and viscosity of water in oil emulsion and it is important to understand these factors to avoid various costly problems.

  13. Minimum pressure for sustained combustion in AN-based emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldthorp, S.; Turcotte, R.; Badeen, C.M. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory; Chan, S.K. [Orica Canada Inc., Brownsburg-Chatham, PQ (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    AN-based emulsions have been involved in a relatively high number of accidental explosions related to pumping operations during their manufacture, transfer and handling. The minimum burning pressure (MBP) of emulsions is used to estimate safe operating pressures for pumping and mixing equipment. This study examined testing protocols conducted to measure MBP values. Factors contributing to uncertainties in MBP data were examined, and a measurement methodology designed to incorporate the uncertainties was presented. MBP measurements obtained for 5 different AN-based emulsions in high pressure vessels were also provided, and the impact of various ingredients on MBP values was discussed. Bench-scale experiments and time current pulse tests were conducted to examine thermal ignition behaviour. The emulsions exhibited MBP values that ranged from 580 to 6510 kPa. Results of the study suggested that ingredients play a significant role on MBP values. A relatively high energy flux was required to induce stable combustion fronts in the emulsions. Large air voids containing flammable atmospheres were able to provide sufficient energy to ignite the emulsions. It was concluded that a knowledge of the MBP of emulsions is needed to ensure that corresponding pumping operations are conducted at pressures below the MBP. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. Organic Based Glutinous Corn (Zea maize Supplemented With Seaweeds Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayrome S. Butay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was therefore design to generate scientific information that are vital for organic farming advocates as it uses natural organic farm inputs in the production of corn. It was conducted because of the insurmountable rising cost of inorganic fertilizers perspective the farmers have to look for alternative measures to sustain the profitability of their farming business by evaluating the efficacy of seaweeds emulsion (Carrageenan as nutrient supplement to organic fertilizer on glutinous corn production, a study was conducted at the Cagayan State University – Lal-lo, Cagayan from July 17 to September 25, 2016with the following treatments: T1- Control, T2 – 3 tons Organic Fertilizer, T3 - 1.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T4 - 3 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T5 - 4.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 and T6 - 6 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The treatments have no significant effect on plant height. Application of seaweed emulsion affected the grain development as manifested by longer and heavier corn ear. Higher rates (3-6 li ha-1 proved to more efficient as indicated by the bigger ear, highest yield and ROI of 909.62 percent. The study revealed that 3 tons Organic Fertilizer with liters of seaweed emulsion improved glutinous corn production. Further study is recommended to validate the result and come up with a more reliable conclusion.

  15. Radiative properties of clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, S.

    1993-01-01

    The climatic effects of condensation nuclei in the formation of cloud droplets and the subsequent role of the cloud droplets as contributors to the planetary short-wave albedo is emphasized. Microphysical properties of clouds, which can be greatly modified by the degree of mixing with cloud-free air from outside, are discussed. The effect of clouds on visible radiation is assessed through multiple scattering of the radiation. Cloudwater or ice absorbs more with increasing wavelength in the near-infrared region, with water vapor providing the stronger absorption over narrower wavelength bands. Cloud thermal infrared absorption can be solely related to liquid water content at least for shallow clouds and clouds in the early development state. Three-dimensional general circulation models have been used to study the climatic effect of clouds. It was found for such studies (which did not consider variations in cloud albedo) that the cooling effects due to the increase in planetary short-wave albedo from clouds were offset by heating effects due to thermal infrared absorption by the cloud. Two permanent direct effects of increased pollution are discussed in this chapter: (a) an increase of absorption in the visible and near infrared because of increased amounts of elemental carbon, which gives rise to a warming effect climatically, and (b) an increased optical thickness of clouds due to increasing cloud droplet number concentration caused by increasing cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, which gives rise to a cooling effect climatically. An increase in cloud albedo from 0.7 to 0.87 produces an appreciable climatic perturbation of cooling up to 2.5 K at the ground, using a hemispheric general circulation model. Effects of pollution on cloud thermal infrared absorption are negligible

  16. Perfection of the individual photographic emulsion dosimeter; Perfectionnements dans la dosimetrie individuelle par emulsion photographique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudain, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    A photographic dosimeter making possible the measurement of {gamma} radiation doses of from 10 mr up to 800 r by means of 3 emulsion bands of varying sensitivity stuck to the same support is described. The dosimeter has also a zone for marking and a test film insensitive to radiation. This requires a photometric measurement by diffuse reflection an d makes it possible to measure doses with an accuracy of 20 per cent. (author) [French] On decrit un dosimetre photographique permettant la mesure des doses de rayonnement {gamma} depuis 10 mroentgens jusqu'a 800 roentgens, au moyen de trois bandes d'emulsions de sensibilites differentes collees sur le meme support. Le dosimetre comporte egalement une plage de marquage et un temoin de developpement insensibles au rayonnement. Ceci impose la mesure photometrique par reflexion diffuse et permet l'appreciation visuelle des doses a 20 pour cent pres. (auteur)

  17. Oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2016-01-21

    A brief review of the stabilisation of emulsions of two immiscible oils is given. We then describe the use of fumed silica particles coated with either hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups in acting as sole stabilisers of emulsions of various vegetable oils with linear silicone oils (PDMS) of different viscosity. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions, containing equal volumes of the two oils, from silicone-in-vegetable (S/V) to vegetable-in-silicone (V/S) occurs upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the particles. Close to inversion, emulsions are stable to coalescence and gravity-induced separation for at least one year. Increasing the viscosity of the silicone oil enables stable S/V emulsions to be prepared even with relatively hydrophilic particles. Predictions of emulsion type from calculated contact angles of a silica particle at the oil-oil interface are in agreement with experiment provided a small polar contribution to the surface energy of the oils is included. We also show that stable multiple emulsions of V/S/V can be prepared in a two-step procedure using two particle types of different hydrophobicity. At fixed particle concentration, catastrophic phase inversion of emulsions from V/S to S/V can be effected by increasing the volume fraction of vegetable oil. Finally, in the case of sunflower oil + 20 cS PDMS, the study is extended to particles other than silica which differ in chemical type, particle size and particle shape. Consistent with the above findings, we find that only sufficiently hydrophobic particles (clay, zinc oxide, silicone, calcium carbonate) can act as efficient V/S emulsion stabilisers.

  18. Use of emulsion for warm mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase in energy costs and emission problems in hot mix asphalt usually used, it brought a great interest to the researchers to develop the warm mix technology for pavement constructions. Commonly known as warm mix asphalt (WMA, it is a typical method in the bituminous paving technology, which allows production and placement of bituminous mixes at lower temperatures than that used for hot mix asphalt (HMA. The WMA involves an environmental friendly production process that utilises organic additives, chemical additives and water based technologies. The organic and chemical additives are normally very costly and still involve certain amount of environmental issues. These factors motivated the authors to take up this technology using simple, environment friendly and somewhat cost effective procedure. In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare warm mixes by first pre-coating the aggregates with medium setting bitumen emulsion (MS and then mixing the semi-coated aggregates with VG 30 bitumen at a lower temperature than normally required. After a number of trials it was observed that mostly three mixing temperatures, namely temperatures 110 °C, 120 °C and 130 °C were appropriate to form the bituminous mixes with satisfactory homogeneity and consistency and as such were maintained throughout this study. Marshall samples for paving mixes were prepared using this procedure for dense bituminous macadam (DBM gradings as per the specifications of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH and subsequently Marshall properties of the resultant mixes were studied with the main objective of deciding the different parameters that were considered for development of appropriate warm mix asphalt. In this study it has been observed that out of three mixing temperatures tried, the mixes prepared at 120 °C with bitumen-emulsion composition of 80B:20E for DBM warm mix, offer highest Marshall stability and highest indirect tensile strength

  19. Vinyl Acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylate Research of Ternary Soap-free Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylic acrylic emulsion preparation without soap vinegar, with solid content, gel, emulsion stability and film forming properties and tensile strength as the main index to study the effect of raw materials on the properties of emulsion. Through the infrared spectrometer soap-free emulsion for microscopic analysis research. Study of the ternary soap-free vinegar acrylic emulsion with good performance.

  20. Large angle tracking and high discriminating tracking in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tomokazu; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Satoru; Fukuda, Tsutomu; Mikado, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a high resolution and re-analyzable detector. Conventional “Track Selector” which have angle acceptance |tan θ|<0.6 are widely used to find tracks in emulsion. We made a new track selector “Fine Track Selector” (FTS) which has large angle acceptance and high discriminating ability. The FTS reduces fake tracks using new algorithms, navigation etc. FTS also keeps finding efficiency of tracks around 90% in an angle range of |tan θ| < 3.5. FTS was applied to the τ candidate in OPERA and no additional tracks found. FTS will be useful to our new J-PARC emulsion experiment.

  1. Superhydrophobic cellulose-based bionanocomposite films from Pickering emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Steele, Adam; Martorana, Philip J.; Loth, Eric; Miller, Lance

    2009-04-01

    Inherently superhydrophobic and flexible cellulose-based bionanocomposites were fabricated from solid stabilized (Pickering) emulsions. Emulsions were formed by dispersing cyclosiloxanes in water stabilized by layered silicate particles and were subsequently modified by blending into a zinc oxide nanofluid. The polymer matrix was a blend of cellulose nitrate and fluoroacrylic polymer (Zonyl 8740) precompatibilized in solution. Coatings were spray cast onto aluminum substrates from polymer blends dispersed in modified Pickering emulsions. No postsurface treatment was required to induce superhydrophobicity. Effect of antiseptic additives on bionanocomposite superhydrophobicity is also discussed. Replacing cellulose nitrate with commercial liquid bandage solutions produced identical superhydrophobic coatings.

  2. Phase behaviour and microstructure of the micro-emulsions composed of cholinium-based ionic liquid, Triton X-100 and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Yuanchao; Huang, Yanjie; Li, Lin; Wang, Jianji

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The microemulsions composed of cholinium-based ionic liquid, Triton X-100 and water have been prepared and characterised. • Ternary phase diagrams of the microemulsions have been established at T = 298.15 K. • The microemulsions exhibit IL-in-water, bicontinuous and water-in-IL microstructures. • Droplets with the size smaller than 20 nm are formed in these IL-based microemulsions. - Abstract: In this paper, micro-emulsions composed of cholinium-based ionic liquids (ILs), octylphenol ethoxylate (Triton X-100) and water were prepared. These ternary systems were found to be stable over 12 months at room temperature. Their phase behaviour was investigated by using cloud titrations, and their microstructures were characterised by means of cyclic voltammetry and electrical conductance measurements at T = 298.15 K. It was shown that the micro-emulsions exhibited IL-in-water, bi-continuous and water-in-IL microstructures. Dynamic light scattering data suggest that Triton X-100 forms micelles in water, which were swelled by the ILs added. Droplets with the size about 20 nm were formed in these IL-based micro-emulsions, and the droplet size increased with the increase of the IL concentrations. These IL-based micro-emulsions may have potential in drug delivery, chemical reactions and nanomaterial preparation as a new type of nanoreactors

  3. Moving towards Cloud Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Szilvia Rubóczki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing hosts and delivers many different services via Internet. There are a lot of reasons why people opt for using cloud resources. Cloud development is increasing fast while a lot of related services drop behind, for example the mass awareness of cloud security. However the new generation upload videos and pictures without reason to a cloud storage, but only few know about data privacy, data management and the proprietary of stored data in the cloud. In an enterprise environment the users have to know the rule of cloud usage, however they have little knowledge about traditional IT security. It is important to measure the level of their knowledge, and evolve the training system to develop the security awareness. The article proves the importance of suggesting new metrics and algorithms for measuring security awareness of corporate users and employees to include the requirements of emerging cloud security.

  4. Cloud Computing for radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, Ss; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-07-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future.

  5. Cloud Computing for radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, SS; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future

  6. Cloud computing for radiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit T Kharat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future.

  7. Directional muon jet chamber for a muon collider (Groovy Chamber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.

    1996-10-01

    A directional jet drift chamber with PAD readout is proposed here which can select vertex originated muons within a given time window and eliminate those muons which primarily originate upstream, using only a PAD readout. Drift time provides the Z-coordinate, and the center of gravity of charge distribution provides the r-ψ coordinates. Directionality at the trigger level is obtained by the timing measurement from the PAD hits within a given time window. Because of the long drift time between the bunch crossings, a muon collider enables one to choose a drift distance in the drift chamber as long as 50 cm. This is an important factor in reducing cost of drift chambers which have to cover relatively large areas

  8. Marine cloud brightening

    OpenAIRE

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identi...

  9. Cloud computing strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N

    2011-01-01

    A guide to managing cloud projects, Cloud Computing Strategies provides the understanding required to evaluate the technology and determine how it can be best applied to improve business and enhance your overall corporate strategy. Based on extensive research, it examines the opportunities and challenges that loom in the cloud. It explains exactly what cloud computing is, what it has to offer, and calls attention to the important issues management needs to consider before passing the point of no return regarding financial commitments.

  10. Towards Indonesian Cloud Campus

    OpenAIRE

    Thamrin, Taqwan; Lukman, Iing; Wahyuningsih, Dina Ika

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Cloud Computing is most discussed term in business and academic environment.Cloud campus has many benefits such as accessing the file storages, e-mails, databases,educational resources, research applications and tools anywhere for faculty, administrators,staff, students and other users in university, on demand. Furthermore, cloud campus reduces universities’ IT complexity and cost.This paper discuss the implementation of Indonesian cloud campus and various opportunies and benefits...

  11. Cloud Infrastructure Security

    OpenAIRE

    Velev , Dimiter; Zlateva , Plamena

    2010-01-01

    Part 4: Security for Clouds; International audience; Cloud computing can help companies accomplish more by eliminating the physical bonds between an IT infrastructure and its users. Users can purchase services from a cloud environment that could allow them to save money and focus on their core business. At the same time certain concerns have emerged as potential barriers to rapid adoption of cloud services such as security, privacy and reliability. Usually the information security professiona...

  12. Cloud services in organization

    OpenAIRE

    FUXA, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The work deals with the definition of the word cloud computing, cloud computing models, types, advantages, disadvantages, and comparing SaaS solutions such as: Google Apps and Office 365 in the area of electronic communications. The work deals with the use of cloud computing in the corporate practice, both good and bad practice. The following section describes the methodology for choosing the appropriate cloud service organization. Another part deals with analyzing the possibilities of SaaS i...

  13. Orchestrating Your Cloud Orchestra

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, Abram

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing potentially ushers in a new era of computer music performance with exceptionally large computer music instruments consisting of 10s to 100s of virtual machines which we propose to call a `cloud-orchestra'. Cloud computing allows for the rapid provisioning of resources, but to deploy such a complicated and interconnected network of software synthesizers in the cloud requires a lot of manual work, system administration knowledge, and developer/operator skills. This is a barrier ...

  14. Cloud security mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has brought great benefits in cost and flexibility for provisioning services. The greatest challenge of cloud computing remains however the question of security. The current standard tools in access control mechanisms and cryptography can only partly solve the security challenges of cloud infrastructures. In the recent years of research in security and cryptography, novel mechanisms, protocols and algorithms have emerged that offer new ways to create secure services atop cloud...

  15. Cloud computing for radiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Amit T Kharat; Amjad Safvi; S S Thind; Amarjit Singh

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as...

  16. Cloud Robotics Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mester, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Robotics was born from the merger of service robotics and cloud technologies. It allows robots to benefit from the powerful computational, storage, and communications resources of modern data centres. Cloud robotics allows robots to take advantage of the rapid increase in data transfer rates to offload tasks without hard real time requirements. Cloud Robotics has rapidly gained momentum with initiatives by companies such as Google, Willow Garage and Gostai as well as more than a dozen a...

  17. Genomics With Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhamrit Kaur; Sandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genomics is study of genome which provides large amount of data for which large storage and computation power is needed. These issues are solved by cloud computing that provides various cloud platforms for genomics. These platforms provides many services to user like easy access to data easy sharing and transfer providing storage in hundreds of terabytes more computational power. Some cloud platforms are Google genomics DNAnexus and Globus genomics. Various features of cloud computin...

  18. Radiation-induced emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Takeshi

    1979-10-01

    The radiation-induced emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) has been studied at initial pressure 2 - 25 kg/cm 2 and temperature 30 0 - 110 0 C for dose rate 0.57 x 10 4 - 3.0 x 10 4 rad/hr. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a hydrophobic polymer, forms as a stable latex in the absence of an emulsifier. Stability of the latex is governed by the dose rate/TFE pressure ratio; it increases with sufficient TFE monomer. PTFE particles produced in this polymerization system are stable due to the carboxyl end groups and adsorption of OH - and HF on the particles. PTFE latex of molecular weight higher than 2 x 10 7 is obtained by addition of a radical scavenger such as hydroquinone. The molecular weight of PTFE can be measured from the heat of crystallization conveniently with high reliability, which was found in the course of study on the melting and crystallization behavior. (author)

  19. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...... was checked with mixtures of monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres. In addition, the ultrastructure of Lipofundin N and Lipofundin MCT was investigated by cryo-electron microscopy. All different particle sizing methods gave different mean sizes and size distributions but overall, results were in reasonable...... agreement. By all methods, a larger mean droplet size (between 350 and 400 nm) as well as a broader distribution was measured for Lipofundin N compared to Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem (mean droplet size between about 280 and 320 nm). Size distributions of Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem were very similar...

  20. Omega-3s in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of healthy long chain omega-3 oils in foods. Incorporation of omega-3 oils into foods decreases their oxidative stability and therefore precautions need to be taken to avoid lipid oxidation. This review summarises the major factors to take into considera...... into consideration when developing food emulsions enriched with omega-3 oils and examples on how oxidation can be reduced in products such as mayonnaise, spreads, milk, yoghurt are also given.......There is an increasing interest in the use of healthy long chain omega-3 oils in foods. Incorporation of omega-3 oils into foods decreases their oxidative stability and therefore precautions need to be taken to avoid lipid oxidation. This review summarises the major factors to take...

  1. The structure of omega3 food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Loussert, C.; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt

    Fish oil is rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) which are generally recognized as being beneficial to the health [1]. The addition of fish oil to food products is attractive to both the consumers and the food industry. Indeed, these components will improve nutritional value...... and add product value. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds in their fatty acid chains and this attribute renders them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. Omega-3 PUFAs can be added to food products as neat oil or as a delivery system such as oil-in-water emulsions. In this last configuration...... and the prooxidants. But this protective aspect is a really complex process and it is dependent on the food matrix to which the oil is added [2]. Oxidation is presumed to be initiated at the emulsifier layer, i.e. the interface layer between the oil and water where the oil is most likely to come into contact...

  2. Particles identification using nuclear emulsion in OPERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, K.

    2007-10-01

    The Opera experiment will try to confirm the ν μ → ν τ oscillations by the appearance of the ν τ in a pure ν μ beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the Opera detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the τ lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the Opera experiment is to detect the ν τ interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in Opera and to decrease the contamination by 30%. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (author)

  3. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  4. Chargeback for cloud services.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, T.; Khadka, R.; Stefanov, H.; Jansen, S.; Batenburg, R.; Heusden, E. van

    2014-01-01

    With pay-per-use pricing models, elastic scaling of resources, and the use of shared virtualized infrastructures, cloud computing offers more efficient use of capital and agility. To leverage the advantages of cloud computing, organizations have to introduce cloud-specific chargeback practices.

  5. Cloud Computing Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Rosalyn

    2010-01-01

    While many talk about the cloud, few actually understand it. Three organizations' definitions come to the forefront when defining the cloud: Gartner, Forrester, and the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST). Although both Gartner and Forrester provide definitions of cloud computing, the NIST definition is concise and uses…

  6. Greening the Cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoed, Robert; Hoekstra, Eric; Procaccianti, G.; Lago, P.; Grosso, Paola; Taal, Arie; Grosskop, Kay; van Bergen, Esther

    The cloud has become an essential part of our daily lives. We use it to store our documents (Dropbox), to stream our music and lms (Spotify and Net ix) and without giving it any thought, we use it to work on documents in the cloud (Google Docs). The cloud forms a massive storage and processing

  7. Security in the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degaspari, John

    2011-08-01

    As more provider organizations look to the cloud computing model, they face a host of security-related questions. What are the appropriate applications for the cloud, what is the best cloud model, and what do they need to know to choose the best vendor? Hospital CIOs and security experts weigh in.

  8. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  9. Electron Cloud Parameterization Studies in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, O; Baglin, V; Bregliozzi, G; Jimenez, J M; Metral, E; Rumolo, G; Schulte, D; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    During LHC beam commissioning with 150, 75 and 50-ns bunch spacing, important electron-cloud effects, like pressure rise, cryogenic heat load, beam instabilities or emittance growth, were observed. The main strategy to combat the LHC electron cloud, defined about ten years ago, relies on the surface conditioning arising from the chamber-surface bombardment with cloud electrons. In a standard model, the conditioning state of the beam-pipe surface is characterized by three parameters: 1. most importantly, the secondary emission yield δmax; 2. the incident electron energy at which the yield is maximum, ε_max; and 3. the probability of elastic reflection of low-energy primary electrons hitting the chamber wall, R. Since at the LHC no in-situ secondary-yield measurements are available, we compare the relative local pressure-rise measurements taken for different beam configurations against simulations in which surface parameters are scanned. This benchmarking of measurements and simulations is used to infer the s...

  10. Electron cloud buildup studies for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2160803; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver

    Electron clouds can develop in accelerators operating with positively charged particles. The con- sequences of e-cloud related effects are very important for the operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, and for the design of future accelerators including the LHC luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). High electron densities are generated by an interaction between the beam and the confining chamber. Primary electrons, that can be generated through various mecha- nisms, are accelerated by the beam and impinge on the chamber walls, thereby extracting more electrons from the material. Furthermore they also deposit their kinetic energy in the process, which has to be compensated by the cooling system. Especially in cryogenic environments, as it is the case for a large part of the LHC, high heat loads can pose a serious problem. In order to improve the understanding of the electron cloud, simulation studies are performed with the code PyECLOUD, developed at CERN. The work of the first half of the project is desc...

  11. Possibilities to improve sensitivity and rendering of detail of streamer chamber track photographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baehr, J

    1975-01-01

    Streamer chambers are increasingly used as effective particle detectors in the field of experimental elementary particle physics. The photographic recording of high energy events in streamer chambers is limited by performance of current photographic silver-halide layers. Similar limiting problems occur in other fields as well, e.g., in astronomy, x-ray medicine and photogrammetry; therefore methods have been developed to increase sensitivity and improve the information transfer of the emulsion. In this paper these methods have been classified and summarized under the aspect of their application to streamer image recording. Proposals for further investigations are given. Especially the applicability of these methods, their possibility of combination to large film lengths should be investigated The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is proposed as criterion to estimate and compare the different methods.

  12. Generation of emulsion droplets and micro-bubbles in microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jiaming

    2016-04-01

    -dimensional (2D) flow structures are still used and the advantage of 3D-printing technique has not been fully exploited. Therefore, we apply 3D printing technology to fabricate 3D-miniaturized fluidic device for droplet generation (single emulsion) and droplet-in-droplet (double emulsion) without the need for surface wettability treat- ment of the channel walls, by utilizing 3D geometry design and fabrication. A scaling law is formulated to predict the drop size generated in the device. Furthermore, magnetically responsive microspheres are also produced with our emulsion templates, demonstrating the potential applications of this 3D emulsion generator in chemical and material engineering. Finally, we design and 3D-print a hybrid ?plug-and-play? microfluidic droplet generator, which involves a 3D-printed channel chamber and commercial tubings and fittings. By combination of 3D-printed part and market-available parts, this device can be easily assembled and disassembled, which provides a great flexibility for different demands. A scaling law has been proposed for prediction of drop size generated in the device. Furthermore, a 3D-printed concentration gradient generator and a droplet merging device based on the droplet generator have been developed to demonstrate the great scalability of 3D-printing technology.

  13. Stabilization of Model Crude Oil Emulsion using Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-31

    Dec 31, 2015 ... interaction of asphaltene with the prepared model oils can be used as a ... techniques, microscopy, interfacial pressure, and ... conclusion that these compounds were asphaltene .... The emulsion may invert from oil in water.

  14. Emulsions, Foams, and Suspensions: The Microscience of the Beverage Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions and foams form the basis of an extensive variety of materials used in the beverage industry. One of the characteristics of beverage emulsions is that they are rather diluted, contain little amounts of a dispersed oil phase in the finished product, and must remain physically stable for long periods of time. Nowadays, the consumers ask for more than a drink. Thus, in the market, we can find a vast variety of beverages, where emulsion science seems to be the main factor for controlling flavor, color, the presence of constituents of technological or nutritional value, nutraceutical/bioactive components and, also, turbidity. This work intends to make an overview of the recent advances in beverage-emulsions technology. Some examples are given within the very large world of the beverage industry, from cream liqueurs, soft drinks, and functional beverages, to bottled water, fruit drinks, sparkling wine, and beer.

  15. Emulsion sheet doublets as interface trackers for the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anokhina, A.; Ariga, A.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bay, F.; Greggio, F.Bersani; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Cuha, V.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Amato, G.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Declais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, Marcos; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, Antonio; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Galkin, V.I.; Galkin, V.A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gusev, G.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, Caren; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hiramatsu, S.; Hoshino, Kaoru; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kawai, T.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, Andrea; Lutter, G.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matsuoka, H.; Mauri, N.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, Piero; Morishima, Kunihiro; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, Maria Teresa; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, Klaus P.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Ryzhikov, D.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, Max; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Sugonyaev, V.; Taira, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tufanli, S.; Ushida, N.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, Amina; Zimmermann, R.

    2008-01-01

    New methods for efficient and unambiguous interconnection between electronic counters and target units based on nuclear photographic emulsion films have been developed. The application to the OPERA experiment, that aims at detecting oscillations between mu neutrino and tau neutrino in the CNGS neutrino beam, is reported in this paper. In order to reduce background due to latent tracks collected before installation in the detector, on-site large-scale treatments of the emulsions ("refreshing") have been applied. Changeable Sheet (CSd) packages, each made of a doublet of emulsion films, have been designed, assembled and coupled to the OPERA target units ("ECC bricks"). A device has been built to print X-ray spots for accurate interconnection both within the CSd and between the CSd and the related ECC brick. Sample emulsion films have been extensively scanned with state-of-the-art automated optical microscopes. Efficient track-matching and powerful background rejection have been achieved in tests with electronic...

  16. Synthesis of polyanthranilic acid–Au nanocomposites by emulsion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    PANA–Au nanocomposites are characterized by SEM, equipped with EDS, TGA, FT–IR, XRD and electrochemical techniques. XRD of ... Polyanthranilic acid; nanocomposite; in situ polymerization; emulsion polymerization; nano- particles. 1.

  17. Encapsulation of emulsion droplets by organo–silica shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoldesi, C.; Steegstra, Patrick; Imhof, Arnout

    2007-01-01

    Surfactant-stabilized emulsion droplets were used as templates for the synthesis of hollow colloidal particles. Monodisperse silicone oil droplets were prepared by hydrolysis and polymerization of dimethyldiethoxysiloxane monomer, in the presence of surfactant: sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, anionic)

  18. Technical specification of the NRPB Nuclear Emulsion Dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.T.; Bird, T.V.

    1978-08-01

    This document is a formal specification of the NRPB Nuclear Emulsion Dosemeter. The dosemeter specified in this report replaces the NRPB Fast Neutron Personal Dosemeter specified in NRPB-R50. (author)

  19. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents.

  20. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  1. Fine grained nuclear emulsion for higher resolution tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naka, T., E-mail: naka@flab.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Asada, T.; Katsuragawa, T.; Hakamata, K.; Yoshimoto, M.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.; Sato, O.; Nakano, T. [Graduated School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Tawara, Y. [Division of Energy Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); De Lellis, G. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Sirignano, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); D' Ambrossio, N. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Fine grained nuclear emulsion with several 10 nm silver halide crystals can detect submicron tracks. This detector is expected to be worked as dark matter detector with directional sensitive. Now, nuclear emulsion became possible to be produced at Nagoya University, and extreme fine grained nuclear emulsion with 20 nm diameter was produced. Using this emulsion and new reading out technique with expansion technique, for optical selection and X-ray microscopy, recoiled tracks induced by dark matter can be detected automatically. Then, readout efficiency is larger than 80% at 120 nm, and angular resolution for final confirmation with X-ray microscopy is 20°. In addition, we started to construct the R and D underground facility in Gran Sasso.

  2. Pickering emulsions stabilized by paraffin wax and Laponite clay particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caifu; Liu, Qian; Mei, Zhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Jian; Sun, Dejun

    2009-08-01

    Emulsions containing wax in dispersed droplets stabilized by disc-like Laponite clay particles are prepared. Properties of the emulsions prepared at different temperatures are examined using stability, microscopy and droplet-size analysis. At low temperature, the wax crystals in the oil droplets can protrude through the interface, leading to droplet coalescence. But at higher temperatures, the droplet size decreases with wax concentration. Considering the viscosity of the oil phase and the interfacial tension, we conclude that the wax is liquid-like during the high temperature emulsification process, but during cooling wax crystals appear around the oil/water interface and stabilize the droplets. The oil/water ratio has minimal effect on the emulsions between ratios of 3:7 and 7:3. The Laponite is believed to stabilize the emulsions by increasing the viscosity of the continuous phase and also by adsorbing at the oil/water interface, thus providing a physical barrier to coalescence.

  3. Nuclear emulsion experiments on particle production at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1976-08-01

    Various experimental results, including multiplicities of shower-particles and heavy prong particles, correlations between them and single particle distributions, from proton-emulsion nucleus reactions in the energy range 200-400 GeV are presented. (Auth.)

  4. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  5. An experimental propane bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozinski, A.

    1957-01-01

    Describes a propane bubble chamber 10 cm in diameter and 5 cm deep. The body of the chamber is in stainless steel, and it has two windows of polished hardened glass. The compression and decompression of the propane are performed either through a piston in direct contact with the liquid, or by the action on the liquid, through a triple-mylar-Perbunan membrane, of a compressed gas. The general and also optimum working conditions of the chamber are described, and a few results are given concerning, in particular, the tests of the breakage-resistance of the windows and the measurements of the thermal expansion of the compressibility isotherm for the propane employed. (author) [fr

  6. Equipment for handling ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, J.

    1988-01-01

    The device consists of an ionization channel with an ionization chamber, of a support ring, axial and radial bearings, a sleeve, a screw gear and an electric motor. The ionization chamber is freely placed on the bottom of the ionization channel. The bottom part of the channel deviates from the vertical axis. The support ring propped against the axial bearing in the sleeve is firmly fixed to the top part of the ionization channel. The sleeve is fixed to the reactor lid. Its bottom part is provided with a recess for the radial bearing which is propped against a screw wheel firmly connected to the ionization channel. In measuring neutron flux, the screw wheel is rotated by the motor, thus rotating the whole ionization channel such that the ionization chamber is displaced into the reactor core.(J.B.). 1 fig

  7. General purpose nuclear irradiation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Fadzlin Hasbullah; Nuurul Iffah Che Omar; Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid; Jaafar Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear technology has found a great need for use in medicine, industry, and research. Smoke detectors in our homes, medical treatments and new varieties of plants by irradiating its seeds are just a few examples of the benefits of nuclear technology. Portable neutron source such as Californium-252, available at Industrial Technology Division (BTI/ PAT), Malaysian Nuclear Agency, has a 2.645 year half-life. However, 252 Cf is known to emit gamma radiation from the source. Thus, this chamber aims to provide a proper gamma shielding for samples to distinguish the use of mixed neutron with gamma-rays or pure neutron radiation. The chamber is compatible to be used with other portable neutron sources such as 241 Am-Be as well as the reactor TRIGA PUSPATI for higher neutron dose. This chamber was designed through a collaborative effort of Kulliyyah Engineering, IIUM with the Industrial Technology Division (BTI) team, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. (Author)

  8. Holography in small bubble chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecoq, P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on an experiment to determine the total charm cross section at different incident momenta using the small, heavy liquid bubble chamber HOBC. Holography in liquid hydrogen is also tested using the holographic lexan bubble chamber HOLEBC with the aim of preparing a future holographic experiment in hydrogen. The high intensity tests show that more than 100 incident tracks per hologram do not cause a dramatic effect on the picture quality. Hydrogen is more favorable than freon as the bubble growth is much slower in hydrogen. An advantage of holography is to have the maximum resolution in the full volume of the bubble chamber, which allows a gain in sensitivity by a factor of 10 compared to classical optics as 100 tracks per hologram look reasonable. Holograms are not more difficult to analyze than classical optics high-resolution pictures. The results show that holography is a very powerful technique which can be used in very high resolution particle physics experiments

  9. Binding of long-lasting local anesthetics to lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoit, Jean-Xavier; Le Guen, Régine; Beloeil, Hélène; Benhamou, Dan

    2009-02-01

    Rapid infusion of lipid emulsion has been proposed to treat local anesthetic toxicity. The authors wanted to test the buffering properties of two commercially available emulsions made of long- and of long- and medium-chain triglycerides. Using the shake-flask method, the authors measured the solubility and binding of racemic bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine to diluted Intralipid (Fresenius Kabi, Paris, France) and Medialipide (B-Braun, Boulogne, France). The apparent distribution coefficient expressed as the ratio of mole fraction was 823 +/- 198 and 320 +/- 65 for racemic bupivacaine and levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine, respectively, at 500 mg in the Medialipide/buffer emulsion; and 1,870 +/- 92 and 1,240 +/- 14 for racemic bupivacaine and levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine, respectively, in the Intralipid/buffer emulsion. Decreasing the pH from 7.40 to 7.00 of the Medialipide/buffer emulsion led to a decrease in ratio of molar concentration from 121 +/- 3.8 to 46 +/- 2.8 for bupivacaine, and to a lesser extent from 51 +/- 4.0 to 31 +/- 1.6 for ropivacaine. The capacity of the 1% emulsions was 871 and 2,200 microM for the 1% Medialipide and Intralipid emulsions, respectively. The dissociation constant was 818 and 2,120 microM for racemic bupivacaine and levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine, respectively. Increasing the temperature from 20 to 37 degrees C led to a greater increase in affinity for ropivacaine (55%) than for bupivacaine (27%). When the pH of the buffer was decreased from 7.40 to 7.00, the affinity was decreased by a factor of 1.68, similar for both anesthetics. The solubility of long-acting local anesthetics in lipid emulsions and the high capacity of binding of these emulsions most probably explain their clinical efficacy in case of toxicity. The long-chain triglyceride emulsion Intralipid appears to be about 2.5 times more efficacious than the 50/50 medium-chain/long-chain Medialipide emulsion. Also, because of their higher hydrophobicity

  10. Interactions between Parenteral Lipid Emulsions and Container Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonyon, Thomas; Tomaso, Anthony E; Kotha, Priyanka; Owen, Heather; Patel, Dipa; Carter, Phillip W; Cronin, Jim; Green, John-Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between changes in emulsion globule size distributions and container uptake of lipid emulsions in total nutrient admixtures. A total nutrient admixture was prepared from a commercial lipid emulsion, 20% ClinOleic®, separated into glass (borosilicate) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) plastic containers, and then stored at ambient conditions for approximately 24 h. The large globule size distribution was monitored continuously for both containers, and the quantity of triglycerides associated with both containers was measured by liquid chromatography. The changes in mass of the EVA containers were also measured gravimetrically. The volume percent of globules greater than 5 microns in diameter (PFAT5) levels for an emulsion admixture in EVA containers showed a 75% reduction compared to a marginal decrease of PFAT5 when in the glass container. Extraction of the containers showed that the quantity of triglycerides associated with the EVA surfaces steadily increased with emulsion exposure time, while the glass showed a significantly lower triglyceride content compared to the EVA. Gravimetric measurements confirmed that the EVA containers gained significant mass during exposure to the emulsion admixture. A time-dependent decrease in PFAT5 values for an emulsion admixture was associated with container triglyceride absorption where EVA containers had a greater uptake than glass containers. The larger globules appear to absorb preferentially, and the admixture globule size distribution fraction represented by PFAT5 accounts for 15-20% of the total triglyceride adsorption to the container. The goal of this work is to evaluate how emulsions in total nutrition admixtures are affected by the containers within which they are stored. Specifically, the study examines how the emulsion globule size distribution in different containers is related to adsorption or absorption of the lipids onto or into the container. The admixtures were prepared from a

  11. CLOUD STORAGE SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is a hot topic in recent research and applications. Because it is widely used in various fields. Up to now, Google, Microsoft, IBM, Amazon and other famous co partnership have proposed their cloud computing application. Look upon cloud computing as one of the most important strategy in the future. Cloud storage is the lower layer of cloud computing system which supports the service of the other layers above it. At the same time, it is an effective way to store and manage heavy...

  12. Cloud Computing Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Şiclovan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing was and it will be a new way of providing Internet services and computers. This calculation approach is based on many existing services, such as the Internet, grid computing, Web services. Cloud computing as a system aims to provide on demand services more acceptable as price and infrastructure. It is exactly the transition from computer to a service offered to the consumers as a product delivered online. This paper is meant to describe the quality of cloud computing services, analyzing the advantages and characteristics offered by it. It is a theoretical paper.Keywords: Cloud computing, QoS, quality of cloud computing

  13. Benchmarking Cloud Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cloud computing, many cloud storage systems like Dropbox, Google Drive and Mega have been built to provide decentralized and reliable file storage. It is thus of prime importance to know their features, performance, and the best way to make use of them. In this context, we introduce BenchCloud, a tool designed as part of this thesis to conveniently and efficiently benchmark any cloud storage system. First, we provide a study of six commonly-used cloud storage systems to ident...

  14. The Magellanic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    As the two galaxies nearest to our own, the Magellanic Clouds hold a special place in studies of the extragalactic distance scale, of stellar evolution and the structure of galaxies. In recent years, results from the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and elsewhere have shown that it is possible to begin understanding the three dimensional structure of the Clouds. Studies of Magellanic Cloud Cepheids have continued, both to investigate the three-dimensional structure of the Clouds and to learn more about Cepheids and their use as extragalactic distance indicators. Other research undertaken at SAAO includes studies on Nova LMC 1988 no 2 and red variables in the Magellanic Clouds

  15. Cloud Computing Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Sosinsky, Barrie

    2010-01-01

    The complete reference guide to the hot technology of cloud computingIts potential for lowering IT costs makes cloud computing a major force for both IT vendors and users; it is expected to gain momentum rapidly with the launch of Office Web Apps later this year. Because cloud computing involves various technologies, protocols, platforms, and infrastructure elements, this comprehensive reference is just what you need if you'll be using or implementing cloud computing.Cloud computing offers significant cost savings by eliminating upfront expenses for hardware and software; its growing popularit

  16. Generation of colloidal granules and capsules from double emulsion drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kathryn S.

    Assemblies of colloidal particles are extensively used in ceramic processing, pharmaceuticals, inks and coatings. In this project, the aim was to develop a new technique to fabricate monodispersed colloidal assemblies. The use of microfluidic devices and emulsion processing allows for the fabrication of complex materials that can be used in a variety of applications. A microfluidic device is used to create monodispersed water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsions with interior droplets of colloidal silica suspension ranging in size from tens to hundreds of microns. By tailoring the osmotic pressure using glycerol as a solute in the continuous and inner phases of the emulsion, we can control the final volume size of the monodispersed silica colloidal crystals that form in the inner droplets of the double emulsion. Modifying the ionic strength in the colloidal dispersion can be used to affect the particle-particle interactions and crystal formation of the final colloidal particle. This w/o/w technique has been used with other systems of metal oxide colloids and cellulose nanocrystals. Encapsulation of the colloidal suspension in a polymer shell for the generation of ceramic-polymer core-shell particles has also been developed. These core-shell particles have spawned new research in the field of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. Systems and chemistries for creating cellulose hydrogels within the double emulsions have also been researched. Water in oil single emulsions and double emulsions have been used to create cellulose hydrogel spheres in the sub-100 micron diameter range. Oil/water/oil double emulsions allow us to create stable cellulose capsules. The addition of a second hydrogel polymer, such as acrylate or alginate, further strengthens the cellulose gel network and can also be processed into capsules and particles using the microfluidic device. This work could have promising applications in acoustic metamaterials, personal care products, pharmaceuticals

  17. Instant polysaccharide-based emulsions: impact of microstructure on lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcello-Gómez, Amelia; Foster, Timothy J

    2017-06-21

    The development of emulsion-based products through optimisation of ingredients, reduction in energy-input during manufacture, while fulfilling healthy attributes, are major objectives within the food industry. Instant emulsions can meet these features, but comprehensive studies are necessary to investigate the effect of the initial formulation on the final microstructure and, in turn, on the in vitro lipolysis, comprising the double aim of this work. The instant emulsion is formed within 1.5-3 min after pouring the aqueous phase into the oil phase which contains a mixture of emulsifier (Tween 20), swelling particles (Sephadex) and thickeners (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, HPMC, and guar gum, GG) under mild shearing (180 rpm). The creation of oil-in-water emulsions is monitored in situ by viscosity analysis, the final microstructure visualised by microscopy and the release of free fatty acids under simulated intestinal conditions quantified by titration. Increasing the concentration and molecular weight (M w ) of GG leads to smaller emulsion droplets due to increased bulk viscosity upon shearing. This droplet size reduction is magnified when increasing the M w of HPMC or swelling capacity of viscosifying particles. In addition, in the absence of the emulsifier Tween 20, the sole use of high-Mw HPMC is effective in emulsification due to combined increased bulk viscosity and interfacial activity. Hence, optimisation of the ingredient choice and usage level is possible when designing microstructures. Finally, emulsions with larger droplet size (>20 μm) display a slower rate and lower extent of lipolysis, while finer emulsions (droplet size ≤20 μm) exhibit maximum rate and extent profiles. This correlates with the extent of emulsion destabilisation observed under intestinal conditions.

  18. Fragrance encapsulation in polymeric matrices by emulsion electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    Camerlo Agathe; Vebert-Nardin Corinne; Rossi René Michel; Popa Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    We present the successful application of emulsion electrospinning for the encapsulation of a model for highly volatile fragrances namely (R) (+) limonene in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibrous matrix. The influence of the emulsion formulation and of its colloidal properties on the fiber morphology as well as on the limonene encapsulation efficiency is described. The release profile of the fragrance from the electrospun nanofibers over a fifteen days range shows that this type of nanofibrous m...

  19. British patent 580,504 and Ilford nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, C.

    1988-01-01

    By a new technique disclosed in British Patent 580,504, gelatin with silver halide is precipitated from emulsion by adding a surface active agent. This technique was used from 1945 to produce emulsions with about eight times the normal ratio of silver halide to gelatin. The technique also facilitated the combined use of production and laboratory resources for their reliable manufacture on a fairly large scale. (author)

  20. Properties of emulsions stabilised by sodium caseinate–chitosan complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinoviadou, K.; Scholten, E.; Moschakis, T.; Biliaderis, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions (10%, w/w, oil) were prepared at pH 5.7 by using electrostatically formed complexes of 0.5% (w/w) sodium caseinate (Na-CAS) and 0–0.6% (w/w) chitosan. Emulsions stabilized by complexes with increased levels of chitosan (>0.2% w/w) had a smaller average droplet size and

  1. Two component memory of Rotstein effect in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gushchin, E.M.; Lebedev, A.N.; Somov, S.V.; Timofeev, M.K.; Tipografshchik, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Two sharply differing memory components - fast and slow -are simultaneously detected during investigation into the controlled mode of fast charged particle detection in simple nuclear emulsions, with the emulsion trace sensitivity, corresponding to these components, being about 5 time different. The value of memory time is T m ≅40 μs for fast memory and T m ≅3.5 ms for the slow one. The detection of two Rotstein effect memory components confirms the correctness of the trap model

  2. Emulsion detectors for the antihydrogen detection in AEgIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistillo, C., E-mail: ciro.pistillo@cern.ch [University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (Switzerland); Aghion, S. [Politecnico of Milano (Italy); Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T. [University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (Switzerland); Belov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation); Bonomi, G. [University of Brescia, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (Italy); Bräunig, P. [Heidelberg University, Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics (Germany); Bremer, J. [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Brusa, R. S. [University of Trento, Department of Physics (Italy); Cabaret, L. [University of Paris-Sud, Laboratory Aim Cotton, CNRS (France); Caccia, M. [INFN Milano (Italy); Caravita, R. [University of Genova, Department of Physics (Italy); Castelli, F. [INFN Milano (Italy); Cerchiari, G. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Chlouba, K. [Czech Technical University (Czech Republic); Cialdi, S. [INFN Milano (Italy); Comparat, D. [University of Paris-Sud, Laboratory Aim Cotton, CNRS (France); Consolati, G. [Politecnico of Milano (Italy); Demetrio, A. [Heidelberg University, Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics (Germany); and others

    2015-08-15

    The AEgIS experiment at CERN aims to perform the first direct measurement of gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter by measuring the deviation of a cold antihydrogen beam in the Earth gravitational field. The design of the experiment has been recently updated to include emulsion films as position sensitive detector. The submicrometric position accuracy of emulsions leads indeed to a significant improvement of the experimental sensitivity. We present results of preliminary tests and discuss perspectives for the final measurement.

  3. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  4. Laboratory Course on Drift Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Ferreira, Ix-B.; Garcia-Herrera, J.; Villasenor, L.

    2006-01-01

    Drift chambers play an important role in particle physics experiments as tracking detectors. We started this laboratory course with a brief review of the theoretical background and then moved on to the the experimental setup which consisted of a single-sided, single-cell drift chamber. We also used a plastic scintillator paddle, standard P-10 gas mixture (90% Ar, 10% CH4) and a collimated 90Sr source. During the laboratory session the students performend measurements of the following quantities: a) drift velocities and their variations as function of the drift field; b) gas gains and c) diffusion of electrons as they drifted in the gas

  5. The knife-edge chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barasch, E.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Drew, M.M.; Elliott, S.M.; Lee, B.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Popovic, M.; Smith, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the design for a new technology for particle track detectors is described. Using standard IC fabrication techniques, a pattern of microscopic knife edges and field-shaping electrodes can be fabricated on a silicon substrate. The knife-edge chamber uniquely offers attractive performance for the track chambers required for SSC detectors, for which no present technology is yet satisfactory. Its features include: excellent radiation hardness (10 Mrad), excellent spatial resolution (∼20 μm), short drift time (20 ns), and large pulse height (1 mV)

  6. Ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    resolution and high sensitivity are necessary. For exact dosimetry which is done using ionization chambers (ICs), the recombination taking place in the IC has to be known. Up to now, recombination is corrected phenomenologically and more practical approaches are currently used. Nevertheless, Jaff´e's theory...... of columnar recombination was designed to model the detector efficiency of an ionization chamber. Here, we have shown that despite the approximations and simplification made, the theory is correct for the LETs typically found in clinical radiotherapy employing particles from protons to carbon ions...

  7. The Mark III vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 μm at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 μm using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin

  8. CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan IOVAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing reprentes the software applications offered as a service online, but also the software and hardware components from the data center.In the case of wide offerd services for any type of client, we are dealing with a public cloud. In the other case, in wich a cloud is exclusively available for an organization and is not available to the open public, this is consider a private cloud [1]. There is also a third type, called hibrid in which case an user or an organization might use both services available in the public and private cloud. One of the main challenges of cloud computing are to build the trust and ofer information privacy in every aspect of service offerd by cloud computingle. The variety of existing standards, just like the lack of clarity in sustenability certificationis not a real help in building trust. Also appear some questions marks regarding the efficiency of traditionsecurity means that are applied in the cloud domain. Beside the economic and technology advantages offered by cloud, also are some advantages in security area if the information is migrated to cloud. Shared resources available in cloud includes the survey, use of the "best practices" and technology for advance security level, above all the solutions offered by the majority of medium and small businesses, big companies and even some guvermental organizations [2].

  9. Preparation of Lipid Nano emulsions Incorporating Curcumin for Cancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anuchapreeda, S.; Anuchapreeda, S.; Fukumori, Y.; Ichikawa, H.; Okonogi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new formulation of a curcumin lipid nano emulsion having the smallest particle size, the highest loading, and a good physical stability for cancer chemotherapy. Curcumin lipid nano emulsions were prepared by a modified thin-film hydration method followed by sonication. Soybean oil, hydrogenated L-α-phosphatidylcholine from egg yolk, and co surfactants were used to formulate the emulsions. The resultant nano emulsions showed mean particle diameter of 47-55 nm, could incorporate 23-28 mg curcumin per 30 mL, and were stable in particle size for 60 days at 4 degree C. The cytotoxicity studies of curucumin solution and curcumin-loaded nano emulsion using B16F10 and leukemic cell lines showed IC 50 values ranging from 3.5 to 30.1 and 22.2 to 53.7μM, respectively. These results demonstrated the successful incorporation of curcumin into lipid nano emulsion particles with small particle size, high loading capacity, good physical stability, and preserved cytotoxicity

  10. Submicron Emulsions and Their Applications in Oral Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundada, Veenu; Patel, Mitali; Sawant, Krutika

    2016-01-01

    A "submicron emulsion" is an isotropic mixture of drug, lipids, and surfactants, usually with hydrophilic cosolvents and with droplet diameters ranging from 10 to 500 nm. Submicron emulsions are of increasing interest in medicine due to their kinetic stability, high solubilizing capacity, and tiny globule size. Because of these properties, they have been applied in various fields, such as personal care, cosmetics, health care, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Submicron emulsions are by far the most advanced nanoparticulate systems for the systemic delivery of biologically active agents for controlled drug delivery and targeting. They are designed mainly for pharmaceutical formulations suitable for various routes of administration like parenteral, ocular, transdermal, and oral. This review article describes the marked potential of submicron emulsions for oral drug delivery owing to their numerous advantages like reduced first pass metabolism, inhibition of P-glycoprotein efflux system, and enhanced absorption via intestinal lymphatic pathway. To overcome the limitations of liquid dosage forms, submicron emulsions can be formulated into solid dosage forms such as solid self-emulsifying systems. This article covers various types of submicron emulsions like microemulsion, nanoemulsion, and self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), and their potential pharmaceutical applications in oral delivery with emphasis on their advantages, limitations, and advancements.

  11. Oxygen carrying perfluorochemical emulsion as an adjuvant to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teicher, B.A.; Rose, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of a perfluorochemical emulsion which as an excellent carrying capacity for oxygen to enhance the ability of radiation therapy to delay the growth of Lewis lung tumor was examined. There was a highly significant effect produced by the addition of perfluorochemical emulsion and carbogen breathing in combination with irradiation. With single dose x-ray treatment the dose of perfluorochemical emulsion was varied from 0.05-0.6 ml addition to the blood volume of the animals. The dose response effect was very broad peaking at 0.3-0.4 ml which gave a dose modifying effect of 2.8 +- 0.6 with 1000 rad of x-rays. The addition of 0.3 ml of perfluorochemical free annex solution with carbogen breathing produced a small enhancement in tumor growth delay addition of the same volume of the complete emulsion increased the tumor growth delay time about 3-fold compared to the annex solution. When the perfluorochemical emulsion was added to a fractionated course of radiation therapy a dose modifying effect of 1.8 +- 0.3 was obtained. Oxygen carrying perfluorochemical emulsions may provide a nontoxic clinically useful means of increasing the effectiveness of radiation therapy and of certain chemotherapeutic agents

  12. Sardine Fish Oil By Sentrifugation and Adsorbent for Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Haryati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sardine fish meal by-product contain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA and it can be made as emulsion. The purpose of this study were to determine the best fish oil emulsion by mixingthe oil phase (lecithin 3% and oil and water phase (carboxymethyl cellulose/CMC 2% and fruit juice and then stored until creaming, and the emulsion is analyzed their viscosity, pH, percent of stability and longseparation. Sardine oil is separated from the emulsion and tested oxidation parameters. The best emulsion was fish oil emulsion after refined without citric acid (RTS with viscosity (2470.31 cP, pH (5.64, percent of stability (56.14% and long separation (14 days. Primary and secondary oxidation parameters of RTS  were FFA (14.87%, PV (14.43 meq/kg, AV (32.57 meq KOH/g, AnV (17.3 meq/kg, and Totox (46.16 meq/kg.

  13. Testing an hydrogen streamer chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    A 2x10 cm gap streamer chamber, 35x55 cm2 in surface, was built and tested at CERN. Good tracks of cosmic rays were obtained up to atmospheric pressure, see F. Rohrbach et al, CERN-LAL (Orsay) Collaboration, Nucl. Instr. Methods 141 (1977) 229. Michel Cathenoz stand on the center.

  14. Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.

  15. Searchable Encryption in Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ren-Junn Hwang; Chung-Chien Lu; Jain-Shing Wu

    2014-01-01

    Cloud outsource storage is one of important services in cloud computing. Cloud users upload data to cloud servers to reduce the cost of managing data and maintaining hardware and software. To ensure data confidentiality, users can encrypt their files before uploading them to a cloud system. However, retrieving the target file from the encrypted files exactly is difficult for cloud server. This study proposes a protocol for performing multikeyword searches for encrypted cloud data by applying ...

  16. Emulsifier development for high-concentrated reverse emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Kovalenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The reverse emulsions have found broad application in ore mining industry as matrixes of emulsion explosive substances and boring washing waters. The defining characteristic of reverse emulsions of industrial explosive substances is the high stability and immunity to crystallization. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the mechanism of emulsifiers effect like SMO and some PIBSA-derivatives, that are most abundantly used in world practice, and also to develop an effective domestic emulsifier of reverse emulsions. Materials and methods: Using the semi-dynamic method with use of the reverse stalagmometer it was determined the decreasing in interfacial tension on “water / diesel fuel” border in the presence of 0.5 wt % sorbitan monooleate of various producers. Emulsions with use of the chosen emulsifiers using the dynamic mixer on the basis of monosolution of ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel have been produced. The emulsions have the following composition, wt %: ammonium nitrate – 76.8; water – 15.6; diesel fuel – 6.0; emulsifier – 1.6. Results: By the researches results of the interfacial tension “surfactant water / solution in diesel fuel”, the stability of emulsions using monosolution of ammonium nitrate and the IR spectrums of SMO of various producers it is established that presence in product of impurity of oleic acid, di- and trioleates leads to decreasing in interphase activity, increasing of emulsifier oil solubility and decreasing the resistance of emulsions to crystallization. On the basis of the spectral data analysis it is suggested about possibility of specific interaction on the mechanism of “spectral resonance” between emulsifiers of the PIBSA-MEA, LZX type and crystals nucleus of NH4NO3 ammonium nitrate in dispersed phase of emulsion. Amidation of vegetable oils by monoethanol amine is implemented at the reduced temperatures (90…100 °C. It was proved the availability mainly of fatty acids amides in product

  17. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, HBOT is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. HBOT is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The HHC technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system to provide controlled pressurization and adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the patient and operating personnel, and physiological considerations. The simple schematic, comprised of easily acquired commercial hardware

  18. Enterprise Cloud Adoption - Cloud Maturity Assessment Model

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Gerry; Doherty, Eileen; Carcary, Marian; Crowley, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The introduction and use of cloud computing by an organization has the promise of significant benefits that include reduced costs, improved services, and a pay-per-use model. Organizations that successfully harness these benefits will potentially have a distinct competitive edge, due to their increased agility and flexibility to rapidly respond to an ever changing and complex business environment. However, as cloud technology is a relatively new ph...

  19. Measurements of the electron cloud in the APS storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkey, K. C.

    1999-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation interacting with the vacuum chamber walls in a storage ring produce photoelectrons that can be accelerated by the beam, acquiring sufficient energy to produce secondary electrons in collisions with the walls. If the secondary-electron yield (SEY) coefficient of the wall material is greater than one, as is the case with the aluminum chambers in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring, a runaway condition can develop. As the electron cloud builds up along a train of stored positron or electron bunches, the possibility exists that a transverse perturbation of the head bunch will be communicated to trailing bunches due to interaction with the cloud. In order to characterize the electron cloud, a special vacuum chamber was built and inserted into the ring. The chamber contains 10 rudimentary electron-energy analyzers, as well as three targets coated with different materials. Measurements show that the intensity and electron energy distribution are highly dependent on the temporal spacing between adjacent bunches and the amount of current contained in each bunch. Furthermore, measurements using the different targets are consistent with what would be expected based on the SEY of the coatings. Data for both positron and electron beams are presented

  20. Star clouds of Magellan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Magellanic Clouds are two irregular galaxies belonging to the local group which the Milky Way belongs to. By studying the Clouds, astronomers hope to gain insight into the origin and composition of the Milky Way. The overall structure and dynamics of the Clouds are clearest when studied in radio region of the spectrum. One benefit of directly observing stellar luminosities in the Clouds has been the discovery of the period-luminosity relation. Also, the Clouds are a splendid laboratory for studying stellar evolution. It is believed that both Clouds may be in the very early stage in the development of a regular, symmetric galaxy. This raises a paradox because some of the stars in the star clusters of the Clouds are as old as the oldest stars in our galaxy. An explanation for this is given. The low velocity of the Clouds with respect to the center of the Milky Way shows they must be bound to it by gravity. Theories are given on how the Magellanic Clouds became associated with the galaxy. According to current ideas the Clouds orbits will decay and they will spiral into the Galaxy

  1. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Karkošková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is unclear how to achieve them. Cloud computing governance helps to create business value through obtain benefits from use of cloud computing services while optimizing investment and risk. Challenge, which organizations are facing in relation to governing of cloud services, is how to design and implement cloud computing governance to gain expected benefits. This paper aims to provide guidance on implementation activities of proposed Cloud computing governance lifecycle from cloud consumer perspective. Proposed model is based on SOA Governance Framework and consists of lifecycle for implementation and continuous improvement of cloud computing governance model.

  2. THE CALIFORNIA MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, Joao F.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of wide-field infrared extinction maps of a region in Perseus just north of the Taurus-Auriga dark cloud complex. From this analysis we have identified a massive, nearby, but previously unrecognized, giant molecular cloud (GMC). Both a uniform foreground star density and measurements of the cloud's velocity field from CO observations indicate that this cloud is likely a coherent structure at a single distance. From comparison of foreground star counts with Galactic models, we derive a distance of 450 ± 23 pc to the cloud. At this distance the cloud extends over roughly 80 pc and has a mass of ∼ 10 5 M sun , rivaling the Orion (A) molecular cloud as the largest and most massive GMC in the solar neighborhood. Although surprisingly similar in mass and size to the more famous Orion molecular cloud (OMC) the newly recognized cloud displays significantly less star formation activity with more than an order of magnitude fewer young stellar objects than found in the OMC, suggesting that both the level of star formation and perhaps the star formation rate in this cloud are an order of magnitude or more lower than in the OMC. Analysis of extinction maps of both clouds shows that the new cloud contains only 10% the amount of high extinction (A K > 1.0 mag) material as is found in the OMC. This, in turn, suggests that the level of star formation activity and perhaps the star formation rate in these two clouds may be directly proportional to the total amount of high extinction material and presumably high density gas within them and that there might be a density threshold for star formation on the order of n(H 2 ) ∼ a few x 10 4 cm -3 .

  3. CLEARING OF ELECTRON CLOUD IN SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WANG, L.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPRIA, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe a mechanism using the clearing electrodes to remove the electron cloud in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring, where strong multipacting could happen at median clearing fields. A similar phenomenon was reported in an experimental study at Los Alamos laboratory's Proton Synchrotron Ring (PSR). We also investigated the effectiveness of the solenoid's clearing mechanism in the SNS, which differs from the short bunch case, such as in B-factories. The titanium nitride (TiN) coating of the chamber walls was applied to reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY)

  4. Results from the CERN pilot CLOUD experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duplissy, J.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Aplin, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    the charged fraction, a few of the aerosol bursts appear to have a contribution from ion-induced nucleation and ion-ion recombination to form neutral clusters. Some indications were also found for the accelerator beam timing and intensity to influence the aerosol particle formation rate at the highest...... become significant, improvements are needed in controlling the experimental variables and in the reproducibility of the experiments. Finally, concerning technical aspects, the most important lessons for the CLOUD design include the stringent requirement of internal cleanliness of the aerosol chamber...

  5. Development of novel zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films for improved water barrier properties via emulsion/solvent evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Juan; Yin, Ye-Chong; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Shi, Wei-Jian; Tang, Chuan-He; Wang, Jin-Mei

    2013-11-20

    This work attempted to develop novel high barrier zein/SC nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films through microfluidic emulsification (ZPE films) or in combination with solvent (ethyl acetate) evaporation techniques (ZPE-EA films). Some physical properties, including tensile and optical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and surface hydrophobicity, as well as the microstructure of ZP-stabilized emulsion films were evaluated and compared with SC emulsion (SCE) films. The emulsion/solvent evaporation approach reduced lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions, and lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions were similar to or slightly lower than that of SC emulsions. However, ZP- and SC-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a completely different microstructure, nanoscalar lipid droplets were homogeneously distributed in the ZPE film matrix and interpenetrating protein-oil complex networks occurred within ZPE-EA films, whereas SCE films presented a heterogeneous microstructure. The different stabilization mechanisms against creaming or coalescence during film formation accounted for the preceding discrepancy of the microstructures between ZP-and SC-stabilized emulsion films. Interestingly, ZP-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a better water barrier efficiency, and the WVP values were only 40-50% of SCE films. A schematic representation for the formation of ZP-stabilized emulsion films was proposed to relate the physical performance of the films with their microstructure and to elucidate the possible forming mechanism of the films.

  6. The Steroid Effect on the Blood-Ocular Barrier Change Induced by Triolein Emulsion as seen on Contrast-Enhanced MR Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Yuk; Eun, Choong Ki; Kim, Yong Woo; Kim, Hak Jin; Jung, Yeon Joo; Jae, Seung Youn; Cho, Byung Mann; Choi, Seon Hee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone on the damaged blood-ocular barrier caused by triolein emulsion, using contrast-enhanced MR imaging. An emulsion of 0.1-mL triolein in 20 mL of saline was infused into the carotid arteries of 32 cats, 12 cats were placed in the treatment group and 18 cats were placed in the Control group. Thirty minutes after the infusion of triolein emulsion, a set of orbital pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted MR images (T1WIs) were obtained. Infusion of 10 mg/kg dexamethasone into the ipsilateral carotid artery of each of the cats in the treatment group cats and 20 mL saline in each of the cats in the control group was given. A second set of pre- and post-contrast orbital T1WIs were obtained three hours following triolein emulsion infusion. Qualitative analysis was performed for the the anterior chamber (AC), the posterior chamber (PC), and in the vitreous humor of the ipsilateral and contralateral eyes. The signal intensity ratios of the ipsilateral eye over the contralateral eye were quantitatively evaluated in the three ocular chambers on the first and second set of T1WIs, and were then statistically compared. Qualitatively, the AC, the PC or the vitreous did not show immediate contrast enhancement on the first and the second set of post-contrast T1WIs. However, the AC and the PC showed delayed contrast enhancement for both groups of cats on the second pre-contrast T1WIs. No enhancement or minimally delayed enhancement was seen for the vitreous humor. Quantitatively, the signal intensity ratios in the PC of the treatment group of cats were statistically lower than the ratios of the control group of cats for the second set of T1WIs (p = 0.037). The AC and vitreous showed no statistically significant difference between the feline treatment group and control group (p > 0.05). Contrast-enhanced MR images revealed increased vascular permeability in the PC of the eye after infusion of triolein emulsion

  7. Establishment of a radon test chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chingjiang; Liu Chichang; Lin Yuming

    1993-01-01

    A walk-in type radon test chamber of 23 m 3 has been built for testing and calibration of radon measurement instruments. The environmental conditions of the test chamber can be varied within a wide range of values. The design objectives specification, monitoring instruments and testing results of this chamber are discussed. This test chamber is available for domestic radon researchers and its accuracy can be traced to the international standard. A routine intercomparison study will be held annually by using this chamber. Other tests like radon progeny and thoron standard may also be performed in this chamber. (1 fig.)

  8. Pencil-shaped radiation detection ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.

    1979-01-01

    A radiation detection ionization chamber is described. It consists of an elongated cylindrical pencil-shaped tubing forming an outer wall of the chamber and a center electrode disposed along the major axis of the tubing. The length of the chamber is substantially greater than the diameter. A cable connecting portion at one end of the chamber is provided for connecting the chamber to a triaxial cable. An end support portion is connected at the other end of the chamber for supporting and tensioning the center electrode. 17 claims

  9. To Model Chemical Reactivity in Heterogeneous Emulsions, Think Homogeneous Microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Díaz, Carlos; Romsted, Laurence Stuart; Liu, Changyao; Losada-Barreiro, Sonia; Pastoriza-Gallego, Maria José; Gao, Xiang; Gu, Qing; Krishnan, Gunaseelan; Sánchez-Paz, Verónica; Zhang, Yongliang; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad

    2015-08-25

    Two important and unsolved problems in the food industry and also fundamental questions in colloid chemistry are how to measure molecular distributions, especially antioxidants (AOs), and how to model chemical reactivity, including AO efficiency in opaque emulsions. The key to understanding reactivity in organized surfactant media is that reaction mechanisms are consistent with a discrete structures-separate continuous regions duality. Aggregate structures in emulsions are determined by highly cooperative but weak organizing forces that allow reactants to diffuse at rates approaching their diffusion-controlled limit. Reactant distributions for slow thermal bimolecular reactions are in dynamic equilibrium, and their distributions are proportional to their relative solubilities in the oil, interfacial, and aqueous regions. Our chemical kinetic method is grounded in thermodynamics and combines a pseudophase model with methods for monitoring the reactions of AOs with a hydrophobic arenediazonium ion probe in opaque emulsions. We introduce (a) the logic and basic assumptions of the pseudophase model used to define the distributions of AOs among the oil, interfacial, and aqueous regions in microemulsions and emulsions and (b) the dye derivatization and linear sweep voltammetry methods for monitoring the rates of reaction in opaque emulsions. Our results show that this approach provides a unique, versatile, and robust method for obtaining quantitative estimates of AO partition coefficients or partition constants and distributions and interfacial rate constants in emulsions. The examples provided illustrate the effects of various emulsion properties on AO distributions such as oil hydrophobicity, emulsifier structure and HLB, temperature, droplet size, surfactant charge, and acidity on reactant distributions. Finally, we show that the chemical kinetic method provides a natural explanation for the cut-off effect, a maximum followed by a sharp reduction in AO efficiency with

  10. STUDY REGARDING THE DESTABILIZATION OF STABLE EMULSIONS FROM SUPLAC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA VERONICA GHEŢIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions from the wells in the Suplac area create great difficulties in removing water due to their specifications. A complex study was conducted in order to eliminate water from emulsions using alkaline-surfactants. The choice of surfactant was made after the chromatographic SARA analysis of emulsions and the determination of their physical properties: density, viscosity, organic acidity. The samples were taken from two wells in the Suplac area. In the case of samples from A well the variation of density is 907 - 955 kg·m-3 for crude oil and 928 - 970 kg·m-3 for emulsion, while the rheological behavior of the emulsion varies between 0.680 to 0.995 Pa·s at a temperature of 25 °C and between 0.049 to 0.328 Pa·s at a temperature of 80 °C. For samples from B well the variation of density is 855 - 905 kg·m-3 for crude oil and 939 - 970 kg·m-3 for emulsion, while the rheological behavior of the emulsion varies between 0.149 to 0.797 Pa·s at a temperature of 25 °C and between 0.014 to 0.397 Pa·s at a temperature of 80 °C. The justification for choosing R - DP surfactant like reagent was based on laboratory tests which showed a maximum efficiency at 80 °C (95.69 for B and 98.75 % for A.

  11. Single Particle Laser Mass Spectrometry Applied to Differential Ice Nucleation Experiments at the AIDA Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallavardin, S. J.; Froyd, Karl D.; Lohmann, U.; Moehler, Ottmar; Murphy, Daniel M.; Cziczo, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Experiments conducted at the Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) chamber located in Karlsruhe, Germany permit investigation of particle properties that affect the nucleation of ice at temperature and water vapor conditions relevant to cloud microphysics and climate issues. Ice clouds were generated by heterogeneous nucleation of Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, and hematite and homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid. Ice crystals formed in the chamber were inertially separated from unactivated, or 'interstitial' aerosol particles with a pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI), then evaporated. The ice residue (i.e., the aerosol which initiated ice nucleation plus any material which was scavenged from the gas- and/or particle-phase), was chemically characterized at the single particle level using a laser ionization mass spectrometer. In this manner the species that first nucleated ice could be identified out of a mixed aerosol population in the chamber. Bare mineral dust particles were more effective ice nuclei (IN) than similar particles with a coating. Metallic particles from contamination in the chamber initiated ice nucleation before other species but there were few enough that they did not compromise the experiments. Nitrate, sulfate, and organics were often detected on particles and ice residue, evidently from scavenging of trace gas-phase species in the chamber. Hematite was a more effective ice nucleus than illite. Ice residue was frequently larger than unactivated test aerosol due to the formation of aggregates due to scavenging, condensation of contaminant gases, and the predominance of larger aerosol in nucleation

  12. Recent applications of nuclear track emulsion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubin, P. I., E-mail: zarubin@lhe.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A survey of recent results obtained using the nuclear track emulsion (NTE) technique in low energy applications is given. NTE irradiation with 60 MeV {sup 8}He nuclei provides identification of their decays at stopping, evaluation of the possibility of α range spectrometry, and observation of drift of thermalized {sup 8}He atoms. Correlations of α particles studied in {sup 12}C → 3α splitting induced by 14.1 MeV neutrons indicate the presence of a superposition of 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} states of the {sup 8}Be nucleus in the ground state of {sup 12}C. Angular correlations of fragments are studied in boron-enriched NTE, and the prospects of NTE application in radioactivity and nuclear fission research are discussed. It is proposed to use an automated microscope to search for collinear tripartition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Surface irradiation of NTE by a {sup 252}Cf source is started. Planar events containing fragment pairs and long range α particles, as well as fragment triples, are studied. NTE samples are calibrated using Kr and Xe ions with an energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV.

  13. The Morphology of Emulsion Polymerized Latex Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, G. D.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Linne, M. A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L. H.; Wai, M. P.; Gelman, R. A.; Fatica, M. G.; Hoerl, R. H.; Fisher, L. W.

    1987-11-01

    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structure as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10{sup 4} 10{sup 6} the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights.

  14. A pulse radiolysis study of emulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAskill, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The emulsion polymerisation of slightly water soluble monomers such as styrene occurs initially in micelles of surfactant swollen with monomer and later in larger particles consisting of polymer swollen with monomer and stabilized with an outer layer of surfactant. There is considerable controversy on whether the reaction sites of polymerization are inside or on the surface of the particle or micelle. The relative amounts of micelle and particles present at various stages of the polymerization are also nuclear. In the present study the OH radical formed by pulse radiolysis has been used as a probe to investigate the site of solubilization of styrene in various surfactant micelles. Two products can be distinguished by UV spectrometry, a benzyl type radical formed by OH addition to the side chain of styrene and a cyclohexadienyl type radical formed by addition to the ring. Wide differences in the relative amounts of each product were observed suggesting that in some surfactants the styrene ring is buried inside the micelle whilst in other systems the styrene appears to be so solubilized at the interface leaving both the ring and the side chain open to attack by the OH radical. (author)

  15. Expansion of magnetic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic clouds are a carefully defined subclass of all interplanetary signatures of coronal mass ejections whose geometry is thought to be that of a cylinder embedded in a plane. It has been found that the total magnetic pressure inside the clouds is higher than the ion pressure outside, and that the clouds are expanding at 1 AU at about half the local Alfven speed. The geometry of the clouds is such that even though the magnetic pressure inside is larger than the total pressure outside, expansion will not occur because the pressure is balanced by magnetic tension - the pinch effect. The evidence for expansion of clouds at 1 AU is nevertheless quite strong so another reason for its existence must be found. It is demonstrated that the observations can be reproduced by taking into account the effects of geometrical distortion of the low plasma beta clouds as they move away from the Sun

  16. Encyclopedia of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Bojanova, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cloud Computing provides IT professionals, educators, researchers and students with a compendium of cloud computing knowledge. Authored by a spectrum of subject matter experts in industry and academia, this unique publication, in a single volume, covers a wide range of cloud computing topics, including technological trends and developments, research opportunities, best practices, standards, and cloud adoption. Providing multiple perspectives, it also addresses questions that stakeholders might have in the context of development, operation, management, and use of clouds. Furthermore, it examines cloud computing's impact now and in the future. The encyclopedia presents 56 chapters logically organized into 10 sections. Each chapter covers a major topic/area with cross-references to other chapters and contains tables, illustrations, side-bars as appropriate. Furthermore, each chapter presents its summary at the beginning and backend material, references and additional resources for further i...

  17. Considerations for Cloud Security Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Cusick, James

    2016-01-01

    Information Security in Cloud Computing environments is explored. Cloud Computing is presented, security needs are discussed, and mitigation approaches are listed. Topics covered include Information Security, Cloud Computing, Private Cloud, Public Cloud, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, ISO 27001, OWASP, Secure SDLC.

  18. Evaluating statistical cloud schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Grützun, Verena; Quaas, Johannes; Morcrette , Cyril J.; Ament, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Statistical cloud schemes with prognostic probability distribution functions have become more important in atmospheric modeling, especially since they are in principle scale adaptive and capture cloud physics in more detail. While in theory the schemes have a great potential, their accuracy is still questionable. High-resolution three-dimensional observational data of water vapor and cloud water, which could be used for testing them, are missing. We explore the potential of ground-based re...

  19. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Karkošková; George Feuerlicht

    2016-01-01

    Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is uncle...

  20. Security in cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Martín, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    Security in Cloud Computing is becoming a challenge for next generation Data Centers. This project will focus on investigating new security strategies for Cloud Computing systems. Cloud Computingisarecent paradigmto deliver services over Internet. Businesses grow drastically because of it. Researchers focus their work on it. The rapid access to exible and low cost IT resources on an on-demand fashion, allows the users to avoid planning ahead for provisioning, and enterprises to save money ...

  1. CLOUD TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Dukkardt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the review of main features of cloud computing that can be used in education. Particular attention is paid to those learning and supportive tasks, that can be greatly improved in the case of the using of cloud services. Several ways to implement this approach are proposed, based on widely accepted models of providing cloud services. Nevertheless, the authors have not ignored currently existing problems of cloud technologies , identifying the most dangerous risks and their impact on the core business processes of the university. 

  2. Cloud Computing: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ling; Luo, Zhiguo; Du, Yujian; Guo, Leitao

    In order to support the maximum number of user and elastic service with the minimum resource, the Internet service provider invented the cloud computing. within a few years, emerging cloud computing has became the hottest technology. From the publication of core papers by Google since 2003 to the commercialization of Amazon EC2 in 2006, and to the service offering of AT&T Synaptic Hosting, the cloud computing has been evolved from internal IT system to public service, from cost-saving tools to revenue generator, and from ISP to telecom. This paper introduces the concept, history, pros and cons of cloud computing as well as the value chain and standardization effort.

  3. Genomics With Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhamrit Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genomics is study of genome which provides large amount of data for which large storage and computation power is needed. These issues are solved by cloud computing that provides various cloud platforms for genomics. These platforms provides many services to user like easy access to data easy sharing and transfer providing storage in hundreds of terabytes more computational power. Some cloud platforms are Google genomics DNAnexus and Globus genomics. Various features of cloud computing to genomics are like easy access and sharing of data security of data less cost to pay for resources but still there are some demerits like large time needed to transfer data less network bandwidth.

  4. Development of multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Charpak, G

    1969-01-01

    It has happened quite often in the history of science that theoreticians, confronted with some major difficulty, have successfully gone back thirty years to look at ideas that had then been thrown overboard. But it is rare that experimentalists go back thirty years to look again at equipment which had become out-dated. This is what Charpak and his colleagues did to emerge with the 'multiwire proportional chamber' which has several new features making it a very useful addition to the armoury of particle detectors. In the 1930s, ion-chambers, Geiger- Muller counters and proportional counters, were vital pieces of equipment in nuclear physics research. Other types of detectors have since largely replaced them but now the proportional counter, in new array, is making a comeback.

  5. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  6. Single wire drift chamber design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krider, J.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 μm rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles

  7. MPS II drift chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platner, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    The MPS II detectors are narrow drift space chambers designed for high position resolution in a magnetic field and in a very high particle flux environment. Central to this implementation was the development of 3 multi-channel custom IC's and one multi-channel hybrid. The system is deadtimeless and requires no corrections on an anode-to-anode basis. Operational experience and relevance to ISABELLE detectors is discussed

  8. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Influence of processing parameters on morphology of polymethoxyflavone in emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Yuwen; Li, Colin C; Wang, Yin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2015-01-21

    Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) are groups of compounds isolated from citrus peels that have been documented with wide arrays of health-promoting bioactivities. Because of their hydrophobic structure and high melting point, crystallized PMFs usually have poor systemic bioavailability when consumed orally. To improve the oral efficiency of PMFs, a viscoelastic emulsion system was formulated. Because of the crystalline nature, the inclusion of PMFs into the emulsion system faces great challenges in having sufficient loading capacity and stabilities. In this study, the process of optimizing the quality of emulsion-based formulation intended for PMF oral delivery was systematically studied. With alteration of the PMF loading concentration, processing temperature, and pressure, the emulsion with the desired droplet and crystal size can be effectively fabricated. Moreover, storage temperatures significantly influenced the stability of the crystal-containing emulsion system. The results from this study are a good illustration of system optimization and serve as a great reference for future formulation design of other hydrophobic crystalline compounds.

  10. KINETICS OF SUSPENDED EMULSION POLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-zhong Bao; Cheng-xi Wang; Zhi-ming Huang; Zhi-xue Weng

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of suspended emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), in which water acted as the dispersed phase and the mixture of MMA and cyclohexane as the continuous phase, was investigated. It showed that the initial polymerization rate (Rp0) and steady-state polymerization rate (Rp) were proportional to the mass ratio between water and oil phase, and increased as the polymerization temperature, the potassium persulphate concentration ([I]) and the Tween20 emulsifier concentration ([S]) increased. The relationships between the polymerization rate and [I] and [S] were obtained as follows: Rp0 ∝ [I]0.73[S]0.32 and Rp ∝ [I]0.71[S]0.23. The above exponents were close to those obtained from normal MMA emulsion polymerization. It also showed that the average molecular weight of the resulting poly(methyl methacrylate) decreased as the polymerization temperature, [I] and [S] increased. Thus, MMA suspended emulsion polymerization could be considered as a combination of many miniature emulsion polymerizations proceeding in water drops and obeyed the classical kinetics of MMA emulsion polymerization.

  11. An easily regenerable enzyme reactor prepared from polymerized high internal phase emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Guihua; Wu, Zhenwei; Huang, Yipeng; Wei, Meiping; Su, Rihui; Du, Fuyou

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale high-efficient enzyme reactor based on polymerized high internal phase emulsion monolith (polyHIPE) was prepared. First, a porous cross-linked polyHIPE monolith was prepared by in-situ thermal polymerization of a high internal phase emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene and polyglutaraldehyde. The enzyme of TPCK-Trypsin was then immobilized on the monolithic polyHIPE. The performance of the resultant enzyme reactor was assessed according to the conversion ability of N_α-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester to N_α-benzoyl-L-arginine, and the protein digestibility of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome (Cyt-C). The results showed that the prepared enzyme reactor exhibited high enzyme immobilization efficiency and fast and easy-control protein digestibility. BSA and Cyt-C could be digested in 10 min with sequence coverage of 59% and 78%, respectively. The peptides and residual protein could be easily rinsed out from reactor and the reactor could be regenerated easily with 4 M HCl without any structure destruction. Properties of multiple interconnected chambers with good permeability, fast digestion facility and easily reproducibility indicated that the polyHIPE enzyme reactor was a good selector potentially applied in proteomics and catalysis areas. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of preparation of hypercrosslinking polyHIPE immobilized enzyme reactor for on-column protein digestion. - Highlights: • A reactor was prepared and used for enzyme immobilization and continuous on-column protein digestion. • The new polyHIPE IMER was quite suit for protein digestion with good properties. • On-column digestion revealed that the IMER was easy regenerated by HCl without any structure destruction.

  12. An easily regenerable enzyme reactor prepared from polymerized high internal phase emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Guihua, E-mail: guihuaruan@hotmail.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magnetochemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guangxi 541004 (China); Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center for Water Pollution Control and Water Safety in Karst Area, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Wu, Zhenwei; Huang, Yipeng; Wei, Meiping; Su, Rihui [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magnetochemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guangxi 541004 (China); Du, Fuyou, E-mail: dufu2005@126.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magnetochemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guangxi 541004 (China); Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center for Water Pollution Control and Water Safety in Karst Area, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2016-04-22

    A large-scale high-efficient enzyme reactor based on polymerized high internal phase emulsion monolith (polyHIPE) was prepared. First, a porous cross-linked polyHIPE monolith was prepared by in-situ thermal polymerization of a high internal phase emulsion containing styrene, divinylbenzene and polyglutaraldehyde. The enzyme of TPCK-Trypsin was then immobilized on the monolithic polyHIPE. The performance of the resultant enzyme reactor was assessed according to the conversion ability of N{sub α}-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester to N{sub α}-benzoyl-L-arginine, and the protein digestibility of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome (Cyt-C). The results showed that the prepared enzyme reactor exhibited high enzyme immobilization efficiency and fast and easy-control protein digestibility. BSA and Cyt-C could be digested in 10 min with sequence coverage of 59% and 78%, respectively. The peptides and residual protein could be easily rinsed out from reactor and the reactor could be regenerated easily with 4 M HCl without any structure destruction. Properties of multiple interconnected chambers with good permeability, fast digestion facility and easily reproducibility indicated that the polyHIPE enzyme reactor was a good selector potentially applied in proteomics and catalysis areas. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of preparation of hypercrosslinking polyHIPE immobilized enzyme reactor for on-column protein digestion. - Highlights: • A reactor was prepared and used for enzyme immobilization and continuous on-column protein digestion. • The new polyHIPE IMER was quite suit for protein digestion with good properties. • On-column digestion revealed that the IMER was easy regenerated by HCl without any structure destruction.

  13. GBO RF Anechoic Chamber & Antenna Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A shielded anechoic chamber measuring 15 by 15 by 37 feet is located in the Jansky Laboratory at Green Bank. This chamber has been outfitted as a far-field antenna...

  14. The KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yoshikuni; Araoka, Osamu; Hayashi, Kohei; Hayashi, Yoshio; Hirabayashi, Hiromi.

    1978-03-01

    A medium size hydrogen bubble chamber has been constructed at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, KEK. The bubble chamber has been designed to be operated with a maximum rate of three times per half a second in every two second repetition time of the accelerator, by utilizing a hydraulic expansion system. The bubble chamber has a one meter diameter and a visible volume of about 280 l. A three-view stereo camera system is used for taking photographic pictures of the chamber. A 2 MW bubble chamber magnet is constructed. The main part of the bubble chamber vessel is supported by the magnet yoke. The magnet gives a maximum field of 18.4 kG at the centre of the fiducial volume of the chamber. The overall system of the KEK 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber facility is described in some detail. Some operational characteristics of the facility are also reported. (auth.)

  15. Review of Cloud Computing and existing Frameworks for Cloud adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Victor; Walters, Robert John; Wills, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a selected review for Cloud Computing and explains the benefits and risks of adopting Cloud Computing in a business environment. Although all the risks identified may be associated with two major Cloud adoption challenges, a framework is required to support organisations as they begin to use Cloud and minimise risks of Cloud adoption. Eleven Cloud Computing frameworks are investigated and a comparison of their strengths and limitations is made; the result of the comparison...

  16. +Cloud: An Agent-Based Cloud Computing Platform

    OpenAIRE

    González, Roberto; Hernández de la Iglesia, Daniel; de la Prieta Pintado, Fernando; Gil González, Ana Belén

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is revolutionizing the services provided through the Internet, and is continually adapting itself in order to maintain the quality of its services. This study presents the platform +Cloud, which proposes a cloud environment for storing information and files by following the cloud paradigm. This study also presents Warehouse 3.0, a cloud-based application that has been developed to validate the services provided by +Cloud.

  17. Quantifying Asphalt Emulsion-Based Chip Seal Curing Times Using Electrical Resistance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Chip sealing typically consists of covering a pavement surface with asphalt emulsion into which aggregate chips are embedded. The asphalt emulsion cures through the evaporation of water, thus providing mechanical strength to adhere to the pavement wh...

  18. An update on safety and immunogenicity of vaccines containing emulsion-based adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher B; Haensler, Jean

    2013-07-01

    With the exception of alum, emulsion-based vaccine adjuvants have been administered to far more people than any other adjuvant, especially since the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. The number of clinical safety and immunogenicity evaluations of vaccines containing emulsion adjuvants has correspondingly mushroomed. In this review, the authors introduce emulsion adjuvant composition and history before detailing the most recent findings from clinical and postmarketing data regarding the effects of emulsion adjuvants on vaccine immunogenicity and safety, with emphasis on the most widely distributed emulsion adjuvants, MF59® and AS03. The authors also present a summary of other emulsion adjuvants in clinical development and indicate promising avenues for future emulsion-based adjuvant development. Overall, emulsion adjuvants have demonstrated potent adjuvant activity across a number of disease indications along with acceptable safety profiles.

  19. Study of nuclear interactions of 400 GeV protons in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.; Kullberg, R.; Stenlund, E.; Andersson, B.; Nilsson, G.; Kim, C.O.; Lorry, J.; Meton, C.; Schune, D.; Chu, T.; Villot, B.; Kaiser, R.; Vincent, M.A.; Baumann, G.; Devienne, R.; Schmitt, R.; Adamovic, O.; Juric, M.; Bolta, J.M.; Sanchis, M.A.; Bravo, L.; Niembro, R.; Ruiz, A.; Villar, E.

    1977-05-01

    400 GeV inelastic proton-emulsion nucleus interactions from an International Emulsion Group experiment at Fermilab are reported. The results are compared with the corresponding data at 67-300 GeV. (Auth.)

  20. Dorsal skinfold chamber models in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiter, Jeannine

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: The use of dorsal skinfold chamber models has substantially improved the understanding of micro-vascularisation in pathophysiology over the last eight decades. It allows pathophysiological studies of vascularisation over a continuous period of time. The dorsal skinfold chamber is an attractive technique for monitoring the vascularisation of autologous or allogenic transplants, wound healing, tumorigenesis and compatibility of biomaterial implants. To further reduce the animals’ discomfort while carrying the dorsal skinfold chamber, we developed a smaller chamber (the Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber and summarized the commercial available chamber models. In addition we compared our model to the common chamber. Methods: The Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber was applied to female mice with a mean weight of 22 g. Angiogenesis within the dorsal skinfold chamber was evaluated after injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran with an Axio Scope microscope. The mean vessel density within the dorsal skinfold chamber was assessed over a period of 21 days at five different time points. The gained data were compared to previous results using a bigger and heavier dorsal skinfold model in mice. A PubMed and a patent search were performed and all papers related to “dorsal skinfold chamber” from 1 of January 2006 to 31 of December 2015 were evaluated regarding the dorsal skinfold chamber models and their technical improvements. The main models are described and compared to our titanium Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber model.Results: The Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber fulfils all requirements of continuous models known from previous chamber models while reducing irritation to the mice. Five different chamber models have been identified showing substantial regional diversity. The newly elaborated titanium dorsal skinfold chamber may replace the pre-existing titanium chamber model used in Germany so far, as it is smaller and lighter