WorldWideScience

Sample records for emulsifiers

  1. Emulsified Water Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tuğçe AKSUN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seafood is very important depending on having high protein rate and easily digestibility by human, for supply to an important part of animal protein needed. Determining the quality of emulsion-type products, emulsion stability, viscosity and gel strength properties are very important. In the production of products specified in this property emulsion; the main protein ratio and properties of raw material used while you; emulsion pH, temperature, ionic violence, mixing speed, type of fat and additives that are used as well. Previous studies show that particularly of products resulting from water emulsified chicken and goat meat emulsified product obtained from a high capacity of emulsified and compared to cattle and sheep meat is close to specifications, preparation of emulsified type products may be appropriate for the use of fish meat. Another quality parameter in the emulsified meat products, viscosity depends on the amount of meat used in direct proportion with the texture. Fish meat animals in connective tissue connective tissue in meat other butchers to rate ratio is quite low. In this respect, the fish meat produced using emulsified products viscosity according to products prepared using other meat products is quite low. Fish meat produced using emulsified fish sausage products based on surimi, sausage and fish pate fish varieties classed emulsion type products. In this review the different types of seafood using emulsified meat product.

  2. When oil spills emulsify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.; Fingas, M.; Tennyson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Cleanup operations of oil spills must take into account the numerous detrimental effects attributable to the emulsification of spilled oil into a stable water-in-oil mousse. The incorporation of water greatly increases the volume of the polluted material. The viscous nature of mousse impedes the efficient operation of most mechanical recovery equipment and results in a cohesive slick that resists dispersion, both natural and artificial. The rate at which spilled oil emulsifies determines the effective window of opportunity for specific countermeasures. Much has been learned from previous studies on petroleum emulsification, but is still remain a poorly understood phenomenon. Although most crude oils can be emulsified, not all spills result in the formation of stable mousse. The formation of mousse results from a complex series of processes. Whether an oil will form mousse or not, and if so, at what rate, depends on an array of different factors including the properties of the oil and the prevailing environmental conditions. We need a greater understanding of the emulsification process to better predict the emulsification behavior of oil spills and utilize the most appropriate countermeasures available. In this paper, the authors report on work to elucidate the role that physicochemical factors play in determining an oil's tendency to emulsify. The authors studied the emulsification behavior of oils of known composition to examine the importance of oil chemistry in the emulsification process

  3. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jia Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  4. Phenolipids as antioxidants in emulsified systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Bayrasy, Christelle; Laguerre, Mickäel

    Lipid oxidation is a major issue in foods containing LC PUFA and substantial efforts have been made to protect lipids against oxidation. Recent studies carried out with phenolipids (lipophilized phenolics) in emulsified systems have shown that increased lipophilicity did not necessarily lead...... antioxidant effect has been shown to be influenced by the specific phenolic compound and the type of emulsion. The overall aim for our work was to evaluate phenolipids with different lipophilicity as antioxidants in emulsified food. In the study presented here caffeic, ferulic and coumaric acid were selected...... along with their corresponding alkyl esters (C4-C20). The methods used to evaluate the antioxidative effect of the different phenolipids were the CAT assay (o/w emulsion), antioxidant assays (DPPH, Iron chelating and reducing power) and partitioning studies. Moreover, the results from the CAT assay...

  5. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction...... of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  6. Understanding the effect of emulsifiers on bread aeration during breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, Raquel; Hernando, Isabel; Llorca, Empar; Rosell, Cristina M

    2018-04-24

    Much research has been done to explain the action of emulsifiers during breadmaking, but there is still plenty unknown to elucidate their functionality despite their diverse chemical structure. The aim of the present study was to provide some light on the role of emulsifiers on air incorporation into the dough and gas bubbles progress during baking and their relationship with bread features. Emulsifiers like diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL), distilled monoglyceride (DMG-45 and DMG-75), lecithin and polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (PGEF) were tested in very hydrated doughs. Emulsifiers increase the maximum dough volume during proofing. Emulsifiers increase the number of bubbles incorporated during mixing, observing higher number of bubbles, particularly with PGEF. Major changes in dough occurred at 70 K when bubble size augmented, becoming more heterogeneous. DMG-75 produced the biggest bubbles. As a consequence, emulsifiers tend to increase the number of gas cells with lower size in the bread crumb, but led to greater crumb firmness, which suggested different interactions between emulsifiers and gluten, affecting protein polymerization during baking. The progress of the bubbles during baking allowed the differentiation of emulsifiers, which could explain their performance in breadmaking. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Study of flotation performance of kerosene after ultrasonic emulsified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang Wen-ze; Wang Hui; Kong Xiao-hong; Lu Yu-ting; Hu Jung [Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, Harbin (China). School of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2008-01-15

    A Setaram calorimeter, a contact angle gauge DCAT21, surface tension apparatus and a Leica electron microscope were used to study the nature of emulsified kerosene and kerosene and their effects on slime. Batch flotation tests were carried out. The results show that the particle diameter of emulsified kerosene, the dispersibility in water, the wetting heat with slime, changing contact angle and decreasing gas-solution interfacial tension are all better than those of kerosene. The consumption of emulsified kerosene is only one third of that of kerosene when equivalent yields of clean coal are obtained. The flotation speed of emulsified kerosene is faster than that of kerosene. The yield of clean coal with emulsified kerosene is higher than that of kerosene by 7.38% and the ash content of clean coal emulsified in kerosene is lower than that of kerosene by 0.98% when equivalent amounts of the two reagents are used in the flotation process. The study shows that flotation selectivity and efficiency of emulsified kerosene are all higher than those of kerosene and the consumption of reagent is lower than that of kerosene. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Produced water treatment for beneficial use : emulsified oil removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisi, Basma

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel carbon material, high accessible surface area, interconnected porosity, and stable nanofiber nonwoven media for emulsified oil droplets separation from oily wastewater, in particular for oilfields produced water treatment, is discussed in this thesis. Firstly, the quantity

  9. CHAIN EXTENDER AND EMULSIFIER APPLICATION IN IRON ORE FLOTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the reverse flotation performance of iron ore, using collector (amine, in the presence and absence of chain extender (diesel oil and emulsifier (sodium lauryl sulfate.Six tests were realized with duplicate. Tests using amine, diesel oil and sodium lauryl sulphate show the better results, with metallurgical recovery of 91.82% and the concentrate silica equal 1.68%. Thus, it is found that the use of emulsifier and chain extender together with the amine, shows better results in the flotation, in terms of metal recovery and selectivity, when compared to using only amine or amine and diesel oil.

  10. Enzymatic preparation and characterization of soybean lecithin-based emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Reddy Jala

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple enzymatic methods were developed for the synthesis of lysolecithin, glycerolyzed lecithin and hydrolyzed lecithin. The products were characterized in terms of their acetone insoluble matter, hexane insoluble matter, moisture, phospholipid distribution and fatty acid composition. The HLB value ranges of different products with different acid values were detected. The efficiency of optimally hydrolyzed lecithin was examined at high calcium ion, low pH, and aqueous solutions and compared with commercially available standard lecithin-based emulsifiers. Overall, lysolecithin powder was proven to be the best emulsifier even at strong and medium acidic conditions.

  11. Enzymatic preparation and characterization of soybean lecithin-based emulsifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy Jala, R.C.; Chen, B.; Li, H.; Zhang, Y.; Cheong, L.Z.; Yang, T.; Xu, X.

    2016-01-01

    Simple enzymatic methods were developed for the synthesis of lysolecithin, glycerolyzed lecithin and hydrolyzed lecithin. The products were characterized in terms of their acetone insoluble matter, hexane insoluble matter, moisture, phospholipid distribution and fatty acid composition. The HLB value ranges of different products with different acid values were detected. The efficiency of optimally hydrolyzed lecithin was examined at high calcium ion, low pH, and aqueous solutions and compared with commercially available standard lecithin-based emulsifiers. Overall, lysolecithin powder was proven to be the best emulsifier even at strong and medium acidic conditions. [es

  12. Emulsifier development for high-concentrated reverse emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Kovalenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The reverse emulsions have found broad application in ore mining industry as matrixes of emulsion explosive substances and boring washing waters. The defining characteristic of reverse emulsions of industrial explosive substances is the high stability and immunity to crystallization. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the mechanism of emulsifiers effect like SMO and some PIBSA-derivatives, that are most abundantly used in world practice, and also to develop an effective domestic emulsifier of reverse emulsions. Materials and methods: Using the semi-dynamic method with use of the reverse stalagmometer it was determined the decreasing in interfacial tension on “water / diesel fuel” border in the presence of 0.5 wt % sorbitan monooleate of various producers. Emulsions with use of the chosen emulsifiers using the dynamic mixer on the basis of monosolution of ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel have been produced. The emulsions have the following composition, wt %: ammonium nitrate – 76.8; water – 15.6; diesel fuel – 6.0; emulsifier – 1.6. Results: By the researches results of the interfacial tension “surfactant water / solution in diesel fuel”, the stability of emulsions using monosolution of ammonium nitrate and the IR spectrums of SMO of various producers it is established that presence in product of impurity of oleic acid, di- and trioleates leads to decreasing in interphase activity, increasing of emulsifier oil solubility and decreasing the resistance of emulsions to crystallization. On the basis of the spectral data analysis it is suggested about possibility of specific interaction on the mechanism of “spectral resonance” between emulsifiers of the PIBSA-MEA, LZX type and crystals nucleus of NH4NO3 ammonium nitrate in dispersed phase of emulsion. Amidation of vegetable oils by monoethanol amine is implemented at the reduced temperatures (90…100 °C. It was proved the availability mainly of fatty acids amides in product

  13. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

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    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani* Hasan.H.Al-Baid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.  

  14. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.

  15. An Integrated Methodology for Emulsified Formulated Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele

    are mixed together to determine the desired emulsified product. They are still mainly designed and analysed through trial - and - error based exper- imental techniques, therefore a systematic approach , integrating model-based as well a s experiment - based techniques, for design of these products could......The consumer oriented chemical based products are used every day by millions of people. They are structured products constituted of numerous chemicals, and many of them, especially household and personal care products, are emulsions where active ingredients, solvents, additives and surfactants...... significantly reduce both time and cost connected to product development by doing only the necessary experi- ments , and ensuring chances for innovation . The main contribution of this project i s the development of an integrated methodology for the design of emulsified formulated products. The methodology...

  16. Keeping gut lining at bay: impact of emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cani, Patrice D; Everard, Amandine

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with altered gut microbiota and low-grade inflammation. Both dietary habits and food composition contribute to the onset of such diseases. Emulsifiers, compounds commonly used in a variety of foods, were shown to induce body weight gain, low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders. These dietary compounds promote gut microbiota alteration and gut barrier dysfunction leading to negative metabolic alterations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation and characterization of a self-emulsifying pellet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ahmed; Mäder, Karsten

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the feasibility of producing solid self-emulsifying pellets using the extrusion/spheronization technique. Pellets were made from a mixture of C18 partial glycerides, Solutol HS15 and microcrystalline cellulose. Pellets with good physical properties (size, shape, friability) and self-emulsifying properties were produced. The pellets were, in contrast to pellets lacking Solutol, able to transfer a lipophilic dye and a spin probe into the aqueous media. The release kinetics and the microenvironment of the pellets during the release process were assessed using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The ESR results showed that the hydrophobic spin probe was localized mainly in the lipid environment all over the release time. Furthermore, the formulation was capable of accelerating the release of the drug diazepam and achieving a diazepam concentration above its saturation solubility. In conclusion, spherical pellets with low friability and self-emulsifying properties can be produced by the standard extrusion/spheronization technique. The pellets are capable of transfering lipophilic compounds into the aqueous phase and have a high potential to increase the bioavailability of lipophilic drugs.

  18. Biopharmaceutical insights of particulate emulsified systems - a prospective overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katamreddy, Jyothshna Devi; Yalavarthi, Prasanna Raju; D, Subba Rao; Battu, Sowjanya; Peesa, Jaya Preethi

    2018-05-10

    During the twenty-first century, drug discovery is expanding rapidly and a large number of chemical moieties are recognized. Many of them are poorly soluble and hence related biopharmaceutical constraints are to be addressed systematically. Among novel approaches to resolving biopharmaceutical issues, micro- and nano-emulsified systems serve as the best strategy for delivering both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs owing to their greater solubilization and transportation capabilities. Of late, the unique physical and biopharmaceutical properties of these liquid isotropic homogenous systems have gained substantive research importance. In addition nano/micro lipid systems share structural and functional similarity with that of the physiological lipids which offer better tolerance ability in the body. In this context, this article provides information on the historical emergence of particulate emulsified systems, importance and rationale of selection of carriers. It also encompasses the physicochemical principles that are responsible for the elevation of therapeutic outcomes of delivery systems. Detailed and schematic absorption of these drug delivery systems is explained here. Gastro-intestinal biochemistry necessary in the understanding of digestion process, lipolytic products formed, micellar structures, enzymes, transporters, mechanism of cell uptake involved after subsequent oral absorption are also emphasized. In addition, this article also explains disposition and pharmacokinetic properties of emulsified systems with real-time therapeutic research outcomes. The influence of biochemical compositions and biopharmaceutical principles on absorption and disposition patterns of ME/NEs was described in the article for the interest of readers and young researchers.

  19. Optimization of Emulsifying Effectiveness of Phytosterol in Milk Using Two-Level Fractional Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yunxia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper emulsifying effects of seven emulsifiers including Tween 80, Span 80, tripolyglycerol monostearate, sodium stearoyl lactylate, sucrose ester, soy lecithin and monoglyceride on phytosterol in milk were investigated using single factor test and fractional factorial design. The addition for seven emulsifiers were in the following concentrations: 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5% and 0.6%. The results revealed that tripolyglycerol monostearate, sucrose ester and monoglyceride had a significant emulsifying effect on phytosterol in milk, Tripolyglycerol monostearate showed a positive emulsifying effect on phytosterol in milk, while sucrose ester and monoglyceride exhibited a negative emulsifying effect on phytosterol in milk.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of nattokinase-loaded self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaona; Jiang, Sifan; Wang, Xinyue; Liao, Jie; Yin, Zongning

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we prepared nattokinase-loaded self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system (SDEDDS) and investigated its preliminary pharmacodynamics. The type and concentration of oil phase, inner aqueous phase and emulsifier were screened to prepare optimum nattokinase-loaded SDEDDS. Next, the optimum formulations were characterized based on microstructure, volume-weighted mean droplet size, self-emulsifying rate, yield, storage stability, in vitro release and in vivo pharmacodynamic...

  1. Experimental investigation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines by a novel emulsified diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenbin; Wang, Xiaochen; Pei, Yiqiang; Zhang, Chengliang; Xiao, Mingwei; He, Jinge

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel bio-fuel, glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel, is evaluated. • Emulsified diesel has comparable brake thermal efficiency. • NO X emissions decrease with emulsified fuel at all loads. • Soot emissions decrease with emulsified fuel except at a few operating points. - Abstract: The subject of this paper was to study the performance and emissions of two typical diesel engines using glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified diesel with a 15% glucose solution by mass fraction was used in diesel engines and compared with pure diesel. For the agricultural diesel engine, performance and emission characteristics were measured under various engine loads. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiencies were improved using emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified fuel decreased NO x and soot emissions except at a few specific operating conditions. HydroCarbon (HC) and CO emissions were increased. For the automotive diesel engine, performance and emissions were measured using the 13-mode European Stationary Cycle (ESC). It was found that brake thermal efficiencies of emulsified diesel and pure diesel were comparable at 75% and 100% load. Soot emissions decreased significantly while NO x emissions decreased slightly. HC emissions increased while CO emissions decreased at some operating conditions

  2. Using oily wastewater emulsified fuel in boiler: energy saving and reduction of air pollutant emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    2008-01-01

    The limited data for using emulsified oil have demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing flue gas pollutant emissions. The presence of a high concentration of toxic organic compounds in industrial wastewaters always presents significant problems. Therefore, this study was undertaken by using wastewater with COD of 9600 mg/L and total petroleum hydrocarbons-gasoline 440 mg/L for making an emulsified oil (wastewater content 20% with 0.1% surfactant) to evaluate the extent of reductions in both criteria pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For comparison, two other systems (heavy oil fuel and water-emulsified oil) were also conducted. The wastewater-emulsified oil fuel results in significant reductions in particulate matter (PM), NO(x), SO2, and CO as compared to heavy oil fuel and similar to those from water/oil emulsified fuel; for PM, it is better in wastewater-emulsified oil. The reductions of total PAH flue gas emissions are 38 and 30% for wastewater- and water-emulsified fuel, respectively; they are 63 and 44% for total BaP(eq), respectively. In addition to reducing flue gas pollutant emissions, the results also demonstrate that the use of wastewater-emulsified fuel in boiler operation provides several advantages: (1) safe disposal of industrial wastewater; and (2) energy savings of about 13%. Thus, wastewater/oil-emulsified fuel is highly suitable for use in boilers.

  3. Emulsifying property of a viscous exopolysaccharide fromSphingomonas paucimobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtaputre, A A; Shah, A K

    1995-03-01

    A viscous exopolysaccharide fromSphingomonas paucimobilis-GS1, emulsified xylene, benzene, 2-methylnaphthalene, hexadecane, hexane, kerosene and paraffin oil as well as castor, coconut and olive oils when used at 1 mg/ml. It stabilized the emulsions more efficiently than commercial gums such as arabic, tragacanth, karaya and xanthan. Emulsions were stable for 6 months, from 4 to 40°C and pH 4 to 10 and in the presence of NaCl up to 50 g/l. The polysaccharide had no discernible toxicity towards mice when tested using World Health Organization guidelines.

  4. Protein nativity explains emulsifying properties of aqueous extracted protein components from yellow pea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Marlies E.J.; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Padt, van der Albert

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the emulsifying properties of a protein-enriched fraction from pea are unravelled. The emulsifying properties of mildly fractionated protein fractions from yellow pea and compared to those of commercial pea protein isolate. The emulsion stability of an oil-in-water emulsions were

  5. The emulsifying and tribological properties of modified graphene oxide in oil-in-water emulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yinglei; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Ren, Tianhui; de Vries, Erik G.; van der Heide, Emile

    2017-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was asymmetric chemically modified with myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) to get modified graphene oxide (MGO). This MGO was used as an emulsifier and additive in oil-in-water emulsion. The emulsifying tests showed MGO greatly improved the stability of base emulsion and

  6. Investigations on burning efficiency and exhaust emission of in-line type emulsified fuel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Y.K. [National Chinyi University of Technology (Taiwan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cheng, H.C. [Point Environmental Protection Technology Company Limited (Taiwan)

    2011-07-28

    In this research, the burning efficiency as well as exhaust emission of a new water-in-oil emulsified fuel system was studied. This emulsified system contains two core processes, the first one is to mix 97% water with 3% emulsifier by volume, and get the milk-like emulsified liquid, while the second one is to compound the milk-like emulsified liquid with heavy oil then obtain the emulsified fuel. In order to overcome the used demulsification problem during in reserve or in transport, this system was designed as a made and use in-line type. From the results of a series of burning tests, the fuel saving can be 8--15%. Also, from the comparison of decline for the heat value and total energy output of emulsified fuel, one can find that the water as the dispersed phase in the combustion process will lead to a micro-explosion as well as the water gas effect, both can raise the combustion temperature and burning efficiency. By comparing the waste gas emission of different types of emulsified fuel, one can know that, the CO2 emission reduces approximately 14%, and NOx emission reduces above 46%, meaning the reduction of the exhaust gas is truly effective. From the exhaust temperature of tail pipe, the waste heat discharge also may reduce 27%, it is quite advantageous to the global warming as well as earth environmental protection.

  7. 21 CFR 524.1742 - N-(Mercaptomethyl) phthalimide S-(O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate) emulsifiable liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... phosphorodithioate) emulsifiable liquid. 524.1742 Section 524.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... phosphorodithioate) emulsifiable liquid. (a) Specifications. The emulsifiable liquid contains 11.6 percent N... soap and water; for eyes, flush with water. Wash all contaminated clothing with soap and hot water...

  8. Application of Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron to Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kathleen B.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Clausen, Christian A.; Geiger, Cherie L.

    2005-01-01

    Contamination of marine waters and sediments with heavy metals and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) including chlorinated solvents, pesticides and PCBs pose ecological and human health risks through the contaminant's potential bioaccumulation in fish, shellfish and avian populations. The contaminants enter marine environments through improper disposal techniques and storm water run-off. Current remediation technologies for application to marine environments include costly dredging and off-site treatment of the contaminated media. Emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) has been proven to effectively degrade dissolved-phase and DNAPL-phase contaminants in freshwater environments on both the laboratory and field-scale level. However, the application to marine environments is only just being explored. This paper discusses the potential use of EZVI in brackish and saltwater environments, with supporting laboratory data detailed. Laboratory studies were performed in 2005 to establish the effectiveness of EZVI to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE) in saltwater. Headspace vials were setup to determine the kinetic rate of TCE degradation using EZVI in seawater. The reaction vials were analyzed by Gas Chromatographic/Flame Ionization Detection (GC/FID) for ethene production after a 48 day period using a GC/FID Purge and Trap system. Analytical results showed that EZVI was very effective at degrading TCE. The reaction by-products (ethene, acetylene and ethane) were produced at 71% of the rate in seawater as in the fresh water controls. Additionally, iron within the EZVI particles was protected from oxidation of the corrosive seawater, allowing EZVI to perform in an environment where zero-valent iron alone could not compete. Laboratory studies were also performed to establish the effectiveness of emulsified zero-valent metal (EZVM) to remove dissolved-phase cadmium and lead found in seawater. EZVM is comprised of a combination of magnesium and iron metal surrounded by the

  9. Influence of using emulsified diesel fuel on the performance and pollutants emitted from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were prepared. • Effect emulsified diesel fuel on diesel engine performance and pollutant emissions. • Using emulsified fuel improves the diesel engine performance and reduces emissions. - Abstract: This manuscript investigates the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions for a water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinders, and direct injection diesel engine. Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, the using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) has a minimum value at 5% water content and 2000 rpm. The torque (T), the break mean effective pressure (BMEP) and thermal efficiency (η th ) are found to have maximum values under these conditions. The emission CO 2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NO x produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions. And as the percentage of water content in the emulsion increases, the emitted amount of oxygen also increases

  10. Treatment of emulsified oils by electrocoagulation: pulsed voltage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Ayten; Bakirci, Busra

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pulsed voltage application on energy consumption during electrocoagulation was investigated. Three voltage profiles having the same arithmetic average with respect to time were applied to the electrodes. The specific energy consumption for these profiles were evaluated and analyzed together with oil removal efficiencies. The effects of applied voltages, electrode materials, electrode configurations, and pH on oil removal efficiency were determined. Electrocoagulation experiments were performed by using synthetic and real wastewater samples. The pulsed voltages saved energy during the electrocoagulation process. In continuous operation, energy saving was as high as 48%. Aluminum electrodes used for the treatment of emulsified oils resulted in higher oil removal efficiencies in comparison with stainless steel and iron electrodes. When the electrodes gap was less than 1 cm, higher oil removal efficiencies were obtained. The highest oil removal efficiencies were 95% and 35% for the batch and continuous operating modes, respectively.

  11. Advances in the generation of a new emulsified fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, A. [Technical Consultancy, Energy Plus UC, Huitzilac, Morelos (Mexico); Ramirez, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Aseguramiento de Hidrocarburos, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Medina, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Termofluidos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bolado, R.; Mora, J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Laboratorio de Combustion, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    The development of a new emulsified fuel is described, from the conceptual idea to the semi-industrial tests of the final product. The starting point was the necessity to lower the particulate matter (PM) emissions produced by the combustion of more than 200 MBD of heavy fuel oil (HFO) used for electric power conversion. The major component of HFO is a vacuum residue of the oil refining process mixed with light cycle oils to make it pumpable. An alternative to handle and burn the high viscosity residue (solid at room temperature) is by converting it in an oil-in-water emulsion. The best emulsions resulted of 70% residue in 30% water, Sauter Mean Diameter of 10-20 {mu}m and a stability of more than 90 days. Spray burning tests of the emulsion against HFO in a semi-industrial 500 kW furnace showed a reduction in PM emissions of 24-36%. (orig.)

  12. Sucrose polyesters from poultry fat as non-ionic emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Mohamed G.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry fats are rich in palmitic and oleic acids are produced as by-products from poultry industries. These fats can be utilized in the preparation of emulsifiers. Sucrose esters of poultry fat are prepared from low-cost poultry fat and sucrose by esterification. The yield of sucrose esters prepared in this work exceeds than 85%. The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB, surface tension, interfacial tension and stability index (SI were evaluated and compared with standard emulsifiers prepared from pure palmitate and oleate esters. Concerning the stability of emulsions, the values of interfacial tension and HLB were higher for the sucrose esters of poultry fat.Las grasas de aves de corral son ricas en ácidos palmítico y oleico y son producidas como subproductos de las industrias avícolas. Estas grasas pueden ser utilizadas en la preparación de emulsionantes. Los ésteres de sacarosa de grasas de aves de corral fueron preparadas a partir de grasas de bajo coste y sacarosa por esterificación. El rendimiento de los ésteres de sacarosa preparados en este trabajo superó el 85%. El balance hidrofílicolipofílico (HLB, tensión superficial, tensión interfacial e índice de estabilidad (SI fueron evaluados y comparados con emulsionantes estandar preparados de ésteres de palmitato y oleato puros. Los valores de tensión interfacial y el HLB fueron más altos en los poliésteres de sacarosa de las grasas de aves de corral.

  13. Stability Emulsion and Sensory Characteristics Low Fat Mayonnaise Using Kefir as Emulsifier Replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herly Evanuarini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mayonnaise is a kind of semi solid oil in water (o/w emulsion which containing pasteurized egg yolk as an emulsifier. The consumers have demanded that the use of egg yolk be reduced. Kefir was used to develop a low fat mayonnaise as emulsifier replacer to egg yolk. The objective of this research was to observe the emulsion stability, sensory characteristics of low fat mayonnaise prepare during kefir as emulsifier replacer. The research method was using experimental design. The result showed that formulation of low fat mayonnaise by using Rice bran oil 40%, kefir 20% produces the optimal low fat mayonnaise in emulsion stability and accepted by the panelist.

  14. Foaming and emulsifying properties of pectin isolated from different plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancheva, Nikoleta; Markova, Daniela; Murdzheva, Dilyana; Vasileva, Ivelina; Slavov, Anton

    2016-03-01

    The foaming and emulsifying properties of pectins obtained from waste rose petals, citrus pressings, grapefruit peels and celery were studied. It was found that the highest foaming capacity showed pectin derived from celery. The effect of pectin concentration on the foaming capacity of pectin solutions was investigated. For all the investigated pectins increasing the concentration led to increase of the foaming capacity. Emulsifying activity and emulsion stability of model emulsion systems (50 % oil phase) with 0.6 % pectic solutions were determined. The highest emulsifying activity and stability showed pectin isolated by dilute acid extraction from waste rose petals.

  15. Foaming and emulsifying properties of pectin isolated from different plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancheva Nikoleta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The foaming and emulsifying properties of pectins obtained from waste rose petals, citrus pressings, grapefruit peels and celery were studied. It was found that the highest foaming capacity showed pectin derived from celery. The effect of pectin concentration on the foaming capacity of pectin solutions was investigated. For all the investigated pectins increasing the concentration led to increase of the foaming capacity. Emulsifying activity and emulsion stability of model emulsion systems (50 % oil phase with 0.6 % pectic solutions were determined. The highest emulsifying activity and stability showed pectin isolated by dilute acid extraction from waste rose petals.

  16. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by oxidised phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Eun, J.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by different oxidised phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid at different concentrations were investigated. Oxidised phenolic compounds were covalently attached to gelatin as

  17. Enhancement of emulsifier production by Curvularia lunata in cadmium, zinc and lead presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Frycie, Aleksandra; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy

    2007-10-01

    The influence of cadmium, zinc and lead on fungal emulsifier synthesis and on the growth of filamentous fungus Curvularia lunata has been studied. Tolerance to heavy metals established for C. lunata was additionally compared with the sensitivity exhibited by strains of Curvularia tuberculata and Paecilomyces marquandii-fungi which do not secrete compounds of emulsifying activity. Although C. lunata, as the only one out of all studied fungi, exhibited the lowest tolerance to heavy metals when grown on a solid medium (in conditions preventing emulsifier synthesis), it manifested the highest tolerance in liquid culture - in conditions allowing exopolymer production. Cadmium, zinc and lead presented in liquid medium up to a concentration of 15 mM had no negative effect on C. lunata growth and stimulated emulsifier synthesis. In the presence of 15 mM of heavy metals, both the emulsifier and 24-h-old growing mycelium exhibited maximum sorption capacities, which were determined as 18.2 +/- 2.67, 156.1 +/- 10.32 mg g(-1) for Cd2+, 22.2 +/- 3.40, 95.2 +/- 14.21 mg g(-1) for Zn2+ and 51.1 +/- 1.85, 230.0 +/- 28.47 mg g(-1) for Pb2+ respectively. The results obtained by us in this work indicate that the emulsifier acts as a protective compound increasing the ability of C. lunata to survive in heavy metal polluted environment. Enhancement of exopolymer synthesis in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ may also suggest, at least to some extent, a metal-specific nature of emulsifier production in C. lunata. Due to accumulation capability and tolerance to heavy metals, C. lunata mycelium surrounded by the emulsifier could be applied for toxic metal removal.

  18. The role of endogenous lipids in the emulsifying properties of cocoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Joanne; Furse, Samuel; Wolf, Bettina

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a study in which the emulsifying properties of cocoa material with and without its lipid fraction were explored. This study was motivated by the commercial interest in naturally-occurring particulate emulsifiers as opposed to the chemically modified emulsifying particles presently available for commercial use. The hypothesis was that endogenous lipids from cocoa were responsible for driving the formation of stable oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The data presented includes relative quantification of phospholipids from different commercially available cocoa material using 31P NMR spectroscopy and analyses of the emulsifying power of delipidified cocoa material. The commercially available cocoa material comprised several phospholipids, with phosphatidylcholine being the most abundant in all samples. Dispersions of delipidified cocoa material were found to drive the formation of o/w emulsions despite the absence of lipids. We therefore concluded that the emulsifying behaviour of cocoa material is not entirely reliant upon the endogenous lipids. This suggests that cocoa material may have a new and potentially widespread use in industrial food preparation and may inform manufacturing strategies for novel food grade emulsifiers.

  19. The Ratios of Pre-emulsified Duck Skin for Optimized Processing of Restructured Ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Yun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Ahn, Kwang-Il; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of duck ham formulated with duck skin through the pre-emulsification process. The experiments to investigate the quality characteristics of duck ham were carried out to measure proximate composition, cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics. Duck ham was prepared with various ratios of duck skin in pre-emulsion as follows: Control (duct skin 30%), T1 (duck skin 20% + pre-emulsified duck skin 10%), T2 (duck skin 15% + pre-emulsified duck skin 15%), T3 (duck skin 10% + pre-emulsified duck skin 20%), and T4 (pre-emulsified duck skin 30%). As the ratio of duck skin to pre-emulsified skin changed, the quality of duck ham in terms of moisture content, fat content, cooking loss, emulsion stability, lightness, textural analysis, apparent viscosity, and overall acceptability changed. The moisture content of T2 was the highest ( p ham and 1:1 ratio of duck skin and pre-emulsified skin was the proper ratio to improve the quality characteristics of duck ham.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of nattokinase-loaded self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we prepared nattokinase-loaded self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system (SDEDDS and investigated its preliminary pharmacodynamics. The type and concentration of oil phase, inner aqueous phase and emulsifier were screened to prepare optimum nattokinase-loaded SDEDDS. Next, the optimum formulations were characterized based on microstructure, volume-weighted mean droplet size, self-emulsifying rate, yield, storage stability, in vitro release and in vivo pharmacodynamics studies. The water/oil/water multiple emulsions exhibited typical multiple structure, with relatively small volume-weighted mean droplet size 6.0 ± 0.7 μm and high self-emulsifying ability (self-emulsifying time <2 min. Encapsulation of nattokinase was up to 86.8 ± 8.2%. The cumulative release of nattokinase within 8 h was about 30%, exhibiting a sustained release effect. The pharmacodynamics study indicated that nattokinase-loaded SDEDDS could significantly prolong the whole blood clotting time in mouse and effectively improve the carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis compared with nattokinase solution. Moreover, we showed that SDEDDS could successfully self-emulsify into water/oil/water multiple emulsions upon dilution in dispersion medium with gentle stirring and effectively protect nattokinase activity in gastric environment. Our findings suggested that SDEDDS could be a promising strategy for peptide and protein drugs by oral administration.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of the emulsifying characteristics of pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, A.C.; Guzdar, A.R.; Friswell, D.R.

    1973-10-01

    The program was devoted to a laboratory investigation of the emulsifying characteristics of different pumps suitable for shipboard pumping of bilge and ballast water oily wastes. The tests were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters, such as oil type, input oil concentration, detergent, pump operating characteristics (pressure and flow rate), and salt vs. fresh water, on emulsification. Tests were conducted on the Foster-Miller test loop. No. 2 fuel oil, lubricating oil and No. 6 fuel oil were the oils tested at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10%. The oils were tested with and without the addition of 10% Gamlen D surfactant. The pumps used were a Parker Diaphragm pump, a Blackmer Sliding Vane pump, an Ingersoll Rand Centrifugal pump, and a Deming Centrifugal pump. Pump pressure ranged from 10 to 60 psi and flow rates from 10 to 100 gpm. A total of 270 tests was conducted covering 198 different operating points, 108 concerning pump comparison, 54 concerning oil concentration and surfactant, and 45 concerning salt water.

  2. Effect of emulsifier type, pH and iron on oxidative stability of 5% fish oil‐in‐water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The effect of using different emulsifiers on lipid oxidation in 5% w/w fish oil‐in‐water emulsions was investigated. Emulsifiers included two of milk protein origin (whey protein isolate (Whey) or sodium caseinate (Cas)), soy lecithin (Lec) or emulsifiers high in milk phospholipid (20 or 75...... iron) or 42 days (without added iron). Physical parameters and oxidative stability of the emulsions were investigated by analysis of particle size, zeta potential, primary and secondary oxidation products. Increase in emulsifier concentration generally increased the oxidative stability. Type...... of emulsifier and physical conditions affected the physical and oxidative stability of the emulsions. A general observation was that emulsions produced with the milk protein based emulsifiers were more oxidatively stable compared with the other emulsions. Practical applications: The overall conclusion from...

  3. Preparation and evaluation of Vinpocetine self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengqi; Zhang, Shiming; Cui, Shuxia; Chen, Fen; Jia, Lianqun; Wang, Shu; Gai, Xiumei; Li, Pingfei; Yang, Feifei; Pan, Weisan; Yang, Xinggang

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a pH gradient release pellet with self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), which could not only improve the oral bioavailability of Vinpocetine (VIN), a poor soluble drug, but reduce the fluctuation of plasma concentration. First, the liquid VIN SEDDS formulation was prepared. Then the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets were prepared by extrusion spheronization technique, and formulation consisted by the liquid SEDDS, absorbent (colloidal silicon dioxide), penetration enhancer (sodium chloride), microcrystalline cellulose, ethyl alcohol, and three coating materials (HPMC, Eudragit L30D55, Eudragit FS30D) were eventually selected. Three kinds of coated pellets were mixed in capsules with the mass ratio of 1:1:1. The release curves of capsules were investigated in vitro under the simulated gastrointestinal conditions. In addition, the oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of VIN self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets, commercial tablets and liquid VIN SEDDS were evaluated in Beagle dogs. The oral bioavailability of self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets was about 149.8% of commercial VIN tablets, and it was about 86% of liquid VIN SEDDS, but there were no significant difference between liquid SEDDS and self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets. In conclusion, the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets could significantly enhance the absorption of VIN and effectively achieve a pH gradient release. And the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellet was a promising method to improve bioavailability of insoluble drugs.

  4. Thermal, emulsifying and rheological properties of polysaccharides sequentially extracted from Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi-Xin; Shi, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Li, Ling; Jiang, Li; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Plant polysaccharides are widely used in food industry as thickening and gelling agents and these attributes largely depend on their thermal, emulsifying and rheological properties. As known, the extraction methods always bring about the diversification of property and functions of polysaccharides. Thus, the Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb leaves polysaccharides (VBTLP) were sequentially extracted using hot buffer (HBSS), chelating agent (CHSS), dilute alkaline (DASS) and concentrated alkaline (CASS). The thermal, emulsifying and rheological properties of VBTLP were investigated in the present study. Within the range of 20-225°C, CHSS showed the highest peak temperature, whereas HBSS displayed the highest endothermic enthalpy and highest emulsifying activity, while, CASS showed the longest emulsifying stability. The VBTLP solutions exhibited non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior within the concentrations of 0.6-2.5%. The apparent viscosity of VBTLP solution decreased under following conditions: acidic pH (4.0), alkaline pH (10.0), in the presence of Ca 2+ and at high temperature, while it increased in the presence of Na + and at freezing conditions. The modulus G' and G″ of VBTLP solutions were increased with increasing oscillation frequency, and the crossover frequency shifted to lower values when the polysaccharide content increased. The above results of thermal, emulsifying and rheological properties of VBTLPs supplied the basis for V. bracteatum leaves in potential industrial applications of foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL, and lecithin (LC; and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50. Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13% and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27% compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking.

  6. Production of a New Emulsifier Material for the Formation Heavy Hydrocarbon/Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Farahbakhsh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsifiers are a unique class of compounds that have proved to have a variety of potential applications in formation of hydrocarbon in water emulsion, in enhancement of oil recovery and in the reduction of heavy oil viscosity. In this paper, a bio emulsifier was synthesized by a strain of Bacillus licheniformis and was separated by an autoclave and centrifugal process; the purification of bio emulsifier and the increase quality of product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H2SO4 (98% to the solution and centrifuging this compound again. This bio emulsifier has the property of emulsification to a wide range of heavy hydrocarbon to form a stable hydrocarbon-water emulsion. This bio emulsifier could reduce Iranian Nuroze high viscosity oil of about 10000 cP down to 250 cP. This means about 97% decreases in the viscosity. The emulsion stable this condition for 48 hr and the viscosity slowly increases to 4000cp until 192 hr. The stability of the oil in water emulsion during 48hr allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over lengthy distances or remain stable for long periods of time prior to utilization.

  7. The effect of different emulsifiers on the eggless cake properties containing WPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilian Movahhed, Mohammad; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Koocheki, Arash; Milani, Elnaz

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of complete replacement of egg proteins with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and improvement in quality by different emulsifiers was evaluated. Three emulsifiers, including polyglycerol ester (PGE), distilled mono glyceride (DMG) and lecithin were used to bake eggless cakes, containing 8% (w/w) WPC. The response surface analysis was applied to study the effect of emulsifiers on the eggless cake properties. The emulsifiers, individually and interactively, improved the properties of the eggless cakes significantly. The PGE and DMG decreased the batter density, however lecithin increased it. All emulsifiers increased the porosity and volume of the eggless cakes, but decreased the hardness and gumminess of crumb and improved the sensory acceptance. The indices used for optimization of formulation were water activity, moisture content, hardness, gumminess, volume, porosity and total acceptance. The optimum quality of the eggless cake can be achieved from a combination of 0.5 PGE, 0.25 DMG and 0.5% lecithin. The experimental and predicted responses of the optimized eggless cake had a good resemblance.

  8. Encapsulation of magnetic nanoparticles with polystyrene via emulsifier-free miniemulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faridi-Majidi, R. [School of Chemistry, University College of Science, Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: refaridi@khayam.ut.ac.ir; Sharifi-Sanjani, N. [School of Chemistry, University College of Science, Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Agend, F. [Malek-Ashtar University, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-09-25

    Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), with an average size of about 10 nm, were encapsulated with polystyrene using a new method based on emulsifier-free miniemulsion polymerization in the presence of 2, 2' azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (V-50) as a cationic ionizable water-soluble initiator and hexadecane as a hydrophobe. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved the presence of magnetite in polymer particles which appeared to be monodisperse in size, approximately 100-300 nm in diameter, through TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurement was used to determine the percentage of magnetite in the products. The results of emulsifier-free miniemulsion polymerization were compared with those of conventional emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization using (V-50) as the initiator in both cases.

  9. Encapsulation of magnetic nanoparticles with polystyrene via emulsifier-free miniemulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridi-Majidi, R.; Sharifi-Sanjani, N.; Agend, F.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 ), with an average size of about 10 nm, were encapsulated with polystyrene using a new method based on emulsifier-free miniemulsion polymerization in the presence of 2, 2' azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (V-50) as a cationic ionizable water-soluble initiator and hexadecane as a hydrophobe. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved the presence of magnetite in polymer particles which appeared to be monodisperse in size, approximately 100-300 nm in diameter, through TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurement was used to determine the percentage of magnetite in the products. The results of emulsifier-free miniemulsion polymerization were compared with those of conventional emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization using (V-50) as the initiator in both cases

  10. Influence of gamma radiation and freezing on emulsifying capacity of trash fish muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.K.; Lewis, N.F.

    1979-01-01

    The authors examined meat taken from seven different types of fish to determine its emulsifying capacity, i.e. once after treatment with γ-rays and once after frozen storage. The results showed that the shelf life of refrigerated trash fish with a low γ-radiation dose (100 Krad), which hardly affected the emulsifying capacity of the fishmeat, can be considerably extended. Trash fis frozen at -18 0 C should (apart from a few exceptions) be processed at the latest after one month's storage. Generally speaking however the emulsifying capacity of the fish musculature fell much more quickly in all species of fish after irradiation than it did during frozen storage. (orig./MG) 891 MG/orig.- 892 HIS [de

  11. Surface Enrichment by Conventional and Polymerizable Sulfated Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Emulsifiers in Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilin Zhang; Yuxi Zhao; Matthew R. Dubay; Steven J. Severtson; Larry E. Gwin; Carl J. Houtman

    2013-01-01

    Comparisons of properties are made for pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) generated via emulsion polymerization using both conventional and reactive emulsifiers. The emulsifiers are ammonium salts of sulfated nonylphenol ethoxylates with similar chemical structures and hydrophilic−lipophilic balances. The polymerizable surfactant possesses a reactive double...

  12. Evaluation of emulsifier stability of biosurfactant produced by Saccharomyces lipolytica CCT-0913

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Álvaro Silva; Alegre,Ranulfo Monte

    2009-01-01

    Surface-active compounds of biological origin are widely used for many industries (cosmetic, food, petrochemical). The Saccharomyces lipolytica CCT-0913 was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant on 5% (v/v) diesel-oil at pH 5.0 and 32ºC. The cell-free broth emulsified and stabilized the oil-in-water emulsion through a first order kinetics. The results showed that the initial pH value and temperature influenced the emulsifier stability (ES), which was the time when oil was separated. The bi...

  13. Effect of Salts on the Emulsifying Properties of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) Seed Flour

    OpenAIRE

    H.O. Adubiaro; O. Olaofe; E.T. Akintayo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of salts NaCl, CaCl2 KCl, CH3 CO2 Na and NaNO3 on the emulsifying properties of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) flour were investigated. Simple and objective means that allowed precise determination of the inversion point was used in investigating the capacity of the protein to emulsify fat. Its relative efficiency as emulsion stabilizer was also investigated. Results showed that the emulsion capacity decreased with increase in salt concentrations and also there was a decrease in emuls...

  14. Emulsifying triglycerides with dairy phospholipids instead of soy lecithin modulates gut lipase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Jakob Hovalt; Nejrup, Rikke Guldhammer; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    in particular to limit fatty acid absorption in babies given infant formulas. Since interaction between the lipid droplet and the gastric and duodenal lipases occur through the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, the composition of the emulsifier may be crucial for efficient hydrolysis. We therefore determined...... hydrolytic rate of gastric lipase and pancreatic lipase, on their own or pancreatic lipase after gastric lipase on TAG droplets of similar size emulsified in either soy lecithin (SL) or in bovine milk phospholipids (MPL), more similar to human milk globule membrane lipids than soy lecithin. Gastric lipase...... for formulas for term-born infants....

  15. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF AN EMULSIFIED HEAVY FUEL OIL IN A FIRETUBE BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of measuring emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion flue gases of a No. 6 fuel oil, both with and without an emulsifying agent, in a 2.5 million Btu/hr (732 kW) firetube boiler with the purpose of determining the impacts of the e...

  16. Natural emulsifiers - Biosurfactants, phospholipids, biopolymers, and colloidal particles: Molecular and physicochemical basis of functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian; Gumus, Cansu Ekin

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing consumer pressure for commercial products that are more natural, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, including foods, cosmetics, detergents, and personal care products. Industry has responded by trying to identify natural alternatives to synthetic functional ingredients within these products. The focus of this review article is on the replacement of synthetic surfactants with natural emulsifiers, such as amphiphilic proteins, polysaccharides, biosurfactants, phospholipids, and bioparticles. In particular, the physicochemical basis of emulsion formation and stabilization by natural emulsifiers is discussed, and the benefits and limitations of different natural emulsifiers are compared. Surface-active polysaccharides typically have to be used at relatively high levels to produce small droplets, but the droplets formed are highly resistant to environmental changes. Conversely, surface-active proteins are typically utilized at low levels, but the droplets formed are highly sensitive to changes in pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Certain phospholipids are capable of producing small oil droplets during homogenization, but again the droplets formed are highly sensitive to changes in environmental conditions. Biosurfactants (saponins) can be utilized at low levels to form fine oil droplets that remain stable over a range of environmental conditions. Some nature-derived nanoparticles (e.g., cellulose, chitosan, and starch) are effective at stabilizing emulsions containing relatively large oil droplets. Future research is encouraged to identify, isolate, purify, and characterize new types of natural emulsifier, and to test their efficacy in food, cosmetic, detergent, personal care, and other products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In situ SERS detection of emulsifiers at lipid interfaces using label-free amphiphilic gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Driver, Michael; Winuprasith, Thunnalin; Zheng, Jinkai; McClements, David Julian; He, Lili

    2014-10-21

    Herein, we fabricated amphiphilic gold nanoparticles (GNPs) that can self-assemble at oil-water interfaces. We applied those GNPs for in situ SERS detection of emulsifier molecules within the interfacial region of oil in water (O/W) emulsion systems.

  18. Effects of inulin on the structure and emulsifying properties of protein components in dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Luo, Denglin; Li, Xuan; Xu, Baocheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Jianxue

    2016-11-01

    High-purity gliadin, glutenin and gluten fractions were extracted from wheat gluten flour. To investigate the effects of three types of inulin with different degrees of polymerization (DP) on the emulsifying properties, disulfide contents, secondary structures and microstructures of these fractions, Turbidimetry, spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in this study. The results showed that the emulsifying activity of gliadin was higher than that of glutenin and gluten, but its emulsion stability was lower than that of glutenin. Adding inulin increased the emulsifying activity of the three protein fractions and emulsion stability of gliadin and gluten, but decreased the emulsion stability of glutenin and disulfide bond contents of glutenin and gluten. In the presence of inulin, the α-helical structure of the three proteins had no significant change, whereas the β-turn structure decreased and β-sheet structure increased. The SEM images showed that inulin had the most significant effect on the glutenin microstructure. In general, inulin with a higher DP had greater effects on the structure and emulsifying properties of protein components in dough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Emulsifier and Hydrocolloid on Baking Expansion and Texture of Bread from Modified Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudjihastuti Isti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has a very abundant cassava that can be used instead of wheat. Bread made from cassava is safe for celiac sufferers, in which cannot tolerate a protein called gluten found in wheat flour. However, bread from cassava has the disadvantage that it cannot inflate perfectly. Our research goal is to study the effect of emulsifier and hydrocolloid concentration as modifying agents on baking expansion and bread texture (hardness. The test level hedonic preference for bread products results from modified tapioca is also necessary to know the level of customer satisfaction. This study were conducted by three main stages, modification of cassava, baking process, and analyses. Modification of cassava starch was applied using combination of lactic acid solution and ultra violet (UV irradiation. Emulsifier (DATEM and hydrocolloid (xanthan gum were used in baking process. The addition of emulsifier and hydrocolloid can improve baking expansion. The addition of 7% emulsifiers on modified cassava can increase the volume of bread, taste, and texture so it can give greater satisfaction to consumers. Hydrocolloid can replace the function of gluten so the bread can inflate perfectly. The optimal composition of modified cassava in bread making is 25% of modified cassava and 75% of wheat flour. The low value of texture (hardness on bread made from modified cassava indicated a better performance in comparison with native cassava. Baking expansion and texture of the bread is influenced by the modification process. Furthermore, the comprehensive and optimum studies of modification need to be investigated.

  20. Effects of prerigor pressurization on the emulsifying capacity of muscle protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgasim, E.A.; Kennick, W.H.; Anglemier, A.F.; Elkhalifa, E.A.; Koohmaraie, M.

    1982-05-01

    The emulsifying capacities of pressure treated and control muscle homogenates, sarcoplasmic protein and myofibrillar proteins of ovine and bovine longissimus muscles were determined at 2, 6, 24 and 168 hr postmortem. The pH of the intact muscle, muscle homogenate and myofibrillar protein extract were taken at these times. Before onset of rigor mortis, the emulsifying capacity of muscle homogenate from the control samples was higher than the pressure treated samples. At 24 and 168 hr postmortem, the pressure treated and control samples were not significantly different (P>0.05) for emulsifying capacity. At 2 hr postmortem, the emulsifying capacity of myofibrillar protein extract from control samples was higher (P<0.05) than that from pressure treated samples; thereafter, the emulsification curve for the pressure treated samples was higher than that of the control. The emulsification capacity of sarcoplasmic proteins from control muscles was slightly, but consistently, higher than that from pressure treated muscles throughout the test period. Overall, the emulsification capacity of muscle proteins was not detrimentally affected by pressure treatment.

  1. The characteristic of spray using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Hyungik; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Water in oil emulsion is produced using ceramic membrane. • Surfactant type affect stability performance and droplet size distribution. • Evaporation characteristic of DE is poor compared with neat diesel. • Coefficient of variation maintains below 2.0% both DE and neat diesel. - Abstract: In this study, it was applied to the diesel–water emulsified (DE) fuel that carried out the experiment for the characteristic of sprat using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine, and the possibility of its application to conventional diesel engines was evaluated from the fundamental characteristics of diesel–water emulsified fuel. According to the results of the spray characteristics such as spray penetration and spray distribution were measured in the experiment, and then analyzed through digital image processing. The DEs were applied to actual diesel engines and their combustion, emission, and fuel consumption characteristics were compared with those of diesel. The results showed that the experiments were confirmed as the spray atomization characteristics at the various emulsified fuels.

  2. Characteristics of W/O emulsions containing polymeric emulsifier PEG 30-dipolyhydroxystearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinković Jelena R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-in-oil (W/O emulsions are dispersed systems which are often used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries as products, or as carriers of active substances. It is well known that they are very unstable, so that selection of the emulsifier and properties of the oil and water phase are main factors affecting their stability. The aim of this paper was to examine the possibility of application of a lipophilic, polymeric emulsifier, PEG 30-dipolyhydroxystearate (CithrolTM DPHS, for stabilization of W/O emulsions. Behaviour of the emulsifier at W/O interfaces was determined by means of tensiometry. A series of emulsions were prepared with 20% (w/w of water and different types of oil. Droplet size, droplet size distribution, viscosity, and sedimentation stability during 30 days of storage at room temperature of the emulsions prepared with paraffin oil, olive oil, grape seed oil, and medium-chain triglycerides, stabilized with 1% CithrolTM DPHS, were determined. All investigated emulsions were stable for 30 days, except the one prepared with paraffin oil. The results of this study confirmed that PEG 30-dipolyhydroxylstearate is a good emulsifier and stabilizer of W/O emulsions which contain different types of oil. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46010

  3. Carcinogenicity study of the emulsifier TOSOM and the release agent TOS in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.; KRISTIANSEN, E.; GRY, J.

    1993-01-01

    Groups of 60 Wistar rats of each sex were fed diets containing 3, 6 or 12% of the margarine emulsifier TOSOM (thermally oxidized soybean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids) for 2.5 yr. In addition, three groups of 60 rats of each sex were fed two products of the release agent...

  4. Quality characteristics of egg-reduced pound cakes following WPI and emulsifier incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraskevopoulou, A.; Donsouzi, S.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Kiosseoglou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of partial (50 wt%) or total liquid egg replacement by whey proteins in combination with emulsifiers, i.e. hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), on the quality of pound cakes was investigated. Cakes containing whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions of

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON BURNOUT ON SUBMICRON PARTICLE FORMATION FROM EMULSIFIED FUEL OIL COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an examination of particle behavior and particle size distributions from the combustion of different fuel oils and emulsified fuels in three experimental combusators. Results indicate that improved carbon (C) burnout from fule oil combustion, either by...

  6. The Influence of Emulsifier on Rheological and Sensory Properties of Cosmetic Lotions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Tereza; Filip, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, july (2013) ISSN 1687-6822 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : cosmetic lotions * emulsifiers * sensory assessments Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2012 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2013/168503/

  7. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  8. Production and Application of Lysozyme-Gum Arabic Conjugate in Mayonnaise as a Natural Preservative and Emulsifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Marjan M.; Aminlari, Mahmoud; Forouzan, Mehdi M.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays demand for food products made by natural sources is rising so fast. In this work Lysozyme (Lyz) was conjugated with gum Arabic (GA) in order to be applied in mayonnaise, at which the presence of both preservative and emulsifier is essential. Interestingly, the Lyz-GA conjugate exhibited...... possible the application of a natural preservative and emulsifier in food and pharmaceutical industries, whereas Lyz alone does not have a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity or emulsifying properties....... improved functional properties and antibacterial activity. In order to approve the results of this study, the Lyz-GA conjugate was applied to mayonnaise as a natural preservative and emulsifier. Application of the Lzy-GA conjugate in mayonnaise expedited the death rate of both S. aureus and E. coli K-12...

  9. Physical, rheological, functional and film properties of a novel emulsifier: Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP) from Vitis riparia Michx

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel emulsifier, Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), isolated from natural exudate of the species Vitis riparia Michx, was physically and rheologically characterized. The determination of the physical, structural, thermodynamic, emulsification, film, and rheological properties of FGP provide essent...

  10. Experimental Study of Using Emulsified Diesel Fuel on the Performance and Pollutants Emitted from Four Stroke Water Cooled Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhrieh, A.; Fouad, R. H.; Yamin, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    A water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection diesel engine was used to study the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions. Emulsified diesel fuels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% water by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the BSFC has a minimum value at 5% water and 2000 rpm, the torque, the BMEP and efficiency are found to have maximum values under these conditions. CO2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NOx produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions.

  11. Alkyl caffeates as antioxidants in O/W emulsions: Impact of emulsifier type and endogenous tocopherols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    , the aim was to evaluate the impact of emulsifiers (Citrem and Tween80) and presence of endogenous tocopherols on the efficacies of caffeic acid and caffeates (C1–C20) as antioxidants in emulsions. Lipid oxidation was evaluated during storage and partitioning of caffeic acid and caffeates was estimated...... by measuring their concentrations in the aqueous phase. Partitioning of caffeic acid and caffeates was influenced by emulsifier type and the presence of endogenous tocopherols. Caffeic acid was the most efficient antioxidant in Citrem and Tween stabilized emulsions in the presence of endogenous tocopherol....... In contrast, for Tween stabilized emulsions, caffeic acid acted as a prooxidant and the evaluated caffeates acted as strong antioxidants in the absence of endogenous tocopherol. Thus, when endogenous tocopherol was present lipophilization of caffeic acid did not increase its efficacy as an antioxidant...

  12. Engineered Multifunctional Fluorinated Film Based on Semicontinuous Emulsion Polymerization Using Polymerizable Quaternary Ammonium Emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with society’s progress, high-quality coatings are widely used. Although fluorinated polymers were successfully prepared by semicontinuous emulsion polymerization with surfactants, chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE, and acrylate monomers, the optimization collocation of surfactants still has room for improvement. The traditional emulsifiers are physically absorbed onto the surface of latex particles. The latex film generated by latex particles is unstable in water, which limits its application. Herein, a novel series of cationic quaternary ammonium polymerizable surfactant was selected because it can react with CTFE and acrylate monomers and can become a part of the polymers. We also studied the effects of emulsifier type on resultant emulsion properties. In addition, wonderful weatherability, water resistance, and antibacterial and antifouling of the multifunctional fluorinated films were observed, which would open up a bright future for coating industries.

  13. Effect of nonionic compound emulsifiers Tween80 and Span80 on the properties of microencapsulated phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shiping; Zhou, Zhiyi; Wang, Weijing; Zhao, Qicheng; Hou, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the nonionic compound emulsifiers Tween80 and Span80 were used to prepare microcapsules containing phase change materials (microPCMs) with melamine-formaldehyde (MF) shells by in situ polymerization method. The effects of compound emulsifiers Tween80 and Span80 on the structure, morphologies and properties of microPCMs containing paraffin were studied. SEM morphological investigation suggests that a complex of Tween80 and Span80 as emulsifiers are optimal for the fabrication of microPCMs in this study compared to Tween60 or OP-10. The diameter distributions of microPCMs synthesized with different amounts of compound emulsifiers are uniform, whereas compound emulsifiers' amount affect the mean diameter of microPCMs decreasing from 5.34 to 3.05 µm. These microPCMs with the core/shell weight ratio 3/1 have smoother surface and a higher core content of 68.7% than other core/shell ratio. Anti-osmosis measurements indicate that microPCMs have good compactness and stable performance compared to those synthesized by one type of emulsifier.

  14. Effect of pre-emulsified sesame oil on physical-chemical and rheological properties of pork batters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Li KANG

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical-chemical and rheological properties of pork batters as affected by replacing pork back-fat with pre-emulsified sesame oil were investigated. Replacement of pork back-fat with pre-emulsified sesame oil, improved L* value, moisture and protein content, hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness, declined a* value, fat content and energy, but not affect cooking yield. When used pre-emulsified sesame oil to replace pork back-fat 50%, the sample had the highest L* value and texture. According to the results of dynamic rheological, replaced pork back-fat by pre-emulsified sesame oil increased the storage modulus (G' values at 80 °C, and formed firm gel. The result of Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR shown that the batters with pre-emulsified sesame oil had higher water holding capacity than the control. Overall, the batters with pre-emulsified sesame oil enabled lowering of fat and energy contents, making the pork batter had better texture.

  15. Yield emulsifiers exopolysaccharides produced by native halophilic bacteria concentrations molasses three Saccharum officinarum L. "sugarcane"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Fuentes, Carmen Carreño

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbial exopolysaccharide with emulsifying properties are an alternative to polymers and chemicals from algae and plants. Its production in molasses as carbon source lowers costs and generates added value to this byproduct of the sugar industry, so the aim of this study was to determine the performance and productivity of EPS emulsifiers by native halophilic bacteria in 20, 30 and 40 gL-1 of molasses. In MY synthetic medium with 5 % w/v of salts, 138 isolates of bacteria obtained from soil samples of salt water and in the districts of San Jose and Santa Rosa, in Lambayeque. In 10.8 % of these gummy colony forming bacteria and grown on glucose as carbon source EPS recovered whose maximum values of the mixtures in water emulsion - oil phase were 63.3 and 56.6 % after 1 and 24 hours, respectively. The M5 bacteria identified as Halomonas C1 10-1 sp. M5 EPS synthesized emulsifiers molasses broth, reaching yields Yp/s of 0.296 gg-1 and 0.200 gg-1 with 20 and 30 gL-1 of molasses respectively, a productivity of 0.016 and 0.017 gL-1 h -1 , not differing significantly between them. With 10 gL-1 glucose was reached Yp/s of 0.171 gg-1 and a productivity of 0.018 gL-1 h -1 . It was shown that the EPS produced native halophilic bacteria utilizing molasses emulsifiers as carbon source.

  16. Meltability and Stretchability of White Brined Cheese: Effect of Emulsifier Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Abu-Alruz; Ayman S. Mazahreh; Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh; Amer A. Omari; Jihad M. Quasem

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study was based on the hypothesis that by adding low concentrations of emulsifier salts, may specifically act on the cross linking bonds of the protein matrix, to the original brine (storage medium) it would be possible to induce meltability and stretchability in white brined cheese. Approach: A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheese samples proved its validity and reliability to measure stre...

  17. Diesel engine performance and emission evaluation using emulsified fuels stabilized by conventional and gemini surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Nadeem; C. Rangkuti; K. Anuar; M.R.U. Haq; I.B. Tan; S.S. Shah [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar (Malaysia)

    2006-10-15

    Diesel engines exhausting gaseous emission and particulate matter have long been regarded as one of the major air pollution sources, particularly in metropolitan areas, and have been a source of serious public concern for a long time. The emulsification method is not only motivated by cost reduction but is also one of the potentially effective techniques to reduce exhaust emission from diesel engines. Water/diesel (W/D) emulsified formulations are reported to reduce the emissions of NOx, SOx, CO and particulate matter (PM) without compensating the engine's performance. Emulsion fuels with varying contents of water and diesel were prepared and stabilized by conventional and gemini surfactant, respectively. Surfactant's dosage, emulsification time, stirring intensity, emulsifying temperature and mixing time have been reported. Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission was also measured and analyzed with these indigenously prepared emulsified fuels. The obtained experimental results indicate that the emulsions stabilized by gemini surfactant have much finer and better-distributed water droplets as compared to those stabilized by conventional surfactant. A comparative study involving torque, engine brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), specific fuel consumption (SFC), particulate matter (PM), NOx and CO emissions is also reported for neat diesel and emulsified formulations. It was found that there was an insignificant reduction in engine's efficiency but on the other hand there are significant benefits associated with the incorporation of water contents in diesel regarding environmental hazards. The biggest reduction in PM, NOx, CO and SOx emission was achieved by the emulsion stabilized by gemini surfactant containing 15% water contents. 34 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Dietary emulsifiers impact the mouse gut microbiota promoting colitis and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Koren, Omry; Goodrich, Julia K; Poole, Angela C; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Ley, Ruth E; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2015-03-05

    The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large and diverse community of microbes collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. While the gut microbiota provides important benefits to its host, especially in metabolism and immune development, disturbance of the microbiota-host relationship is associated with numerous chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and the group of obesity-associated diseases collectively referred to as metabolic syndrome. A primary means by which the intestine is protected from its microbiota is via multi-layered mucus structures that cover the intestinal surface, thereby allowing the vast majority of gut bacteria to be kept at a safe distance from epithelial cells that line the intestine. Thus, agents that disrupt mucus-bacterial interactions might have the potential to promote diseases associated with gut inflammation. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that emulsifiers, detergent-like molecules that are a ubiquitous component of processed foods and that can increase bacterial translocation across epithelia in vitro, might be promoting the increase in inflammatory bowel disease observed since the mid-twentieth century. Here we report that, in mice, relatively low concentrations of two commonly used emulsifiers, namely carboxymethylcellulose and polysorbate-80, induced low-grade inflammation and obesity/metabolic syndrome in wild-type hosts and promoted robust colitis in mice predisposed to this disorder. Emulsifier-induced metabolic syndrome was associated with microbiota encroachment, altered species composition and increased pro-inflammatory potential. Use of germ-free mice and faecal transplants indicated that such changes in microbiota were necessary and sufficient for both low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome. These results support the emerging concept that perturbed host-microbiota interactions resulting in low-grade inflammation can promote adiposity and its associated metabolic effects

  19. Removal of emulsified oil in residual waters by means of dissolved air flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri Londono, Carlos Alberto

    1996-01-01

    In this article is consigned a theoretical and experimental study on the treatment of industrial residual waters with emulsified oil, through the flotation process for dissolved air (FAD), changing some operation parameters and some importance topics, related with the process. The experimental results and the theoretical pattern, show that the removal of oil depends fundamentally on the chemical pretreatment. Efficiencies of removal of oil up of 99% they were obtained, using the dissolved air flotation with the help of coagulants

  20. Characterization of industrial wastes as raw materials for Emulsified Modified Bitumen (EMB) formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib Razali, Mohd; Isa, Syarifah Nur Ezatie Mohd; Salehan, Noor Adilah Md; Musa, Musfafikri; Aziz, Mohd Aizudin Abd; Nour, Abdurahman Hamid; Yunus, Rosli Mohd

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to characterize industrial wastes for formulation of emulsified modified bitumen (EMB) in relation to their physical characteristic and elemental composition. This analysis will give information either raw materials from industrial wastes can be used for EMB formulation. Bitumen is produced from crude oil that is extracted from the ground which categorizes the crude oil as one of the non-renewable form of product. A vast environmental problem issues arises in Malaysia cause by the excessive manufacturing activity that lead to a miss-management of industrial waste has leads to the used of industrial waste in the EMB formulation. Industrial waste such as polystyrene, polyethylene and used automotive oil can be used as alternative to formulate bitumen. Then a suitable emulsifier needs to be added to produce the final product which is EMB. The emulsifier will yield a charge depends on its properties to bind the oily bitumen with water. Physical characteristic studies were performed by thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), flash point test, density rest and moisture content test. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was measured to determine the material’s molecular composition and structure.

  1. Effect of antioxidant properties of lecithin emulsifier on oxidative stability of encapsulated bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanjie; Tikekar, Rohan V; Nitin, N

    2013-06-25

    Oxidation of encapsulated bioactive compounds in emulsions is one of the key challenges that limit shelf life of emulsion containing products. Oxidation in these emulsions is triggered by permeation of free radicals generated at the emulsion interface. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of antioxidant properties of common emulsifiers (lecithin and Tween 20) in reducing permeation of free radicals across the emulsion interface. Radical permeation rates were correlated with oxidative stability of a model bioactive compound (curcumin) encapsulated in these emulsions. Rate of permeation of peroxyl radicals from the aqueous phase to the oil phase of emulsion was inversely proportional to the antioxidant properties of emulsifiers. The rate of radical permeation was significantly higher (plecithin compared to native lecithin that showed higher antioxidant activity. Free radical permeation rate correlated with stability of curcumin in emulsions and was significantly higher (plecithin stabilized emulsions as compared to Tween 20 emulsions. Overall, this study demonstrates that antioxidant activity of emulsifiers significantly influences permeation of free radicals across the emulsion interface and the rate of oxidation of bioactive encapsulant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of Hydroxylated Soybean Lecithin from Crude Soybean Lecithin as an Emulsifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplunkar, Pranali P; Pratap, Amit P

    2017-10-01

    Soybean lecithin is a by-product obtained during degumming step of crude soybean oil refining. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) contains major amount of phospholipids (PLs) along with minor amount of acylglycerols, bioactive components, etc. Due to presence of PLs, CSL can be used as an emulsifier. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) was utilized to synthesize hydroxylated soybean lecithin (HSL) by hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide and catalytic amount of lactic acid to enhance the hydrophilicity and emulsifying properties of CSL. To reduce the reaction time and to increase rate of reaction, HSL was synthesized under ultrasound irradiation. The effect of different operating parameters such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle in synthesis of HSL were studied and optimized. The surface tension (SFT), interfacial tension (IFT) and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the HSL (26.11 mN/m, 2.67 mN/m, 112 mg/L) were compared to CSL (37.53 mN/m, 6.22 mN/m, 291 mg/L) respectively. The HSL has better emulsion stability and low foaming characteristics as compared to CSL. Therefore, the product as an effective emulsifier can be used in food, pharmacy, lubricant, cosmetics, etc.

  3. Effects of rice bran on sensory and physico-chemical properties of emulsified pork meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S C; Shiau, C Y; Liu, T E; Chu, C L; Hwang, D F

    2005-08-01

    Four kinds of bran, which are milled from important rice cultivators in Taiwan, have high contents of dietary fiber, fat and protein. The use of rice bran in Kung-wan, an emulsified pork meatball, was investigated. It was found that protein and fat contents, and white index of meatballs decreased as the amount of bran increased. A texture profile analysis (TPA) also indicated the hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the Kung-wan decreased. The sensory scores of taste, texture and overall acceptability of meatballs with less than 10% added bran showed no significant difference from those for meatballs without bran. However, the added amount of 15% enriched meatballs resulted in inferior sensory scores. The bran's particle size profoundly affected the sensory and physico-chemical properties of the meat products. Meatballs enriched with smaller bran particles possessed higher TPA indices and sensory scores than those added with larger ones. No significant differences in proximate composition, cooking yield, color and sensory quality were found among emulsified meatballs enriched with four different kinds of bran. Conclusively, the suitable amount of rice bran that should be added to emulsified pork meatballs was less than 10% and a smaller particle size would result in better quality.

  4. Treatment of emulsified oily wastewater by commercial scale electrocoagulation at Vancouver shipyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, R.J.; Tennant, B.D. [McKay Creek Technologies Ltd., North Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hartle, D.R. [Vancouver Shipping Co. Ltd., BC (Canada); Stuckert, B. [Quantum Environmental Group, Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    Some of the emulsified oily wastewater generated by the Washington Marine Group fleet and the Vancouver shipyards are from sources such as bilge water, tank wash water from gas freeing operations, ballast water, and wastewater from pressure washing equipment. The Washington Marine Group is the largest shipbuilding, ship maintenance and repair, and marine transportation company in Canada, a group to which McKay Creek Technologies belongs. A investigation was performed in an attempt to find commercially viable means of treating this wastewater. McKay Creek Technologies developed its own cleaning process. Electrocoagulation is a process based on the use of an electrical current in an electrochemical cell to coagulate contaminants in wastewater. With three years of experience gained by treating the wastewater of the Washington Marine Group operations at Vancouver shipyards using this technology, McKay Creek Technologies has found ways to treat emulsified oily wastewater simply and effectively. It has been determined that electrocoagulation is an effective treatment method for emulsified oils, poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), poorly settling solids, poorly soluble organics, contaminants which add turbidity to water, and negatively charged metal species like arsenic, molybdenum, and phosphate. A brief history of electrocoagulation was provided, and the authors explained the process and how it was applied to the situation at Vancouver shipyards. 2 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. Helix aspersa gelatin as an emulsifier and emulsion stabilizer: functional properties and effects on pancreatic lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarai, Zied; Balti, Rafik; Sila, Assaâd; Ben Ali, Yassine; Gargouri, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are widely used in food and pharmaceutical applications for the encapsulation, solubilization, entrapment, and controlled delivery of active ingredients. In order to fulfill the increasing demand for clean label excipients, natural polymers could be used to replace the potentially irritative synthetic surfactants used in emulsion formulation. In the present study, we have studied the properties of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with land snail gelatin (LSG) as the sole emulsifying agent, extracted and described for the first time. LSG was evaluated in terms of proximate composition, oil and water holding capacity, emulsifying and foaming properties, color and amino acid composition. Emulsions of trioctanoylglycerol (TC8) and olive oil were made at different gelatin/oil ratios and changes in droplet-size distribution were determined. The superior emulsifying properties of LSG, the susceptibility of gelatin protein emulsions increasing flocculation on storage, and the coalescence of gelatin emulsions following centrifugation were demonstrated. Furthermore, the effect of LSG on the activity of turkey pancreatic lipase (TPL) was evaluated through the pH-stat methodology with TC8 and olive oil emulsions. The LSG affected the TPL activity in a concentration-dependent way. Our results showed that LSG, comparably to gum arabic, increases the pancreatic lipase activity and improves its stability at the oil-water interface.

  6. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS): formulation development, characterization, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Bandopadhyay, Shantanu; Kapil, Rishi; Singh, Ramandeep; Katare, O

    2009-01-01

    Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) possess unparalleled potential in improving oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Following their oral administration, these systems rapidly disperse in gastrointestinal fluids, yielding micro- or nanoemulsions containing the solubilized drug. Owing to its miniscule globule size, the micro/nanoemulsifed drug can easily be absorbed through lymphatic pathways, bypassing the hepatic first-pass effect. We present an exhaustive and updated account of numerous literature reports and patents on diverse types of self-emulsifying drug formulations, with emphasis on their formulation, characterization, and systematic optimization strategies. Recent advancements in various methodologies employed to characterize their globule size and shape, ability to encapsulate the drug, gastrointestinal and thermodynamic stability, rheological characteristics, and so forth, are discussed comprehensively to guide the formula-tor in preparing an effective and robust SEDDS formulation. Also, this exhaustive review offers an explicit discussion on vital applications of the SEDDS in bioavailability enhancement of various drugs, outlining an overview on myriad in vitro, in situ, and ex vivo techniques to assess the absorption and/ or permeation potential of drugs incorporated in the SEDDS in animal and cell line models, and the subsequent absorption pathways followed by them. In short, the current article furnishes an updated compilation of wide-ranging information on all the requisite vistas of the self-emulsifying formulations, thus paving the way for accelerated progress into the SEDDS application in pharmaceutical research.

  7. Effect of Different Combinations of Gums and Emulsifiers on the Quality of Bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, M. R.; Din, G. M. U.; Mehmood, A.; Hussain, A.; Nasir, M. U.

    2016-01-01

    A project was designed to evaluate the effect of different combinations of emulsifiers and gums on the quality of bread. Wheat variety AARI-11 was milled to get straight grade flour and mixed with the Emulsifiers (DMG and DATEM) and Gums (G.G and CMC) in a quantity of (0.3- 0.6 %). Both, straight grade flour as well as treated flour (combination with gums and emulsifiers) were subjected to proximate and rheological analysis. Results of the rheological study showed a significant change in water absorption, dough development time, dough stability time and dough viscosity i.e. W/A 61.33-62.93%, D.D.T 3.9-4.8 min, D.S.T 7-9.1 min and 818.33-950.00 BU, respectively. Breads prepared with both flours were also studied for their sensory attributes during storage after the interval of 24 h. The highest score was awarded to T1 (0.3% DATEM and 0.5% guar gum) on the bases of its excellent external attributes (colour of crust, volume, symmetry of form, evenness of bake and crust character) and internal characteristics (aroma, grain, texture, taste, mastication and colour of crumb). After the sensory and physicochemical analyses, it is concluded that with the addition of DATEM (0.3%) and guar gum (0.5%) resulted in good quality of bread. (author)

  8. A novel betaine type asphalt emulsifier synthesized and investigated by online FTIR spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Laishun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel betaine type asphalt emulsifier 3-(N,N,N-dimethyl acetoxy ammonium chloride-2-hydroxypropyl laurate was synthesized after three steps by the reaction of lauric acid, epichlorohydrin, dimethylamine and sodium chloroacetate. The optimum reaction conditions were obtained for the synthesis of the first step of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl laurate. The esterification yield reaches 97.1% at the optimum conditions of reaction temperature 80ºC, reaction time 6 h, feedstock mole ratio of epichlorohydrin to lauric acid 1.5, mass ratio of catalyst to lauric acid 2%. The chemical structure of the product was characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR. The first synthesis step of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl laurate was monitored by online FTIR technique. The by-product was detected by the online FTIR analysis. Based upon the experimental data, a plausible reaction mechanism was proposed for the reaction. The CMC of the objective product has a lower value of 7.4×10-4 mol/L. The surface tension at CMC is 30.85 mN/m. The emulsifier is a rapid-set asphalt emulsifier.

  9. Evaporation and Ignition Characteristics of Water Emulsified Diesel under Conventional and Low Temperature Combustion Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowen Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The combination of emulsified diesel and low temperature combustion (LTC technology has great potential in reducing engine emissions. A visualization study on the spray and combustion characteristics of water emulsified diesel was conducted experimentally in a constant volume chamber under conventional and LTC conditions. The effects of ambient temperature on the evaporation, ignition and combustion characteristics of water emulsified diesel were studied under cold, evaporating and combustion conditions. Experimental results showed that the ambient temperature had little effect on the spray structures, in terms of the liquid core length, the spray shape and the spray area. However, higher ambient temperature slightly reduced the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD of the spray droplets. The auto-ignition delay time increased significantly with the decrease of the ambient temperature. The ignition process always occurred at the entrainment region near the front periphery of the liquid core. This entrainment region was evolved from the early injected fuel droplets which were heated and mixed by the continuous entrainment until the local temperature and equivalence ratio reached the ignition condition. The maximum value of integrated natural flame luminosity (INFL reduced by 60% when the ambient temperature dropped from 1000 to 800 K, indicating a significant decrease of the soot emissions could be achieved by LTC combustion mode than the conventional diesel engines.

  10. Long-term stability investigation of o/w cosmetic creams stabilized by mixed emulsifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đekić Ljiljana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate (PMD, TEGO® Care 450, Evonik, Germanyis natural (vegetable, non-ionic, PEG-free emulsifier, suitable for the formulation of oil-in-water (o/w cosmetic creams and lotions. The oil phase components can be selected from mineral oils, vegetable oils and synthetic esters, which enable different variety of application profile of these emulsions. It is possible to prepare stable emulsions using low-level concentration of the PMD (2-3% if lotions contain 10-25%, and creams 20-40 % of oil phase. PMD forms liquid crystal structure in the presence of stearic acid, glyceryl stearate, fatty alcohols, or their combinations. The o/w type creams, stabilized by these mixed emulsifiers are complex, multiphase systems. The aim of this work was to formulate, prepare and investigate long-term stability of the o/w creams stabilized by mixed emulsifier polyglyceryl-3 methylglucose distearate/glyceryl stearate/stearyl alcohol, depending on concentration levels of PMD (2% or 3% and oil:water phase ratio (20:80 and 30:70. The samples were prepared using hot/hot procedure. Organoleptic inspection, centrifugation test, rheological measurements, electric conductivity and pH value measurements were performed 72 h, 1, 3, 12 and 30 months after preparation. The prepared samples were apparently white and homogenous creams. The consistency and homogeneity were preserved after centrifugation of the creams after 72 h, 1, 3, 12 and 30 months storage, and no phase separation could be detected. The pH values obtained are suitable for skin application. Conductivity values (25.2-63.7 μS cm1, 72 h after preparation were attributed to the multiple phase o/w emulsions with high percentages of fixed water. Results of the rheological measurements have shown that the investigated creams exhibited non-Newtonian thyxotropic behavior. The concentration of emulsifier PMD and oil phase content had an influence on the rheological parameters of investigated

  11. Solubility of ocular therapeutic agents in self-emulsifying oils. I. Self-emulsifying oils for ocular drug delivery: solubility of indomethacin, aciclovir and hydrocortisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska-Kośnik, Anna; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) were prepared by dissolving Cremophor EL, Tween 20, Tween 80 and Span 80 (1% or 5%) in oils (Miglyol 812 or castor oil). Solubilities of three ophthalmic drugs, namely aciclovir, hydrocortisone and indomethacin were determined in these systems. In addition, the effect of a small amount of water (0.5% and 2%) on solubilization properties of the systems was estimated. Of the three substances, indomethacin showed the best solubility in Miglyol while aciclovir was practically insoluble in this oil. The surfactants usually increased drug solubility in the oily phase. Only Tween 20 was found to decrease the solubility of aciclovir and hydrocortisone in Miglyol. Addition of a small amount of water to the oil/surfactant system increased solubility of hydrocortisone, but not of indomethacin. The results of the current study may be utilized to design a suitable composition of SEDDS and allow continuation of research on this type of drug carriers.

  12. The Preparation and Performances of Self-Dispersed Nanomicron Emulsified Wax Solid Lubricant Ewax for Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-shan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An oil-in-water nanomicron wax emulsion with oil phase content 45 wt% was prepared by using the emulsifying method of surfactant-in-oil. The optimum prepared condition is 85°C, 20 min, and 5 wt% complex emulsifiers. Then the abovementioned nanomicron emulsifying wax was immersed into a special water-soluble polymer in a certain percentage by the semidry technology. At last, a solidified self-dispersed nanomicron emulsified wax named as Ewax, a kind of solid lubricant for water based drilling fluid, was obtained after dried in the special soluble polymer containing emulsifying wax in low temperature. It is shown that the adhesion coefficient reduced rate (ΔKf is 73.5% and the extreme pressure (E-P friction coefficient reduced rate (Δf is 77.6% when the produced Ewax sample was added to fresh water based drilling fluid at dosage 1.0 wt%. In comparison with other normal similar liquid products, Ewax not only has better performances of lubrication, filtration loss control property, heat resistance, and tolerance to salt and is environmentally friendly, but also can solve the problems of freezing in the winter and poor storage stability of liquid wax emulsion in oilfield applications.

  13. Effect of emulsifiers on complexation and retrogradation characteristics of native and chemically modified White sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Hasnain, Abid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sorghum starches were chemically modified. ► Starch–lipid complexes were studied in the presence of emulsifiers. ► Type II complexes were also detected in native and oxidized starches on adding GMS. ► Starch–lipid complexes sharply reduced retrogradation in modified starches. - Abstract: The effect of emulsifiers on complexation and retrogradation characteristics of native and chemically modified white sorghum starches was studied. Complex forming tendency of white sorghum starch with commercially available emulsifiers GMS and DATEM improved after acetylation. Presence of emulsifiers reduced λ max (wavelength of maximum absorbance) both for native and modified sorghum starches suggesting lower availability of amylose chains to complex with iodine. In native white sorghum starch (NWSS) and oxidized white sorghum starch (OWSS), both Type I and Type II starch–lipid complexes were observed on addition of 1.0% GMS prior to gelatinization. Acetylated-oxidized white sorghum starch (AOWSS) formed weakest complexes among all the modified starches. The results revealed that antistaling characteristics of modified sorghum starches were enhanced when used in combination with emulsifiers. The most prominent decline in reassociative capability among modified starches was observed for acetylated starches.

  14. Competitive displacement of sodium caseinate by low-molecular-weight emulsifiers and the effects on emulsion texture and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, M B; Larsen, F H; van den Berg, F W J; Knudsen, J C; Andersen, M L

    2014-07-29

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) emulsifiers are used to promote controlled destabilization in many dairy-type emulsions in order to obtain stable foams in whippable products. The relation between fat globule aggregation induced by three LMW emulsifiers, lactic acid ester of monoglyceride (LACTEM), saturated monoglyceride (GMS), and unsaturated monoglyceride (GMU) and their effect on interfacial protein displacement was investigated. It was found that protein displacement by LMW emulsifiers was not necessary for fat globule aggregation in emulsions, and conversely fat globule aggregation was not necessarily accompanied by protein displacement. The three LMW emulsifiers had very different effects on emulsions. LACTEM induced shear instability of emulsions, which was accompanied by protein displacement. High stability was characteristic for emulsions with GMS where protein was displaced from the interface. Emulsions containing GMU were semisolid, but only low concentrations of protein were detected in the separated serum phase. The effects of LACTEM, GMS, and GMU may be explained by three different mechanisms involving formation of interfacial α-gel, pickering stabilization and increased exposure of bound casein to the water phase. The latter may facilitate partial coalescence. Stabilizing hydrocolloids did not have any effect on the LMW emulsifiers' ability to induce protein displacement.

  15. Emulsifiers' composition modulates venous irritation of the nanoemulsions as a lipophilic and venous irritant drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengwen; Wan, Jiangling; Chen, Huabing; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a nanoemulsion (NE) system was investigated for intravenous delivery of lipophilic and venous irritant drugs. NEs were prepared to deliver diallyl trisulfide (DT) for systemic therapy of bacterial and fungal infection, egg phospholipid was chosen as the main emulsifier, and two co-emulsifiers were also incorporated, including Poloxamer 188 (P188) and Solutol HS 15 (S15). Soybean oil was used as the dispersed phases, forming stable DT NEs with small particle sizes. The venous irritation of DT NEs was evaluated by in vitro human umbilical cord endothelial cells (CRL 1730) compatibility model with the intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) concentrations as the indices. The intracellular ATP and GTP reduction changed with the incorporation of a variety of co-emulsifiers, which varied in a free DT concentration-dependent manner. It was deduced that the free DT concentrations of NEs containing co-emulsifiers were determined by the partition coefficient of DT between oil and surfactant buffer solution. In conclusion, NE was an appropriate delivery system for lipophilic and venous irritant drug, and optimization of the composition of emulsifiers was an effective method to alleviate the venous irritation of DT NEs.

  16. Potential of L-fucose isolated from Brown Seaweeds as Promising Natural Emulsifier compare to Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baarri, A. N.; Legowo, A. M.; Widayat; Abduh, S. B. M.; Lestari, F. P.; Desnasari, D.; Santoso, I. P. M.

    2018-02-01

    L-fucose has been understood as sulfated polysaccharides and it could be extracted and fractionated from brown algae. These polysaccharides contains carbohydrate, sulfate, and protein that may be used as emulsifier. This research was aimed to study the emulsification properties of L-fucose through the determination of total dissolved solids (TDS), color CIE L*a*b* and stability of oil-in-water emulsion. As much as 0.5% of high concentrated L-fucose and 0.5% of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were used as emulsifier in a 10% (v/v) oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. The emulsifier was added to O/W emulsions and then heated at 72°C. Result of stability emulsion and TDS showed that L-fucose was comparable to the CMC but remarkable changed the color of O/W emulsion. Heating process significantly reduced the stability O/W emulsion when L-fucose was applied. As conclusion, L-fucose might be used as natural emulsifier in O/W emulsion but in the low heat treatment of food processing. This study may provide valuable information for utilizing natural emulsifier from abundant resources from nature.

  17. Effects of Emulsifiers on Preparing Spherical Urea-Formaldehyde Paraffin Capsules Modified by β-Cyclodextrin for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urea-formaldehyde (UF paraffin capsules (B-UPCS modified by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD were successfully prepared with excellent energy storage capacity using different emulsifiers. B-UPCS were characterized by FT-IR, DSC SEM, optical microscopy, and laser particle size distribution analyzer. The effects of different emulsifiers and the stirring rate of emulsion on the microstructure, average particle diameter, and the content of paraffin were discussed in details. The results show that OP-10 for use with PCMs as emulsifier has a better emulsifying capacity, thermal stability, and mechanical stirring stability than SDBS for use with PCMs as emulsifier. As a result, the optimum dosage of OP-10 was 3% to 7%, and the suitable stirring rate of emulsion was 7500 to 12500 rpm. At this time, the spherical particle diameter of B-UPCS was about 1.0 μm, the paraffin content was 78%, and the enthalpy of B-UPCS can reach 161.0 J/g.

  18. Fat reduction and alternatives for its substitution un emulsified meat products, a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Natalia Rivera Ruiz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal fat employed in emulsified meat products elaboration is important for the flavor and texture characteristics. Nonetheless, the association of this kind of saturated fats with cardiovascular disease is a negative factor against their consumption. Different alternatives had been studied to reduce their content, replacing the fat with water, hydrocolloids, gums, proteins and/or vegetable oils. This modifies the meat products functional properties like yield, cocking stability and water retention, affecting moisture content and oxidative rancidity, texture and color. All these alternatives had advantages and disadvantages in their use and application, but the particular needs will determinate the optimum formulation for healthier meat products.

  19. Emulsifier type, metal chelation and pH affect oxidative stability of n-3-enriched emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    -enriched oil-in-water emulsion. The selected food emulsifiers were Tween 80, Citrem, sodium caseinate and lecithin. Lipid oxidation was evaluated by determination of peroxide values and secondary volatile oxidation products. Moreover, the zeta potential and the droplet sizes were determined. Twen resulted...... in the least oxidatively stable emulsions, followed by Citrem. When iron was present, caseinate-stabilized emulsions oxidized slower than lecithin emulsions at pH 3, whereas the opposite was the case at pH 7. Oxidation generally progressed faster at pH 3 than at pH 7, irrespective of the addition of iron. EDTA...

  20. Novel self-emulsifying formulation of quercetin for improved in vivo antioxidant potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Sanyog; Jain, Amit K; Pohekar, Milind

    2013-01-01

    Quercetin (QT) was formulated into a novel self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) to improve its oral bioavailability and antioxidant potential compared to free drug. Capmul MCM was selected as the oily phase on the basis of optimum solubility of QT in oil. Tween 20 and ethanol were selected.......8. The ratio of 40:40:20 w/w, Capmul MCM:QT (19:1)/Tween 20/ethanol was optimized based on its ability to form a spontaneous submicrometer emulsion in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. DPPH scavenging assay showed comparable antioxidant activity of QT-SEDDS to free QT. QT-SEDDS was robust in terms...

  1. Emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization produces highly charged, monodisperse particles for near infrared photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Chad E; Asher, Sanford A

    2002-04-01

    We have developed emulsifier-free, emulsion polymerization recipes for the synthesis of highly charged, monodisperse latex particles of diameters between 500 and 1100 nm. These latexes consist of poly[styrene-(co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)] spherical particles whose surfaces are functionalized with sulfate and carboxylic acid groups. These highly charged, monodisperse particles readily self-assemble into robust, three-dimensionally ordered crystalline colloidal array photonic crystals that Bragg diffract light in the near infrared spectral region. By altering the particle number density, the diffraction wavelength can be tuned from approximately 1000 to approximately 4000 nm.

  2. A comparative study on the emulsifying properties of various species of gum tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzi, Mina; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2013-06-01

    Emulsification activities of three different species of gum tragacanth containing Astragalus gossypinus, A. compactus and A. rahensis were investigated. Emulsion stability indexes, particle size distributions, steady and unsteady rheological properties and some other physicochemical attributes including the surface tensions and uronic acid contents were taken into consideration. It was revealed that A. gossypinus created the most stable emulsions although having lower viscosity than A. compactus. It is believed that higher insoluble fraction and higher uronic content made this species a good steric and electrostatic emulsifier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii strain PS3 in degradation of food emulsifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Tuan; Tran, Tuyet Nhung; Ha, Thi Bich Ngoc

    2018-04-01

    Strain SP3 revealed the abilty to utilizes emulsifier which is widely used in the preparation of drugs, vaccines, food, cosmetics and skin care products as its sole carbon and energy source. Generation time ranges from 1.4 to 2.1 h on the polysorbate family. Strain was identified as Acinetobacter baumannii based on 16S rRNA gene and it could dispose 27 % polysorbate 80 within a day. The proposed mechanism for polysorbate utilization belongs to the β-oxidation.

  4. Interactions between iron, phenolic compounds, emulsifiers, and pH in omega-3-enriched oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Haahr, Anne-Mette; Becker, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of antioxidants in emulsions is influenced by several factors such as pH and emulsifier type. This study aimed to evaluate the interaction between selected food emulsifiers, phenolic compounds, iron, and pH and their effect on the oxidative stability of n-3 polyunsaturated lipids...... products. When iron was present, the pH was crucial for the formation of lipid oxidation products. At pH 3 some phenolic compounds, especially caffeic acid, reduced Fe3+ to Fe2+, and Fe2+ increased lipid oxidation at this pH compared to pH 6. Among the evaluated phenols, caffeic acid had the most...... significant effects, as caffeic acid was found to be prooxidative irrespective of pH, emulsifier type, and presence of iron, although the degrees of lipid oxidation were different at the different experimental conditions. The other evaluated phenols were prooxidative at pH 3 in Citrem-stabilized emulsions...

  5. Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin in Oil-in-Water Emulsions with Differently-Charged Emulsifiers Under Chlorophyll Photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2018-03-01

    The antioxidative or prooxidative properties of astaxanthin at the concentrations of 0, 10, and 100 μM were determined in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing neutral, anionic, and cationic emulsifiers, which was Tween 20, sodium dodecyl sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), respectively, under chlorophyll photosensitization. The oxidative parameters and headspace volatiles were analyzed in O/W emulsions. In the 24 h period of visible light irradiation, 100 μM of astaxanthin acted as an antioxidant in O/W emulsions containing neutral and anionic emulsifiers. However, astaxanthin in O/W emulsions with a cationic emulsifier was neither an antioxidant nor a prooxidant. The profiles of volatile compounds showed that astaxanthin served as a singlet oxygen quencher in O/W emulsions containing neutral and anionic emulsifiers. However, in O/W emulsion with a cationic emulsifier, astaxanthin was neither a singlet oxygen quencher nor a free radical scavenger because prooxidant properties of CTAB overwhelmed the antioxidant effects of astaxanthin. Therefore, the antioxidant properties of astaxanthin were influenced by the emulsifier charges in O/W emulsions. Astaxanthin is a lipid-soluble pigment and has antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties and beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Many lipid-based foods are displayed on the shelves in the markets under fluorescent light. The addition of astaxanthin can extend the shelf life of O/W emulsion type foods such as beverage and dressing products under visible light irradiation. Also, oxidative stability in emulsion type foods containing astaxanthin rich natural ingredients can be predicted. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of nanocapsules containing phase change material n-dodecanol by miniemulsion polymerization with polymerizable emulsifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Fei; Zeng, Xing-Rong; Zhang, Zheng-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We prepare nanocapsules containing n-dodecanol via miniemulsion polymerization. ► Polymerizable emulsifier plays important role in the preparation of nanocapsules. ► Adding co-emulsifier into water phase is helpful to encapsulate n-dodecanol. ► The phase change latent heat of nanocapsule is 98.8 J/g with temperature of 18.2 °C. -- Abstract: Nanocapsules containing phase change material (PCM) n-dodecanol as core and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as shell were synthesized by miniemulsion polymerization with polymerizable emulsifier DNS-86 and co-emulsifier hexadecane (HD). The nanocapsules were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and laser particle diameter analyzer. The effects of polymerizable emulsifier and co-emulsifier on the properties of nanocapsules were studied. The results show that thermal properties of nanocapsules are affected greatly by the addition methods of HD and the amounts of DNS-86 and HD. Adding HD into water phase is helpful for the encapsulation of n-dodecanol. When the mass ratios of DNS-86 to n-dodecanol and the mass ratios of HD to n-dodecanol were 3% and 2%, the phase change latent heat and the encapsulation efficiency of nanocapsules reached to the maximum value of 98.8 J/g and 82.2%, respectively. Spherical nanocapsules with mean diameter of 150 nm and phase change temperature of 18.2 °C are obtained, which are sure to have a good potential for energy storage.

  7. Approach for energy saving and pollution reducing by fueling diesel engines with emulsified biosolution/ biodiesel/diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2008-05-15

    The developments of both biodiesel and emulsified diesel are being driven by the need for reducing emissions from diesel engines and saving energy. Artificial chemical additives are also being used in diesel engines for increasing their combustion efficiencies. But the effects associated with the use of emulsified additive/biodiesel/diesel blends in diesel engines have never been assessed. In this research, the premium diesel fuel (PDF) was used as the reference fuel. A soy-biodiesel was selected as the test biodiesel. A biosolution made of 96.5 wt % natural organic enzyme-7F (NOE-7F) and 3.5 wt % water (NOE-7F water) was used as the fuel additive. By adding additional 1 vol % of surfactant into the fuel blend, a nanotechnology was used to form emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends for fueling the diesel engine. We found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did not separate after being kept motionless for 30 days. The above stability suggests that the above combinations are suitable for diesel engines as alternative fuels. Particularly, we found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did have the advantage in saving energy and reducing the emissions of both particulate matters (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diesel engines as compared with PDF, soy-biodiesel/PDF blends, and emulsified soy-biodiesel/ PDF blends. The results obtained from this study will provide useful approaches for reducing the petroleum reliance, pollution, and global warming. However, it should be noted that NO(x) emissions were not measured in the present study which warrants the need for future investigation.

  8. STABILITY OF EMULSIFIER-FREE EMULSION COPOLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE/ BUTYL ACRYLATE/SODIUM MONO(ETHYL POLYOXYETHYLENE) MALEATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-gen Zhang; Zhi-xue Weng; Zhi-ming Huang; Zu-ren Pan

    1999-01-01

    A series of new water-soluble bifunctional comonomers having both carboxyl and alkyl polyoxyethylene groups, such as sodium mono(ethyl polyoxyethylene) maleate (ZE series) with various molecular weights of polyoxyethylene ethyl ether, were synthesized and characterized. The effects of the structural factor, the amount and feeding mode of the comonomers, the initiator concentration and polymerization temperature on the stability of emulsifier-free emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA) in the presence of a small amount of ZE with potassium persulfate as initiator were investigated. Stable, almost monodispersed MMA/BA/ZE emulsifier-free latex particles were prepared.

  9. Effects of Lipids and Emulsifiers on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Cosmetic Emulsions Containing Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Montenegro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensory properties are fundamental in determining the success of a cosmetic product. In this work, we assessed the influence of different oils and emulsifiers on the physicochemical and sensory properties of anti-ageing cosmetic O/W emulsions containing vitamin E acetate as active ingredient. No clear correlation between physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics was evidenced. Sensorial evaluation of these formulations pointed out that the emulsifier systems affected the perceived oiliness and absorbency during application of the product, thus influencing its acceptance. These results suggest the need for more detailed studies on the physicochemical factors involved in determining the consumers’ acceptance.

  10. Evaluation of glycerol derivative as emulsifier for oil based drilling fluids; Avaliacao de derivados de glicerina como emulsificante para fluidos de perfuracao de base oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Susan A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Cavalcanti, Milena Y.; Rodrigues Junior, Jorge; Lachter, Elizabeth R.; Nascimento, Regina Sandra V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In view of the growing search for new applications for the surplus glycerine of biodiesel production, the use of a glycerine derivative as emulsifier in oil based muds is proposed in this work. Glycerine monooleate was synthesized through esterification reaction, and characterized by NMR{sup 13}C. Its applicability as emulsifier was verified through electric stability tests performed on inverted phase drilling fluids. The obtained results were compared with two formulations containing different emulsifiers (sorbitol monooleate and trimethylolpropane monooleate). It was also evaluated the rheological properties of the formulated fluids through standard tests. It was verified that the fluid that contained the glycerine derivative showed considerably better electric stability results than the other systems. It also presented rheological properties similar to the ones shown by the system that contained the commercial emulsifier (sorbitol monooleate). Thus, it was found that glycerine monooleate is a potential substitute to the currently emulsifiers (author)

  11. Measuring the emulsification dynamics and stability of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Teófilo; Marques, Sara; Sarmento, Bruno

    2018-02-01

    Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are one of the most promising technologies in the drug delivery field, particularly for addressing solubility and bioavailability issues of drugs. The development of these drug carriers excessively relies in visual observations and indirect determinations. The present manuscript intended to describe a method able to measure the emulsification of SEDDS, both micro and nano-emulsions, able to measure the droplet size and to evaluate the physical stability of these formulations. Additionally, a new process to evaluate the physical stability of SEDDS after emulsification was also proposed, based on a cycle of mechanical stress followed by a resting period. The use of a multiparameter continuous evaluation during the emulsification process and stability was of upmost value to understand SEDDS emulsification process. Based on this method, SEDDS were classified as fast and slow emulsifiers. Moreover, emulsification process and stabilization of emulsion was subject of several considerations regarding the composition of SEDDS as major factor that affects stability to physical stress and the use of multicomponent with different properties to develop a stable and robust SEDDS formulation. Drug loading level is herein suggested to impact droplets size of SEDDS after dispersion and SEDDS stability to stress conditions. The proposed protocol allows an online measurement of SEDDS droplet size during emulsification and a rationale selection of excipients based on its emulsification and stabilization performance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Development and Evaluation of Liquid and Solid Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems for Atorvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Czajkowska-Kośnik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to design and characterize liquid and solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS for poorly soluble atorvastatin. To optimize the composition of liquid atorvastatin-SEDDS, solubility tests, pseudoternary phase diagrams, emulsification studies and other in vitro examinations (thermodynamic stability, droplet size and zeta potential analysis were performed. Due to the disadvantages of liquid SEDDS (few choices for dosage forms, low stability and portability during the manufacturing process, attempts were also made to obtain solid SEDDS. Solid SEDDS were successfully obtained using the spray drying technique from two optimized liquid formulations, CF3 and OF2. Despite liquid SEDDS formulation, CF3 was characterized by lower turbidity, higher percentage transmittance and better self-emulsifying properties, and based on the in vitro dissolution study it can be concluded that better solubilization properties were exhibited by solid formulation OF2. Overall, the studies demonstrated the possibility of formulating liquid and solid SEEDS as promising carriers of atorvastatin. SEDDS, with their unique solubilization properties, provide the opportunity to deliver lipophilic drugs to the gastrointestinal tract in a solubilized state, avoiding dissolution—a restricting factor in absorption rate of BCS Class 2 drugs, including atorvastatin.

  13. Self-Micro Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems: a Strategy to Improve Oral Bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Sharma

    Full Text Available Aim: Oral route has always been the favorite route of drug administration in many diseases and till today it is the first way investigated in the development of new dosage forms. The major problem in oral drug formulations is low and erratic bioavailability, which mainly results from poor aqueous solubility, thereby pose problems in their formulation. For the therapeutic delivery of lipophilic active moieties (BCS class II drugs, lipid based formulations are inviting increasing attention. Methods: To that aim, from the web sites of PubMed, HCAplus, Thomson, and Registry were used as the main sources to perform the search for the most significant research articles published on the subject. The information was then carefully analyzed, highlighting the most important results in the formulation and development of self-micro emulsifying drug delivery systems as well as its therapeutic activity. Results: Self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS has gained more attention due to enhanced oral bio-availability enabling reduction in dose, more consistent temporal profiles of drug absorption, selective targeting of drug(s toward specific absorption window in GIT, and protection of drug(s from the unreceptive environment in gut. Conclusions: This article gives a complete overview of SMEDDS as a promising approach to effectively deal with the problem of poorly soluble molecules.

  14. Lipid composition and emulsifying properties of canola lecithin from enzymatic degumming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Meizhen; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the polar lipid composition and emulsifying properties of canola lecithin from enzymatic degumming (CLED). Phospholipase A 1 was used for enzymatic degumming of crude canola oil to collect lecithin sample. Canola lecithin from water degumming (CLWD) was also collected and served as the control. The results showed that the contents of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (2.99%) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) (6.59%) in CLED were significantly lower than that in CLWD (PE 15.55% and PC 21.93%); while the content of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (19.45%) in CLED was significantly higher than that in CLWD (3.27%). Unsaturated fatty acids accounted for a higher percentage of the total fatty acids in CLED than in CLWD. CLED promoted more stable o/w emulsions than CLWD. This study provides a better understanding of the chemical nature of CLED, and important information for utilization of CLED as o/w emulsifier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of fluorinated polyacrylate latex emulsified with novel surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuifeng; Xu, Tingting; Bao, Zhongbin; Chen, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    The fluorinated polyacrylate latex were successfully prepared with semi- continuous seeded emulsion polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFMA) which was initiated with potassium persulfate (KPS) initiator and emulsified with the novel mixed surfactants of sodium lauryl glutamate (SLG) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (OP-10). The structure of the resultant latex was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The particle size of the latex was measured by Zetatrac dynamic light scattering detector. The film of latex was tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and contact angle (CA). The optimum conditions of preparing the novel fluorinated polyacrylate latex are optimized and the results are as follows: the amount of emulsifiers is 4.0%; mass ratio of SLG to OP-10 is 1:1, the amount of the initiator is 0.6%. The mass ratio of MMA to BA is 1:1 and the amount of HFMA is 7.0%. In this case, the conversion is high and the polymerization stability is good. In addition, the water resistance and thermal properties of the latex films were improved significantly in comparison with the film of the latex prepared without the fluorinated monomer.

  16. Phosphate Reduction in Emulsifi ed Meat Products: Impact of Phosphate Type and Dosage on Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seline Glorieux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate reduction is of important industrial relevance in the manufacturing of emulsifi ed meat products because it may give rise to a healthier product. The eff ect of seven diff erent phosphate types was tested on the physicochemical and quality characteristics to select the most promising phosphate type for further cooked sausage manufacturing. Next, phosphate mass fraction was gradually reduced. Tetrasodium di- or pyrophosphate (TSPP and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP increased pH, reduced structural properties, resulted in the highest emulsion stability, lowest cooking loss and had litt le eff ect on hardness. Based on the viscoelastic properties, a minimum mass fraction of 0.06 % TSPP was suffi cient to obtain an acceptable quality product. Rheology proved to be a very useful tool to evaluate the quality of meat products, as it gives insight in the structure of the meat product and especially the functional properties of meat proteins. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the current amount of phosphate added to emulsifi ed meat products can be signifi cantly reduced with minimal loss of product quality.

  17. Phosphate Reduction in Emulsified Meat Products: Impact of Phosphate Type and Dosage on Quality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Seline; Goemaere, Olivier; Steen, Liselot; Fraeye, Ilse

    2017-09-01

    Phosphate reduction is of important industrial relevance in the manufacturing of emulsified meat products because it may give rise to a healthier product. The effect of seven different phosphate types was tested on the physicochemical and quality characteristics to select the most promising phosphate type for further cooked sausage manufacturing. Next, phosphate mass fraction was gradually reduced. Tetrasodium di- or pyrophosphate (TSPP) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) increased pH, reduced structural properties, resulted in the highest emulsion stability, lowest cooking loss and had little effect on hardness. Based on the viscoelastic properties, a minimum mass fraction of 0.06% TSPP was sufficient to obtain an acceptable quality product. Rheology proved to be a very useful tool to evaluate the quality of meat products, as it gives insight in the structure of the meat product and especially the functional properties of meat proteins. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the current amount of phosphate added to emulsified meat products can be significantly reduced with minimal loss of product quality.

  18. Emulsifying properties of maillard conjugates produced from sodium caseinate and locust bean gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Perrechil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emulsifying properties of sodium caseinate -locust bean gum Maillard conjugates produced at different temperatures (54 - 96 ºC, protein/polysaccharide ratios (0.3 - 1.0 and reaction times (1 - 24 hours were evaluated. Conjugate formation was confirmed by formation of color and high molecular weight fractions and the decrease of the αs- and β-casein bands. The emulsions stabilized by Maillard conjugates showed good stability. The mean droplet diameter (d32 tended to decrease with the increase of incubation time and temperature, except at extreme conditions (24 hours and 90 ºC or 96 ºC when the partial degradation of the conjugates was probably favored, resulting in phase separation of emulsions. The emulsion viscosity decreased with the increase in the protein/polysaccharide ratio and with the degradation of the conjugates. The conditions used in the experimental design made the optimization of the conjugate production viable, which showed greater emulsifier properties than the pure protein under acid conditions.

  19. Stabilization of heavy oil-water emulsions using a bio/chemical emulsifier mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahbakhsh, A.; Taghizadeh, M.; Movagharnejad, K. [Chemical Engineering Department, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yakhchali, B. [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    In this study, the viscosity reduction of heavy oil has been investigated through the formation of oil-water emulsion using a bio/chemical emulsifier mixture. Four bioemulsifiers from indigenous Rhodococcus ergthropolis and Bacillus licheniformis strains were used to stabilize a highly-viscous oil-in-water emulsion. The Taguchi method with an L{sub 9} orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of various control factors on the formation of the oil/water emulsions. An emulsion with lowest viscosity was formed using ACO4 strain. The substantial stability of the oil-in-water emulsion allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over long distances or remain stationary for a considerable period of time prior to utilization. As the result of Taguchi analysis, the temperature and concentration of the emulsifier had a significant influence on viscosity reduction of the emulsion. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Engine performance and emission of compression ignition engine fuelled with emulsified biodiesel-water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maawa, W. N.; Mamat, R.; Najafi, G.; Majeed Ali, O.; Aziz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel and environmental pollution has become world crucial issues in current era. Biodiesel-water emulsion is one of many possible approaches to reduce emissions. In this study, emulsified biodiesel with 4%, 6% and 8% of water contents were prepared to be used as fuel in a direct injection compression ignition engine. The performance indicator such as brake power, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions such as NOx and particulate matter (PM) were investigated. The engine was set at constant speed of 2500 rpm and load from 20% to 60%. All the results were compared to B5 (blend of 95% petroleum diesel and 5% palm oil biodiesel) biodiesel. At low load, the BSFC decrease by 12.75% at 4% water ratio and decreased by 1.5% at 6% water ratio. However, the BSFC increases by 17.19% with increasing water ratio to 8% compared to B5. Furthermore, there was no significant decrease in brake power and BTE at 60% load. For 20% and 40% load there was some variance regarding to brake power and BTE. Significant reduction in NOx and PM emissions by 73.87% and 20.00% respectively were achieved with increasing water ratio to 8%. Overall, it is observed that the emulsified of biodiesel-water is an appropriate alternative fuel method to reduce emissions.

  1. Chemical and physical characteristics of local lecithin in comparison with some other food emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and physical characteristics of local lecithin and other food emulsifiers (Emulfuid E, Triodan R 90, Panodan 150 and Glycerol mono stéarate were studied. The characteristics of these emulsifiers studied were solubility, hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB, stability index (SI, fatty acid composition and infrared spectrum. The results obtained showed that Emulfuid E and local lecithin were mixture of lecithins and phosphatidyl ethanol-amine. In addition, Triodan R 90 was a polyglycerol ester of ricinoleic acid, Panodan 150 was a blend of mono and diglycerides, and G.M.S. was a monoglycerol ester of stearic acid.

    Se estudiaron las características químicas y físicas de lecitina local y otros emulsionantes alimentarios (Emulfuid E, Triodan R 90, Panodan 150 y Monoestearato de glicerol. Las características de estos emulsionantes estudiados fueron solubilidad, balance hidrófilo-lipófilo (HLB, índice de estabilidad (SI, composición en ácidos grasos y espectros de infrarrojo. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que Emulfuid E y lecitina local fueron mezclas de lecitinas y fosfatidil etanolamina. Por otro lado, Triodan R 90 fue ester poliglicerídico del ácido ricinoleico, Panodan 150 una mezcla de mono y diglicéridos y G.M.S. un éster monoglicerídico del ácido esteárico.

  2. Improvement of Emulsifying Properties of Wheat Gluten Hydrolysate λ-Carrageenan Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Shui Wang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluten hydrolysate was prepared through limited enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten resulting from the byproducts of wheat starch. The enzyme applied in the present study was Protamex. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of pH, gluten hydrolysate (GHPλ-carrageenan (C ratio and reaction time on emulsifying properties of the GHP-C conjugate. The regression model for emulsion activity index (EAI was significant at p=0.001, while reaction time had a significant effect on EAI of the conjugate with regression coefficient of 4.25. The interactions of pH and GHP/ C ratio, and GHP/C ratio and reaction time significantly affected the EAI of the conjugate. Both the emulsifying property and nitrogen solubility index (NSI of GHP-C conjugate prepared under the optimal conditions increased more remarkably, compared to the control. The denaturation temperature of GHP-C conjugate obviously increased compared to wheat gluten. The addition of GHP-C conjugate had different effects on dough characteristics. Moreover, this conjugate can delay the increase in the bread crumb firmness during storage. It demonstrated that this conjugate couldimprove the dough characteristics and had anti-staling properties of bread.

  3. Characterization and emulsifying property of a novel bioemulsifier by Aeribacillus pallidus YM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C; Li, Z; Su, J; Zhang, R; Liu, C; Zhao, M

    2012-07-01

      Biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers commonly have the advantages of biodegradability, low toxicity, selectivity and biocompatibility over chemically synthesized surfactants. The goal of the study is to present a novel bioemulsifier with great application potential.   Aeribacillus pallidus YM-1, isolated from crude oil contaminated soil, was found to produce a novel high molecular bioemulsifier with an emulsification index of 60 ± 1% without remarkable surface tension reduction (45·7 ± 0·1 mN m(-1) ). The number-average molecular weight was determined as 526 369 Da by gel permeation chromatography analysis. Bioemulsifier was subjected to FT-IR and a complex of carbohydrates (41·1%), lipids (47·6%) and proteins (11·3%) was determined.   The bioemulsifier of A. pallidus YM-1 was isolated from the glucose-based culture medium and characterized with the help of chemical analytical techniques. The bioemulsifier exhibited a promising emulsifying property for biotechnology application potential in bioremediation and microbial enhanced oil recovery.   This is the first report of the bioemulsifier production by A. pallidus. The potential emulsifying activity of the bioemulsifier in the present study may be explored in various biotechnological and industrial applications. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro

    2014-03-12

    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat.

  5. Study on degradation of nitrobenzene in groundwater using emulsified nano-zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Jun, E-mail: dongjun@jlu.edu.cn; Wen, Chunyu, E-mail: 13756014702@163.com; Liu, Dengfeng, E-mail: 862337789@qq.com [Jilin University, College of Environment and Resources (China); Zhang, Wenjing, E-mail: zhangwj@caep.org.cn [Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning (CAEP) (China); Li, Jintong, E-mail: 1535448369@qq.com; Jiang, Hanjie, E-mail: 1932639992@qq.com; Qin, Chongwei, E-mail: 476158689@qq.com; Hong, Mei, E-mail: hongmei@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin University, College of Environment and Resources (China)

    2015-01-15

    Emulsified nano-zero-valent iron (EZVI) is a modified form of bare nanoiron with improved transportability and targetability for the remediation of organic-solvents polluted soil and groundwater. In this work, EZVI (50–150 nm) was prepared by coating an emulsified vegetable oil membrane on the surface of Fe nanoparticles. EZVI was well-dispersed and less aggregation was observed. Batch experiments were conducted in anaerobic conditions to investigate the kinetics of nitrobenzene reduction by EZVI and the influences of oil concentration, initial iron content, and initial pH. Results indicated that the kinetics of nitrobenzene reduction by EZVI followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The observed rate constant of nitrobenzene is 0.0942 min{sup −1}. The oil concentration of 1 and 2 % tended to be preferred concentrations. The rate of nitrobenzene degradation and aniline formation increased with increasing iron content. The low pH is favorable to the nitrobenzene reduction by EZVI.

  6. A facile method for emulsified oil-water separation by using polyethylenimine-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Ting; Qi, Dongming; Zhang, Dong; Lü, Yulan; Zhao, Hongting

    2018-04-01

    Oil spills and oily wastewater discharges from ships and industrial activities have serious impacts on the environment and human health. In this study, a class of easy-to-synthesize polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was successfully synthesized via a one-step coprecipitation method. The synthesized PEI-coated Fe3O4 MNPs were characterized by using multiple technologies and applied in emulsified oil-water separation for the first time. It was found that the PEI effectively tuned the surface charge and wettability of MNPs. As a result, the PEI-coated MNPs could successfully assemble at the oil-water interface and promote the coalescence of oil droplets, thereby facilitating the subsequent magnetic separation. Results showed that the oil-water separation performance was superior and enhanced with the increase of ionic strength. Recycling experiment indicated that the PEI-coated MNPs could be reused up to six times without showing a significant decrease in separation efficiency. All of these results suggested that the PEI-coated MNP could potentially be used as a class of promising nanomaterials for emulsified oil-water separation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Comparative Emulsifying Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA-Modified Starch: Granular Form vs Dissolved State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matos

    Full Text Available The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability. Pickering emulsions kept their droplet size constant after one month while emulsions formulated with OSA-modified starch dissolved exhibited coalescence. All emulsions stabilized combining OSA-modified starch in granular form and in solution showed larger mean droplet sizes with no significant differences with respect to the order of addition. These emulsions were unstable due to coalescence regarding presence of free oil. Similar results were obtained when emulsions were prepared by combining OSA-modified granules with native starch in solution. The degree of surface coverage of starch granules was much lower in presence of starch in solution which indicates that OSA-starch is more surface active in the dissolved state than in granular form, although it led to unstable systems compared to starch granule stabilized Pickering emulsions, which demonstrated to be extremely stable.

  8. Anti-cancer evaluation of quercetin embedded PLA nanoparticles synthesized by emulsified nanoprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sanjeev K; Patel, Dinesh K; Thakur, Ravi; Mishra, Durga P; Maiti, Pralay; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to synthesize quercetin (Qt) embedded poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles (PLA-Qt) and to evaluate anti-cancer efficacy of PLA-Qt by using human breast cancer cells. PLA-Qt were synthesized by using novel emulsified nanoprecipitation technique with varying dimension of 32 ± 8 to 152 ± 9 nm of PLA-Qt with 62 ± 3% (w/w) entrapment efficiency by varying the concentration of polymer, emulsifier, drug and preparation temperature. The dimension of PLA-Qt was measured through transmission electron microscopy indicating larger particle size at higher concentration of PLA. The release rate of Qt from PLA-Qt was found to be more sustained for larger particle dimension (152 ± 9 nm) as compared to smaller particle dimension (32 ± 8 nm). Interaction between Qt and PLA was verified through spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. Delayed diffusion and stronger interaction in PLA-Qt caused the sustained delivery of Qt from the polymer matrix. In vitro cytotoxicity study indicate the killing of ∼ 50% breast cancer cells in two days at 100 μg/ml of drug concentration while the ∼ 40% destruction of cells require 5 days for PLA-Qt (46 ± 6 nm; 20mg/ml of PLA). Thus our results propose anticancer efficacy of PLA-Qt nanoparticles in terms of its sustained release kinetics revealing novel vehicle for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An intravenously injectable emulsified iodinated oil contrast agent for liver CT. Experimental study of lipiodol emulsion emulsified by lecithin (LEL38) in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, Tsuyoshi

    1994-01-01

    LEL38 (lipiodol emulsion emulsified by lecithin 38 mgI/ml, mean diameter 200 nm) is a new intravenously injectable oil contrast agent for liver CT. The aim of this report was to evaluate its ability to enhance contrast in the liver of 46 rabbits with regard to the correlation of density with time at an injected dose of 76 mgI/kg (before to 120 minutes after), the correlation of density with dose (0-760 mgI/kg) and the detectability of liver mass. The time-density correlation of LEL38 in the liver, that is, peak density, was achieved after 30 minutes, and it was elevated to 20.9 H. U. Thereafter, it decreased slowly. In the blood vessels, it reached a sharp peak after immediately being elevated to 14. 7 H. U. Thereafter detectability decreased quickly. The maximum difference in density between liver and blood vessels was 34 H. U. after 60 minutes. The dose-density correlation in the liver and blood vessels was linear. Tumors were detected as clear areas of low density. The minimal detectability was about 3 mm. LEL38 may be an effective contrast agent for screening CT studies of liver disease. (author)

  10. Adsorption at the biocompatible α-pinene-water interface and emulsifying properties of two eco-friendly surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Cayado, Luis Alfonso; Ramírez, Pablo; Alfaro, María Carmen; Ruíz, Manuela; Muñoz, José

    2014-10-01

    In this contribution, we provide an accurate characterization at the α-pinene/water interface of two commercial polyoxytheylene glycerol ester surfactants which differ in the number of ethylene oxide (EO) groups, comprising a systematic analysis of interfacial pressure isotherms, dynamic curves, interfacial rheology and emulsifying properties. Polyoxyethylene glycerol esters derived from cocoa oil are non-ionic surfactants obtained from a renewable source which fulfill the environmental and toxicological requirements to be used as eco-friendly emulsifying agents. α-Pinene is a renewable biosolvent completely insoluble in water, which could find numerous applications. Interfacial rheology and equilibrium interfacial pressure data fitted a rigorous reorientation model that assumes that the surfactant molecules, when adsorbed at the interface, can acquire two orientations. The surfactant with the highest number of EO groups (Levenol C201) turned out to be more surface active at the α-pinene/water interface. In addition, the surfactant with the lowest number of EO groups (Levenol H&B) is solubilized into the adjacent oil phase. Slightly concentrated α-pinene emulsions were obtained using both surfactants. Nevertheless, more stable α-pinene emulsions with smaller droplet sizes and lower polidispersity were obtained when Levenol C201 was used as emulsifier instead of Levenol H&B. The systematic characterization presented in this work provides important new findings on the interfacial and emulsifying properties of polyoxytheylene glycerol ester surfactants, which can be applied in the rational development of new biocompatible products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Emulsifying Property and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Modified with Oxidized Linoleic Acid and Oxidized Tannic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Cuttlefish skin gelatins modified with oxidized linoleic acid (OLA) and oxidized tannic acid (OTA) were characterized and determined for emulsifying properties and antioxidative activity. Modification of gelatin with 5% OTA increased the total phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl,

  12. Rheological and droplet size analysis of W/O/W multiple emulsions containing low concentrations of polymeric emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGANA D. VASILJEVIĆ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple emulsions are complex dispersion systems which have many potential applications in pharmaceutics, cosmetics and the food industry. In practice, however, significant problems may arise because of their thermodynamic instability. In this study, W/O/W multiple emulsion systems containing low concentration levels of lipophilic polymeric primary emulsifiers cetyl dimethicone copolyol and PEG–30 dipolyhydroxystearate were evaluated. The concentrations of the primary emulsifiers were set at 1.6 and 2.4 % w/w in the final emulsions. Rheological and droplet size analysis of the investigated samples showed that the type and concentration of the primary lipophilic polymeric emulsifier markedly affected the characteristics of the multiple emulsions. The multiple emulsion prepared with 2.4 % w/w PEG–30 dipolyhydroxystearate as the primary emulsifier exhibited the highest apparent viscosity, yield stress and elastic modulus values, as well as the smallest droplet size. Furthermore, these parameters remained relatively constant over the study period, confirming the high stability of the investigated sample. The results obtained indicate that the changes observed in the investigated samples over time could be attributed to the swelling/breakdown mechanism of the multiple droplets. Such changes could be adequately monitored by rheological and droplet size analysis.

  13. The influence of raw material, added emulsifying salt and spray drying on cheese powder structure and hydration properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå

    2017-01-01

    The present work has evaluated how raw material, addition of emulsifying salts (ES) and drying technology affect particle characteristics, structure, and hydration of cheese powders. In this context the spray drying technology induced the strongest effect on morphology and swelling of cheese powder...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of nano-SiO{sub 2} modified fluorine-containing polyacrylate emulsifier-free emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianhua, E-mail: zhoujianh@21cn.com [College of Resource and Environment, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); Shaanxi Research Institute of Agricultural Products Processing Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); Chen, Xin; Duan, Hao; Ma, Jianzhong; Ma, Yurong [College of Resource and Environment, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Nano-SiO{sub 2} modified fluorine-containing polyacrylate emulsifier-free emulsion was synthesized by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and sol–gel process using ethyl silicate as precursor for nano-SiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Nano-SiO{sub 2} modified fluorine-containing polyacrylate emulsifier-free emulsion was successfully synthesized by emulsion polymerization using surfmer and sol–gel process. • The contact angle results showed that the finished fabric had an excellent water and oil repellency. • The nano-SiO{sub 2} modified fluorine-containing polyacrylate emulsifier-free emulsion proved to be highly solvent-resistant and water-resistant. • The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the nano-SiO{sub 2} presented on the surface of latex particles. • The atomic force microscope (AFM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) confirmed that the hybrid film had a rough surface and the organic fluorine segment could migrate onto the film–air interface. - Abstract: Nano-SiO{sub 2} modified fluorine-containing polyacrylate emulsifier-free emulsion, consisting of methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate and ethyl silicate, was successfully synthesized by emulsion polymerization using surfmer and sol–gel process. When increasing ethyl silicate content, the latex centrifugal stability decreased, and the latex particle size increased. The contact angle results showed that the finished fabric had an excellent water and oil repellency. Furthermore, compared with fluorine-containing polyacrylate emulsifier-free emulsion, the obtained nano-SiO{sub 2} modified fluorine-containing polyacrylate emulsifier-free emulsion proved to be highly solvent-resistant and water-resistant. In addition, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the nano-SiO{sub 2} presented on the surface of latex particles. The atomic force microscope (AFM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer

  15. Preparation of magnetic latexes functionalized with chloromethyl groups via emulsifier-free miniemulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Sharifi-Sanjani, Naser

    2007-01-01

    Functionalized crosslinked polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene-co-chloromethylstyrene magnetic latex particles were prepared via emulsifier-free miniemulsion polymerization using 2, 2' azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (V-50) as an initiator and in the presence of magnetite nanoparticles in the monomers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved the presence of magnetite nanoparticles in polymer particles. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) analysis of the product showed an exothermic signal due to crosslinking of chains through electrophilic aromatic substitution of phenyl groups with chloromethyl groups in the presence of the dispersed Fe 3 O 4 as Lewis acid. This was proven by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) via the loss of gaseous HCl. The results were also compared with those of magnetite-free miniemulsion polymerization using V-50

  16. Preparation of magnetic latexes functionalized with chloromethyl groups via emulsifier-free miniemulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faridi-Majidi, Reza [School of Chemistry, University College of Science, Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: refaridi@khayam.ut.ac.ir; Sharifi-Sanjani, Naser [School of Chemistry, University College of Science, Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Functionalized crosslinked polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene-co-chloromethylstyrene magnetic latex particles were prepared via emulsifier-free miniemulsion polymerization using 2, 2' azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (V-50) as an initiator and in the presence of magnetite nanoparticles in the monomers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) proved the presence of magnetite nanoparticles in polymer particles. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) analysis of the product showed an exothermic signal due to crosslinking of chains through electrophilic aromatic substitution of phenyl groups with chloromethyl groups in the presence of the dispersed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as Lewis acid. This was proven by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) via the loss of gaseous HCl. The results were also compared with those of magnetite-free miniemulsion polymerization using V-50.

  17. Bacterial degradation of emulsified crude oil and the effects of various surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruheim, P.; Bredholt, H.; Eimhjellen, K.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of surfactants on the oxidation rate of alkanes in crude oil were investigated using a selected bacterial species, Rhodococcus sp., pregrown to various growth stages. Oxidation rates were measured in a three-hour period by Warburg respirometry. Response to emulsified oil was found to be dependent on the physiological state of the bacteria. In the exponential growth phase oxidation rates were negatively affected by surfactant amendment, whereas in the stationary growth phase oxidation rates appear to have been stimulated. The stimulatory effect was attributed to the chemical structure and physico-chemical properties of the surfactants. Surfactants with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance values (HLB) in the intermediate range of 8-12 gave the best values. Neither the commercial dispersants nor the biosurfactants exhibited any stimulative effects. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  18. A Numerical Comparison of Spray Combustion between Raw and Water-in-Oil Emulsified Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tarlet

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Heavy fuel-oils, used engine oils and animal fat can be used as dense, viscous combustibles within industrial boilers. Burning these combustibles in the form of an emulsion with water enables to decrease the flame length and the formation of carbonaceous residue, in comparison with raw combustibles. These effects are due to the secondary atomization among the spray, which is a consequence of the micro-explosion phenomenon. This phenomenon acts in a single emulsion droplet by the fast (< 0.1 ms vaporization of the inside water droplets, leading to complete disintegration of the whole emulsion droplet. First, the present work demonstrates a model of spray combustion of raw fuel. Secondly, the spray combustion of water-in-oil emulsified fuel is exposed to the same burning conditions, taking into account the micro-explosion phenomenon. Finally, the comparison between the results with and without second atomization shows some similar qualitative tendencies with experimental measurements from the literature.

  19. Integrated process for the removal of emulsified oils from effluents in the steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, J.M.; Rios, G.; Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J.

    1999-11-01

    Emulsified oils contained in aqueous effluents from cold-rolling mills of the steel industry can be effectively removed via an integrated process consisting of a coagulation/flocculation stage followed by ultrafiltration of the resulting aqueous phase. The effects of CaCl{sub 2}, NaOH, and lime on the stability of different industrial effluents were studied in the coagulation experiments. The flocculants tested were inorganic prehydrolyzed aluminum salts and quaternary polyamines. Ultrafiltration of the aqueous phase from the coagulation/flocculation stage was carried out in a stirred cell using Amicon PM30 and XM300 organic membranes. Permeate fluxes were measured for industrial effluents to which the indicated coagulants and flocculants had been added. Oil concentrations in the permeate were 75% lower than the limits established by all European Union countries. Complete regeneration of the membrane was accomplished with an aqueous solution of a commercial detergent.

  20. The influence of animal fat replacement with vegetable oils on sensorial perception of meat emulsified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian TUDOSE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of the present study, in an emulsified meat product the pork backfat was replaced with a vegetable oil pre-emulsion and its effect on quality attributes were investigated. In order to do so, a classic and a new meat products were manufactured. Extra virgin olive oil and palm oil pre-emulsion were added instead of animal fat in the new product. Texture and physiochemical properties were analyzed by instrumental measurements. It was observed that during storage moisture and pH decreased. Using vegetable oils determined substantial increase of TBA values. Texture was influenced mainly by storage time for both products, while replacement of pork backfat with vegetable oil pre-emulsion had no influence on sample firmness. The sensory properties of meat products were evaluated by a group of trained panelists using an analitycal sensory evaluation technique. Overall the new product presented good acceptability which recommends it like a new healthier meat product.

  1. Lecithin-linker formulations for self-emulsifying delivery of nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jacquelene; Cheng, Yu-Ling; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Nouraei, Mehdi; Zarate-Muñoz, Silvia; Acosta, Edgar J

    2014-08-25

    Lecithin-linker microemulsions are formulations produced with soybean lecithin in combination with a highly lipophilic (lipophilic linker) and highly hydrophilic (hydrophilic linkers) surfactant-like additives. In this work, lecithin-linker systems were formulated to produce self-emulsifying delivery systems for β-carotene and β-sitosterol. The concentration of the lipophilic linker, sorbitan monooleate, was adjusted to minimize the formation of liquid crystals. The concentration of hydrophilic linkers, decaglyceryl caprylate/caprate and PEG-6-caprylic/capric glycerides, was gradually increased (scanned) until single phase clear microemulsions were obtained. For these scans, the oil (ethyl caprate) to water ratio was set to 1. The single phase, clear microemulsions were diluted with fed-state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF) and produced stable emulsions, with drop sizes close to 200 nm. Using pseudo-ternary phase diagrams to evaluate the process of dilution of microemulsion preconcentrates (mixtures of oil, lecithin and linkers with little or no water) with FeSSIF, it was determined that self-emulsifying systems are obtained when the early stages of the dilution produce single phase microemulsions. If liquid crystals or multiple phase systems are obtained during those early stages, then the emulsification yields unstable emulsions with large drop sizes. An in vitro permeability study conducted using a Flow-Thru Dialyzer revealed that stable emulsions with drop sizes of 150-300 nm produce large and irreversible permeation of β-carotene to sheep intestine. On the other hand, unstable emulsions produced without the linker combination separated in the dialyzer chamber. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Emulsifier, Overrun and Dasher Speed on Ice Cream Microstructure and Melting Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Maya M; Hartel, Richard W

    2018-03-01

    Ice cream is a multiphase frozen food containing ice crystals, air cells, fat globules, and partially coalesced fat globule clusters dispersed in an unfrozen serum phase (sugars, proteins, and stabilizers). This microstructure is responsible for ice cream's melting characteristics. By varying both formulation (emulsifier content and overrun) and processing conditions (dasher speed), the effects of different microstructural elements, particularly air cells and fat globule clusters, on ice cream melt-down properties were studied. Factors that caused an increase in shear stress within the freezer, namely increasing dasher speed and overrun, caused a decrease in air cell size and an increase in extent of fat destabilization. Increasing emulsifier content, especially of polysorbate 80, caused an increase in extent of fat destabilization. Both overrun and fat destabilization influenced drip-through rates. Ice creams with a combination of low overrun and low fat destabilization had the highest drip-through rates. Further, the amount of remnant foam left on the screen increased with reduced drip-through rates. These results provide a better understanding of the effects of microstructure components and their interactions on drip-through rate. Manipulating operating and formulation parameters in ice cream manufacture influences the microstructure (air cells, ice crystals, and fat globule clusters). This work provides guidance on which parameters have most effect on air cell size and fat globule cluster formation. Further, the structural characteristics that reduce melt-down rate were determined. Ice cream manufacturers will use these results to tailor their products for the desired quality attributes. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Evaluation of emulsifier stability of biosurfactant produced by Saccharomyces lipolytica CCT-0913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Silva Lima

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface-active compounds of biological origin are widely used for many industries (cosmetic, food, petrochemical. The Saccharomyces lipolytica CCT-0913 was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant on 5% (v/v diesel-oil at pH 5.0 and 32ºC. The cell-free broth emulsified and stabilized the oil-in-water emulsion through a first order kinetics. The results showed that the initial pH value and temperature influenced the emulsifier stability (ES, which was the time when oil was separated. The biosurfactant presented different stabilization properties for vegetable and mineral oil in water solution, despite the highest values of the ES occurring with vegetable oil. The biosurfactant presented smallest ES when compared to commercial surfactants; however, this biosurfactant was not purified.Os tensoativos de origem biológica são amplamente utilizados em diversas aplicações. O microrganismo Saccharomyces lipolytica CCT-0913 possui a habilidade de crescer em 5% (v/v óleo diesel a pH 5,0 e 32ºC e produzir biosurfactante. O caldo fermentado livre de células e produzido por S. lipolytica emulsiona e estabiliza emulsões óleo em água de acordo com uma cinética de primeira ordem. Os resultados mostram que o valor do pH inicial e a temperatura influenciam a estabilidade emulsificante (ES, que é medido pelo tempo que a quantidade de óleo. O biosurfactante apresenta diferentes valores de estabilidade emulsificante para óleos vegetais e minerais em emulsões óleo-água, os maiores valores de ES ocorrem nas emulsões utilizando óleo vegetal. O biosurfactante apresenta valores baixos de ES quando comparado com emulsificantes comerciais, entretanto sem sofrer nenhum processo de purificação.

  4. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems: Design of a novel vaginal delivery system for curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, S; Nardin, I; Markt, R; Griesser, J; Prüfert, F; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a vaginal self-emulsifying delivery system for curcumin being capable of spreading, of permeating the mucus gel layer and of protecting the drug being incorporated in oily nanodroplets towards mucus interactions and immobilization. The emulsifying properties of curcumin loaded SEDDS containing 30% Cremophor RH40, 20% Capmul PG-8, 30% Captex 300, 10% DMSO and 10% tetraglycol (SEDD formulation A) as well as 25% PEG 200, 35% Cremophor RH40, 20% Captex 355, 10% Caprylic acid and 10% Tween 80 (SEDD formulation B) after diluting 1+2 with artificial vaginal fluid were characterized regarding droplet size and zeta potential. Collagen swelling test was used to examine the irritation potential of SEDDS. Additionally to mucus binding studies, permeation studies in the mucus were performed. Furthermore, spreading potential of the novel developed formulations was compared with a commercial available o/w cream (non-ionic hydrophilic cream) on vaginal mucosa. SEDDS displayed a mean droplet size between 38 and 141nm and a zeta potential of -0.3 to -1.6mV. The collagen swelling test indicated no significant irritation potential of both formulations over 24h. An immediate interaction of unformulated curcumin with the mucus was determined, whereas both SEDDS facilitated drug permeation through the mucus layer. Formulation B showed a 2.2-fold improved transport ratio of curcumin compared to SEDD formulation A. In comparison to the vaginal cream, SEDD formulation A and B were able to spread over the vaginal mucosa and cover the tissue to a 17.8- and 14.8-fold higher extent, respectively. According to these results, SEDDS seems to be a promising tool for vaginal application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury by emulsified Antrodia extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chih Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Antrodia cinnamomea (AC is found with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory biological activities. In this study, we investigated the anti-hepatitis effect of the emulsified AC extract from RO water or supercritical fluid CO2 with ethanol co-solvent extract methods of AC preparations. Materials and Methods: Five groups of eight to ten weeks male rats with a count of ten for each group were studied to evaluate the protection of two kinds of AC extract from hepatic injury. Acute liver injury of rats was induced by injecting 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Positive and negative control groups rats were perfused with CCl4 or isotonic saline, respectively. Experimental groups received oral administration once/day of AC preparations before CCl4 treatment: water AC extract (WAE group, or emulsified AC extract from supercritical fluid extraction (EAE group for 5 days, and sacrificed on the 6th day and the blood and liver samples were collected under chloral hydrate anesthesia. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant markers, and relevant signaling pathways were measured (AST, ALT, ROS, IL-1, IL-6, NO, and COX-2, MAPKs, and caspase-3. Results: EAE at 50 mg/kg significantly decreased the serum AST, ALT, IL-1, IL-6, NO, and ROS levels. Both extracts reduced the activation of p-ERK in the liver samples, but EAE inhibited COX-2 and caspase-3 protein expression better than WAE. The EAE ameliorated CCl4-induced hepatic injury significantly; as compared with WAE and the positive control. Conclusion: The hepatoprotection of EAE could be attributed to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Antrodia.

  6. Composition of legume soaking water and emulsifying properties in gluten-free bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, San; Liu, Yuling; Zhang, Weihan; Dale, Kylie J; Liu, Silu; Zhu, Jingnan; Serventi, Luca

    2018-04-01

    Soaking of legumes results in the loss of macronutrients, micronutrients and phytochemicals. Fibre, protein and phytochemicals found in legumes exert emulsifying activity that may improve the structure and texture of gluten-free bread. The legume soaking water of haricot beans, garbanzo chickpeas, whole green lentils, split yellow peas and yellow soybeans were tested in this study for functional properties and use as food ingredients. Composition, physicochemical properties and effect on the quality of gluten-free bread were determined for each legume soaking water. Haricot beans and split yellow peas released the highest amount of solids in the legume soaking water: 1.89 and 2.38 g/100 g, respectively. Insoluble fibre was the main constituent of haricot beans legume soaking water, while water-soluble carbohydrates and protein were the major fraction of split yellow peas. High quantities of phenolics (∼400 µg/g) and saponins (∼3 mg/g) were found in the legume soaking water of haricot beans, whole green lentils and split yellow peas. High emulsifying activity (46 and 50%) was found for the legume soaking water of garbanzo chickpeas and split yellow peas, probably due to their protein content and high ratio of water-soluble carbohydrates to dry matter. Such activity resulted in softer texture of the gluten-free bread. A homogeneous structure of crumb pores was found for split yellow peas, opposing that of whole green lentils. A balance between the contents of yeast nutrients and antinutrients was the likely basis of the different appearances.

  7. PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF VITAMIN E ADJUVANTED OIL EMULSIFIED INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS EXPERIMENTAL VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ALI, M. ARSHAD, M. SIDDIQUE AND M. ASHRAF

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to prepare oil emulsified (OE infectious bronchitis (IB experimental vaccines. The vaccines were prepared using the vaccinal strain H-120 Infectious Bonchitis virus (IBV. The virus was cultivated in 9-day old embryonated eggs via allantoic cavity route. Allantoic-amniotic fluid (AAF was collected and inactivated with formalin @ 0.12%. Water in oil emulsion was prepared by adding one part of AAF to four parts of mineral oil containing water phase (Tween 80 and oil phase (Span 80 surfactants. Hydrophile lypohile balance (HLB of the emulsion was maintained at 7.0. Two oil emulsified experimental vaccines were prepared. Vaccine-I was prepared without vitamin E and Vaccine-II with vitamin E (300 mg/ml. A total of 120 day-old broiler breeder chickens were divided into 4 groups, A, B, C, and D, each having 30 birds. At the age of 21 days, experimental Vaccine-I, experimental vaccine-II and commercial IB killed (H-120 vaccine were inoculated @ 0.5 ml in the birds of groups A, B and C, respectively. Group D was maintained as nonvaccinated control. Efficacy of the vaccines was evaluated on the basis of humoral immune response (haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres against IB in the four groups. The seven weeks cumulative mean antibody titres (CMT of each group were calculated. The highest CMT was observed in group B (130, followed by group C (69, group A (58 and group D (17. Statistical analysis showed that haemagglutination inhibition (HI antibody titres in group B (vaccine- II were significantly higher than those of groups A, B and C (P< 0.05.

  8. Synthesis of quaternary derivatives of ortho-coco di-amido toluene and investigation of these compounds as cationic bitumen emulsifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanzadeh, Masoumeh; Tayebi, Leila; Dezfouli, Hedieh; Kambarani, Masoud; Avval, Parviz Ahmadi [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). ACECR, Designing Chemical Process Research Group

    2012-05-15

    Bitumen emulsions are preferred over conventional pavement systems due to their biologically and environmentally acceptable formulation, safety, low viscosity, storage stability, and cost effectiveness. The present investigation deals with the systematic study to synthesize ortho-cocodi-amido toluene and four quaternary derivatives by amidation of coconut oil and ortho toluene diamine (OTD), followed by quaternization with formaldehyde, formic acid mixture, and acrylonitrile, resulted in a new quaternary compound useful as cationic emulsifier in bitumen emulsions. The roles of temperature and reaction time in determining optimum conditions were investigated as well. Emulsifying behavior of these quaternary compounds was studied by sieve residue test, settlement and storage stability test of emulsified asphalt, and water solubility. The results show that the acrylonitrile imidazolinium derivative of o-cocodi-amido toluene (VI) can be used as a rapid-medium setting emulsifier. (orig.)

  9. Effect of mixing mode and emulsifying agents on micro/nanoencapsulation of low viscosity self-healing agents in polymethyl methacrylate shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangaran, Fatemeh; Navarchian, Amir H.; Hayaty, Mehran; Esmailpour, Karim

    2016-09-01

    In this study, epoxy prepolymer (EC 157) and pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) as hardener were encapsulated separately in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) shells through an internal phase separation method. Chemical structures, morphologies, and thermal properties of healing agent micro/nanocapsules were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. The effects of encapsulation processing conditions such as mechanical mixing rate, ultrasonication, emulsifier type, and co-emulsifier concentration on encapsulation yield, capsule mean diameter and core content were studied using the Taguchi experimental design approach. The results indicated that the main significant factors affecting the yield of encapsulation are emulsifier type and ultrasonication. The most important factors which affect the mean diameter of capsules are emulsifier type and mechanical mixing rate. The core content was influenced by ultrasonication and mechanical mixing rate. The relative optimum condition of encapsulation was also determined using overall evaluation criteria.

  10. [Treatment of wrinkles of the upper lip by emulsified fat or "Nanofat": Biological and clinical study about 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesguich Batel, F; Bertrand, B; Magalon, J; François, P; Velier, M; Veran, J; Mallet, S; Jouve, E; Sabatier, F; Casanova, D

    2018-02-01

    Emulsified fat injection showed its interest in aesthetic facial surgery. The adipose tissue harvested is mechanically emulsified and filtered. The suspension obtained is injected into the dermis through small diameter needles (27 to 30 gauges). The objective of our study was to evaluate the biological composition of emulsified fat and its clinical effectiveness in the treatment of peri-oral wrinkles in 4 patients aged 50 to 59 years. Each patient received an intradermal injection of emulsified fat in the peri-oral wrinkles prepared from abdominal fat under local anesthesia. The cell viability, stromal vascular fraction (FVS) composition in emulsified fat and the adipocyte differentiation capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were studied. The clinical results were evaluated by standardized photographs, 3D microphotography, confocal microscopy, and self-evaluation of patient satisfaction over a period of 4 months. The biological study of the emulsified fat found a lysis of all the adipocytes. The mean number of FVS cells was 126,330±2758 cells by cc of emulsified fat with preserved cell viability (85.1±6.84 %) and a good proportion of regeneratives cells (18.77±6.2 %). The clinical study found a tendency to decrease the volume of wrinkles on standardized photography and 3D microphotography no significative. Patients were satisfied with treatment with an average score of 7±1.15/10 to 4 months. Intradermal injection of emulsified fat seems to be an interesting treatment of face wrinkles. Our study has shown its safety, but additional studies seems necessary to confirm its clinical efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-emulsifier protein produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) in an airlift bioreactor following an electrochemical pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vázquez, Victor; Shirai, Keiko; González, Ignacio; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Mariano

    2018-05-01

    An emulsifier protein (EP) was produced and easily separated from oil-contaminated water as an economical substrate when Aspergillus brasiliensis, pretreated in a solid state culture with a controlled electric field, was used in an airlift bioreactor. The hydrocarbon-EP comprised 19.5% of the total protein, its purification enhanced the specific emulsifying activity (EA) seven times. The influence of operational conditions (pH and salt concentration) on the EA were assessed to characterise the emulsion stability. The EA was increased by 19% in alkaline environments (pH 7-11), but it was not affected by the presence of salt (0-35 g L -1 ). On the other hand, preheating the EP samples (60 °C) enhanced the EA by 2.5 times. Based on analysis of its EA, this EP can be applied as a bioremediation enhancer in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes of lipid and fatty acid absorption induced by high dose of citric acid ester and lecithin emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadouki, Mohamed; Bouchoucha, Michel

    2014-09-01

    To describe the effect of two food emulsifiers, lecithin (E322) and citric acid esters of mono-and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472c), on the intestinal absorption of lipids. The experiment was conducted on 24 male Wistar rats randomly assigned in three groups. For two groups of six rats, 30% of the lipid intake was replaced with lecithin (L) or citric acid ester of mono and diglycerides, (E); the remaining 12 rats were the control group (C). Diet and fecal fat analysis was used to determine the apparent lipid absorption (ALA) and fatty acids. ALA was significantly lower in the group E than in the groups C and L (p acids decreased while the length of the carbon chains increased, and this decrease was higher in the group E. E472c emulsifier decreased the intestinal absorption of lipids.

  13. Oxidative stability of 70% fish oil‐in‐water emulsions: Impact of emulsifiers and pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of five different emulsifiers on lipid oxidation in 70% fish oil‐in‐water emulsions to be used as delivery systems for long chain polyunsaturated omega‐3 fatty acids to foods. The emulsifiers were either phospholipid (PL) based......‐in‐water emulsions prepared with whey protein isolate, sodium caseinate, milk phospholipids, or soy lecithin. The emulsions can be used as delivery systems for fish oil to foods. However, only emulsions prepared with proteins at high pH offered advantages with respect to better oxidative stability during storage...... compared to neat fish oil. Thus, when fish oil is added to a food product in a delivery emulsion, the type of emulsion used should be carefully considered....

  14. De-emulsifiers for water-in-crude oil-emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaki, N. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst. (EPRI), Cairo (Egypt); Al-Sabagh, A. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst. (EPRI), Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-01-01

    The efficiency of 18 different polyalkylphenols-polyalkylene-polyamines-formaldehyde ethoxylates (PAPAFE) in the deemulsification of water-in-crude oil-emulsion were studied. In this respect, two naturally occurring Egyptian water-in-curde oil-emulsions were used to test the investigated de-emulsifiers. The effect of the variation in the molecular structure of the (PAPAFE) on their de-emulsification potency is investigated. The investigation reveals that de-emulsifiers containing nonyl phenol reduce crude oil-water interfacial tension (IFT) and are more efficient than those containing dodecyl phenol. PAPAFE containing more amino groups are found to have better emulsion breaking ability. This is attributed to their enhanced ability to solubilize asphaltenes, which are the prime motivators for crude oil-water emulsion stability. They drag asphaltenes crosslinked at the water-crude oil interface and consequently, resulting in a substantial decrease in emulsion stability. There exists an optimum hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) for the investigated PAPAFE, ranging from 12 to 13.5 at which their maximum de-emulsification ability is attained. All studied PAPAFE showed increased de-emulsification performance by increasing the temperature from 50 to 70 C. Increasing the temperature reduces the viscosity of the crude oil continuous phase and increases the rate of diffusion of both the surfactant molecules and the dispersed water droplets. This will cause an increase in the rate of coalescence of the water droplets. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurde die Wirkung von 18 verschiedenen Polyalkylphenolpolyalkylenpolyamine-formaldehydethoxylaten (PAPAFE) bei der Demulgierung von Wasser-in-Rohoel-Emulsionen untersucht. Zwei in Aegypten natuerlich vorkommende Wasser-in-Rohoel-Emulsionen wurden fuer die Versuche eingesetzt, dabei wurde der Einfluss der molekularen Struktur der PAPAFEs auf das Demulgiervermoegen untersucht. Es zeigte sich, dass Demulgatoren mit Nonylphenol die

  15. Adjusting the operating characteristics to improve the performance of an emulsified palm oil methyl ester run diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, Biplab K.; Sahoo, Niranjan; Saha, Ujjwal K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The oxygenated biodiesel has a lower calorific value and emits higher NO X than diesel. ► The objective is to study the water in palm oil biodiesel emulsion in a diesel engine. ► The tests are performed at higher compression ratio and retarded injection timing. ► The results obtained are compared with a POME run diesel engine. ► Higher efficiency, lower ignition delay and emissions are the outcomes. - Abstract: The popularity of emulsified fuels as alternative to diesel is cumulative. The water in diesel emulsion is the most practiced one. The presence of water in emulsion and its micro-explosion reduces emissions. However, the emulsified biodiesel is not properly explored. The reason may be due to its lesser calorific value that does not augment efficiency. Alongside oxygenated biodiesel generally emits higher NO X than diesel. Therefore, the present investigation targets at finding the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of emulsified biodiesel in a diesel engine at an elevated compression ratio (CR) and retarded injection timing (IT). This is because; at this CR–IT combination emulsified fuel will be injected at the warmer environment, mechanically created inside the cylinder. The objective is to achieve a faster combustion, lower ignition delay (ID), improved performance and emission characteristics. The biodiesel used in this work is the palm oil methyl ester (POME). The prepared two-phase water in POME (WIP) emulsion is tested in a variable compression ratio (VCR) diesel engine at CR = 18 and IT = 20°BTDC. The results obtained are then compared with the POME run engine data under the same CR and IT specifications. Additionally, experiments have also been conducted in the same engine at CR = 17.5 and IT = 23°BTDC to compare its results with those of WIP and POME run engines

  16. Characterization of E 471 food emulsifiers by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia; Brändle, Klara; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2018-07-13

    Mono- and diacylglycerol (MAG and DAG) emulsifiers, also known as food additive E 471, are widely used to adjust techno-functional properties in various foods. Besides MAGs and DAGs, E 471 emulsifiers additionally comprise different amounts of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs). MAGs, DAGs, TAGs and FFAs are generally determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass selective detection, analyzing the individual representatives of the lipid classes. In this work we present a rapid and sensitive method for the determination of MAGs, DAGs, TAGs and FFAs in E 471 emulsifiers by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPTLC-FLD), including a response factor system for quantitation. Samples were simply dissolved and diluted with t-butyl methyl ether before a two-fold development was performed on primuline pre-impregnated LiChrospher silica gel plates with diethyl ether and n-pentane/n-hexane/diethyl ether (52:20:28, v/v/v) as the mobile phases to 18 and 75 mm, respectively. For quantitation, the plate was scanned in the fluorescence mode at UV 366/>400 nm, when the cumulative signal for each lipid class was used. Calibration was done with 1,2-distearin and amounts of lipid classes were calculated with response factors and expressed as monostearin, distearin, tristearin and stearic acid. Limits of detection and quantitation were 1 and 4 ng/zone, respectively, for 1,2-distearin. Thus, the HPTLC-FLD approach represents a simple, rapid and convenient screening alternative to HPLC and GC analysis of the individual compounds. Visual detection additionally enables an easy characterization and the direct comparison of emulsifiers through the lipid class pattern, when utilized as a fingerprint. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of thin film composite membranes with forward osmosis technology for the separation of emulsified oil-water

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of oily wastewater have been produced from various industries. The main challenge of oily wastewater treatments is to separate the stable emulsified oil particles from water. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of forward osmosis (FO) processes to treat the stable oil-water emulsions. The FO technique has been demonstrated successfully for the treatment of a wide range of oil-water emulsions from a low to a very high concentration up to 200,000. ppm. The dependence of separation performance on oily feed concentration and flow rate has been investigated. Water can be separated from oily feeds containing 500. ppm or 200,000. ppm emulsified oil at a relatively high flux of 16.5±1.2. LMH or 11.8±1.6. LMH respectively by using a thin film composite membrane PAN-TFC and 1. M NaCl as the draw solution. Moreover, this membrane can achieve an oil rejection of 99.88% to produce water with a negligible oil level. Due to the presence of emulsified oil particles in the oily feed solutions, the membrane fouling has been addressed in this study. Better anti-fouling TFC FO membranes are needed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  18. A novel sample preparation method using rapid nonheated saponification method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In-Seek; Kwak, Byung-Man; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Leem, Donggil; Yoon, Taehyung; Yoon, Changyong; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Jin-Man

    2012-10-01

    In this study, nonheated saponification was employed as a novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods. Cholesterol content was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The cholesterol extraction method was optimized for maximum recovery from baby food and infant formula. Under these conditions, the optimum extraction solvent was 10 mL ethyl ether per 1 to 2 g sample, and the saponification solution was 0.2 mL KOH in methanol. The cholesterol content in the products was determined to be within the certified range of certified reference materials (CRMs), NIST SRM 1544 and SRM 1849. The results of the recovery test performed using spiked materials were in the range of 98.24% to 99.45% with an relative standard devitation (RSD) between 0.83% and 1.61%. This method could be used to reduce sample pretreatment time and is expected to provide an accurate determination of cholesterol in emulsified food matrices such as infant formula and baby food. A novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method using nonheated saponification was developed for cholesterol detection in emulsified foods. Recovery tests of CRMs were satisfactory, and the recoveries of spiked materials were accurate and precise. This method was effective and decreased the time required for analysis by 5-fold compared to the official method. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. The influence of carbohydrate-based fat replacers with and without emulsifiers on the quality characteristics of lowfat cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A H

    1998-01-01

    Physical and sensory characteristics of cakes prepared with either the carbohydrate-based fat replacers N-Flate, Paselli MD 10 and Litesse (0, 25, 50 and 75% of fat weight) or fat replacers plus emulsifier (mono- and diglycerides; 0 and 3% of flour weight) were studied. Specific gravity of the batter was significantly (p Cakes prepared with fat replacers at the 25 and 50% levels had higher volumes, specific volume and standing heights than those of the control. Cakes prepared with fat replacers at the 25, 50 and 75% levels were more compressible than the control. Cakes prepared with Paselli MD 10 had the highest volumes, specific volume, standing heights and compressibilities. Incorporation of emulsifier with fat replacers improved cake volumes, standing heights and compressibilities. Cakes prepared with fat replacers exhibited higher crust and crumb color values compared to the control. Cakes prepared with 25 or 50% fat replacers had higher mean scores for flavor, softness and eating quality than the control. Incorporation of emulsifier with fat replacers did not affect the crust color, crumb color and flavor, but significantly (p < or = 0.05) improved softness and eating quality.

  20. Application of thin film composite membranes with forward osmosis technology for the separation of emulsified oil-water

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc

    2014-02-01

    Large amounts of oily wastewater have been produced from various industries. The main challenge of oily wastewater treatments is to separate the stable emulsified oil particles from water. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of forward osmosis (FO) processes to treat the stable oil-water emulsions. The FO technique has been demonstrated successfully for the treatment of a wide range of oil-water emulsions from a low to a very high concentration up to 200,000. ppm. The dependence of separation performance on oily feed concentration and flow rate has been investigated. Water can be separated from oily feeds containing 500. ppm or 200,000. ppm emulsified oil at a relatively high flux of 16.5±1.2. LMH or 11.8±1.6. LMH respectively by using a thin film composite membrane PAN-TFC and 1. M NaCl as the draw solution. Moreover, this membrane can achieve an oil rejection of 99.88% to produce water with a negligible oil level. Due to the presence of emulsified oil particles in the oily feed solutions, the membrane fouling has been addressed in this study. Better anti-fouling TFC FO membranes are needed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Development and Optimization of Polymeric Self-Emulsifying Nanocapsules for Localized Drug Delivery: Design of Experiment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Wadhwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to formulate polymeric self-emulsifying curcumin nanocapsules with high encapsulation efficiency, good emulsification ability, and optimal globule size for localized targeting in the colon. Formulations were prepared using modified quasiemulsion solvent diffusion method. Concentration of formulation variables, namely, X1 (oil, X2 (polymeric emulsifier, and X3 (adsorbent, was optimized by design of experiments using Box-Behnken design, for its impact on mean globule size (Y1 and encapsulation efficiency (Y2 of the formulation. Polymeric nanocapsules with an average diameter of 100–180 nm and an encapsulation efficiency of 64.85 ± 0.12% were obtained. In vitro studies revealed that formulations released the drug after 5 h lag time corresponding to the time to reach the colonic region. Pronounced localized action was inferred from the plasma concentration profile (Cmax 200 ng/mL that depicts limited systemic absorption. Roentgenography study confirms the localized presence of carrier (0–2 h in upper GIT; 2–4 h in small intestine; and 4–24 h in the lower intestine. Optimized formulation showed significantly higher cytotoxicity (IC50 value 20.32 μM in HT 29 colonic cancer cell line. The present study demonstrates systematic development of polymeric self-emulsifying nanocapsule formulation of curcumin for localized targeting in colon.

  2. Characterization of edible emulsified films with low affinity to water based on kefiran and oleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Oromiehie, Abdulrasoul; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid

    2011-10-01

    New edible composite films based on kefiran and oleic acid (OA) at the ratio of 15, 25, and 35% (w/w) were prepared using emulsification with the aim of improving their water vapour barrier and mechanical properties. Film-forming solutions were characterized in terms of rheological properties and particle-size distribution. The impact of the incorporation of OA into the film matrix was studied by investigating the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the films. The water vapour permeability (WVP) of the emulsified films was reduced by approximately 33% by adding OA. The mechanical properties of kefiran films were also affected by adding OA: tensile strength was diminished, and elongation increased considerably. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the kefiran film was -16°C and was not considerably affected by adding OA. Therefore, OA could be incorporated into these films for some food-technology applications that need a low affinity toward water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanoemulsions of thymol and eugenol co-emulsified by lauric arginate and lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiumin; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-09-01

    Lauric arginate (LAE) is a cationic surfactant with excellent antimicrobial activities. To incorporate essential oil components (EOCs) in aqueous systems, properties of EOC nanoemulsions prepared with a LAE and lecithin mixture were studied. The LAE-lecithin mixture resulted in stable translucent nanoemulsions of thymol and eugenol with spherical droplets smaller than 100nm, contrasting with the turbid emulsions prepared with individual emulsifiers. Zeta-potential data suggested the formation of LAE-lecithin complexes probably through hydrophobic interaction. Negligible difference was observed for antimicrobial activities of nanoemulsions and LAE in tryptic soy broth. In 2% reduced fat milk, nanoemulsions showed similar antilisterial activities compared to free LAE in inhibiting Listeria monocytogenes, but was less effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 than free LAE, which was correlated with the availability of LAE as observed in release kinetics. Therefore, mixing LAE with lecithin improved the physical properties of EOC nanoemulsions but did not improve antimicrobial activities, especially against Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Emulsifiers Addition on the Retrogradation of Rice Gels during Low-Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice and its products are widely consumed in Asian countries; however, starch retrogradation decreases the quality and shortens the shelf-life of rice foods particularly at low temperature. In this study sucrose ester (SE, glycerol monostearate (GMS, and sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL were added to rice flour and corresponding rice gels. Then, gelatinization properties, retrogradation characteristics, texture, and water content of these rice gels were investigated at 4°C and −20°C storage, respectively. The results demonstrated that the rice gels with 0.2% GMS had the lowest retrogradation index (ΔHr/ΔHg (11.84% and hardness (1359 g at 4°C for a 10 d period, which was significantly lower in comparison to control and the other two emulsifiers (P<0.05. Adhesiveness and water content were increased compared to the other samples. Furthermore, the retrogradation of rice gels stored at 4°C was comparatively rapid compared to gels stored at −20°C. Gel samples stored at −20°C were still acceptable for more than 15 days. Thus it was revealed that GMS has the potential to retard starch retrogradation and produce high-quality rice products in preservation.

  5. Heterogeneous Pd catalysts as emulsifiers in Pickering emulsions for integrated multistep synthesis in flow chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebler, Katharina; Lichtenegger, Georg J; Maier, Manuel C; Park, Eun Sung; Gonzales-Groom, Renie; Binks, Bernard P; Gruber-Woelfler, Heidrun

    2018-01-01

    Within the "compartmentalised smart factory" approach of the ONE-FLOW project the implementation of different catalysts in "compartments" provided by Pickering emulsions and their application in continuous flow is targeted. We present here the development of heterogeneous Pd catalysts that are ready to be used in combination with biocatalysts for catalytic cascade synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). In particular, we focus on the application of the catalytic systems for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions, which is the key step in the synthesis of the targeted APIs valsartan and sacubitril. An immobilised enzyme will accomplish the final product formation via hydrolysis. In order to create a large interfacial area for the catalytic reactions and to keep the reagents separated until required, the catalyst particles are used to stabilise Pickering emulsions of oil and water. A set of Ce-Sn-Pd oxides with the molecular formula Ce 0.99- x Sn x Pd 0.01 O 2-δ ( x = 0-0.99) has been prepared utilising a simple single-step solution combustion method. The high applicability of the catalysts for different functional groups and their minimal leaching behaviour is demonstrated with various Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions in batch as well as in continuous flow employing the so-called "plug & play reactor". Finally, we demonstrate the use of these particles as the sole emulsifier of oil-water emulsions for a range of oils.

  6. Self nano-emulsifying drug delivery system for Embelin: Design, characterization and in-vitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Parmar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available CThe objective of the present study was to prepare solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (S-SNEDDS containing Capryol-90 as oil phase for the delivery of Embelin, a poorly water soluble herbal active ingredient. Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimise the formulation variables, X1 (amount of oil; Capryol 90, X2 (amount of surfactant; Acrysol EL 135 and X3 (amount of co-surfactant; PEG 400. Systems were appraised for visual characteristics for self emulsifying time, globule size and drug release. Optimised liquid formulations were formulated into free flowing granules (S-SNEDDS by adsorption on the porous materials like Aerosil 200 and Neusilin and thereby compressed into tablet. In vitro dissolution studies of SNEDDS revealed increased in the dissolution rate of the drug. FT-IR data revealed no physicochemical interaction between drug and excipients. Solid state characterization of S-SNEDDS by DSC and Powder XRD confirmed reduction in drug crystallinity which further supports the results of dissolution studies. TEM analysis exhibited spherical globules. Further, the accelerated stability studies for 6 months revealed that S-SNEDDS of Embelin are found to be stable without any significant change in physicochemical properties. Thus, the present studies demonstrated dissolution enhancement potential of porous carrier based S-SNEDDS for poorly water soluble herbal active ingredient, Embelin.

  7. Retaining Oxidative Stability of Emulsified Foods by Novel Nonmigratory Polyphenol Coated Active Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-07-13

    Oxidation causes lipid rancidity, discoloration, and nutrient degradation that decrease shelf life of packaged foods. Synthetic additives are effective oxidation inhibitors, but are undesirable to consumers who prefer "clean" label products. The aim of this study was to improve oxidative stability of emulsified foods by a novel nonmigratory polyphenol coated active packaging. Polyphenol coatings were applied to chitosan functionalized polypropylene (PP) by laccase assisted polymerization of catechol and catechin. Polyphenol coated PP exhibited both metal chelating (39.3 ± 2.5 nmol Fe(3+) cm(-2), pH 4.0) and radical scavenging (up to 52.9 ± 1.8 nmol Trolox eq cm(-2)) capacity, resulting in dual antioxidant functionality to inhibit lipid oxidation and lycopene degradation in emulsions. Nonmigratory polyphenol coated PP inhibited ferric iron promoted degradation better than soluble chelators, potentially by partitioning iron from the emulsion droplet interface. This work demonstrates that polyphenol coatings can be designed for advanced material chemistry solutions in active food packaging.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of the emulsifying characteristics of pumps. [Bilge and ballast water oily wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, A.C.; Guzdar, A.R.; Fiswell, D.R.

    1973-10-01

    The program was devoted to a laboratory investigation of the emulsifying characteristics of different pumps suitable for shipboard pumping of bilge and ballast water oily wastes. The tests were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters, such as oil type, input oil concentration, detergent, pump operating characteristics (pressure and flow rate), and salt versus fresh water, on emulsification. Tests were conducted on the Foster-Miller tests loop. No. 2 fuel oil, lubricating oil and No. 6 fuel oil were the oils tested at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10%. The oils were tested with and without the addition of 10% Gamlen D surfactant. The pumps used were a Parker Diaphragm pump, a Blackmer Sliding Vane pump, an Ingersoll Rand Centrifugal pump and a Deming Centrifugal pump. Pump pressure ranged from 10 to 60 psi and flow rate from 10 to 100 gpm. A total of 270 tests were conducted covering 198 different operating points, 108 concerning pump comparison, 54 concerning oil concentration and surfactant, and 45 concerning salt water.

  9. Formulation, optimization, and evaluation of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems of nevirapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, Ramprasad; Murthy, T E G K; Lakshmi, K Rajya; Manohar, G Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate and optimize the self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) of nevirapine (NVP) by use of 2(2) factorial designs to enhance the oral absorption of NVP by improving its solubility, dissolution rate, and diffusion profile. SEDDS are the isotropic mixtures of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and drug that form oil in water microemulsion when introduced into the aqueous phase under gentle agitation. Solubility of NVP in different oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants was determined for the screening of excipients. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed by the aqueous titration method, and formulations were developed based on the optimum excipient combinations with the help of data obtained through the maximum micro emulsion region containing combinations of oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant. The formulations of SEDDS were optimized by 2(2) factorial designs. The optimum formulation of SEDDS contains 32.5% oleic acid, 44.16% tween 20, and 11.9% polyethylene glycol 600 as oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant respectively. The SEDDS was evaluated for the following drug content, self-emulsification time, rheological properties, zeta potential, in vitro diffusion studies, thermodynamic stability studies, and in vitro dissolution studies. An increase in dissolution was achieved by SEDDS compared to pure form of NVP. Overall, this study suggests that the dissolution and oral bioavailability of NVP could be improved by SEDDS technology.

  10. The Physical State of Emulsified Edible Oil Modulates Its in Vitro Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing; Bellissimo, Nick; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-10-18

    Emulsified lipid digestion was tailored by manipulating the physical state of dispersed oil droplets in whey protein stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, where the oil phase consisted of one of five ratios of soybean oil (SO) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO). The evolution in particle size distribution, structural changes during oral, gastric, and intestinal digestion, and free fatty acid release during intestinal digestion were all investigated. Irrespective of the physical state and structure of the dispersed oil/fat, all emulsions were stable against droplet size increases during oral digestion. During gastric digestion, the 50:50 SO:FHSO emulsion was more stable against physical breakdown than any other emulsion. All emulsions underwent flocculation and coalescence or partial coalescence upon intestinal digestion, with the SO emulsion being hydrolyzed the most rapidly. The melting point of all emulsions containing FHSO was above 37 °C, with the presence of solid fat within the dispersed oil droplets greatly limiting lipolysis. Fat crystal polymorph and nanoplatelet size did not play an important role in the rate and extent of lipid digestion. Free fatty acid release modeled by the Weibull distribution function showed that the rate of lipid digestion (κ) decreased with increasing solid fat content, and followed an exponential relationship (R 2 = 0.95). Overall, lipid digestion was heavily altered by the physical state of the dispersed oil phase within O/W emulsions.

  11. Biomimetic Multilayer Nanofibrous Membranes with Elaborated Superwettability for Effective Purification of Emulsified Oily Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jianlong; Jin, Qing; Zong, Dingding; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2018-05-09

    Creating a porous membrane to effectively separate the emulsified oil-in-water emulsions with energy-saving property is highly desired but remains a challenge. Herein, a multilayer nanofibrous membrane was developed with the inspiration of the natural architectures of earth for gravity-driven water purification. As a result, the obtained biomimetic multilayer nanofibrous membranes exhibited three individual layers with designed functions; they were the inorganic nanofibrous layer to block the serious intrusion of oil to prevent the destructive fouling of the polymeric matrix; the submicron porous layer with designed honeycomb-like cavities to catch the smaller oil droplets and ensures a satisfactory water permeability; and the high porous fibrous substrate with larger pore size provided a template support and allows water to pass through quickly. Consequently, with the cooperation of these three functional layers, the resultant composite membrane possessed superior anti-oil-fouling property and robust oil-in-water emulsion separation performance with good separation efficiency and competitive permeation flux solely under the drive of gravity. The permeation flux of the membrane for the emulsion was up to 5163 L m -2 h -1 with a separation efficiency of 99.5%. We anticipate that our strategy could provide a facile route for developing a new generation of specific membranes for oily wastewater remediation.

  12. Self-assembly, foaming, and emulsifying properties of sodium alkyl carboxylate/guanidine hydrochloride aqueous mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fameau, Anne-Laure; Houinsou-Houssou, Bérénice; Ventureira, Jorge Luis; Navailles, Laurence; Nallet, Frédéric; Novales, Bruno; Douliez, Jean-Paul

    2011-04-19

    Unsaturated fatty acids may be extracted from various agricultural resources and are widely used as soaps in the industry. However, there also exist a large variety of saturated and hydroxy fatty acids in nature, but their metal salts crystallize at room temperature in water, hampering their use in biological and chemical studies or for industrial applications. Addition of guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) to sodium salt of myristic acid has been shown to prevent its crystallization in water, forming stable flat bilayers at room temperature. Herein, we extend this finding to two other saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) and two hydroxyl fatty acids (juniperic and 12 hydroxy stearic acids) and study more deeply (by using small angle neutron scattering) the supramolecular assemblies formed in both saturated and hydroxyl fatty acid systems. In addition, we take the advantage that crystallization no longer occurs at room temperature in the presence of GuHCl to study the foaming and emulsifying properties of those fatty acid dispersions. Briefly, our results show that all fatty acids, even juniperic acid, which is a bola lipid, are arranged in a bilayer structure that may be interdigitated. Depending on the nature of the fatty acid, the systems exhibit good foamability and foam stability (except for juniperic acid), and emulsion stability was good. Those findings should be of interest for using saturated long chain (and hydroxyl) fatty acids as surfactants for detergency or even materials chemistry. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. A new self-emulsifying formulation of mefenamic acid with enhanced drug dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsak Sriamornsak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble mefenamic acid, self-emulsifying formulation (SEF, composing of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, was formulated. Among the oils and surfactants studied, Imwitor® 742, Tween® 60, Cremophore® EL and Transcutol® HP were selected as they showed maximal solubility to mefenamic acid. The ternary phase diagram was constructed to find optimal concentration that provided the highest drug loading. The droplet size after dispersion and drug dissolution of selected formulations were investigated. The results showed that the formulation containing Imwitor® 742, Tween® 60 and Transcutol® HP (10:30:60 can encapsulate high amount of mefenamic acid. The dissolution study demonstrated that, in the medium containing surfactant, nearly 100% of mefenamic acid were dissolved from SEF within 5 min while 80% of drugs were dissolved from the commercial product in 45 min. In phosphate buffer (without surfactant, 80% of drug were dissolved from the developed SEF within 5 min while only about 13% of drug were dissolved in 45 min, from the commercial product. The results suggested that the SEF can enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drug and has a potential to enhance drug absorption and improve bioavailability of drug.

  14. Use of emulsified vegetable oil to support bioremediation of TCE DNAPL in soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Mark; Fisher, Angela

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was observed using two soil columns and subsequent reductive dechlorination of TCE was monitored over a three year period. Dyed TCE DNAPL (~75 g) was emplaced in one column (DNAPL column), while the second was DNAPL-free (plume column). EVO was added to both columns and partitioning of the EVO into the TCE DNAPL was measured and quantified. TCE (1.9 mM) was added to the influent of the plume column to simulate conditions down gradient of a DNAPL source area and the columns were operated independently for more than one year, after which they were connected in series. Initially limited dechlorination of TCE to cDCE was observed in the DNAPL column, while the plume column supported complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Upon connection and reamendment of the plume column with EVO, near saturation levels of TCE from the effluent of the DNAPL column were rapidly dechlorinated to c-DCE and VC in the plume column; however, this high rate dechlorination produced hydrochloric acid which overwhelmed the buffering capacity of the system and caused the pH to drop below 6.0. Dechlorination efficiency in the columns subsequently deteriorated, as measured by the chloride production and Dehalococcoides counts, but was restored by adding sodium bicarbonate buffer to the influent groundwater. Robust dechlorination was eventually observed in the DNAPL column, such that the TCE DNAPL was largely removed by the end of the study. Partitioning of the EVO into the DNAPL provided significant operational benefits to the remediation system both in terms of electron donor placement and longevity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced colonic delivery of ciclosporin A self-emulsifying drug delivery system encapsulated in coated minispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Kieran; Rosa, Mónica; Coulter, Ivan S; Griffin, Brendan T

    2016-01-01

    Investigate the potential of coated minispheres (SmPill®) to enhance localized Ciclosporin A (CsA) delivery to the colon. CsA self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) were encapsulated into SmPill® minispheres. Varying degrees of coating thickness (low, medium and high) were applied using ethylcellulose and pectin (E:P) polymers. In vitro CsA release was evaluated in simulated gastric and intestinal media. Bioavailability of CsA in vivo following oral administration to pigs of SmPill® minispheres was compared to Neoral® po and Sandimmun® iv in a pig model. CsA concentrations in blood and intestinal tissue were determined by HPLC-UV. In vitro CsA release from coated minispheres decreased with increasing coating thickness. A linear relationship was observed between in vitro CsA release and in vivo bioavailability (r(2) = 0.98). CsA concentrations in the proximal, transverse and distal colon were significantly higher following administration of SmPill®, compared to Neoral® po and Sandimmun® iv (p < 0.05). Analysis of transverse colon tissue subsections also revealed significantly higher CsA concentrations in the mucosa and submucosa using SmPill® minispheres (p < 0.05). Modulating E:P coating thickness controls release of CsA from SmPill® minispheres. Coated minispheres limited CsA release in the small intestine and enhanced delivery and uptake in the colon. These findings demonstrate clinical advantages of an oral coated minisphere-enabled CsA formulation in the treatment of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine.

  16. An alkyl polyglucoside-mixed emulsifier as stabilizer of emulsion systems: the influence of colloidal structure on emulsions skin hydration potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Snezana; Lukic, Milica; Jaksic, Ivana; Reichl, Stephan; Tamburic, Slobodanka; Müller-Goymann, Christel

    2011-06-01

    To be considered as a suitable vehicle for drugs/cosmetic actives, an emulsion system should have a number of desirable properties mainly dependent on surfactant used for its stabilization. In the current study, C(12-14) alkyl polyglucoside (APG)-mixed emulsifier of natural origin has been investigated in a series of binary (emulsifier concentration 10-25% (w/w)) and ternary systems with fixed emulsifier content (15% (w/w)) with or without glycerol. To elucidate the systems' colloidal structure the following physicochemical techniques were employed: polarization and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (WAXD and SAXD), thermal analysis (DSC and TGA), complex rheological, pH, and conductivity measurements. Additionally, the emulsion vehicles' skin hydration potential was tested in vivo, on human skin under occlusion. In a series of binary systems with fixed emulsifier/water ratios ranging from 10/90 to 25/75 the predominance of a lamellar mesophase was found, changing its character from a liquid crystalline to a gel crystalline type. The same was observed in gel emulsions containing equal amounts of emulsifier and oil (15% (w/w)), but varying in glycerol content (0-25%). Different emulsion samples exhibited different water distribution modes in the structure, reflecting their rheological behavior and also their skin hydration capacity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Highly permeable double-skinned forward osmosis membranes for anti-fouling in the emulsified oil-water separation process

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung; Wei, Shawn; Irish, Lana

    2014-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) has attracted wide attention in recent years. However, the FO performance may be restricted due to internal concentration polarization (ICP) and fast fouling propensity that occurs in the membrane sublayer. Particularly, these problems significantly affect the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. Recently, double-skinned flat sheet cellulose acetate (CA) membranes consisting of two selective skins via the phase inversion method have demonstrated less ICP and fouling propensity over typical single-skinned membranes. However, these membranes exhibit low water fluxes of <12 LMH under 2 M NaCl draw solution. Therefore, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with a high water flux has been aimed for in this study for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between (i) a truly dense skin for salt rejection and (ii) a fairly loose dense skin for emulsified oil particle rejection. The former dense skin is a polyamide synthesized via interfacial polymerization, while the latter one is a self-assembled sulfonated pentablock copolymer (Nexar copolymer) layer. The resultant double-skinned membrane exhibits a high water flux of 17.2 LMH and a low reverse salt transport of 4.85 gMH using 0.5 M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed. The double-skinned membrane outperforms the single-skinned membrane with much lower fouling propensity for emulsified oil-water separation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  18. Preparation of diesel emulsion using auxiliary emulsifier mono ethylene glycol and utilization in a turbocharged diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Emre; Solmaz, Hamit; Polat, Seyfi; Uyumaz, Ahmet; Şahin, Fatih; Salman, M. Sahir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mono-ethylene glycol was used as an auxiliary emulsifier. • Using mono ethylene glycol prolonged precipitation duration of emulsions. • With using E5 and E10 fuels engine torque averagely increased by 0.35% and 1.73% respectively. • It was found that specific fuel consumption of emulsions is lower than diesel. • Using E10 fuel reduced CO, NO x and soot emissions 44%, 47% and 5% respectively. - Abstract: Diesel engines are used widely as they have lower fuel consumption and higher thermal efficiency in transportation sector. However, the emitted high NO x , CO and soot emissions have led researchers to search different alternative fuels. At this point, diesel fuels emulsions help to reduce exhaust emissions. In this study, the effects of diesel fuel emulsions containing 5% (E5) and 10% (E10) water on engine performance an exhaust emissions has been investigated. Mono ethylene glycol was used as an auxiliary emulsifier in the preparation of the emulsion. Use of the mono ethylene glycol reduced the subsidence rate of the E5 and E10 about 34.5% and 47.1% respectively. The experiments were conducted at full load condition and at 2500, 3250 and 4000 rpm engine speeds. Engine torque and power increased according to diesel fuel between 2400 and 3600 engine speed range when emulsified fuels were used. But significant reductions were observed after that engine speed range. It was observed that the nitrogenoxide (NO x ) emission reduced 5.42% and 11.01% with using E5 and E10 fuel respectively according to diesel fuel at 2500 rpm. Also the soot emissions reduced 12.39% and 22.97% with using E5 and E10

  19. Highly permeable double-skinned forward osmosis membranes for anti-fouling in the emulsified oil-water separation process

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc

    2014-04-15

    Forward osmosis (FO) has attracted wide attention in recent years. However, the FO performance may be restricted due to internal concentration polarization (ICP) and fast fouling propensity that occurs in the membrane sublayer. Particularly, these problems significantly affect the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. Recently, double-skinned flat sheet cellulose acetate (CA) membranes consisting of two selective skins via the phase inversion method have demonstrated less ICP and fouling propensity over typical single-skinned membranes. However, these membranes exhibit low water fluxes of <12 LMH under 2 M NaCl draw solution. Therefore, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with a high water flux has been aimed for in this study for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between (i) a truly dense skin for salt rejection and (ii) a fairly loose dense skin for emulsified oil particle rejection. The former dense skin is a polyamide synthesized via interfacial polymerization, while the latter one is a self-assembled sulfonated pentablock copolymer (Nexar copolymer) layer. The resultant double-skinned membrane exhibits a high water flux of 17.2 LMH and a low reverse salt transport of 4.85 gMH using 0.5 M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed. The double-skinned membrane outperforms the single-skinned membrane with much lower fouling propensity for emulsified oil-water separation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  20. Stabilizing effect of cetostearyl alcohol and glyceryl monostearate as co-emulsifiers on hydrocarbon-free O/W glyceride creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, C; Mueller, B W

    2008-01-01

    The structure of a stable O/W cream is characterized by a more or less pronounced mixed crystal bilayer. The addition of co-emulsifiers in order to achieve a soft formulation often leads to a mixed crystal bilayer network of high viscosity and even phase separation. In order to ovoid this components of different chemical identities are used which often are not inert or harmless if they are absorbed. For this reason it seems to be interesting to use only components from one chemical family, e.g. to use only glycerides and their derivatives because in the case of absorption they are metabolized. The disadvantages of glyceride creams are, however, their low viscosity. The aim of this investigation was to find the optimum amount of co-emulsifier as consistency excipient for the basic formulation of an O/W glyceride cream. This was achieved by using differential scanning calorimetry; thermogravimetry, oscillation rheology and various stress tests. The amount of co-emulsifier used should not be too high, as it would crystallize increasingly during storage which gives the preparation an optical inhomogenity and a lack in softness which is needed for a suitable cosmetic acceptance. A slightly higher concentration than is necessary for the mixed emulsifier system can be advantageous, as the formation of a separate crystalline lipophilic network in the preparation increases its viscosity which will lead to a higher physico-chemical stability of the formulation. These results were obtained with the co-emulsifiers glyceryl monostearate (Imwitor 900), cetylstearyl alcohol (Lanette O), and PEG-20-glycerolstearate (Tagat S2) as O/W emulsifier. As oil phase a mixture of Miglyol 812 (caprylic/capric triglyceride) and Avocado oil was used.

  1. Microbial Dynamics During a Temporal Sequence of Bioreduction Stimulated by Emulsified Vegetable Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadt, C. W.; Gihring, T. M.; Yang, Z.; Wu, W.; Green, S.; Overholt, W.; Zhang, G.; Brandt, C. C.; Campbell, J. H.; Carroll, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P. M.; Lowe, K.; Mehlhorn, T.; Kostka, J. E.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g. emulsified vegetable oil; EVO) are potentially pragmatic alternatives to short-lived labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within groundwater systems. The spatial and temporal dynamics of geochemical and microbial community changes during EVO amendment are likely to differ significantly from populations stimulated by readily utilizable soluble substrates (e.g. ethanol or acetate). We tracked dynamic changes in geochemistry and microbial communities for 270 days following a one-time EVO injection at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site that resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations for ~4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in bacterial community richness and evenness after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group consisting of 10-15 dominant OTUs, rather than a broad community stimulation. By association of the known physiology of close relatives identified in the pyrosequencing analysis, it is possible to infer a hypothesized sequence of microbial functions leading the major changes in electron donors and acceptors in the system. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition and utilized the glycerol associated with the oils. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for LCFA oxidation to acetate, also dominated shortly after EVO amendment and are thought to catalyze this process. Acetate and H2 production during LCFA degradation appeared to stimulate NO3-, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO42- reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late in the experiment and in some samples constituted over 25 % of the total

  2. Characterization and emulsifying properties of β-lactoglobulin-gum Acacia Seyal conjugates prepared via the Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Binwei; Yang, Hao; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2017-01-01

    Gum Acacia Seyal (ASY) is less valued than is gum Acacia Senegal, due to its poor emulsifying ability. The present study investigated the Maillard reaction between ASY and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and its impact on the emulsifying properties of ASY. The reaction products of BLG/ASY mixture (r=1/4), prepared by dry-heating at 60°C and a relative humidity of 79%, as a function of incubation time, were characterized by SDS-PAGE, GPC-MALLS and DSC. The results showed that 12-24h of dry-heating under the given conditions was sufficient for conjugation, meanwhile avoiding the formation of deeply coloured and insoluble melanoidins. More than 64% of the protein was incorporated into ASY, resulting in a two-fold increase in arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) content and 3.5 times increase in weight-average molecular mass of ASY. The conjugation with BLG markedly improved the stability of ASY-stabilized emulsions and their resistance against severe conditions, such as low pH and high saline conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristic of sausages as influenced by partial replacement of pork back-fat using pre-emulsified soybean oil stabilized by fish proteins isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopparat Cheetangdee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Substitution of animal fat with oils rich in n-3 is a feasible way to improve the nutritive value of comminuted meat product. The effect on the characteristics of sausages was investigated of partial replacement of porcine fat with soybean oil (SBO using a pre-emulsification technique. Fish protein isolate (FPI produced from yellow stripe trevally (Selaroides leptolepis was used as an emulsifier to prepare pre-emulsified SBO (preSBO, and its concentration effect (1%, 2% and 3%, w/v was observed in comparison with soy protein isolate (SPI. Substitution of porcine fat using preSBO enhanced the product stability. SPI exhibited better emulsifying ability than FPI. However, FPI was more effective at reinforcing the protein matrix of the sausages than SPI, as suggested by a lowered cooking loss and the restored textural attributes of the sausages formulated with FPI stabilized preSBO. The effective concentration of FPI to improve the product stability was 2%. This work suggested that FPI was promising in the preparation of emulsified meat products.

  4. Transdermal solid delivery of epigallocatechin-3-gallate using self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system as vehicle: Formulation, evaluation and vesicle-skin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Caibiao; Gu, Chengyu; Fang, Qiao; Wang, Qiang; Xia, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated a self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system loaded with epigallocatechin-3-gallate to improve epigallocatechin-3-gallate skin retention. The long chain solid lipids (cetostearyl alcohol) and macadamia oil were utilized as a carrier to deliver the bioactive ingredient. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the formulation, and the solid lipid to total lipid weight ratio, concentration of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and hydrophilic surfactant on skin retention were found to be the principal factors. The optimum formulation with high encapsulation efficiency (95.75%), self-double-emulsification performance (99.58%) and skin retention (87.24%) were derived from the fitted models and experimentally examined, demonstrating a reasonable agreement between experimental and predicted values. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate-self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system was found to be stable for 3 months. Transdermal studies could explain a higher skin diffusion of epigallocatechin-3-gallate from the self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system compared with EGCG aqueous solution. In vitro cytotoxicity showed that epigallocatechin-3-gallate-self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system did not exert hazardous effect on L929 cells up to 1:10. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Influence of different emulsifiers on characteristics of eggless cake containing soy milk: Modeling of physical and sensory properties by mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Nazanin Fatemeh; Mazaheri Tehrani, Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Emulsifiers of different structures and functionalities are important ingredients usually used in baking cakes with satisfactory properties. In this study, three emulsifiers including distilled glycerol mono stearate (DGMS), lecithin and sorbitan mono stearate (SMS) were used to bake seven eggless cakes containing soy milk and optimization was performed by using mixture experimental design to produce an eggless cake sample with optimized properties. Physical properties of cake batters (viscosity, specific gravity and stability), cake quality parameters (moisture loss, density, specific volume, volume index, contour, symmetry, color and texture) and sensory attributes of eggless cakes were analyzed to investigate functional potential of the emulsifiers and results were compared with those of control cake containing egg. Almost in all cases emulsifiers, compared to the control cake, changed properties of eggless cakes significantly. Regarding models of different response variables (except for some properties) and their high R(2) (99.51-100), it could be concluded that models obtained by mixture design were significantly fitted for the studied responses.

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF IN SITU DEHALOGENATION OF DNAPL THROUGH INJECTION OF EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALIENT IRON AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 34 IN CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the technical and cost performance of emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) technology when applied to DNAPL contaminants in the saturated zone. This demonstration was conducted at Launch Complex 34, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL, w...

  7. Quality characteristics of Dutch-style fermented sausages manufactured with partial replacement of pork back-fat with pure, pre-emulsified or encapsulated fish oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Josquin, N.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Houben, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dutch-style fermented sausages were manufactured with 15% and 30% pork back-fat substitution by pure or commercial encapsulated fish oil, either added as such or as pre-emulsified mixture with soy protein isolate. Adding commercial encapsulated fish oil was the most important factor influencing the

  8. Effect of monomer concentration on the kinetics of emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of Vinyl Acetate and Methyl Acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Beigi, H. R.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of monomer concentration on the kinetics of the emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate and methyl acrylate were studied. The polymerizations were carried out using potassium persulfate as the initiator. Form the electron micrographs of the resulting lattices, monodisperse PVAc and PMA lattices with particle diameters varying between 149-443 mm and 112-497 nm, respectively were processed. Uniformity of particle size indicated that nucleation of stable particle occurs early in the polymerization process. The polymerization rate was found to be proportional to the 0.88 and 1.5 power of the initial monomer concentration of vinyl acetate and methyl acrylate, respectively. Higher monomer concentration results in fewer particles and larger final particle diameter. With increasing monomer solubility in water the size of particle decreases and its distribution broadens

  9. Emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene by radiation. IV. Effects of additives on Polymer molecular weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Suwa, T.; Okamoto, J.; Machi, S.

    1979-01-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene)(PTFE) of high molecular weight, 4.5 x 10 7 , was incidentally obtained at earlier study of an emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene by radiation. In order to clarify this phenomenon, the effects of additives, in particular radical scavengers, on the molecular weight of PTFE and its polymerization behavior were studied. It was found that the molecular weight of PTFE is increased by the addition of hydroquinone, benzoquinone, α-pinene, dl-limonene, and ethylenediamine but is decreased by oxygen and triethylamine. A PTFE latex with molecular weight higher than 2 x 10 7 was obtained in the presence of hydroquinone. It is concluded that additives such as hydroquinone and benzaquinone, which rapidly scavenge the primary radicals (OH, H, and e/sub aq/ - ) in the aqueous phase but not the growing polymer radicals in PTFE particles, are most effective in increasing the molecular weight

  10. Physical, Rheological, Functional, and Film Properties of a Novel Emulsifier: Frost Grape Polysaccharide from Vitis riparia Michx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, William T; Vaughn, Steven F; Byars, Jeffrey A; Selling, Gordon W; Holthaus, Derek M; Price, Neil P J

    2017-10-04

    A novel emulsifier, Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), isolated from natural exudate of the species Vitis riparia Michx, was physically and rheologically characterized. The determination of the physical, structural, thermodynamic, emulsification, film, and rheological properties of FGP provide essential details for the commercial adoption of this novel plant polysaccharide. FGP is capable of producing exceptionally stable emulsions when compared with the industrially ubiquitous gum arabic (GA). The FGP isolate contained a negligible amount of nitrogen (0.03%), indicating that it does not contain an associated glycoprotein, unlike GA. Solutions of FGP have a high degree of thermostability, displaying no loss in viscosity with temperature cycling and no thermal degradation when held at 90 °C. FGP is an excellent film former, producing high tensile strength films which remain intact at temperatures up to 200 °C. This work identified a number of potential food and pharmaceutical applications where FGP is significantly superior to GA.

  11. Influence of emulsifiers on the optimization of processing parameters of refining milk chocolate in the ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate manufacture is a complex process which includes a large number of technology operations. One of the obligatory phases is milling, called refining, which aims at obtaining the appropriate distribution of particle size, resulting in the chocolate with optimal physical and sensory characteristics. The aim of this work was to define and optimize the process parameters for the production of milk chocolate by a non-conventional procedure, using the ball mill. The quality of chocolate mass, produced on this way, is determined by measuring the following parameters: moisture, size of the largest cocoa particle, yield flow, and Casson plastic viscosity. A special consideration of this study is the optimization of the types and amounts of emulsifiers, which are responsible for achieving the appropriate rheological and physical characteristics of the chocolate mass. The obtained parameters are compared with those which are typical for the standard procedure.

  12. New functionalities of Maillard reaction products as emulsifiers and encapsulating agents, and the processing parameters: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Phuah, Eng-Tong; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Tan, Chin-Ping; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Non-enzymatic browning has been a wide and interesting research area in the food industry, ranging from the complexity of the reaction to its applications in the food industry as well as its ever-debatable health effects. This review provides a new perspective to the Maillard reaction apart from its ubiquitous function in enhancing food flavour, taste and appearance. It focuses on the recent application of Maillard reaction products as an inexpensive and excellent source of emulsifiers as well as superior encapsulating matrices for the entrapment of bioactive compounds. Additionally, it will also discuss the latest approaches employed to perform the Maillard reaction as well as several important reaction parameters that need to be taken into consideration when conducting the Maillard reaction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. In vitro and in vivo performance of monoacyl phospholipid-based self-emulsifying drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy; Siqueira, Scheyla D V S; Amenitsch, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    to investigate the impact of LPC on the emulsion droplet size, extent of digestion, colloidal structure evolution and drug precipitation during in vitro lipolysis simulating human conditions and drug bioavailability in a rat model. The four investigated SEDDS containing long-chain glycerides, polyoxyl 35 castor...... and polydispersity of the dispersed SEDDS. The two LPC-free SEDDS generated lamellar phase structures (Lα) with d-spacing=4.76nm during digestion. Incorporating LPC into these systems inhibited the formation of lamellar phase structures. The amount of precipitated crystalline FF from the four SEDDS was similar......This study investigates the effect of monoacyl phospholipid incorporation on the in vitro and in vivo performance of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS). Monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (Lipoid S LPC 80 (LPC)) was incorporated into four different fenofibrate (FF)-loaded long-chain SEDDS...

  14. A comparison of the stability of beverage cloud emulsions formulated with different gum acacia- and starch-based emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, S J; Reineccius, G A; Peppard, T L

    2010-06-01

    The performance of several hydrocolloids (3 gum acacias, 1 modified gum acacia, and 3 modified starches) in stabilizing beverage emulsions and corresponding model beverages was investigated employing different core materials, emulsifier usage levels, and storage temperatures. Concentrated emulsions were prepared using orange terpenes or Miglyol 812 (comprising medium-chain triglycerides, MCT) weighted 1:1 with ester gum, stored at 25 or 35 degrees C, and analyzed on days 0, 1, and 3. On day 3, model beverages were made from each emulsion, stored at both temperatures, and analyzed weekly for 4 wk. Stability of concentrated emulsions was assessed by measuring mean particle size and by visual observations of ringing; beverage stability was judged similarly and also by loss of turbidity. Particle size measurements showed concentrated emulsions containing gum acacia or modified gum acacia with either core material were stable over 3 d storage at both temperatures whereas those made with modified starches were not, destabilization being faster at 35 degrees C. Beverages based on orange terpenes, in contrast to Miglyol, yielded smaller mean particle sizes, both on manufacture and during storage, regardless of hydrocolloid used. Visual observations of ringing generally supported this finding. Modified gum acacia was evaluated at both recommended and higher usage levels, stability increasing in the latter case. In general, all gum acacia and modified gum acacia emulsifiers were superior in stability to those based on modified starches, at either temperature, for orange terpene-based beverages. In Miglyol-based beverages, similar results were seen, except 1 modified starch performed as well as the gum acacia products.

  15. Effects of Carriers, Emulsifiers, and Biopesticides for Direct Silk Treatments on Caterpillar Feeding Damage and Ear Development in Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, P J; Schultz, B B; Hazzard, R V

    2017-04-01

    In the northeastern United States, control of Lepidopteran pests of sweet corn, particularly corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)], is difficult using organic methods. The direct application of corn oil and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to corn silk has been shown to reduce ear damage from corn earworm in past studies; these studies sought to optimize this method by evaluating additional carrier and biopesticide mixtures that comply with the United States Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and National Organic Standards. Carriers, which are liquids used to dissolve the biopesticide and deliver it into the tip of the ear, may have phytotoxic or insecticidal properties. Experiments conducted from 2001 to 2005 evaluated caterpillar damage and ear development effects from carriers (vegetable and paraffinic oils and carrageenan), biopesticides (Bt, spinsosad, and neem), and three emulsifiers in various combinations when applied directly to the tips of the ears 5-7 d after silk initiation. There were no effects of emulsifiers on ear quality, except for slight reduction in caterpillar damage in one of the two years. There were no differences among corn, soy, canola, and safflower oils in corn earworm control or tip development. The carrageenan carrier had the least effect upon ear development as measured by the length of nonpollinated kernels at the tip, compared to corn oil or paraffinic oil (JMS Stylet Oil), which caused the greatest tip damage as well as an oily discoloration. The carrier-pesticide combinations with the best ear quality overall were spinosad in carrageenan or corn oil, and Bt in carrageenan. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Novel solid self-emulsifying drug delivery system of coenzyme Q₁₀ with improved photochemical and pharmacokinetic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Satomi; Uchida, Atushi; Kuriyama, Kazuki; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Seto, Yoshiki; Kato, Masashi; Hatanaka, Junya; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Shizuo

    2012-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to develop a solid self-emulsifying drug delivery system of coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS) with high photostability and oral bioavailability. The CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS was prepared by spray-drying an emulsion preconcentrate containing CoQ(10), medium-chain triglyceride, sucrose ester of fatty acid, and hydroxypropyl cellulose, and its physicochemical, photochemical, and pharmacokinetic properties were evaluated. The CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS powder with a diameter of ca. 15 μm was obtained by spray-drying, in which the CoQ(10) was mostly amorphized. The CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS exhibited immediate self-emulsification when introduced to aqueous media under gentle agitation, forming uniform fine droplets with a mean diameter of ca. 280 nm. There was marked generation of reactive oxygen species, in particular superoxide, from CoQ(10) exposed to simulated sunlight (250W/m(2)), suggesting potent photoreactivity. Nano-emulsified solution of CoQ(10) under light exposure underwent photodegradation with 22-fold higher degradation kinetics than crystalline CoQ(10), although the CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS was less photoreactive. After the oral administration of CoQ(10)/s-SEDDS (100 mg-CoQ(10)/kg) in rats, enhanced exposure of CoQ(10) was observed with increases in both C(max) and AUC of ca. 5-fold in comparison with those of orally administered crystalline CoQ(10). From the improved physicochemical and pharmacokinetic data, the s-SEDDS approach upon spray-drying might be a suitable dosage option for enhancing nutraceutical and pharmaceutical values of CoQ(10). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vitamin E TPGS emulsified vinorelbine bitartrate loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN): Formulation development, optimization and in vitro characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Lakshmi; Rajamanickam, Vijayakumar Mahalingam; Narayan, Gopeshwar; Singh, Sanjay

    2018-04-08

    Vinorelbine bitartrate (VRL), a semi synthetic vinca alkaloid approved for breast cancer, has been proved to beneficial as first line and subsequent therapies. However, it's hydrophilic and thermo labile nature provides hindrance to oral clinical translation. The current work focused on the application of DOE a modern statistical optimization tool for the development and optimization of a solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) formulation that can encapsulate hydrophilic and thermolabile Vinorelbine bitartrate (VRL) to a maximum extent without compromising integrity and anticancer activity of the drug. SLNs were prepared by solvent diffusion technique employing Taguchi orthogonal array design with optimized formulation and process variables. The emulsifying nature and low melting point of glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) were exploited to enhance entrapment and minimizing temperature associated degradation, respectively. Moreover, two types of surfactants, Vitamin E TPGS (TPGS) and Poloxamer-188 were utilized to obtain TPGS-VRL-SLNs and PL-VRL-SLNs, respectively. The SLNs were characterized for various physicochemical properties, in-vitro drug release kinetics and anticancer activity by MTT assay on MCF-7 cancer cell lines. The SLNs were found to be spherical in shape with entrapment efficiency (EE) up to 58 %. In-vitro release studies showed biphasic release pattern following Korsemeyer peppas model with fickian release kinetics. Results of MTT assay revealed that TPGS-VRL-SLNs and PL-VRL-SLNs were 39.5 and 18.5 fold more effective, respectively, compared to the pristine VRL. DOE approach was successfully applied for the development of VRL-SLNs. Enhanced entrapment and anticancer efficacy of TPGS-VRL-SLN can be attributed to emulsifying nature of GMO and inherent cytotoxic nature of TPGS, respectively, which synergizes with VRL. Therefore, TPGS associated SLNs may be potential carrier in cancer chemotherapeutics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please

  18. Emulsifying and gelling properties of weakfish myofibrillar proteins as affected by squid mantle myofibrillar proteins in a model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mariel Suarez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the physicochemical, biochemical and functional characteristics of both the myofibrils (MF and actomyosin (AM of squid mantle (Illex argentinus and weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa muscles, and evaluate the influence of the addition of myofibrilar proteins from the squid mantle on the physicochemical and functional properties of those of the weakfish. After extraction, purification and characterization of the MF and AM of both species, emulsions of each protein fraction from each muscle were formulated. Mixtures of the MF or AM of both species were also analyzed. The emulsifying properties were monitoring using the Emulsifying Activity Index (EAI and Emulsion Stability (ES. In addition, gel pastes were formulated from the squid mantle, weakfish muscle and the mixture of both species, and the following functional properties of the gels assessed: water holding capacity, colour, textural profile analysis (TPA (hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness, gumminess and gel strength. The EAI values of emulsions formulated with the MF of the mantle were significantly (p<0.05 higher than those formulated from those of weakfish. The incorporation of squid MF in the mixture increased the EAI values. Conversely, the highest ES values were obtained with weakfish MF, and the incorporation of MF weakfish in the mixture increased the ES values. Similar EAI and ES behaviours were observed for the AM of the corresponding species. Irrespective of the thermal treatment, the gel strength of the gelled paste of squid muscle was significantly (p<0.05 lower than that of weakfish muscle and of those obtained with the different mixtures. The behaviours of the expressible moisture (EM from the gelled pastes were similar to those of gel strength. Irrespective of the thermal treatment, the pastes formulated with a high weakfish: mantle ratio showed less water loss. The gelled pastes of squid mantle showed the highest values for whiteness

  19. Effect of tartarate and citrate based food additives on the micellar properties of sodium dodecylsulfate for prospective use as food emulsifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Harjinder; Kaur, Amanpreet; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2016-01-01

    Citrate and tartarate based food preservatives can be used to enhance the emulsifying properties of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) based micellar system and thus making it appropriate for food applications. Exploration of interactions between the two species is the key constraint for execution of such ideas. In this work various micellar and thermodynamic parameters of SDS like critical micellar concentration (CMC), standard Gibbs free energy of micellization (ΔG(0)mic.) etc. have been calculated in different concentrations of disodium tartarate (DST) and trisodium citrate (TSC) in the temperature range (288.15-318.15)K from the conductivity and surface tension measurements. The parameters obtained from these studies reveal the competitive nature of both the additives with SDS for available positions at the air/water interface. TSC is found to be more effective additive in order to make SDS micellar system better for its potential applications as food emulsifier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of methylene blue removal by stable emulsified liquid membrane using Plackett–Burman and Box–Behnken designs of experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenouhat, Meriem; Bendebane, Farida; Bahloul, Lynda; Samar, Mohamed E. H.

    2018-01-01

    The stability of an emulsified liquid membrane composed of Span80 as a surfactant, D2EHPA as an extractant and sulfuric acid as an internal phase was first studied according to different diluents and many operating parameters using the Plackett–Burman design of experiments. Then the removal of methylene blue from an aqueous solution has been carried out using this emulsified liquid membrane at its stability conditions. The effects of operating parameters were analysed from the Box–Behnken design of experiments. The optimization of the extraction has been realized applying the response surface methodology and the results showed that the dye extraction yielding 98.72% was achieved at optimized conditions. PMID:29515841

  1. Optimization of methylene blue removal by stable emulsified liquid membrane using Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken designs of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenouhat, Meriem; Bendebane, Farida; Bahloul, Lynda; Samar, Mohamed E H; Ismail, Fadhel

    2018-02-01

    The stability of an emulsified liquid membrane composed of Span80 as a surfactant, D2EHPA as an extractant and sulfuric acid as an internal phase was first studied according to different diluents and many operating parameters using the Plackett-Burman design of experiments. Then the removal of methylene blue from an aqueous solution has been carried out using this emulsified liquid membrane at its stability conditions. The effects of operating parameters were analysed from the Box-Behnken design of experiments. The optimization of the extraction has been realized applying the response surface methodology and the results showed that the dye extraction yielding 98.72% was achieved at optimized conditions.

  2. Efficiency of emulsifier-free emulsions and emulsions containing rapeseed lecithin as delivery systems for vectorization and release of coenzyme Q10: physico-chemical properties and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaci, M; Arab-Tehrany, E; Dostert, G; Desjardins, I; Velot, E; Desobry, S

    2016-11-01

    To improve the encapsulation and release of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), emulsifier-free-emulsions were developed with a new emulsification process using high-frequency ultrasound (HFU) at 1.7MHz. Nano-emulsions containing CoQ10 were prepared with or without rapeseed lecithin as an emulsifier. The emulsions prepared with HFU were compared with an emulsion of CoQ10 containing emulsifier prepared with the same emulsification technique as well as with emulsions prepared with low-frequency ultrasound coupled with high-pressure homogenization (LFU+HPH). The physico-chemical properties of the emulsions were determined by average droplet size measurement with nano-droplet tracking analysis, droplet surface charge with ζ potential measurement, surface tension and rheological behaviour. Emulsions made by LFU+HPH with an emulsifier showed lower droplet sizes due to cavitation generated by the HFU process. Surface tension results showed that there was no significant difference between emulsions containing lecithin emulsifier regardless of the preparation process or the inclusion of CoQ10. In vitro biocompatibility tests were performed on human mesenchymal stem cells in order to show the cytotoxicity of various formulations and the efficiency of CoQ10-loaded emulsions. In vitro tests proved that the vectors were not toxic. Furthermore, CoQ10 facilitated a high rate of cell proliferation and metabolic activity especially when in an emulsifier-free formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ravuconazole self-emulsifying delivery system: in vitro activity against Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes and in vivo toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spósito PA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pollyanna Álvaro Spósito,1 Ana Lia Mazzeti,1,2 Caroline de Oliveira Faria,1 Julio A Urbina,3 Gwenaelle Pound-Lana,1 Maria Terezinha Bahia,2 Vanessa Furtado Mosqueira1 1Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Nanotechnology Research, Pharmacy Department, School of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil; 2Parasite Diseases Research Laboratory, NUPEB, Medical School, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil; 3Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research, Apartado, Caracas, Venezuela Abstract: Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs are lipid-based anhydrous formulations composed of an isotropic mixture of oil, surfactant, and cosurfactants usually presented in gelatin capsules. Ravuconazole (Biopharmaceutics Classification System [BCS] Class II is a poorly water-soluble drug, and a SEDDS type IIIA was designed to deliver it in a predissolved state, improving dissolution in gastrointestinal fluids. After emulsification, the droplets had mean hydrodynamic diameters <250 nm, zeta potential values in the range of −45 mV to −57 mV, and showed no signs of ravuconazole precipitation. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation with dynamic and multiangle laser light scattering was used to characterize these formulations in terms of size distribution and homogeneity. The fractograms obtained at 37°C showed a polydisperse profile for all blank and ravuconazole–SEDDS formulations but no large aggregates. SEDDS increased ravuconazole in vitro dissolution extent and rate (20% compared to free drug (3% in 6 h. The in vivo toxicity of blank SEDDS comprising Labrasol® surfactant in different concentrations and preliminary safety tests in repeated-dose oral administration (20 days showed a dose-dependent Labrasol toxicity in healthy mice. Ravuconazole–SEDDS at low surfactant content (10%, v/v in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice was safe during the 20-day treatment. The anti-T. cruzi activity of free ravuconazole

  4. Effect of emulsifier type and concentration, aqueous phase volume and wax ratio on physical, material and mechanical properties of water in oil lipsticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beri, A; Norton, J E; Norton, I T

    2013-12-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions in lipsticks could have the potential to improve moisturizing properties and deliver hydrophilic molecules to the lips. The aims of this work were (i) to investigate the effect of emulsifier type (polymer vs. monomer, and saturated vs. unsaturated chain) and concentration on droplet size and (ii) to investigate the effect of wax ratio (carnauba wax, microcrystalline wax, paraffin wax and performalene) and aqueous phase volume on material properties (Young's modulus, point of fracture, elastic modulus and viscous modulus). Emulsion formation was achieved using a high shear mixer. Results showed that the saturated nature of the emulsifier had very little effect on droplet size, neither did the use of an emulsifier with a larger head group (droplet size ~18-25 μm). Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) resulted in emulsions with the smallest droplets (~3-5 μm), as expected from previous studies that show that it produces a thick elastic interface. The results also showed that both Young's modulus and point of fracture increase with increasing percentage of carnauba wax (following a power law dependency of 3), but decrease with increasing percentage of microcrystalline wax, suggesting that the carnauba wax is included in the overall wax network formed by the saturated components, whereas the microcrystalline wax forms irregular crystals that disrupt the overall wax crystal network. Young's modulus, elastic modulus and viscous modulus all decrease with increasing aqueous phase volume in the emulsions, although the slope of the decrease in elastic and viscous moduli is dependent on the addition of solid wax, as a result of strengthening the network. This work suggests the potential use for emulsions in lipstick applications, particularly when PGPR is used as an emulsifier, and with the addition of solid wax, as it increases network strength. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. On flotation separation of oxo-anions of transition metals by the use of fine-emulsified solutions of cationic collector in non-polar liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Purich, A.N.; Babinets, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Experimentally shown is a principle possibility of flotation separation of oxo-anions of transition metals by the use of fine-emulsified solutions of cationic collector in non-polar liquids. Ammonium vanadate and sodium tuno.state solutions have been the objects of study. Hexadezilamine has been used as collector. The collector has been introduced in the form of hexadecylamine emulsions in n-decane, in tetrachloromethane or alcohol. Optimum pH value ranges are determined for separation processes

  6. Synergistic Combinations of a Pyrethroid Insecticide and an Emulsifiable Oil Formulation of Beauveria bassiana to Overcome Insecticide Resistance in Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaohui; Kostromytska, Olga S; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M

    2017-08-01

    The annual bluegrass weevil, Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby), is a major pest of golf course turf in eastern North America and has become particularly problematic owing to widespread development of insecticide resistance. As an alternative option to manage resistant adult L. maculicollis, we explored combinations of the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin with an emulsifiable oil formulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain GHA (Bb ES). Combinations synergistically enhanced mortality in both insecticide-susceptible and insecticide-resistant L. maculicollis adults in the laboratory when bifenthrin was used at LC50s for each population. To determine the component behind the synergism, technical spores of B. bassiana GHA and the emulsifiable oil carrier in the fungal formulation were tested separately or in combination with bifenthrin. In both separate and combined applications, the emulsifiable oil carrier was responsible for high mortality within 3 d after treatment and interacted synergistically with bifenthrin, whereas fungus-induced mortality started later. Strong synergism was also observed in three field experiments with a relatively resistant L. maculicollis population. Combinations of Bb ES and bifenthrin hold promise as an effective L. maculicollis management tool, particularly of pyrethroid-resistant populations. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Role of medium-chain fatty acids in the emulsification mechanistics of self-micro-emulsifying lipid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Naser M Y

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to design and develop stable o/w microemulsions comprising Miglyol 812, Imwitor 988 and Tagat TO as a non ionic surfactant. This was based on particle size measurements and phase behavior studies. The empirical role of incorporating medium-chain mono/di-glycerides in the lipid matrix in the mechanistic processes of emulsification was also established in various simulating physiological conditions. The efficiency of self-emulsification was evaluated under conditions of varying key compositions in the lipid mixtures; oil, cosurfactant and surfactant. Droplet diameter was measured using laser diffraction and light scattering techniques. Equilibrium phase studies were performed and phase boundaries were determined for the lipid-water systems. Microemulsion systems were produced from blends of Miglyol 812, Imwitor 988 and Tagat TO. An optimized formulation consisted of {Miglyol 812/Imwitor 988} and Tagat TO spontaneously self-emulsified in water producing dispersions with droplet diameters of ∼50 nm. Phase equilibrium diagrams have revealed significant enhancement in the water-solubilized region (L2) without any presence of liquid crystalline materials. Potential SMEDDS formulations for the bioavailability enhancement of poorly water-soluble compounds were developed by mixing blends of {Miglyol 812/Imwitor 988} and Tagat TO as a non-ionic surfactant. 'Diffusion and stranding' appears to be the dominant mechanism of emulsification.

  8. Synthesis and emulsifying properties of carbohydrate fatty acid esters produced from Agave tequilana fructans by enzymatic acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Godoy, Leticia; Arrizon, Javier; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Plou, Francisco J; Sandoval, Georgina

    2016-08-01

    Carbohydrate fatty acid esters are non-ionic surfactants with a broad spectrum of applications. These molecules are generally synthesized using short carbohydrates or linear fructans; however in this research carbohydrate fatty acid esters were produced for the first time with branched fructans from Agave tequilana. Using immobilized lipases we successfully acylated A. tequilana fructans with vinyl laurate, obtaining products with different degrees of polymerization (DP). Lipozyme 435 was the most efficient lipase to catalyze the transesterification reaction. HPLC and ESI-MS analysis proved the presence of a mixture of acylated products as a result of the chemical complexity of fructans in the A. tequilana. The ESI-MS spectra showed a molecular mass shift between 183 and 366g/mol for fructooligosaccharides with a DP lower than 6, which indicated the presence of Agave fructans that had been mono- and diacylated with lauric acid. The carbohydrate fatty acid esters (CFAE) obtained showed good emulsifying properties in W/O emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lipid oxidation in base algae oil and water-in-algae oil emulsion: Impact of natural antioxidants and emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingcan; Rao, Jiajia; Ding, Yangping; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The impact of natural hydrophilic antioxidants, metal chelators, and hydrophilic antioxidant/metal chelator mixture on the oxidative stability of base algae oil and water-in-algae oil emulsion was investigated. The results showed that green tea extract and ascorbic acid had greatest protective effect against algae oil oxidation and generated four day lag phase, whereas rosmarinic acid, grape seed extract, grape seed extract polymer, deferoxamine (DFO), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) had no significant protective effect. Besides, there was no synergistic effect observed between natural antioxidants and ascorbic acid. The emulsifiers are critical to the physicochemical stability of water-in-algae oil emulsions. Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) promoted the oxidation of emulsion. Conversely, the protective effect on algae oil oxidation was appreciated when defatted soybean lecithin (PC 75) or defatted lyso-lecithin (Lyso-PC) was added. The role of hydrophilic antioxidants in emulsion was similar to that in algae oil except EDTA which demonstrated strong antioxidative effect in emulsion. The results could provide information to build up stable food products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Jerusalem Artichoke Powder and Sodium Carbonate as Phosphate Replacers on the Quality Characteristics of Emulsified Chicken Meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Burcu; Serdaroğlu, Meltem

    2018-02-01

    Today incorporation of natural ingredients as inorganic phosphate replacers has come into prominence as a novel research topic due to health concerns about phosphates. In this study, we aimed to investigate the quality of emulsified chicken meatballs produced with Jerusalem artichoke powder (JAP), either alone or in combination with sodium carbonate (SC) as sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) replacers. The results showed that naturally dried JAP showed favorable technological properties in terms of water-oil binding and gelling. Emulsion batters formulated with JAP-SC mixture showed lower jelly and fat separation, higher water-holding capacity and higher emulsion stability than control samples with STPP. In final product, incorporation of JAP-SC mixture increased moisture and reduced lipid and energy values, and kept the pH value similar to control. Added JAP lead to increments in b* values whereas decreases L* values. Cook yield was similar to control in phosphate-free samples formulated with JAP-SC mix. Either low or medium ratios of JAP in combination with SC managed to protect most of the sensory parameters, while sensory scores tend to decrease in samples containing high levels of JAP. Addition of JAP to formulations presented samples that have equivalent behavior to phosphates in terms of lipid oxidation. In conclusion, our study confirms that utilization of JAP in combination with SC had promising effects as phosphate replacers by presenting natural solutions and providing equivalent quality to standard phosphate containing products.

  11. Mycobacteria emulsified in olive oil-in-water trigger a robust immune response in bladder cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Ortega, Estela; Blanco-Cabra, Núria; Rabanal, Rosa Maria; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Roldán, Mónica; Guallar-Garrido, Sandra; Torrents, Eduard; Luquin, Marina; Julián, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The hydrophobic composition of mycobacterial cell walls leads to the formation of clumps when attempting to resuspend mycobacteria in aqueous solutions. Such aggregation may interfere in the mycobacteria-host cells interaction and, consequently, influence their antitumor effect. To improve the immunotherapeutic activity of Mycobacterium brumae, we designed different emulsions and demonstrated their efficacy. The best formulation was initially selected based on homogeneity and stability. Both olive oil (OO)- and mineral oil-in-water emulsions better preserved the mycobacteria viability and provided higher disaggregation rates compared to the others. But, among both emulsions, the OO emulsion increased the mycobacteria capacity to induce cytokines’ production in bladder tumor cell cultures. The OO-mycobacteria emulsion properties: less hydrophobic, lower pH, more neutralized zeta potential, and increased affinity to fibronectin than non-emulsified mycobacteria, indicated favorable conditions for reaching the bladder epithelium in vivo. Finally, intravesical OO-M. brumae-treated mice showed a significantly higher systemic immune response, together with a trend toward increased tumor-bearing mouse survival rates compared to the rest of the treated mice. The physicochemical characteristics and the induction of a robust immune response in vitro and in vivo highlight the potential of the OO emulsion as a good delivery vehicle for the mycobacterial treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27265565

  12. Network succession reveals the importance of competition in response to emulsified vegetable oil amendment for uranium bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ye; Zhang, Ping; Qin, Yujia; Tu, Qichao; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Discerning network interactions among different species/populations in microbial communities has evoked substantial interests in recent years, but little information is available about temporal dynamics of microbial network interactions in response to environmental perturbations. Here, we modified the random matrix theory-based network approach to discern network succession in groundwater microbial communities in response to emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) amendment for uranium bioremediation. Groundwater microbial communities from one control and seven monitor wells were analysed with a functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) at different time points were reconstructed. Our results showed that the network interactions were dramatically altered by EVO amendment. Dynamic and resilient succession was evident: fairly simple at the initial stage (Day 0), increasingly complex at the middle period (Days 4, 17, 31), most complex at Day 80, and then decreasingly complex at a later stage (140-269 days). Unlike previous studies in other habitats, negative interactions predominated in a time-series fMEN, suggesting strong competition among different microbial species in the groundwater systems after EVO injection. Particularly, several keystone sulfate-reducing bacteria showed strong negative interactions with their network neighbours. These results provide mechanistic understanding of the decreased phylogenetic diversity during environmental perturbations. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Numerical study on dissimilar guide vane design with SCC piston for air and emulsified biofuel mixing improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohd Fadzli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude palm oil (CPO is one of the most potential biofuels that can be applied in the conventional diesel engines, where the chemical properties of CPO are comparable to diesel fuel. However, its higher viscosity and heavier molecules can contributes to several engine problems such as low atomization during injection, carbon deposit formation, injector clogging, low mixing with air and lower combustion efficiency. An emulsification of biofuel and modifications of few engine critical components have been identified to mitigate the issues. This paper presents the effects of dissimilar guide vane design (GVD in terms of height variation of 0.25R, 0.3R and 0.35R at the intake manifold with shallow depth re-entrance combustion chamber (SCC piston application to the incylinder air flow characteristics improvement. The simulation results show that the intake manifold with GVD improved the performance of the air flow characteristic particularly swirl, tumble and cross tumble ratios from the intake manifold to the engine. The GVD with the height of 0.3R was found to be the optimum design with respect to the overall improvement of the air flow characteristic. The improvement of the air flow characteristic with the application of GVD and SCC piston in the engine was expected to contribute to a better air fuel mixing, fuel atomization and combustion efficiency of the engine using emulsified biofuel as a source of fuel.

  14. Preparation of Emulsifying Wax/GMO Nanoparticles and Evaluation as a Delivery System for Repurposing Simvastatin in Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskinazi-Budge, Aaron; Manickavasagam, Dharani; Czech, Tori; Novak, Kimberly; Kunzler, James; Oyewumi, Moses O

    2018-05-30

    Simvastatin (Sim) is a widely known drug in the treatment of hyperlipidemia that has attracted so much attention in bone regeneration based on its potential osteoanabolic effect. However, repurposing of Sim in bone regeneration will require suitable delivery systems that can negate undesirable off-target/side effects. In this study, we have investigated a new lipid nanoparticle (NP) platform that was fabricated using a binary blend of emulsifying wax (Ewax) and glyceryl monooleate (GMO). Using the binary matrix materials, NPs loaded with Sim (0-500 µg/mL) were prepared and showed an average particle size of about 150 nm. NP size stability was dependent on Sim concentration loaded in NPs. The suitability of NPs prepared with the binary matrix materials in Sim delivery for potential application in bone regeneration was supported by biocompatibility in pre-osteoclastic and pre-osteoblastic cells. Additional data demonstrated that biofunctional Sim was released from NPs that facilitated differentiation of osteoblasts (cells that form bones) while inhibiting differentiation of osteoclasts (cells that resorb bones). The overall work demonstrated the preparation of NPs from Ewax/GMO blends and characterization to ascertain potential suitability in Sim delivery for bone regeneration. Additional studies on osteoblast and osteoclast functions are warranted to fully evaluate the efficacy simvastatin-loaded Ewax/GMO NPs using in-vitro and in-vivo approaches.

  15. Formulasi Sediaan Nano Herbal Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis L. dalam Bentuk Self Nano-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budy Wijiyanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis L. merupakan tanaman asli Indonesia yang berhkasiat sebagai diuretik dan antioksidan. Untuk mendapatkan efek terapi yang optimal perlu inovasi untuk membuatnya menjadi sediaan nano herbal. Penelitian ini bertujuan  membuat sediaan nano herbal tempuyung dalam bentuk Self Nano-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS.  Kandungan zat aktif tempuyung diekstraksi dengan etanol dan berikut diuapkan pelarutnya untuk mendapatkan ekstrak kental. Ekstrak yang diperoleh distandarisasi menurut Farmakope Herbal Indonesia. Berikutnya dibuat SNEDDS tempuyung dengan menggunakan minyak Capryol-90, surfaktan tween 20 dan ko-surfaktan PEG 400. SNEDDS yang diperoleh dikarakterisasi meliputi ukuran partikel dan zeta potensial. Dari ekstraksi diperoleh ekstrak kental sebanyak 77,52 g. Hasil ini telah memenuhi syarat jika dibandingkan dengan Farmakope Herbal yang menyebutkan perolehan rendemen ekstrak kental daun tempuyung adalah tidak kurang dari 7,5%.  Formulasi tempuyung dalam bentuk sediaan SNEDDS diperoleh suatu nanoemulsi yang jernih dengan ukuran partikel 16,2 ± 1,06 nm dan nilai zeta potensial -37,48±0,74 mV. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak tempuyung menghasilkan suatu nano herbal dalam bentuk sediaan SNEDDS.

  16. Combination of SEDDS and Preactivated Thiomer Technology: Incorporation of a Preactivated Thiolated Amphiphilic Polymer into Self-Emulsifying Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, Gergely; Griesser, Janine; Nardin, Isabelle; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to create novel mucoadhesive drug delivery systems by incorporating amphiphilic hydrophobically modified, thiolated and preactivated polymers (preactivated thiomers) into self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS). L-Cysteine methyl ester was covalently attached to the polymeric backbone of Pemulen TR-2 and preactivated using 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (2-MNA). These thiomers were incorporated in a concentration of 0.3% (w/v) into SEDDS. The size distribution and the zeta potential of the emulsions were evaluated by dynamic light scattering. Mucoadhesive properties of thiomers-SEDDS spiked with FDA (fluorescein diacetate) were examined utilizing rheological measurement, permeation studies and in vitro residence time study on porcine mucosa. Cell viability tests were additionally performed. 734 ± 58 μmol L-Cysteine methyl ester and 562 ± 71 μmol 2-MNA could be attached per gram polymer of Pemulen TR-2. Emulsions exhibited a droplet size range between 180 and 270 nm. Blank SEDDS possessed a zeta potential value between -5.7 and -8.6 mV, whereas thiomers-SEDDS between -14.6 and -17.2 mV. Viscous modulus of thiomer and preactivated thiomer containing SEDDS-mucus mixture was 8-fold and 11-fold increased in comparison to reference. The amount of FDA permeated the mucus layer was 2-fold lower in case of thiomers-SEDDS compared to blank SEDDS. A prolonged residence time was observed for thiomers-SEDDS over 45 min. During cell viability studies no severe toxic effects were detected. The novel developed SEDDS with incorporated thiomers might be a promising tool for mucoadhesive oral drug delivery.

  17. Resveratrol self-emulsifying system increases the uptake by endothelial cells and improves protection against oxidative stress-mediated death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Ahmed; Le Clanche, Solenn; Thérond, Patrice; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Borderie, Didier; Lai-Kuen, René; Chaumeil, Jean-Claude; Sfar, Souad; Charrueau, Christine

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize a resveratrol self-emulsifying drug delivery system (Res-SEDDS), and to compare the uptake of resveratrol by bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), and the protection of these cells against hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell death, versus a control resveratrol ethanolic solution. Three Res-SEDDSs were prepared and evaluated. The in vitro self-emulsification properties of these formulations, the droplet size and the zeta potential of the nanoemulsions formed on adding them to water under mild agitation conditions were studied, together with their toxicity on BAECs. An optimal atoxic formulation (20% Miglyol® 812, 70% Montanox® 80, 10% ethanol 96% v/v) was selected and further studied. Pre-incubation of BAECs for 180 min with 25 μM resveratrol in the nanoemulsion obtained from the selected SEDDS significantly increased the membrane and intracellular concentrations of resveratrol (for example, 0.076±0.015 vs. ethanolic solution 0.041±0.016 nmol/mg of protein after 60 min incubation, p<0.05). Resveratrol intracellular localization was confirmed by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Resveratrol nanoemulsion significantly improved the endothelial cell protection from H2O2-induced injury (750, 1000 and 1500 μM H2O2) in comparison with incubation with the control resveratrol ethanolic solution (for example, 55±6% vs. 38±5% viability after 1500 μM H2O2 challenge, p<0.05). In conclusion, formulation of resveratrol as a SEDDS significantly improved its cellular uptake and potentiated its antioxidant properties on BAECs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Monoacyl phosphatidylcholine inhibits the formation of lipid multilamellar structures during in vitro lipolysis of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thuy; Siqueira, Scheyla D V S; Amenitsch, Heinz; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette

    2017-10-15

    The colloidal structures formed during lipolysis of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) might affect the solubilisation and possibly the absorption of drugs. The aim of the current study is to elucidate the structures formed during the in vitro lipolysis of four SEDDS containing medium-chain glycerides and caprylocaproyl polyoxyl-8 glycerides (Labrasol), with or without monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPC). In situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was combined with ex situ cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to elucidate the generated structures. The SAXS scattering curves obtained during the lipolysis of MAPC-free SEDDS containing 43-60% w/w Labrasol displayed a lamellar phase peak at q=2.13nm -1 that increased with Labrasol concentration, suggesting the presence of multilamellar structures (MLS) with a d-spacing of 2.95nm. However, SEDDS containing 20-30% w/w MAPC did not form MLS during the lipolysis. The cryo-TEM and DLS studies showed that MAPC-free SEDDS formed coarse emulsions while MAPC-containing SEDDS formed nanoemulsions during the dispersion in digestion medium. From the first minute and during the entire lipolysis process, SEDDS both with and without MAPC generated uni-, bi-, and oligo-lamellar vesicles. The lipolysis kinetics in the first minutes of the four SEDDS correlated with an increased intensity of the SAXS curves and the rapid transformation from lipid droplets to vesicles observed by cryo-TEM. In conclusion, the study elucidates the structures formed during in vitro lipolysis of SEDDS and the inhibitory effect of MAPC on the formation of MLS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Water reclamation from emulsified oily wastewater via effective forward osmosis hollow fiber membranes under the PRO mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; de Wit, Jos S; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-09-15

    By using a novel hydrophilic cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) as the membrane material for the hollow fiber substrate and modifying its outer surface by polydopamine (PDA) coating and inner surface by interfacial polymerization, we have demonstrated that the thin-film composite (TFC) membranes can be effectively used for sustainable water reclamation from emulsified oil/water streams via forward osmosis (FO) under the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode. The newly developed TFC-FO hollow fiber membrane shows characteristics of high water flux, outstanding salt and oil rejection, and low fouling propensity. Under the PRO mode, the newly developed TFC-FO membrane exhibits a water flux of 37.1 L m(-2) h(-1) with an oil rejection of 99.9% using a 2000 ppm soybean oil/water emulsion as the feed and 1 M NaCl as the draw solution. Remarkable anti-fouling behaviors have also been observed. Under the PRO mode, the water flux decline is only 10% of the initial value even after a 12 h test for oil/water separation. The water flux of the fouled membrane can be effectively restored to 97% of the original value by water rinses on the fiber outer surface without using any chemicals. Furthermore, the flux declines are only 25% and 52% when the water recovery of a 2000 ppm soybean oil/water emulsion and a 2000 ppm petroleum oil/water emulsion containing 0.04 M NaCl reaches 82%, respectively. This study may not only provide insightful guidelines for the fabrication of effective TFC-FO membranes with high performance and low fouling behaviors for oily wastewater under the PRO mode but also add an alternative perspective to the design of new materials for water purification purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrah, Nawel; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    The results of French intake estimates for 13 food additives prioritized by the methods proposed in the 2001 Report from the European Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake in the European Union are reported. These 13 additives were selected using the first and second tiers of the three-tier approach. The first tier was based on theoretical food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives. The second tier used real individual food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives for the substances which exceeded the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) in the first tier. In the third tier reported in this study, intake estimates were calculated for the 13 additives (colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners) according to two modelling assumptions corresponding to two different food habit scenarios (assumption 1: consumers consume foods that may or may not contain food additives, and assumption 2: consumers always consume foods that contain additives) when possible. In this approach, real individual food consumption data and the occurrence/use-level of food additives reported by the food industry were used. Overall, the results of the intake estimates are reassuring for the majority of additives studied since the risk of exceeding the ADI was low, except for nitrites, sulfites and annatto, whose ADIs were exceeded by either children or adult consumers or by both populations under one and/or two modelling assumptions. Under the first assumption, the ADI is exceeded for high consumers among adults for nitrites and sulfites (155 and 118.4%, respectively) and among children for nitrites (275%). Under the second assumption, the average nitrites dietary exposure in children exceeds the ADI (146.7%). For high consumers, adults exceed the nitrite and sulfite ADIs (223 and 156.4%, respectively) and children exceed the nitrite, annatto and sulfite ADIs (416.7, 124.6 and 130.6%, respectively).

  1. Nanoemulsions produced with varied type of emulsifier and oil content: An influence of formulation and process parameters on the characteristics and physical stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Sanela M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to prepare oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized with a novel natural alkyl polyglucoside surfactant and to compare them with corresponding lecithin/polysorbate 80 - based nanoemulsions in terms of physicochemical properties and physical stability. Nanoemulsions were prepared by high pressure homogenization, using 20, 30 and 40% (w/w medium chain triglyceride as oil phase, and 4, 6 and 8% (w/w lecithin/polysorbate 80 mixture (1/1 or caprylyl/capryl glucoside as emulsifiers. The influence of emulsifier type, emulsifier concentration and oil content was investigated with respect to changes in particle size, particle size distribution, surface charge and physical stability. The influence of production parameters (number of homogenization cycles, type of homogenization process, homogenization pressure on particle size was also investigated. Analysis was performed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction, zeta potential, pH and electrical conductivity measurements. All formulations produced revealed a small droplet size ranging from 147 to 228 nm and a very narrow size distribution (polydispersity index range 0,072-0,124. Zeta potentials were about -20 mV and -50 mV for nanoemulsions stabilized with lecithin/polysorbate 80 and caprylyl/capryl glucoside, respectively. The results obtained during the stability studies (6 months at 25°C and 1 month at 40°C indicated that nanoemulsion stability was influenced by their composition. Acquired results also suggested the most appropriate production parameters: 9 homogenization cycles, homogenization pressure of 500 bar and discontinuous process of homogenization.

  2. Influence of Casein-Phospholipid Combinations as Emulsifier on the Physical and Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of casein (0.3% w/w) and phospholipid (0.5% w/w) emulsifier combinations on the physical and oxidative stability of 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions at pH 7. For that purpose, three phospholipids were evaluated, namely, lecithin (LC......), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The emulsion stabilized with LC showed the best physical stability having the most negative zeta potential and the lowest mean droplet size. In addition, this emulsion was also the least oxidized in terms of peroxide value and concentration of the volatile...

  3. EFFECTS OF ω-ACRYLOYL POLY(ETHYLENE OXIDE) MACROMONOMER ON EMULSIFIER-FREE EMULSION COPOLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE AND n-BUTYL ACRYLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Well-defined nonionic hydrophilic ω-acryloyl poly(ethylene oxide) macromonomer (PEO-A) has been prepared by living anionic polymerization of ethylene oxide with diphenyl methyl potassium as the initiator and acryloyl chloride as the reaction terminating agent. The polymer was characterized by FTIR and SEC. The emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and n-butyl acrylate (BA) containing various concentrations of PEO-A was studied. In all cases stable emulsion coplymerizations of MMA and BA were obtained. The stabilizing effect was found to be dependent on the molecular weight and the feed amount of the macromonomer.

  4. Microbial biodiversity of Tang and Pirgal mud volcanoes and evaluation of bio-emulsifier and bio-demulsifier activities of Capnophile bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsia, Yasaman; Sorooshian, Shahryar

    2017-12-01

    The data presented in this article is related to the Master thesis; entitled "Survey Aerobic Microbial Diversity Mud Volcanoes in Chabahar and Khash Ports in Southern Iran" by the first author of this article, year 2011, Islamic Azad University, Iran (reference number (Parsia, 2011) [1] of this article). This article shows microbial biodiversity and evaluates bio-emulsifier and bio-demulsifier abilities of capnophile isolates, in order to introduce a superior isolate for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) process in the petrochemical industry.

  5. Microbial biodiversity of Tang and Pirgal mud volcanoes and evaluation of bio-emulsifier and bio-demulsifier activities of Capnophile bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Parsia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article is related to the Master thesis; entitled “Survey Aerobic Microbial Diversity Mud Volcanoes in Chabahar and Khash Ports in Southern Iran” by the first author of this article, year 2011, Islamic Azad University, Iran (reference number (Parsia, 2011 [1] of this article. This article shows microbial biodiversity and evaluates bio-emulsifier and bio-demulsifier abilities of capnophile isolates, in order to introduce a superior isolate for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR process in the petrochemical industry. Keywords: Mud volcanoes, Biodiversity, Bio-emulsification, Bio-demulsification, Petrochemistry

  6. Design of a Tank Cleaning Blend through a Systematic Emulsified Product Design Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Krogh, Peter; Depner, Bo

    Commercial and industrial detergents, formulated liquid blends, have recently become extremely sophisticated, in order to address a broad range of cleaning tasks and to deliver superior performances with a minimum of effort and time. These products, by definition, consist of different chemicals, ......, the  whole  design  procedure speeds  up, saving time  and money,  and the optimum formulation is identified, since a broad range of alternatives are investigated. The approach adopted for the design of emulsion-based chemical products consists in a systematic model-based methodology...... for  consideration  in  a  product  design methodology, rule-based selection criteria are applied. These are centered on structured databases, where some relevant properties (e.g. safety or toxicity-related), if not available,are predicted through dedicated pure component property models. Once......, classified according to their function and associated properties, has been developed. Also, a model library consisting of pure component and mixture property models has been developed so that the needed functional properties can be reliably predicted when their data cannot be found in the database. The  abovementioned  methodology  and related tools  are  generic,  in the sense that  many  different  emulsified...

  7. An assessment on performance, combustion and emission behavior of a diesel engine powered by ceria nanoparticle blended emulsified biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annamalai, M.; Dhinesh, B.; Nanthagopal, K.; SivaramaKrishnan, P.; Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani, J.; Parthasarathy, M.; Annamalai, K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel biofuel, lemongrass is used as a renewable energy source. • Emulsion prepared using 5% of water, 93% of lemongrass oil and 2% of surfactant. • Emulsified nano biofuel performance profile stayed closer to diesel fuel. • Drastic reduction in HC, CO, NO_X and marginal decrease of smoke compared with diesel. - Abstract: The consequence of using cerium oxide (CeO_2) nanoparticle as additive in Lemongrass Oil (LGO) emulsion fuel was experimentally investigated in a single cylinder, constant speed diesel engine. A novel biofuel plant was introduced in this project, namely lemongrass whose binomial name is Cymbopogon flexuosus. The main objective of the project is to reduce the level of harmful pollutants in the exhaust such as unburned hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO_X), and smoke. The engine performance could also be increased due to the addition of CeO_2 nanoparticle. The LGO emulsion fuel was prepared in the proportion of 5% of water, 93% of LGO and 2% of span80 by volume basis. Span80 acted as surfactant and it would reduce surface tension between the liquids with a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of 4.2. The ceria nanoparticle was dispersed with the LGO emulsion fuel in the dosage of 30 ppm (ppm). The diesel engine performance, combustion behavior and emission magnitude were compared with diesel and LGO as the base fuels. The whole investigation was conducted with a single cylinder diesel engine using the following fuels, namely neat diesel, neat LGO, LGO emulsion and LGO nano emulsion fuels respectively. The LGO emulsion fuel could reduce smoke and NO_X emissions and could improve Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Brake Specific Energy Consumption (BSEC) compared with neat LGO despite the marginal increase in HC and CO emissions. For ceria nanoparticle blended test fuel, the drastic reduction of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NO_X) and marginal decrease of

  8. Immunological consequences of using three different clinical/laboratory techniques of emulsifying peptide-based vaccines in incomplete Freund's adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kast W Martin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA serves as a carrier for water-in-oil emulsion (W/O vaccines. The stability of such emulsions greatly affects vaccine safety and efficacy since continued presence of antigen depots at lymphoid organs releasing low-level antigens is known to stimulate a potent immune response and high-level systemic release of antigens can lead to tolerance. W/O emulsions for the purpose of clinical and laboratory peptide-based vaccinations have been prepared using the techniques of syringe extrusion, vortex or high-speed homogenization. There is no consensus in the field over which technique would be best to use and no immunological data are available that compare the three techniques. In this study, we compared the immune responses induced by a peptide-based vaccine prepared using vortex, syringe-extrusion and homogenization. The vaccination led to tumor rejection by mice vaccinated with the peptide-based vaccine prepared using all three techniques. The immunological data from the in vivo cytotoxicity assay showed a trend for lower responses and a higher variability and greater range in the immune responses induced by a vaccine that was emulsified by the vortex or homogenizer techniques as compared to the syringe-extrusion technique. There were statistically significant lower numbers of IFNγ-secreting cells induced when the mice were vaccinated with a peptide-based vaccine emulsion prepared using the vortex compared to the syringe-extrusion technique. At a suboptimal vaccine dose, the mice vaccinated with a peptide-based vaccine emulsion prepared using the vortex technique had the largest tumors compared to the syringe-extrusion or the homogenizer technique. In the setting of a busy pharmacy that prepares peptide-based vaccine emulsions for clinical studies, the vortex technique can still be used but we urge investigators to take special care in their choice of mixing vessels for the vortex technique as that can

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Emulsified Pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck Peel Oil and Water-Soluble Chitosan on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Wen Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized pomelo steam distillation to isolate pomelo peel essential oil. The constituents were then analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and the antibacterial activity of the essential oil emulsions at different homogenizer speed conditions and concentrations of water-soluble chitosan (degree of acetylation, DA = 54.8% against S. aureus and E. coli was examined. Analysis of the essential oil composition identified a total of 33 compounds with the main constituent, limonene accounting for 87.5% (940.07 mg/g of the total. The pomelo peel oil was emulsified through homogenization at 24,000 rpm, resulting in a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC for E. coli that was 1.9 times lower than that of the essential oil without homogenization. In addition, a mixture of 0.4% essential oil emulsion and 0.03% water-soluble chitosan had the strongest synergetic antibacterial effect on S. aureus and E. coli at pH 7.4. In comparison with chitosan alone, the MIC value of this mixture was significantly 2.4 and 2.5 times lower. Hence, this study suggests using a mixture of emulsified pomelo peel oil and water-soluble chitosan to develop a novel natural food preservative, and that the processability of food, as well as the economic value of the byproducts of the Taiwan Matou pomelo and chitosan, could be increased.

  10. Effect of emulsion size and shelf life of azadirachtin A on the bioefficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) emulsifiable concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, L; Parmar, B S

    2000-08-01

    In a study of 33 recipes of neem oil based emulsifiable concentrates, the specific surface area of the emulsions and cream plus oil layer separation in emulsions at 24 h revealed a correlation of -0.6874 between them and correlations of -0.8940 and 0.6972, respectively, with bioefficacy (LC(50)) against the 3-day-old second-instar larvae of the Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilosoma obliqua Walker. Nearly 96-99% of azadirachtin A in emulsifiable concentrates (aza-A content = 617.93-1149.65 ppm) degraded during the heat stability test at 54 +/- 1 degrees C for 14 days with half-lives ranging between 1.84 and 4.53 days. The LC(50) values against S. obliqua were, however, statistically at par in both the pre- and the post-heat-treated samples, suggesting a similar effect of azadirachtin A and its degradation products on the bioactivity. The half-life of azadirachtin A could be enhanced by storing the concentrates at lower temperatures. A low pH of the formulation solvent did not check the degradation of azadirachtin A, as reported with aqueous solutions in the literature.

  11. Combined high-power ultrasound and high-pressure homogenization nanoemulsification: The effect of energy density, oil content and emulsifier type and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaris, Sonia; Plazzotta, Stella; Valoppi, Fabio; Anese, Monica

    2018-05-01

    Combinations of ultrasound (US) and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) at low-medium energy densities were studied as alternative processes to individual US and HPH to produce Tween 80 and whey protein stabilized nanoemulsions, while reducing the energy input. To this aim, preliminary trials were performed to compare emulsification efficacy of single and combined HPH and US treatments delivering low-medium energy densities. Results highlighted the efficacy of US-HPH combined process in reducing the energy required to produce nanoemulsions stabilized with both Tween 80 and whey protein isolate. Subsequently, the effect of emulsifier content (1-3% w/w), oil amount (10-20% w/w) and energy density (47-175 MJ/m 3 ) on emulsion mean particle diameter was evaluated by means of a central composite design. Particles of 140-190 nm were obtained by delivering 175 MJ/m 3 energy density at emulsions containing 3% (w/w) Tween 80 and 10% (w/w) oil. In the case of whey protein isolate stabilized emulsions, a reduced emulsifier amount (1% w/w) and intermediate energy density (120 MJ/m 3 ) allowed a minimum droplet size around 220-250 nm to be achieved. Results showed that, in both cases, at least 50% of the energy density should be delivered by HPH to obtain the minimum particle diameter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of clove bud powder at a spice level on antioxidant and quality properties of emulsified pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Kim, Gap-Don

    2016-09-01

    Clove bud is a widely used spice in meat and meat products, and it contains high level of phenolic compounds. The effectiveness of the clove as a spice has not been fully studied at a general level of addition in the meat products. Therefore, in the present study, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and nitrite scavenging abilities of clove bud powder (CBP) was assessed at spice level (0.1% and 0.2%) in emulsified pork sausage, during 6 weeks of cold storage. CBP had DPPH radical scavenging ability, but CBP addition at 0.1% and 0.2% did not decrease the TBARS value. An antimicrobial effect of CBP was also not observed during the cold storage. However, residual nitrite at storage weeks 4 and 6 was shown to be lower (P 0.05). The positive effect on nitrite scavenging could be expected by the addition of 0.2% CBP as a spice. However, antioxidant and antimicrobial abilities were not observed, as well as improvement in the quality of characteristics, in emulsified pork sausage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Preparation of Fe3O4/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and its interaction with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaolong; Liu Guoqiang; Yan Wei; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W.K.; Wu Shuilin; Yi Changfeng; Xu Zushun

    2012-01-01

    Cationic magnetic polymer particles Fe 3 O 4 /poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride), a type of potential gene carrier, were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization with oleic acid modified magnetite Fe 3 O 4 , styrene, butyl acrylate and [2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) (METAC). The morphology of the particles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and the composites of particles were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. These results showed that magnetic particles were well dispersed in polymers with the content of about 15%(wt/wt). The composites exhibited superparamagnetism and possessed a certain level of magnetic response. The interactions between the particles with calf-thymus DNA (ct DNA) were confirmed by zeta potential measurement, UV–vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The DNA-binding capacity determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis showed good binding capacity of the emulsion to DNA. These results suggested the potential of the cationic magnetic polymer emulsion as gene target delivery carrier. - Highlights: ► A new type of cationic magnetic polymer particles was synthesized by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization. ► Structural, morphological, and magnetic properties of the composite were evaluated. ► The interaction between cationic magnetic polymer particles with DNA was confirmed by zeta potential measurements. ► UV–vis spectrophotometry, fluorescent spectroscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. ► This process may have potential applications to gene carrier and DNA separation.

  14. Bioaccessibility and Cellular Uptake of β-Carotene Encapsulated in Model O/W Emulsions: Influence of Initial Droplet Size and Emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the initial emulsion structure (droplet size and emulsifier on the properties of β-carotene-loaded emulsions and the bioavailability of β-carotene after passing through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT digestion were investigated. Exposure to GIT significantly changed the droplet size, surface charge and composition of all emulsions, and these changes were dependent on their initial droplet size and the emulsifiers used. Whey protein isolate (WPI-stabilized emulsion showed the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility, while sodium caseinate (SCN-stabilized emulsion showed the highest cellular uptake of β-carotene. The bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated β-carotene based on the results of bioaccessibility and cellular uptake showed the same order with the results of cellular uptake being SCN > TW80 > WPI. An inconsistency between the results of bioaccessibility and bioavailability was observed, indicating that the cellular uptake assay is necessary for a reliable evaluation of the bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated compounds. The findings in this study contribute to a better understanding of the correlation between emulsion structure and the digestive fate of emulsion-encapsulated nutrients, which make it possible to achieve controlled or potential targeted delivery of nutrients by designing the structure of emulsion-based carriers.

  15. Contribution to the study of the physical stability of the suspensions of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and precipitated sulphur employing emulsified solid greases like vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras Navarro, Martha

    2001-01-01

    This research evaluated the physical stability of the suspensions of zinc oxide, precipitated sulphur and titanium dioxide. By using emulsified vehicles of three solid greases: stearilic alcohol, stearic acid and beeswax. That varies the concentration of solid grease (2%, 4%, 6 %) and the velocity of agitation for the emulsified vehicle's preparation (250, 500, 750 revolutions by minutes). That got 81 suspensions, 27 for every grease employed. The following effects there were evaluated like indicators of the physical stability of the suspensions: volume of sediment, apparent viscosity, facility of resuspension. There was effected an analysis of the varying of two controlled factors to establish the importance since the statistical viewpoint of the variants of the process over the volume of the sediment. This study indicates that the selection of solid grease is an parameter which influence is significant, what supports the got data through the research. By giving as a result that the stearilic alcohol is the most competent vehicle for the preparation of these suspensions. (Author) [es

  16. Self-double-emulsifying drug delivery system (SDEDDS): a new way for oral delivery of drugs with high solubility and low permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Lishuang; Zhu, Jiabi; Hu, Zhenyi; Zhang, Jie

    2011-05-16

    Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions are potential for enhancing oral bioavailability of drugs with high solubility and low permeability, but their industrial application is limited due to the instability. Herein, we developed a novel formulation, self-double-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SDEDDS) by formulating mixtures of hydrophilic surfactants and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions, which were easier to be stable through formulations optimization. SDEDDS can spontaneously emulsify to water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions in the mixed aqueous gastrointestinal environment, with drugs encapsulated in the internal water phase of the double emulsions. We employed SDEDDS to improve the oral absorption of pidotimod, a peptide-like drug with high solubility and low permeability. The optimized pidotimod-SDEDDS were found to be stable up to 6 months under 25°C. Plasma concentration-time profiles from pharmacokinetic studies in rats dosed with SDEDDS showed 2.56-fold (p<0.05) increased absorption of pidotimod, compared to the pidotimod solution. Histopathologic studies confirmed that SDEDDS exerted absorption promoting effect without serious local damages. These studies demonstrate that SDEDDS may be a promising strategy for peroral delivery of peptide and peptidomimetic drugs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  18. The effect of emulsifying salts on the turbidity of a diluted milk system with varying pH and protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, M D; Saricay, Y; Harte, F M

    2017-06-01

    Solutions of 10 commonly used emulsifying salts (ES) listed in the Code of Federal Regulations (21CFR133.179) for pasteurized process cheese were tested for their effect on the turbidity of a diluted milk system at different pH and protein concentrations to characterize the conditions that affect micellar structure. Emulsifying salt solutions were made by mixing the ES in a 1-in-20 dilution of water in skim milk ultrafiltrate (3 kDa molecular weight cut-off) to obtain ES concentrations from 0 to 248 mM. Skim milk was added to solutions containing nanopure water, skim milk ultrafiltrate, and a specific ES ranging in concentration from 0 to 248 mM and pH 5, 5.8, 6.8, 7.8, and 8.8. The turbidity of the samples was measured as the optical density at 400 nm immediately after mixing (time, t = 0), after 30 s (t = 30s), and after 30 min (t = 30min). Emulsifying salts were found to cause a decrease in the turbidity of the system, which was modeled using an exponential decay model, where C* represents a threshold salt concentration at which rapid dissociation occurs. At pH values 5.8 and 6.8, the ES caused the greatest decrease in turbidity of the diluted milk system. At pH 5, the ES had the least effect on the turbidity of the system. Sodium hexametaphosphate was found to have the strongest dissociative effect, with a C* value of 0.33 mM for t = 0 at pH 6.8. In contrast, the largest C* value calculated at pH 6.8 was monosodium phosphate at 278.22 mM. Increased time resulted in lower C* values. The model established for this study can be used to predict the dissociation of casein micelles in the presence of various types of ES. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship Models for Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System of 2-Aryl Propionic Acid NSAIDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wen Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed the quantative structure-property relationships (QSPRs models to correlate the molecular structures of surfactant, cosurfactant, oil, and drug with the solubility of poorly water-soluble 2-aryl propionic acid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (2-APA-NSAIDs in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs. The compositions were encoded with electronic, geometrical, topological, and quantum chemical descriptors. To obtain reliable predictions, we used multiple linear regression (MLR and artificial neural network (ANN methods for model development. The obtained equations were validated using a test set of 42 formulations and showed a great predictive power, and linear models were found to be better than nonlinear ones. The obtained QSPR models would greatly facilitate fast screening for the optimal formulations of SEDDS at the early stage of drug development and minimize experimental effort.

  20. Removal of emulsified and dissolved traces of organic compounds from industrial wastewaters using nature and synthesized (Na A and Nam) zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modirshahla, N.; Tabatabaii, S.

    2004-01-01

    The main object of this study was to compare the natural and synthetic (Na A and Nam) zeolites as absorbents in removing emulsified and dissolved traces of organic compounds, which appear in the wastewater of power plants, refinery and petrochemical complexes. The specific objections of the work was: a) to select the best species that have the highest amount of absorption; b) to measure the rate of absorption of traces organic compounds and emulsions on the natural and synthesized zeolites; c) to establish the absorption isotherms for the organics and emulsions with selected samples; d) to select readily available regenerants, and e ) to examine the ph dependence of the process and to establish a simple and practical method to detect and to measure the pollution after the treatment process. The BOD and COD of the treated and feed waters were compared

  1. Disintegration and cancer immunotherapy efficacy of a squalane-in-water delivery system emulsified by bioresorbable poly(ethylene glycol)-block-polylactide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Lin; Liu, Shih-Jen; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Chong, Pele; Huang, Ming-Hsi

    2014-02-01

    Vaccine adjuvant is conferred on the substance that helps to enhance antigen-specific immune response. Here we investigated the disintegration characteristics and immunotherapy potency of an emulsified delivery system comprising bioresorbable polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-polylactide (PEG-PLA), phosphate buffer saline (PBS), and metabolizable oil squalane. PEG-PLA-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions show good stability at 4 °C and at room temperature. At 37 °C, squalane/PEG-PLA/PBS emulsion with oil/aqueous weight ratio of 7/3 (denominated PELA73) was stable for 6 weeks without phase separation. As PEG-PLA being degraded, 30% of free oil at the surface layer and 10% of water at the bottom disassociated from the PELA73 emulsion were found after 3 months. A MALDI-TOF MS study directly on the DIOS plate enables us to identify low molecular weight components released during degradation. Our results confirm the loss of PLA moiety of the emulsifier PEG-PLA directly affected the stability of PEG-PLA-stabilized emulsion, leading to emulsion disintegration and squalane/water phase separation. As adjuvant for cancer immunotherapeutic use, an HPV16 E7 peptide antigen formulated with PELA73 plus immunostimulatory CpG molecules could strongly enhance antigen-specific T-cell responses as well as anti-tumor ability with respected to non-formulated or Alum-formulated peptide. Accordingly, these advances may be a potential immunoregulatory strategy in manipulating the immune responses induced by tumor-associated antigens. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of high-resolution ultrasonic resonator technology and Raman spectroscopy as novel process analytical tools for drug quantification in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillhart, Cordula; Kuentz, Martin

    2012-02-05

    Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are complex mixtures in which drug quantification can become a challenging task. Thus, a general need exists for novel analytical methods and a particular interest lies in techniques with the potential for process monitoring. This article compares Raman spectroscopy with high-resolution ultrasonic resonator technology (URT) for drug quantification in SEDDS. The model drugs fenofibrate, indomethacin, and probucol were quantitatively assayed in different self-emulsifying formulations. We measured ultrasound velocity and attenuation in the bulk formulation containing drug at different concentrations. The formulations were also studied by Raman spectroscopy. We used both, an in-line immersion probe for the bulk formulation and a multi-fiber sensor for measuring through hard-gelatin capsules that were filled with SEDDS. Each method was assessed by calculating the relative standard error of prediction (RSEP) as well as the limit of quantification (LOQ) and the mean recovery. Raman spectroscopy led to excellent calibration models for the bulk formulation as well as the capsules. The RSEP depended on the SEDDS type with values of 1.5-3.8%, while LOQ was between 0.04 and 0.35% (w/w) for drug quantification in the bulk. Similarly, the analysis of the capsules led to RSEP of 1.9-6.5% and LOQ of 0.01-0.41% (w/w). On the other hand, ultrasound attenuation resulted in RSEP of 2.3-4.4% and LOQ of 0.1-0.6% (w/w). Moreover, ultrasound velocity provided an interesting analytical response in cases where the drug strongly affected the density or compressibility of the SEDDS. We conclude that ultrasonic resonator technology and Raman spectroscopy constitute suitable methods for drug quantification in SEDDS, which is promising for their use as process analytical technologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitory effect of BCG cell-wall skeletons (BCG-CWS) emulsified in squalane on tumor growth and metastasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yung Choon; Hata, Katsusuke; Lee, Kyung Bok; Azuma, Ichiro

    2002-08-01

    The antimetastatic effect of BCG-CWS, which was emulsified in an oil-in-water form with either Drakeol 6VR mineral oil (BCG-CWS/DK) or squalane (BCG-CWS/SQA), on lung metastasis produced by highly metastatic murine tumor cells, Colon26-M3.1 carcinoma cells and B16-BL6 melanoma cells, was investigated in syngeneic mice. An intravenous (i.v.) administration of BCG-CWS (100 mg/mouse) 1 day after tumor inoculation significantly inhibited tumor metastasis of both Colon26-M3.1 carcinoma and B16-BL6 melanoma cells in experimental lung metastasis models. No differences in the antitumor activity of the two oil-based formulations (BCG-CWS/DK and BCG-CWS/SQA) were obverved. However, BCG-CWS/SQA administered through subcutaneous (s.c.) route was shown to be effective only when it was consecutively injected (3 times) after tumor inoculation. An in vivo analysis for tumor-induced angiogenesis showed that a single i.v. administration of BCG-CWS/SQA inhibited the number of tumor-induced blood vessels and suppressed tumor growth. Furthermore, the multiple administration of BCG-CWS/SQA given at on week intervals led to a significant reduction in spontaneous lung metastasis of B16-BL6 melanoma cells in a spontaneous metastasis model. These results suggest that BCG-CWS emulsified with squalane is a potent inhibitory agent of lung metastasis, and that the antimetastatic effect of BCG-CWS is related to the suppression of tumor growth and the inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis.

  4. Alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate-emulsified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for reversal of multidrug resistance in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Lu Yu; Ding Liying; Liu Yaqing; Yu Shuqin; Guo Miao; Ron Wenting; Song Feifei

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the factors in the failure of anticancer chemotherapy. In order to enhance the anticancer effect of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates, inhibition of the P-gp efflux pump on MDR cells is a good tactic. We designed novel multifunctional drug-loaded alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs; SN-38 is 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin), with TPGS-emulsified PLGA NPs as the carrier and modulator of the P-gp efflux pump and SN-38 as the model drug. TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs were prepared using a modified solvent extraction/evaporation method. Physicochemical characterizations of TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs were in conformity with the principle of nano-drug delivery systems (nDDSs), including a diameter of about 200 nm, excellent spherical particles with a smooth surface, narrow size distribution, appropriate surface charge, and successful drug-loading into the NPs. The cytotoxicity of TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs to MDR cells was increased by 3.56 times compared with that of free SN-38. Based on an intracellular accumulation study relative to the time-dependent uptake and efflux inhibition, we suggest novel mechanisms of MDR reversal of TPGS/PLGA NPs. Firstly, TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs improved the uptake of the loaded drug by clathrin-mediated endocytosis in the form of unbroken NPs. Simultaneously, intracellular NPs escaped the recognition of P-gp by MDR cells. After SN-38 was released from TPGS/PLGA/SN-38 NPs in MDR cells, TPGS or/and PLGA may modulate the efflux microenvironment of the P-gp pump, such as mitochondria and the P-gp domain with an ATP-binding site. Finally, the controlled-release drug entered the nucleus of the MDR cell to induce cytotoxicity. The present study showed that TPGS-emulsified PLGA NPs could be functional carriers in nDDS for anticancer drugs that are also P-gp substrates. More importantly, to enhance the therapeutic effect of P-gp substrates, this work

  5. Anaerobic digestion of thermal pre-treated emulsified slaughterhouse wastes (TESW): Effect of trace element limitation on process efficiency and sludge metabolic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftaxias, Alexandros; Diamantis, Vasileios; Aivasidis, Alexandros

    2018-06-01

    Slaughterhouse solid wastes, characterized by a high lipid content, are considered a valuable resource for energy production by means of anaerobic digestion technologies. Aim of this study was to examine the effect of trace element limitation on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of thermally pre-treated emulsified slaughterhouse wastes (TESW). Under two distinct experimental periods (Period I - low and Period II - high trace element dosage respectively) a CSTR with sludge recirculation was operated at increasing organic loading rate (OLR) from 1.5 to 10 g L -1  d -1 . Under optimum conditions, COD removal was higher than 96%, biogas yield equal to 0.53 L g -1  COD feed and the biogas methane content 77%. Trace element limitation however, resulted in a dramatic decline in process efficiency, with VFA accumulation and events of extreme sludge flotation, despite that the soluble concentration of Ni, Co and Mo were between 12 and 28 μg L -1 . This is indicative of mass transfer limitations caused by lipids adsorption onto the anaerobic biomass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of Nanosize Spinel NixFe3-xO4 Prepared by Sol-Gel Method Using Egg White as Emulsifying Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Situmeang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sol-gel method using egg white as emulsifying agent was applied to prepare nano size spinel NixFe3-xO4 (with x = 0.2–1. Sample preparation was carried out by mixing the solution of Fe(NO33.9 H2O and Ni(NO33.6 H2O with egg white, and then the sample was stirred thoroughly using magnetic stirrer. After freeze–drying process, the sample was subjected to calcination treatment and subsequently characterized. The phase composition was evaluated using the X-ray diffraction (XRD technique, followed by quantitative analysis using Rietveld and Debye-Scherrer Methods. The functionality of the sample was identified using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and surface morphology and elemental composition were analyzed using scanning electron microscopycoupled with electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS. The results of XRD characterization indicated that materials consist of various crystalline phases, with NiFe2O4 as a major phase. FTIR Analysis revealed the existence of both Lewis and Brønsted–Lowry acid sites, with Lewis acid as the prominent site. The sample was found to display relatively homogeneous surface morphology, having the crystallite size in the range of 33 to 61 nm according to the Debye-Scherrer equation. The EDS data indicated that the ratio of Fe/Ni is in agreement with the composition of the raw materials used.

  7. Preparation of Fe 3O 4/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and its interaction with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Liu, Guoqiang; Yan, Wei; Chu, Paul K.; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Wu, Shuilin; Yi, Changfeng; Xu, Zushun

    2012-04-01

    Cationic magnetic polymer particles Fe3O4/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride), a type of potential gene carrier, were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization with oleic acid modified magnetite Fe3O4, styrene, butyl acrylate and [2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) (METAC). The morphology of the particles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and the composites of particles were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. These results showed that magnetic particles were well dispersed in polymers with the content of about 15%(wt/wt). The composites exhibited superparamagnetism and possessed a certain level of magnetic response. The interactions between the particles with calf-thymus DNA (ct DNA) were confirmed by zeta potential measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The DNA-binding capacity determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis showed good binding capacity of the emulsion to DNA. These results suggested the potential of the cationic magnetic polymer emulsion as gene target delivery carrier.

  8. Antioxidant activity of alkyl gallates and glycosyl alkyl gallates in fish oil in water emulsions: relevance of their surface active properties and of the type of emulsifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, María J; Medina, Isabel; Maldonado, Olivia S; Lucas, Ricardo; Morales, Juan C

    2015-09-15

    The antioxidant activity of gallic acid and a series of alkyl gallates (C4-C18) and glycosylated alkyl gallates (C4-C18) on fish oil-in-water emulsions was studied. Three types of emulsifiers, lecithin, Tween-20 and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) were tested. A nonlinear behavior of the antioxidant activity of alkyl gallates when increasing alkyl chain length was observed for emulsions prepared with lecithin. Medium-size alkyl gallates (C6-C12) were the best antioxidants. In contrast, for emulsions prepared with Tween-20, the antioxidants seem to follow the polar paradox. Glucosyl alkyl gallates were shown previously to be better surfactants than alkyl gallates. Nevertheless, they exhibited a worse antioxidant capacity than their corresponding alkyl gallates, in emulsions prepared with lecithin or Tween-20, indicating the greater relevance of having three OH groups at the polar head in comparison with having improved surfactant properties but just a di-ortho phenolic structure in the antioxidant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined use of phospholipid complexes and self-emulsifying microemulsions for improving the oral absorption of a BCS class IV compound, baicalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyi Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a formulation to improve the oral absorption of baicalin (BA by combining a phospholipid complex (PC and self-emulsifying microemulsion drug delivery system (SMEDDS, termed BA–PC–SMEDDS. BA–PC was prepared by a solvent evaporation method and evaluated by complexation percentage (CP. The physicochemical properties of BA–PC were determined. The synergistic effect of PC and SMEDDS on permeation of BA was studied in vitro with Caco-2 cells and in situ with a single pass intestinal perfusion model. The improved bioavailability of BA in BA–PC–SMEDDS was confirmed in an in vivo rat model. The CP of BA–PC reached 100% when the molar ratio of drug to phospholipid (PP was ≥1:1. The solubility of BA–PC increased in both water and octanol, and the log Po/w of BA–PC was increased significantly. BA–PC–SMEDDS could be dispersed more evenly in water, compared to BA and BA–PC. Both the Caco-2 cell uptake and single-pass intestinal perfusion models illustrated that transport of BA in BA–PC was lower than that of free BA, while improved significantly in BA–PC–SMEDDS. The relative bioavailability of BA–PC(1:2–SMEDDS was 220.37%. The combination system of PC and SMEDDS had a synergistic effect on improving the oral absorption of BA.

  10. Evaluation of garlic oil in nano-emulsified form: Optimization and its efficacy in high-fat diet induced dyslipidemia in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavan, Gokulakannan; Muralidaran, Yuvashree; Sridharan, Badrinathan; Nachiappa Ganesh, Rajesh; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2017-07-01

    Garlic oil nanoemulsion was formulated using ultrasonic emulsification and the optimized garlic oil nanoemulsion ratio (1:2) of oil: surfactant showed spherical, with tiny droplet size 24.9 ± 1.11 nm. It was observed that the prepared nanoemulsion has the zeta potential of -42.63 ± 1.58 mV and a low polydispersity index of 0.2 ± 0.09 with excellent stability. The formulation was subjected to in vivo acute and sub-acute toxicity. In acute toxicity study, single oral administration of 18.63 ml of garlic oil nanoemulsion/kg resulted in immediate mortality. However, garlic oil nanoemulsion (0.46 ml/kg) and tween 80 (0.5 ml/kg) administered rats did not exhibit any toxicity and showed no changes in hematological and histological parameters. Further, both preventive and curative studies of garlic oil nanoemulsion were evaluated in high-fat diet fed dyslipidemic Wistar rats. Garlic oil nanoemulsion administered groups showed a significant effect in reducing the levels of lipid profiles (p garlic oil. Evaluation of lipid deposits in hepatic tissues was analyzed by Oil Red O staining, which revealed that garlic oil nanoemulsion administered rats markedly reduced the fat depots. Our findings suggest that garlic oil nano-emulsified form reduced toxicity and improved efficacy in preventing and treating dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of membrane-filtered soy hull pectin and pre-emulsified fiber/oil on chemical and technological properties of low fat and low salt meat emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine efficacy of a membrane filtration in soy hull pectin purification and evaluate combined effects of soy hull pectin and pre-emulsified fiber/oil (PE) on chemical composition and technological properties of low fat and low salt meat emulsions. Soy hull pectin was purified through two different methods (alcohol-washed (ASP) and membrane-filtered (MSP)). Insoluble soy hull residues after pectin extraction were incorporated with sunflower oil and water for the PE preparation. Meat emulsion was formulated with 58 % pork, 20 % ice, 20 % pork backfat, and 2 % NaCl as control. A total of six low fat and low salt meat emulsions (1 % NaCl and 10 % backfat) was manufactured with 1 % pectin (with/without ASP or MSP) and 10 % PE (with/without). The pectin content of ASP and MSP was 0.84 and 0.64 g L-galacturonic acid/g dry sample, respectively. The inclusion of soy hull pectin caused similar results on chemical composition, color, cooking loss, and texture of the meat emulsions, regardless of the purification method. In addition, positive impacts of the combined treatments with soy hull pectin and PE compared to single treatments on cooking loss and texture of the meat emulsions were observed. Results suggest that membrane filtration could be an effective alternative method to purify pectin, instead of alcohol-washing, and both soluble pectin and insoluble fiber from soy hulls could be used as a functional non-meat ingredient to manufacture various low fat and low salt meat products.

  12. Effects of vegetable juice powder concentration and storage time on some chemical and sensory quality attributes of uncured, emulsified cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A; Ahn, D U

    2007-06-01

    Uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products can be manufactured with vegetable juice powder (VJP) and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus, resulting in quality and sensory attributes similar to traditional cured products. The 1st objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of VJP and incubation times (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics, including lipid oxidation, color, and cured meat pigment concentrations, of emulsified-frankfurter-style-cooked (EFSC) sausages over a 90-d storage period. The 2nd objective was to compare residual nitrate and nitrite content resulting from different processing treatments and the 3rd objective was to assess sensory properties of finished products. Four EFSC sausage treatments (TRT) (TRT 1: 0.20% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT 2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT 3: 0.40% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT 4: 0.40% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added control (C) were used for this study. No differences for lipid oxidation (TBARS) between any TRTs and C or over time were observed. No differences (P > 0.05) for CIE L* values were found between TRTs. CIE a* and reflectance ratio values revealed that TRTs 2, 4, and C were redder than TRTs 1 and 3 at day 0. Trained sensory intensity ratings for cured aroma, cured color, cured flavor, uniform color, and firmness determined that all but TRT 1 were similar to C. These results indicate a longer incubation time (120 compared with 30 min) was found more critical than VJP level (0.20% or 0.40%) to result in products comparable to a sodium nitrite-added control.

  13. Biogeochemical Modeling of In Situ U(VI) Reduction and Immobilization with Emulsified Vegetable Oil as the Electron Donor at a Field Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G.; Parker, J.; Wu, W.; Schadt, C. W.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.; Orifrc Team

    2011-12-01

    A comprehensive biogeochemical model was developed to quantitatively describe the coupled hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological processes that occurred following injection of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) as the electron donor to immobilize U(VI) at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site (ORIFRC) in Tennessee. The model couples the degradation of EVO, production and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), glycerol, hydrogen and acetate, reduction of nitrate, manganese, ferrous iron, sulfate and uranium, and methanoganesis with growth of multiple microbial groups. The model describes the evolution of geochemistry and microbial populations not only in the aqueous phase as typically observed, but also in the mineral phase and therefore enables us to evaluate the applicability of rates from the literature for field scale assessment, estimate the retention and degradation rates of EVO and LCFA, and assess the influence of the coupled processes on fate and transport of U(VI). Our results suggested that syntrophic bacteria or metal reducers might catalyze LCFA oxidation in the downstream locations when sulfate was consumed, and competition between methanogens and others for electron donors and slow growth of methanogen might contribute to the sustained reducing condition. Among the large amount of hydrologic, geochemical and microbiological parameter values, the initial biomass, and the interactions (e.g., inhibition) of the microbial functional groups, and the rate and extent of Mn and Fe oxide reduction appear as the major sources of uncertainty. Our model provides a platform to conduct numerical experiments to study these interactions, and could be useful for further iterative experimental and modeling investigations into the bioreductive immobiliztion of radionuclide and metal contaminants in the subsurface.

  14. PROPRIEDADES EMULSIONANTES E SOLUBILIDADE DA CASEÍNA BOVINA: 2. EFEITO DA ADIÇÃO DE NaCl EMULSIFYING PROPERTIES AND SOLUBILITY OF CASEIN: 2. EFFECTS OF THE NaCl ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Jardim DUARTE

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da adição de NaCl sobre algumas propriedades funcionais da caseína e de seus hidrolisados trípticos, foi estudado em dois valores de pH (4,0 e 5,0. Para tal, foi adicionado um teor de 0,02M do sal às soluções-tampão empregadas no preparo das amostras. Foram determinadas a solubilidade protéica, a capacidade emulsificante (EC, o índice de atividade emulsificante (EAI e a estabilidade das emulsões (ES, e o raio médio dos glóbulos de gordura (R foi calculado. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que, nos dois valores de pH estudados, a adição de NaCl levou a um aumento significativo da solubilidade e da EC da caseína e de todos os hidrolisados trípticos. Por outro lado, diminuiu os valores de EAI da caseína e elevou os dos hidrolisados, tendo sido observado o oposto para o tamanho dos glóbulos de gordura. Com relação à ES, a da caseína apresentou ligeiro aumento no pH 5,0, enquanto que apenas alguns hidrolisados trípticos tiveram a sua ES elevada em pH 4,0 ou 5,0.The effect of the NaCl addition on the emulsifying properties of casein and tryptic casein hydrolysates was studied in two pH values (4,0 e 5,0. A 0.02 M concentration of salt was added to the buffer solutions used for preparing the samples. The protein solubility, the emulsifying capacity (EC, the emulsifying activity index (EAI and the emulsion stability (ES were determined. The mean radius (R of fat droplets was also calculated. The results showed that the addition of NaCl increased the solubility and the EC of casein and casein hydrolysates, in both pH values. However, this salt addition reduced the EAI of casein and increased that of the hydrolysates.The opposite was observed relating to the R of fat droplets. Regarding the ES, that of casein presented little increase in pH 5.0, and the same result was obtained for only some hydrolysates in pH 5.0 or 4.0.

  15. Synthesis Process of Self-healing Microcapsule Based on Nonionic Composition Emulsifiers%基于非离子复合乳化剂自修复微胶囊的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴云; 刘祥萱; 王煊军; 李军; 刘博

    2016-01-01

    Nonionic emulsification compound system of OP-10/AEO with low foaming properties was utilized to solve the defection problems in emulsion microcapsule preparation. The microcapsules of urea-formaldehyde resin for self-healing material were synthesized by in-situ polymerization with diluted epoxy resin E-51 as the core materi-al. The formation process and the thermal stability were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis( TGA) and optical microscope( OM);the chemical structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared( FTIR) and the Gauss fit-ting was used in the particle size distribution of microcapsules. The selection of the emulsifier system, and the cor-responding amount of the emulsifier, the composition of raw materials, and the agitation rate were discussed to fur-ther illustrate the influence of the performance of the microcapsules. The results demonstrated that the system can effectively solve the emulsifier bubbling problem ( amount:5. 0%, the mass ratio of the core materials to the shell materials:0. 8∶ 1 and agitation rate: 1 200 r/min ) . The encapsulation ratio of microcapsules was increased to 80% with narrow particle size distribution and better chemical stability.%提出采用低起泡性的OP-10/AEO非离子复合乳化体系解决微胶囊制备过程中乳化缺陷问题。以改性环氧树脂E-51为芯材修复剂,通过原位聚合法制备脲醛树脂自修复微胶囊。采用光学显微镜、傅里叶红外光谱仪、同步热分析仪分别对形成过程、化学结构及热稳定性进行分析。利用Gauss拟合研究粒径分布,并探讨了乳化剂体系选择、乳化剂用量、芯壁比、搅拌速率等因素对微胶囊性能的影响。结果表明,该体系能有效改善乳化剂起泡效果,用量为5.0%,芯壁比为0.8∶1,搅拌速率为1200 r/min,微胶囊包封率达到80%,粒径分布相对集中,具备良好的室温贮存性及热稳定性。

  16. Alp Rose stem cells, olive oil squalene and a natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier: Are they appropriate ingredients of skin moisturizers - in vivo efficacy on normal and sodium lauryl sulfate - irritated skin?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Mila; Gledović, Ana; Lukić, Milica; Tasić-Kostov, Marija; Isailović, Tanja; Pantelić, Ivana; Vuleta, Gordana; Savić, Snežana

    2016-11-01

    Since skin moisturization may be achieved by both actives and chosen carrier, plant stem cells, squalene and natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier may be potential components of contemporary cosmetic products. The aim of the study was in vivo evaluation of the skin irritation potential and the efficacy of Alpine Rose stem cells incorporated into li-posomes and olive oil squalene as ingredients of moisturizing creams, with respect to the novel emulsifier used for creams’ stabilization. With the employment of noninvasive skin biophysical measurements, skin hydration (EC), transepi-dermal water loss (TEWL), erythema index (EI) and viscoelas-ticity were measured on 76 healthy volunteers. In the first phase, skin irritation after a 24-hour occlusion and the long-term efficacy of creams (a 21-day study) on healthy skin were evaluated. Phase II of the study focused on the cream efficacy assessment after a 6-day treatment of sodium lauryl sulfate-irritated skin. After a 24-hour occlusion, there were no significant changes in the EI for any tested sample. In the second phase of the study, the EI was not significantly altered for the cream containing squalene, while the application of all active samples resulted in a significant reduction of TEWL. In both phases of the study an EC increase was recorded, espe-cially for the squalene-containing cream. Due to the lack of skin irritation and skin barrier impairment along with the marked hydration effect, it could be said that the in-vestigated actives incorporated into alkyl polyglucoside emulsi-fier-stabilized creams may be safely applied as ingredients for "tailor-made" cosmetic moisturizers intended for normal and dry skin care, whereas olive oil squalene could be used for the treatment of irritated or sensitive skin as well. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34031

  17. Alp Rose stem cells, olive oil squalene and a natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier: Are they appropriate ingredients of skin moisturizers - in vivo efficacy on normal and sodium lauryl sulfate - irritated skin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Mila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Since skin moisturization may be achieved by both actives and chosen carrier, plant stem cells, squalene and natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier may be potential components of contemporary cosmetic products. The aim of the study was in vivo evaluation of the skin irritation potential and the efficacy of Alpine Rose stem cells incorporated into li-posomes and olive oil squalene as ingredients of moisturizing creams, with respect to the novel emulsifier used for creams’ stabilization. Methods. With the employment of noninvasive skin biophysical measurements, skin hydration (EC, transepi-dermal water loss (TEWL, erythema index (EI and viscoelas-ticity were measured on 76 healthy volunteers. In the first phase, skin irritation after a 24-hour occlusion and the long-term efficacy of creams (a 21-day study on healthy skin were evaluated. Phase II of the study focused on the cream efficacy assessment after a 6-day treatment of sodium lauryl sulfate-irritated skin. Results. After a 24-hour occlusion, there were no significant changes in the EI for any tested sample. In the second phase of the study, the EI was not significantly altered for the cream containing squalene, while the application of all active samples resulted in a significant reduction of TEWL. In both phases of the study an EC increase was recorded, espe-cially for the squalene-containing cream. Conclusion. Due to the lack of skin irritation and skin barrier impairment along with the marked hydration effect, it could be said that the in-vestigated actives incorporated into alkyl polyglucoside emulsi-fier-stabilized creams may be safely applied as ingredients for "tailor-made" cosmetic moisturizers intended for normal and dry skin care, whereas olive oil squalene could be used for the treatment of irritated or sensitive skin as well. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34031

  18. Preparation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and its interaction with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaolong; Liu Guoqiang; Yan Wei [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yeung, Kelvin W.K. [Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Wu Shuilin; Yi Changfeng [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Xu Zushun, E-mail: zushun25@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong)

    2012-04-15

    Cationic magnetic polymer particles Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/poly(styrene-butyl acrylate-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride), a type of potential gene carrier, were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization with oleic acid modified magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, styrene, butyl acrylate and [2-(methacryloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) (METAC). The morphology of the particles was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and the composites of particles were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. These results showed that magnetic particles were well dispersed in polymers with the content of about 15%(wt/wt). The composites exhibited superparamagnetism and possessed a certain level of magnetic response. The interactions between the particles with calf-thymus DNA (ct DNA) were confirmed by zeta potential measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The DNA-binding capacity determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis showed good binding capacity of the emulsion to DNA. These results suggested the potential of the cationic magnetic polymer emulsion as gene target delivery carrier. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new type of cationic magnetic polymer particles was synthesized by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural, morphological, and magnetic properties of the composite were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction between cationic magnetic polymer particles with DNA was confirmed by zeta potential measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-vis spectrophotometry, fluorescent spectroscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This process may have potential applications to gene carrier and DNA separation.

  19. Enzymatic preparation and characterization of soybean lecithin-based emulsifiers; Preparación enzimática y caracterización de emulsionantes a base de lecitina de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy Jala, R.C.; Chen, B.; Li, H.; Zhang, Y.; Cheong, L.Z.; Yang, T.; Xu, X.

    2016-07-01

    Simple enzymatic methods were developed for the synthesis of lysolecithin, glycerolyzed lecithin and hydrolyzed lecithin. The products were characterized in terms of their acetone insoluble matter, hexane insoluble matter, moisture, phospholipid distribution and fatty acid composition. The HLB value ranges of different products with different acid values were detected. The efficiency of optimally hydrolyzed lecithin was examined at high calcium ion, low pH, and aqueous solutions and compared with commercially available standard lecithin-based emulsifiers. Overall, lysolecithin powder was proven to be the best emulsifier even at strong and medium acidic conditions. [Spanish] Se han desarrollado métodos enzimáticos simples para la síntesis de lisolecitina, lecitina esterificada a glicerol y lecitina hidrolizada. Los productos se caracterizaron en términos de su composición en materia insoluble en acetona, materia insoluble en hexano, humedad, distribución de fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos. Además, se detectaron rangos de los valores de HLB de diferentes productos con valores de ácido diferentes. La eficiencia de la lecitina hidrolizada de forma óptima fue estudiada en función de una alta concentración de ion calcio, pH bajo, y soluciones acuosas y se compara con emulsionantes basados en lecitina estándar disponibles en el mercado. En general, el polvo de lisolecitina mostró ser el mejor emulsionante incluso en condiciones ácidas fuertes y medias.

  20. Efeito do pH e da hidrólise tríptica sobre as propriedades emulsionantes da globina bovina The effect of the pH and the tryptic hydrolysis on the emulsifying properties of bovine globin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleia Batista Dias ORNELLAS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available No intuito de estudar o efeito do pH e da ação da tripsina sobre as propriedades emulsionantes da globina bovina, extraída pelo método da acetona acidificada, foram determinados neste trabalho, a capacidade emulsionante (EC, o índice de atividade emulsionante (EAI e a estabilidade da emulsão (ES. Testaram-se os valores de pH de 3,0 a 8,0 e os tempos de hidrólise de 5,0 a 60 min. Os dados obtidos indicam que os maiores valores de EC e ES foram obtidos no pH 5,0 e 6,0, respectivamente, correspondente à faixa de alta solubilidade da proteína. Por outro lado, o EAI, além de apresentar um máximo no pH 3,0, foi igualmente elevado nos valores de pH 7,0 e 8,0, situados na zona onde a globina é praticamente insolúvel. A hidrólise tríptica, nas condições empregadas, contribuiu para melhorar a EC, em toda a faixa de pH estudada, enquanto que para o EAI somente foi benéfico em pH 4,0 e 5,0. No caso da ES, este tratamento enzimático não foi vantajoso, promovendo melhoras apenas no pH 7,0, onde a proteína é insolúvel, e somente após 60 min de hidrólise.The effect of the pH and of the trypsin on the emulsifying properties of bovine globin, extracted by the acidified acetone method, was studied. The emulsifying capacity (EC, the emulsifying activity index (EAI and the emulsion stability (ES were determined at pH varying from 3.0 to 8.0 and employing hydrolysis times from 5 to 60 min. The highest vaules for EC and ES were obtained at pH 5.0 and 6.0, respectively, corresponding to the range of large protein solubility. On the other hand, the EAI was higher at pH 3.0 and also at pH 7.0 and 8.0, where the protein is insoluble. The tryptic hydrolysis produced an increase in EC, in all pH ranges studied, while for the EAI the same effect was observed only in pH 4.0 and 5.0, and for ES at pH 7.0 after 60 min of hydrolysis.

  1. Groundwater Hydrology and Chemistry in and near an Emulsified Vegetable-Oil Injection Zone, Solid Waste Management Unit 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated the hydrology and groundwater chemistry in the vicinity of an emulsified vegetable-oil injection zone at Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. In May 2004, Solutions-IES initiated a Phase-I pilot-scale treatability study at SWMU17 involving the injection of an edible oil emulsion into the aquifer near wells 17PS-01, 17PS-02, and 17PS-03 to treat chlorinated solvents. The Phase-I injection of emulsified vegetable oil resulted in dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), but the dechlorination activity appeared to stall at cDCE, with little further dechlorination of cDCE to vinyl chloride (VC) or to ethene. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the groundwater hydrology and chemistry in and near the injection zone to gain a better understanding of the apparent remediation stall. It is unlikely that the remediation stall was due to the lack of an appropriate microbial community because groundwater samples showed the presence of Dehalococcoides species (sp.) and suitable enyzmes. The probable causes of the stall were heterogeneous distribution of the injectate and development of low-pH conditions in the injection area. Because groundwater pH values in the injection area were below the range considered optimum for dechlorination activity, a series of tests was done to examine the effect on dechlorination of increasing the pH within well 17PS-02. During and following the in-well pH-adjustment tests, VC concentrations gradually increased in some wells in the injection zone that were not part of the in-well pH-adjustment tests. These data possibly reflect a gradual microbial acclimation to the low-pH conditions produced by the injection. In contrast, a distinct increase in VC concentration was observed in well 17PS-02 following the in-well pH increase. Adjustment

  2. The nature of the apolar phase influences the structure of the protein emulsifier in oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by bovine serum albumin. A front-surface fluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampon, Vincent; Brossard, Chantal; Mouhous-Riou, Nadine; Bousseau, Benoît; Llamas, Geneviève; Genot, Claude

    2004-05-20

    Proteins are widely used as emulsifiers in food emulsions. Model emulsions, designed to study emulsifying properties of proteins and their conformation at the interfaces often contain a hydrocarbon as apolar phase instead of natural triglycerides as found in food products. Yet, some results indicate that the protein conformation at the interface depends on the nature of the apolar phase. Front-surface fluorescence spectroscopy was used to evidence differences in the structure of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorbed at the interface of emulsions prepared with different apolar phases: an hydrocarbon (n-dodecane), a synthetic medium-chain triglyceride (miglyol) and a natural vegetable oil (sunflower oil). Emulsions had similar size distributions of oil droplets. Front-surface fluorescence emission spectra of tryptophanyl residues of the protein (Trp) in emulsions, creams and serums varied as a function of the nature of hydrophobic phase. In emulsions and creams, wavelength of the maximum fluorescence intensities was blue-shifted as compared to the BSA solution. The shift was larger in creams than in emulsions and in samples containing dodecane than with the other apolar phases. Fourth derivative spectra of emulsions and creams exhibited two peaks assigned, respectively, to Trp located in hydrophilic and hydrophobic environments. The peaks were slightly red-shifted in the presence of sunflower oil as compared to miglyol and dodecane and the relative intensity of the "hydrophobic peak" was higher in dodecane. The effects were greater in creams than in emulsions. Fluorescence intensity of Trp was the highest in the serums of emulsions prepared with dodecane as compared to serums issued from sunflower oil and miglyol emulsions. Thus, proportion of adsorbed protein was lower in dodecane emulsions than with the other apolar phases. These results evidence that the mean environment of Trp was more hydrophobic in emulsions and creams than in solutions due to a displacement of

  3. A novel self-micro-emulsifying delivery system (SMEDS) formulation significantly improves the fasting absorption of EPA and DHA from a single dose of an omega-3 ethyl ester concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Nyheim, Hilde; Haram, Else Marie; Moritz, Joseph M; Hustvedt, Svein Olaf

    2017-10-16

    Absorption of EPA and DHA from Omega-3-acid ethyl ester (EE) concentrate supplements occurs most efficiently when taken in context of a fatty meal; adequate fat intake is required to release bile salts that emulsify and pancreatic enzymes that digest omega-3-containing lipids in the intestine. Current guidelines recommend reduction in fat intake and therefore there is a need to optimize the absorption of Omega-3 in those consuming low-fat or no-fat meals. To this end, BASF has developed an Absorption Acceleration Technology, a novel self-micro-emulsifying delivery system (SMEDS) formulation of highly concentrated Omega-3-acid EE which enables rapid emulsification and microdroplet formation upon entering the aqueous environment of the gut therefore enhances the absorption. Two separate single dose, crossover studies were conducted to determine the relative bioavailability of omega-3-acid EE concentrate, either as a novel SMEDS formulation (PRF-021) or as control, in healthy fasted male and female adults at two dose levels (Study 1 "low dose": 630 mg EPA + DHA in PRF-021 vs. 840 mg EPA + DHA in control; Study 2 "high dose": 1680 mg EPA + DHA in PRF-021 vs. 3360 mg EPA + DHA in control). Blood samples were collected immediately before supplementation and at defined time intervals for 48 h. Plasma concentration of total EPA and DHA were determined for pharmacokinetic analysis, area under the curve (AUC) and maximum observed concentration (C max ) was determined. Total EPA plus DHA absorption from SMEDS formulation PRF-021 were 6.4 and 11.5 times higher compared to control in low- and high-dose studies respectively, determined as the ratio of baseline corrected, dose normalized AUC 0-24h of PRF-021 over that of control. EPA and DHA individually showed differing levels of enhancement: the AUC 0-24h ratio for EPA was 23.8 and 25.7 in low and high dose studies, respectively, and the AUC 0-24h ratio for DHA was 3.6 and 5.6 in low and high dose studies

  4. Séparation par coalescence en lit fixe d'une phase aqueuse émulsionnée dans une phase organique Fixed-Bed Coalescence to Separate an Emulsified Aqueous Phase in an Organic Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calteau J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette publication étudie la séparation de l'eau émulsionnée dans un kérosène par passage à travers un milieu granulaire. Les propriétés physico-chimiques du matériau coalesceur (nature et état de surface sont considérées. L'efficacité de séparation est étudiée en fonction ; - de la mouillabilité; - de la granulométrie; - de l'état de surface du matériau ; - de la vitesse de passage de l'émulsion; - de la hauteur de lit. L'analyse qualitative et quantitative de la rétention de l'eau dans le lit permet de mieux comprendre les mécanismes de coalescence. This article examines the séparation of emulsified water in kerosene by passing it through a granular medium. The physico-chemical properties of the coolescing material, i. e. nature and surface state, are considered. Separation efficiency is analyzed as a fonction of : - wettability; - grain size ; - surface state of the material ; - emulsion pass-through rate; - height of the bed. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of water retention in the bed gives a better understanding of the coalescence mechanisms.

  5. Enzymatic Synthesis of Glyserol-Coconut Oil Fatty Acid and Glycerol-Decanoic Acis Ester as Emulsifier and Antimicrobial Agents Using Candida rugosa Lipase EC 3.1.1.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Sri; Putri, Ayu Tanissa Tamara; Setiasih, Siswati; Hudiyono, Sumi

    2018-01-01

    In this research, enzymatic esterification was carried out between glycerol and fatty acid from coconut oil and decanoic acid using n-hexane as solvent. In this reaction Candida rugosa lipase was used as biocatalyst. Optimization esterification reaction was carried out for parameter of the substrate ratio. The mmol ratio between fatty acid and glycerol were used are 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1: 4. The highest conversion percentage obtained at the mole ratio of 1: 4 with the value of 78.5% for the glycerol-decanoic acid ester and 55.4% for the glycerol coconut oil fatty acid ester. Esterification products were characterized by FT-IR. The FT-IR spectrum showed that the ester bond was formed as indicated by the wave number 1750-1739 cm-1. The esterification products were then examined by simple emulsion test and was proved to be an emulsifier. The glycerol-coconut oil fatty acid ester produced higher stability emulsion compare with glycerol decanoic ester. The antimicrobial activity assay using disc diffusion method showed that both glycerol-coconut oil fatty acid ester and glycerol-decanoic ester had the ability inhibiting the growth of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Glycerol-decanoic ester shows higher antimicrobial activity than glycerol-coconut oil fatty acid ester.

  6. PROPRIEDADES EMULSIFICANTES E SOLUBILIDADE DA CASEÍNA BOVINA E DE SEUS HIDROLISADOS TRÍPTICOS: 1. EFEITO DO PH E DO TEMPO DE HIDRÓLISE EMULSIFYING PROPERTIES AND SOLUBILITY OF CASEIN AND IT’S TRYPTIC HYDROLYSATES: 1. EFFECTS OF PH AND HYDROLYSIS TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Jardim DUARTE

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Visando a aplicação industrial da caseína e de seus hidrolisados trípticos, foram estudados os efeitos da variação do pH e do tempo de hidrólise sobre suas características de solubilidade e propriedades emulsificantes. Testou-se os valores de pH de 3,0; 4,0; 5,0; 6,0; 7,0 e 8,0 e os tempos de hidrólise: 5, 10 15, 30 e 60min. Foram medidos a solubilidade, a capacidade emulsificante, o índice de atividade emulsificante, a estabilidade da emulsão, e calculdado o tamanho dos glóbulos de gordura. Os resultados obtidos para a caseína nativa indicaram que os melhores valores para estas propriedades funcionais foram encontrados em pH acima de 5,0. A hidrólise tríptica da caseína foi benéfica para sua solubilidade e capacidade emulsificante e prejudicou sua estabilidade, em todos os valores de pH e tempos de hidrólise, exceto no pH 5,0 com 5 min de reação. Por outro lado, este tratamento enzimático contribuiu para melhorar o índice de atividade emulsificante da caseína, entre valores de pH 3,0 e 5,0 e após 10 min de reação.The effects of pH and hydrolysis time on the solubility and emulsifying properties were studied, in view of the industrial application of casein and its tryptic hydrolyzates. It has been tested the pH values of 3,0; 4,0; 5,0; 6,0; 7,0 and 8,0 and the reaction times: 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min. It has been evaluated the solubility, the emulsifying capacity, the emulsifying activity index and the emulsion stability. The results show that the best values for the functional properties of native casein were achieved at pH above 5,0. The tryptic hydrolysis of casein favored the solubility and emulsifying capacity but reduced the emulsion stability, at all pH and hydrolysis times, except in pH 5,0 with 5min of reaction. Otherwise, this enzymatic treatment improved the emulsifying activity index of casein only between pH 3,0- 5,0, after 10 min of reaction.

  7. Field evaluation of the biolarvicide, spinosad 20 per cent emulsifiable concentrate in comparison to its 12 per cent suspension concentrate formulation against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of bancroftian filariasis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadanandane, Candasamy; Gunasekaran, Kasinathan; Boopathi Doss, Ponnusamy Sivagnana; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2018-01-01

    Biolarvicides may offer alternatives to chemical larvicides as these are known to be safe to environment and selective against the target species. However, only a limited number of biolarvicides have been approved for mosquito larval control. In the current study, a new formulation of spinosad, 20 per cent emulsifiable concentrate (EC) was tested for its efficacy against Culex quinquefasciatus, in comparison to its 12 per cent suspension concentrate (SC). Spinosad 20 per cent EC was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus immature at 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg active ingredient (ai)/m [2] in cesspits, drains and abandoned wells in comparison with spinosad 12 per cent SC at the optimum field application dosage of 50 mg ai/m [2] . The 20 per cent EC caused 90-100 per cent reduction of pupal density for 7-14 days in cesspits, 10-17 days in drains and 14-30 days in abandoned wells at all dosages tested. At lower dosages of 25 and 50 mg ai/m [2] , >90 per cent reduction of pupal density was observed for one week in cesspits and street drains and for two weeks in abandoned wells. The effective duration of control provided by the higher dosages, 100 and 150 mg ai/m [2] was 1.4 to 2 times greater than the lower dosages, 25 and 50 mg ai/m [2] . The findings showed that the spinosad 20 per cent EC can be used for larval control against Cx. quinquefasciatus, at the dosage of 25 mg ai/m [2] at weekly interval in cesspits and drains and at fortnightly interval in abandoned wells. Spinosad 20 per cent EC could be one of the options to be considered for larval control under integrated vector management.

  8. Emulsifying Formulation of Rosuvastatin Calcium for Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    solubility study, liquid formulations were prepared using LAS/Capryol 90: Maisine 35-1 as oil phase and. Tween 20 with ... evaluated for globule size, zeta potential, and emulsion properties. ..... surfactants which decreases the electrostatic.

  9. Emulsifying behavior of an exopolysaccharide produced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Iyer A, Mody K, Jha B (2005). Characterization of an exopolysaccharide produced by a marine Entrobacter cloaceae. Ind. J. Exp. Biol., 43: 467–471. Matsuda M, Worawattanamateekul W, Okutani K (1992). Simultaneous production of muco- and sulfated polysaccharides by marine. Pseudomonas. Nippon.

  10. Emulsifying activity of hydrocarbonoclastic marine yeasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Nutrient_Bioactive_Substances_Aquat_Org_1994_276.pdf.txt stream_source_info Nutrient_Bioactive_Substances_Aquat_Org_1994_276.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content...

  11. Amadori products formation in emulsified systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, Antonio Dario; Berton-Carabin, Claire C.; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The formation of Amadori products (APs) is the key step determining the development of the Maillard reaction (MR). The information on the chemical behaviour of the reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars in emulsions during thermal treatments is scanty and mainly focused on volatile

  12. Solubilidade de nitrogênio, dispersibilidade de proteína e propriedades emulsificantes dos extratos hidrossolúveis desidratados de arroz e soja Nitrogen solubility, protein dispersibility and emulsifying properties of dehydrated aqueous extracts of rice-soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin H. WANG

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a possibilidade do uso dos extratos hidrossolúveis desidratados elaborados com arroz e soja em diferentes proporções (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 e 50:50% em produtos alimentícios, foram estudadas solubilidade e propriedades emulsificantes das misturas. Os processos utilizados para a obtenção foram: maceração do arroz e da soja, desintegração, centrifugação, adição de ácido cítrico, fervura e secagem por atomização. Através das análises, foi verificado que o aumento das proporções de soja (0 a 50% resultou, num aumento do nitrogênio solúvel em água, da atividade emulsificante e da estabilidade de emulsão, bem como numa diminuição do índice de solubilidade de nitrogênio e do índice de dispersibilidade de proteína. Contudo, a proteína dispersível em água aumentou até um máximo na proporção de 10% de soja, além do qual, diminuiu com o aumento das proporções de soja (10 a 50%. Portanto, os extratos hidrossolúveis desidratados das misturas de arroz e soja com 10, 20 e 30% de soja, são recomendados para o uso em produtos cárneos, de confeitaria e de chocolataria, sopas, molhos, cremes e bebidas, enquanto que aqueles com 40 e 50% de soja, são considerados mais adequados para uso como extensores de carne, queijos processados e maioneses.Dehydrated aqueous extracts of rice-soybean at different proportions (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50% were assessed for nitrogen solubility index (NSI, protein dispersibility index (PDI, emulsifying activity (EA and emulsion stability (ES in order to verify their potential use as food ingredients. Dehydrated aqueous extracts was manufactured by soaking, disintegration, centrifugation, addition of citric acid, boiling and spray-drying. The results indicated that increasing soybean proportion from 0 to 50% showed an increase in the soluble nitrogen in water, EA and ES, and a decrease in the NSI and PDI. However, the dispersible

  13. Scientific Opinion related to a notification from DuPont Nutrition Biosciences Aps on behenic acid from mustard seeds to be used in the manufacturing of certain emulsifiers pursuant to Article 21(2) of Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 – for permanent exemption from labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion related to a notification from DuPont Nutrition Biosciences Aps on behenic acid from mustard seeds to be used in the manufacturing of certain...... and peptides may not be carried over into behenic acid after the two distillation steps reported in the manufacturing process in amounts beyond 1 mg/kg. The Panel notes that the maximum amount of mustard protein that could be consumed from emulsifiers manufactured from behenic acid (E 470a, E 471 and E 477......) on a single occasion by an adult under the proposed conditions of use would be around 0.00119 mg, which is about 1,000 times lower than the protein doses reported to trigger allergic reactions in mustard-allergic individuals (around 1 mg). On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that oral...

  14. Efeito do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC e do emulsificante Tween® 80 sobre o crescimento micelial de Alternaria alternata (Fungi: Hyphomycetes The effect of Long-pepper essential oil (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. and of Tween®; 80 emulsifier on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternate (Fungi: Hyphomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Reis Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do óleo essencial de folhas de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC, sobre o crescimento micelial de Alternaria alternata e a análise da influência da concentração do emulsificante Tween® 80 no controle deste fitopatógeno. O óleo essencial foi obtido pela técnica "arraste a vapor d'água", utilizando-se aparelho de Clevenger modificado, e posteriormente submetido, à análise por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massas CG-EM a CG. Para os ensaios biológicos, o método foi o bioanalítico in vitro observando-se o crescimento ou inibição do micélio de A. alternata no meio de cultura BDA na presença de diferentes concentrações do óleo essencial (0, 100, 250, 500 e 1000 mgL-1 sob diferentes concentrações de Tween® 80. Adotou-se esquema fatorial com quatro repetições, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. Observou-se que o óleo essencial de pimenta longa apresentou inibição sobre o crescimento micelial do fungo A. alternataem todas as concentrações analisadas, sendo que na concentração de 1000 mgL-1 esta inibição foi de 100% , e a porcentagem de emulsificante (Tween® 80, influenciou na atividade fungitóxica das concentrações de 250 mgL -1 e 500 mgL -1 do óleo essencial.The object of this work was to evaluate the effectof essential oils from Long-pepper leaves Piper hispidinervum on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata and to analyze the influence of emulsifier Tween® 80 concentration in the control of this phytopathogen. The essential oil was obtained by steam stream distillation, using a modified Clevenger apparatus, and the chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy GC-MS and GC. For biological tests, the bioanalytical in vitro method was used, observing the growth or inhibition of such phytopathogen in BDA culture media, in the presence of different essential oil concentrations (0, 100

  15. Lysozyme and succinylated lysozyme as adsorbates and emulsifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der M.

    2005-01-01

    Many food products are emulsions, i.e., a system of two immiscible liquids of which the one is finely dispersed in the other. In many emulsions, a monolayer of protein molecules in the liquid/liquid interface prevents coalescence of the droplets. Therefore, in the formation of a protein-stabilized

  16. Selection of optimal conditions for preparation of emulsified fuel fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. A.; Berg, V. I.; Frolov, M. D.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the article is to derive the optimal concept of physical and chemical effects, and its application to the production of water-fuel emulsions. The authors set a research task to attempt to estimate the influence of the surfactant concentration on such indicator as the time before the beginning of emulsion breaking. The analysis, based on experimental data, showed that an increase in the concentration of sodium lauryl sulfate is expedient to a certain point, corresponding to 0.05% of the total mass fraction. The main advantage of the model is a rational combination of methods of physical and chemical treatment used in the production of emulsions.

  17. Development and Evaluation of Solid Self Nano- Emulsifying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop rosuvastatin calcium-loaded self-nanoemulsifying powder for improved oral delivery of the drug. Methods: Solubility study was carried out in different oils, surfactants and co-surfactants. Based on the solubility study, liquid formulations were prepared using LAS/Capryol 90: Maisine 35-1 as oil phase ...

  18. Protocol for Enhanced in situ Bioremediation Using Emulsified Edible Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    through a two-step process where the ester linkages between the glycerol and the fatty acids are hydrolyzed releasing free fatty acids and glycerol to...interfacial tension of edible oils can be lowered by the addition of different surfactants including lecithin , mono and diglycerides, free fatty acids...in Table 3.2. The cumulative oil volume vs. droplet diameter for the different mixers is presented in Figure 3.4. The modified lecithin

  19. Enzymatic preparation and characterization of soybean lecithin-based emulsifiers

    OpenAIRE

    R. C. Reddy Jala; B. Chen; H. Li; Y. Zhang; L-Z Cheong; T. Yang; X. Xu

    2016-01-01

    Simple enzymatic methods were developed for the synthesis of lysolecithin, glycerolyzed lecithin and hydrolyzed lecithin. The products were characterized in terms of their acetone insoluble matter, hexane insoluble matter, moisture, phospholipid distribution and fatty acid composition. The HLB value ranges of different products with different acid values were detected. The efficiency of optimally hydrolyzed lecithin was examined at high calcium ion, low pH, and aqueous solutions and compared ...

  20. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched oil-in-water emulsions and cream cheese with pre-emulsified fish oil is affected differently by the emulsifier used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf

    It is well-documented that a high intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has several health beneficial effects in humans. Consequently, the interest in food products enriched with marine oils has increased during recent years. However, addition of these highly unsaturated fatty...... will include results from studies on lipid oxidation in simple oil-in-water emulsions prepared with milk proteins alone or combinations of milk proteins and phospholipids. In addition, a study on fish oil enriched cream cheese will be presented. In this study, the cream cheese was enriched with either neat...... acids to foods invariably increases the risk of lipid oxidation. A possible strategy to avoid lipid oxidation and the consecutive development of unpleasant off-flavours is to protect the oil in a delivery emulsion in which the oil droplets are shielded from its possible pro-oxidative surroundings...

  1. Development of a Low-Emission Spray Combustor for Emulsified Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    ultraviolet (OH) and infrared (H2O) light wavelengths, but not in the visible. In simpler terms, it is invisible when it burns. UV or infrared imaging... lamp and Q-switch triggers as well as the Andor iStar CCD camera. 28 The synchronization of the lasers and camera was such that the pulse of each beam...combustion experiment and the associated electronic fuel control and safety systems. Dr. Tuttle mentored undergraduates and led the team of MS and PhD

  2. Concurrent bioremediation of perchlorate and 1,1,1-trichloroethane in an emulsified oil barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Robert C.

    2007-10-01

    A detailed field pilot test was conducted to evaluate the use of edible oil emulsions for enhanced in situ biodegradation of perchlorate and chlorinated solvents in groundwater. Edible oil substrate (EOS®) was injected into a line of ten direct push injection wells over a 2-day period to form a 15-m-long biologically active permeable reactive barrier (bio-barrier). Field monitoring results over a 2.5-year period indicate the oil injection generated strongly reducing conditions in the oil-treated zone with depletion of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate, and increases in dissolved iron, manganese and methane. Perchlorate was degraded from 3100 to 20,000 μg/L to below detection (oil and adaptation of the in situ microbial community. Approximately 4 months after emulsion injection, concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), perchloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE) and their degradation products appeared to reach a quasi steady-state condition. During the period from 4 to 18 months, TCA was reduced from 30-70 μM to 0.2-4 μM during passage through the bio-barrier. However, 1-9 μM 1,1-dichloroethane (DCA) and 8-14 μM of chloroethane (CA) remained indicating significant amounts of incompletely degraded TCA were discharging from the oil-treated zone. During this same period, PCE and TCE were reduced with concurrent production of 1,2- cis-dichloroethene ( cis-DCE). However, very little VC or ethene was produced indicating reductive dechlorination slowed or stopped at cis-DCE. The incomplete removal of TCA, PCE and TCE is likely associated with the short (5-20 days) hydraulic retention time of contaminants in the oil-treated zone. The permeability of the injection wells declined by 39-91% (average = 68%) presumably due to biomass growth and/or gas production. However, non-reactive tracer tests and detailed monitoring of the perchlorate plume demonstrated that the permeability loss did not result in excessive flow bypassing around the bio-barrier. Contaminant transport and degradation within the bio-barrier was simulated using an advection-dispersion-reaction model where biodegradation rate was assumed to be linearly proportional to the residual oil concentration ( Soil) and the contaminant concentration. Using this approach, the calibrated model was able to closely match the observed contaminant distribution. The calibrated model was then used to design a full-scale barrier to treat both ClO 4 and chlorinated solvents.

  3. Chemically emulsified crude oil as substrate for bacterial oxidation : differences in species response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruheim, P.; Eimhjellen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of bacterial species to oxidize alkanes in crude oil in water emulsions was studied. Alkanes in crude oil need specific physiological adaptations to the microorganisms. Synthesis of biosurfactants has been considered as a prerequisite for either specific adhesion mechanisms to large oil drops or emulsification of oil followed by uptake of submicron oil droplets. In this study four bacterial species were tested. Emulsions were prepared by nonionic sorbitan ester and polyoxyethylene ether surfactants. The oxidation rates were measured. Both positive and negative effects of surfactant amendments were observed. The same surfactant affected different bacteria in different ways. The response to the surfactant amendment depended on the physiological state of the bacteria. The results showed that surfactants resulted in decreased cell adhesion to the oil phase for all the bacteria. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  4. Extraction by means of emulsified liquid membranes; Extraction par membranes liquides emulsionnees (MLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareau, D.; Stambouli, M. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, 75 (France)

    2006-12-15

    It is an alternative of the liquid-liquid extraction process where extraction and stripping are simultaneously carried out. The stripping solution is dispersed in the solvent in micro-droplets. This emulsion, stabilised by a surface-active agent, is then dispersed in the liquid to be treated and, during that step, the metal is transferred to the stripping solution, moving through the solvent which operates as an organic membrane. The paper describes in detail the mechanism of the process, its advantages and its disadvantages. Its field of applications is wide, but only a few units are now industrially in operation, most of them exists only at the pilot scale. It is particularly adapted for the treatment of effluents with a very low content in metallic impurities. As examples, the paper describes the recovery of zinc from viscose plant effluents (Lenzing plant, Austria) and the removal of free cyanide ions and cyanide metallic complexes (pilot scale). (authors)

  5. 21 CFR 178.3400 - Emulsifiers and/or surface-active agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-dipentyl sulfosuccinate Sodium 1,4-ditridecyl sulfosuccinate Sodium lauryl sulfate Sodium...-hydroxypoly (oxyethylene) sulfate, ammonium or sodium salt: the nonyl group is a propylene trimer isomer and... not less than 95 percent C10 to C16) and its ammonium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts...

  6. The effect of emulsifier on the stability of irradiated LA-TZ latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Made Sumarti K; Utama, Marga; Puspitasari, Tita

    1998-01-01

    The effect of six kinds of stabilizer on the stability of the concentrated LA-TZ latex which contains n-BA have been studied. The six stabilizers are: 1. Naphthalene sulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate, 2. Sodium dialkyl sulfosuccinate, 3. Triethanol amine lauryl sulfate, 4. Sodium polyoxyethylene alkyl phenol ether sulfate, 5. Dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (Neopelex FS), and 6. Ammonium laurat. The concentrations of the stabilizers are in the range of 0,1 to 0,3% and of the n-BA is 5phr (per hundred rubber). The field natural rubber latex was stabilized by Tetramethyl tiuram disulfide - Zine oxide (TMTD-ZnO) and ammonium gas, and was concentrated by centrifuge. The obtain concentrated LA-TZ latex was added by the n-BA and was kept with various storage time i.e. o, 2, 4, 6, 18, and 24 hours. It was found that the stable latex was irradiated by 15 kGy dose and the physical properties was tested, then the maximum tensile strength of 223,3 kg/cm 2 was found on Neopelex FS concentrate at 0,1%. (authors)

  7. Voluntary Ingestion of Antiparasitic Drugs Emulsified in Honey Represents an Alternative to Gavage in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Küster, Tatiana; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Hermann, Corina; Theurillat, Regula; Thormann, Wolfgang; Gottstein, Bruno; Hemphill, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The oral route is the most frequently used method of drug intake in humans. Oral administration of drugs to laboratory animals such as mice typically is achieved through gavage, in which a feeding needle is introduced into the esophagus and the drug is delivered directly into the stomach. This method requires technical skill, is stressful for animals, and introduces risk of injury, pain and morbidity. Here we investigated another method of drug administration. The benzimidazole derivative alb...

  8. A convenient method to prepare emulsified polyacrylate nanoparticles from powders [corrected] for drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay-Jimenez, Julio C; Turos, Edward

    2011-08-01

    We describe a method to obtain purified, polyacrylate nanoparticles in a homogeneous powdered form that can be readily reconstituted in aqueous media for in vivo applications. Polyacrylate-based nanoparticles can be easily prepared by emulsion polymerization using a 7:3 mixture of butyl acrylate and styrene in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate as a surfactant and potassium persulfate as a water-soluble radical initiator. The resulting emulsions contain nanoparticles measuring 40-50 nm in diameter with uniform morphology, and can be purified by centrifugation and dialysis to remove larger coagulants as well as residual surfactant and monomers associated with toxicity. These purified emulsions can be lyophilized in the presence of maltose (a non-toxic cryoprotectant) to provide a homogeneous dried powder, which can be reconstituted as an emulsion by addition of an aqueous diluent. Dynamic light scattering and microbiological experiments were carried out on the reconstituted nanoparticles. This procedure allows for ready preparation of nanoparticle emulsions for drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emulsified fuels. Its use in stationary sources; Combustibles emulsionados. Su utilizacion en fuentes estacionarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Morales, Gilberto; Magdaleno Molina, Moises; Vargas Y, Victor M; Gavira D, A [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Basic aspects are set forth of the heavy hydrocarbon fuels, the principles, preparation and particularities of the combustion with emulsions, that currently represent one option, either by themselves or in combination with other technologies to utilize heavy hydrocarbons, obtaining advantages in the reduction of polluting emissions, particulate matter and NOx, which allow continuing operating the operation within the limits established by the technical ecological standards. [Espanol] Se exponen aspectos basicos de los combustibles de hidrocarburos pesados (HC), los principios, preparacion y particularidades de la combustion con emulsiones, que actualmente representan una alternativa por si solos o en combinacion con otras tecnologias para utilizar hidrocarburos pesados, obteniendose ventajas en la reduccion de emisiones de contaminantes de particulas y NOx, lo cual permite continuar operando dentro de los limites que establecen las normas tecnicas ecologicas.

  10. Uranium extraction process in a sulfuric medium by means of liquid emulsified membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteillet, A.

    1985-02-01

    Uranium ore processing, after leaching by sulfuric acid, by liquid-liquid extraction is a rather heavy process, not suitable for small deposits. Extraction by emulsions was suggested. In this process the leachate is contacted with an oil in water type emulsion, a liquid organic membrane is formed by the continuous phase. Uranium complexes diffuse through the liquid membrane towards the dispersed aqueous phase of the emulsion (stripping solution). Uranium is recovered by breaking the emulsion. Are successively studied: development of stable emulsions, influence of emulsion composition on uranium transfer kinetics, transfer mechanisms through the membrane and modelling of kinetics data obtained in the experimental study [fr

  11. Feasibility of treating emulsified oily and salty wastewaters through coagulation and bio-regenerated GAC filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Giuseppe; Panzica, Michele; Fino, Debora; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Luciano, Antonella

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal by coagulation and packed-columns of both fresh and bioregenerated granular activated carbon (GAC) is reported as a feasible treatment for saline and oily wastewaters (slops) generated from marine oil tankers cleaning. The use of Ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ), Aluminium sulphate (Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ) and Polyaluminum chloride (Al 2 (OH 3 )Cl 3 ) was evaluated in the pre-treatment by coagulation of a real slop, after a de-oiling phase in a tank skimmer Comparison of coagulation process indicated that Polyaluminum chloride and Aluminium sulphate operate equally well (20-30% of COD removal) when applied at their optimal dose (40 and 90 mg/l respectively) but the latter should be preferred in order to significantly control the sludge production. The results from the column filtration tests indicated the feasibility of using the selected GAC (Filtrasorb 400 -Calgon Carbon Corporation) to achieve the respect of the discharge limits in the slops treatment with a carbon usage rate in the range 0.1-0.3 kg/m 3 of treated effluent. Moreover, biological regeneration through Alcalinovorax borkumensis SK2 was proved to be a cost-effective procedure since the reuse of spent GAC through such regeneration process for further treatment could still achieve approximately 90% of the initial sorption capacity, reducing then costs for the use of new sorbents and also the need for waste disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cleaning oil refining drainage waters out of emulsified oil products with thermic treated cedar nut shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatanova, P. A.; Adeeva, L. N.

    2017-08-01

    It was elaborated the ability of the sorbent produced by thermic treatment of cedar nut shell to destruct model and real first kind (direct) emulsions in static and dynamic conditions. In static conditions optimal ratio sorbent-emulsion with the original concentration of oil products 800 mg/l was in the range of 2.0 g per 100 ml of emulsion which corresponds to the level of treatment 94.9%. The time of emulsion destruction was 40 minutes. This sorbent is highly active in dynamic processes of oil-contaminated water treatment, the level of treatment 96.0% is being achieved. Full dynamic sorptive capacity of the sorbent is 0.85 g/g. Sorbent based on the thermic treated cedar nut shell can be elaborated as sorptive filter element of local treatment facilities of oil refining and petrochemical processes. After the treatment with this sorbent of drainage waters of oil refinery in dynamic conditions the concentration of oil products became less than mpc on oil products for waste waters coming to biological treatment.

  13. Factors Influencing the Effect of Milkbased Emulsifiers on Lipid Oxidation in Omega-3 Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt

    and thereby protect the fatty acids in an emulsion before they are added to the food product. However, the use of these so-called delivery emulsions in different food products has shown contradictory results. On this background, the overall goal of the present PhD work was to increase our knowledge about...... for preparing the delivery emulsions. Independent of the introduction method of fish oil to cream cheese (neat oil vs a 70% delivery emulsion), the fish oil enriched cream cheese oxidized during a 20 weeks storage period to a degree where the sensory quality of the product was significantly impacted. However......, the aim was to utilize this knowledge for designing delivery emulsions for the addition of fish oil to foods, and thereby achieve oxidatively stable fish oil enriched products. In simple emulsions, sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate, soy lecithin and combinations of milk proteins and milk...

  14. Approaches to the production and use of microbial transglutaminase in emulsified meat and vegetable systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Glotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the technology of traditional and new forms of food, the modification of structure of proteins is carry out in two opposite directions: the hydrolytic destruction of high-molecular polymers and the artificial creation of polymeric structures of high molecular mass. The transglutaminase preparations (protein-glutamine (-glutamyltransferase, EC 2.3.2.13, TG are used in practical work for realization of the second direction. The main mechanisms of action are polymerization reactions, which lead to a change in the hydrophobicity of protein molecules. The main catalyzed reactions are acyl transfer, binding between glutamine and lysine residues of proteins and deamination. The authors analyzed the approaches to the preparation, properties and studied the joint effect of temperature and pH on the activity of the commercial preparation Revada TG 11 with the application of an enzymatic colorimetric test. The authors studied combined stuffing systems based on beef, pork, poultry mechanical deboning, as well as replacing part of the raw material with protein-carbohydrate compositions with Revada TG 11. The results were used to develop simulated meat systems of biopolymer compositions (SMSBC, approximate in structure and properties to the gels formed by actin and myosin during extraction from myofibrils under the traditional technological processes of meat products production - maturation, salt curing, fine meat grinding. SMSBC includes lupine flour bio-activated by germination, a preparations of dietary fiber as well as a preparation of transglutaminase Revada TG 11. The protein components of the secondary raw materials during the processing of milk such as sodium caseinate, and also whey were used to balance the amino acid composition of the food systems. For practical use, the following options for SMSBC introducing into the composition of minced meat emulsions were recommended by the authors: in the form of hydrated biopolymer dispersion at cutting; in the form of a previously heat-treated gel.

  15. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao, E-mail: 934481965@qq.com; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was synthesized successfully. • It is a kind of environment-friendly coatings, in which volatile organic content (VOC) is near zero. • Castor oil used as an internal crosslinking agent for WNC improved the properties of the coating. • When the mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants is 7%, emulsion and the coating are of the best comprehensive performance. - Abstract: Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core–shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  16. Effect of emulsifiers and physical structure on lipid oxidation in omega-3 emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The body of evidence supporting health beneficial effects of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has increased over the last decades. Consequently, the interest in fish oil-enriched foods has also increased. However, addition of these highly unsaturated fatty acids to foods also adds...... the challenge of lipid oxidation. In order to limit lipid oxidation and the consecutive development of unpleasant off-flavours, the manner in which the fish oil is introduced to the food product should be carefully considered, e.g. an emulsion could be used as delivery system for the omega-3s. The aim...

  17. U.S. EPA, Pesticide Product Label, CHLORDANE 74 EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATE, 06/27/1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... 011 t:",)lLd all';;'> Ill:;)' l'~' ~ I'.:d. K,·~'p C'~t ,; (Jf ;:Jtcr. Do I'··. t ;WI':)' .hvr.; ru!~cJif is I,~ c::~ I', I' ,t c- ,[)I"n':'l ,I., .' ,r ',.'! c 'n ·[l·II'D . f c·,' _Jv It 1... •• ll • ",.. ...

  18. Formulation and cytotoxicity evaluation of new self-emulsifying multiple W/O/W nanoemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigward E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Estelle Sigward,1 Nathalie Mignet,1 Patrice Rat,2 Mélody Dutot,2 Saleh Muhamed,1 Jean-Michel Guigner,3 Daniel Scherman,1 Denis Brossard,1 Sylvie Crauste-Manciet11Chemical, Genetic and Imaging Pharmacology Laboratory; INSERM U1022, CNRS UMR8151, Chimie ParisTech, Faculty of Pharmacy, Paris Descartes University, Sorbone Paris Cité, Paris, France; 2Chemistry-Cellular and Analytical Toxicology Laboratory (C-TAC, Faculty of Pharmacy, Paris Descartes University, Sorbone Paris Cité, Paris, France; 3Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés IMPMC -IRD-CNRS UMR 7590, Université Paris Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, FranceAbstract: Three multiple water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W nanoemulsions have been designed for potential inclusion of either lipophilic or hydrophilic drugs using a two-step emulsification process exclusively based on low-energy self-emulsification. The W/O primary emulsion was constituted by a blend of oil (medium chain triglyceride, a mixture (7:3 of two surfactants, and a 10% water phase. The surfactants were a mixture of Polysorbate-85/Labrasol®, Polysorbate-85/ Cremophor® EL or glycerol/Polysorbate-85. The final W/O/W nanoemulsions were obtained by the addition of water, with a weight ratio nanoemulsion/water of 1:2. The multiple emulsion stability was found to increase from 24 hours to 2 and 6 months with Labrasol, glycerol, and Cremophor, respectively. Cytotoxicity was found for formulations including Labrasol and Cremophor EL. The concentration of emulsion inhibiting 50% cell viability (IC50 was determined using the alamarBlue® test, giving after 24 hours of incubation, IC50 = 10.2 mg/mL for the Labrasol formulation and IC50 = 11.8 mg/mL for the Cremophor EL formulation. Corresponding calculated IC50 values for surfactants were 0.51 mg/mL for Labrasol and 0.59 mg/mL for Cremophor EL. In both cases, cytotoxicity was due to an apoptotic mechanism, evidenced by chromatin condensation and P2X7 cell death receptor activation. The formulation including glycerol, investigated between 1 and 100 mg/mL concentration of nanoemulsion, did not affect cell viability. Moreover, neither chromatin condensation nor P2X7 activation was found between the 10 and 30 mg/mL final concentration of the emulsion. This last formulation would therefore be of major interest for further developments.Keywords: Labrasol, Cremophor EL, apoptosis, P2X7 receptor, polysorbate, glycerol

  19. Textural attributes and oxidative stability of pork longissimus muscle injected with marbling-like emulsified lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lizhen; Xiong, Youling L

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to create marbling-like fat in lean pork with acceptable oxidative stability through the injection of canola/olive oil-substituted emulsions. Pork loins were injected with 5% water as control (CW) or 5% emulsion containing no tocopherols (E) or 0.07% tocopherols (ET) and stored at 2 °C in an oxygen-enriched package for up to 3 weeks. Lipid oxidation was totally inhibited in ET pork but increased 3-fold to 0.20mg malonaldehyde/kg in CW and E pork after 3 weeks. ET treatment also had a positive effect on meat red color. Emulsion-containing pork, showing less protein oxidation (carbonyl and disulfide formation), had reduced drip loss and shear force than CW samples (Pemulsions could create marbling-like texture in lean pork without compromising oxidative stability. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Preparation and characterization of emulsifier-free polyphenylsilsesquioxane-poly (styrene–butyl acrylate) hybrid particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Ruiqin; Qiu, Teng, E-mail: qiuteng@mail.buct.edu.cn; Han, Feng; He, Lifan; Li, Xiaoyu, E-mail: lixy@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2013-10-01

    The core–shell polyphenylsilsesquioxane-poly (styrene–butyl acrylate) hybrid latex paticles with polyphenylsilsesquioxane as core and poly (styrene–butyl acrylate) as shell were successfully synthesized by seeded emulsion polymerization using polyphenylsisesquioxane (PPSQ) latex particles as seeds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the polyphenylsilsesquioxane (PPSQ) had ladder structure, and PPSQ had incorporated into the hybrid latex particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the resultant hybrid latex particles had the core–shell structure. TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis indicated that the polyphenylsisesquioxane latex particles and obtained core–shell hybrid latex particles were uniform and possessed narrow size distributions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis also indicated that the PPSQ core particles were enwrapped by the polymer shell. In addition, compared with pure poly (styrene–butyl acrylate) latex film, the polyphenylsilsesquioxane-poly (styrene–butyl acrylate) hybrid latex film exhibited lower water uptake, higher pencil hardness and better thermal stability.

  1. Aluminum bioavailability from basic sodium aluminum phosphate, an approved food additive emulsifying agent, incorporated in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A; Hicks, Clair L; Florence, Rebecca L

    2008-06-01

    Oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water has been previously estimated, but there is little information on Al bioavailability from foods. It was suggested that oral Al bioavailability from drinking water is much greater than from foods. The objective was to further test this hypothesis. Oral Al bioavailability was determined in the rat from basic [26Al]-sodium aluminum phosphate (basic SALP) in a process cheese. Consumption of approximately 1g cheese containing 1.5% or 3% basic SALP resulted in oral Al bioavailability (F) of approximately 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, and time to maximum serum 26Al concentration (Tmax) of 8-9h. These Al bioavailability results were intermediate to previously reported results from drinking water (F approximately 0.3%) and acidic-SALP incorporated into a biscuit (F approximately 0.1%), using the same methods. Considering the similar oral bioavailability of Al from food vs. water, and their contribution to the typical human's daily Al intake ( approximately 95% and 1.5%, respectively), these results suggest food contributes much more Al to systemic circulation, and potential Al body burden, than does drinking water. These results do not support the hypothesis that drinking water provides a disproportionate contribution to total Al absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. The emulsifying effect of biosurfactants produced by food spoilage organisms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianah O. Ogunmola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food spoilage organisms were isolated using standard procedures on Nutrient Agar, Cetrimide Agar and Pseudomonas Agar Base (supplemented with CFC. The samples were categorized as animal products (raw fish, egg, raw chicken, corned beef, pasteurized milk and plant products (vegetable salad, water leaf (Talinium triangulare, boiled rice, tomatoes and pumpkin leaf (Teifairia occidentalis.They were characterised as Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Serratia rubidaea, Corynebacterium pilosum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus laterosporus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus macerans, Alcaligenes faecalis and Alcaligenes eutrophus. Preliminary screening for biosurfactant production was done using red blood haemolysis test and confirmed by slide test, drop collapse and oil spreading assay. The biosurfactant produced was purified using acetone and the composition determined initially using Molisch’s test, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The components were found to be ethanol, amino acids, butoxyacetic acid, hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, lauryl peroxide, octadecanoic acid and phthalic acid. The producing organisms grew readily on several hydrocarbons such as crude oil, diesel oil and aviation fuel when used as sole carbon sources.  The purified biosurfactants produced were able to cause emulsification of kerosene (19.71-27.14% as well as vegetable oil (16.91-28.12% based on the emulsification index. This result suggests that the isolates can be an asset and further work can exploit their optimal potential in industries.

  3. Starch inclusion complex to emulsify cedarwood oil and pressure treat wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we have demonstrated that CO2-derived cedarwood oil has a range of bioactivities, including insect repellency and toxicity as well as conferring resistance to both termites and wood-rot fungi. In the earlier pressure treatment work, ethanol was used as the diluent/carrier. However, it is...

  4. Emulsified fuels. Its use in stationary sources; Combustibles emulsionados. Su utilizacion en fuentes estacionarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Morales, Gilberto; Magdaleno Molina, Moises; Vargas Y, Victor M.; Gavira D, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Basic aspects are set forth of the heavy hydrocarbon fuels, the principles, preparation and particularities of the combustion with emulsions, that currently represent one option, either by themselves or in combination with other technologies to utilize heavy hydrocarbons, obtaining advantages in the reduction of polluting emissions, particulate matter and NOx, which allow continuing operating the operation within the limits established by the technical ecological standards. [Espanol] Se exponen aspectos basicos de los combustibles de hidrocarburos pesados (HC), los principios, preparacion y particularidades de la combustion con emulsiones, que actualmente representan una alternativa por si solos o en combinacion con otras tecnologias para utilizar hidrocarburos pesados, obteniendose ventajas en la reduccion de emisiones de contaminantes de particulas y NOx, lo cual permite continuar operando dentro de los limites que establecen las normas tecnicas ecologicas.

  5. Emulsified Zero-Valent Nano-Scale Iron Treatment of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Source Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    point (knot>~) $0 th~t tha tube hanqs cle~1 o( tha wei l C3&in9 1o14ll. fluml’ .., atar ttam tnc "’t ’ll by Of"H•tinq h.Jnd le •t a tate of o~t...Number Name Printed Name Printed Meeting Conducted By Supervisor Signature Protective Clothing / Equipment Chemical Hazards Physical Hazards

  6. EXTRACT OF Punica granatum L.: AN ALTERNATIVE TO BHT AS AN ANTIOXIDANT IN SEMISSOLID EMULSIFIED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Tiago Tozetto

    Full Text Available Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. is a fruit which has important pharmacological activities and has been attracting attention due to its important antioxidant activity, a significant feature in relation to cosmetics. Formulations containing different concentrations of an ethanolic extract of pomegranate (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0% (w/w as an antioxidant agent showed that this is an interesting alternative for the use of natural products with biological activity. The stability and rheology of semissolid systems containing an extract of this plant were evaluated. Preliminary stability studies showed greater physico-chemical stability of the formulation, and thus it was used in an accelerated stability study, as well the quantification of total phenolic compounds and the determination of antioxidant activity. It was observed that different concentrations of the extract did not significantly influence the stability. Moreover, the formulation was found to have better stability when stored at room temperature than under heated or cooled conditions. Formulations containing 0.1 and 5.0% of extract showed more stable rheological behavior, due to the absence of a solid/liquid transition in the rheogram. Tests confirmed the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity, demonstrating the potential of this plant for use in cosmetology as an antioxidant.

  7. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was synthesized successfully. • It is a kind of environment-friendly coatings, in which volatile organic content (VOC) is near zero. • Castor oil used as an internal crosslinking agent for WNC improved the properties of the coating. • When the mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants is 7%, emulsion and the coating are of the best comprehensive performance. - Abstract: Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core–shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  8. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core-shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  9. Prediction of emissions and exhaust temperature for direct injection diesel engine with emulsified fuel using ANN

    OpenAIRE

    KÖKKÜLÜNK, Görkem; AKDOĞAN, Erhan; AYHAN, Vezir

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust gases have many effects on human beings and the environment. Therefore, they must be kept under control. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), which is concerned with the prevention of marine pollution, limits the emissions according to the regulations. In Emission Control Area (ECA) regions, which are determined by MARPOL as ECAs, the emission rates should be controlled. Direct injection (DI) diesel engines are commonly used as a prop...

  10. Development and evaluation of emulsifying systems of the material grease from Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Dourado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oils and butter of seed from Brazilian biodiversity are extending the range of innovative products for cosmetics development. They have a fat potential similar to skin composition, leading to the improved performance of these product. Aims: Improve the emulsions spreadability through prior screening of grease composition and studying the viscosity, and the emulsions accelerated stability. Methods: Emulsions were formulated using oils from semiarid plants from Bahia: Syagrus coronate, Pachira retusa, and Pachira aquatica, so as to compare them with oils already standard in the production of cosmetics. Spreadability and stability tests were made comparing the results. The same criteria were used with Amazon seed butter: Virola surinamensis, Butyrospermum parkii, Astrocaryum murumuru, Theobroma cacao and Theobroma grandiflorum. For the emulsions screening and performance, a system was developed for oil/ butter, following tests of accelerated stability, viscosity, and spreadability. Results: The combined system of spreadability was optimized using screening. Emollients containing oleic and palmitic acids, and light chain fatty acids obtained good spreadability. The oil emulsion containing Pachira retusa and Virola surinamensis butter had a higher viscosity. Conclusions: With high content of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic or the light chain fatty acids obtain an appropriated appearance, texture, and spreadability for cosmetic use. Thus, oils with a low fatty acid content may be combined with butter that have a high fatty acid content and vice-versa. Analyzing and strategically combining grease composition, one can optimize the performance of cosmetic formulations.

  11. The effects of low-molecular-weight emulsifiers in O/W-emulsions on microviscosity of non-solidified oil in fat globules and the mobility of emulsifiers at the globule surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Merete B.; Erichsen, Henriette Rifbjerg; Andersen, Mogens Larsen

    2014-01-01

    caseinate and different combinations of lactic acid ester of monoglyceride (LACTEM), unsaturated monoglycerides (GMU) or saturated monoglyceride (GMS) were studied. The non-solidified oil in emulsions made with LACTEM. +. GMU had a high microviscosity, whereas the emulsion made with GMS had a low...... of the spin probe on the droplet surfaces. Conversely, in presence of LACTEM and GMS, the protein surface loads decreased and high surface mobilities were observed. Based on these results it is argued that the high macroscopic viscosity and lipid agglomeration of emulsions containing GMU is due to a lipid...

  12. Alleviative effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) flower on lipid peroxidation and protein degradation in emulsified pork meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Sheng-Yao; Yang, Deng-Jye; Chang, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2015-09-01

    To avoid or retard the lipid peroxidation of meat products, antioxidants are commonly added. Considering the safety and health of additives in meat products, consumers prefer natural antioxidants rather than synthetic ones. Gentisic acid and epicatechin were identified as the major phenolic acid and flavonoid, respectively, of litchi flowers (LFs). The physicochemical properties of pork meatballs with or without dried LF powders (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%, w/w) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ; 0.01%, w/w) were analyzed during a 4-week frozen storage period. LF and TBHQ decreased (p meatballs. LF added to meatballs improved (p meatballs redder and darker (p < 0.05) than the control and TBHQ groups, they did not affect the preference of panelists. The addition of 0.5% LF powders exhibited the best (p < 0.05) overall sensory panel acceptance. LFs may be an effective natural antioxidant to reduce lipid and protein oxidation for frozen cooked meat products. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Alleviative effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. flower on lipid peroxidation and protein degradation in emulsified pork meatballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To avoid or retard the lipid peroxidation of meat products, antioxidants are commonly added. Considering the safety and health of additives in meat products, consumers prefer natural antioxidants rather than synthetic ones. Gentisic acid and epicatechin were identified as the major phenolic acid and flavonoid, respectively, of litchi flowers (LFs. The physicochemical properties of pork meatballs with or without dried LF powders (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%, w/w and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ; 0.01%, w/w were analyzed during a 4-week frozen storage period. LF and TBHQ decreased (p < 0.05 thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values but increased (p < 0.05 thiol group contents in meatballs. LF added to meatballs improved (p < 0.05 texture and water-holding capacity (centrifugation/purge losses more than in the control group upon the storage. Although LF powders made meatballs redder and darker (p < 0.05 than the control and TBHQ groups, they did not affect the preference of panelists. The addition of 0.5% LF powders exhibited the best (p < 0.05 overall sensory panel acceptance. LFs may be an effective natural antioxidant to reduce lipid and protein oxidation for frozen cooked meat products.

  14. Travel Distance and Transformation of Injected Emulsified Zerovalent Iron Nanoparticles in the Subsurface During Two and Half Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) such as Toda Kogyo RNIP-10DS has been used for site remediation, yet information is lacking regarding how far injected NZVI can travel, how long it lasts, and how it transforms to other minerals in a groundwater system. Previously we reported effe...

  15. Effect of high pressure homogenization on the structure and the interfacial and emulsifying properties of β-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ali; Le Potier, Isabelle; Huang, Nicolas; Rosilio, Véronique; Cheron, Monique; Faivre, Vincent; Turbica, Isabelle; Agnely, Florence; Mekhloufi, Ghozlene

    2018-02-15

    The effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on the structure of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) was studied by combining spectroscopic, chromatographic, and electrophoretic methods. The consequences of the resulting structure modifications on oil/water (O/W) interfacial properties were also assessed. Moderated HPH treatment (100 MPa/4 cycles) showed no significant modification of protein structure and interfacial properties. However, a harsher HPH treatment (300 MPa/5 cycles) induced structural transformation, mainly from β-sheets to random coils, wide loss in lipocalin core, and protein aggregation via intermolecular disulfide bridges. HPH-modified β-lg displayed higher surface hydrophobicity leading to a faster adsorption rate at the interface and an earlier formation of an elastic interfacial film at C β-lg  = 0.1 wt%. However, no modification of the interfacial properties was observed at C β-lg  = 1 wt%. At this protein concentration, the prior denaturation of β-lg by HPH did not modify the droplet size of nanoemulsions prepared with these β-lg solutions as the aqueous phases. A slightly increased creaming rate was however observed. The effects of HPH and heat denaturations appeared qualitatively similar, but with differences in their extent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of emulsified, acid and acid-alkali catalyzed mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres for bone regeneration and drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Guohou [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 China (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 China (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 China (China); Chen, Xiaofeng, E-mail: chenxf@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 China (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 China (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 China (China); Dong, Hua [National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 China (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 China (China); School of Biological Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Fang, Liming; Mao, Cong; Li, Yuli; Li, Zhengmao; Hu, Qing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 China (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 China (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 China (China)

    2013-10-15

    Acid-catalyzed mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres (MBGMs-A) and acid-alkali co-catalyzed mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres (MBGMs-B) were successfully synthesized via combination of sol-gel and water-in-oil (W/O) micro-emulsion methods. The structural, morphological and textural properties of mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres (MBGMs) were characterized by various techniques. Results show that both MBGMs-A and MBGMs-B exhibit regularly spherical shape but with different internal porous structures, i.e., a dense microstructure for MBGMs-A and internally porous structure for MBGMs-B. {sup 29}Si NMR data reveal that MGBMs have low polymerization degree of silica network. The in vitro bioactivity tests indicate that the apatite formation rate of MBGMs-B was faster than that of MBGMs-A after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Furthermore, the two kinds of MBGMs have similar storage capacity of alendronate (AL), and the release behaviors of AL could be controlled due to their unique porous structure. In conclusion, the microspheres are shown to be promising candidates as bone-related drug carriers and filling materials of composite scaffold for bone repair. - Graphical abstract: The morphologies and microstructures of acid-catalyzed mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres (MBGMs-A) and acid-alkali co-catalyzed mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres (MBGMs-B) were observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. MBGMs-A exhibits a dense structure and a porous can be observed in MBGMs-B. The microspheres have a quick inducing-apatite formation ability and show a sustained release of alendronate (AL). Highlights: • A rapid method was reported to prepare mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres. • The addition of ammonia significantly shortens the preparation time. • Acid and acid-alkali co-catalyzed microspheres were studied for the first time. • The materials exhibited excellent in vitro bioactivity and drug-loading ability.

  17. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin–tannic acid complex as influenced by types of interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The non-covalent interaction between cuttlefish skin gelatin and tannic acid was observed in gelatin modified with unoxidized tannic acid at pH 7, whereas covalent interaction was found in gelatin modified with oxidized tannic acid at pH 9. Degree of tannic acid incorporation into gelatin via

  18. Emulsified phosphatidylserine, simple and effective peptide carrier for induction of potent epitope-specific T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Ichihashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To induce potent epitope-specific T cell immunity by a peptide-based vaccine, epitope peptides must be delivered efficiently to antigen-presenting cells (APCs in vivo. Therefore, selecting an appropriate peptide carrier is crucial for the development of an effective peptide vaccine. In this study, we explored new peptide carriers which show enhancement in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL induction capability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from an epitope-specific in vivo CTL assay revealed that phosphatidylserine (PS has a potent adjuvant effect among candidate materials tested. Further analyses showed that PS-conjugated antigens were preferentially and efficiently captured by professional APCs, in particular, by CD11c(+CD11b(+MHCII(+ conventional dendritic cells (cDCs compared to multilamellar liposome-conjugates or unconjugated antigens. In addition, PS demonstrated the stimulatory capacity of peptide-specific helper T cells in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work indicates that PS is the easily preparable efficient carrier with a simple structure that delivers antigen to professional APCs effectively and induce both helper and cytotoxic T cell responses in vivo. Therefore, PS is a promising novel adjuvant for T cell-inducing peptide vaccines.

  19. Emulsified phosphatidylserine, simple and effective peptide carrier for induction of potent epitope-specific T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Toru; Satoh, Toshifumi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Kajino, Kiichi

    2013-01-01

    To induce potent epitope-specific T cell immunity by a peptide-based vaccine, epitope peptides must be delivered efficiently to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in vivo. Therefore, selecting an appropriate peptide carrier is crucial for the development of an effective peptide vaccine. In this study, we explored new peptide carriers which show enhancement in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) induction capability. Data from an epitope-specific in vivo CTL assay revealed that phosphatidylserine (PS) has a potent adjuvant effect among candidate materials tested. Further analyses showed that PS-conjugated antigens were preferentially and efficiently captured by professional APCs, in particular, by CD11c(+)CD11b(+)MHCII(+) conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) compared to multilamellar liposome-conjugates or unconjugated antigens. In addition, PS demonstrated the stimulatory capacity of peptide-specific helper T cells in vivo. This work indicates that PS is the easily preparable efficient carrier with a simple structure that delivers antigen to professional APCs effectively and induce both helper and cytotoxic T cell responses in vivo. Therefore, PS is a promising novel adjuvant for T cell-inducing peptide vaccines.

  20. Lipid oxidation in milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing enriched with neat fish oil or pre-emulsified fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    stability than fish-oil-enriched dressings, irrespective of the mode of fish oil addition. Yoghurt thus seemed to be a good delivery system of lipids containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different effects of adding fish oil either as neat fish oil or as a fish-oil-in-water emulsion were observed...... of neat fish oil was a good option for preserving the final quality in yoghurt and dressings, but a pre-emulsion may still be considered for the fish oil enrichment of certain food products, for example, milk. Keywords: Fish oil; lipid oxidation; oil-in-water emulsion; n-3 PUFA; milk; yoghurt; salad......Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off...

  1. Final Laboratory Treatabilty Report for: Emulsified Zero Valent Iron Treatment of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Source Areas. Revision 1.0

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krug, Thomas; O'Hara, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    .... (GeoSyntec) for the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) review committee to present the results of the Pre-Design Laboratory Testing conducted as part of ESTCP project CU-043 1...

  2. Hexadecyl ammonium chloride amylose inclusion complex to emulsify cedarwood oil and treat wood against termites and wood-decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.J. Eller; W.T. Hay; G.T. Kirker; M.E. Mankowski; G.W. Sellling

    2018-01-01

    Cedarwood oil (CWO) has a wide range of bioactivities, including insect repellency and toxicity, as well as conferring resistance against termites and wood-decay fungi. In previous work examining pressure treatment of wood, ethanol was used as the diluent/carrier for CWO. However, it is preferable to use a water-based carrier for environmental, safety and cost...

  3. Inhibition of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) formation in emulsified porcine patties by phenolic-rich avocado (Persea americana Mill.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier-Germán; Morcuende, David; Petrón, María Jesus; Estévez, Mario

    2012-03-07

    The effect of phenolic-rich extracts from avocado peel on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in porcine patties subjected to cooking and chill storage was studied. Eight COPs (7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 20α-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, cholestanetriol, 5,6β-epoxycholesterol, and 5,6α-epoxycholesterol) were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The addition of avocado extracts (∼600 GAE/kg patty) to patties significantly inhibited the formation of COPs during cooking. Cooked control (C) patties contained a larger variety and greater amounts of COPs than the avocado-treated (T) counterparts. COPs sharply increased in cooked patties during the subsequent chilled storage. This increase was significantly higher in C patties than in the T patties. Interestingly, the amount of COPs in cooked and chilled T patties was similar to those found in cooked C patties. The mechanisms implicated in cholesterol oxidation in a processed meat product, the protective effect of avocado phenolics, and the potential implication of lipid and protein oxidation are thoroughly described in the present paper.

  4. DETERMINATION OF REFRACTORY ELEMENTS IN USED LUBRICATING OIL AND IN FUEL OIL BY ICP OES WITH EMULSIFIED SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    ROSELI MARTINS DE SOUZA

    2003-01-01

    O conhecimento da concentração dos elementos traço em óleo lubrificante usado é útil para a avaliação de desgastes de componentes específicos de motores.Em óleo combustível, este monitoramento permite avaliar a qualidade do combustível e prever o potencial das emissões de metais no meio ambiente. Neste trabalho, utilizou-se a espectrometria de emissão óptica com plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP OES) para a determinação de elementos refratários em amostras de ól...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of rice starch laurate as food-grade emulsifier for canola oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tejeda, Y V; Leal-Castañeda, E J; Espinosa-Solis, V; Barrera-Figueroa, V

    2018-08-15

    The effect of esterification on hydrolyzed rice starch was analyzed, for this aim rice starch was hydrolyzed and subsequently esterified with lauroyl chloride at three modification levels. Starch derivatives were characterized regarding their degree of substitution (DS), water solubility index, z-potential, gelatinization, and digestibility properties. DS of derivatives of rice starch laurate ranged from 0.042 to 1.86. It was determined that after esterification the water solubility index increased from 3.44 to 53.61%, the z-potential decreased from -3.18 to -11.27, and the content of slowly digestible starch (SDS) decreased from 26.22 to 5.13%. Different emulsions with starch concentrations ranging from 6 to 30 wt% were evaluated. The most stable emulsions were those having 20 and 30 wt% of rice starch laurate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Formulation, characterization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of castor oil based self-nano emulsifying levosulpiride delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorani, G; Uppuluri, Spandana; Uppuluri, Kiran Babu

    2016-09-01

    Levosulpiride (LSP) is a hydrophobic benzamide derivative used in the treatment of schizophrenia. SNEDDS were extensively practiced for systemic delivery of poorly aqueous soluble drugs to achieve maximum bioavailability. The present study was focussed on the formulation, optimisation and evaluation of LSP SNEDDS using castor oil, for enhancement of drug absorption and bioavailability. Pseudo-ternary phase diagram was plotted to identify the range of SNEDDS components. Twenty formulations were designed, prepared and characterised by its particle size, zeta potential, viscosity, and stability. In vitro dissolution data modelling was performed. Microscopy, FTIR and in vivo bioavailability studies were conducted for optimum formulation. Results, discussion and conclusion: F18 containing castor oil, 0.9 mL; PEG 600, 1.36 mL and Tween 80, 2.74 mL was found to be optimum. The optimised formulation had shown uniform globule size, no interactions of LSP with SNEDDS components and higher pharmacokinetic parameters than that of commercial preparation.

  7. Extraction and characterization of oil bodies from soy beans: a natural source of pre-emulsified soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Daigo; Gray, David A; Fisk, Ian D; Decker, Eric Andrew; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

    2007-10-17

    Soybeans contain oil bodies that are coated by a layer of oleosin proteins. In nature, this protein coating protects the oil bodies from environmental stresses and may be utilized by food manufacturers for the same purpose. In this study, oil bodies were extracted from soybean using an aqueous extraction method that involved blending, dispersion (pH 8.6), filtration, and centrifugation steps. The influence of NaCl (0-250 mM), thermal processing (30-90 degrees C, 20 min) and pH (2-8) on the properties and stability of the oil bodies was analyzed using zeta-potential, particle size, and creaming stability measurements. The extracted oil bodies were relatively small ( d 32 approximately 250 nm), and their zeta-potential went from around +12 mV to -20 mV as the pH was increased from 2 to 8, with an isoelectric point around pH 4. The oil bodies were stable to aggregation and creaming at low (pH = 2) and high (pH >/= 6) pH values but were unstable at intermediate values (3 oil bodies were stable to aggregation and creaming at relatively low salt concentrations (NaCl oil bodies were stable to thermal processing from 30 to 90 degrees C (0 mM NaCl, pH 7), but there appeared to be a change in their interfacial properties (decrease in zeta-potential) at temperatures exceeding 60 degrees C. These results suggest that oil bodies extracted from soybeans have similar or improved stability compared to soybean oil emulsions produced from bulk ingredients and may provide a new way of creating functional soy products for the food industry.

  8. Preparation and physicochemical evaluation of emulsified virgin coconut oil (VCO)-carica papaya extract concoction using Tween80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hazreen; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Fadhilah, Mohd Faizulhelmi; Omar, Dzolkhifli; Asib, Norhayu

    2016-11-01

    Carica papaya is a member of the Caricaceae. Its leaves have been used in folk medicine for centuries. Recent studies have shown its beneficial effects as an anti-inflammatory agent (Owoyele et al 2008) and anti-tumour15 as well as antioxidant and wound healing properties7. The study has shown that the effect of carica papaya leaves juice intake also can accelerate the rate of increase in platelet count among the patients infected with dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever18. With all the goodness of carica papaya leaves, a formulation with addition of virgin coconut oil (VCO) is produced to give an enhanced supplement beverage to market nowadays. Virgin coconut oil is well known as anti-oxidant4. The combination of these two substances gives a balance combination in healthy supplement. In recent years the application of emulsion is rapidly increasing in many fields such as cosmetics and paints. Emulsions are dispersions of droplets of one liquid in another, immiscible, liquid in which the droplets are of colloidal or near-colloidal sizes. The combination of water and oil (VCO) with addition of non-ionic surfactant Tween80 was constructed using ternary phase diagram. By considering the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) value of each substance will help in producing a stable emulsion.

  9. Preparation of sucrose fatty acid esters as food emulsifiers and evaluation of their surface active and emulsification properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Mohamed G.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for the preparation of sucrose esters, from fatty acids and the least expensive sucrose, has been conducted. Fatty acids namely lauric, palmitic and oleic were used in their preparation in the absence of any organic solvent. Reasonable yields amounting to 86.5%, 87.3% and 88.6% for sucrose esters of laurate, palmitate and oleate were obtained, respectively. The products were evaluated for their hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB, surface and interfacial tension properties as well as emulsion stability. The results showed that these sucrose esters exhibit similar properties as those of the commercially prepared compounds.

    Se ha llevado a cabo un método simple para la preparación de ésteres de sacarosa a partir de ácidos grasos y sacarosa de bajo coste. Se han usado ácidos laurico, palmítico y oleico en su preparación, en ausencia de solventes orgánicos. Se obtuvieron rendimientos aceptables del 86.5%, 87.3% y 88.6% para los ásteres del láurico, palmítico y oleico respectivamente. En los productos se evaluaron sus balances hidrófilo-lipófilo (HLB, sus propiedades de tensión superficial e interfacial así como su estabilidad en emulsiones. Los resultados mostraron que estos esteres de sacarosa exhiben propiedades similares a las de los compuestos preparados comercialmente.

  10. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of the performance of an indirubin derivative, formulated in four different self-emulsifying drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heshmati, Nasim; Cheng, Xinlai; Dapat, Else

    2014-01-01

    -chain or long-chain glycerides. METHODS: SEDDS E804 were developed. In-vitro lipolysis was carried out at pH 6.5 (37°C) by adding pancreatic lipase (800 U/ml) and controlling by CaCl2 and NaOH addition. E804 content was quantified in the aqueous micellar phase and precipitate using HPLC. Oral bioavailability...... was determined in rats. Plasma drug content was determined by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry. KEY FINDINGS: All formulations reserved E804 in the aqueous micellar phase up to 60 min. Precipitation proceeded towards the end of lipolysis up to 45%. Lowest level of precipitation (21%) occurred...

  11. Nanoemulsions as self-emulsified drug delivery carriers for enhanced permeability of the poorly water-soluble selective β₁-adrenoreceptor blocker Talinolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Damanjeet; Sinha, Vivek Ranjan

    2012-07-01

    To enhance the bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug talinolol, a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) comprising 5% (w/v) Brij-721 ethanolic solution (Smix), triacetin, and water, in the ratio of 40:20:40 (% w/w) was developed by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and evaluated for droplet size, polydispersity index, and surface morphology of nanoemulsions. The effect of nanodrug carriers on drug release and permeability was assessed using stripped porcine jejunum and everted rat gut sac method and compared with hydroalcoholic drug solution, oily solution, and conventional emulsion and suspension. The SNEDDS showed a significant (P water-soluble beta-blocker talinolol. Significant increase in drug release, permeability, and in vivo bioavailability were demonstrated as compared to standard drug suspension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A versatile bio-based material for efficiently removing toxic dyes, heavy metal ions and emulsified oil droplets from water simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daikun; Li, Qing; Mao, Daoyong; Bai, Ningning; Dong, Hongzhou

    2017-12-01

    Developing versatile materials for effective water purification is significant for environment and water source protection. Herein, a versatile bio-based material (CH-PAA-T) was reported by simple thermal cross-linking chitosan and polyacrylic acid which exhibits excellent performances for removing insoluble oil, soluble toxic dyes and heavy metal ions from water, simultaneously. The adsorption capacities are 990.1mgg -1 for methylene blue (MB) and 135.9mgg -1 for Cu 2+ , which are higher than most of present advanced absorbents. The adsorption towards organic dyes possesses high selectivity which makes CH-PAA-T be able to efficiently separate dye mixtures. The stable superoleophobicity under water endows CH-PAA-T good performance to separate toluene-in-water emulsion stabilized by Tween 80. Moreover, CH-PAA-T can be recycled for 10 times with negligible reduction of efficiency. Such versatile bio-based material is a potential candidate for water purification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Cinnarizine food-effects in beagle dogs can be avoided by administration in a Self Nano Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene; Kristensen, Jakob; Kreilgaard, Mads; Jacobsen, Jette; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Müllertz, Anette

    2014-06-16

    To elucidate if a SNEDDS approach can eliminate the food-effect on cinnarizine absorption and to, investigate if a nutritional drink, Fresubin energy, could mimic food effect in dogs for the poorly soluble compound cinnarizine. A conventional tablet, a SNEDDS capsule or a SNEDDS tablet, containing cinnarizine, were dosed to beagles dogs in fed or fasted state (n=5), with a one week wash-out period between dosing. Dogs were pre-treated with pentagastrin. Fed state was induced by a nutritional drink (Fresubin Energy®). The food-effect was evaluated by comparing Tmax, Cmax and Bioavailability (F) for the different formulations. Food effect was observed on all three parameters for the conventional tablet; Tmax was delayed 2.5times and bioavailability increased in fed state (from 20.9±5.7 to 53.8±30.1). Apart from an extended Tmax (2.5 and 3.3 times longer in fed state compared to fasted state for the SNEDDS tablets and SNEDDS capsules respectively), food effect on absorption for the SNEDDS capsules and SNEDDS tablets was not observed. The SNEDDS capsules had a higher bioavailability in both fed and fasted state compared to SNEDDS tablets (Ffasted=58.1±16.7, vs. 32.7±11.5), (Ffed=79.3±14.7 vs. 43.7±6.7) There were no significant differences in bioavailability between the conventional tablet in fed state and the SNEDDS capsules. Food effect was observed when dosing cinnarizine with ingestion of the nutritional drink Fresubin Energy. Food effect on cinnarizine could be significantly reduced by dosing either as a SNEEDS capsule or a SNEDDS tablet, however, the SNEDDS tablet resulted in an overall lower absorption than the SNEDDS capsules in both fed and fasted state. The delay in fed state absorption could not be changed by dosing with SNEDDS formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Furosemide self nano emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS formulation comprising of capryol-90, polysorbate-80, and peg-400 with simplex-lattice-design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najma Annuria Fithri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of SNEDDS aims to improve solubility and absorption of furosemide in the body to reduce the dosage and minimize the side effects of drugs. Ternary diagram constructed from composition mixture produced nanoemulsion in the range of 20-40% of capryol-90, 20-40% polysorbate-80 and 40-60% PEG-400. Formulations of SNEDDS using Design-Expert®10 with simplex-lattice-design method in the study was aimed to investigate the effect of SNEDDS each component's proportions towards test responses. Emulsification time, drug content and viscosity were best demonstrated by run-7 with consecutive values of 131.68±2.14 seconds, 99.89±2.68% and 0.87±0.0043 mm2/s. The optimum formula was obtained through entering test response parameter data of all thirteen formula. Drug content and emulsification time was 107.0 ± 1.44% and 155.59±1.56 seconds with viscosity value 0.91±0.00 mm2/s. From the physical stability studies, SNEDDS formulas were stable and did not show phase separation when exposed to temparature stress testing.

  15. Generation and stabilization of whey-based monodisperse naoemulsions using ultra-high pressure homogenization and small amphipathic co-emulsifier combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) was used to generate monodisperse stable peanut oil nanoemulsions within a desired nanosize range (whey protein concentrate (WPC), sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100 (X100), and zwitterionic sulfobetaine-base...

  16. Emulsifiers performance on the stability of the drilling fluid base biodiesel; Desempenho de emulsificantes sobre a estabilidade de fluido de perfuracao a base de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Giselle P.; Costa, Marta [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work was prepared six (6) formulations of biodiesel based drilling fluids. Three formulations in the proportion oil-water 70/30 and other three in 60/40, just varying the employed surfactants: new product derived the citric acid (developed at our laboratory) and two other commercial surfactants. After production the fluids, It was analyzed them performance of the products through rheological properties to 135 deg F , filtrate volume in HPHT to 500 psi and to 200 deg F, electric stability to 135 deg F and phase separation during seven days of rest. The rheological analyses allowed to determine the behavior every fluids, though flow curves. Those fluids presented same behavior of the fluids used in oil field (Binghamianos). The laboratory tests demonstrated that new surfactant reduced the filtrated volume and provided mechanics and thermic stability. (author)

  17. Influence of Reactive Emulsifiers on Emulsion Polymerization of MMA/BA%反应性乳化剂对MMA/BA乳液聚合的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭林晖; 马承银

    2004-01-01

    将不同性质的反应性乳化剂应用于MMA/BA乳液聚合,对聚合过程的特性、乳胶粒子的大小和形态及乳液的性能进行了研究,发现不同性质的反应性乳化剂对无皂乳液聚合有不同的影响.

  18. The Use of Quasi-Isothermal Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry for the Characterization of Slow Crystallization Processes in Lipid-Based Solid Self-Emulsifying Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Otun, Sarah O.; Meehan, Elizabeth; Qi, Sheng; Craig, Duncan Q. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Slow or incomplete crystallization may be a significant manufacturing issue for solid lipid-based dosage forms, yet little information is available on this phenomenon. In this investigation we suggest a novel means by which slow solidification may be monitored in Gelucire 44/14 using quasi-isothermal modulated temperature DSC (QiMTDSC). Methods Conventional linear heating and cooling DSC methods were employed, along with hot stage microscopy (HSM), for basic thermal profiling of Geluc...

  19. The use of quasi-isothermal modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry for the characterization of slow crystallization processes in lipid-based solid self-emulsifying systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otun, Sarah O; Meehan, Elizabeth; Qi, Sheng; Craig, Duncan Q M

    2015-04-01

    Slow or incomplete crystallization may be a significant manufacturing issue for solid lipid-based dosage forms, yet little information is available on this phenomenon. In this investigation we suggest a novel means by which slow solidification may be monitored in Gelucire 44/14 using quasi-isothermal modulated temperature DSC (QiMTDSC). Conventional linear heating and cooling DSC methods were employed, along with hot stage microscopy (HSM), for basic thermal profiling of Gelucire 44/14. QiMTDSC experiments were performed on cooling from the melt, using a range of incremental decreases in temperature and isothermal measurement periods. DSC and HSM highlighted the main (primary) crystallization transition; solid fat content analysis and kinetic analysis were used to profile the solidification process. The heat capacity profile from QiMTDSC indicated that after an initial energetic primary crystallisation, the lipid underwent a slower period of crystallization which continued to manifest at much lower temperatures than indicated by standard DSC. We present evidence that Gelucire 44/14 undergoes an initial crystallization followed by a secondary, slower process. QIMTDSC appears to be a promising tool in the investigation of this secondary crystallization process.

  20. Effects of replacing beef fat with pre-emulsified pumpkin seed oil on some quality characteristics of model system chicken meat emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Nacak, B.; Karabıyıkoğlu, M.; Tepe, M.; Baykara, I.; Kökmen, Y.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the effects of adding pumpkin seed oil (PSO) in water emulsion to model system chicken meat emulsions (MSME) on product quality and oxidative stability were investigated. MSME were produced by replacing 25% (P25) and 50% (P50) of beef fat with PSO-in-water emulsion (PSO/W) while control treatment was prepared with only beef fat. Addition of PSO/W to the formulation resulted in significant differences in chemical composition and pH values of both raw and cooked MSME treatments. The use of PSO/W produced significant improvements to emulsion stability, oxidative stability and cooking yield of MSME. It was determined that the use of PSO/W formulation results in decreased total expressible fluid values and increased cooking yields of the emulsions. It was observed that the highest cooking yield and the lowest total expressible fluid were found in the sample containing 50% PSO/W. It should be a feasible strategy to produce fat-reduced meat products with healthier lipid profiles by using PSO/W.

  1. Cinnarizine food-effects in beagle dogs can be avoided by administration in a Self Nano Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene; Kristensen, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate if a SNEDDS approach can eliminate the food-effect on cinnarizine absorption and to, investigate if a nutritional drink, Fresubin energy, could mimic food effect in dogs for the poorly soluble compound cinnarizine.......To elucidate if a SNEDDS approach can eliminate the food-effect on cinnarizine absorption and to, investigate if a nutritional drink, Fresubin energy, could mimic food effect in dogs for the poorly soluble compound cinnarizine....

  2. 21 CFR 172.834 - Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... percent by weight of the finished icings. 5. As an emulsifier in frozen desserts Not to exceed 0.2 percent by weight of the finished frozen desserts. 6. As an emulsifier in edible vegetable fat-water...

  3. Vaccination with killed whole-cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 hha mutant emulsified with an adjuvant induced vaccine strain-specific serum antibodies and reduced E. coli O157:H7 fecal shedding in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) can cause from a mild diarrheal illness to hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. Cattle are the primary reservoir for O157 and fecal shedding of O157 by these animals is a major risk factor in contamination of cattle hides and carcasses at slaug...

  4. 纳米SiO2/MMA无皂乳液聚合研究及其应用%Study of nano-SiO2/MMA emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超灿; 杜鸿雁

    2004-01-01

    以纳米SiO2为核,以MMA为壳层单体,进行了无皂乳液聚合.研究了单体加入方式、引发剂用量、聚合反应温度等对无皂乳液聚合的影响.核壳产物对PVC材料的力学性能有明显的提高.

  5. Compositions and process for liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting compositions which include certain polyethoxylated poly(oxypropylene) emulsifiers allow stable dispersion of aqueous or other samples merely by shaking. Preferred are mixtures of such emulsifiers, which give homogeneous, monophasic-appearing dispersions over wide ranges of temperature and aqueous sample content. Certain of these emulsifiers, without being mixed, are of particular advantage when used in analysis of samples obtained through radioimmunoassay techniques, which are extremely difficult to disperse. Certain of these emulsifiers, also without being mixed, uniformly give homogeneous, monophasic appearing aqueous couting samples over much wider ranges of aqueous sample content and temperature than prior sample emulsifiers

  6. Compositions and process for liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Liquid scintillation compositions which include certain polyethoxylated poly(oxypropylene) emulsifiers allow stable dispersion of aqueous or other samples merely by shaking. Preferred are mixtures of such emulsifiers, which give homogeneous, monophasic-appearing dispersions over wide ranges of temperature and aqueous sample content. Certain of these emulsifiers, without being mixed, are of particular advantage when used in analysis of samples obtained through radioimmunoassay techniques, which are extremely difficult to disperse. Certain of these emulsifiers, also without being mixed, uniformly give homogeneous, monophasic appearing aqueous counting samples over much wider ranges of aqueous sample content and temperature than prior sample emulsifiers

  7. Compositions and process for liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting compositions which include certain polyethoxylated poly(oxypropylene) emulsifiers allow stable dispersion of aqueous or other samples merely by shaking. Preferred are mixtures of such emulsifiers which give homogeneous monophasic-appearing dispersions over wide ranges of temperature and aqueous sample content. Certain of these emulsifiers, without being mixed, are of particular advantage when used in analysis of samples obtained through radioimmunoassay techniques which are extremely difficult to disperse. Certain of these emulsifiers, also without being mixed, uniformly give homogeneous monophasic-appearing aqueous counting samples over much wider ranges of aqueous sample content and temperature than prior sample emulsifiers

  8. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  9. Preparation and Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Microemulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Feng; Bo Cui; Dongsheng Yang; Chunxin Wang; Zhanghua Zeng; Yan Wang; Changjiao Sun; Xiang Zhao; Haixin Cui

    2016-01-01

    The solid microemulsions of emamectin benzoate with the same content of surfactants were prepared by a self-emulsifying method. Emulsifier 600# and emulsifier 700# (3/2, w/w) screened from eleven kinds of commonly used surfactants displayed great emulsifying properties. The redispersed solution of the solid microemulsion presented aqueous microemulsion characteristic. The mean particle size and polydispersity index were 10.34 ± 0.10 nm and 0.283 ± 0.013, respectively. The solid microemulsion ...

  10. STUDY ON THE POLYMERIZATION KINETICS AND STABILITY OF P(UA)/MMA MICROEMULSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-tao Zhang; Tian-bin Ren; Zhao-hui Yin

    2001-01-01

    Urethane acrylate anionomer (APUA) as a kind of new type polymerizable emulsifier was synthesized using 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI), polypropylene glycol (PPG), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and dimethylolpropionic acid (DMPA). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of APUA was measured by the methods of conductance and surface tension. The comparative studies between polymerizable emulsifier AUPA and conventional emulsifier sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were carried out in the emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Polymerization kinetics,stability, size and morphology of the latex particles were investigated. It was found that in APUA both water soluble initiator potassium persulfate (KPS) and oil soluble initiator 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) can start the reaction of MMA, and the polymerization rate and yield were very high. On using AIBN as an initiator, the conversion-time behavior of MMA with APUA as emulsifier was different to that of SDS as emulsifier, signifying a different nucleation mechanism of the polymer latex particle. The average size of the two kinds of particles is about 50 nm. The particle size decreases with increasing emulsifier concentration. On using KPS as the initiator, APUA as emulsifier, cross-linking hydrogel of PMMA would be formed, but SDS was used as emulsifier and the hydrogel of PMMA was not present.

  11. [Study on extracting and separating curcuminoids from Curcuma longa rhizome using ultrasound strengthen by microemulsion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chun-Hua; Zheng, Li-Tao; Guo, Qi-Ming; Li, Kun-Ping

    2014-05-01

    To establish a new method for the extraction and separation of curcuminoids from Curcuma longa rhizome by cloud-point preconcentration using microemulsions as solvent. The spectrophotometry was used to detect the solubility of curcumin in different oil phase, emulsifier and auxiliary emulsifier, and the microemulsion prescription was used for false three-phase figure optimization. The extraction process was optimized by uniform experiment design. The curcuminoids were separated from microemulsion extract by cloud-point preconcentration. Oil phase was oleic acid ethyl ester; Emulsifier was OP emulsifier; Auxiliary emulsifier was polyethylene glycol(peg) 400; The quantity of emulsifier to auxiliary emulsifier was the ratio of 5: 1; Microemulsion prescription was water-oleic acid ethyl ester-mixed emulsifier (0.45:0.1:0.45). The optimum extraction process was: time for 12.5 min, temperature of 52 degrees C, power of 360 W, frequency of 400 kHz, and the liquid-solid ratio of 40:1. The extraction rate of curcuminoids was 92.17% and 86.85% in microemulsion and oil phase, respectively. Curcuminoids is soluble in this microemulsion prescription with good extraction rate. This method is simple and suitable for curcuminoids extraction from Curcuma longa rhizome.

  12. A Comprehensive Framework for Surfactant Selection and Design for Emulsion Based Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    The manufacture of emulsified products is of increasing interest in the consumer oriented chemical indus-try. Several cosmetic, house-hold and pharmaceutical products are in the emulsified form when soldand/or they are expected to form an emulsion when used. Therefore, there is a need...

  13. Stability to oxidation of spray-dried fish oil powder microencapsulated using milk ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keogh, M.K.; O'Kennedy, B.T.; Kelly, J.

    2001-01-01

    Microencapsulation of fish oil was achieved by spray-drying homogenized emulsions of fish oil using 3 different types of casein as emulsifier and lactose as filler. As the degree of aggregation of the casein emulsifier increased, the vacuole volume of the microencapsulated powders decreased...

  14. Food-grade Pickering stabilisation of foams by in situ hydrophobisation of calcium carbonate particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binks, Bernard P.; Muijlwijk, K.; Koman, Henriëtte; Poortinga, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of stabilising foam bubbles in water by adsorption of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles. Because CaCO3 is hydrophilic and not surface-active, particles were hydrophobised in situ with several emulsifiers. The used emulsifiers were food-grade

  15. Food-grade pickering stabilisation of foams by in situ hydrophobisation of calcium carbonate particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binks, B.P.; Muijlwijk, K.; Koman, H.; Poortinga, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of stabilising foam bubbles in water by adsorption of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles. Because CaCO3 is hydrophilic and not surface-active, particles were hydrophobised in situ with several emulsifiers. The used emulsifiers were food-grade

  16. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WENPU CHEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chen W, Li X, Rahman MRT, Al-Hajj NQM, Dey KC, Raqib SM. 2014. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 196-202. Emulsion stability and emulsifying ability are two important factors in food industry. Soy protein has the great of interest because of its amphilic structure. β-Conglycinnin and glycinin are main components in soy protein which can be used as emulsifiers in food processing. However, due to its size and molecular weight, the emulsifying ability of soy protein is limited. By chemical, physical and enzymatic modification, the emulsifying ability of soy protein can be improved. The addition of polysaccharides in emulsion is common. The interaction of polysaccharides and proteins are being discussed in this review. In some complex food emulsion, the function of soy protein molecules and emulsifier at the interface need to be investigated in the future study.

  17. Formation and evolution of a gas-liquid emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Pierre.

    The short range effect of an emulsifier on the characteristics of the resulting mixture was studied in the particular case of the air-water couple, for high velocity and high void fraction. Every emulsifier configuration with constant cross section was studied by measuring static pressions, void fraction profiles, and interface velocity. A theoretical study of the expansion zone was made: a model that gives an account of the pressure variation is presented. Emulsifiers with variable cross sections, and a constant section emulsifier with a diaphragm at the downstream end were then studied. It was experimentally shown that the effect of the geometrical parameters of the emulsifier is small. The causes of pressure drops were evaluated. The leading parts played by the densiest phase and the void fraction were revealed for various conditions: permanent flow, sudden expansion, relaxation oscillations [fr

  18. Survival of encapsulated potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum D6SM3 with bioemulsifier derived from spent yeast in simulated gastrointestinal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweena Dikit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of encapsulation with three kinds of emulsifier (Tween 80, gum arabic and bioemulsifier extracted from spent yeast on the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum D6SM3 in simulated gastrointestinal tract during storage at 4°C and room temperature was investigated. The survival of all encapsulated cells treated in simulated gastric juice was higher than free cells at both pH 2.5 and 3.0. The viability of the free and encapsulated cells showed a gradual decline throughout the storage period at 4°C. However, the viability rapidly declined at room temperature. In addition, the droplet size distribution of encapsulated cells was compared between those with and without an emulsifier by using the laser diffraction method. The particle size and polydispersity value of encapsulated cells were controlled better in emulsion with emulsifier added. The surface of encapsulated cells with emulsifier exhibited smoother characteristics than those without emulsifier.

  19. Avaliação da estabilidade e da qualidade do patê de presunto, adicionado de globina bovina e de caseinato de sódio, como agente emulsionante Stability and quality of ham paté added of bovine globin and sodium caseinate as emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Guernica Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da incorporação das globinas bovina extraída pelo método da acetona acidificada (GT e pelo da carboximetilcelulose (GCMC e do caseinato de sódio (CA sobre a composição química e as qualidades microbiológica e sensorial do patê de presunto. Foi, ainda, avaliada a estabilidade do produto durante os 45 dias de estocagem sob refrigeração, por meio das determinações de pH e do grau de oxidação lipídica. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, pôde-se verificar que a adição dessas proteínas elevou o teor protéico das amostras analisadas. Além disso, observou-se que apenas a GT provocou uma queda do pH e uma elevação de substâncias reativas ao ácido 2-tiobarbitúrico (thiobarbiuric acid reactive substances - TBARS. Com relação à qualidade microbiológica dos produtos, não foram observadas alterações após a incorporação das proteínas e, pela análise sensorial, foram identificadas diferenças significativas entre as duas formulações de patê avaliadas (PCA e PGCMC.This study evaluated the effect of the use of bovine globin extracted by acidified acetone method (GT, bovine globin extracted by carboxymethyl cellulose method (GCMC and sodium caseinate (CA on the chemical composition and on microbiological and sensorial qualities of the ham paté. Also, the stability of this meat product was studied during the storage for 45 days under refrigeration, on the pH and on the lipid oxidation measurements. An increase of the protein contents was observed in all samples. Moreover, only the incorporation of GT produced a significant decrease of pH and an increasing of thiobarbiuric acid reactive substances (TBARS values during storage. No microbial effects were observed while some significant differences were observed between PCA and PGCMC added patés.

  20. Physico-chemical characteristics and sensory acceptance of Italiantype salami with canola oil addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcindo Nascimento Terra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of partial pork fat replacement with emulsified canola oil in Italian-type salami. Three treatments were done: Control (100% pork fat, without fat replacement, T1 (15% pork fat was replaced by emulsified canola oil and T2 (30% pork fat was replaced by emulsified oil canola. There were evaluated the salamis’ physicochemical characteristics (pH, water activity, weight loss, color and lipid oxidation during the manufacture and storage period, and sensory evaluation after the manufacture process. The emulsified canola oil addition at different levels did not change the pH and color during the manufacture process, even though significant differences were found in these parameters during the storage period. The water activity did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, the treatments with emulsified canola oil added have a lower weight loss than the control. It was possible to observe an elevation on lipid oxidation values in the T2 during manufacture and storage periods, while in the T1, the values did not differ from the control at the end of manufactures and remained lower than the control during the storage period. Even more, the partial replacement of pork fat by emulsified canola oil did not affect the acceptance of the product for aroma, flavor, color, texture and visual appearance. Thus, the 15% pork fat replacement by emulsified canola oil in Italian-type salami is a viable alternative for the product diversification.

  1. Physical Stability of Whippable Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Merete Bøgelund

    Whippable emulsions based on vegetable fat are increasingly used as replacement for dairy whipping creams. One of the quality criteria of whippable emulsions is that it should be low-viscous prior to whipping, but sudden viscosity increase or even solidification during storage and transport...... the impact of ingredient composition, with focus on low-molecular-weight (LMW) emulsifiers. Three monoglyceride-based LMW-emulsifiers were selected: Lactic acid ester of saturated monoglyceride (LACTEM), unsaturated monoglyceride (GMU), and saturated monoglyceride (GMS). LMW-emulsifiers had major impact...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agent. Wine vinegar Amount sufficient for the purpose Remove sulfur dioxide from wine prior to fermentation to produce vinegar. Emulsifiers containing fatty acid esters 1.25 Bleaching agent. (d) Residual...

  3. Bioencapsulation strategy and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HUFA) in Artemia franciscana nauplii through bioencapsulation process, five different concentrations (0 - 4%) of emulsified Odonus niger liver oil were prepared. The prepared emulsions were used to enrich A. franciscana at different time intervals ...

  4. Use of adsorption and gas chromatographic techniques in estimating biodegradation of indigenous crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokub, D.; Allahi, A.; Shafeeq, M.; Khalid, Z.M.; Malik, K.A.; Hussain, A.

    1993-01-01

    Indigenous crude oils could be degraded and emulsified upto varying degree by locally isolated bacteria. Degradation and emulsification was found to be dependent upon the chemical composition of the crude oils. Tando Alum and Khashkheli crude oils were emulsified in 27 and 33 days of incubation respectively. While Joyamair crude oil and not emulsify even mainly due to high viscosity of this oil. Using adsorption chromatographic technique, oil from control (uninoculated) and bio degraded flasks was fractioned into the deasphaltened oil containing saturate, aromatic, NSO (nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen) containing hydrocarbons) and soluble asphaltenes. Saturate fractions from control and degraded oil were further analysed by gas liquid chromatography. From these analyses, it was observed that saturate fraction was preferentially utilized and the crude oils having greater contents of saturate fraction were better emulsified than those low in this fraction. Utilization of various fractions of crude oils was in the order saturate> aromatic> NSO. (author)

  5. Preparation and Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid microemulsions of emamectin benzoate with the same content of surfactants were prepared by a self-emulsifying method. Emulsifier 600# and emulsifier 700# (3/2, w/w screened from eleven kinds of commonly used surfactants displayed great emulsifying properties. The redispersed solution of the solid microemulsion presented aqueous microemulsion characteristic. The mean particle size and polydispersity index were 10.34 ± 0.10 nm and 0.283 ± 0.013, respectively. The solid microemulsion showed excellent storage stability and the bioassay compared with water dispersible granules against diamondback moths provided a proof of its improved biological activities. This formulation could significantly reduce surfactants and is perspective in plant protection for improving bioavailability and environmental friendliness.

  6. Recent progress on the design and applications of polysaccharide-based graft copolymer hydrogels as adsorbents for wastewater purification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, Hemant

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available as emulsifiers and thickeners. In their natural form, gum polysaccharides have poor mechanical and physical properties; therefore, they are frequently modified with various synthetic monomers such as acrylamide and acrylic acid using graft copolymerization. Graft...

  7. Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Preparation of Low-fat Spreads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research April 2014; 13 (4): 519-526 ... Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals. (DOAJ) ... 70°C with blending until the emulsifier dissolved,.

  8. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes of donkeys and mules in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    randomly for qualitative and quantitative faecal analyses. The overall ... Parasitic diseases have an economic impact on donkeys and mules as they cause loss through .... ml of water was added to it and emulsified using mortar and pestle.

  9. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2009 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winner, Eastman Chemical Co., makes esters for emollients and emulsifiers in cosmetics with immobilized enzymes, saving energy and avoiding strong acids and organic solvents.

  10. 21 CFR 172.836 - Polysorbate 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... monostearate, in the minimum quantity required to accomplish the intended effect, in formulations of white... exceed 0.5 percent on a dry-weight basis. (14) As an emulsifier in chocolate flavored syrups, whereby the...

  11. Effects of emulsion droplet sizes on the crystallisation of milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Tuyen; Bansal, Nidhi; Sharma, Ranjan; Palmer, Martin; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2014-02-15

    The crystallisation properties of milk fat emulsions containing dairy-based ingredients as functions of emulsion droplet size, cooling rate, and emulsifier type were investigated using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Anhydrous milk fat and its fractions (stearin and olein) were emulsified with whey protein concentrate, sodium caseinate, and Tween80 by homogenisation to produce emulsions in various size ranges (0.13-3.10 μm). Particle size, cooling rate, and types of emulsifier all had an influence on the crystallisation properties of fat in the emulsions. In general, the crystallisation temperature of emulsified fats decreased with decreasing average droplet size and was of an exponent function of size, indicating that the influence of particle size on crystallisation temperature is more pronounced in the sub-micron range. This particle size effect was also verified by electron microscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Formulation and Evaluation of Liquid Loaded Tablets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Containing Docetaxel-Self Nano Emulsifying Drug Delivery ... of docetaxel is a promising approach to achieving a solid dosage form of the .... until freely solubilized drug with stable SNEDDS ... performed using USP dissolution testing.

  13. Fatty acid composition and phospholipid types used in infant formulas modifies the establishment of human gut bacteria in germ-free mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Rikke Mette Guldhammer; Licht, Tine Rask; Hellgren, Lars

    2017-01-01

    -rich emulsions were characterized by high relative abundances of Bacteroidaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae, while LCFA-rich emulsions caused higher abundances of Enterobacteriaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Coriobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae. Consumption of SL-emulsified lipids skewed the community towards more...... Enterococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, while MPL increased Bacteroidaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, Rikkenellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae. Intake of SL increased cecal concentrations of iso-valeric and iso-butyric acids. This suggests that fat-type and emulsifiers applied in infant formula may have distinct effects...

  14. Monitored Natural Attenuation of Perchlorate in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    dissolved oxygen DoD Department of Defense DPRB dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacteria EOS® Emulsified ( Edible ) Oil Substrate ESTCP...simple and complex electron donors, i.e., lactate and Emulsified ( Edible ) Oil Substrate (EOS®) Task 2: Laboratory Studies 1 solutions...project were to provide Department of Defense (DoD) managers and industry professionals with the tools needed to demonstrate to regulatory agencies that

  15. Differential Activation of Peritoneal Cells by Subcutaneous Treatment of Rats with Cryptococcal Antigens▿

    OpenAIRE

    Baronetti, José L.; Chiapello, Laura S.; Garro, Ana P.; Masih, Diana T.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the subcutaneous pretreatment of rats with heat-killed cells (HKC) of Cryptococcus neoformans emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) promotes protective immunity against an intraperitoneal challenge with C. neoformans. In contrast, subcutaneous treatment with the capsular polysaccharide (PSC) emulsified in CFA exacerbates the cryptococcal infection. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mechanisms involved in these phenomena. Adh...

  16. Influence of Surfactant Structure on the Stability of Water-in-Oil Emulsions under High-Temperature High-Salinity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhalim I. A. Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emulsified water-in-oil (W/O systems are extensively used in the oil industry for water control and acid stimulation. Emulsifiers are commonly utilized to emulsify a water-soluble material to form W/O emulsion. The selection of a particular surfactant for such jobs is critical and certainly expensive. In this work, the impact of surfactant structure on the stability of W/O emulsions is investigated using the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB of the surfactant. Different commercial surfactants were evaluated for use as emulsifiers for W/O systems at high-temperature (up to 120°C high-salinity (221,673 ppm HTHS conditions. Diverse surfactants were examined including ethoxylates, polyethylene glycols, fluorinated surfactants, and amides. Both commercial Diesel and waste oil are used for the oleic phase to prepare the emulsified system. Waste oil has shown higher stability (less separation in comparison with Diesel. This work has successfully identified stable emulsified W/O systems that can tolerate HTHS environments using HLB approach. Amine Acetate family shows higher stability in comparison with Glycol Ether family and at even lower concentration. New insights into structure-surfactant stability relationship, beyond the HLB approach, are provided for surfactant selection.

  17. Enteral Formula Containing Egg Yolk Lecithin Improves Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Tetsuro; Muto, Ayano; Takahashi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome. Stool consistency or frequency improved on the day after using the aforementioned combination in 13/14 patients. Average particle size of the egg yolk lecithin emulsifier did not change by adding artificial gastric juice, whereas that of soy lecithin and synthetic emulsifiers increased. Serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in the egg yolk lecithin group compared with the soybean lecithin and synthetic emulsifier groups in bile duct-ligated rats. In rats with short bowels, the fecal consistency was a significant looser the dietary fiber (+) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 6 of test meal feedings. The fecal consistency was also a significant looser the egg yolk lecithin (-) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 4 of test meal feeding. The fecal consistency was no significant difference between the medium-chain triglycerides (-) and egg yolk lecithin (+) groups. Enteral formula emulsified with egg yolk lecithin promotes lipid absorption by preventing the destruction of emulsified substances by gastric acid. This enteral formula improved diarrhea and should reduce the burden on patients and healthcare workers.

  18. New ways of removing cyclic borehole noise from low- and high-resolution LWD images and its impact on image interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalchan, C.; Wiggins, C.; Moriyama, C. [Trican Well Service (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of conventional oil reservoirs and increasing energy demand, the exploitation of unconventional resources is underway. Until now, the use of emulsified acids, which dissolve organic and inorganic deposits and strip off layered scales, has been restricted to conventional reservoirs, but it could also be used for thermal heavy oil reservoirs. The aim of this paper is to determine the appropriate acid blend for deposit and scale removal in thermal heavy oil reservoirs. Acid formulations were tested under 170 degrees Celsius and sensitivity testing was performed to find the optimal concentration. Results showed that a 5% or 10% acid acetic, emulsified in a 4:1 ratio with a modified wax and asphaltenes solvent blend, is the optimal acid formulation for removal of scales and organic deposits. This paper demonstrated that emulsified acids can be used to stimulate water injection and production in thermal heavy oil reservoirs and provided the optimum acid formulation.

  19. Food emulsions with amidated pectin from celery (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum D.C. tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Petrova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Hydrocolloids, especially polysaccharides from traditional plant sources and their derivatives possessed significant emulsifying properties. Pectin was isolated from celery tubers by accelerated “green” method for extraction based on ultrasonic irradiation. Further chemical modification of celery pectin was performed with 4 mol/L NH The amidated celery pectin was obtained with the following characteristics: the degree of esterification (DE 31%, the degree of 3. amidation (DA 16%, degree of acetylation (DAc 2% and anhydrouronic acid content (AUAC 68%. This modified pectin was incorporated in preparation of model 30, 40 and 50% oil-in-water emulsions. The effect of amidation of celery pectin on the stability of emulsions was investigated. The results showed that amidation increased the emulsifying properties of pectic polysaccharides. It affected also the rheological characteristics of model emulsion. The current study demonstrated preparation of emulsion with low-caloric amidated pectin as proper alternative to the traditional emulsifiers.

  20. Conching Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary L.; Chaikin, Paul; Blanco, Elena; Poon, Wilson

    2014-03-01

    ``Conching'' is an intermediate step in the processing of chocolate where hydrophilic solid particles, such as sugar and milk proteins, are aggressively mixed into a fatty, fluid phase containing emulsifier, e.g. molten cocoa butter with lecithin. During conching, the system evolves from a fine powder to a coarser granulated material and ultimately into a thick cohesive paste. Our goal is to better understand the evolution of chocolate during conching and the transition from an effectively dry to a wet or immersed granular material. In particular, we focus on how mixing times change in response to variations in solid particle volume fractions and emulsifier concentration. As a function of volume fraction, mixing times are well-described by a conventional form that diverges at a finite volume fraction. Furthermore, mixing times can be collapsed onto a universal curve as a function of mixing speed and emulsifier concentration.

  1. Frozen yogurt from sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela de Abreu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to develop frozen yogurt formulations from powdered yogurt of sheep milk, through an experimental design of 2², with a triplicate at the central point. The variables studied were emulsifier/stabilizer (0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00% and powder for cream (2.75%, 3.00% and 3.25%. The parameters evaluated were sensory characteristics, texture, and microbiological counts. The results showed that the formulations had counts of S. aureus and fecal coliforms at 45 °C, lactic acid bacteria and Salmonella sp within the limits established by legislation. Instrumental analysis of texture-related parameters (firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and consistency of the formulations with different concentrations of emulsifier/stabilizer and cream powder showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. In sensory analysis, Formulations 3 and 4 with lower concentrations of emulsifier/stabilizer scored the highest values, thus indicating good acceptability.

  2. Biofuels from the Fresh Water Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate biofuels for diesel engines produced on a lab-scale from the fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV. The impact of growing conditions on the properties of biodiesel produced from FWM-CV was evaluated. The properties of FWM-CV biodiesel were found to be within the ASTM standards for biodiesel. Due to the limited amount of biodiesel produced on the lab-scale, the biomass of dry cells of FWM-CV was used to yield emulsified water fuel. The preparation of emulsion fuel with and without FWM-CV cells was conducted using ultrasound to overcome the problems of large size microalgae colonies and to form homogenized emulsions. The emulsified water fuels, prepared using ultrasound, were found to be stable and the size of FWM-CV colonies were effectively reduced to pass through the engine nozzle safely. Engine tests at 3670 rpm were conducted using three fuels: cottonseed biodiesel CS-B100, emulsified cottonseed biodiesel water fuel, water and emulsifier (CS-E20 and emulsified water containing FWM-CV cells CS-ME20. The results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC was increased by about 41% when the engine was fueled with emulsified water fuels compared to CS-B100. The engine power, exhaust gas temperature, NOx and CO2 were significantly lower than that produced by CS-B100. The CS-ME20 produced higher power than CS-E20 due to the heating value improvement as a result of adding FWM-CV cells to the fuel.

  3. Development of novel cilostazol-loaded solid SNEDDS using a SPG membrane emulsification technique: Physicochemical characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Kyung Soo; Shafique, Shumaila; Kim, Dong Shik; Jin, Sung Giu; Seo, Youn Gee; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Kyung Taek; Lee, Beom-Jin; Park, Young Joon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) using a membrane emulsification technique involving Shirasu porous glass (SPG) which produced very small and uniform emulsion droplets, resulting in enhanced solubility, dissolution and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble cilostazol. The effects of carriers on the drug solubility were assessed, and pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were plotted. Among the liquid SNEDDS formulations tested, the liquid SNEDDS composed of peceol (oil), Tween 20 (surfactant) and Labrasol (cosurfactant) at a weight ratio of 15/55/30, produced the smallest emulsion droplet size. The cilostazol-loaded liquid SNEDDS formulation was suspended in the distilled water and subjected to SPG membrane emulsification. Calcium silicate was added as a solid carrier in this liquid SNEDDS, completely suspended and spray-dried, leading to the production of a cilostazol-loaded solid SNEDDS. The emulsion droplet size, solubility and dissolution of the emulsified solid SNEDDS were assessed as compared to the solid SNEDDS prepared without emulsification. Moreover, the physicochemical characteristics and pharmacokinetics in rats were evaluated with the emulsified solid SNEDDS. The emulsified solid SNEDDS provided significantly smaller and more uniform nanoemulsions than did the non-emulsified solid SNEDDS. The emulsified solid SNEDDS showed significantly higher drug solubility and dissolution as compared to the non-emulsified solid SNEDDS. The crystalline drug in it was converted into the amorphous state. Moreover, in rats, it gave significantly higher initial plasma concentrations and AUC compared to the drug powder, suggesting its improved oral bioavailability of cilostazol. Thus, this novel solid SNEDDS developed using a membrane emulsification technique represents a potentially powerful oral delivery system for cilostazol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined effect of nanoemulsion and EGR on combustion and emission characteristics of neat lemongrass oil (LGO)-DEE-diesel blend fuelled diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiyamoorthi, R.; Sankaranarayanan, G.; Pitchandi, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Neat lemongrass oil can be used as an alternate fuel in diesel engine. • The combined effect of nano emulsion and EGR using LGO25-DEE-Diesel is investigated. • The BTE is improved for nano emulsion fuel blend. • The NO_x and smoke emissions decrease significantly. • Cylinder pressure and Heat release rate increase with longer ignition delay. - Abstract: In the present experimental study, the combined effects of nanoemulsion and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, four stroke, variable compression ratio diesel engine fueled with neat lemongrass oil (LGO)-diesel-DEE (diethyl ether) blend are investigated. The Neat Lemongrass oil could be used as a new alternate fuel in compression ignition engines without any engine modifications. The entire investigation was conducted in the diesel engine using the following test fuels: emulsified LGO25, cerium oxide blended emulsified LGO25 and DEE added emulsified LGO25 with EGR respectively and compared with standard diesel and LGO25 (75% by volume of diesel and 25% by volume of lemongrass oil) fuels. The combined effect of DEE added nano-emulsified LGO25 with EGR yielded a significant reduction in NO_x and smoke emission by 30.72% and 11.2% respectively compared to LGO25. Furthermore, the HC and CO emissions were reduced by 18.18% and 33.31% respectively than with LGO25. The brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption increased by 2.4% and 10.8% respectively than LGO25. The combustion characteristics such as cylinder pressure and heat release rate increased by 4.46% and 3.29% respectively than with LGO25. The combustion duration and ignition delay increase at nano-emulsified LGO25 with DEE and EGR mode but decrease for nano-emulsified LGO25 fuel.

  5. Preparation of a Fluorocarbon Polymerizable Surfactant and Its Application in Emulsion Polymerization of Fluorine-Containing Acrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel polymerizable fluorocarbon surfactant, perfluoro (4–methyl–3, 6–dioxaoct–7–ene sodium sulfonate (PSVNa, was synthesized and characterized. The fluorocarbon surfactant PSVNa and its mixture PSVNa/SDS were used as emulsifiers during the emulsion polymerization of DFHMA/MMA. The investigation of polymerization kinetics, particle size, and stability of the emulsions revealed that PSVNa has excellent emulsifying properties. The NMR spectrum of the copolymer and the detection of residual PSVNa show that more than 95% of the fluorocarbon surfactants have been linked to the polymer chains by radical polymerization, which will greatly reduce the environmental pollution caused by fluorinated surfactants.

  6. The influence of additives on leaching of tritium of the immobilization matrices of contaminated oils by cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deneanu, N.; Dulama, M.; Baboescu, E.; Horhoianu, G.

    2000-01-01

    The research studies showed that the solidification of contaminated pump oils resulted from Cernavoda NPP operation can be done by using various immobilization matrices such as: cement with appropriate mineral additives sand of Aghires, lime and silicate accelerator. Research works and experiments were carried out on four groups: cement-emulsion, cement-emulsion-silicate accelerator, cement-emulsion-lime- silicate accelerator and cement-emulsion-sand of Aghires. The paper presents the author's research on immobilization of contaminated oil by cementation using Romanian emulsifiers. With both of the emulsifiers used, there were obtained reasonable compressive strengths and leaching rates. (author)

  7. Effect of processing on functional properties of animal blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo, P; Rendueles, M; Díaz, M

    2008-04-01

    A number of functional and physical properties such as solubility, foam capacity, emulsifying stability and interfacial tension were compared for standard plasma, plasma decationed by ion exchange and plasma deionized by ultrafiltration (UF). The changes in functional properties can determine the use of a protein as an additive to a food product or invalidate its use. All samples had good functional properties and hence could be used in the formulation of food products. Results showed that ion exchange and UF improved emulsifying capacity while having little effect on the other functional properties.

  8. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  9. Visualization data on the freezing process of micrometer-scaled aqueous citric acid drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Bogdan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The visualization data (8 movies presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Freezing and glass transitions upon cooling and warming and ice/freeze-concentration-solution morphology of emulsified aqueous citric acid” (A. Bogdan, M.J. Molina, H. Tenhu, 2016 [1]. The movies recorded in-situ with optical cryo-miscroscopy (OC-M demonstrate for the first time freezing processes that occur during the cooling and subsequent warming of emulsified micrometer-scaled aqueous citric acid (CA drops. The movies are made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  10. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, but not gallic acid, strongly inhibited oxidative deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Thomsen, Mikael Holm

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidative effects of gallic acid, EDTA, and extra emulsifier Panodan DATEM TR in mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil were investigated. EDTA reduced the formation of free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, volatiles, and fishy and rancid off-flavors. The antioxidative effect of EDTA...... acid may therefore promote the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to volatile oxidation products. Addition of extra emulsifier reduced the lipid hydroperoxide levels but did not influence the level of free radicals or the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaisse; however, it appeared to alter...

  11. Iron-mediated lipid oxidation in 70% fish oil-in-ater emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of five different emulsifiers on iron‐mediated lipid oxidation in 70% fish oil‐in‐water emulsions. The emulsifiers were either based on protein (whey protein isolate and sodium caseinate) or based on phospholipid (soy lecithin...... and two milk phospholipids with different phospholipid contents, MPL20 and MPL75). Lipid oxidation was studied at pH 4.5 and 7.0, and results were compared to lipid oxidation in neat fish oil. Results showed that all emulsions oxidised more than neat oil. Furthermore, emulsions prepared with proteins...

  12. Salvia officinalis L. extract and its new food antioxidant formulations induce apoptosis through mitochondrial/ caspase pathway in leukemia L1210 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantová Soňa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis, L. (Lamiaceae is one of the most widespread herbal species used in the area of human health and in the foodprocessing industry. Salvia and its extracts are known to be a rich source of antioxidants. As shown previously, the crude ethanolic extract of salvia (SE exerts lower anti-oxidative properties in lard compared to the new salvia food formulations No. 1 (SF1; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Dimodan S-T and No. 2 (SF2; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Topcithin 50.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from oleyl alcohol in Elidel cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2006-01-01

    We report an atopic dermatitis patient with recurrent hand dermatitis who developed a severe allergic contact dermatitis from the use of Elidel cream. Diagnostic patch tests showed an isolated contact allergy to the emulsifier oleyl alcohol present in the product. Pimecrolimus appeared to have had...... an aggravating effect on the dermatitis in spite of its immunosuppressive effects. The initial clinical appearance of the patient's widespread dermatitis was atypical with resemblance to subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Even though emulsifiers are widely used in topical products, contact allergic...

  14. Research on Fiber Micro-Surfacing Mixture Design and Pavement Performance in Interchange’s Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Zhaoyang

    2015-01-01

    In order to use the micro-surfacing which is the existing micro-surfacing technology guide that has some technical defects, the method to determine the optimal dosage of emulsified asphalt and best whetstone is not very reasonable, and it impedes the application and development of micro-surfacing technology to improve the performance of the pavement. In this paper, the “graphical method” is first used to determine the optimal dosage range of emulsified asphalt. Nowadays, a large number of exp...

  15. Effect of formulation variables on preparation of celecoxib loaded polylactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin L Cooper

    Full Text Available Polymer based nanoparticle formulations have been shown to increase drug bioavailability and/or reduce drug adverse effects. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g. celecoxib reduce prostaglandin synthesis and cause side effects such as gastrointestinal and renal complications. The aim of this study was to formulate celecoxib entrapped poly lactide-co-glycolide based nanoparticles through a solvent evaporation process using didodecyldimethylammonium bromide or poly vinyl alcohol as stabilizer. Nanoparticles were characterized for zeta potential, particle size, entrapment efficiency, and morphology. Effects of stabilizer concentration (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1% w/v, drug amount (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg, and emulsifier (lecithin on nanoparticle characterization were examined for formula optimization. The use of 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5% w/v didodecyldimethylammonium bromide resulted in a more than 5-fold increase in zeta potential and a more than 1.5-fold increase in entrapment efficiency with a reduction in particle size over 35%, when compared to stabilizer free formulation. Nanoparticle formulations were also highly influenced by emulsifier and drug amount. Using 0.25% w/v didodecyldimethylammonium bromide NP formulations, peak zeta potential was achieved using 15 mg celecoxib with emulsifier (17.15±0.36 mV and 20 mg celecoxib without emulsifier (25.00±0.18 mV. Peak NP size reduction and entrapment efficiency was achieved using 5 mg celecoxib formulations with (70.87±1.24 nm and 95.55±0.66%, respectively and without (92.97±0.51 nm and 95.93±0.27%, respectively emulsifier. In conclusion, formulations using 5 mg celecoxib with 0.25% w/v didodecyldimethylammonium bromide concentrations produced nanoparticles exhibiting enhanced size reduction and entrapment efficiency. Furthermore, emulsifier free formulations demonstrated improved zeta potential when compared to formulations containing emulsifier (p<0.01. Therefore, our results suggest the use of

  16. Application of D-optimal experimental design method to optimize the formulation of O/W cosmetic emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuris, J; Vasiljevic, D; Jokic, S; Ibric, S

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the application of D-optimal mixture experimental design in optimization of O/W cosmetic emulsions. Cetearyl glucoside was used as a natural, biodegradable non-ionic emulsifier in the relatively low concentration (1%), and the mixture of co-emulsifiers (stearic acid, cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol and glyceryl stearate) was used to stabilize the formulations. To determine the optimal composition of co-emulsifiers mixture, D-optimal mixture experimental design was used. Prepared emulsions were characterized with rheological measurements, centrifugation test, specific conductivity and pH value measurements. All prepared samples appeared as white and homogenous creams, except for one homogenous and viscous lotion co-stabilized by stearic acid alone. Centrifugation testing revealed some phase separation only in the case of sample co-stabilized using glyceryl stearate alone. The obtained pH values indicated that all samples expressed mild acid value acceptable for cosmetic preparations. Specific conductivity values are attributed to the multiple phases O/W emulsions with high percentages of fixed water. Results of the rheological measurements have shown that the investigated samples exhibited non-Newtonian thixotropic behaviour. To determine the influence of each of the co-emulsifiers on emulsions properties, the obtained results were evaluated by the means of statistical analysis (ANOVA test). On the basis of comparison of statistical parameters for each of the studied responses, mixture reduced quadratic model was selected over the linear model implying that interactions between co-emulsifiers play the significant role in overall influence of co-emulsifiers on emulsions properties. Glyceryl stearate was found to be the dominant co-emulsifier affecting emulsions properties. Interactions between the glyceryl stearate and other co-emulsifiers were also found to significantly influence emulsions properties. These findings are especially important

  17. Zea mays, L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    It is mostly used for domestic and industrial washing/cleaning. The use of these chemicals in crude oil contaminated soil is among the current progressive techniques available for decontaminating crude oil polluted soils or removal of hydrocarbon from the soil. These chemicals emulsify and weaken the hydrocarbon.

  18. Gastric emptying of oils in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palin, K.J.; Whalley, D.R.; Wilson, C.G.; Phillips, A.J.; Davis, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Sulphur colloid, labelled with technetium 99 and emulsified with arachis oil, miglyol 812 or liquid paraffin, was administered orally to male rats. A gamma camera, linked to a computer was used for imaging for 108 mins. after administration. The efficiency of the oils to aid stomach emptying was compared and arachis oil found to be the most effective. (U.K.)

  19. Synthesis and Surface Activity of Cationic Amino Acid-Based Surfactants in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Katarzyna E

    2017-01-01

    I studied the possibility of using amino acid-based surfactants as emulsifiers at the same time as preservatives. Fourteen lipopeptides were synthesized employing a solid phase peptide synthesis procedure. All compounds were designed to be positively charged from +1 to +4 and acylated with fatty acid chain-palmitic and miristic. The surface activity of the obtained lipopeptides was tested using a semi-automatic tensiometer to calculate parameters describing the behavior of lipopeptides in the air/water interface. Such parameters as CMC, surface tension at the CMC point ( σ CMC ), effectiveness ( π CMC ), and efficiency (pC20) were measured. Emulsifying properties of all lipopeptides were also examined. The studies reveal that the surface active properties of synthesized compounds strongly depend on the length of alkyl chains as well as on the composition of amino acid polar heads. The critical micelle concentration decreases with increasing alkyl chain length of lipopeptides with the same polar head. The effectiveness and efficiency decrease when the number of amino acids in the polar head increases. All lipopeptides established a very weak emulsification power and created unstable water/Miglyol 812 and water/paraffin oil emulsions. Results suggest that lipopeptides cannot be used as emulsifiers; nonetheless, it is possible to use them as auxiliary surfactants with disinfectant properties in combination with more potent emulsifiers.

  20. Native carbonoxidation microorganisms in bioremedetion Northern Caspian sea from oil pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gridneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 26 strains microorganisms - degradation oil have been isolated from shelf water North Caspian. The high emulsifying ability relative to benzine, kerosene and diesel-fuel oil relevantly were possessed the 11 strains. The 4 cultures exhibiting degradation of oil rates 43-49 %, respectively, were selected.

  1. Structuring in ß-sitosterol + gamma-oryzanol-based emulsion gels during various stages of temperature cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, A.; Adel, den R.; Regkos, C.; Sawalha, H.I.M.; Venema, P.; Flöter, E.

    2011-01-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions were prepared, structured only by a mixture of sitosterol and oryzanol and without further emulsifiers, containing 16 and 32% total sterol(esters)s on lipid phase and 10, 30 or 60% water. Previously, mixtures of ß-sitosterol + ¿-oryzanol were shown to form self-assembled

  2. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of [Cp2Ti(OH)]+ as polymerisation catalyst. Sodium n-dodecyl sulphate (SDS) is expected to play the dual role of stabilizer of the cation as well as an emulsifying agent for the monomer. Accordingly, homo-polymerisation of styrene4a,4c and methylmethacrylate (MMA)4b,4c was carried out in aqueous medium in the ...

  3. Mechanical properties of fats in relation to their crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.

    1998-01-01

    Crystallization in bulk fats is always initiated by a heterogeneous nucleation process. Homogeneous nucleation conditions for fully hydrogenated palm oil (HP) in sunflower oil (SF) could be obtained by emulsifying the fat phase into very fine droplets and using sodium caseinate as an

  4. [Optimization of formulations for dietetic pastry products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, M; Uquiche, E; Brito, G; Cancino, M

    2000-03-01

    Optimized formulations of dietetic pastry products such as cake and sponge cake premixes were formulated using the surface response methodology. % Emulsifier agent and baking time were the selected independent variables for cake, as well as % emulsifier agent % chlorinated flour the variables selected for sponge cake. Three different level of each variable summing up thirteen experimental formulae of each product were assessed to optimize the variables that could have some influence in the sensory characteristics of these dietetic products. The total sensory quality was determined for both dietetic products using the composite scoring test and a panel of 18 trained judges. Looking at the contour graphic and considering economic aspects the best combination of variables for cake formulation was 2% emulsifier agent and 48 minutes for baking time, With respect to sponge cake, the best combination was 6% emulsifier agent and 48% chlorinated flour. Shelf life studies showed that both dietetic formulations remained stable during storage conditions of 75 days at 30 degrees C. During this period, significant differences in sensory characteristics were not found (p pastry products had good acceptability, and open up marketing opportunities for new products with potential health benefits to consumers.

  5. Jatropha seed protein functional properties for technical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestari, D.; Mulder, W.J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha press cake, by-product after oil expression from Jatropha seeds, contains 24–28% protein on dry basis. Objectives of this research were to investigate functional properties, such as solubility, emulsifying, foaming, film forming, and adhesive properties, of Jatropha press cake proteins and

  6. Polybutadiene latex particle size distribution analysis utilizing a disk centrifuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdurmen, E.M.F.J.; Albers, J.G.; German, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Polybutadiene (I) latexes prepd. by emulsifier-free emulsion polymn. and having particle diam. 50-300 nm for both unimodal and bimodal particles size distributions were analyzed by the line-start (LIST) method in a Brookhaven disk centrifuge photosedimentometer. A special spin fluid was designed to

  7. Explosive composition containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattermole, G.R.; Lyerly, W.M.; Cummings, A.M.

    1971-11-26

    This addition to Fr. 1,583,223, issued 31 May 1968, describes an explosive composition containing a water in oil emulsion. The composition contains an oxidizing mineral salt, a nitrate base salt as sensitizer, water, an organic fuel, a lipophilic emulsifier, and incorporates gas bubbles. The composition has a performance which is improved over and above the original patent.

  8. Microbial biosurfactants with their high-value functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial world is a rich source for finding valuable industrial chemicals and ingredients. Specifically, many microbial metabolites are surface-active compounds that can be developed into bio-based surfactants, detergents, and emulsifiers. Techno-economic analyses for the production of bio-based ...

  9. Chemical characterization of carbohydrate-based biosurfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-yield, glycolipid-based biosurfactants are of increasing interest for use in environmentally benign cleaning or emulsifying agents. We have developed a MALDI-TOF/MS screen for the rapid analysis of several types of biosurfactants, including various acylated rhamnolipids in Pseudomonas extracts...

  10. Carbohydrate-based renewable biosurfactants: Rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, and novel liamocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-yield, glycolipid-based biosurfactants are of increasing interest for use in environmentally benign cleaning or emulsifying agents. We have developed a MALDI-TOF/MS screen for the rapid analysis of several types of biosurfactants, including various acylated rhamnolipids in Pseudomonas extracts...

  11. Effect of W/O Emulsion Fuel Properties on Spray Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Tamio; Fuchihata, Manabu; Takeda, Shuuco

    This study proposes a realizable technology for an emulsion combustion method that can reduce environmental loading. This paper discusses the effect on spray combustion for W/O emulsion fuel properties with an added agent, and the ratio between water and emulsifier added to a liquid fuel. The addition of water or emulsifier to a liquid fuel affected the spray combustion by causing micro-explosions in the flame due to geometric changes in the sprayed flame and changes to the temperature distribution. Experimental results revealed that the flame length shortened by almost 40% upon the addition of the water. Furthermore, it was found that water was effective in enhancing combustion due to its promoting micro-explosions. Results also showed that when the emulsifier was added to the spray flame, the additive burned in the flame's wake, producing a bright red flame. The flame length was observed to be long as a result. The micro-explosion phenomenon, caused by emulsifier dosage differences, was observed using time-dependent images at a generated frequency and an explosion scale with a high-speed photography method. Results indicated that the micro-explosion phenomenon in the W/O emulsion combustion method effectively promoted the combustion reaction and suppressed soot formation.

  12. Plant gum exudates (Karau) and mucilages, their biological sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years those polymers derived from plants have evoke tremendous interest because of their industrial applications as diluent binders, thickening agents, smoothening, emulsifiers, gelling agents and stabilizers. This increasing research in this group of these plant materials are clear indications of their increasing ...

  13. MIKROEMULSIFIKASI FRAKSI TIDAK TERSABUNKAN DISTILAT ASAM LEMAK MINYAK SAWIT [Microemulsification of Unsaponifiable Fractions of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD is a by-product of palm oil refining that contains valuable bioactive compounds such as phytosterols, tocopherol, tocotrienols, and squalene which acummulates in unsaponifiable fraction (USF. In emulsion form, USF will be convenient and easy to use as food supplements or fortificants. Microemulsion is a type of emulsion that has stable droplet sizes of less than 10 m. Hence, the best emulsifier for USF microemulsion is important to be determined. The USF microemulsion was prepared by homogenizing the sample mixtures at 12.000 rpm for 20 min at USF concentration of 10% (w/v with lecithin and tween 80 as the emulsifiers at concentratiosn of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (w/v. The microemulsions were analyzed for their viscosity, stability, and particle size distributions, as well as microstructures. The results showed that characteristics of microemulsion were affected by emulsifier types and concentrations. Tween 80 produced better microemulsion than lecithin as indicated by more stable emulsions, smaller droplet sizes, and narrower ranges of droplet size distributions. Increasing lectihin concentrations resulted in a narrower droplet size distribution but the average droplet size was not always smaller. Conversely, increasing tween 80 concentrations increased the average droplet sizes and ranges of particle size distributions. The most suitable emulsifier for USF microemulsion was tween 80 at concentration of 0.5%. This microemulsion contained bioactive compounds derived from USF, namely vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols, phytosterols, and squalene.

  14. Seeded emulsion polymerization of butadiene. 1. The propagation rate coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdurmen, E.M.F.J.; Dohmen, E.H.M.; Verstegen, J.M.; Maxwell, I.A.; German, A.L.; Gilbert, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of the emulsifier-free, seeded polymn. of butadiene (I) at 60 Deg in Smith-Ewart interval III were studied in presence of Na peroxodisulfate initiator and tert-dodecyl mercaptan. The fractional conversion was based on gravimetrically calibrated online densitometry and was highly

  15. Miniemulsification process - different form of spontaneous emulsification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Aasser, M.S.; Lack, C.D.; Vanderhoff, J.W.; Fowkes, F.M.

    1988-01-15

    The miniemulsification process involves the use of low concentrations of mixed emulsifier combinations of an ionic surfactant (e.g. sodium lauryl sulfate) and a cosurfactant (e.g. long-chain fatty alcohol - cetyl alcohol). The product is an oil-in-water miniemulsion with an average droplet diameter of 100-400 nm, and excellent shelf stability. The dominant presence of liquid crystals in the aqueous mixed emulsifier system, under conditions of the miniemulsification process, was confirmed by consideration of phase diagrams, conductivity and birefringence studies. Unexpectedly, interfacial tension studies showed relatively high values of 5-15 dyn cm/sup -1/. In spite of these high interfacial tensions, spontaneous emulsification was found at the oil-water interface, contrary to what is known in the field. Adsorption and electrophoretic mobility studies suggested that the miniemulsification process takes place by unidirectional swelling of the lamellar bilayers in the aqueous mixed emulsifier liquid crystal system as a result of absorption of oil, followed by subdivision of these entities. The stability of miniemulsions formed by this process is influenced by a steric component in the mixed emulsifier complex adsorbed at the oil-water interface.

  16. 21 CFR 177.1630 - Polyethylene phthalate polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this chapter. (iv) Emulsifiers: Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate: As an adjuvant in the application of coatings to the base sheet or base polymer. Sodium lauryl sulfate: As an adjuvant in the application of coatings to the base sheet or base polymer. 2-Sulfoethyl methacrylate, sodium salt (CAS Reg. No. 1804-87-1...

  17. Improved Logistics for Chemical and Biologics Decontamination for Deployed Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    miscible with ethanolamine (the main solvent of the lanthanide neutralization system) include tetrahydrofuran (THF), ethyl lactate, dimethylsulfoxide ...55 Preliminary Co- Solvent Testing Solvent –Rubber Interaction Observations NMP – 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone THF – Tetrahydrofuran DMSO ...salts and/or the incorporation of a variety of components such as co- solvents , emulsifiers, and other additives to improve their neutralization

  18. Biomimetic Self-Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-21

    methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethylacetamide (DMA), dimethylformamide (DMF), and dimethylsulfoxide ( DMSO ) displayed the best results; unfortunately...Both techniques demand the production of a stable emulsion, using solvents that do not react with the healing substances. If water is used (and it...highly cross-linked UF polymer. Healing chemicals, solvents , surfactants, and emulsifiers are not shown. Figure 6. Synthesis of PU capsules

  19. Surface Shear Rheology of Saponin Adsorption Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Saponins are a wide class of natural surfactants, with molecules containing a rigid hydrophobic group (triterpenoid or steroid), connected via glycoside bonds to hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. These surfactants are very good foam stabiliziers and emulsifiers, and show a range of nontrivial

  20. Role of the hydrophobic phase for the unique rheologica properties of saponin adsorption layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golemanov, K.; Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Pelan, E.G.; Stoyanov, S.D.

    2014-01-01

    Saponins are a diverse class of natural, plant derived surfactants, with peculiar molecular structure consisting of a hydrophobic scaffold and one or several hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. Saponins have strong surface activity and are used as natural emulsifiers and foaming agents in food and

  1. An Evaluation of Emulsions in Wear-Metal-in-Oil Analyses | Fischer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oil samples were treated with acid and emulsified in water (1% w/w) using tetralin as a solvent and Triton X-100 as a surfactant. The performance characteristics (detection limits, accuracy, precision and spike recovery) of the emulsion methodology were evaluated. The calibration for the emulsion method compared ...

  2. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  3. Emulsion droplet spreading at air/water interfaces: mechanisms and relevance to the whipping of cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotrum, N.E.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords:emulsion, spreading coefficient, surface tension, emulsifier, whipped cream, dairy foam, partial coalescence In this thesis, the interaction between emulsion droplets and expanding air/water interfaces was investigated. The

  4. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cooked or very slight acid or emulsifier flavor; is free from any undesirable tastes and odors. (b) Body... Administration. The average age of the cheese in the blend shall be such that the desired flavor, body and... determined on the basis of flavor, body and texture, color, and finish and appearance. (a) Flavor. Has a...

  5. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cooked or very slight acid or emulsifier flavors; is free from any undesirable tastes and odors. (b) Body... Administration. The average age of the cheese in the blend shall be such that the desired flavor, body and... determined on the basis of flavor, body and texture, color, and finish and appearance. (a) Flavor. Has a...

  6. 7 CFR 58.738 - Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... slight cooked, acid, or emulsifier flavor; is free from any undesirable tastes and odors. (b) Body and... shall be determined on the basis of flavor, body and texture, color, and finish and appearance. (a) Flavor. Has a pleasing and desirable cheese taste and odor characteristic of the variety or varieties of...

  7. INFANTS (1 MONTH – 1 YEAR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Baby products are seldom useful. Moisturisers like aqueous cream or emulsifying oint- ment are applied often, especially after bathing, and any of the dozens of pro- prietary moisturisers can be used (Epimax, Nutraplus, Oilatum, Epizone A,. Cream E45, SBR lipocream and lipolotion, etc). Irritation from clothing is particu-.

  8. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). Copies may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug... ingredient is used as a thickener, emulsifier, or stabilizer in alcoholic beverages at a use level not to exceed 20 percent in the final beverage. [70 FR 8034, Feb. 17, 2005] ...

  9. Functionality of whey proteins covalently modified by allyl isothiocyanate. Part 1 physicochemical and antibacterial properties of native and modified whey proteins at pH 2 to 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppler, Julia Katharina; Martin, Dierk; Garamus, Vasil M.; Berton-Carabin, Claire; Nipoti, Elia; Coenye, Tom; Schwarz, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Whey protein isolate (WPI) (∼75% β-lactoglobulin (β-LG)) is frequently used in foods as a natural emulsifying agent. However, at an acidic pH value, its emulsification capacity is greatly reduced. The covalent attachment of natural electrophilic hydrophobic molecules to WPI proteins is a

  10. Identification of the Properties of Gum Arabic Used as a Binder in 7.62-mm Ammunition Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Sutherland, and Ann Masko from United States Department of Agriculture Forest Products Laboratory. CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Technical...Viscoelasticity, Produce a Hydrogel Form, and Convert a Poor into a Good Emulsifier," Food Hydrocolloids, 21:319-328, 2007. 57 17. Bitter, T. and Muir

  11. Process optimization for maximizing the rheology modifying properties of pectic hydrocolloids recovered from steam exploded biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pectic hydrocolloids from citrus peel waste are highly functional molecules whose utility and application have expanded well beyond their traditional use in jams and jellies. They are now finding applications in health, pharmaceutical and personal care products as well as functioning as emulsifiers,...

  12. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of acid thinned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the investigation, the acid modification of cassava starch at 60°C with 0.1M hydrochloric acid solutions for 1hr and 2hr gave pastes that are stable, and have workable viscosities and can form gel in food processing. Therefore, the results suggest that they are suitable for the food industry as food emulsifiers/stabilizers.

  13. 40 CFR 158.310 - Product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PAI TGAI or PA 9, 21 830.7300 Density/relative density/bulk density R MP and TGAI EP and TGAI 9 830... an oxidizing or reducing agent. 14. Required when the product contains combustible liquids. 15. Required when the product is potentially explosive. 16. Required when the product is an emulsifiable liquid...

  14. Combination of sodium caseinate and succinylated alginate improved stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yesiltas, Betül; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Sodium caseinate (CAS) and commercial sodium alginate (CA), long chain modified alginate (LCMA) or short chain modified alginate (SCMA) were used in combination for emulsifying and stabilizing high fat (50–70%) fish oil-in-water emulsions. Physical (creaming, droplet size, viscosity and protein...

  15. Ultra structure of oil-in-water emulsions a comparison of different microscopy- and preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Loussert, C.; Humbel, B.M.

    of food grade emulsifiers such as whey protein, sodium caseinate and milk phospholipids; layers that are expected to be in the range of only a few nm. Furthermore, the liquid nature and high water content of the samples further complicates the preparation process;especially since water is a major...

  16. Lipid oxidation in n-3 fatty acid enriched Dutch style fermented sausages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelser, W.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Houben, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Dutch style fermented sausages were manufactured with a substitution of 10%, 15% and 20% of pork backfat by flaxseed oil and canola oil, pre-emulsified with soy protein isolate. The 15% and 20% substitution were also reached by adding encapsulated flaxseed oil and encapsulated fish oil and by adding

  17. Effects of Tween 80 on growth and biofilm formation in laboratory media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Krogsård Nielsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tween 80 is a widely used nonionic emulsifier that is added to cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and foods. Because of its widespread use we need to understand how it affects bacteria on our skin, in our gut, and in food products. The aim of this study is to investigate how Tween 80 affects the growth and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas fluorescens, which are common causes of spoilage and foodborne illnesses. Addition of 0.1% Tween 80 to laboratory growth media increased the growth rate of planktonic S. aureus batch cultures, and it also increased the total biomass when S. aureus was grown as biofilms. In contrast, Tween 80 had no effect on batch cultures of L. monocytogenes, it slowed the growth rate of P. fluorescens, and it led to formation of less biofilm by both L. monocytogenes and P. fluorescens. Furthermore, Tween 80 lowered the antibacterial efficacy of two hydrophobic antimicrobials: rifampicin and the essential oil isoeugenol. Our findings underline the importance of documenting indirect effects of emulsifiers when studying the efficacy of hydrophobic antimicrobials that are dispersed in solution by emulsification, or when antimicrobials are applied in food matrixes that include emulsifiers. Furthermore, the species-specific effects on microbial growth suggests that Tween 80 in cosmetics and food products could affect the composition of skin and gut microbiota, and the effect of emulsifiers on the human microbiome should therefore be explored to uncover potential health effects.

  18. Factors affecting the oxidative stability of omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Omega-3 fatty acids are prone to lipid oxidation due to their unsaturated nature. In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used and the structure at the interface are therefore expected to be of great...

  19. Fed and fasted state gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the ability of a gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis model to predict the performance of two lipid formulations and a conventional tablet containing a poorly soluble drug, cinnarizine, in dogs, both in the fasted and fed state. A self-nano-emulsifying drug de...

  20. Fabrication and Properties of Micro-Nanoencapsulated Phase Change Materials for Internally-Cooled Liquid Desiccant Dehumidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yue; Yan, Yufeng; Liu, Tao

    2017-04-29

    Micro-nanoencapsulated phase change materials (M-NEPCMs) are proposed to be useful in liquid desiccant dehumidification by restraining the temperature rise in the moisture-removal process and improving the dehumidification efficiency. In this paper, the n -octadecane M-NEPCMs with desirable thermal properties for internally-cooled dehumidification were fabricated by using compound emulsifiers through the in-situ polymerization method. Melamine-formaldehyde resin was used as the shell material. The effects of the mixing ratio, emulsification methods and amount of the compound emulsifiers on the morphology, size and thermal properties of the M-NEPCMs were investigated experimentally. The optimum weight mixing ratio of the compound emulsifiers is SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate):Tween80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate):Span80 (sorbitan monooleate) = 0.1:0.6:0.3, which achieves the best stability of the n -octadecane emulsion. When the compound emulsifiers are 10 wt. % of the core material, the melting enthalpy of M-NEPCMs reaches its maximum of 145.26 J/g of capsules, with an encapsulation efficiency of 62.88% and a mean diameter of 636 nm. The sub-cooling of the prepared M-NEPCMs is lower than 3 °C, with an acceptable thermal reliability after the thermal cycling test. A pre-emulsification prior to the addition of deionized water in the emulsification is beneficial to the morphology of the capsules, as the phase change enthalpy can be increased by 123.7%.

  1. Fe-Catalyzed Oxidative Cleavage of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spannring, P.

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids into aldehydes or carboxylic acids gives access to valuable products. The products can be used as chemical building blocks, as emulsifiers or in the paint or polymer industry. Ozonolysis is applied industrially to cleave the fatty acid oleic acid

  2. Epidemiology of Helminth Parasites of West African Dwarf Goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    1997). A small portion of the faecal sample was emulsified with a few drop of normal saline on a clean grease free slide covered with covering ship, air bubble and over floating was avoided. Helminth eggs have district characteristics which were used for their identification and eggs with similar features and parasites ...

  3. Interfacial properties of whey protein and whey protein hydrolysates and their influence on O/W emulsion stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, A.J.; Berton-Carabin, C.C.; Venema, P.; Cornacchia, L.

    2017-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates are commonly used in high-tolerance or hypoallergenic formulae. The relation between the physicochemical properties of hydrolysed proteins (i.e., size, molecular weight distribution, charge, hydrophobicity), and their emulsifying properties is not fully understood. In this work,

  4. The origin of life and the potential role of soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M.; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2016-01-01

    Single chain amphiphiles, such as fatty acids and alkyl sulfates, have found industrial uses as emulsifying agents, lubricants, detergents and soaps. Fatty acids are also used as excipients and, because of their biochemical activity, even as active ingredients in drug formulations. The applications...

  5. Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emulsifiable formulation on two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae. Weibin and. Mingguang (2004) found that both B. bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus infections decreased the hatch rates of Tetranychus cinnanarinus eggs and the higher the conidial concentrations resulted in greater reduction in the hatch rates.

  6. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Cane Wax Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and characterize indomethacin (IM) microspheres prepared with sugar cane wax microsperes. Methods: Microspheres were prepared by melt-emulsified dispersion and cooling-induced solidification method. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differntial scanning calorimetry ...

  8. 21 CFR 172.810 - Dioctyl sodium sulfo-suc-cinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.810 Dioctyl sodium sulfo-suc-cinate. The food additive... gums or hydrophilic colloids. (d) As an emulsifying agent for cocoa fat in noncarbonated beverages...

  9. Strategies for encapsulation of small hydrophilic and amphiphilic drugs in PLGA microspheres: State-of-the-art and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramazani, F.; Chen, Weiluan; van Nostrum, C.F.; Storm, Gerrit; Kiessling, F.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Hennink, W.E.; Kok, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres are efficient delivery systems for controlled release of low molecular weight drugs as well as therapeutic macromolecules. The most common microencapsulation methods are based on emulsification procedures, in which emulsified droplets of polymer and

  10. 21 CFR 172.846 - Sodium stearoyl lactylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.846 Sodium stearoyl lactylate. The food additive sodium stearoyl... emulsifier, stabilizer, or texturizer in snack dips, at a level not to exceed 0.2 percent by weight of the...

  11. Impact of lipid-based drug delivery systems on the transport and uptake of insulin across Caco-2 Cell monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ping; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Müllertz, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Self-(nano)-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDSs) used to deliver peptides and proteins across biological barriers, such as the small intestinal membrane, represents an increasingly interesting field in nanomedicine. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the impact of SNEDDS...

  12. Physicochemical properties of surimi powder made from threadfin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The addition of dryoprotectant also improved the emulsifying and foaming properties compared to the control. Ca2+-ATPase activity, sulfhydryl content and gel electrophoresis results suggested that the protein in the control sample was denatured during the drying process whereas the addition of dryoprotectant successfully ...

  13. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanopowders by sol–gel emulsion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    gel emulsion technique, where the sol (water medium) is emulsified, in a support ... The sol was prepared by mixing a 2 M solution of calcium acetate dissolved in ... powder using a punch and die set and a KBr press (model. M-15) with a ...

  14. Ofokansi, KC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ofokansi, KC. Vol 5, No 1 (2006) - Articles The use of liquid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems based on peanut oil/tween 80 in the delivery of griseofulvin. Abstract · Vol 8, No 1 (2010) - Articles A Novel Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System Based on a Homolipid from Capra Hircus for the Delivery of Indomethacin

  15. Encapsulation of fish oil in nanofibers by emulsion electrospinning: Physical characterization and oxidative stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; van derKruijs, Jules

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of fish oil in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers by emulsion electrospinning was investigated. Independently of the emulsifier used, whey protein isolate (WPI) or fish protein hydrolysate (FPH), PVA concentration had a high influence on fiber morphology. Fibers without bead d...

  16. Antimicrobial activity of thyme oil co-nanoemulsified with sodium caseinate and lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Michael Davidson, P; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-10-01

    Emulsions of essential oils are investigated as potential intervention strategies to improve food safety and are preferably prepared from generally-recognized-as-safe emulsifiers. Stable thyme oil nanoemulsions can be prepared using combinations of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and soy lecithin. The objective of the present research was to study the antimicrobial activity of these nanoemulsions and understand the impacts of emulsifier concentrations. 10 g/L thyme oil was emulsified using combinations of (A) 4% w/v NaCas and 0.5% w/v lecithin or (B) 2% w/v NaCas and 0.25% w/v lecithin by high shear homogenization. Combination A resulted in a transparent emulsion with a mean droplet diameter of 82.5 nm, while it was turbid for the Combination B with an average diameter of 125.5 nm. Nanoemulsified thyme oil exhibited quicker initial reductions of bacteria than free thyme oil in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and 2% reduced fat milk at 21 °C, due to the improved dispersibility of thyme oil. In TSB with 0.3 g/L thyme oil, it took less than 4 and 8 h for two nanoemulsions and free oil, respectively, to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes to be below the detection limit. The emulsified thyme oil also demonstrated more significant reductions of bacteria initially (4 and 8 h) in 2% reduced fat milk than free thyme oil. Especially, with 4 g/L thyme oil, the nanoemulsion prepared with Combination A reduced L. monocytogenes to be below the detection limit after 72 h, while the free thyme oil treatment was only bacteriostatic and the turbid nanoemulsion treatment with Combination B resulted in about 1 log CFU/mL reduction. However, E. coli O157:H7 treated with 3 g/L emulsified thyme oil and Salmonella Enteritidis treated with 4 g/L emulsified thyme oil recovered to a higher extent in milk than free thyme oil treatments. The increased concentration of emulsifiers in Combination A apparently reduced the antimicrobials available to alter bacteria membrane permeability

  17. Bioconversion of biodiesel refinery waste in the bioemulsifier by Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans CLA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Monteiro Andrea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microbial bioemulsifiers was surface active compounds, are more effective in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions. The yeasts have been isolated to produce bioemulsifiers from vegetable oils and industrial wastes. Results Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans CLA2 is bioemulsifier-producing yeast strain isolated from effluents of the dairy industry, with ability to emulsify different hydrophobic substrates. Bioemulsifier production (mg/L and the emulsifying activity (E24 of this strain were optimized by response surface methodology using mineral minimal medium containing refinery waste as the carbon source, which consisted of diatomaceous earth impregnated with esters from filters used in biodiesel purification. The highest bioemulsifier production occurred in mineral minimal medium containing 75 g/L biodiesel residue and 5 g/L ammonium sulfate. The highest emulsifying activity was obtained in medium containing 58 g/L biodiesel refinery residue and 4.6 g/L ammonium sulfate, and under these conditions, the model estimated an emulsifying activity of 85%. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis suggested a bioemulsifier molecule consisting of monosaccharides, predominantly xylose and mannose, and a long chain aliphatic groups composed of octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid at concentrations of 48.01% and 43.16%, respectively. The carbohydrate composition as determined by GC-MS of their alditol acetate derivatives showed a larger ratio of xylose (49.27%, mannose (39.91%, and glucose (10.81%. 1 H NMR spectra confirmed by COSY suggested high molecular weight, polymeric pattern, presence of monosaccharide’s and long chain aliphatic groups in the bioemulsifier molecule. Conclusions The biodiesel residue is an economical substrate, therefore seems to be very promising for the low-cost production of active emulsifiers in the emulsification of aromatics, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and kerosene.

  18. Modeling complex and multi-component food systems in molecular dynamics simulations on the example of chocolate conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Maximilian; Sonnleitner, Bettina; Mailänder, Markus; Briesen, Heiko

    2014-02-01

    Additional benefits of foods are an increasing factor in the consumer's purchase. To produce foods with the properties the consumer demands, understanding the micro- and nanostructure is becoming more important in food research today. We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a tool to study complex and multi-component food systems on the example of chocolate conching. The process of conching is chosen because of the interesting challenges it provides: the components (fats, emulsifiers and carbohydrates) contain diverse functional groups, are naturally fluctuating in their chemical composition, and have a high number of internal degrees of freedom. Further, slow diffusion in the non-aqueous medium is expected. All of these challenges are typical to food systems in general. Simulation results show the suitability of present force fields to correctly model the liquid and crystal density of cocoa butter and sucrose, respectively. Amphiphilic properties of emulsifiers are observed by micelle formation in water. For non-aqueous media, pulling simulations reveal high energy barriers for motion in the viscous cocoa butter. The work for detachment of an emulsifier from the sucrose crystal is calculated and matched with detachment of the head and tail groups separately. Hydrogen bonding is shown to be the dominant interaction between the emulsifier and the crystal surface. Thus, MD simulations are suited to model the interaction between the emulsifier and sugar crystal interface in non-aqueous media, revealing detailed information about the structuring and interactions on a molecular level. With interaction parameters being available for a wide variety of chemical groups, MD simulations are a valuable tool to understand complex and multi-component food systems in general. MD simulations provide a substantial benefit to researchers to verify their hypothesis in dynamic simulations with an atomistic resolution. Rapid rise of computational resources successively

  19. Delivery of phytochemical thymoquinone using molecular micelle modified poly(D, L lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganea, Gabriela M; Warner, Isiah M [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, 434 Choppin Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Fakayode, Sayo O [Department of Chemistry, Anderson Center Modular Unit 244-B, Winston-Salem State University, Winston Salem, NC 27110 (United States); Losso, Jack N [Food Science Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, 111 Food Science Building, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Van Nostrum, Cornelus F [Department of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS), Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands); Sabliov, Cristina M, E-mail: iwarner@lsu.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, 141 E B Doran Building, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2010-07-16

    Continuous efforts have been made in the development of potent benzoquinone-based anticancer drugs aiming for improved water solubility and reduced adverse reactions. Thymoquinone is a liposoluble benzoquinone-based phytochemical that has been shown to have remarkable antioxidant and anticancer activities. In the study reported here, thymoquinone-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were synthesized and evaluated for physico-chemical, antioxidant and anticancer properties. The nanoparticles were synthesized by an emulsion solvent evaporation method using anionic molecular micelles as emulsifiers. The system was optimized for maximum entrapment efficiency using a Box-Behnken experimental design. Optimum conditions were found for 100 mg PLGA, 15 mg TQ and 0.5% w/v poly(sodium N-undecylenyl-glycinate) (poly-SUG). In addition, other structurally related molecular micelles such as poly(sodium N-heptenyl-glycinate) (poly-SHG), poly(sodium N-undecylenyl-leucinate) (poly-SUL), and poly(sodium N-undecylenyl-valinate) (poly-SUV) were also examined as emulsifiers. All investigated molecular micelles provided excellent emulsifier properties, leading to maximum optimized TQ entrapment efficiency, and monodispersed particle sizes below 200 nm. The release of TQ from molecular micelle modified nanoparticles was investigated by dialysis and reached lower levels than the free drug. The antioxidant activity of TQ-loaded nanoparticles, indicated by IC50 (mg ml{sup -1} TQ for 50% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity), was highest for poly-SUV emulsified nanoparticles (0.030 {+-} 0.002 mg ml{sup -1}) as compared to free TQ. In addition, it was observed that TQ-loaded nanoparticles emulsified with poly-SUV were more effective than free TQ against MDA-MB-231 cancer cell growth inhibition, presenting a cell viability of 16.0 {+-} 5.6% after 96 h.

  20. Formation of water-in-diesel oil nano-emulsions using high energy method and studying some of their surface active properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, formations of water-in-diesel oil nano-emulsions using water/mixed nonionic surfactant/diesel oil system have been studied. The high energy emulsification method was used to form three emulsions using different water contents: 5%, 10% and 14% (v/v namely; E1, E2 and E3, respectively. These nano-emulsions were stabilized with emulsifiers having different Hydrophilic–Lipophilic Balance (HLB namely; span 80 (HLB = 4.3, emarol 85 (HLB = 11 and their mixture (SE with HLB = 10. The effect of water on the droplet size formation has been investigated. The interfacial tension and thermodynamic properties of the individual and emulsifiers blends have been studied. The interfacial tension (γ measurements at 30 °C were used to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC and surface active properties of these emulsifiers. The water droplet sizes were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS. From the obtained data, it was found that, mean sizes between 19.3 and 39 nm were obtained depending on the water content and concentration of blend emulsifiers (SE. Also, the results show that, the interfacial tension (γ gives minimum value (10.85 mN/m for SE comparing with individual emulsifier (17.13 and 12.77 mN/m for span 80 and emarol 85, respectively. The visual inspection by TEM showed that the obtained results support the data obtained by dynamic light scattering.

  1. PROSES PEMBUATAN PASTA BAWANG MERAH (Allium cepa var. aggregatum DAN PENENTUANUMUR SIMPANNYADALAM KEMASAN GELAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Ayu Permatasari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shallot is a commodity that is widely used as a spice. The unstable supply and price of shallot causes it requires some further processing. The alternative of shallot processing is shallot paste. The aims of this study wereto develop shallot paste formula which had a strong aromaas well as determination of shelf life in a glass jar. This study has several steps, i.e. preparation and characterization of fresh shallot, processing shallot paste, and determination of shelf life shallot paste in glass jar with the ESS (Extended Storage Studies method. This main research used completely randomized design with two factors: first, the ratio of fresh shallot and shortening, and second, emulsifier concentration. The ratio of fresh shallot and shortening were 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 with emulsifier concentration of 2, 3 and 4% for each ratio of fresh shallot and shortening. The statistical analysis showed that the ratio of fresh shallot and shortening affected theFFA (free fatty acid value. Concentration of emulsifier and interaction between emulsifier concentration and ratio of fresh shallot and shortening affected VRS (volatile reducing substance content of shallot paste. The best shallot paste treatment determined was the ratio of fresh shallot and shortening of 3:1 with emulsifier concentration of 4%. Shelf-life of packaged shallot paste in glass jar was 10 days at temperature 30, 40 and 50oC. During the storage, FFA value increased and VRS value decreased along with the increase in storage temperature. The increased of FFA value was caused by fat hydrolysis during storage, while the VRS value decreased due to the evaporation of sulfur compounds as flavor components in shallot paste during stir frying.

  2. Cloning and heterologous expression of a hydrophobin gene Ltr.hyd from the tiger milk mushroom Lentinus tuber-regium in yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydrophobins are small proteins secreted by filamentous fungi, which show a highly surface activity. Because of the signally self-assembling abilities and surface activities, hydrophobins were considered as candidates in many aspects, for example, stabilizing foams and emulsions in food products. Lentinus tuber-regium, known as tiger milk mushroom, is both an edible and medicinal sclerotium-producing mushroom. Up to now, the hydrophobins of L. tuber-regium have not been identified. Results: In this paper, a Class I hydrophobin gene, Ltr.hyd, was cloned from L. tuber-regium and expressed in the yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The expression vector pGEH-GH was under the control of T. fuciformis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd promoter. The integration of Ltr.hyd into the genome of T. fuciformis was confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, fluorescence observation and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE demonstrated that recombinant hydrophobin rLtr.HYD with an expected molecular mass of 13 kDa was extracted. The yield of rLtr.HYD was 0.66 mg/g dry weight. The emulsifying activity of rLtr.HYD was better than the typical food emulsifiers sodium caseinate and Tween 20. Conclusions: We evaluated the emulsifying property of hydrophobin Ltr.HYD, which can be potentially used as a food emulsifier. Keywords: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Emulsifier, Expression vector, Filamentous fungi, Gel electrophoresis, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Heterogenous expression, Hydrophobin, Quantitative real-time PCR, Southern blot, Surface activity

  3. The influence of alkali fatty acids on the properties and the stability of parenteral O/W emulsions modified with solutol HS 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszello, K; Harnisch, S; Müller, R H; Müller, B W

    2000-03-01

    Arachis oil based parenteral O/W emulsions were prepared using soya bean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) and different combinations of co-emulsifiers containing polyethylene glycol fatty acid esters (Solutol HS 15) and alkali fatty acids (sodium laurate, sodium stearate). The parameters measured were droplet size (both by photon correlation spectroscopy and laser diffractometry), pH and zeta potential. All emulsions were subjected to autoclaving. The addition of polyethylene glycol 12-hydroxy stearate (Solutol HS 15) led to a significant decrease of mean oil droplet size. For long-term stability the amount added turned out to be the most important factor. With increased amounts of Solutol HS 15 the packing density of the emulsifier layer and the zeta potential decreased leading to instability. The optimum load of Solutol HS 15 was found to be 15 micromol/ml. Alkali fatty acids markedly improved the physical stability of the emulsions. Improved stability properties conferred to emulsions by alkali fatty acids could be attributed to the zeta potential increase even in the presence of Solutol HS 15. Consequently a mixed emulsifier film was established in which the ionized fatty acids determined the interface charge. In addition to this a strengthening of the molecular interactions occurring between phospholipid and Solutol HS 15 emulsifier in the presence of ionized fatty acids at the O/W interface can be assumed (L. Rydhag, The importance of the phase behaviour of phospholipids for emulsion stability, Fette Seifen Anstrichm. 81 (1979) 168-173). Different co-emulsifier mixtures were shown to have a pronounced impact on the plasma protein adsorption onto emulsion droplets.

  4. A formulation to encapsulate nootkatone for tick control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behle, Robert W; Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Bharadwaj, Anuja; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-11-01

    Nootkatone is a component of grapefruit oil that is toxic to the disease-vectoring tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, but unfortunately causes phytotoxicity to treated plants and has a short residual activity due to volatility. We prepared a lignin-encapsulated nootkatone formulation to compare with a previously used emulsifiable formulation for volatility, plant phytotoxicity, and toxicity to unfed nymphs of I. scapularis. Volatility of nootkatone was measured directly by trapping nootkatone vapor in a closed system and indirectly by measuring nootkatone residue on treated filter paper after exposure to simulated sunlight (Xenon). After 24 h in the closed system, traps collected only 15% of the nootkatone applied as the encapsulated formulation compared with 40% applied as the emulsifiable formulation. After a 1-h light exposure, the encapsulated formulation retained 92% of the nootkatone concentration compared with only 26% retained by the emulsifiable formulation. For plant phytotoxicity, cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., leaves treated with the encapsulated formulation expressed less necrosis, retaining greater leaf weight compared with leaves treated with the emusifiable formulation. The nootkatone in the emulsifiable formulation was absorbed by cabbage and oat, Avena sativa L., plants (41 and 60% recovered 2 h after application, respectively), as opposed to 100% recovery from the plants treated with encapsulated nootkatone. Using a treated vial technique, encapsulated nootkatone was significantly more toxic to I. scapularis nymphs (LC50 = 20 ng/cm2) compared with toxicity of the emulsifiable formulation (LC50 = 35 ng/cm2). Thus, the encapsulation of nootkatone improved toxicity for tick control, reduced nootkatone volatility, and reduced plant phytotoxicity.

  5. Influencia de la relación proteína de altramuz/tensioactivo en las propiedades de flujo y texturales de emulsiones aceite en agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco, J. Mª.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different surfactant/lupin protein ratio on the shear-flow and texture properties of oil-in-water emulsions was investigated in this work in order to find a synergistic effect between both types of emulsifiers. With this aim, texture, steady-shear flow and droplet size measurements were carried out. Different surfactants (Tween 20 and three sucrose esters showing different phase behaviour in water solution were studied. From the experimental results it can be concluded that emulsions stabilised by mixtures of both, low- and high-molecular-weight emulsifiers, show lower values of steady-state viscosity and textural parameters than those found when lupin protein was the only emulsifier used, in spite of a higher average droplet size. The evolution of emulsion textural and flow parameters with the composition of the mixture used as emulsifier can be explained on the basis of the phase behaviour of the low-molecular-weight emulsifier, modifications on the composition at the interface and hydrophobic interactions between both type of emulsifiers.En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la influencia que ejerce la proporción proteína de altramuz/emulsionante de bajo peso molecular en el comportamiento viscoso y en las propiedades texturales de emulsiones alimentarias aceite en agua con el fin de investigar un posible efecto sinérgico entre ambos tipos de emulsionantes. Con este propósito, se efectuaron medidas de tamaño de gota, flujo viscoso y propiedades texturales en emulsiones estabilizadas por proteína de altramuz y tensioactivos de diferente HLB (Tween 20 y tres estearatos de sacarosa. De los resultados experimentales, se concluye que las emulsiones estabilizadas por ambos tipos de emulsionantes muestran valores de la viscosidad en estado estacionario y de las propiedades texturales estudiadas inferiores a los encontrados en la emulsión estabilizada únicamente con proteína de altramuz, a pesar de poseer esta última un

  6. The effects of formulation on the immunostimulatory activity of dihydroheptaprenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James A; Hibbard, Beth; Frank, Dagmar E; Kesl, Lyle; Robb, Edward J

    2002-01-01

    Holstein steer calves received a single injection of Miglyol (Sasol Chemical Industries, Ltd.) subcutaneously as a placebo, dihydroheptaprenol (DHP) (4 mg/kg) emulsified with lecithin subcutaneously, DHP in solution in Miglyol (4 mg/kg) subcutaneously, or DHP in solution in Miglyol (4 mg/kg) intranasally. The DHP emulsified in lecithin emulsion administered subcutaneously caused a substantial increase in body temperature, total leukocyte count, total neutrophil count, neutrophil cytochrome-c reduction, and neutrophil iodination 24 hours after administration and, for some of the parameters, at 48 hours. The DHP formulation in Miglyol did not have any of these effects when administered subcutaneously or intranasally. The carrier and formulation of DHP apparently have major effects on the biologic activity of DHP.

  7. Influence of surfactants on gas-hydrate formation' kinetics in water-oil emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkov, Yu D.; Shirshova, A. V.; Arinstein, E. A.; Shuvaev, A. N.

    2018-05-01

    The kinetics of gas hydrate formation of propane in a water-oil emulsion is experimentally studied when three types of surfactants (SAA (surface acting agent)) - anionic type emulsifiers - are added to the aqueous phase. It is shown that all three types of surfactants decelerate the growth of the gas-hydrate in the emulsion and can be considered as anti-agglutinating and kinetic low-dose inhibitors. The most effective inhibitor of hydrate formation in water-oil emulsion of SV-102 surfactant was revealed. For comparison, experimental studies of gas-hydrate formation under the same conditions for bulk water have been carried out. It is shown that in bulk water, all the surfactants investigated act as promoters (accelerators) of hydrate formation. A qualitative explanation of the action mechanisms of emulsifiers in the process of gas-hydrate formation in water-oil emulsion is given.

  8. Strategies to inhibit the lipid oxidation in the enzymatic synthesis of monoglycerides by glycerolysis of Babassu oil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.14187

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Freitas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different strategies to avoid the lipid feedstock oxidation in the enzymatic synthesis of monoglycerides (MAG from glycerolysis of babassu oil were tested. The reactions were catalyzed by Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized on SiO2-PVA and the tests carried out in batchwise. The best strategy was tested in a continuous packed-bed reactor. Different antioxidants and emulsifiers were used, including: Buthyl-hydroxy-toluene (BHT, tocopherol, soy lecithin and Triton X-100. The influence of inert atmosphere (N2 on the MAG production was also investigated. Results were compared with those attaining in the control reaction. The best performance was obtained using N2 in the reaction medium, preventing the oxidation of babassu oil. MAG concentrations were 60 and 24% in batch and continuous mode, respectively. Among the tested antioxidant and emulsifying agents, only soy lecithin was found to be efficient but its application showed limit performance to be used in continuous runs.  

  9. A test to illustrate the effects of BioSolve on the mobility of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Lorri M.

    1999-01-01

    Mountain States BioSolve manufactures products for in-situ bioremediation projects. One of their products, BioSolve, desorbs and emulsifies hydrocarbons in a contaminated substrate. BioSolve is a blend of water-based, biodegradable surfactants which were engineered as a clean-up and mitigation agent for hydrocarbon products. Its basic mechanism is to emulsify the hydrocarbon into small encapsulated particles in a water/oxygen-bearing solution, desorbing hydrocarbon molecules from soil particles. This allows bacteria to more effectively metabolize the contaminate. During desorption, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) levels may increase shortly after application due to the removal of contaminate from soil particles which increases the total recoverable hydrocarbon. This allows the hydrocarbon, in the pump and treat process, to become mobile, and thus carried with the water to the recovery wells where it can be removed. This testing does not address pump and treat technology but only the increased surface area for bioremediation enhancement

  10. Radiation-induced emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Takeshi

    1979-10-01

    The radiation-induced emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) has been studied at initial pressure 2 - 25 kg/cm 2 and temperature 30 0 - 110 0 C for dose rate 0.57 x 10 4 - 3.0 x 10 4 rad/hr. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a hydrophobic polymer, forms as a stable latex in the absence of an emulsifier. Stability of the latex is governed by the dose rate/TFE pressure ratio; it increases with sufficient TFE monomer. PTFE particles produced in this polymerization system are stable due to the carboxyl end groups and adsorption of OH - and HF on the particles. PTFE latex of molecular weight higher than 2 x 10 7 is obtained by addition of a radical scavenger such as hydroquinone. The molecular weight of PTFE can be measured from the heat of crystallization conveniently with high reliability, which was found in the course of study on the melting and crystallization behavior. (author)

  11. Production and properties of biosurfactants from a newly isolated Pseudomonas fluorescens HW-6 growing on hexandecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasileva-Tonkova, E.; Galabova, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Dept. of Microbial Biochemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Stoimenova, E.; Lalchev, Z. [Dept. of Biochemistry, Sofia Univ. ' ' St. Kliment Ohridski' ' , Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2006-07-15

    The newly isolated from industrial wastewater Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HW-6 produced glycolipid biosurfactants at high concentrations (1.4-2.0 g 1{sup -1}) when grown on hexadecane as a sole carbon source. Biosurfactants decreased the surface tension of the air/water interface by 35 mN m{sup -1} and possessed a low critical micelle concentration value of 20 mg 1{sup -1}, which indicated high surface activity. They efficiently emulsified aromatic hydrocarbons, kerosene, n-paraffins and mineral oils. Biosurfactant production contributed to a significant increase in cell hydrophobicity correlated with an increased growth of the strain on hexadecane. The results suggested that the newly isolated strain of Ps. fluorescens and produced glycolipid biosurfactants with effective surface and emulsifying properties are very promising and could find application for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites. (orig.)

  12. The effects of specified chemical meals on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, H S; Maggio, C A

    1978-10-01

    Rats received intragastric infusions of various specified chemical meals and were subsequently tested for a reduction in food intake. A second experiment, using a novel technique, tested for conditioned aversion to the meal infusions. The nonnutritive substances, kaolin clay and emulsified fluorocarbon, had no significant effect on food intake. Infusions of 1 M glucose and 1 M sorbitol reduced feeding behavior, but the 1 M sorbitol infusion also produced a conditioned aversion to flavored pellets paired with the sorbitol infusion, showing that the reduced feeding could have been caused by discomfort. Infusion of a high-fat meal consisting of emulsified triolein mixed with small amounts of sugar and protein or the rat's normal liquid diet, Nutrament, also reduced food intake, and both infusions failed to produce a conditioned aversion. The use of specified meals to understand the chemical basis of satiety requires a sensitive behavioral test to establish that the meal does not cause discomfort or other nonspecific effects.

  13. Experimental use of produced waters for waterflooding fields of Kuibyshev region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palii, P A; Gavura, V E; Redkin, I I; Sokolov, A G

    1970-01-01

    Large volumes of produced waters have been used for waterflooding in the Kuibyshev region. Before underground injection, the water is conditioned by short-term storage. The treated water contains emulsified oil, suspended solids, hydrogen sulfide, and ferrous iron. This water is readily injected into fractured porous formations, even if suspended solids reach 42 mg/liter and emulsifed oil 67 mg/liter. However, better quality water has to be injected into nonfractured formations. In this case, the concentration of emulsified oil and suspended solids needs to be kept below 5 mg/liter. If concentration of suspended material exceeds this limit, water injectivity decreases rapidly. The partially plugged wells can be restored by acid treatment. Water injection has shown large economic gains in this region.

  14. Effect of different dextrose equivalents of maltodextrin on oxidation stability in encapsulated fish oil by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Ghani, Asmaliza; Adachi, Sae; Shiga, Hirokazu; Neoh, Tze Loon; Adachi, Shuji; Yoshii, Hidefumi

    2017-04-01

    Encapsulating fish oil by spray drying with an adequate wall material was investigated to determine if stable powders containing emulsified fish-oil-droplets can be formed. In particular, the dextrose equivalent (DE) of maltodextrin (MD) affects the powder structure, surface-oil ratio, and oxidative stability of fish oil. The carrier solution was prepared using MD with different DEs (DE = 11, 19, and 25) and sodium caseinate as the wall material and the emulsifier, respectively. The percentage of microcapsules having a vacuole was 73, 39, and 38% for MD with DE = 11, 19, and 25, respectively. Peroxide values (PVs) were measured for the microcapsules incubated at 60 °C. The microcapsules prepared with MD of DE = 25 and 19 had lower PVs than those prepared with MD of DE = 11. The difference in PV can be ascribed to the difference in the surface-oil ratio of the spray-dried microcapsules.

  15. Characteristics of waste forms improved by using admixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzyski, B.M.; Suarez, A.A.

    1989-06-01

    The immobilization of nitric waste streams with ordinary Portland cement can be improved by use of some admixtures. The aim of this work was to investigated how the main characteristics of waste forms prepared with Portalnd cement pastes are modified by the addition of sulphonic naphtalene acids, lignosulphonic acids and emulsified fatty acids, which are present in some commercial admixtures. The effectiveness of the admixture in reducing the pore volume, as well as improving other parameters, depends on its chemical composition and on the amount utilized as well as the water to cement ratio and salt content. The admixture which has emulsified fatty acids in its composition shows some adverse results when the samples are immersed in water. The mechanical strenght however is some what increased even when water load is increased. (author) [pt

  16. Nanostructured aqueous dispersions of citrem interacting with lipids and PEGylated lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, S.F.; Nilsson, Christa; Laurinmäki, P.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the formation of nanostructured aqueous dispersions based on the negatively charged food-grade emulsifier citrem (citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides). To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature on the spontaneous formation of aqueous PEGylated and non-PEGy...... ) phase. Based on the SAXS results, the partial replacement of citrem by high amount of MO or PHYT induced the formation of hexosomes. The investigated dispersions of citrem could be attractive as nanocarriers of poorly water-soluble drugs and functional foods.......We report on the formation of nanostructured aqueous dispersions based on the negatively charged food-grade emulsifier citrem (citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides). To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature on the spontaneous formation of aqueous PEGylated and non...

  17. Radiolysis of carbohydrates and of carbohydrate-containing foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.; Adam, S.; Delincee, H.; Jakubick, V.

    1978-01-01

    Toxicological evaluation of irradiated foodstuffs requires knowledge of radiation-induced chemical changes. A review of the literature reveals much information on the radiation chemistry of pure substances, e.g., dilute solutions of individual carbohydrates. Much less is known about the interactions of food constituents during irradiation. In an effort to remedy this situation, radiation effects on various compounds have been studied in systems of increasing complexity. In one approach, gas chromatography was used to investigate the radiolysis of tehalose in pure solution and in the presence of amino acids or proteins. In another approach, radiation-induced aggregation of proteins and of [ 14 C]tryptophan with proteins was studied in the absence and presence of carbohydrates (trehalose, starch), emulsified sunfower oil, and a mixture of carbohydrates and emulsified sunflower oil

  18. Preparation and mechanical properties of edible rapeseed protein films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-Ae; Lim, Geum-Ok; Song, Kyung Bin

    2011-03-01

    Edible films were manufactured from rapeseed oil extraction residues. To prepare rapeseed protein (RP) films, various concentrations of plasticizers and emulsifiers were incorporated into the preparation of a film-forming solution. The optimal conditions for the preparation of the RP film were 2% sorbitol/0.5% sucrose as plasticizer and 1.5% polysorbate 20 as an emulsifier. In addition, RP blend films were prepared. Gelidium corneum or gelatin was added to improve the physical properties of the RP film, and the highest tensile strength value of the films was 53.45 MPa for the 3% RP/4% gelatin film. Our results suggest that the RP-gelatin blend film is suitable for applications in food packaging. Edible RP films prepared in the present investigation can be applied in food packaging.

  19. Effects of surfactants on bacteria and the bacterial degradation of alkanes in crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruheim, Per

    1998-12-31

    This thesis investigates the effects of surfactants on the bacterial degradation of alkanes in crude oil. Several alkane oxidising Gram positive and Gram negative were tested for their abilities to oxidise alkanes in crude oil emulsified with surfactants. The surfactants used to make the oil in water emulsions were either of microbial or chemical origin. Oxidation rates of resting bacteria oxidising various crude oil in water emulsions were measured by Warburg respirometry. The emulsions were compared with non-emulsified oil to see which was the preferred substrate. The bacteria were pregrown to both the exponential and stationary phase of growth before harvesting and preparation for the Warburg experiments. 123 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Effects of Limited Hydrolysis and High-Pressure Homogenization on Functional Properties of Oyster Protein Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuiping; Cha, Yue; Wu, Fan; Xu, Xianbing; Du, Ming

    2018-03-22

    In this study, the effects of limited hydrolysis and/or high-pressure homogenization (HPH) treatment in acid conditions on the functional properties of oyster protein isolates (OPI) were studied. Protein solubility, surface hydrophobicity, particle size distribution, zeta potential, foaming, and emulsifying properties were evaluated. The results showed that acid treatment led to the dissociation and unfolding of OPI. Subsequent treatment such as limited proteolysis, HPH, and their combination remarkably improved the functional properties of OPI. Acid treatment produced flexible aggregates, as well as reduced particle size and solubility. On the contrary, limited hydrolysis increased the solubility of OPI. Furthermore, HPH enhanced the effectiveness of the above treatments. The emulsifying and foaming properties of acid- or hydrolysis-treated OPI significantly improved. In conclusion, a combination of acid treatment, limited proteolysis, and HPH improved the functional properties of OPI. The improvements in the functional properties of OPI could potentiate the use of oyster protein and its hydrolysates in the food industry.

  1. Use and declaration of additives in meat products: New legal regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Ilija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the more important additives used in meat products, their functional characteristics, the permitted quantities and declaration in keeping with the new legal regulations. Additives important for meat products, according to their functional characteristics, can be preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers, emulsifying salts, acidity regulators, sequestrants, thickeners, gelling agents, modified starches, acids, colours, aroma enhancers, packaging gases and coating powders, and it must be pointed out that many additives have several functional characteristics at the same time. In stating additives in the list of contents of a product, the elementary functional characteristic of the additive is given with the E number or name of the additive in brackets; modified starches are declared as „starch" without giving the E number. The declaration does not state the quantity of the additive added to the product, or the biggest permitted quantity of the additive in the given product.

  2. Effect of Limited Hydrolysis on Traditional Soy Protein Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana B. Pesic

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of limited proteolysis of soy protein concentrate on proteinextractability, the composition of the extractable proteins, their emulsifying properties andsome nutritional properties were investigated. Traditional concentrate (alcohol leachedconcentrate was hydrolyzed using trypsin and pepsin as hydrolytic agents. Significantdifferences in extractable protein composition between traditional concentrate and theirhydrolysates were observed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE and by SDSPAGE.All hydrolysates showed better extractability than the original protein concentrate,whereas significantly better emulsifying properties were noticed at modified concentratesobtained by trypsin induced hydrolysis. These improved properties are the result of twosimultaneous processes, dissociation and degradation of insoluble alcohol-induced proteinaggregates. Enzyme induced hydrolysis had no influence on trypsin-inibitor activity, andsignificantly reduced phytic acid content.

  3. Emulsion properties of pork myofibrillar protein in combination with microbial transglutaminase and calcium alginate under various pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Geun Pyo; Min, Sang-Gi; Chin, Koo Bok

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) and calcium alginate (CA) systems in combination with soybean oil on the emulsion properties of porcine myofibrillar protein (MP) were evaluated under various pH conditions. MTG was shown to improve emulsifying capacity and creaming stability, which increased with increasing pH values up to 6.5. The CA did not influence emulsifying capacity, but it improved the creaming stability of the MP-stabilized emulsions. Both MTG and CA enhanced the rheological properties, but their effects on the physical characteristics of the protein evidenced an opposite trend in relation to pH, i.e., the MTG system improved both the emulsion and gelling properties with increasing pH, whereas the CA system was effective when the pH was lowered. By combining the two MP gelling systems, a stable and pH-insensible emulsion could be produced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of nano hydroxyapatite using reverse micro emulsions as nano reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, S.; Siddique, T.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work reverse micro emulsion has been employed as nano reactors to synthesize nano crystalline Hydroxyapatite (HA). Two precursors; calcium and phosphate with different counter ions of each were used for the synthesis of HA at two different temperatures. To maintain the emulsified nano reactor, cyclohexane, TX-100 and 1-butanol including phosphate precursor was the continuous phase while aqueous Ca precursor solution was taken as the dispersed phase. Nano crystalline particles thus produced were evaluated on the basis of synthesis route, counter ions and temperature. It has been shown that emulsified nano reactors control the morphology, particle size and minimize phase transformation of HA. Characterizations of nano powder of HA are carried out using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HA crystallite size was found to be in the range of 20-25 nm whereas the morphology of nano particles changed from spheres to rods. (author)

  5. In vivo postprandial bioavailability of interesterified-lipids in sodium-caseinate or chitosan based O/W emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, M; Villalón, M J; Ortíz, M E; Nieto, S; Bouchon, P

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown that it should be possible to control lipid bioavailability through food structural approaches. Nevertheless, the gastrointestinal-tract physiological conditions must also be considered. To get a better understanding of this phenomenon, we evaluated the effect of emulsification, as well as the use of sodium caseinate or chitosan, on the postprandial bioavailability of interesterified-lipids in O/W emulsions after oral gastric feeding Sprague-Dawley rats. We verified that emulsification may increase lipid absorption, as determined after feeding sodium-caseinate emulsions. However, this result could not be generalised. Interesterified-lipids that were emulsified with chitosan were equally absorbed as those contained in non-emulsified interesterified-lipids/distilled-water blends. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Thermochromic microcapsules with highly transparent shells obtained through in-situ polymerization of urea formaldehyde around thermochromic cores for smart wood coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Liu, Yu; Li, Zhao; Wang, Weicong

    2018-03-05

    In this paper, thermochromic microcapsules were synthesized in situ polymerization with urea formaldehyde as shell material and thermochromic compounds as core material. The effects of emulsifying agent and conditions on surface morphology and particle size of microcapsules were studied. It was found that the size and surface morphology of microcapsules were strongly depending on stirring rate and the ratio of core to shell. The stable and small size spherical microcapsules with excellent transparency can be obtained at an emulsifying agent to core to shell ratio as 1:5:7.5 under mechanical stirring at 12 krpm for 15 min. Finally, the thermochromic property was discussed by loading microcapsules in wood and wood coatings. Results indicate that microcapsules can realize the thermochromic property while incorporated with wood and coatings, and could have high potential in smart material fabrication.

  7. Characteristics of waste forms improved by using admixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzyski, B.M.; Suarez, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The immobilization of nitric waste streams with ordinary Portland cement can be improved by use of some admixtures. The aim of this work was to investigate how the main characteristics of waste forms prepared with Portland cement pastes are modified by the addition of sulphonic naphyhalene acids, lignosulphonic acids and emulsified fatty acids, which are present in some commercial admixtures. The effectiveness of the admixtures in reducing the pore volume, as well as improving other parameters, depends on its chemical composition and on the amount utilized as well as the water to cement ratio and salt content. The admixture which has emulsified fatty acids in its composition shows some adverse results when the samples are immersed in water. The mechanical strength however is somewhat increased even when water load is increased

  8. Migration of fluorochemical paper additives from food-contact paper into foods and food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, T H; Hsu, W; Noonan, G; Diachenko, G

    2008-03-01

    Fluorochemical-treated paper was tested to determine the amount of migration that occurs into foods and food-simulating liquids and the characteristics of the migration. Migration characteristics of fluorochemicals from paper were examined in Miglyol, butter, water, vinegar, water-ethanol solutions, emulsions and pure oil containing small amounts of emulsifiers. Additionally, microwave popcorn and chocolate spread were used to investigate migration. Results indicate that fluorochemicals paper additives do migrate to food during actual package use. For example, we found that microwave popcorn contained 3.2 fluorochemical mg kg(-1) popcorn after popping and butter contained 0.1 mg kg(-1) after 40 days at 4 degrees C. Tests also indicate that common food-simulating liquids for migration testing and package material evaluation might not provide an accurate indication of the amount of fluorochemical that actually migrates to food. Tests show that oil containing small amounts of an emulsifier can significantly enhance migration of a fluorochemical from paper.

  9. Some strategies for the stabilization of long chain n-3 PUFA-enriched foods: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    to reduce or inhibit lipid oxidation by: (1) optimizing the processing conditions; (2) utilizing n-3 PUFA delivery systems; and (3) addition of antioxidants. Practical applications: This review provides an overview of how food producers can inhibit or reduce lipid oxidation in various real foods enriched...... with n-3 PUFA. Particular emphasis are not only on emulsified foods, such as mayonnaise, dressing, milk, and yoghurt drink, but solid foods, such as energy bars, fish paté, and cakes are also touched upon. For emulsified foods, it is possible to reduce lipid oxidation by optimizing homogenization...... conditions (pressure and temperature) and the type of homogenization equipment can also affect lipid oxidation. The use of fish-oil-in water emulsions as an n-3 PUFA delivery system can reduce lipid oxidation in some cases, but the delivery system must be optimized for the food system in question. Finally...

  10. Oxidation in fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise 2 : Assessment of the efficacy of different tocopherol antioxidant systems by discriminant partial least squares regression analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Lund, Pia

    2000-01-01

    . The rheological and structural properties of the mayonnaise were also affected by the addition of extra emulsifier, but this did not influence the formation of fishy and rancid off-flavours. Addition of the A system caused the immediate formation of distinct fish; and rancid off-flavours in the fresh mayonnaises......Oxidative protection of mayonnaises with 16% fish oil was studied during cold storage (5 degrees C) after supplementation with different tocopherol systems: the ternary antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol (A/L/T), and two commercial mixtures, an oil-soluble (Toco 70......) preparation and a water-soluble (Grindox 1032) preparation, The physical structure of the fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise was manipulated by adding extra emulsifier (Panodan TR) with the purpose of investigating whether or not this affected the antioxidative activity of the tocopherol mixtures. A number...

  11. Characterization of water-in-oil emulsions produced with microporous hollow polypropylene fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELMAR SCHUBERT

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of fine and monodispersed water-in-oil (W/O emulsions by utilizing hydrophobic hollow polypropylene fibers with 0.4 mm pores was investigated in this work. The experiments were carried out using demineralized water as the disperse phase, mineral oil Velocite No. 3 as the continuous phase, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR 90 in the concentration range of 2.5 – 10 wt % as the oil-soluble emulsifier. The size of the water droplets in the prepared emulsions and the droplet size distribution strongly depend on the content of the disperse phase, the transmembrane pressure difference, and the emulsifier concentration. Stable emulsions with a very narrow droplet size distribution and a mean droplet diameter lower than 0.27 µm were produced using 10 wt % PGPR 90 at a pressure difference below 30 kPa.

  12. Some observations on the pre-boilover burning of a slick of oil on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garo, J.P.; Vantelon, J.P.; Gandhi, S.; Torero, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of burning oil in water were investigated to establish a systematic methodology for ignition of oil-spills. A simple heat conduction model was used to describe the pre-boil over burning rate of crude oil and heating oil. Results from the model were compared with experimental pool burning test results. The calculations agreed well with experiments conducted with crude oil and heating oil. Theoretical expressions were also successfully correlated with emulsified and weathered crude. The parameters considered for the calculations included the fuel layer thickness, the weathering level and the percentage of water emulsified in the fuel. The model accurately described the regression rate for fuel layers thicker than 8 mm. 22 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs

  13. Oxidative Stability of Nano-Microstructures containing fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Özdemir, N.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen

    investigated. For that purpose, three different biopolymers namely pullulan, dextran and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were evaluated as encapsulating materials. First, the influence of biopolymer concentration on the physical properties (e.g. viscosity, conductivity and surface tension) of the biopolymer...... solutions and on the morphology of NMS was assayed. Secondly, the oxidative stability of the biopolymer solutions containing emulsified fish oil during storage (14 days at 40 °C) and of NMS loaded with fish oil (e.g. pullulan fibers and dextran and WPC capsules) was determined. Finally, to improve...... the oxidative status of the NMS, pullulan fibers, dextran capsules and WPC capsules were produced by adding neat fish oil instead of emulsified fish oil to the biopolymer solutions. These latter NMS presented a higher oxidative stability, which may be due to a better entrapment of the fish oil into biopolymer...

  14. RESEARCH OF UV-PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF FERULIC ACID AS PART OF OINTMENT COMPOSITIONS WITH DIFFERENT PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Abisalova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics with the ability to neutralize harmful influence of ultraviolet rays on skin are quite in demand. UV filters in creams composition are divided into two groups: physical and chemical. Antioxidants are used as chemical UV filters. The article presents the results of ferulic acid testing as UV filter in ointment bases with lipophile, hydrophile and lipophilic and hydrophilic properties. The dependence of ferulic acid efficiency from the base type where it was applied was established. The results received are correlated with data about release rate of ferulic acid received in vitro. Ointment bases with such emulsifiers as cetyl alcohol, base emulsifier and Olivem 1000 have the most signified UV protective effect of ferulic acid.

  15. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  16. Emulsification of waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels: An attractive alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the possibility and feasibility of the use of emulsification method applied to waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels, compared with other commonly used methods. These waste products are obtained from the refining oil industry, food industry and service sector, mainly. They are rarely used as feedstock to produce biofuels and other things, in spite of constitute a potential source of environmental contamination. From the review of the state of arts, significant decreases in exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, cylinder pressure as well as increases of the ignition delay, brake specific fuel consumption, hydrocarbon, smoke opacity, carbon monoxide, particulate matters to emulsified waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates compared with diesel fuel are reported. In some experiments the emulsified waste cooking oils achieved better performance than neat fatty acid distillates, neat waste cooking oils and their derivatives methyl esters.

  17. Laboratory Study of The Effect of Lemongrass Leaves Cymbopogon citratus on An Onion Thrips Insect Thrips tabaci (Thripidae: Thysanoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ather A. Mohsin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study was carried out to test the effect of the extracts of ethanol, chloroform, volatile oil and emulsifier of Cymbopogon citratus in killing the adults of the thrips tabaci. The concentrations 250, 500 and 1000 ppm. The results showed that the highest percentage of killed in Volatile oil with a concentration of 1000 ppm at 60.00, 63.33, 66.66, 70 and 76.66% for the first, second, third, fifth and seventh days of control and the lowest percentage was for the emulsifier at 30.00, 36.66, 46.66, 53.33 and 63.33% for the first and second, third, fifth and seventh days of the control, respectively, and we noticed that the higher the concentrations, the higher the percentage of killings and the increase in the percentage of killings cumulatively, as it was the highest percentage of killing on the seventh day.

  18. A modified microemulsion method for fabrication of hydrogel Tragacanth nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid

    2018-04-09

    Tragacanth is a nontoxic, biodegradable and biocompatible polymer applied as a nanostructure form in various fields such as biomedicine and food industry. Here, hydrogel Tragacanth nanofibers were fabricated using a modified microemulsion method. The effective parameters on the fabrication of nanofibers such as emulsifier type, stirrer type, processing time and concentrations of emulsifier, Tragacanth and aluminum chloride were studied and the conditions were optimized for high quality nanofibers. SEM images indicated Tragacanth nanofiberswere successfully synthesized with average diameter of 50 nm and uniformdistribution. Appear a peak at 1110 cm -1 related to Al-C bonds and reduce intensity ofthe peaks at 1742 and 1629 cm -1 and in FT-IR spectrum of nanofibersprove the successfully synthesis. Further, the hydrogel properties of the synthesized nanofibers can be proved by the swelling of 142% and drying time of 3 h. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Design and characterization of copaiba oil/alginate films for wound dressings application: Effect of copaiba oil concentration on the film properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Aryane Christine Neves; Silva, Classius Ferreira da

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Polymeric films have been used as wound dressings for burns and wounds. The healing, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties of these films can be induced or potentiated by the incorporation of bioactive like herbal medicines. In this work, alginate films were produced incorporating copaiba oil (Copaifera L.) which has the properties as mentioned above. The casting technique was used to prepare the copaiba oil/alginate films. The copaiba oil was previously emulsified in an alginate solution, and the emulsion was cast in a Petri dish before slow drying. The copaiba oil concentration was evaluated. The films were characterized according to the permeability to water vapor, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mechanical properties. The emulsified films showed appropriate properties for use as wound dressings. The main effect on the properties occurred in the highest concentration of copaiba oil. (author)

  20. Design and characterization of copaiba oil/alginate films for wound dressings application: Effect of copaiba oil concentration on the film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Aryane Christine Neves; Silva, Classius Ferreira da, E-mail: aryanemartins_@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Polymeric films have been used as wound dressings for burns and wounds. The healing, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties of these films can be induced or potentiated by the incorporation of bioactive like herbal medicines. In this work, alginate films were produced incorporating copaiba oil (Copaifera L.) which has the properties as mentioned above. The casting technique was used to prepare the copaiba oil/alginate films. The copaiba oil was previously emulsified in an alginate solution, and the emulsion was cast in a Petri dish before slow drying. The copaiba oil concentration was evaluated. The films were characterized according to the permeability to water vapor, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mechanical properties. The emulsified films showed appropriate properties for use as wound dressings. The main effect on the properties occurred in the highest concentration of copaiba oil. (author)