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Sample records for empowerment expansion framework

  1. Empowerment for healthy nutrition in German communities: a study framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, Susanne; Curbach, Janina; Lindacher, Verena; Rueter, Jana; Warrelmann, Berit; Loss, Julika

    2017-06-01

    Empowerment is seen as a key strategy for sustainable health promotion efforts. However, there is only limited research on how to link the empowerment approach to the promotion of healthy eating, which is a major current public health issue. The article presents the development of a study framework for implementing and evaluating an empowerment intervention for healthy nutrition. This framework was created for a community intervention study meaning to involve elderly citizens in Bavaria, Germany. The study protocol was developed in an iterative process basing on (i) literature reviews on the topics empowerment in relation to healthy nutrition and mixed-methods evaluation, (ii) workshops with empowerment and public health experts and (iii) consultations with local community representatives. Through these measures we identified good practice criteria as well as specific challenges of integrating empowerment and healthy nutrition, e.g. engaging people in healthy nutrition, reconciling participants' nutrition preferences with public health nutrition priorities and evaluating bottom-up activities in the community. Consequences for the study design were deducted from the literature and the consultations, e.g. practical recommendations as to how power could be gradually assigned to group members. A qualitative mixed-method evaluation design was chosen to capture emergent empowerment processes. The study framework presented here is the first on empowerment and nutrition to provide explicit guidance on how empowerment may be applied to healthy nutrition and implemented and evaluated in the community context. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. An empowerment framework for nursing leadership development: supporting evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphee, Maura; Skelton-Green, Judith; Bouthillette, France; Suryaprakash, Nitya

    2012-01-01

    This article is a report on a descriptive study of nurse leaders' perspectives of the outcomes of a formal leadership programme. Effective nurse leaders are necessary to address complex issues associated with healthcare systems reforms. Little is known about the types of leadership development programmes that most effectively prepare nurse leaders for healthcare challenges. When nurse leaders use structural and psychological empowerment strategies, the results are safer work environments and better nurse outcomes. The leadership development programme associated with this study is based on a unifying theoretical empowerment framework to empower nurse leaders and enable them to empower others. Twenty seven front-line and mid-level nurse leaders with variable years of experience were interviewed for 1 year after participating in a formal leadership development programme. Data were gathered in 2008-2009 from four programme cohorts. Four researchers independently developed code categories and themes using qualitative content analysis. Evidence of leadership development programme empowerment included nurse leader reports of increased self-confidence with respect to carrying out their roles and responsibilities; positive changes in their leadership styles; and perceptions of staff recognition of positive stylistic changes. Regardless of years of experience, mid-level leaders had a broader appreciation of practice environment issues than front-line leaders. Time for reflection was valuable to all participants, and front-line leaders, in particular, appreciated the time to discuss nurse-specific issues with their colleagues. This study provides evidence that a theoretical empowerment framework and strategies can empower nurse leaders, potentially resulting in staff empowerment. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maja Lundemark

    2015-01-01

    et inspirationspapir om empowerment som tilgang i det beskæftigelsesrettede arbejde - især til regioner og kommuner og med henblik på samarbejde mellem professionelle og borgere......et inspirationspapir om empowerment som tilgang i det beskæftigelsesrettede arbejde - især til regioner og kommuner og med henblik på samarbejde mellem professionelle og borgere...

  4. The Youtuber Phenomenon and its Transmedia Expansion. Analysis of Youth Empowerment in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana HIDALGO-MARÍ; Jesús SEGARRA-SAAVEDRA

    2017-01-01

    This work approaches the phenomenon of youth empowerment in social media, specifically YouTube. For this, it studies the reach of the channels of the ten most important Spanish youtubers according to Social Blade, as well as the expansion and transmedia reach of their personal branding. The descriptive analysis of their channels and the latest published videos confirms the use of links to other social networks such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, as well as the presence of entertainment c...

  5. Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul

    2005-01-01

    Empowerment er et af tidens plus ord og betyder direkte oversat bemyndige eller sætte i stand. Det er et begreb, der sætter fokus på processer, hvor igennem mennesker bliver i stand til at modvirke afmagt og afhængighed. Målet er refleksive og myndige mennesker og aktører, med stemme og handlings......Empowerment er et af tidens plus ord og betyder direkte oversat bemyndige eller sætte i stand. Det er et begreb, der sætter fokus på processer, hvor igennem mennesker bliver i stand til at modvirke afmagt og afhængighed. Målet er refleksive og myndige mennesker og aktører, med stemme og...... empowerment interessen. Akademisk set er empowermentbegrebet nemlig ikke noget stærkt begreb, der nyder anerkendelse i akademia. Jeg vil imidlertid argumentere for at et kritisk transformativt empowermentperspektiv fortjener at blive mere indholdsudfyldt. Det handler grundlæggende om et samfundskritisk og...

  6. A framework linking community empowerment and health equity: it is a matter of CHOICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Susan B

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a framework to explore the relationship between health equity and community empowerment. It traces the progression of the concept of participation to the present term of empowerment and the links among empowerment, equity, and health outcomes. It argues that the relationship can best be described by using the acronym CHOICE (Capacity-building, Human rights, Organizational sustainability, Institutional accountability, Contribution, and Enabling environment). Based on the concept of development as freedom put forward by Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen, the paper describes how each factor illustrates the relationship between equity and empowerment in positive health outcomes, giving appropriate examples. In conclusion, it is suggested that these factors might form the basis of a tool to assess the relationship between equity and empowerment and its impact on health outcomes.

  7. A Framework of Organizational Empowerment for Strategic Military Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Empowerment, Performance , and Satisfaction ,” The Academy of Management Journal 47, no. 3 (June 2004): 332. 63 Ibid, 333. 64 Ibid, 334. 65 Ibid, 335. 66...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...military culture. The person with authoritative power may make unilateral decisions or involve participation by stakeholders. Victor Vroom from Yale

  8. Women Empowerment through ICT - Measuring the concept through an Empowerment Analytical Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna

    providing information on health care services, food, supporting in getting better education and thus making them well informed and helping to cope up with the knowledge economy. However, to what extent a women use ICT is strongly influenced by the type of social opportunities that she has. Similarly......Promoting gender equality and empowering women is one of the important Millennium Development Goals by the United Nations. ICT can be a major enabling tool in achieving these Goals. ICT plays a crucial role in the growth and development of a society. Its significance lies not only on the easier......, the social identity of a woman in the culture that she belongs to also influences the use of technology. The paper center on an Action research project for Women Empowerment through ICT carried out in India about how technology can bring a positive impact on the lives of women and how can they be empowered...

  9. Student Empowerment in an Environmental Science Classroom: Toward a Framework for Social Justice Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Alexandra Schindel

    2012-01-01

    Social justice education is undertheorized in science education. Given the wide range of goals and purposes proposed within both social justice education and social justice science education scholarship, these fields require reconciliation. In this paper, I suggest a student empowerment framework for conceptualizing teaching and learning social…

  10. Controlling Thermal Expansion: A Metal?Organic Frameworks Route

    OpenAIRE

    Balestra, Salvador R. G.; Bueno-Perez, Rocio; Hamad, Said; Dubbeldam, David; Ruiz-Salvador, A. Rabdel; Calero, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Controlling thermal expansion is an important, not yet resolved, and challenging problem in materials research. A conceptual design is introduced here, for the first time, for the use of metal?organic frameworks (MOFs) as platforms for controlling thermal expansion devices that can operate in the negative, zero, and positive expansion regimes. A detailed computer simulation study, based on molecular dynamics, is presented to support the targeted application. MOF-5 has been selected as model m...

  11. Hubble expansion in a Euclidean framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1979-01-01

    There now seems to be strong evidence for a non-cosmological interpretation of the QSO redshift - in any case, so strong that it is of interest to investigate the consequences. The purpose of this paper is to construct a model of the Hubble expansion which is as far as possible from the conventional Big Bang model without coming in conflict with any well-established observational results (while introducing no new laws of physics). This leads to an essentially Euclidean metagalactic model (see Table I) with very little mass outside one-third or half of the Hubble radius. The total kinetic energy of the Hubble expansion need only to be about 5% of the rest mass energy. Present observations support backwards in time extrapolation of the Hubble expansion to a 'minimum size galaxy' Rsub(m), which may have any value in 0 26 cm. Other arguments speak in favor of a size close to the upper value, say Rsub(m) = 10 26 cm (Table II). As this size is probably about 100 times the Schwarzschild limit, an essentially Euclidean description is allowed. The kinetic energy of the Hubble expansion may derive from an intense QSO-like activity in the minimum size metagalaxy, with an energy release corresponding to the annihilation of a few solar masses per galaxy per year. Some of the conclusions based on the Big Bang hypothesis are criticized and in several cases alternative interpretations are suggested. A comparison between the Euclidean and the conventional models is given in Table III. (orig.)

  12. Expansion and Validation of the PAPA Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Belle; Martin, Nancy; Imboden, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, ethics has drawn increased interest from information technology and computer science practitioners as well as from academicians. This article investigates the issues outlined in the PAPA framework in today's environment and explores the possibility that new issues have emerged. Findings indicate that the ethicality of property…

  13. Controlling Thermal Expansion: A Metal–Organic Frameworks Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Controlling thermal expansion is an important, not yet resolved, and challenging problem in materials research. A conceptual design is introduced here, for the first time, for the use of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as platforms for controlling thermal expansion devices that can operate in the negative, zero, and positive expansion regimes. A detailed computer simulation study, based on molecular dynamics, is presented to support the targeted application. MOF-5 has been selected as model material, along with three molecules of similar size and known differences in terms of the nature of host–guest interactions. It has been shown that adsorbate molecules can control, in a colligative way, the thermal expansion of the solid, so that changing the adsorbate molecules induces the solid to display positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion. We analyze in depth the distortion mechanisms, beyond the ligand metal junction, to cover the ligand distortions, and the energetic and entropic effect on the thermo-structural behavior. We provide an unprecedented atomistic insight on the effect of adsorbates on the thermal expansion of MOFs as a basic tool toward controlling the thermal expansion. PMID:28190918

  14. Controlling Thermal Expansion: A Metal-Organic Frameworks Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestra, Salvador R G; Bueno-Perez, Rocio; Hamad, Said; Dubbeldam, David; Ruiz-Salvador, A Rabdel; Calero, Sofia

    2016-11-22

    Controlling thermal expansion is an important, not yet resolved, and challenging problem in materials research. A conceptual design is introduced here, for the first time, for the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as platforms for controlling thermal expansion devices that can operate in the negative, zero, and positive expansion regimes. A detailed computer simulation study, based on molecular dynamics, is presented to support the targeted application. MOF-5 has been selected as model material, along with three molecules of similar size and known differences in terms of the nature of host-guest interactions. It has been shown that adsorbate molecules can control, in a colligative way, the thermal expansion of the solid, so that changing the adsorbate molecules induces the solid to display positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion. We analyze in depth the distortion mechanisms, beyond the ligand metal junction, to cover the ligand distortions, and the energetic and entropic effect on the thermo-structural behavior. We provide an unprecedented atomistic insight on the effect of adsorbates on the thermal expansion of MOFs as a basic tool toward controlling the thermal expansion.

  15. Young people and health: towards a new conceptual framework for understanding empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Grace

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, empowerment has become the focus of much work with young people amidst increasing concerns about their health. Empowerment is often offered as a 'solution' to such concerns, with the uncritical assumption being made that empowerment unproblematically results in positive health outcomes. While much of the health promotion literature advocates 'empowerment', it often does so without offering a clear conceptualisation of the word itself or indeed addressing the thorny theoretical tensions surrounding the concept's root word of power. In light of this omission, this article offers a more theoretically informed conceptualisation of empowerment and considers the relationship to young people's health. This article outlines a more dynamic and generative conceptualisation of empowerment than hitherto articulated in the literature, informed by Lukes' multidimensional perspective of power. Drawing on findings from an ethnographic study on empowerment and young people's health, this article develops six conceptually distinct forms of empowerment (impositional, dispositional, concessional, oppositional, normative and transformative). Data were collected from 55 young men and women aged 15-16 years through group discussions, individual interviews and observational work in a school and surrounding community settings in England. Crucially, these six new forms of empowerment capture and synthesise individual, structural and ideological elements of power that differentially, and sometimes inconsistently, shape the possibilities for young people's empowerment. Of significance is the way in which these different forms of empowerment intersect to (re)produce relations of power and may offer different possibilities for health promotion.

  16. Anisotropic thermal expansion in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Solveig Røgild; Lock, Nina; Overgaard, Jacob; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2014-06-01

    Ionothermal reaction between Mn(II)(acetate)2·4H2O and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) in either of the two ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (EMIMBr) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate (EMIMOTs) resulted in the formation of the new metal-organic framework (MOF) EMIM[Mn(II)BTC] (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate). The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with unit-cell parameters of a = 14.66658 (12), b = 12.39497 (9), c = 16.63509 (14) Å at 100 K. Multi-temperature single-crystal (15-340 K) and powder X-ray diffraction studies (100-400 K) reveal strongly anisotropic thermal expansion properties. The linear thermal expansion coefficients, αL(l), attain maximum values at 400 K along the a- and b-axis, with αL(a) = 115 × 10(-6) K(-1) and αL(b) = 75 × 10(-6) K(-1). At 400 K a negative thermal expansion coefficient of -40 × 10(-6) K(-1) is observed along the c-axis. The thermal expansion is coupled to a continuous deformation of the framework, which causes the structure to expand in two directions. Due to the rigidity of the linker, the expansion in the ab plane causes the network to contract along the c-axis. Hirshfeld surface analysis has been used to describe the interaction between the framework structure and the EMIM cation that resides within the channel. This reveals a number of rather weak interactions and one governing hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  17. A framework for the behaviour of unsaturated expansive clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gens, A.; Alonso, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a framework for describing the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated expansive clays. It is an extension of an existing formulation developed for unsaturated soils of low activity. The extended framework is based on the distinction within the material of a microstructural level where the basic swelling of the active minerals takes place, and a macrostructural level responsible for major structural rearrangements. Bu adopting simple assumptions concerning the coupling between the two levels, it is possible to reproduce major features of the behaviour of unsaturated expansive clays. Some selected qualitative comparisons between model predictions and experimental results reported in the literature are presented. Despite the simplified hypotheses made, a very encouraging agreement is obtained

  18. Analytic Hierarchy Process Expansion for Innovation Performance Measurement Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Kyoo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is a top strategic priority for the majority of companies. The need for innovation becomes more and more evident in the current corporate world, and the purpose of innovation is to create business value. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is a structured technique for organizing and analyzing complex decisions. This paper is targeting the framework design of the innovation performance criteria and provides the general guidelines to evaluate the relationship between the criteria by using AHP expansion.

  19. Modular ICT-based patient empowerment framework for self-management of diabetes: Design perspectives and validation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprinos, Ilias; Demski, Hans; Mantwill, Sarah; Kabak, Yildiray; Hildebrand, Claudia; Ploessnig, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    It is estimated that more than 382 million people suffer from diabetes across the globe, most of which are between the age of 40 and 59 years. ICT can play a key role in better management of diabetes and in patient empowerment. Patient empowerment involves patients to a greater extent in their own healthcare process and disease management becomes an integrated part of their daily life. Self-management opens the possibility for patients to contribute to their own healthcare as well as to be more in control of their disease. The objective of our study was to explore the impact of an ICT-based patient empowerment framework in diabetes self-management. A modular patient empowerment framework that fosters diabetes self-management was designed and implemented. The framework incorporates expert knowledge in the form of clinical guidelines, and it supports patients in the specification of personalized activities that are based on medical recommendations and personal goals, and in the collection of observations of daily living. The usability and usefulness of the proposed framework were assessed in a pilot study with the participation of 60 patients and 12 health professionals. The study revealed that a patient empowerment approach based on self-management ICT tools is useful and accepted by both the patients and the physicians. For those patients who were already disciplined in their disease management the piloted solution served as a facilitator for data logging. For the rest, it served as an incentive for better adherence to disease management principles. The ICT tools prompted many patients into becoming more physically active and into making dietary habits' adjustments. However, this impact proved to be tightly correlated with the sociocultural background of the subjects. The study also demonstrated that even in patient-centric self-management interventions the physicians still have a key role to play. However, the acceptance of such interventions by the healthcare

  20. Empowerment Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, Eleni; Charalambous, Nasia

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to unfold the framework of empowerment pedagogy by describing an approach of listening to the children, supporting their rights, and enhancing participation through the lens of a learning community. The authors draw from the literature that acknowledges children as active agents and supports them in participating in their daily…

  1. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, J.; Nielsen, L.S.; Lueg, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Dalby, J., Nielsen, Lueg, R., L. S., Pedersen, L., Tomoni, A. C. 2014. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 22(4): 379-498.......Dalby, J., Nielsen, Lueg, R., L. S., Pedersen, L., Tomoni, A. C. 2014. National culture and business model change: a framework for successful expansions. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 22(4): 379-498....

  2. Giant negative linear compression positively coupled to massive thermal expansion in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weizhao; Katrusiak, Andrzej

    2014-07-04

    Materials with negative linear compressibility are sought for various technological applications. Such effects were reported mainly in framework materials. When heated, they typically contract in the same direction of negative linear compression. Here we show that this common inverse relationship rule does not apply to a three-dimensional metal-organic framework crystal, [Ag(ethylenediamine)]NO3. In this material, the direction of the largest intrinsic negative linear compression yet observed in metal-organic frameworks coincides with the strongest positive thermal expansion. In the perpendicular direction, the large linear negative thermal expansion and the strongest crystal compressibility are collinear. This seemingly irrational positive relationship of temperature and pressure effects is explained and the mechanism of coupling of compressibility with expansivity is presented. The positive coupling between compression and thermal expansion in this material enhances its piezo-mechanical response in adiabatic process, which may be used for designing new artificial composites and ultrasensitive measuring devices.

  3. Patient empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Nanna Bjerg; Joergensen, Clara Ruebner; Thomsen, Thora Grothe

    2017-01-01

    Background There is an increased attention to and demand for patient empowerment in cancer treatment and follow-up programmes. Patient empowerment has been defined as feeling in control of or having mastery in relation to cancer and cancer care. This calls for properly developed questionnaires...... assessing empowerment from the user perspective. The aim of this review was to identify questionnaires and sub-scales measuring empowerment and manifestations of empowerment among cancer patients. Materials and methods We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases....... Empowerment and multiple search terms associated with empowerment were included. We included peer-reviewed articles published in English, which described questionnaires measuring empowerment or manifestations of empowerment in a cancer setting. In addition, the questionnaire had to be a patient...

  4. Indicators for the Analysis of Peasant Women’s Equity and Empowerment Situations in a Sustainability Framework: A Case Study of Cacao Production in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga de Marco Larrauri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Family agriculture is a fundamental pillar in the construction of agroecological agri-food alternatives fostering processes of sustainable rural development where social equity represents a central aspect. Despite agroecology’s critical openness, this area has not yet incorporated an explicit gender approach allowing an appropriate problematization and analysis of the cultural inequalities of gender relations in agriculture, women’s empowerment processes and their nexus with sustainability. This work presents an organized proposal of indicators to approach and analyze the degree of peasant women’s equity and empowerment within a wide sustainability framework. After a thorough bibliographical review, 34 equity and empowerment indicators were identified and organized into six basic theoretical dimensions. Following the collection of empirical data (from 20 cacao-producing families, the indicators were analyzed and reorganized on the basis of hierarchical cluster analysis and explanatory interdependence into a new set of six empirical dimensions: (1 access to resources, education and social participation; (2 economic-personal autonomy and self-esteem; (3 gender gaps (labor rights, health, work and physical violence; (4 techno-productive decision-making and remunerated work; (5 land ownership and mobility; and (6 diversification of responsibilities and social and feminist awareness. Additionally, a case study is presented that analyzes equity and empowerment in the lives of two rural cacao-producing peasant women in Ecuador.

  5. Uniaxial Negative Thermal Expansion and Mechanical Properties of a Zinc-Formate Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang Gao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal expansion behavior of a metal-formate framework, Zn(HCOO2·2(H2O (1, has been systematically studied via variable temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Our results demonstrate that this formate exhibits significant negative thermal expansion (NTE, −26(2 MK−1 along its c-axis. Detailed structural analyses reveal that the large NTE response is attributed to the ‘hinge-strut’ like framework motion. In addition, the fundamental mechanical properties of framework 1 have been explored via nanoindentation experiments. The measured elastic modulus and hardness properties on the (00-2/(100/(110 facets are 35.5/35.0/27.1 and 2.04/1.83/0.47 GPa, respectively. The stiffness and hardness anisotropy can be correlated well with the underlying framework structure, like its thermoelastic behavior.

  6. Localized Symmetry Breaking for Tuning Thermal Expansion in ScF 3 Nanoscale Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Lei [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Qin, Feiyu [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Sanson, Andrea [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Padova I-35131, Italy; Huang, Liang-Feng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Pan, Zhao [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Li, Qiang [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Sun, Qiang [International Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China; Wang, Lu [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Guo, Fangmin [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Aydemir, Umut [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Department of Chemistry, Koc University, Sariyer, Istanbul 34450, Turkey; Ren, Yang [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Sun, Chengjun [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Deng, Jinxia [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Aquilanti, Giuliana [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Trieste I-34149, Italy; Rondinelli, James M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Chen, Jun [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Xing, Xianran [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China

    2018-03-15

    The local symmetry, beyond the averaged crystallographic structure, tends to bring unu-sual performances. Negative thermal expansion is a peculiar physical property of solids. Here, we report the delicate design of the localized symmetry breaking to achieve the controllable thermal expansion in ScF3 nano-scale frameworks. Intriguingly, an isotropic zero thermal expansion is concurrently engi-neered by localized symmetry breaking, with a remarkably low coefficient of thermal expansion of about +4.0×10-8/K up to 675K. This mechanism is investigated by the joint analysis of atomic pair dis-tribution function of synchrotron X-ray total scattering and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra. A localized rhombohedral distortion presumably plays a critical role in stiffening ScF3 nano-scale frameworks and concomitantly suppressing transverse thermal vibrations of fluorine atoms. This physical scenario is also theoretically corroborated by the extinction of phonon modes with negative Grüneisen parameters in the rhombohedral ScF3. The present work opens an untraditional chemical modification to achieve controllable thermal expansion by breaking local symmetries of materials.

  7. Spin crossover-induced colossal positive and negative thermal expansion in a nanoporous coordination framework material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Benjamin R; Goux-Capes, Laurence; Price, David J; Chastanet, Guillaume; Létard, Jean-François; Kepert, Cameron J

    2017-10-20

    External control over the mechanical function of materials is paramount in the development of nanoscale machines. Yet, exploiting changes in atomic behaviour to produce controlled scalable motion is a formidable challenge. Here, we present an ultra-flexible coordination framework material in which a cooperative electronic transition induces an extreme abrupt change in the crystal lattice conformation. This arises due to a change in the preferred coordination character of Fe(II) sites at different spin states, generating scissor-type flexing of the crystal lattice. Diluting the framework with transition-inactive Ni(II) sites disrupts long-range communication of spin state through the lattice, producing a more gradual transition and continuous lattice movement, thus generating colossal positive and negative linear thermal expansion behaviour, with coefficients of thermal expansion an order of magnitude greater than previously reported. This study has wider implications in the development of advanced responsive structures, demonstrating electronic control over mechanical motion.

  8. Exploring the institutional perspective on international business expansion: Towards a more detailed conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lynch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While the general principles of the Institutional Perspective have been widely accepted, there has been only limited consideration to the present time of their in-depth application to the strategies of individual firms engaged in international business. The paper argues that companies engaged in such activities will find that there is a significant gap in precisely what aspects of the formal and informal institutional perspectives need to be identified and assessed for international expansion. The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical paradigm that allows organizations not only to compare different countries with regard to their potential for international business expansion from the perspective of Institutional Theory but also drawing on theories of International Business Strategy where relevant. The theoretical framework assumes that such organizations are engaged in analyzing the institutional arrangements and resources of their home and possible host countries. The paper then develops a conceptual framework that identifies five major components, namely people, power, performance, pathways to international expansion, and productivity, the latter being defined in terms of knowledge and innovation. It explores each of these areas in more depth with the aim of adding a more detailed structure to elements of Institutional Theory relevant to international business expansion.

  9. An optimization framework for the integrated planning of generation and transmission expansion in interconnected power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Omar J.; Tejada, Diego A.; Reklaitis, Gintaras V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel optimization framework for the design and planning of interconnected power systems is proposed. • The framework integrates generation and transmission capacity expansion planning. • Reserve and emission constraints are included. • Business as usual and CO_2 mitigation policy scenarios are evaluated. • Reconfiguration of existing power generation technologies is the most cost-effective option for CO_2 emissions mitigation. - Abstract: Energy, and particularly electricity, has played and will continue to play a very important role in the development of human society. Electricity, which is the most flexible and manageable energy form, is currently used in a variety of activities and applications. For instance, electricity is used for heating, cooling, lighting, and for operating electronic appliances and electric vehicles. Nowadays, given the rapid development and commercialization of technologies and devices that rely on electricity, electricity demand is increasing faster than overall primary energy supply. Consequently, the design and planning of power systems is becoming a progressively more important issue in order to provide affordable, reliable and sustainable energy in timely fashion, not only in developed countries but particularly in developing economies where electricity demand is increasing even faster. Power systems are networks of electrical devices, such as power plants, transformers, and transmission lines, used to produce, transmit, and supply electricity. The design and planning of such systems require the selection of generation technologies, along with the capacity, location, and timing of generation and transmission capacity expansions to meet electricity demand over a long-term horizon. This manuscript presents a comprehensive optimization framework for the design and planning of interconnected power systems, including the integration of generation and transmission capacity expansion planning. The proposed

  10. A multi-objective framework for dynamic transmission expansion planning in competitive electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foroud, Asghar Akbari; Abdoos, Ali Akbar; Keypour, Reza; Amirahmadi, Meisam

    2010-01-01

    Restructuring of power system has changed the traditional planning objectives and introduced challenges in the field of Transmission Expansion Planning (TEP). Due to these changes, new approaches and criteria are needed for transmission planning in deregulated environment. Therefore, in this paper, a dynamic expansion methodology is presented using a multi-objective optimization framework. Investment cost, congestion cost and reliability are considered in the optimization as three objectives. To overcome the difficulties in solving the non-convex and mixed integer nature of the optimization problems, a Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA II) approach is used followed by a fuzzy decision making analysis to obtain the final optimal solution. The planning methodology has been demonstrated on the IEEE 24-bus test system and north-east of Iran national 400 kV transmission grid to show the feasibility and capabilities of the proposed algorithm in electricity market environment. (author)

  11. 76 FR 771 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 14 Under Alternative Site Framework; Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1729] Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 14 Under Alternative Site Framework; Little Rock, AR Pursuant to its authority under... the Little Rock Customs and Border [[Page 772

  12. Evaluation of Changes in Individual Community-Related Empowerment in Community Health Promotion Interventions in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Tanggaard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed changes in community members’ ratings of the dimensions of individual community related empowerment (ICRE before and two years after the implementation of an empowerment expansion framework in three community health promotion initiatives within the Estonian context. We employed a self-administered questionnaire, the adapted mobilisation scale–individual. As the first step, we investigated the multidimensional nature of the ICRE construct and explored the validity and reliability (internal consistency of the ICRE scale. Two datasets were used. The first dataset comprised a cross-sectional random sample of 1,000 inhabitants of Rapla County selected in 2003 from the National Population Register, which was used to confirm the composition of the dimensions of the scale and to examine the reliability of the dimensions. The second dataset comprised two waves of data: 120 participants from three health promotion programs in 2003 (pre-test and 115 participants in 2005 (post-test, and the dataset was used to compare participants’ pre-test and post-test ratings of their levels of empowerment. The content validity ratio, determined using Lawshe’s formula, was high (0.98. Five dimensions of ICRE, self-efficacy, intention, participation, motivation and critical awareness, emerged from the factor analysis. The internal consistency (α of the total empowerment scale was 0.86 (subscales self-efficacy α = 0.88, intention α = 0.83, participation α = 0.81 and motivation α = 0.69; critical awareness comprised only one item. The levels of ICRE dimensions measured after the application of the empowerment expansion framework were significantly more favourable for the dimensions self-efficacy, participation, intention and motivation to participate. We conclude that for Rapla community workgroups and networks, their ICRE was rendered more favourable after the implementation of the empowerment expansion framework.

  13. Empowerment and occupation: A new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2016-12-01

    The idea of empowerment permeates the occupational therapy literature yet has received little critical reflection from occupational therapy's theorists. This paper aims to explore the concept of empowerment and highlight a recent definition that resonates with occupational therapists' core values. Empowerment is generally understood to be a process of bestowing power and giving ability to someone deficient in both. However, a new definition provides a framework for understanding how empowerment might enhance people's capabilities. The World Bank's depiction of empowerment fits well with occupational therapists' beliefs in the importance of the ability and opportunity to "do," providing a framework for action. This framework focuses on people's capabilities: their freedom-or opportunity-to choose what they wish to do and to be and their ability to act on these wishes. Moreover, the World Bank's assertion that empowered people have freedom of both choice and action suggests empowerment is a relevant concept for occupational therapists.

  14. Elucidating the mechanism responsible for anomalous thermal expansion in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, Dewald P; Esterhuysen, Catharine; Barbour, Leonard J

    2016-03-14

    The previously reported anisotropic thermal expansion of a three-dimensional metal-organic framework (MOF) is examined by means of theoretical calculations. Inspection of the 100, 190, 280 and 370 K single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCD) structures indicated a concerted change in the coordination sphere of the zinc centre leading to elongation of the coordination helix in the crystallographic c direction (the Zn-O(H)-Zn angle expands), while the largely unaltered ligands (the ZnLZn distance remains constant) are pulled closer together in the ab plane. This study develops and evaluates a mechanistic model at the DFT level of theory that reproduces the convergent expansion of the coordination helix of the material. The linear increase in energy calculated for extension of a model consisting of six zinc centres and truncated ligands compares favourably with results obtained from a periodic DFT evaluation of the SCD structures. It was also found that the anisotropic thermal expansion trend could be reproduced qualitatively by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations in the NPT ensemble.

  15. Firm heterogeneity, investment, and industry expansion: a theoretical framework and the case of the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    The distinguishing feature of this investment analysis is its consideration of firm-specific variables. The theoretical section proposes that firm investment and, in turn, industry expansion are determined by firm-specific corporate variables in addition to the typically considered variables characterizing the firm's experience and expected conditions in a given market, such as rate of growth of demand, price, cost of capital, degree of utilization of capacity, etc. The framework is applied to the uranium mining and milling industry. Descriptive analysis is used to trace the history of the uranium industry in aggregate terms and also as an evolving roster of participating firms with different attributes. The market structure of the industry is also examined. The corporate variables framework is tested statistically in a single-equation, fixed-effects model of uranium exploration behavior, estimated on pooled cross section and time-series data. The postulated corporate variables, except internal firm structure, are combined with market variables in a model which attempts to explain the exploration behavior of 24 firms in the uranium industry from 1973 through 1979. The results indicate that cash flow and exploration expertise influence firms' level of exploration effort. However, differences among firms' intermarket investment strategies do not differentiate the magnitude of their exploration programs

  16. Axiomatic Quantum Field Theory in Terms of Operator Product Expansions: General Framework, and Perturbation Theory via Hochschild Cohomology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hollands

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new framework for quantum field theory in terms of consistency conditions. The consistency conditions that we consider are ''associativity'' or ''factorization'' conditions on the operator product expansion (OPE of the theory, and are proposed to be the defining property of any quantum field theory. Our framework is presented in the Euclidean setting, and is applicable in principle to any quantum field theory, including non-conformal ones. In our framework, we obtain a characterization of perturbations of a given quantum field theory in terms of a certain cohomology ring of Hochschild-type. We illustrate our framework by the free field, but our constructions are general and apply also to interacting quantum field theories. For such theories, we propose a new scheme to construct the OPE which is based on the use of non-linear quantized field equations.

  17. Implementation of a state-to-state analytical framework for the calculation of expansion tube flow properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C. M.; Gildfind, D. E.; Lewis, S. W.; Morgan, R. G.; Zander, F.

    2018-03-01

    Expansion tubes are an important type of test facility for the study of planetary entry flow-fields, being the only type of impulse facility capable of simulating the aerothermodynamics of superorbital planetary entry conditions from 10 to 20 km/s. However, the complex flow processes involved in expansion tube operation make it difficult to fully characterise flow conditions, with two-dimensional full facility computational fluid dynamics simulations often requiring tens or hundreds of thousands of computational hours to complete. In an attempt to simplify this problem and provide a rapid flow condition prediction tool, this paper presents a validated and comprehensive analytical framework for the simulation of an expansion tube facility. It identifies central flow processes and models them from state to state through the facility using established compressible and isentropic flow relations, and equilibrium and frozen chemistry. How the model simulates each section of an expansion tube is discussed, as well as how the model can be used to simulate situations where flow conditions diverge from ideal theory. The model is then validated against experimental data from the X2 expansion tube at the University of Queensland.

  18. One-dimensional model with fermions in the framework of topological expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakov, S.I.; Aliev, Eh.S.

    1986-01-01

    Topological expansion for the one-plaquette U(N) gauge model with fermions is investigated in the leading order for the Wilson and Manton actions. It is shown that the introduction of fermions does not change the phase structure

  19. White paper: A conceptual model on women and girls' empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerdewijk, A.H.J.M. van; Wong, F.; Vaast, C.; Newton, J.; Tyszler, M.; Pennington, A.

    2017-01-01

    This White Paper defines empowerment of women and girls as 'the expansion of choice and strengthening of voice through the transformation of power relations, so women and girls have more control over their lives and futures'. Empowerment is both a process and an outcome. This White Paper presents a

  20. A game-theoretic framework for estimating a health purchaser's willingness-to-pay for health and for expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaesoubi, Reza; Roberts, Stephen D

    2010-12-01

    A health purchaser's willingness-to-pay (WTP) for health is defined as the amount of money the health purchaser (e.g. a health maximizing public agency or a profit maximizing health insurer) is willing to spend for an additional unit of health. In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic framework for estimating a health purchaser's WTP for health in markets where the health purchaser offers a menu of medical interventions, and each individual in the population selects the intervention that maximizes her prospect. We discuss how the WTP for health can be employed to determine medical guidelines, and to price new medical technologies, such that the health purchaser is willing to implement them. The framework further introduces a measure for WTP for expansion, defined as the amount of money the health purchaser is willing to pay per person in the population served by the health provider to increase the consumption level of the intervention by one percent without changing the intervention price. This measure can be employed to find how much to invest in expanding a medical program through opening new facilities, advertising, etc. Applying the proposed framework to colorectal cancer screening tests, we estimate the WTP for health and the WTP for expansion of colorectal cancer screening tests for the 2005 US population.

  1. Empowerment: a Concept Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Febriana, Dara

    2011-01-01

    This paper conceptually analyzed the concept of empowerment using the strategies of Walker & Avant (2005) the objective is to clarify the meaning of the concept and to clearly identify empowerment characteristic that will provide consistent definition for practice and future research. Empowerment is defined and examined using relevant resources of literatures and selected empirical referents that described empowerment as a complex and multidimensional concept. Within nursing context empowerme...

  2. Empowerment and organizational structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai; Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of empowerment and the conditions for empowerment that exists at different levels of the organization in various Easten and Western countries. The analysis of the data collected by the Quality and Economic Development Project indicates that there are considerable...... differences between East and West regarding empowerment. Udgivelsesdato: FEB...

  3. School Choice and the Empowerment Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from historical, sociological, and policy literatures, as well as legislative activity, this article traces the intellectual and political evolution of educational equity, beginning with progressive models of redistribution and remedy to more recent neoliberal forms, which privilege parental empowerment through the expansion of school…

  4. Unpacking Teacher-Researcher Collaboration with Three Theoretical Frameworks: A Case of Expansive Learning Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Sharada

    2015-01-01

    Long association with a mathematics teacher at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden, is basis for reporting a case of teacher-researcher collaboration. Three theoretical frameworks used to study its development over time are relational knowing, relational agency and cogenerative dialogue. While relational knowing uses narrative perspectives to explore the…

  5. Mechanism of Economic Empowerment and Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanism of Economic Empowerment and Development in Nigeria: A Discourse. ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... NEEDS, the concept of economic empowerment, the policy thrusts of NEEDS, the strategies for employment generation, the institutional framework of NEEDS and the ...

  6. From Learning to Empowerment: A Study of Smallholder Farmers in South West Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alexis M.; Tenywa, Moses; Balasubramanian, K.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between education and empowerment has been widely debated in development literature. In recent times, social capital and community-centric learning have been increasingly recognized as important variables in the empowerment process. This paper outlines the development of a "Three-dimensional Empowerment Framework", and…

  7. Remote sensing of impervious surface growth: A framework for quantifying urban expansion and re-densification mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahtahmassebi, Amir Reza; Song, Jie; Zheng, Qing; Blackburn, George Alan; Wang, Ke; Huang, Ling Yan; Pan, Yi; Moore, Nathan; Shahtahmassebi, Golnaz; Sadrabadi Haghighi, Reza; Deng, Jing Song

    2016-04-01

    A substantial body of literature has accumulated on the topic of using remotely sensed data to map impervious surfaces which are widely recognized as an important indicator of urbanization. However, the remote sensing of impervious surface growth has not been successfully addressed. This study proposes a new framework for deriving and summarizing urban expansion and re-densification using time series of impervious surface fractions (ISFs) derived from remotely sensed imagery. This approach integrates multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA), analysis of regression residuals, spatial statistics (Getis_Ord) and urban growth theories; hence, the framework is abbreviated as MRGU. The performance of MRGU was compared with commonly used change detection techniques in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach. The results suggested that the ISF regression residuals were optimal for detecting impervious surface changes while Getis_Ord was effective for mapping hotspot regions in the regression residuals image. Moreover, the MRGU outputs agreed with the mechanisms proposed in several existing urban growth theories, but importantly the outputs enable the refinement of such models by explicitly accounting for the spatial distribution of both expansion and re-densification mechanisms. Based on Landsat data, the MRGU is somewhat restricted in its ability to measure re-densification in the urban core but this may be improved through the use of higher spatial resolution satellite imagery. The paper ends with an assessment of the present gaps in remote sensing of impervious surface growth and suggests some solutions. The application of impervious surface fractions in urban change detection is a stimulating new research idea which is driving future research with new models and algorithms.

  8. National Culture and Business Model Change - A Framework for Successful Expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenskov, Lea Houmark; Lueg, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework to analyse how a company’s business model needs to be adjusted if it is expanded into another cultural context. For this, we use the example of changes in the business model of a Danish ITcompany opening a new office in the U.S. Using a single case study......, we integrate the concepts of business models (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2005) and national culture (Hofstede, 1980). Our findings explain why and how adjustments in the business model are necessary regarding the company’s communication, team composition, and customer involvement in projects....... As to implications, we construct a matrix combining business models and national culture that other multinational companies can use to achieve better understanding of their business model in different national contexts....

  9. Counseling for Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley

    Counseling for empowerment is a complex and multifaceted process that requires, for some, a radical departure from the traditional conceptualization of the helper's role. The process of empowerment demands that professional helpers and their clients take an active, collaborative approach to identifying problems and goals. Drawing from counseling,…

  10. Empowerment: Hotel employees’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartinah Ayupp

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An empowered worker is a knowledgeable worker. Thus, the aims of this study were to examine how empowerment is perceived by the front-line hotel employees and secondly, to identify the factors affecting empowerment within the industry. Factors such as communication, coaching, participation, training and reward were examined for any significant relationship with empowerment, along with whether the employee’s socio-demographic characteristics affected their perceptions of empowerment. The findings indicated that except for gender, socio-demographic factors were not a strong influence on the diffusion of empowerment among employees. In order to ensure that the employees feel empowered, factors such as communication, coaching, participation, training and reward should be given due attention by the management.  Based on the findings, implications for companies are discussed and further research is suggested.

  11. Technology Empowerment: Security Challenges.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Drake Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Wendell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nelson, Thomas R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Skocypec, Russell D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    “Technology empowerment” means that innovation is increasingly accessible to ordinary people of limited means. As powerful technologies become more affordable and accessible, and as people are increasingly connected around the world, ordinary people are empowered to participate in the process of innovation and share the fruits of collaborative innovation. This annotated briefing describes technology empowerment and focuses on how empowerment may create challenges to U.S. national security. U.S. defense research as a share of global innovation has dwindled in recent years. With technology empowerment, the role of U.S. defense research is likely to shrink even further while technology empowerment will continue to increase the speed of innovation. To avoid falling too far behind potential technology threats to U.S. national security, U.S. national security institutions will need to adopt many of the tools of technology empowerment.

  12. Large negative thermal expansion provided by metal-organic framework MOF-5: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Cong; Sun, Ying; Shi, Kewen; Deng, Sihao; Lu, Huiqing

    2016-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties and negative thermal expansion (NTE) behavior of metal-organic framework MOF-5 are investigated within the quasi-harmonic approximation, by using density functional theory. For nanoporous MOF-5, the temperature dependence of bulk modulus increases with increasing temperature, indicating that the resistance to compression is enhanced gradually. The large NTE behavior is obtained, which agrees reasonably with the experimental data. From the Grüneisen parameter as a function of temperature, it can be found that low-frequency phonons are closely associated with the NTE of MOF-5. The corresponding vibrational modes can be viewed as the results of local deformations (translation, rotation, twisting) of BDC (1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) linker and zinc clusters. The lowest-frequency phonon mode (the transverse motion of carboxylate groups and benzene ring, zinc clusters being as rigid units) is confirmed to be most responsible for thermal contraction. - Highlights: • The related thermodynamic properties and NTE behavior of MOF-5 are investigated by first principles. • Contrary to other inorganic NTE materials, bulk modulus of MOF-5 increases on heating. • The low-frequency phonons are closely associated with the NTE of MOF-5. • The NTE-contributing vibrational modes are elucidated clearly.

  13. Large negative thermal expansion provided by metal-organic framework MOF-5: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei, E-mail: leiw@buaa.edu.cn; Wang, Cong, E-mail: congwang@buaa.edu.cn; Sun, Ying; Shi, Kewen; Deng, Sihao; Lu, Huiqing

    2016-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties and negative thermal expansion (NTE) behavior of metal-organic framework MOF-5 are investigated within the quasi-harmonic approximation, by using density functional theory. For nanoporous MOF-5, the temperature dependence of bulk modulus increases with increasing temperature, indicating that the resistance to compression is enhanced gradually. The large NTE behavior is obtained, which agrees reasonably with the experimental data. From the Grüneisen parameter as a function of temperature, it can be found that low-frequency phonons are closely associated with the NTE of MOF-5. The corresponding vibrational modes can be viewed as the results of local deformations (translation, rotation, twisting) of BDC (1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) linker and zinc clusters. The lowest-frequency phonon mode (the transverse motion of carboxylate groups and benzene ring, zinc clusters being as rigid units) is confirmed to be most responsible for thermal contraction. - Highlights: • The related thermodynamic properties and NTE behavior of MOF-5 are investigated by first principles. • Contrary to other inorganic NTE materials, bulk modulus of MOF-5 increases on heating. • The low-frequency phonons are closely associated with the NTE of MOF-5. • The NTE-contributing vibrational modes are elucidated clearly.

  14. A Conceptual Framework for the Expansion of Behavioral Interventions for Youth Obesity: A Family-Based Mindful Eating Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Jeanne; Brody, Janet L; Staples, Julie K; Sedillo, Donna

    2015-10-01

    Currently, over 30% of US youth are overweight and 1 in 6 have metabolic syndrome, making youth obesity one of the major global health challenges of the 21st century. Few enduring treatment strategies have been identified in youth populations, and the majority of standard weight loss programs fail to adequately address the impact of psychological factors on eating behavior and the beneficial contribution of parental involvement in youth behavior change. A critical need exists to expand treatment development efforts beyond traditional education and cognitive-behavioral programs and explore alternative treatment models for youth obesity. Meditation-based mindful eating programs represent a unique and novel scientific approach to the current youth obesity epidemic given that they address key psychological variables affecting weight. The recent expansion of mindfulness programs to include family relationships shows the immense potential for broadening the customarily individual focus of this intervention to include contextual factors thought to influence youth health outcomes. This article provides an overview of how both mindful eating and family systems theory fits within a conceptual framework in order to guide development of a comprehensive family-based mindful eating program for overweight youth.

  15. Home health care nurses' perceptions of empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kathleen M

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study involved the triangulation of qualitative (interview and observation) and quantitative methods (Psychological Empowerment Instrument). This study examined the individual home care nurses' perception of empowerment and how it influences decisions in the home clinical setting. Fifteen nurses were self-selected to participate. All completed an interview, and were observed and given Likert Instrument to complete. A framework analysis was performed to identify mutually exclusive and exhaustive emergent themes and patterns within the data. Home care nurses described that enpowerment is in the interaction between nurse and patient, and nurse and health care provider. Empowered is defined as being independent, confident, trusting, and comfortable with providing quality care. Home health care nurses believe that having the ability to practice collaboratively and build professional relationships was essential. Nurses in this study perceived empowerment as having meaning, choice, and competence in their job.

  16. Crazy about Empowerment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilos, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Discusses empowerment, the process of coming to feel and behave as though one has power over significant aspect of one's life or work, as it relates to employee productivity, motivation, and behavior. (JOW)

  17. Designing for Interactional Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhl, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis further defines how to reach Interactional Empowerment through design for users. Interactional Empowerment is an interaction design program within the general area of affective interaction, focusing on the users’ abil­ity to reflect, express themselves and engage in profound meaning-making. This has been explored through design of three systems eMoto, Affective Di­ary and Affective Health, which all mirror users’ emotions or bodily reactions in interaction in some way. From these ...

  18. Demystifying organizational empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbitt, B V

    1993-01-01

    The definition, implementation, and integration of empowerment concepts and principles is something of an enigma in healthcare organizations. As our structures become less hierarchical and more interactive, relying on vision, knowledge, performance, and example to achieve our missions, nurse executives must know not only why empowerment is essential, but how it can be used to transform their organizations from traditional into futuristic structures and systems.

  19. Elders Health Empowerment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Empowerment refers to patient skills that allow them to become primary decision-makers in control of daily self-management of health problems. As important the concept as it is, particularly for elders with chronic diseases, few available instruments have been validated for use with Spanish speaking people. Objective: Translate and adapt the Health Empowerment Scale (HES) for a Spanish-speaking older adults sample and perform its psychometric validation. Methods: The HES was adapted based on the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form. Where "diabetes" was mentioned in the original tool, it was replaced with "health" terms to cover all kinds of conditions that could affect health empowerment. Statistical and Psychometric Analyses were conducted on 648 urban-dwelling seniors. Results: The HES had an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach's α of 0.89. The convergent validity was supported by significant Pearson's Coefficient correlations between the HES total and item scores and the General Self Efficacy Scale (r= 0.77), Swedish Rheumatic Disease Empowerment Scale (r= 0.69) and Making Decisions Empowerment Scale (r= 0.70). Construct validity was evaluated using item analysis, half-split test and corrected item to total correlation coefficients; with good internal consistency (α> 0.8). The content validity was supported by Scale and Item Content Validity Index of 0.98 and 1.0, respectively. Conclusions: HES had acceptable face validity and reliability coefficients; which added to its ease administration and users' unbiased comprehension, could set it as a suitable tool in evaluating elder's outpatient empowerment-based medical education programs. PMID:25767307

  20. Empowerment: The Emperor's New Clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyris, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Discusses why there has been little growth in empowerment over the past 30 years. Suggests that executives often work against empowerment both consciously and unconsciously and that they often do not seem to want what they say they need. Makes some recommendations that may help executives think more sensibly about empowerment. (JOW)

  1. Empowerment of Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Showcasing the Danish architecture biennial catalogue Empowerment of Aesthetics (Venice Biennale 2014), which, in 2015, was announced ‘bookwork of the year’ by Foreningen for Boghaandværk (the Danish association for book craft), the research based exhibition will focus on the catalogue's represen......Showcasing the Danish architecture biennial catalogue Empowerment of Aesthetics (Venice Biennale 2014), which, in 2015, was announced ‘bookwork of the year’ by Foreningen for Boghaandværk (the Danish association for book craft), the research based exhibition will focus on the catalogue...

  2. Illusions of empowerment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomba, Susan Wangui; Nathan, Iben; Minang, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    of CF has led to local empowerment. Our empirical data are drawn from review of national level policies and a field study of Ngare Ndare Community Forest Association (CFA) in Kenya. We investigated what types of powers were transferred to the local level, how representative the local institution...... forest protection and conservation roles, while maintaining legislative powers and control of economic benefits centrally; and, that representation within the CFA was highly skewed in favor of small and already powerful local elites. We discuss the findings in the light of the literature on empowerment...

  3. User Empowerment in the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Munjin, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    A key concern in the Internet of Things (IoT) has been the integration of mundane objects in the Internet. Although increasingly interconnected, the IoT ecosystem is largely industry-centered. This leads to the creation of limited and incompatible services disempowering users by hampering their participation. In this thesis, we address this issue by empowering users to create, personalize, and distribute services in the IoT ecosystem. We define a general framework for user empowerment relying...

  4. A Review on Dalith Women Empowerment in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, Kollapudi; Nagamani, K.; Latchaiah, P.; Kishore, Mendam

    2015-01-01

    Empowerment is the expansion of asserts and capabilities of poor people to participate in negotiate with influence, control and hold accountable institutions that affect their lives. Education is one of the important sources of empowering women with the knowledge, skill and self confidence necessary to participate fully in the development process.…

  5. Empowerment Schools. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In education, the pendulum continues to swing from one side to the other, all in an effort to find the "right" way to educate all of its students. The concept of empowerment, what it means and who should be empowered to provide the "best" way to instruct students, has been one that has been explored from many different…

  6. Social Media Empowerment (I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Cox

    2011-01-01

    full text via link. Social media stellen mensen, merken en bedrijven in staat om zichzelf te versterken. Soms wordt optimaal gebruik gemaakt van Social Media Empowerment, maar soms ook wat minder. Effectief inzetten van social media. Regel 1: Start met context en motivatie

  7. Presidential Address: Empowerment Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David

    1994-01-01

    Empowerment evaluation is the use of evaluation concepts and techniques to foster self-determination, focusing on helping people help themselves. This collaborative evaluation approach requires both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. It is a multifaceted approach that can be applied to evaluation in any area. (SLD)

  8. A multistage framework for reliability-based distribution expansion planning considering distributed generations by a self-adaptive global-based harmony search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivaie, Mojtaba; Ameli, Mohammad T.; Sepasian, Mohammad S.; Weinsier, Philip D.; Vahidinasab, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present a new multistage framework for reliability-based Distribution Expansion Planning (DEP) in which expansion options are a reinforcement and/or installation of substations, feeders, and Distributed Generations (DGs). The proposed framework takes into account not only costs associated with investment, maintenance, and operation, but also expected customer interruption cost in the optimization as four problem objectives. At the same time, operational restrictions, Kirchhoff's laws, radial structure limitation, voltage limits, and capital expenditure budget restriction are considered as problem constraints. The proposed model is a non-convex optimization problem having a non-linear, mixed-integer nature. Hence, a hybrid Self-adaptive Global-based Harmony Search Algorithm (SGHSA) and Optimal Power Flow (OPF) were used and followed by a fuzzy satisfying method in order to obtain the final optimal solution. The SGHSA is a recently developed optimization algorithm which imitates the music improvisation process. In this process, the harmonists improvise their instrument pitches, searching for the perfect state of harmony. The planning methodology was demonstrated on the 27-node, 13.8-kV test system in order to demonstrate the feasibility and capability of the proposed model. Simulation results illustrated the sufficiency and profitableness of the newly developed framework, when compared with other methods. - Highlights: • A new multistage framework is presented for reliability-based DEP problem. • In this paper, DGs are considered as an expansion option to increase the flexibility of the proposed model. • In this paper, effective factors of DEP problem are incorporated as a multi-objective model. • In this paper, three new algorithms HSA, IHSA and SGHSA are proposed. • Results obtained by the proposed SGHSA algorithm are better than others

  9. Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite

    2014-01-01

    This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

  10. Empowerment--A Strategy for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dran, Gisela M.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the concept of empowerment as a movement to foster the democratization of the workplace and staff development. Empowerment versus participative management, the relationship of empowerment to organizational theory, factors influencing empowerment in organizations, and possible consequences of successful empowerment for employees and…

  11. Search for Trustful Leadership in Secondary Schools: Is Empowerment the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Carla; Fernandes, António

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse how the access to structures of empowerment by teachers in primary and secondary education impacts on their trust of the headmaster of the school management board. Using the theoretical framework of empowerment and trust in the context of companies, one adapted the constructs of these scales to the reality…

  12. A multiyear DG-incorporated framework for expansion planning of distribution networks using binary chaotic shark smell optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadigorji, Masoud; Amjady, Nima

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new model for MEPDN (multiyear expansion planning of distribution networks) is proposed. By solving this model, the optimal expansion scheme of primary (i.e. medium voltage) distribution network including the reinforcement pattern of primary feeders as well as location and size of DG (distributed generators) during an ascertained planning period is determined. Furthermore, the time-based feature of proposed model allows it to specify the investments/reinforcements time (i.e. year). Moreover, a minimum load shedding-based analytical approach for optimizing the network's reliability is introduced. The associated objective function of proposed model is minimizing the total investment and operation costs. To solve the formulated MEPDN model as a complex multi-dimensional optimization problem, a new evolutionary algorithm-based solution method called BCSSO (Binary Chaotic Shark Smell Optimization) is presented. The effectiveness of the proposed MEPDN model and solution approach is illustrated by applying them on two widely-used test cases including 12-bus and 33-bus distribution network and comparing the acquired results with the results of other solution methods. - Highlights: • A multiyear expansion planning model for distribution network is presented. • A new evolutionary algorithm-based solution approach is proposed. • A minimum load shedding-based analytical method for EENS minimization is suggested. • The efficacy of the proposed solution approach is broadly investigated.

  13. The Role of Empowerment in Youth Development: A Study of Sociopolitical Control as Mediator of Ecological Systems' Influence on Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christens, Brian D.; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Empowerment has become an influential concept and theoretical framework for social policy and practice. Still, relatively little is known about the roles that empowerment plays in the ecology of human development, particularly among young people. This article reports results of a study of psychological empowerment among young people, using data…

  14. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2008-06-01

    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.

  15. Inverse uncertainty quantification of reactor simulations under the Bayesian framework using surrogate models constructed by polynomial chaos expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xu, E-mail: xuwu2@illinois.edu; Kozlowski, Tomasz

    2017-03-15

    Modeling and simulations are naturally augmented by extensive Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) and sensitivity analysis requirements in the nuclear reactor system design, in which uncertainties must be quantified in order to prove that the investigated design stays within acceptance criteria. Historically, expert judgment has been used to specify the nominal values, probability density functions and upper and lower bounds of the simulation code random input parameters for the forward UQ process. The purpose of this paper is to replace such ad-hoc expert judgment of the statistical properties of input model parameters with inverse UQ process. Inverse UQ seeks statistical descriptions of the model random input parameters that are consistent with the experimental data. Bayesian analysis is used to establish the inverse UQ problems based on experimental data, with systematic and rigorously derived surrogate models based on Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE). The methods developed here are demonstrated with the Point Reactor Kinetics Equation (PRKE) coupled with lumped parameter thermal-hydraulics feedback model. Three input parameters, external reactivity, Doppler reactivity coefficient and coolant temperature coefficient are modeled as uncertain input parameters. Their uncertainties are inversely quantified based on synthetic experimental data. Compared with the direct numerical simulation, surrogate model by PC expansion shows high efficiency and accuracy. In addition, inverse UQ with Bayesian analysis can calibrate the random input parameters such that the simulation results are in a better agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Measurement of Community Empowerment in Three Community Programs in Rapla (Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Tanggaard Andersen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE. The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality’s decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community’s priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment.

  17. Measurement of Community Empowerment in Three Community Programs in Rapla (Estonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmel, Anu; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2011-01-01

    Community empowerment approaches have been proven to be powerful tools for solving local health problems. However, the methods for measuring empowerment in the community remain unclear and open to dispute. This study aims to describe how a context-specific community empowerment measurement tool was developed and changes made to three health promotion programs in Rapla, Estonia. An empowerment expansion model was compiled and applied to three existing programs: Safe Community, Drug/HIV Prevention and Elderly Quality of Life. The consensus workshop method was used to create the measurement tool and collect data on the Organizational Domains of Community Empowerment (ODCE). The study demonstrated considerable increases in the ODCE among the community workgroup, which was initiated by community members and the municipality’s decision-makers. The increase was within the workgroup, which had strong political and financial support on a national level but was not the community’s priority. The program was initiated and implemented by the local community members, and continuous development still occurred, though at a reduced pace. The use of the empowerment expansion model has proven to be an applicable, relevant, simple and inexpensive tool for the evaluation of community empowerment. PMID:21556179

  18. On power and empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratto, Felicia

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a conceptual analysis of social power. The most common theories of power are social-relational, an approach instantiated in a range of contemporary experiments that give participants the chance to control other people's outcomes. The relational approach is also reflected in various analyses of international relations. In comparing and contrasting relational theories of power, I identify logical inconsistencies and shortcomings in their ability to address empowerment and reductions in inequality. In turn, I propose a new ecological conceptualization of empowerment as the state of being able to achieve one's goals and of power as stemming from a combination of the capacity of the party and the affordances of the environment. I explain how this new conceptualization can describe the main kinds of power social relations, avoid logical contradictions, and moreover, distinguish power from agency and from control. This new conceptualization of power as the possibility of meeting goals, coupled with recognizing survival as the fundamental goal of all living things, implies an absolute and not relative or relational standard for power, namely well-being. It also allows us to conceive of power in ways that help address the many social concerns that have motivated research on power. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Empowerment onderzoek: een kritische vriend voor sociaal werkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Van Regenmortel

    2016-09-01

    , with his or her own specific expertise, searches for improvement together with the other stakeholders. It is about partnership. The researcher facilitates dialogue and mutual learning, he is a Socratic guide searching for common ground amidst the varying interests and perspectives of the stakeholders, and with particular consideration for the “silenced voices”. We label the role of the researcher as “critical friend”: someone who creates trust and also reveals something of himself or herself (the importance of reciprocity, but also provides mirrors, frameworks and ideas that foster critical reflection and development.In the second part of the article, we describe the practice of empowerment research. The concept of “Empowering Academic Collaborative Center” is a far-reaching interpretation of empowerment research. We use the following definition.An Empowering Academic Collaborative Center is a structural and long-lasting collaboration between one or more social practice organizations, one or more research organizations and users, which establishes and accomplishes scientific- and action-oriented research in the form of a co-creation by professionals, users, researchers and management  / policy, in order to improve the quality of the care and of the empowerment process of the stakeholders involved, especially of professionals and users.In Flanders, the initial experience with this innovative concept is situated in the fields of youth care and social work. We describe several meta reflections that are points of interest for the practice of empowerment research. A first reflection relates to the qualities of the empowerment researcher. The skills that he or she requires are of major importance and are located on three levels: the content level, the methodological level and the personal-social level. The researcher needs to be knowledgeable about the sector and the operation of the organization, as well as the subject of interest. The position of critical

  20. Assessing women empowerment in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    Programme (UNDP) as a universal benchmark for assessing gender inequality. It has been highlighted that agency is a necessary component in the conceptualisation and realisation of women empowerment particularly in Africa. The article further demonstrates that the GEM has capitalist, elitist and Eurocentric......This review discusses the religious and cultural challenges to the empowerment of women in some patriarchal societies in Africa. The article takes a critical reflection on some of the contextual deficiencies of the gender empowerment measure (GEM) developed by the United Nations Development...

  1. Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    2004-01-01

    identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment......The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... theproductive/innovative linkage of politics of redistributuin and politics og resognition, whnich over a longer time span creates sustainable paths of democratic and social development, which increases the capacity to handle both conflicts about economic resources and life-chances and conflicts about...

  2. Narratives of empowerment and compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle; Bygholm, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: New technologies enable new forms of patient participation in health care. Thearticle discusses whether communication in online patient support groups is a source ofindividual as well as collective empowerment or to be understood within the tradition ofcompliance. The discussion is based...... of empowerment and compliance in patient care. On a collective level, the site isempowering the individual users to comply with ‘doctor’s recommendations’ as a group....

  3. Beyond "banking for the poor": credit mechanisms and women's empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albee, A

    1996-10-01

    This article describes some strengths and limitations of credit programs for women in developing countries. It is urged that development planners recognize the importance of the selection of the type of credit mechanism in the long term. Ethical issues should be decided upon before the credit mechanism is operable. Organizations should make clear what level of commitment there is to empower borrowers. Most organizations give loans to women and assume empowerment will take place without devising strategies to ensure empowerment. Credit mechanisms include credit for the poor and credit by the poor. A sound financial portfolio and 100% repayment are not the appropriate criteria for securing the empowerment of women. Empowerment of women is related to "building the capacity of borrowers to manage and control decision making." UNICEF's framework of gender equality and women's empowerment identifies levels of empowerment as "welfare, access, conscientisation, participation, and control." Development planners should be aware that provision of credit also has the potential to increase a poor family's debt. Delinquency may be hidden by overlapping loans that trap borrowers. Fewer installment payments increase the chances of a debt trap. Reducing the number of installments may reduce administrative costs and conform to production processes, but may also lead to a debt trap. There is now considerable emphasis on investing in low-income women entrepreneurs as a highly efficient means of achieving social and economic objectives. Credit programs aim to support the growth of small, self-sustaining businesses, to improve women's opportunities, and to provide alternatives to exploitation by local money-lenders. This article describes the following credit mechanisms: bank guarantee systems, government credit schemes, intermediary projects, direct lending projects, banks for the poor, credit unions, and village-based banks.

  4. Microfinance and female empowerment : Do institutions matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile, Hirut Bekele; Bock, Bettina; Folmer, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Microfinance programmes increasingly target poor women in developing countries with the expectation that, besides poverty reduction, having access to microcredit advances their empowerment. However, research provides conflicting evidence and shows that empowerment may not, or may only be partially

  5. Microfinance and female empowerment: Do institutions matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile Hirut, Bekele; Folmer, H.; Bock, B.B.

    2012-01-01

    Microfinance programmes increasingly target poor women in developing countries with the expectation that, besides poverty reduction, having access to microcredit advances their empowerment. However, research provides conflicting evidence and shows that empowerment may not, or may only be partially

  6. Patient empowerment and involvement in telemedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge Nielsen, Marie; Johannessen, Helle

    2018-01-01

    Basic ideas of empowerment and user involvement in relation to telemedicine are presented, as is a case implying user resistance to telemedicine. Four logics of empowerment are employed to identify the underlying rationale of specific cases of telemedicine. The article concludes, that although...... telemedicine is acknowledged as relevant, the approach to it is often too mechanical to imply empowerment of the patient. Some patient groups may not feel safe by using telemedicine, and user involvement and empowerment will not be possible....

  7. The relation between conscientiousness, empowerment and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riëtte Sutherland

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness, empowerment and job performance among information technology professionals. An Employee Empowerment Questionnaire (EEQ, a Conscientiousness Scale and a Social Desirability Scale were administered to 101 information technology customer service engineers. Managers completed a Performance Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ for each customer service engineer. The results indicated a significant relationship between conscientiousness and empowerment. A curvilinear relationship was found between empowerment and performance. The practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  8. Group Empowerment in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Mary Louanne

    2015-12-01

    Nursing education is experiencing rapid changes, as nurses are expected to transform and lead health care delivery within the United States. The ability to produce exceptional graduates requires faculty who are empowered to achieve goals. The Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Empowerment Within Organizations (SKAGEO) was adapted and administered online to a stratified sample of administrators and faculty in American Association of Colleges of Nursing-member schools. Participants' scores were within high ranges in both empowerment capacity and capability; however, administrator group scores were higher. Data analyses indicated that administrator leadership competencies were associated with group empowerment. This study suggests that empowered faculty and administrator groups anticipate changing health care trends and effect student outcomes and competencies by their interventions. Also, it can be inferred that as a result of administrators' competencies, participants teach in empowered work environments where they can model ideal behaviors. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Empowerment Evaluation: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David; Wandersman, Abraham

    2007-01-01

    Empowerment evaluation continues to crystallize central issues for evaluators and the field of evaluation. A highly attended American Evaluation Association conference panel, titled "Empowerment Evaluation and Traditional Evaluation: 10 Years Later," provided an opportunity to reflect on the evolution of empowerment evaluation. Several…

  10. Reflections on Empowerment Evaluation: Learning from Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on empowerment evaluation, the use of evaluation to foster improvement and self-determination. Empowerment evaluation uses quantitative and qualitative methods, and usually focuses on program evaluation. Discusses the growth in empowerment evaluation as a result of interest in participatory evaluation. (SLD)

  11. Patient empowerment: The need to consider it as a measurable patient-reported outcome for chronic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Health policy in the UK and elsewhere is prioritising patient empowerment and patient evaluations of healthcare. Patient reported outcome measures now take centre-stage in implementing strategies to increase patient empowerment. This article argues for consideration of patient empowerment itself as a directly measurable patient reported outcome for chronic conditions, highlights some issues in adopting this approach, and outlines a research agenda to enable healthcare evaluation on the basis of patient empowerment. Discussion Patient empowerment is not a well-defined construct. A range of condition-specific and generic patient empowerment questionnaires have been developed; each captures a different construct e.g. personal control, self-efficacy/self-mastery, and each is informed by a different implicit or explicit theoretical framework. This makes it currently problematic to conduct comparative evaluations of healthcare services on the basis of patient empowerment. A case study (clinical genetics) is used to (1) illustrate that patient empowerment can be a valued healthcare outcome, even if patients do not obtain health status benefits, (2) provide a rationale for conducting work necessary to tighten up the patient empowerment construct (3) provide an exemplar to inform design of interventions to increase patient empowerment in chronic disease. Such initiatives could be evaluated on the basis of measurable changes in patient empowerment, if the construct were properly operationalised as a patient reported outcome measure. To facilitate this, research is needed to develop an appropriate and widely applicable generic theoretical framework of patient empowerment to inform (re)development of a generic measure. This research should include developing consensus between patients, clinicians and policymakers about the content and boundaries of the construct before operationalisation. This article also considers a number of issues for society and for healthcare

  12. Equity, empowerment and choice: from theory to practice in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna, Jalpa; Rifkin, Susanb

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how a framework that links equity and empowerment to improved health outcomes for those who live in poverty can be a useful tool for planning and managing health programmes. Using the work of Amartya Sen, Susan Rifkin has developed a framework described in the acronym CHOICE. The article applies the framework to two case studies from Kenya seeking to reduce the disease burdens of malaria and HIV/AIDS. The article examines how the process of pursuing equity and empowerment either supports the positive health outcomes identified as objectives and/or strengthens these outcomes.

  13. Empowerment in Context: Lessons from Hip-Hop Culture for Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Raphael, Jr.; Deepak, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Hip-hop culture can be used as a conduit to enhanced cultural competence and practice skills through the individual and community empowerment framework. This framework is introduced as a tool for direct practice that allows social workers to understand the competing messages within hip-hop culture and how they may impact youths by promoting or…

  14. Indigenous Empowerment through Collective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enn, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective…

  15. Teacher Empowerment: School Administrators' Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyer, Aydin; Özcan, Kenan; Yildiz, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Teacher empowerment involves investing teachers with the right to participate in the determination of school goals and policies as informed by their professional judgment. By empowering teachers, teachers can discover their potential and limitations for themselves as well as developing competence in their professional development. This…

  16. Social Media Empowerment (deel IV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Cox

    2011-01-01

    full text via link. Social media stellen mensen, merken en bedrijven in staat om zichzelf te versterken. Soms wordt optimaal gebruik gemaakt van Social Media Empowerment, bijvoorbeeld bij het versterken van de brand equity zoals bij KLM en Jillz. Soms wordt er minder goed gebruik van social media

  17. Empowerment Perceptions of Employees in Hotel Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenol ÇAVUŞ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of empowerment, which is applicable for any social group that the person belongs to, is an essential phenomenon for continuity and success of the organization. The main purpose of this study is to determine the empowerment perceptions of employees in hotel industry. The research was conducted in four and five star hotels that operate in the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, and 170 employees were reached at those hotels. Empowerment perceptions of the employees were measured using the scales “Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, CWEQ-II” and “Psychological Empowerment Scale, PES”. As a result of factor analysis made on the scales, it was observed that structural empowerment and psychological empowerment perceptions were grouped into three sub-dimensions. And in comparisons based on demographic factors; it was ob served that perceptions of empowerment have clearly differentiated according to level of education, level of income, hotel class, tourism education position, employee position.

  18. Empowerment Perceptions of Employees in Hotel Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenol Çavuş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of empowerment, which is applicable for any social group that the person belongs to, is an essential phenomenon for continuity and success of the organization. The main purpose of this study is to determine the empowerment perceptions of employees in hotel industry. The research was conducted in four and five star hotels that operate in the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, and 170 employees were reached at those hotels. Empowerment perceptions of the employees were measured using the scales “Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, CWEQ-II”and “Psychological Empowerment Scale, PES”. As a result of factor analysis made on the scales, it was observed that structural empowerment and psychological empowerment perceptions were grouped into three sub- dimensions. And in comparisons based on demographic factors; it was ob served that perceptions of empowerment have clearly differentiated according to level of education, level of income, hotel class, tourism education position, employee position

  19. Evaluating Patient Empowerment in Association With eHealth Technology: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risling, Tracie; Martinez, Juan; Young, Jeremy; Thorp-Froslie, Nancy

    2017-09-29

    The prioritization of sustainable patient-centered care in contemporary health care has resulted in an increased focus on patient empowerment, which in turn is considered to facilitate patient independence, self-management, and self-efficacy. However, a definitional consensus of empowerment remains elusive, impeding efforts to translate the conceptual ideals of empowerment into a measurable entity associated with changes in health care behavior or outcomes. The rapid integration of technology in health care serves to add another layer of complexity in the measurability and operationalization of empowerment and helps to create a specific context in which this conceptual entity should be further examined. The primary objective of this scoping review was to explore the concept of patient empowerment within the electronic health (eHealth) context. A further focus on the association or measurement of this concept in conjunction with tethered patient portal use was also employed. In this scoping review, a six-step framework was used to guide the search and paper selection process. The review was initiated with two broad research questions, which are as follows: (1) What is the relationship between empowerment and the use of eHealth technologies from a patient perspective? (2) How is patient empowerment (and/or engagement or activation) influenced by accessing personal health information through a tethered patient portal? Multiple databases were employed in a comprehensive search strategy, and papers were primarily evaluated and selected for inclusion by 2 review authors, and a third author was consulted to resolve any issues in reaching consensus. From an initial count of 1387 publications, this review returned nine systematic or literature review papers and 19 empirical studies that pertained to patient empowerment (and/or engagement and activation) in relation to the use of tethered patient portals providing access to electronic health records (EHRs). Of the 19

  20. Patient empowerment: a systematic review of questionnaires measuring empowerment in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Nanna Bjerg; Joergensen, Clara Ruebner; Thomsen, Thora Grothe; Ross, Lone; Dietz, Susanne Malchau; Groenvold, Mogens; Johnsen, Anna Thit

    2017-02-01

    There is an increased attention to and demand for patient empowerment in cancer treatment and follow-up programs. Patient empowerment has been defined as feeling in control of or having mastery in relation to cancer and cancer care. This calls for properly developed questionnaires assessing empowerment from the user perspective. The aim of this review was to identify questionnaires and subscales measuring empowerment and manifestations of empowerment among cancer patients. We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases. Empowerment and multiple search terms associated with empowerment were included. We included peer-reviewed articles published in English, which described questionnaires measuring empowerment or manifestations of empowerment in a cancer setting. In addition, the questionnaire had to be a patient-reported outcome measure for adult cancer patients. Database searches identified 831 records. Title and abstract screening resulted in 482 records being excluded. The remaining 349 full text articles were retrieved and assessed for eligibility. This led to the inclusion of 33 individual instruments measuring empowerment and manifestations of empowerment. Of these, only four were specifically developed to measure empowerment, and two were originally developed for the cancer setting, whereas the remaining two were developed elsewhere, but adapted to the cancer setting. The other 29 questionnaires were not intended to measure the concept of empowerment, but focused on patient-centered care, patient competence, self-efficacy, etc. However, they were included because part of the instrument (at least five items) was considered to measure empowerment or manifestations of empowerment. Our study provides an overview of the available questionnaires, which can be used by researchers and practitioners who wish to measure the concept of empowerment among cancer patients. Very few questionnaires were explicitly developed to explore

  1. The Shifting Landscape of Health Care: Toward a Model of Health Care Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In a rapidly changing world of health care information access and patients’ rights, there is limited conceptual infrastructure available to understand how people approach and engage in treatment of medical conditions. The construct of health care empowerment is defined as the process and state of being engaged, informed, collaborative, committed, and tolerant of uncertainty regarding health care. I present a model in which health care empowerment is influenced by an interplay of cultural, social, and environmental factors; personal resources; and intrapersonal factors. The model offers a framework to understand patient and provider roles in facilitating health care empowerment and presents opportunities for investigation into the role of health care empowerment in multiple outcomes across populations and settings, including inquiries into the sources and consequences of health disparities. PMID:21164096

  2. Youth empowerment in context: exploring tensions in school-based yPAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohfeldt, Danielle; Chhun, Lina; Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2011-03-01

    In much of the youth empowerment literature, researchers focus on the relationship between youth and adults involved in empowerment programs while neglecting the broader social framework in which these relationships and the program itself functions. Utilizing an ecological model, the current research examines the tensions that surfaced in attempts to create an empowering setting in an after-school PAR program with fifth-graders. Challenging assumptions about youth, structural challenges, and conflicting theories of change are highlighted. Results examine the role of sociocultural context as PAR researchers attempt to create a setting in which students gain skills to become change agents within their school. The study suggests that youth empowerment is a context dependent process that requires attention to a multiplicity of factors that influence possibilities for empowerment via second order change.

  3. Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad: empowerment participatory education for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, C; Choi-Hevel, S; Clawson, M

    2001-10-01

    To be effective, HIV/AIDS interventions must be culturally and linguistically appropriate and must occur within the context of the specific community in which they are delivered. In this article, the development of a culture-specific lay health advisor (LHA) program, Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad, for recently immigrated Mexicans is described. This program is one component of a collaborative inquiry research project involving community participants and researchers working as partners in carrying out and assessing a program for the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The collaborative inquiry process was applied as an empowerment philosophy and methodology of Paulo Freire and an ecological framework was used for the development of Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad. The use of principles of empowerment for curriculum development, teaching methodology, and program delivery are described.

  4. Service climate as a mediator of organizational empowerment in customer-service employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Sierra, Maria Isabel; Orgambídez-Ramos, Alejandro; Carrasco-González, Ana María; León-Jariego, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of the service climate between organizational empowerment (i.e., dynamic structural framework, control of workplace decisions, fluidity in information sharing) and service quality (functional and relational). 428 contact employees from 46 hotels participated in the survey. Correlations demonstrated that dynamic structural framework, control decisions, and fluidity in information sharing are related to both functional and relational service quality. Regression analyses and Sobel tests revealed that service climate totally mediated the relationship between all three dimensions of organizational empowerment and relational service quality. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  5. Healthcare IT and Patient Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danholt, Peter; Bødker, Keld; Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Technology Studies (STS), we address the question of designing IT support for communication and coordination among the heterogeneous network of actors involved in contemporary healthcare work. The paper reports work in progress from a diabetes outpatient clinic at a large Danish hospital. The treatment......This short paper outlines a recently initiated research project that concerns healthcare information systems and patient empowerment. Drawing on various theoretical backgrounds, Participatory Design (PD), Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), Computer Mediated Communication (CMC), and Science...

  6. Women Empowerment: An Epistemic Quest

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai N., Vijayamohanan; B. P., Asalatha

    2012-01-01

    The concept of women empowerment was the outcome of several important critiques and debates generated by the women’s movement throughout the world, and particularly in the developing countries. In essence, the 1980s saw the rise of stringent feminist critiques of development strategies and grassroots interventions: mainly for these strategies having generally failed to make any significant dent in the status of women. The failure was ascribed to the adaptation and the application of such appr...

  7. High School Teacher Perceptions of Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Tricia Susan

    2014-01-01

    As the responsibilities of principals become more complex and as accountability becomes more evident in K-12 cultures, it becomes increasingly important that high school principals be trained to empower teachers. This paper examined the research concerning the conditions of the empowerment of teachers. More specifically, it measured high school teachers' perspectives concerning their levels of empowerment by their principals based on the four domains of empowerment: meaning, competence, sel...

  8. Empowerment in the perspective of ecumenical diakonia

    OpenAIRE

    Nordstokke, Kjell

    2012-01-01

    Empowerment seems to be developing as a key concept in the discussion of identity and mission of diaconia. This is also true in the ecumenical movement. Recent discussions demonstrate that empowerment is also used when people in the South comment on their own context. Empowerment also has a strong biblical foundation. Still, one needs to pursue several important questions. One of them being: Who empowers whom?

  9. Analyzing empowerment oriented email consultation for parents : Development of the Guiding the Empowerment Process model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer

    2014-01-01

    Background. Online consultation is increasingly offered by parenting practitioners, but it is not clear if it is feasible to provide empowerment oriented support in single session email consultation. Method. Based on empowerment theory we developed the Guiding the Empowerment Process model (GEP

  10. Testing Psychometrics of Healthcare Empowerment Questionnaires ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testing Psychometrics of Healthcare Empowerment Questionnaires (HCEQ) among Iranian ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... translation and backtranslation procedures, pilot testing, and getting views of expert panel.

  11. The Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment...

  12. Five Enunciations of Empowerment i Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertner, Sara Marie; Kragelund, Anne Mie; Malmborg, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design has been defined as having 'user's democratic participation and empowerment at its core' (Correia and Yusop, 2008). The PD discourse has a strong moral and rhetorical claim by its emphasis on users' empowerment. This paper is a result of a student project, guided by a curiosity...... about how empowerment is enunciated in the PD field today. In a literature-review of academic papers from the proceedings of PDC 2008 we found that empowerment is enunciated in five different ways which can be translated into 5 categories: 1) Specific user groups 2) Direct democracy 3) The users...

  13. The Nexus Between Health Literacy and Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Crondahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to explore what is known about the assumed connection between health literacy and empowerment and how this connection is portrayed in the scientific literature. If empowerment is an outcome of health literacy, what are the mechanisms behind this process? A literature search conducted in 2013 yielded 216 hits, of which five met the inclusion criteria, and thus were read in depth and analyzed through a narrative-review approach. The findings indicate that health literacy might be regarded as a tool for empowerment but does not automatically lead to empowerment. Health literacy might be increased by health education. Crucial for empowerment is to achieve the critical level of health literacy including an ability to question and reflect on the prevailing power relations and societal conditions; increased senses of power, self-esteem, and self-efficacy; and an ability to utilize these resources to engage in social and political action for change. This article suggests that for health literacy to be critical to empowerment, there must be a focus on social health determinants and individuals’ subjective perceptions of health and health needs. The article proposes functional and interactive health literacy as a form of capacity building for health and empowerment and critical health literacy as a way to describe empowerment. This scoping review indicates a research gap and a need for future research examining the relationship between health literacy and empowerment.

  14. Empowerment Strategy Through Salak Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucihatiningsih Dian Wisika Prajanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This articles aims to understand the practice of empowerment through assistance to salak farmers. The study includes 60 salak fruit farmers which are taken as the samples. Descriptive analysis is used to analyze the obtained data from the study. The research result shows that most respondents have the relative low level of empowerment. The empowerment level from business aspect explain that most of the respondent (73% are never and could not got the financial assistant to develop their business. Likewise, it could be happen in the technological access, most of the respondent (56,7% explain that in the production process the technology that used is base on traditional and hereditary. So, it is depend on labour relieves when the production and harvest process. Furthermore, the research shows that a low level of a capability to access the market information. It could be seen that most of the farmers (38,3% directly selling their product to the consumers and 33,3% sell their product to the broker. The empowerment from non economic aspect could be seen from the low ability of lobbying aspect, like the asking for a relieves from their colleagues at the local government officer (10%, financial institution like cooperation, bank and etc (25%, society figures (32,1%, employees (32,1%, non government institution/ academision (10% and a families (93,3%. To empower the farmers in order to make them sustainable, it is necessary to built a partnership by empowerment strategy. The empowerment strategy that involves industry as the farmers’ partner is carried out to improve the empowerment of the farmers of salak fruits.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeksplorasi praktek pemberdayaan melalui pendampingan petani buah salak. Sebanyak 60 orang petani salak diambil sebagai sampel. Analisis deskriptif telah digunakan untuk menganalisis data dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar masyarakat di daerah penelitian mengaku pada

  15. Empowerment in people with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disler RT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca T Disler,1–3 Jessica Appleton,1 Tracy A Smith,4,5 Matthew Hodson,6 Sally C Inglis,1,2 DorAnne Donesky,7 Patricia M Davidson8 1Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, 2Centre for Cardiovascular and Chronic Care, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, 3Improving Palliative Care through Clinical Trials (ImPACCT, Sydney, 4Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, 5Faculty of Medicine, University of NSW, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 6ACERS, Integrated Medicine and Rehabilitation Services Division, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 7Department of Physiological Nursing, UCSF School of Nursing, San Francisco, CA, 8School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Patient empowerment is recognized as an important aspect of chronic disease management. There is an increasing expectation that health providers engage patients as active participants in their own self-management. This engagement is crucial to the chronic care model as patients with COPD and their families manage the majority of the care in the community. Understanding what influences empowerment will help health care professionals to better engage in collaborative care planning and decision making that meet the needs of this new generation of health consumers. Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify interventions or approaches that empower patients in the management of COPD. Methods: An integrative review was undertaken following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses approach. Papers were included if they 1 provided a definition or conceptualization of empowerment, and 2 reported interventions or approaches fostering empowerment in patients with COPD. Thematic analysis was used to develop conceptual themes on patient empowerment in COPD. These conceptual themes were validated by a panel of specialists in COPD, chronic disease

  16. Examining relational empowerment for elementary school students in a yPAR program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day; Collins, Charles; Ellison, Erin Rose

    2014-06-01

    This paper joins relational empowerment, youth empowerment, and Bridging Multiple Worlds frameworks to examine forms of relational empowerment for children in two intermediary institutions-school and a youth participatory action research after-school program (yPAR ASP). Participants were twelve children, most of whom were Latina/o and from im/migrant families, enrolled in a yPAR ASP for 2 years. A mixed-method approach was utilized; we analyzed children's interviews, self-defined goals, and their social networks to examine their experiences of relational empowerment. We conclude that children experienced each of the five relational empowerment factors-collaborative competence, bridging social divisions, facilitating others' empowerment, mobilizing networks, and passing on a legacy-in the yPAR ASP setting, and some factors in school. These experiences, however, were more pronounced in the yPAR ASP setting. Additionally, social network analyses revealed that a small but meaningful percentage of actors bridged worlds, especially home and family, but by year 2, also school and the yPAR ASP. Finally, most helpers for school-based goals came from school, but a sizable number came from family, friends, and home worlds, and by year 2, also came from the yPAR ASP. Implications range from theoretical to methodological development, including the use of social network analysis as a tool to descriptively examine relational power in context.

  17. Thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal expansion of fuel pellet is an important property which limits the lifetime of the fuels in reactors, because it affects both the pellet and cladding mechanical interaction and the gap conductivity. By fitting a number of available measured data, recommended equations have been presented and successfully used to estimate thermal expansion coefficient of the nuclear fuel pellet. However, due to large scatter of the measured data, non-consensus data have been omitted in formulating the equations. Also, the equation is strongly governed by the lack of appropriate experimental data. For those reasons, it is important to develop theoretical methodologies to better describe thermal expansion behaviour of nuclear fuel. In particular, first-principles and molecular dynamics simulations have been certainly contributed to predict reliable thermal expansion without fitting the measured data. Furthermore, the two theoretical techniques have improved on understanding the change of fuel dimension by describing the atomic-scale processes associated with lattice expansion in the fuels. (author)

  18. Validation of Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale (PEMS in the Portuguese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José de Sousa Franco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since when midwives are prominent in different socio-cultural contexts of individuals and populations associated with the control of women during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum? In Portugal, the level of training of nurses in breastfeeding and obstetric has evolved, is considered the most advanced in the European context, and this would have posed new challenges for these professionals. Methodology: focusing on what the perception of empowerment that have specialized nurses in midwifery and maternal health in Portugal, it was decided to conduct this study, entitled "Validation of the Portuguese population scale - Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale (PEMS" . We responded to the research question, what are the levels of empowerment of nurses in nursing and midwifery maternal health in Portugal? Objective: To determine the level of empowerment of nurses in nursing and midwifery maternal health in Portugal. In this study we used the quantitative method and descriptive. To accomplish this we proceeded to the implementation of a data collection instrument organized into two distinct parts. The first part allowed us to collect sociodemographic data and professional reviewers. In the second use "Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale" (Matthews, Scott, and Gallagher, 2009, measuring tool we had to validate cross-culturally. The study presented here took samples of 309 Portuguese health nurses maternal obstetrical nurse specialists. Results: 'Perceptions of Empowerment in Midwifery Scale (PEMS' (Matthews, Scott, and Gallagher, 2009, presents a framework pentafatorial (effective management and interdisciplinary relationships, sustained and autonomous practice, professional communication and consent, recognition health team, training and education, which together account for 72.9% of the variance of the results. On average, nurses in maternal health nursing and midwifery have a low level of empowerment, the lowest level

  19. A new framework for modeling urban land expansion in peri-urban area by combining multi-source datasets and data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Xiao, R.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    Peri-urban area is a new type region under the impacts of both rural Industrialization and the radiation of metropolitan during rapid urbanization. Due to its complex natural and social characteristics and unique development patterns, many problems such as environmental pollution and land use waste emerged, which became an urgent issue to be addressed. Study area in this paper covers three typical peri-urban districts (Pudong, Fengxian and Jinshan), which around the Shanghai inner city. By coupling cellular automata and multi-agent system model as the basic tools, this research focus on modelling the urban land expansion and driving mechanism in peri-urban area. The big data is aslo combined with the Bayesian maximum entropy method (BME) for spatiotemporal prediction of multi-source data, which expand the dataset of urban expansion models. Data assimilation method is used to optimize the parameters of the coupling model and minimize the uncertainty of observations, improving the precision of future simulation in peri-urban area. By setting quantitative parameters, the coupling model can effectively improve the simulation of the process of urban land expansion under different policies and management schemes, in order to provide scientificimplications for new urbanization strategy. In this research, we precise the urban land expansion simulation and prediction for peri-urban area, expand the scopes and selections of data acquisition measurements and methods, develop the new applications of the data assimilation method in geographical science, provide a new idea for understanding the inherent rules of urban land expansion, and give theoretical and practical support for the peri-urban area in urban planning and decision making.

  20. Combat Leadership Styles: Empowerment versus Authoritarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Combat Leadership Styles : Empowerment versus Authoritarianism FARIS R. KIRKLAND Recent research in Israel and the United States suggests that...Combat Leadership Styles : Empowerment versus Authoritarianism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  1. Empowerment through Sex Education? Rethinking Paradoxical Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naezer, Marijke; Rommes, Els; Jansen, Willy

    2017-01-01

    Youth empowerment is the main goal of sex education according to Dutch Government and NGO policies. Academics from different disciplines have argued, however, that the ideal of empowerment through education is problematic, because of the unequal power relations implicated in educational practices. Building on one-and-a-half years of online and…

  2. Psychological empowerment and development | Oladipo | Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) and national development. The specific objective of the paper is to explore and establish the importance of psychological empowerment of the masses and particularly the youths, ...

  3. Institutional Capacity Building for Rural Women's Empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de S.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Basically, women¿s empowerment is the process (and its outcomes) in which women ¿ individually and collectively- become active, knowledgeable and goal-oriented actors who take and/ or support initiatives to overcoming gender inequalities. Hence, women¿s empowerment refers to a strategy to achieve

  4. Conceptualising patient empowerment: a mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, P.; Edwards, A.; Barr, P.J.; Scholl, I.; Elwyn, G.; Mcallister, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, interventions and health policy programmes have been established to promote patient empowerment, with a particular focus on patients affected by long-term conditions. However, a clear definition of patient empowerment is lacking, making it difficult to assess

  5. Designing for learning and empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lise Høgh

    2017-01-01

    worked together to develop five new visual and digital methods for interviewing in special education. Thereby enhancing students’ competences, knowledge and proficiency in innovation and research as well as designing a solution aiding people with learning disabilities to communicate with peers......This paper proposes design-based research as a teaching approach to enhance the learning environment of university college students and as a potential tool for empowerment in practice. The paper depicts how students, professors, professional educationalists, and people with learning disabilities...

  6. Empowerment von Frauen in Indien

    OpenAIRE

    Langenbacher, Nora

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to study whether the participation of women in India’s local governance institutions, the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI) which was guaranteed by a quota, really leads to empowerment. To counter the political and socio-economic marginalization of Indian women, a reservation of 33 per cent of all PRI-seats for women became law in 1993 as part of two constitutional amendments. Not only were the PRI expected to spark more sustainable bottom-up development; the ...

  7. The Nexus Between Health Literacy and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crondahl, Kristine; Eklund Karlsson, Leena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore what is known about the assumed connection between health literacy and empowerment and how this connection is portrayed in the scientific literature. If empowerment is an outcome of health literacy, what are the mechanisms behind this process? A literature...... search onducted in 2013 yielded 216 hits, of which five met the inclusion criteria, and thus were read in depth and analyzed through a narrative-review approach. The findings indicate that Health literacy might be regarded as a tool for empowerment but does not automatically lead to empowerment. Health...... literacy might be increased by health education. Crucial for empowerment is to achieve the critical level of health literacy including an ability to question and reflect on the prevailing power relations and societal conditions; increased senses of power, selfesteem, and self-efficacy; and an ability...

  8. Increasing Programme Effectiveness through Parent Empowerment: The Getting Ready for School Project in Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsel, Christopher Michael; Lapham, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Within the development studies framework, empowerment involves increasing individual agency vis-à-vis the formal and informal opportunity structure. The Open Society Foundation's Early Childhood Programme developed the Getting Ready for School programme specifically for parents of preschool-age children to use at home in the year before school to…

  9. The Implicit Curriculum in an Urban University Setting: Pathways to Students' Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, N. Andrew; Farmer, Antoinette Y.; Zippay, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Professional schools are developing conceptual frameworks that can be used to assess and improve implicit curricula. Students' professional empowerment, defined to include perceived professional competence and identity, may be considered a vital outcome of these efforts. Our study evaluated measures and tested a path model that included…

  10. Is Second Language Teaching Enslavement or Empowerment? Insights from an Hegelian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manfred Man-fat

    2018-01-01

    Whether second language (L2) teaching contributes to the enslavement or empowerment of learners has become a branch in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages research. More and more discussions are emerging, and they tend to base on more and more diverse theoretical frameworks. This article aims to shed light on this issue by exploring it…

  11. A systems approach to empowerment in manufacturing enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    McEwan, Anne Marie

    1999-01-01

    Business challenges posed by turbulcnt local and global operating conditions are driving the adoption of new manufacturing strategies. Employee empowerment is vicwcd as a key enabler of these strategies within manufacturing enterprises. Analysis of the empowerment literature revealed that empowerment is poorly conccptualiscd. Little empirical evidcncc exists on the factors that influence the rcalisation of empowerment in manufacturing production. Paralld analysis in other domai...

  12. 25 Jahre Empowerment der Frau 25 Years of Female Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wittkopp

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Anlässlich des 25-jährigen Jubiläums des Ausschusses des Übereinkommens zur Beseitigung jeder Form von Diskriminierung der Frau (United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, CEDAW wird in dem Buch The Circle of Empowerment eine Bilanz der Arbeit des Vertragsorgans gezogen. Herausgegeben von Hanna Beate Schöpp-Schilling, dem deutschen Mitglied im CEDAW-Ausschuss seit 1989, und Cees Flinterman, dem niederländischen Mitglied seit 2003, enthält der Band Essays und persönliche Reflexionen von ehemaligen oder gegenwärtigen Mitgliedern des CEDAW-Ausschusses und UN-Mitarbeitern. Das Buch eignet sich als Einstieg in und Überblick über die Frauenrechtskonvention für Frauenrechtler/-innen, Wissenschaftler/-innen und Studierende, da es ein differenziertes Bild der Konvention, ihrer Mechanismen und ihrer Umsetzungsprobleme zeichnet. Gleichzeitig werden Hintergründe der tatsächlichen Arbeit eines Vertragsorgans beleuchtet, die sonst verschlossen bleiben.In celebration of the 25-year anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW, the book The Circle of Empowerment analyses the results of the work of this treaty institution. The volume, edited by Hanna Beate Schöpp-Schilling, German member in the CEDAW-commission since 1989, and Cees Flinterman, Dutch member since 2003, contains essays and personal reflections from former and current members of the CEDAW-commission and UN staff. The book is an appropriate introduction into and overview of the convention on women’s rights for activists, scholars, and students because it sketches a differentiated image of the convention, its mechanisms, and problems of implementation. At the same time, the book illuminates the background issues of the treaty institution’s actual work, something that normally remains secret.

  13. Perceptions of empowerment among ED nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVivo, Diane; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; Donahue, Moreen; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2013-11-01

    Nurses' perceptions of empowerment have been linked to a number of variables in the hospital workplace, including job satisfaction, autonomy, and work effectiveness. Yet there have been no previous studies of perceptions of empowerment specifically among emergency department (ED) nurses. Registered nurses (RNs) employed in the EDs of 6 hospitals in a major health care system in the eastern United States were surveyed regarding their perceptions of empowerment. Of the 240 RNs eligible to participate, there were 167 usable surveys. There was a moderate level of empowerment among the RNs who participated, consistent with the level of empowerment reported in several other studies of staff nurses and nurses in other positions. The moderate level of empowerment in this sample may be attributed to the many opportunities for RN involvement in the hospitals within this health care system. Nurse leaders can initiate programs focused on enhancing RN perceptions of empowerment. In addition, there is a need for further research among RNs with different specialty preparation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  14. Empowerment in healthcare policy making: three domains of substantive controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Tengland, Per-Anders

    2015-12-01

    This paper distinguishes between the uses of empowerment across different contexts in healthcare policy and health promotion, providing a model for the ethical and political scrutiny of those uses. We argue that the controversies currently engendered by empowerment are better understood by means of a historical distinction between two concepts of empowerment, namely, what we call the radical empowerment approach and the new wave of empowerment. Building on this distinction, we present a research agenda for ethicists and policy makers, highlighting three domains of controversy raised by the new wave of empowerment, namely: (1) the relationship between empowerment and paternalistic interferences on the part of professionals; (2) the evaluative commitment of empowerment strategies to the achievement of health-related goals; and (3) the problems arising from the emphasis on responsibility for health in recent uses of empowerment. Finally, we encourage the explicit theorisation of these moral controversies as a necessary step for the development and implementation of ethically legitimate empowerment processes.

  15. Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. Chas; Cradock, Sue

    2000-01-01

    The health care system has been very successful in meeting the first set of challenges in diabetes care. As a consequence of this success a new set of challenge, low levels of self-care, poor control and unresolved emotional problems, has emerged to challenge the health care professional. Patient...

  16. Community mobilization, empowerment and HIV prevention among female sex workers in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Andrea K; Mohan, Haranahalli Lakkappa; Shahmanesh, Maryam; Prakash, Ravi; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, Banadakoppa Manjappa; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Gurnani, Vandana; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2013-03-16

    While community mobilization has been widely endorsed as an important component of HIV prevention among vulnerable populations such as female sex workers (FSWs), there is uncertainty as to the mechanism through which it impacts upon HIV risk. We explored the hypothesis that individual and collective empowerment of FSW is an outcome of community mobilization, and we examined the means through which HIV risk and vulnerability reduction as well as personal and social transformation are achieved. This study was conducted in five districts in south India, where community mobilization programs are implemented as part of the Avahan program (India AIDS Initiative) of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. We used a theoretically derived "integrated empowerment framework" to conduct a secondary analysis of a representative behavioural tracking survey conducted among 1,750 FSWs. We explored the associations between involvement with community mobilization programs, self-reported empowerment (defined as three domains including power within to represent self-esteem and confidence, power with as a measure of collective identity and solidarity, and power over as access to social entitlements, which were created using Principal Components analysis), and outcomes of HIV risk reduction and social transformation. In multivariate analysis, we found that engagement with HIV programs and community mobilization activities was associated with the domains of empowerment. Power within and power with were positively associated with more program contact (p empowerment were also associated with outcomes of "personal transformation" in terms of self-efficacy for condom and health service use (p empowerment (power with others) was most strongly associated with "social transformation" variables including higher autonomy and reduced violence and coercion, particularly in districts with programs of longer duration (p empowerment as a means to HIV prevention.

  17. Women's empowerment and health: the role of institutions of power in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, N; Shaikh, B T

    2007-01-01

    Women's right to health has been reiterated many times. However, there are social and cultural barriers in developing countries that hinder their empowerment. Women's low status, deprivation of education and lack of control over their own lives and bodies have a negative impact on their health status and that of their families. This paper discusses women's empowerment and health within the framework of the 4 institutions of power in a society-family, community, health care systems and the state--with special reference to the situation in Pakistan. It concludes that to improve women's health status, concerted efforts are needed by all these institutions of power to work towards gender equality and the greater empowerment of women.

  18. Student Empowerment Through Internet Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna

    2011-01-01

    in a University in Southern India to empower the female students through Internet usage. The study was done to find out the problems the woman students faced in gaining access and using Internet and how they can be empowered through Internet usage. Future workshop was conducted to find out the problems...... and reflecting. The paper will explore the various cultural issues and explicate how the social context plays a major role in the use of Internet even if there is sufficient access. These issues will be addressed from an empowerment perspective. The paper ends by recommending the methods to be adopted for more......Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been widely recognized as a tool for human development (UNDP 2001). The rate at which ICT are growing is changing the way knowledge is developed, acquired and delivered. (Tongia, et al. 2005) Internet is one of the Information & Communication...

  19. What can be expected of information and communication technologies in terms of patient empowerment in health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemire, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Implementing information and communication technologies (ICT) is often mentioned as a strategy that can foster public involvement and responsibility in health. The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the possibilities and issues afforded by the social uses of ICT for personal empowerment in health. The paper discusses evidence from four case studies that characterize current computerization and networking processes in health. The studies shared a global framework comprising four interpretative paradigms of personal empowerment: the professional, technocratic, consumerist and democratic paradigms. The results show the coexistence of four empowerment logics in ICT use. Two trends proved dominant: a strengthening of the control and standardization processes tied to the typical power relationships in health, and a reinforcement of personal autonomy and self-assertion processes, either through commercial relationships or through the social relationships that are also present. The paper supports the argument that in order to understand the opportunities for personal empowerment offered by ICT the logic underlying user practices in their respective contexts must be examined. The paper uses data from four case studies to illustrate the contradictory logics shaping the personal empowerment process. Under these logics, an ICT user may play roles as patient, client, consumer, or citizen.

  20. Expansion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, J.

    1985-10-01

    A quantum dynamical model is suggested which describes the expansion and disassembly phase of highly excited compounds formed in energetic heavy-ion collisions. First applications in two space and one time dimensional model world are discussed and qualitatively compared to standard freeze-out concepts. (orig.)

  1. expansion method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a system under investigation is to model the system in terms of some ... The organization of the paper is as follows: In §2, a brief account of the (G /G)- expansion ...... It is interesting to note that from the general results, one can easily recover.

  2. School nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, Marie C; DeSisto, Thomas Patrick

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Kanter's Theory of Structural Power in Organizations, using school nurses and to answer the research question of whether there is a relationship between empowerment and autonomy in school nurses. This study found a positive relationship between the nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy. The school nurses surveyed perceived themselves to have a high degree of autonomy and a moderate degree of empowerment, and they reported that their access to informal power structures was higher than their access to formal power structures in their school systems. School nurses can benefit by understanding factors that can increase their empowerment in the workplace. They need to understand the organizational structure of their workplace to increase their effectiveness and job satisfaction.

  3. Nursing Student Perceptions of Structural Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shelley C; Ward, Karen S

    To meet role expectations for nurses, nurses must feel empowered. Faculty contributions to the learning environment for nursing students are critical. A descriptive analysis of student perceptions of empowerment within the learning environment was conducted using a form of Kanter's Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire; 203 participants from schools in 17 different states completed surveys. Subjects demonstrated moderate degrees of structural empowerment in their learning environment. This positive finding can be further investigated and used to fully prepare future nurses.

  4. Empowerment in critical care - a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wåhlin, Ingrid

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to analyse how the concept of empowerment is defined in the scientific literature in relation to critical care. As empowerment is a mutual process affecting all individuals involved, the perspectives of not only patients and next of kin but also staff were sought. A literature review and a concept analysis based on Walker and Avant's analysis procedure were used to identify the basic elements of empowerment in critical care. Twenty-two articles with a focus on critical care were discovered and included in the investigation. A mutual and supportive relationship, knowledge, skills, power within oneself and self-determination were found to be the common attributes of empowerment in critical care. The results could be adapted and used for all parties involved in critical care - whether patients, next of kin or staff - as these defining attributes are assumed to be universal to all three groups, even if the more specific content of each attribute varies between groups and individuals. Even if empowerment is only sparsely used in relation to critical care, it appears to be a very useful concept in this context. The benefits of improving empowerment are extensive: decreased levels of distress and strain, increased sense of coherence and control over situation, and personal and/or professional development and growth, together with increased comfort and inner satisfaction. © 2016 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College.

  5. A Study on Teachers’ Digital Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Akkoyunlu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Technological development has flourished lately and its role in education might play a key role in young people’s social, educational, and professional life. Educators must teach young people relevant information and skills not only to give them a chance to explore and understand the world around them but also to familiarize them with digital technologies. But before we can educate young people we must empower teachers using digital technology. Because teachers who use digital technologies appropriately are not only good models but also help students develop positive attitudes towards such technologies. Considering that, the purpose of this study is to determine the levels of teachers’ digital enpowerment. Descriptive methods were used in this study to determine current level of teachers’ digital empowerment. It was found that teachers have average levels of digital enpowerment. Looking closer at sub-categories, it was found that their awareness and motivation levels were higher, however, technical access and empowerment levels were average. Comparing males and females showed that both teachers had high scores on awareness and technical access but motivation, empowerment, and over all males and females were roughly average. When sub­categories of digital empowerment was analyzed according to teachers’ specialties, it showed that Computer and Science teachers’ had high scores on awareness, motivation, technical access empowerment and overall average. However, Social Science, Turkish and Language teachers had high scores on awareness and motivation, but technical access, empowerment and overall average were average.

  6. Land-use change in a telecoupled world: the relevance and applicability of the telecoupling framework in the case of banana plantation expansion in Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Friis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land-use change is increasingly influenced by complex socioeconomic and environmental interactions that transcend spatial, institutional, and temporal scales. These interactions challenge classical place-based land system analysis and require new analytical approaches equipped for tackling processes, flows, and feedbacks over distance. The recently proposed telecoupling framework offers interesting perspectives for bringing place-based and process-oriented research together in the study of land-use change. However, few studies have explored the influence and implications of telecouplings in local land-use changes. One reason for this is that the framework still faces challenges for application in empirical research. Here, we offer a qualitative operationalization of the telecoupling framework to explore its relevance and applicability in a case of local land-use change. Investigating the case of a recent boom in commercial banana cultivation in Luang Namtha Province, Lao PDR, we use a grounded empirical approach starting with the observed land-use change at the village level. We then trace flows and distal processes influencing the conversion to banana cultivation from the perspectives and experiences of the local actors involved. The results identify four prominent material and immaterial telecouplings at various spatial and temporal scales, as well as some potential feedbacks. This complexity points to the need for interdisciplinary research because the processes involved in creating telecoupled land-use change transcend the boundaries of any one discipline. Overall, however, telecoupling presents a strong heuristic lens for examining and describing distal causal relations in land-use change in a manner that does not favor a specific analytical scale or type of interaction.

  7. The Empowerment Model: A Critical Reflection of Empowerment in Chinese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kam-shing

    2004-01-01

    The empowerment model has long dominated social work practice in Western countries. Many social workers in Hong Kong use this model regardless of the social or cultural context. In this article the author shares local social work practice experiences in Hong Kong and suggests that the empowerment model may need adaptation in Chinese communities.…

  8. Clinical nutrition managers have access to sources of empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, J M; Schiller, M R; Wolf, K N; Finn, S C

    2000-09-01

    To ascertain perceived access of dietitians to power in the workplace. The conceptual framework was Kanter's theory of organizational power. The Conditions for Work Effectiveness Questionnaire was used to measure perceived access to sources of power: information, support, resources, and opportunities. Demographic data were collected to identify factors that may enhance empowerment. The questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 348 dietitians chosen from members of the Clinical Nutrition Management dietetic practice group of the American Dietetic Association. Blank questionnaires were returned by 99 (28.4%) people not working as clinical nutrition managers, which left 249 in the sample. Descriptive statistics were used to organize and summarize data. One-way analysis of variance and t tests were performed to identify differences in responses based on levels of education, work setting, and information technology skills. Usable questionnaires were received from 178 people (71.5%). On a 5-point scale, scores for access to information (mean +/- standard deviation [SD] = 3.8 +/- 0.7), opportunity (mean +/- SD = 3.6 +/- 0.7), support (mean +/- SD = 3.2 +/- 0.9), and resources (mean +/- SD = 3.1 +/- 0.8) demonstrated that clinical nutrition managers perceived themselves as having substantial access to sources of empowerment. Those having higher levels of education, working in larger hospitals, having better-developed information technology skills, and using information technology more frequently had statistically significant higher empowerment scores (P = leadership roles in today's health care settings. Their power may be enhanced by asserting more pressure to gain greater access to sources of power: support, information, resources, and opportunities.

  9. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965 bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during

  10. Pacifist empowerment for other possible worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sandoval Forero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article of analytical content, aims to interpret some significant elements considered for the analysis of pacifist empowerment. Starting from the theoretical and practical background that on empowerment generally presented in Latin America and in Mexico from the ideas of Paulo Freire, as well as the understandings of the concept have been exposed from the philosophical, participatory, gender, social, and development approaches. According to the purpose and object of research, the article falls within the qualitative methodology of hermeneutic type that allows us to identify, describe, analyze, and reflect on the pacifist empowerment, based on textual sources and Peace research categories, considering particular bibliography on the subject. The qualitative research approach was supplemented with the technique of observation and dialogue on the subject taught by Francisco Muñoz in his last journey to Mexico. In the first part the results of the development and empowerment of the term approaches and their application is described in general terms. The conventional concept is discussed to understand the similarities and differences with the pacifist empowerment. In the second part the approach of pacifist empowerment having as theoretical support for Peace studies and particularly Muñoz and his coauthors addressed approaches is discussed. Some understandings about the issue are outlined and the article concludes that the concept of pacifist empowerment is in theoretical construction from the perspective of peace studies, and his statement is proposed as a know-how transformer of the subject and collective action to decide and to influence structural, cultural, gender or any violence condition as a strategy of nonviolent social change to build more peaceful worlds.

  11. Gender equality and women empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, R

    1996-01-01

    This article lists 11 suggestions for empowering women that the government of India should take, if it has a sincere commitment to gender equality and women's empowerment grounded in social change and not just rhetoric: 1) education should be made compulsory for all female children and places held on a 50/50 basis in all technical institutions; 2) a uniform civil code should be adopted for all citizens regardless of cast, creed, and religion; 3) women should have an equal right to own property and receive inheritance; 4) the National Women's Commission should be enlarged, representative of diversity, and effective in making policy decisions related to welfare, education, recruitment, and promotion; 5) a State Women's Commission should be established with affiliates at the block, district, and division levels; 6) the National and State Women's Commission should be established as a Statutory Body with binding decisions mandating government action; 7) the National and State Women's Commissions should have transparent functions, be regulatory, and offer workshops and seminars for women; 8) state governments should not interfere in the functions of National and State Women's Commissions; 9) women should fill 50% of all Center and State government service posts and concessions should be made on minimum academic qualifications and completed years of service, until all positions are filled; 10) 50% of the seats of Parliament should be reserved for women in both the State Legislature, Council of Ministry Boards, Corporations, Committees, and Commissions; and 11) the Constitution should provide for women judges in courts of law.

  12. Promoting group empowerment and self-reliance through participatory research: a case study of people with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R; Bhagwanjee, A

    1999-07-01

    Despite the growing popularity of the empowerment construct among social scientists, relatively few empowerment studies involving groupwork with people with physical disabilities exist. This article accordingly describes and analyses the organic development of the empowerment process within a spinal cord injury self-help group, set against the backdrop of policy imperatives for disability in post-apartheid South Africa. The treatise on the group empowerment process is located within the context of a group evaluation conducted within a participatory research framework. Key variables informing the research approach included: quality of participation, control over resources and decision-making, shift in critical consciousness and understanding, malleability of roles within the group and role of the health professional. Group members assumed ownership of group management and decision-making and shifted from a professionally-led to a peer-led self-help group. Group objectives changed from providing mutual support to community education and outreach activities. The role of the health professional shifted from group facilitator to invited consultant. This case study demonstrates how group participation, promoted by a critically informed therapeutic and research praxis, can unlock the inherent potential for self-reliance and empowerment of socially marginalized collectives. It offers important insights with regard to group process, participatory research and the role of the health professional in creating opportunities for empowerment and self-reliance of people with disability.

  13. A Framework Based on 2-D Taylor Expansion for Quantifying the Impacts of Sub-Pixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bi-Spectral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Werner, F.; Cho, H. -M.; Wind, G.; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    The bi-spectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness and cloud droplet effective radius simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near-infrared (VISNIR) band and the other in a shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring sub-pixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved and re. In the literature, the retrievals of and re are often assumed to be independent and considered separately when investigating the impact of sub-pixel cloud reflectance variations on the bi-spectral method. As a result, the impact on is contributed only by the sub-pixel variation of VISNIR band reflectance and the impact on re only by the sub-pixel variation of SWIR band reflectance. In our new framework, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of sub-pixel variances of VISNIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VISNIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how sub-pixel cloud reflectance variations impact the and re retrievals based on the bi-spectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the sub-pixel variation in VISNIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval. We test our framework using synthetic cloud fields from a large-eddy simulation and real observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The predicted results based on our framework agree very well with the numerical simulations. Our framework can be used

  14. A Framework Based on 2-D Taylor Expansion for Quantifying the Impacts of Subpixel Reflectance Variance and Covariance on Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals Based on the Bispectral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Werner, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Wind, G.; Platnick, S.; Ackerman, A. S.; Di Girolamo, L.; Marshak, A.; Meyer, K.

    2016-01-01

    The bispectral method retrieves cloud optical thickness (t) and cloud droplet effective radius (re) simultaneously from a pair of cloud reflectance observations, one in a visible or near-infrared (VIS/NIR) band and the other in a shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. A cloudy pixel is usually assumed to be horizontally homogeneous in the retrieval. Ignoring subpixel variations of cloud reflectances can lead to a significant bias in the retrieved t and re. In the literature, the retrievals of t and re are often assumed to be independent and considered separately when investigating the impact of subpixel cloud reflectance variations on the bispectral method. As a result, the impact on t is contributed only by the subpixel variation of VIS/NIR band reflectance and the impact on re only by the subpixel variation of SWIR band reflectance. In our new framework, we use the Taylor expansion of a two-variable function to understand and quantify the impacts of subpixel variances of VIS/NIR and SWIR cloud reflectances and their covariance on the t and re retrievals. This framework takes into account the fact that the retrievals are determined by both VIS/NIR and SWIR band observations in a mutually dependent way. In comparison with previous studies, it provides a more comprehensive understanding of how subpixel cloud reflectance variations impact the t and re retrievals based on the bispectral method. In particular, our framework provides a mathematical explanation of how the subpixel variation in VIS/NIR band influences the re retrieval and why it can sometimes outweigh the influence of variations in the SWIR band and dominate the error in re retrievals, leading to a potential contribution of positive bias to the re retrieval. We test our framework using synthetic cloud fields from a large-eddy simulation and real observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The predicted results based on our framework agree very well with the numerical simulations. Our

  15. South African managers' perceptions of black economic empowerment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8Key words: transformation, black economic empowerment (BEE), broad-based black economic empowerment .... mclviiCode series reference ... range of available literature from articles and books as well as newspaper clippings was studied ...

  16. The Influence of Affordable Daycare on Women's Empowerment in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Influence of Affordable Daycare on Women's Empowerment in India ... services for the poor likely contribute to gender inequality by restricting women's educational ... a state that performs poorly in terms of women's empowerment in India.

  17. Familierådslagning i et empowerment perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Jørn Henrik; Brønholt, Lis Lynge

    2007-01-01

    Diskussion og undersøgelse af empowerment begrebet i forhold til beslutningsmodellen familierådslagning.......Diskussion og undersøgelse af empowerment begrebet i forhold til beslutningsmodellen familierådslagning....

  18. Factors of Empowerment for Women in Recovery from Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Jason, Leonard A.; Keys, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Empowerment is an interdisciplinary construct heavily grounded in the theories of community psychology. Although empowerment has a strong theoretical foundation, few context-specific quantitative measures have been designed to evaluate empowerment for specific populations. The present study explored the factor structure of a modified empowerment scale with a cross-sectional sample of 296 women in recovery from substance use who lived in recovery homes located throughout the United States. Results from an exploratory factor analysis identified three factors of psychological empowerment which were closely related to previous conceptualizations of psychological empowerment: self perception, resource knowledge and participation. Further analyses demonstrated a hierarchical relationship among the three factors, with resource knowledge predicting participation when controlling for self-perception. Finally, a correlational analysis demonstrated the initial construct validity of each factor, as each factor of empowerment was significantly and positively related to self-esteem. Implications for the application of psychological empowerment theory and research are discussed. PMID:22392193

  19. Literature review of women's economic empowerment and the care ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... Literature review of women's economic empowerment and the care ... empowerment, gender equality and growth in low-income countries. ... Mini soap operas foster financial education and inclusion of women in Peru.

  20. The effect of a psychological empowerment program based on psychodrama on empowerment perception and burnout levels in oncology nurses: Psychological empowerment in oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbaş, Azize Atli; Tel, Havva

    2016-08-01

    Oncology nursing is stressful by its nature, and nurses in the field experience a high amount of stress and burnout. In order to cope with occupational stress, nurses need to employ flexible adjustment mechanisms that allow them the power to process their experiences. Failure of efficient stress management causes burnout, and burnout is closely related to powerlessness. It is therefore believed that the occurrence of burnout can be reduced by means of psychological empowerment of nurses. Our study was conducted to determine the effect of a "psychodrama-based psychological empowerment program" on (1) the perception of empowerment and (2) the levels of burnout in oncology nurses. The sample was made up of 82 oncology nurses (38 nurses in the study group and 44 in the control/comparison group). Study data were collected using the Psychological Empowerment Scale, the Nurse Work Empowerment Scale, and Maslach's Burnout Inventory. The study group attended a "psychodrama-based psychological empowerment program" (2 hours, 1 day a week, for 10 weeks). For data assessment, we employed an independent t test and one-way analysis of variance. The psychological empowerment and workplace empowerment scores of nurses in the study group increased and their burnout scores decreased following attendance in the psychodrama-based psychological empowerment program. We found that the psychodrama-based psychological empowerment program increased psychological empowerment and enhanced perception of workplace empowerment while decreasing levels of burnout in oncology nurses. The program is recommended and should allow oncology nurses to benefit from their personal experiences and thus increase self-empowerment, to enhance their perception of empowerment, and to prevent burnout.

  1. Caregivers' job satisfaction and empowerment before and after an intervention focused on caregiver empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Maria; Wadensten, Barbro; Häggström, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate a training programme aimed at strengthening caregivers' self-esteem and empowering them, and also to study correlations between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction. Structural and psychological empowerment have received increased attention in nursing management, yet few intervention studies on this topic, based on theoretical assumptions, have been conducted in elderly care. Data on self-assessed psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were collected in an intervention (n = 14) and a comparison group (n = 32), before and after the intervention. When compared over time in the respective groups, there were significant improvements in the intervention group regarding the factor criticism (job satisfaction scale). There were no statistically significant differences in the comparison group. Total empowerment and all factors of empowerment correlated positively with total job satisfaction. Six out of eight factors of job satisfaction correlated positively with total empowerment. Caregivers' perception of criticism can improve through an intervention aimed at strengthening their self-esteem and empowering them. Implications for nursing management Intervention focused on psychological empowerment and especially caregivers' communication skills seems to be beneficial for caregivers. Recommendations are to increase the programme's length and scope and to include all staff at the unit. However, these recommendations need to be studied further.

  2. Irish nurses’ and midwives’ understanding and experiences of empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Corbally, Melissa; Scott, Anne; Matthews, Anne; MacGabhann, Liam; Murphy, Catriona

    2007-01-01

    Aim This study explored conceptualisations of empowerment amongst Irish nurses and midwives. Background Current literature on the meaning of empowerment in the literature lacks consensus. As a result there is a likelihood that empowerment will be conceptualised differently between managers and sub-ordinates. Method In order to get a sense of how Irish practitioners viewed empowerment, ten focus groups were held in locations throughout Ireland (n = 93). A national distribution of par...

  3. Empowerment Foster Children Youth Education Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Szafrańska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth Educational Centers (YEC are open social rehabilitation institutions for socially maladjusted adolescents who are placed in such centres by court order. The wards who become self-dependent and return to their usual destructive upbringing environments give cause for concern. There is a risk that various social rehabilitation and educational measures taken in the center will be undone. If a person is to function well, they need to be provided with necessary assistance during the so-called self-empowerment process that will prepare them to function in society. This article is to draw attention to the impact of the YEC aiming at the self-empowerment of wards, exampled by the “Trampolina” project by the Orionist Farthers (YEC, Barska Street in Warsaw and the project of forming and running the “Damy radę” (We will manage empowerment group at the YEC in Radzionków.

  4. Empowerment methods and techniques for sport managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THANOS KRIEMADIS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We live in a globalize economic, social and technological environment where organizations can be successful only if they have required resources (material resources, facilities and equipment, and human resources. The managers and the organizations should empower and enable employees to accomplish their work in meaningful ways. Empowerment has been described as a means to enable employees to make decisions and as a personal phenomenon where individuals take responsibility for their own actions. The aim of the present study was to present effective methods and techniques of employee empowerment which constitute for the organization a source of competitive advantage. The paper will present and explain empowerment methods and techniques such as: (a organizational culture, (b vision statements, (c organizational values, (d teamwork, (e the role of manager - leadership, (f devolving responsibility accountability, (g information sharing, (h continuous training, (i appraisal rewards, (j goal setting, and (k performance appraisal process.

  5. Empowerment som frigørelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2010-01-01

    Empowerment er et at tidens modeord, og sættes i forbindelse med vidt forskellige termer eksempelvis personlighedsudvikling, borgerinddragelse og styringsideologi. Begrebet empowerment rummer efterhånden så mange betydninger, at man kan diskuterer selve essensen – i dette kapitel gøres dog et...... forsøg og forskellige dele af begrebet udfoldes. Direkte oversat betyder empowermemt at bemyndige eller sætter i stand til. Empowerment er et ofte anvendt begreb indenfor sundhedsvidenskab og i tilrettelæggelse af sundhedsfremmende initiativer. Begrebet bliver ofte defineret og benyttet forskelligt alt...... efter det bagvedliggende ideologiske perspektiv, og derfor er udgangspunktet i dette kapitel også at illustrerer forskellige ”blikke på empowerment”. Derudover inddrages to eksempler; studier af lokalsamfund og borgerinddragelse og ’den motiverende samtale’ som illustration på, hvilke udfordringer, der...

  6. Action research and empowerment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Annette; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2014-01-01

    Public Management 2. A marginalized urban area, where the objective was to develop a community centre which could strengthen social capital and facilitate empowerment of both residents and welfare workers 3. A local project about sustainable housing, where the objective was to design and build houses...... to strengthen these actors’ capacity to actively influence the development of society and contribute to better social and environmental conditions. The first part of the chapter introduces the core concepts of action research and empowerment with references to international contributions. The next part concerns...... the larger societal context and the concrete methodologies applied in three projects, and the successes, failures and results from these three cases. The last concluding part compares and reflects upon similarities and differences in the methods and empowerment mechanisms across the different contexts...

  7. Empowerment: The Relationship of Women and Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena León

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the term 'empowerment' by feminism is closely linked to the importance that social movements as well as social science theory have attributed to the idea of power. For theorists such as Gramsci, Foucault and Paulo Freire, power is a social relationship that is conditioned historically and socially. Even though they do not refer specifically to the power present in gender relations and do not deploy the word "empowerment”, their analyses inspired reflections on that notion by feminist theorists and activists. Since the emergence of the so-called 'second wave' of feminism, the concept of empowerment has been debated by many women's groups. For women's movements, empowerment is a strategy almed at fostering changes in women's dally lives and fomenting the transformation of social structures.

  8. Enhancing the Empowerment of Youth in Foster Care: Supportive Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sandra J.; Skolnik, Louise; Turnbull, Ayme

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the research on youth empowerment in seven child welfare programmatic areas. A lack of studies specifically focused on the empowerment of youth in foster care was found. Conceptual perspectives and existing data, however, suggest that the empowerment of youth in and transitioning out of care is essential and should be overtly…

  9. Empowerment and Experiential Education: A State of Knowledge Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellman, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Experiential settings hold great potential for empowering participants. Beginning with an overview of how empowerment has been defined and conceptualized in the literature, this article examines the construct of empowerment in experiential education settings as a process and an outcome. A summary of how empowerment has been applied and measured in…

  10. Women's empowerment: Finding strength in self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Olivia; Allen, Ashley Batts

    2017-03-01

    Empowerment is often a desired outcome for health programs; however, it is rarely evaluated. One way to increase empowerment may be through self-compassion. The authors of the current study aimed to determine whether self-compassion and empowerment were positively related. Two hundred and five women (ages 18 to 48 years) were recruited from a pool of undergraduate students at a university in the southeastern United States in the summer/fall of 2012. Participants completed the study using Qualtrics, an online survey system. Participants wrote about a fight in a romantic relationship and were randomly assigned to write about the fight either self-compassionately or generally. Empowerment and perceptions of the fight were assessed as dependent measures. Hierarchical regression analyses investigated the relation of self-compassion, manipulated self-compassion, and their interaction with empowerment. A significant positive relationship was found between self-compassion and empowerment. However, manipulated self-compassion was not significantly related to empowerment. These findings suggested that self-compassion and empowerment were strongly related, but using a short-term self-compassion intervention may not be strong enough to influence empowerment. Empowerment-based practitioners may find empowerment increases more easily in women who are self-compassionate. If self-compassion is incorporated into empowerment settings, a long-term intervention may be necessary.

  11. Youth Empowerment and High School Gay-Straight Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    In the field of positive youth development programs, "empowerment" is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led…

  12. Empowerment Starts Here: Seven Principles to Empowering Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Angela

    2011-01-01

    "Empowerment Starts Here" covers an experimental approach to social change within urban communities by way of seven distinct principles for student empowerment. Turning classroom methods into a school model, Preparatory School for Global Leadership was the first to experience student empowerment at a school-wide level. This book provides insight…

  13. Empowerment in School Nursing Practice: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment,…

  14. Compliance or patient empowerment in online communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle; Bygholm, Ann

    2010-01-01

    New technologies enable a different organization of the public’s admission to health care services. The article discusses whether online support groups in patient treatment are to be understood in the light of patient empowerment or within the tradition of compliance. The back-ground material...... of opening up health care to the critical voice of the public, the quantitative and qualitative studies surprisingly point to a synthesis of the otherwise opposite positions of empowerment and compliance in patient care. Thereby the critical potential of online communities in health care services seems...

  15. Identifying Structural Changes from Within: Emancipatory Narratives Exploring Community Constraints to Women's Education and Empowerment in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Using a critical theory framework, the article explores emancipatory narratives obtained through a case study of women in rural India. In-depth interviews, focus group conversations, observations, and document analysis highlight the complexity of the subsequent set of challenges facing women as it relates to both the education and empowerment for…

  16. Gendered urban prosperity and women’s empowerment in 21st century cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Chant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While urban prosperity has been identified as a major issue in recent debates about cities, this paper argues that this must be conceptualised not only in terms of enhancing productivity and generating wealth, but also in addressing equity, equality and participation of which the gendered dimensions of cities are central. It outlines why it is important to take gender in account when trying to foster urban prosperity and why this must also entail consideration of women‟s empowerment in cities in social and political as well as economic terms. In reflecting these arguments, the paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding the intersections between the gendered nature of urban prosperity and women‟s empowerment. This is built on an empirical discussion of the core elements underpinning urban prosperity in relation to conceptualisations of empowerment as well as a discussion of importance of generating gender-equity through exercising formal and informal rights and an outline of the ways on which policies might address gender inequalities in cities. Ultimately, the paper argues that while pro-prosperity measures are important in generating urban prosperity, these must address underlying unequal gendered power relations and issues of social justice that are necessary in order to bring about true empowerment for women in cities today and in the future.

  17. Psychological Empowerment and Work Engagement as Predictors of Work Satisfaction: A Sample of Hotel Employees .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Moura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With more organizations looking for employees who take initiative and respond creatively to the challenges of the job, engagement and psychological empowerment becomes important at both individual and organizational levels. Engaged employees are generally more satisfied with their work, committed and effective at work. According to the JDR model (Schaufeli and Bakker, 2004, engagement may be produced by two types of working conditions: job demands (i.e., role stress and job resources (i.e., psychological empowerment; self-efficacy. This study examines the role of psychological empowerment and work engagement as antecedents of job satisfaction. A cross sectional study using online questionnaires was conducted. The sample consisted of 152 Portuguese workers in hotels. Tourism is an important tool for profit and the Portuguese hotels are fundamental for the growth of the country. Employee satisfaction increases employee retention and increases productivity influencing the income / profits for hotels. Hierarchical multiple regressions analyses revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by psychological empowerment and work engagement. Results support JDR model by showing that positive outcomes, such as job satisfaction, may be predicted by motivational process and job demands. On a practical level, JDR model provides a framework for understanding motivating workplaces and engaged and satisfied hotel employees.

  18. New forms of conflict resolution: transformation, empowerment and recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Martínez Guzmán

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the scientific field of Conflict Studies, within the framework of Peace Research. It is based on a philosophic conception of the “human condition” and is guided by the notions of empowerment and recognition as tools suitable for the pacific transformation of conflicts. It also looks at the relation of the doctrine of recognition with the problem of inequality and with a political philosophy of justice. It maintains that one cannot separate policies of recognition, more closely linked to identity and culture, from policies of justice, more attent to the pacific transformation of human inequalities, poverty, indigence, marginalization and exclusion. As an example of this proposal, it uses the most recent report of the United Nations Human Development Program.

  19. Empowerment: estudo de casos em empresas manufatureiras Empowerment: a case study in manufacturing companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Heloisa Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o desenvolvimento do empowerment em duas empresas manufatureiras. Empowerment é uma abordagem de projeto de trabalho que objetiva a delegação de poder de decisão, autonomia e participação dos funcionários na administração das empresas. Analisa-se o desenvolvimento do empowerment por meio dos estágios evolutivos das áreas de gestão, das configurações organizacionais, das estratégias competitivas, da gestão de recursos humanos e da qualidade. Apresenta-se um estudo de casos em duas empresas manufatureiras do interior de São Paulo, a fim de se analisar o grau de participação dos funcionários de acordo com o estágio evolutivo de suas áreas de gestão. Nas conclusões, discutem-se os fatores favoráveis, as particularidades e limitações do empowerment com base nos estudos de casos.An analysis is made here of the empowerment implementation process in two manufacturing companies. Empowerment is a work design approach aimed at delegating decision making, autonomy and employee participation in company management. The development of empowerment is analyzed through the evolutionary stages of management areas, organizational configurations, competitive strategies, and human resources and quality management. A case study of two manufacturing companies in the state of São Paulo was conducted to analyze the degree of employee participation according to the stages of evolution of their management areas. The conclusions section of this article discusses the favorable factors, peculiarities and limitations of empowerment revealed during these case studies.

  20. 'Troubling' moments in health promotion: unpacking the ethics of empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Concepts of empowerment feature strongly in global health discourses. Empowerment is frequently advocated as a positive approach to addressing individual and community-level health needs. Despite its popularity, relatively little has been said about the unintended consequences of empowerment, which may give rise to some troubling ethical issues or, indeed, result in outcomes that may not be considered health promoting. Drawing on current uses of empowerment within health promotion, along with insights from an ethnographic study on young people's health, this paper raises some critical questions about the ethics of empowerment. By doing so, the paper troubles the idea that empowerment is a 'good thing' without some careful attention to the varying ways in which the ethics of empowerment may unfold in practice. Findings revealed young people's different perspectives on health and priorities for health promotion. The present analysis highlights how these alternative framings prompt a number of ethical tensions for understanding and operationalising empowerment. In conclusion, the findings underscore the importance of promoting ethical reflexivity in health promotion and, crucially, attending to the unintended and potentially ethically problematic consequences of empowerment. So what? This paper raises some critical questions about the ethics of empowerment and calls for a more thorough engagement with the unintended consequences of empowerment within health promotion.

  1. Growth and Women's Economic Empowerment: Can Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research project will generate evidence on how women's political ... Kingdom's Department for International Development, The William and Flora Hewlett ... support 11 projects addressing barriers to women's economic empowerment and ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  2. Youth empowerment solutions for violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischl, Thomas M; Zimmerman, Marc A; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan P; Faulk, Monique; Eisman, Andria B; Roberts, Everett

    2011-12-01

    The limited success of youth violence prevention interventions suggests that effective prevention needs to address causes at multiple levels of analysis and empower youth in developing and implementing prevention programs. In this article, we review published studies of youth violence prevention efforts that engage youth in developing or implementing violence prevention activities. The reviewed studies suggest the promise of youth empowerment strategies and the need for systematic outcome studies of empowerment programs. After reviewing empowerment theory applied to youth violence prevention programs, we present a case study of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) for Peaceful Communities program. YES engages middle-school youth in an after-school and summer program that includes a culturally tailored character development curriculum and empowers the youth to plan and implement community improvement projects with assistance from adult neighborhood advocates. The case study focuses on outcome evaluation results and presents evidence of the YES program effects on community-level outcomes (eg, property improvements, violent crime incidents) and on individual-level outcomes (eg, conflict avoidance, victimization). The literature review and the case study suggest the promise of engaging and empowering youth to plan and implement youth violence prevention programs.

  3. Enhancing Women's Economic Empowerment Through Better ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Uneducated and poor women participate less in paid work. ... There remains a key gap, however. ... The region has expanded social protection programs, yet how these programs support women's economic empowerment and labour ... Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and ...

  4. High School Teacher Perceptions of Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Tricia S.

    2014-01-01

    As the responsibilities of principals become more complex and as accountability becomes more evident in K-12 cultures, it becomes increasingly important that high school principals be trained to empower teachers. This paper examined the research concerning the conditions of the empowerment of teachers. More specifically, it measured high school…

  5. Transformative Learning: Personal Empowerment in Learning Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassi, Marja-Liisa; Laursen, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of personal empowerment as a form of transformative learning. It focuses on commonly ignored but enhancing elements of mathematics learning and argues that crucial personal resources can be essentially promoted by high engagement in mathematical problem solving, inquiry, and collaboration. This personal…

  6. Application of empowerment theory for CNS practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Catalano, J M

    1993-11-01

    Power is necessary for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) to successfully conduct objectives of practice in bureaucratic hospital settings. To obtain power, the CNS could use strategies of an empowerment theory to fully operationalize roles in hospitals. This article will discuss how the CNS may be empowered utilizing strategies in four empowering categories. In addition, the many benefits of empowering the CNS are reviewed.

  7. Choice, Empowerment, and Involvement: What Satisfies Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Ellen B.; Shapira, Rina

    1993-01-01

    Questionnaire responses from 337 parents in Israel examine the nature of interrelationships between parent satisfaction with public schools of choice and parent empowerment, parent involvement, and the congruence of parental expectation with school programs. Findings indicate the importance of socioeconomic status as a factor in these…

  8. Education in Aboriginal Communities: Dilemmas around Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Donald M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Sudden empowerment of Canadian Aboriginal communities has raised many dilemmas concerning community controlled education, including issues related to educational planning and decision making by inexperienced administrators, focusing educational goals on the community versus mainstream society, discontinuities between community and school culture,…

  9. The Links between Childcare and Women's Empowerment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fdieudonne

    2016-03-08

    Mar 8, 2016 ... Childcare and Women's Economic Empowerment. March 8th, 2016 ... Could day care and pre-school be the missing link to ... influence a women's ability to work and earn. .... and gender equality to raise awareness of the problems ... Universal Low Fees Policy 10 Years After: Effects, Costs, and Benefits.

  10. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  11. Concepts and measures of patient empowerment: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Garcimartín Cerezo

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Analyze the definitions and dimensions of empowerment. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of empowerment measures based on the conceptual model. METHOD This was a comprehensive literature review of publications on the MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL databases. RESULTS Twenty-nine articles were selected. Seventeen definitions and seven dimensions of empowerment, and 10 empowerment measures were selected. Empowerment can be seen as an enabling process involving a shift in the balance of power, or as an outcome of this process. The dimensions reflect outcome indicators, such as participation in decision-making and control, and process indicators, such as knowledge acquisition and coping skills. Six of the tools analyzed by this study could be said to provide a robust measure of patient empowerment. CONCLUSION we propose a definition of empowerment that helps to deepen understanding of the term and, therefore, its operationalization.

  12. Empowering Chicana/o and Latina: A Framework for High School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Using Hipolito-Delgado and Lee's empowerment theory for the professional school counselor as a framework, this qualitative study explored the techniques employed by school counselors to facilitate the empowerment of Chicana/o and Latina/o students in large California urban high schools. The qualitative methodology included in-depth interviews…

  13. Psychological Empowerment Among Urban Youth: Measurement Model and Associations with Youth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisman, Andria B; Zimmerman, Marc A; Kruger, Daniel; Reischl, Thomas M; Miller, Alison L; Franzen, Susan P; Morrel-Samuels, Susan

    2016-12-01

    Empowerment-based strategies have become widely used method to address health inequities and promote social change. Few researchers, however, have tested theoretical models of empowerment, including multidimensional, higher-order models. We test empirically a multidimensional, higher-order model of psychological empowerment (PE), guided by Zimmerman's conceptual framework including three components of PE: intrapersonal, interactional, and behavioral. We also investigate if PE is associated with positive and negative outcomes among youth. The sample included 367 middle school youth aged 11-16 (M = 12.71; SD = 0.91); 60% female, 32% (n = 117) white youth, 46% (n = 170) African-American youth, and 22% (n = 80) identifying as mixed race, Asian-American, Latino, Native American, or other ethnic/racial group; schools reported 61-75% free/reduced lunch students. Our results indicated that each of the latent factors for the three PE components demonstrate a good fit with the data. Our results also indicated that these components loaded on to a higher-order PE factor (X 2  = 32.68; df: 22; p = .07; RMSEA: 0.04; 95% CI: .00, .06; CFI: 0.99). We found that the second-order PE factor was negatively associated with aggressive behavior and positively associated with prosocial engagement. Our results suggest that empowerment-focused programs would benefit from incorporating components addressing how youth think about themselves in relation to their social contexts (intrapersonal), understanding social and material resources needed to achieve specific goals (interactional), and actions taken to influence outcomes (behavioral). Our results also suggest that integrating the three components and promoting PE may help increase likelihood of positive behaviors (e.g., prosocial involvement); we did not find an association between PE and aggressive behavior. Implications and future directions for empowerment research are discussed. © Society for Community Research and

  14. First birth and the trajectory of women's empowerment in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2017-11-08

    Women's empowerment is often used to explain changes in reproductive behavior, but no consideration is given to how reproductive events can shape women's empowerment over time. Fertility may cause changes in women's empowerment, or they may be mutually influencing. Research on women's empowerment and fertility relies on cross-sectional data from South Asia, which limits the understanding of the direction of association between women's empowerment and fertility in other global contexts. This study uses two waves of a panel survey from a prominent Middle Eastern country, Egypt, to examine the trajectory of women's empowerment and the relationship between first and subsequent births and empowerment over time. Using longitudinal data from the 2006 and 2012 Egyptian Labor Market Panel Survey, a nationally representative sample of households in Egypt, for 4660 married women 15 to 49 years old, multilevel negative binomial, ordinary least squares, and logistic regression models estimate women's empowerment and consider whether a first and subsequent births are associated with empowerment later in life. Women's empowerment is operationalized through four measures of agency: individual household decision-making, joint household decision-making, mobility, and financial autonomy. A first birth and subsequent births are significantly positively associated with all measures of empowerment except financial autonomy in 2012. Women who have not had a birth make 30% fewer individual household decisions and 14% fewer joint household decisions in 2012 compared to women with a first birth. There is also a positive relationship with mobility, as women with a first birth have more freedom of movement compared to women with no births. Earlier empowerment is also an important predictor of empowerment later in life. Incorporating the influence of life events like first and subsequent births helps account for the possibility that empowerment is dynamic and that life course experiences shape

  15. Transformational leadership, empowerment, and job satisfaction: the mediating role of employee empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Long; Goh, Chin Fei; Adam, Muhammad Badrull Hisyam; Tan, Owee Kowang

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed that nursing staff turnover remains a major problem in emerging economies. In particular, nursing staff turnover in Malaysia remains high due to a lack of job satisfaction. Despite a shortage of healthcare staff, the Malaysian government plans to create 181 000 new healthcare jobs by 2020 through the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP). This study investigated the causal relationships among perceived transformational leadership, empowerment, and job satisfaction among nurses and medical assistants in two selected large private and public hospitals in Malaysia. This study also explored the mediating effect of empowerment between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. This study used a survey to collect data from 200 nursing staff, i.e., nurses and medical assistants, employed by a large private hospital and a public hospital in Malaysia. Respondents were asked to answer 5-point Likert scale questions regarding transformational leadership, employee empowerment, and job satisfaction. Partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze the measurement models and to estimate parameters in a path model. Statistical analysis was performed to examine whether empowerment mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. This analysis showed that empowerment mediated the effect of transformational leadership on the job satisfaction in nursing staff. Employee empowerment not only is indispensable for enhancing job satisfaction but also mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction among nursing staff. The results of this research contribute to the literature on job satisfaction in healthcare industries by enhancing the understanding of the influences of empowerment and transformational leadership on job satisfaction among nursing staff. This study offers important policy insight for healthcare managers who seek to increase job

  16. Mediating and/or moderating roles of psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lina; Jin, Yi; Guo, Jiajia

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the mediating and/or moderating effects of psychological empowerment in the relationship between structural empowerment and burnout among nurses in China. Burnout is prevalent among nurses. Previous studies have found that empowering organizational structures contribute to reduce nurses' burnout. However, little is known about the mediating or moderating role of psychological empowerment in the relationship between structural empowerment and burnout among nurses in China. A cross-sectional design was conducted. A total of 244 nurses participated in this study. The data were collected in March 2013. Multiple regressions were used to test the hypothesized models. Psychological empowerment was found to be a significant mediator of the relationship between structural empowerment and burnout (standardized β=-0.553, Sobel test: z=7.79, pmoderating effect of psychological empowerment in that relationship was not verified. Both structural and psychological empowerment negatively correlated with burnout. The psychological empowerment had a mediating effect on burnout. It is important for nurse managers to develop strategies to ensure that empowering structures are in place and to facilitate nurses' perception of psychological empowerment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Youth empowerment and high school Gay-Straight Alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T; Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn

    2009-08-01

    In the field of positive youth development programs, "empowerment" is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led organizations characterized by social justice goals: high school Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). Through focus group interviews, fifteen youth leaders of GSAs from different regions of California explain what they think empowerment means and how they became empowered through their involvement with the GSA. Youth describe three inter-related dimensions of empowerment: personal empowerment, relational empowerment, and strategic empowerment through having and using knowledge. When these three dimensions are experienced in combination, GSA leaders have the potential for individual and collective empowerment as agents of social change at school. By understanding these youth's perspectives on the meanings of empowerment, this article clarifies the conceptual arena for future studies of socially marginalized youth and of positive youth development.

  18. Workplace empowerment and nurses' job satisfaction: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicolini, Giancarlo; Comparcini, Dania; Simonetti, Valentina

    2014-10-01

    This systematic review aimed to synthesize and analyse the studies that examined the relationship between nurse empowerment and job satisfaction in the nursing work environment. Job dissatisfaction in the nursing work environment is the primary cause of nursing turnover. Job satisfaction has been linked to a high level of empowerment in nurses. We reviewed 596 articles, written in English, that examined the relationship between structural empowerment, psychological empowerment and nurses' job satisfaction. Twelve articles were included in the final analysis. A significant positive relation was found between empowerment and nurses' job satisfaction. Structural empowerment and psychological empowerment affect job satisfaction differently. A satisfying work environment for nurses is related to structural and psychological empowerment in the workplace. Structural empowerment is an antecedent of psychological empowerment and this relationship culminates in positive retention outcomes such as job satisfaction. This review could be useful for guiding leaders' strategies to develop and maintain an empowering work environment that enhances job satisfaction. This could lead to nurse retention and positive organisational and patient outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Enhancing nurses' empowerment: the role of supervisors' empowering management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, Francesco; Courcy, François; Giorgi, Gabriele; Boilard, Amélie

    2015-09-01

    This study tests a theoretical model where: (a) nurses' dispositional resistance to change is indirectly negatively related to behavioural empowerment through the mediating role of psychological empowerment; and (b) supervisors' empowering management practices buffer both the negative relationship between dispositional resistance to change and psychological empowerment and the indirect negative relationship between resistance to change and behavioural empowerment via psychological empowerment. Promoting a high level of empowerment among nursing personnel is important to ensure their effectiveness in the context of organizational change. It is thus essential to advance our current understanding of the factors that hamper nurses' psychological and behavioural expressions of empowerment and to clarify supervisor practices that can overcome such barriers. A cross-sectional research design. We collected survey data during 2012 from a sample of 197 nurses from a Canadian hospital undergoing a major organizational change. Results from moderated mediation analyses provided evidence for an indirect negative relationship between dispositional resistance to change and behavioural empowerment through psychological empowerment, and for a moderating (buffering) effect of supervisors' empowering management practices on this mediated relationship. These findings provided support for our hypotheses. Supervisors' empowering management practices represent an important contextual buffer against the negative effects of dispositional resistance to change on nurses' empowerment. Organizations should develop empowering management skills among nurses' supervisors to counteract the detrimental effects of dispositional resistance to change and to sustain an empowered nursing workforce. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A survey relation of organizational culture and organizational citizenship behavior with employees’ empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ebrahim Sadati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to study the relationship between organizational culture and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB with employees’ empowerment. Empowering employee’s breeds success by providing a suitable framework to utilize the necessary skills in an attempt to realize organizational goals. In this paper, four dimensions of employees’ empowerment including meaningfulness, choice, competence and impact are investigated. We also identify four dimensions for organizational culture including adaptability, consistency, involvement and mission. The paper also specifies five basic dimensions of OCB, which consists of altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue. These basic dimensions of both independent and dependent variables construct the research conceptual model and the required data is gathered from the Tehran Municipality. This proposed study considers 180 employees who participated in our survey. The investigation of the proposed model is also performed based on the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM.

  1. Identity Expansion and Transcendence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging developments in communications and computing technology may transform the nature of human identity, in the process rendering obsolete the traditional philosophical and scientific frameworks for understanding the nature of individuals and groups.  Progress toward an evaluation of this possibility and an appropriate conceptual basis for analyzing it may be derived from two very different but ultimately connected social movements that promote this radical change. One is the governmentally supported exploration of Converging Technologies, based in the unification of nanoscience, biology, information science and cognitive science (NBIC. The other is the Transhumanist movement, which has been criticized as excessively radical yet is primarily conducted as a dignified intellectual discussion within a new school of philosophy about human enhancement.  Together, NBIC and Transhumanism suggest the immense transformative power of today’s technologies, through which individuals may explore multiple identities by means of online avatars, semi-autonomous intelligent agents, and other identity expansions.

  2. Interdisciplinary Information Design with an Empowerment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlach, Anders; Engberg, Axel; Pallesen, Bodil

    2006-01-01

    An innovative research into a model for ICT enabled Empowerment. By deliberate use of ICT and a feedback-focused communication model in a prototyping process, e-health information based on an empowerment strategy is evaluated. Overall a risk-driven spiral model is applied for Progress...... and Complexity handling in order to ensure success. The process model devised has a proactive approach to interdisciplinary teamwork, organisational web maturity, and the post-modern user's interaction with ICT. The research is performed and evaluated in cooperation with an interdisciplinary team of health......'s perspective. ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL: Nursing Informatics becomes a tool in the interdisciplinary understanding, allowing the nurses to take responsibility for core nursing themes regarding the healthy and the diseased phases of the patients' lives. Iterative modelling ensuring the results is evident and derived...

  3. Surrogate mothering: exploitation or empowerment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Laura M

    1989-01-01

    The morality of surrogate mothering is analyzed from a "consequentialist" framework which attempts to separate those consequences that invariably accompany a given act from those that accompany it only in particular circumstances. Critics of surrogacy argue that it transfers the burden and risk of pregnancy onto another woman, separates sex and reproduction, and separates reproduction and childrearing; none of these acts is necessarily wrong, either morally or for women's or society's basic interests. While surrogate mothering can be rendered immoral if women are coerced into the practice or become victims of subordinating or penalizing contracts, it has the potential to empower women and increase their status in society by providing a job that is less risky and more enjoyable than other jobs women are forced to take and by achieving greater social recognition for reproductive labor.

  4. Promoting Women's Economic Empowerment in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2015-01-01

    Women’s economic empowerment is essential for more inclusive growth in Cambodia. This study takes stock of major gender issues in the Cambodian economy seen through the lens of women’s participation, benefit, and agency—the three prerequisites for a fairer distribution of growth benefits. It examines labor market trends and obstacles to women’s economic empowerment—particularly in agriculture, business development, and wage employment. Labor migration and vulnerability to shocks are highlight...

  5. Mindfulness as a Path of Women's Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja FURLAN ŠTANTE

    2016-01-01

    The paper brings together social mindfulness as a path of empowerment for women within its concept of the interrelatedness of all beings in the web of life. The paradigm of social mindfulness is thus established as the foundation of feminist spirituality. The focus of this work is on the possibility of applying the ethics of mindfulness as a paradigm to interpersonal interrelatedness. The relations among humans, nature, reason and emotion in self-development are confronted with the paradigm o...

  6. Consumers’ Empowerement for a New Marketing Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The marketing practices of the companies show that not all of them are observing ethical and moral standards and they manipulate the consumers. This paper has as main goal to examine the most usual unethical techniques, the present status of consumers’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other areas. Most consumers have no appropriate powers and tools to counteract the manipulation techniques and feel they have fewer rights than the marketers. The current state of empowerment of the consumer show that the European consumers are not in the best position in the market as the Consumer Empowerment Index proves. This matter of facts emphasizes a strong need for a better empowerment of the consumers. The consumer which has more power and wisely use it could improve the balance of power in the market. But the consumers should have a proactive buying behavior in order to get such results. These revolutionary consumers attack the structural roots of the social, economic and political problems which produces a new market ideology as a part of the new tier of transnational institutional ideology. This consumer behavior may have a strong influence toward a new marketing paradigm.

  7. El empowerment como predictor del compromiso organizacional en las Pymes

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Manriquez Martha; Téllez Ramírez María del Rayo; Ferrer Guerra Julian

    2010-01-01

    La relación entre las variables de empowerment y compromiso organizacional ha sido un campo poco explorado desde la perspectiva organizacional. Esta investigación establece el nivel de influencia del empowerment queexperimentanloscolaboradores con respecto al compromiso hacia la organización para la cual laboran. Se utiliza como referencia un modelo generado con base en la descripción del empowerment en cuatro dimensiones: significado, competencia, autodeterminación e impacto; y del compromis...

  8. "Desa Siaga": Community Empowerment in Health Sector Through Midwives Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Hargono, Rahmat; Qomarrudin, M. Bagus; Nawalah, Hoirun

    2012-01-01

    “Desa Siaga” is the one of government's program for empowering community in health sector, especially to decrease maternal and infantmortality in village areas. This program actually plays as the implementation of empowerment concept. In this paper we elaborate the stephow to implementing the concepts of empowerment, and also make an explanation of the empowerment theory as a program and process whichis infl uence by the role of the midwives at village level. Some research revealed that facto...

  9. Women's empowerment and reproductive experiences over the lifecourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Rife, Susan M

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the complex interplay between reproductive experiences and women's empowerment using rich life history data from a survey in India. Previous research has examined the influence of a rather limited range of reproductive events, focusing on how many children or sons a woman has borne, and has only superficially incorporated the insights of lifecourse theory. Furthermore, it has often conceptualized empowerment as a static characteristic rather than a time-varying one, and has often failed to examine the influence of empowerment resources or previous empowerment levels. I focus on the cumulative influence of less-studied reproductive events-including unwanted or mistimed pregnancy, stillbirths, miscarriages, and abortions-on several dimensions of women's empowerment, including mobility, financial decision-making, experiences of violence, and threats of abandonment or homelessness using data collected from 2435 women in Madhya Pradesh, India during a 2002 household-based probability sample survey. Logistic regression revealed that, notably, few reproductive events have an impact on women's current empowerment, but rather, the extent of empowerment immediately after marriage emerges as a strong determinant of their current empowerment. However, women who have had abortions have higher odds of experiencing domestic violence, and experiencing mistimed pregnancies lowers the odds of violence. Incorporating the potential influence of prior life events and conditions, accounting for the possibility that experiences may accumulate to shape women's current empowerment portrays women's lives more completely and helps to identify key points of intervention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Youth Empowerment and High School Gay-Straight Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    In the field of positive youth development programs, “empowerment” is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led organizations characterized by social justice goals: high school Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). Through focus group interviews, fifteen youth leaders of GSAs from different regions of California explain what they think empowerment means and how they became empowered through their involvement with the GSA. Youth describe three inter-related dimensions of empowerment: personal empowerment, relational empowerment, and strategic empowerment through having and using knowledge. When these three dimensions are experienced in combination, GSA leaders have the potential for individual and collective empowerment as agents of social change at school. By understanding these youth's perspectives on the meanings of empowerment, this article clarifies the conceptual arena for future studies of socially marginalized youth and of positive youth development. PMID:19636734

  11. Radial expansion and multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Nakagawa, T.; Patry, J.P.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    The light systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti were measured at several bombarding energies between ∼ 35 and 95 MeV/nucleon. It was found that the predominant part of the cross section is due to binary collisions. In this paper the focus is placed on the properties of the quasi-projectile nuclei. In the central collisions the excitation energies of the quasi-projectile reach values exceeding largely 10 MeV/nucleon. The slope of the high energy part of the distribution can give only an upper limit of the apparent temperature (the average temperature along the decay chain). The highly excited quasi-projectile may get rapidly fragmented rather than sequentially. The heavy fragments are excited and can emit light particles (n, p, d, t, 3 He, α,...) what perturbs additionally the spectrum of these particles. Concerning the expansion energy, one can determine the average kinetic energies of the product (in the quasi-projectile-framework) and compare with simulation values. To fit the experimental data an additional radial expansion energy is to be considered. The average expansion energy depends slightly on the impact parameter but it increases with E * / A, ranging from 0.4 to 1,2 MeV/nucleon for an excitation energy increasing from 7 to 10.5 MeV/nucleon. This collective radial energy seems to be independent of the fragment mass, what is possibly valid for the case of larger quasi-projectile masses. The origin of the expansion is to be determined. It may be due to a compression in the interaction zone at the initial stage of the collision, which propagates in the quasi-projectile and quasi-target, or else, may be due, simply, to the increase of thermal energy leading to a rapid fragment emission. The sequential de-excitation calculation overestimates light particle emission and consequently heavy residues, particularly, at higher excitation energies. This disagreement indicates that a sequential process can not account for the di-excitation of very hot nuclei

  12. Clinical leadership, structural empowerment and psychological empowerment of registered nurses working in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Megan; Jacobs, Stephen; Scott, Karyn

    2018-04-19

    To examine clinical leadership of registered nurses in an emergency department, based on evidence that it is important for nurses to feel psychologically and structurally empowered in order to act as clinical leaders. Every registered nurse has the ability to act as a clinical leader. Clinical leadership is the registered nurse's behaviours that provide direction and support to patients and the team in the delivery of patient care. This study explores the connection between the need for structural and psychological empowerment and clinical leadership behaviours. A mixed method, non-experimental survey design was used to examine the psychological empowerment, structural empowerment and clinical leadership of registered nurses working in an emergency department. Emergency department nurses believe they show clinical leadership behaviours most of the time, even though their sense of being psychologically empowered is only moderate. While registered nurses believe they perform clinical leadership behaviours, it is also clear that improvements in structural and psychological empowerment would improve their ability to act as clinical leaders. The results show that for nurses to be able to provide clinical leadership to their patients and colleagues, management must create empowering environments. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. (Dis)empowerment: The Implementation of Corrective Mathematics in Philadelphia Empowerment Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    The need to improve math education around the country has been well documented, especially in urban school systems like Philadelphia. In Spring 2010, only 56.6% of students in Philadelphia Public schools scored proficient or advanced on the Pennsylvania State Standardized Assessment (PSSA). In Philadelphia Empowerment Schools, the 107 lowest…

  14. Psychological empowerment in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillol, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Since the eighties, nuclear safety has been discussed in organizational studies and constitutes nowadays a specific stream with several standpoints. Regarding the reliability of nuclear plants, the nuclear safety literature has emphasized on the crucial role of individuals and human factors. Especially, some researchers have noticed rule breaking behavior and the impact of individual self-confidence on the behavior; but without deepening their analyses. As high self-esteem and confidence, i.e. psychological empowerment, naturally lead to innovation and rule breaking, the behavior can be analyzed, in such a regulated industry, as opposite to safety. Thus, this article aims at explaining the roots and discernable features of the observed psychological empowerment. Methods include an in-depth qualitative study in 4 nuclear power plants owned by Electricite de France (EDF), the French national nuclear power operator. Focused on the leading team of the plant, the set of data is composed of 35 interviews, 6 weeks of non-participant observation and internal documents. The content analysis has revealed two main pillars of psychological empowerment. On the first hand, the strong professional identity developed at the opening of the plants is based on initiative and risk-taking. In some ways, this professional identify fostered by commitment to a demanding job and the team, influences behavior more than do professional rules. On the second hand, the management discourse is perceived as ambiguous towards the strict application of the rules and tacitly legitimizes rule breaking behavior. This article details and exemplifies these phenomena and discusses the implications. (author)

  15. The Role of Women Empowerment in Educational Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Women Empowerment in Educational Development in Nigerian Context. ... Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... It also sees the implication of women empowerment for educational development in terms of more children being able to go to school as the women can now afford to finance their ...

  16. Empowerment and occupational engagement among people with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultqvist, Jenny; Eklund, Mona; Leufstadius, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Empowerment is essential in the rehabilitation process for people with psychiatric disabilities and knowledge about factors that may play a key role within this process would be valuable for further development of the day centre services. The present study investigates day centre attendees' perceptions of empowerment. The aim was to investigate which factors show the strongest relationships to empowerment when considering occupational engagement, client satisfaction with day centres, and health-related and socio-demographic factors as correlates. 123 Swedish day centre attendees participated in a cross-sectional study by completing questionnaires regarding empowerment and the targeted correlates. Data were analysed with non-parametric statistics. Empowerment was shown to be significantly correlated with occupational engagement and client satisfaction and also with self-rated health and symptoms rated by a research assistant. The strongest indicator for belonging to the group with the highest ratings on empowerment was self-rated health, followed by occupational engagement and symptom severity. Occupational engagement added to the beneficial influence of self-rated health on empowerment. Enabling occupational engagement in meaningful activities and providing occupations that can generate client satisfaction is an important focus for day centres in order to assist the attendees' rehabilitation process so that it promotes empowerment.

  17. A three-dimensional model of women's empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, Marloes A.; Hansen, Nina; Otten, Sabine; Lensink, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Women's empowerment is an important goal in achieving sustainable development worldwide. Offering access to microfinance services to women is one way to increase women's empowerment. However, empirical evidence provides mixed results with respect to its effectiveness. We reviewed previous

  18. The meaning of empowerment within Italian nursing care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rega, Maria Luisa; Diano, Pasquale; Damiani, Gianfranco; De Vito, Corrado; Galletti, Caterina; Talucci, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    To examine the current state of empowerment of nurses in Italy. Empowerment is a broad concept that is also relevant to the field of nursing practice. Its comprehension and use are important because empowerment allows nurses to take control of their own practice. A clear understanding of empowerment is necessary for nurses to take advantage of this important tool. Focus groups were conducted. A literature review was performed, and two focus groups were selected between January and February 2014. Sixteen nurses participated in the research. Empowerment is seen as being strongly connected to autonomy and is not associated with power, as the word itself suggests. Italian nurses define empowerment as the creation of conditions that help to establish the possibility for people to develop and express their value and potential. Empowerment is defined as a condition in which the individual nurse takes control of his/her own practice and thereby provides awareness and confidence to a group. Italian nurses need to feel appreciated and supported by their own organisations. If warranted, empowerment would allow them to contribute to enhance care, which is the core of the nursing profession. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Roles Of Selected Ngos In Economic Empowerment Of Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the roles of NGOs (Farmers Development Union; FADU and Community Women and Development- Nigeria; COWAD) in economic empowerment of rural women in Ibadanland, Nigeria. It determined the factors militating against women economic empowerment, assessed the strategies used by the ...

  20. School Empowerment Surges Ahead in 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    School empowerment and weighted student formula programs continue to grow across the United States. This article explores the key components of school empowerment programs and describes several existing programs from Baltimore to San Francisco. The article examines some of the anecdotal outcomes for these types of public school choice programs.…

  1. Youth Empowerment in Oppressive Systems: Opportunities for School Consultants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearrow, Melissa M.; Pollack, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Empowerment of youth, particularly in urban settings, is critical to addressing issues of social injustice. Programs that support the development of empowerment, or action taken by an individual to facilitate his or her own ability to act in the face of oppression, have demonstrated great promise in dimensions such as creating stronger group…

  2. Women empowerment as measure of good governance in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the status of women empowerment as a measure of sustainable good governance in Nigeria. The study examines the variables used as measures of women empowerment. Information were derived from secondary data drawn mainly from 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health survey (NDHS), and ...

  3. Join the Art Club: Exploring Social Empowerment in Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Frances Johanna; Willis-Rauch, Mallori

    2014-01-01

    Social Empowerment Art Therapy (SEAT) aims to address the stigma of mental illness through the artistic empowerment of participants. The model was developed within an inpatient psychiatric setting from observations of a shared governance structure that empowered residents. Incorporating an open art studio approach and social action art therapy,…

  4. Empowerment and personal assistance - resistance, consumer choice, partnership or discipline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Inge Storgaard; Askheim, Ole Petter

    2014-01-01

    to promote active partnership. In this article, we take a closer look at the concept of empowerment and how different approaches capture different relationships between the state and the users of PA. We distinguish between empowerment as a form of resistance, as a form of consumer choice, as co...

  5. A chronological overview of women empowerment initiatives in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implication of empowerment initiatives is focused on women farmers. In conclusion, the paper upholds that women empowerment struggles have recorded great success across many contexts in the world, including Nigeria, although much remains to be done. Keywords: Beijing Conference, Gender equality, Nigeria, ...

  6. Women's Empowerment and Education: Linking Knowledge to Transformative Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Women's empowerment is a concept that has acquired substantial recognition in the past decade. However, it is better known among international development organisations, NGOs, and grassroots groups than in academic circles. This article examines the concept of women's empowerment as a foundational element in a theory of social change in which the…

  7. Empowerment of Women through Education in Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.; Jabari, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to the impact of women's education in their empowerment. The development of women's education is discussed in this study. As women's education has become one of the key development objectives in the recent decades, the concept of empowerment has been tied to the range of activities…

  8. Empowerment Evaluation: A Form of Self-Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    Empowerment evaluation is an innovative approach that uses evaluation concepts and techniques to foster improvement and self-determination. Empowerment evaluation employs qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Although it can be applied to individuals and organizations, the usual focus is on programs. The value orientation of empowerment…

  9. Impact of Stakeholder Psychological Empowerment on Project Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Pintardi Chandra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between psychological empowerment of stakeholders and project success is an important thing that must be known by project manager. This research developed and tested the model to predict how well the impact of stakeholder psychological empowerment on project success. Stakeholder psychological empowerment was defined to have five indicator variables covering intrinsic motivation, opportunity to perform, ability to perform, task behaviors, and contextual behaviors. Meanwhile, project success can be measured by cost performance, time performance, quality performance, profitability, and customer satisfaction. In this study, it was hypothesized that stakeholder psychological empowerment influenced project success. Based on the data obtained from a questionnaire survey carried out to 204 respondents, structural equation modeling (SEM was used for predicting the performance of project success. It was found that stakeholder psychological empowerment influenced project success, especially on the ability to perform of stakeholders.

  10. The impact of intuition and supervisor-nurse relationships on empowerment and affective commitment by generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr-Wharton, Rod; Brunetto, Yvonne; Shacklock, Kate

    2012-06-01

      This article reports a generational cohort and leader-member exchange theoretical frameworks-guided study of the influence of the supervisor-subordinate relationship on three generational nurse cohorts' use of intuition, perceptions of empowerment and affective commitment.   Within a global context of nurse shortages, knowledge about factors influencing nurse retention is urgently sought. We postulated that nurses' use of intuition is the key to their empowerment and consequent commitment to the organization, and that impact would vary among the three large nurse generations.   A self-report survey was used to gather data in 2008, which were then analysed using correlations, regression analysis, manova and path analysis. Data were obtained from 900 Baby Boomer and Generations X and Y nurses, randomly chosen from seven private hospitals across Australia.   The findings confirm the important impact of supervisor-nurse relationships upon all three generations' use of intuition. The findings add new knowledge about the differing importance of using intuition for Generation X, Generation Y and Baby Boomer nurses' perceptions of empowerment, suggesting it is more important to Baby Boomers and Generation X than to Generation Y. Further, the impact of using intuition differs significantly among the generational cohorts. The findings suggest the need for a more differentiated tailored style - sensitive to varying needs of the generations. Improving supervisor-nurse relationships is also critical, because of their impact upon nurses' use of intuition, perceptions of empowerment and affective commitment. Poor relationships lead to increased nurse replacement costs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. SCHOOL COMMUNITY PERCEPTION OF LIBRARY APPS AGAINTS LIBRARY EMPOWERMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Riyadi Alberto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research is motivated by the development of information and communication technology (ICT in the library world so rapidly that allows libraries in the present to develop its services into digital-based services. This study aims to find out the school community’s perception of library apps developed by Riche Cynthia Johan, Hana Silvana, and Holin Sulistyo and its influence on library empowerment at the library of SD Laboratorium Percontohan UPI Bandung. Library apps in this research belong to the context of m-libraries, which is a library that meets the needs of its users by using mobile platforms such as smartphones,computers, and other mobile devices. Empowerment of library is the utilization of all aspects of the implementation of libraries to the best in order to achieve the expected goals. An analysis of the schoolcommunity’s perception of library apps using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM includes: ease of use, usefulness, usability, usage trends, and real-use conditions. While the empowerment of the library includes aspects: information empowerment, empowerment of learning resources, empowerment of human resources, empowerment of library facilities, and library promotion. The research method used in this research is descriptive method with quantitative approach. Population and sample in this research is school community at SD Laboratorium Percontohan UPI Bandung. Determination of sample criteria by using disproportionate stratified random sampling with the number of samples of 83 respondents. Data analysis using simple linear regression to measure the influence of school community perception about library apps to library empowerment. The result of data analysis shows that there is influence between school community perception about library apps to library empowerment at library of SD Laboratorium Percontohan UPI Bandung which is proved by library acceptance level and library empowerment improvement.

  12. Staff Perceptions of Professional Development and Empowerment as Long-Term Leadership Tasks of School Principals in South African Schools: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Eldridge; Muller, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the perceptions of school staff of professional development and empowerment as part of the long-term leadership task of principals. The long-term leadership model was used as a theoretical framework to quantitatively determine the perceptions of 118 teachers and education managers in approximately 100 schools throughout…

  13. Conceptualizing pathways linking women's empowerment and prematurity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afulani, Patience A; Altman, Molly; Musana, Joseph; Sudhinaraset, May

    2017-11-08

    Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5. Many efforts have focused on clinical approaches to improve the survival of premature babies. There is a need, however, to explore psychosocial, sociocultural, economic, and other factors as potential mechanisms to reduce the burden of prematurity. Women's empowerment may be a catalyst for moving the needle in this direction. The goal of this paper is to examine links between women's empowerment and prematurity in developing settings. We propose a conceptual model that shows pathways by which women's empowerment can affect prematurity and review and summarize the literature supporting the relationships we posit. We also suggest future directions for research on women's empowerment and prematurity. The key words we used for empowerment in the search were "empowerment," "women's status," "autonomy," and "decision-making," and for prematurity we used "preterm," "premature," and "prematurity." We did not use date, language, and regional restrictions. The search was done in PubMed, Population Information Online (POPLINE), and Web of Science. We selected intervening factors-factors that could potentially mediate the relationship between empowerment and prematurity-based on reviews of the risk factors and interventions to address prematurity and the determinants of those factors. There is limited evidence supporting a direct link between women's empowerment and prematurity. However, there is evidence linking several dimensions of empowerment to factors known to be associated with prematurity and outcomes for premature babies. Our review of the literature shows that women's empowerment may reduce prematurity by (1) preventing early marriage and promoting family planning, which will delay age at first pregnancy and increase interpregnancy intervals; (2) improving women's nutritional status; (3) reducing domestic violence and other stressors to improve psychological health; and (4) improving

  14. Empowerment, patient centred care and self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvirenti, Mariastella; McMillan, John; Lawn, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    Patient or person centred care is widely accepted as the philosophy and practice that underpins quality care. An examination of the Australian National Chronic Disease Strategy and literature in the field highlights assumptions about the self-manager as patient and a focus on clinical settings. This paper considers patient or person centred care in the light of empowerment as it is understood in the health promotion charters first established in Alma Ata in 1977. We argue that patient or person centred care can be reconfigured within a social justice and rights framework and that doing so supports the creation of conditions for well-being in the broader context, one that impacts strongly on individuals. These arguments have broader implications for the practice of patient centred care as it occurs between patient and health professional and for creating shared responsibility for management of the self. It also has implications for those who manage their health outside of the health sector. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Empowerment: a goal or a means for health promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2007-06-01

    Empowerment is a concept that has been much used and discussed for a number of years. However, it is not always explicitly clarified what its central meaning is. The present paper intends to clarify what empowerment means, and relate it to the goals of health promotion. The paper starts with the claim that health-related quality of life is the ultimate general goal for health promotion, and continues by briefly presenting definitions of some central concepts: "welfare", "health" and "quality of life". Several suggestions as to what empowerment is are then discussed: autonomy, freedom, knowledge, self-esteem, self-confidence, and control over health or life. One conclusion of this discussion is that empowerment can be seen as a complex goal which includes aspects of the three central concepts welfare, health and quality of life. To the extent that the empowerment goals aimed at are health-related, it is concluded that empowerment is a legitimate goal for health promotion. But empowerment is not only a goal, it can also be described as a process or as an approach. This process, or approach, in a fundamental way involves the participants in problem formulation, decision making and action, which means that the experts have to relinquish some of their control and power.

  16. Women's empowerment and fertility: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Gipson, Jessica D; Withers, Mellissa; Lewis, Shayna; Ciaraldi, Erica J; Fraser, Ashley; Huchko, Megan J; Prata, Ndola

    2014-08-01

    Women's empowerment has become a focal point for development efforts worldwide and there is a need for an updated, critical assessment of the existing evidence on women's empowerment and fertility. We conducted a literature review on studies examining the relationships between women's empowerment and several fertility-related topics. Among the 60 studies identified for this review, the majority were conducted in South Asia (n = 35) and used household decision-making as a measure of empowerment (n = 37). Overall, the vast majority of studies found some positive associations between women's empowerment and lower fertility, longer birth intervals, and lower rates of unintended pregnancy, but there was some variation in results. In many studies, results differed based on the measure of empowerment used, sociopolitical or gender environment, or sub-population studied. This article is one of the first evaluations of the literature assessing the relationships between women's empowerment and fertility. We identify several key issues that merit further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of nurse empowerment on job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Sun; Zhong, He; Libo, Wang; Qiujie, Li

    2009-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to test Kanter's organizational empowerment theoretical model specifying the relationships among demographics, structural empowerment, and job satisfaction. Empowerment has become an increasingly important factor in determining nurses' job satisfaction in current restructured work environments in China. A correlational, cross-sectional design was used to test Kanter's organizational empowerment model with a sample of 650 full-time nurses employed in six Chinese hospitals in 2007, with a response rate of 92% (n = 598). The instruments used were the Demographic Data Questionnaire, Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, and Job Satisfaction Scale. The three lowest scoring items for Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II were resources, opportunity and informal power. The job satisfaction items revealing most dissatisfaction were workload and compensation, professional promotion, amount of work responsibility, work environments, and organizational policies. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between empowerment and job satisfaction (r = 0.547, P work objectives and age. The influencing factors for job satisfaction were work objectives and education level. The results provide support for Kanter's organizational empowerment theory in the Chinese nurse population. Nurses who view their work environments as empowering are more likely to provide high quality care. Enhancing empowerment in a supportive environment would allow nurses to experience satisfaction with their jobs.

  18. Successful Employee Empowerment: Major Determinants in the Jordanian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadra DAHOU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Being the most important asset, the human resource represents today the source of the organizations’ sustainable competitive advantage. This focus on the employee as the organizations’ core of human capital management drives the current interest in empowerment. This paper explores the concept of employee empowerment and the main influential factors in implementing an empowerment initiative: job design, transformational leadership, decision-making authority, continuous training and development, sharing information, and self-managed teams. Using a hypotheses testing approach, this correlational cross-sectional field study investigates the influence of the six factors on the adoption of employee empowerment. Using a questionnaire method, data was collected from Jordanian commercial banks. The results of a multiple linear regression analysis revealed that sharing information, job design, transformational leadership and decision making authority have a positive effect on employee empowerment. Sharing information and adopting the appropriate job design inside the organization have the strongest influence in that fostering these initiatives would certainly make banks’ employees’ empowerment successful. The research provides insights into the perception of employee empowerment in the Jordanian context, specifically in the banking industry, a high service- oriented sector where empowering employees become a must for a better customer service

  19. Does organizational justice predict empowerment? Nurses assess their work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Liisa; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Katajisto, Jouko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore how nurses assess their empowerment and clarify organizational justice compared to other work-related factors. In addition, we examined the major variables pertinent to empowerment. Cross-sectional survey data were used. A total of 2,152 nurses returned the completed questionnaire. The instruments consisted of nurse empowerment, organizational justice, job control, and possibilities for developing work. The data analysis was based on descriptive statistics and further statistical tests. Organizational justice and empowerment had a clear correlation. Job control, possibilities for developing work and organizational justice were statistically significant predictors of nurse empowerment. Organizational justice and the possibility to use one's individual skills at work are significant factors in staff activity and its development in nursing. They increase the level of empowerment and commitment as well as motivation to work. The results of this study confirm that nurses regard organizational justice as highly important. We can facilitate both work-related empowerment and organizational justice by creating and maintaining a culture of fairness and justice. Employees should be heard and involved more in the planning and decision making of work. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. Study of Psychological Empowerment in Hospitals of Qom Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ashkan Nasiripour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: It is necessary to study employees’ empowerment components to realize the empowerment process and enhance the organization's capacity to make empowerment atmosphere. Employee's viewpoints and attitudes affect organizational decision making and also their cooperation, partnership, and job satisfaction. Current research was done to study the empowerment components of the employees of the hospitals of Medical University of Qom in year 2011.Methods: This study was done using descriptive cross-sectional method on 365 employees of the hospitals of Qom University of Medical Sciences. The samples were equally selected from the hospitals using a stratified random method. The research tool was a questionnaire consisting of 15 closed-answer questions plus demographic characteristics. Data analysis was done using descriptive and analytical statistics. Independent t-test and analysis of variance was used to determine the intergroup differences. Results: The amount of the hospital employees’ empowerment components with a mean of 3.89 was in good condition. Also, the employees' attitude toward this category was different. There was a significant difference between men and women's attitude toward job meaningfulness. There was no significant association between psychological empowerment indices and age, academic discipline, education level, and the type of unit or ward's activity with confidence interval of 95% (p>0.05. There was also a statistically significant association between employees' work experience and the component of sense of effectiveness.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the amount of empowerment components in the employees of hospitals of the Qom University of Medical Sciences was in acceptable level. Therefore, it is suggested that university managers pay more attention to employees' capabilities for assigning more responsibilities to them, and make much effort by their programming to make an

  1. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  2. A Literature Review of Empowerment With a Suggested Empowerment Model for the BDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    rights movement, feminism , and others. Potterfield (1999) indicates that through personal conversation with management and employee empowerment...corporate culture and the style of management. Potts and Sykes (1993, p.63) state: In the traditional corporate culture, policy manuals often...Connecticut, 1999. 19. Potts, T. and Sykes , A., Executive Talent, 1st ed., Irwin, Illinois, 1993. 20. Quinn, R.E. and Spreitzer, G.M., “The Road

  3. Liberal vs Liberating Empowerment: A Latin American Feminist Perspective on Conceptualising Women's Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Sardenberg, Cecília Maria Bacellar

    2008-01-01

    Paper prepared for presentation to the Conference: Reclaiming Feminism – Gender and Neo-Liberalism, Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Brighton, UK, 9-10 July 2007. A previous version of this paper was presented at the Pathways of Women’s Empowerment Research Programme Consortium Inception Workshop, Luxor, Egypt, September 2006. The term ‘women’s empowerment’ is viewed with a certain amount of distrust by feminists in Latin America. There has been some ambiguit...

  4. Community empowerment and involvement of female sex workers in targeted sexual and reproductive health interventions in Africa: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little is known about similar approaches in African settings. We systematically reviewed community empowerment processes within FSW SRH projects in Africa, and assessed them using a framework developed by Ashodaya, an Indian sex worker organisation. Methods In November 2012 we searched Medline and Web of Science for studies of FSW health services in Africa, and consulted experts and websites of international organisations. Titles and abstracts were screened to identify studies describing relevant services, using a broad definition of empowerment. Data were extracted on service-delivery models and degree of FSW involvement, and analysed with reference to a four-stage framework developed by Ashodaya. This conceptualises community empowerment as progressing from (1) initial engagement with the sex worker community, to (2) community involvement in targeted activities, to (3) ownership, and finally, (4) sustainability of action beyond the community. Results Of 5413 articles screened, 129 were included, describing 42 projects. Targeted services in FSW ‘hotspots’ were generally isolated and limited in coverage and scope, mostly offering only free condoms and STI treatment. Many services were provided as part of research activities and offered via a clinic with associated community outreach. Empowerment processes were usually limited to peer-education (stage 2 of framework). Community mobilisation as an activity in its own right was rarely documented and while most projects successfully engaged communities, few progressed to involvement, community ownership or sustainability. Only a few interventions had evolved to facilitate collective action through formal democratic structures (stage 3

  5. An exploration of empowerment from the perspective of Irish nurses and midwives

    OpenAIRE

    Corbally, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    Empowerment is a complex and multifaceted construct. It is understood to be a perception of ability that can be influenced by numerous factors. Due to the subjective nature of human perception, there is a potential for empowerment to mean different things to different people. Empowerment theory is also equally diverse. Several research approaches have attempted to measure empowerment. Most of these have assumed its meaning which is problematic given the fact that empowerment is interpreted at...

  6. Empowerment of Cancer Survivors Through Information Technology: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Wim G; Kuijpers, Wilma; Oldenburg, Hester Sa; Wouters, Michel Wjm; Aaronson, Neil K; van Harten, Wim H

    2015-11-27

    Patient empowerment may be an effective approach to strengthen the role of cancer survivors and to reduce the burden on health care. However, it is not well conceptualized, notably in oncology. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent information technology (IT) services can contribute to empowerment of cancer survivors. We aim to define the conceptual components of patient empowerment of chronic disease patients, especially cancer survivors, and to explore the contribution of existing and new IT services to promote empowerment. Electronic databases were searched to identify theoretical and empirical articles regarding empowerment. We extracted and synthesized conceptual components of patient empowerment (ie, attributes, antecedents, and consequences) according to the integrated review methodology. We identified recent IT services for cancer survivors by examining systematic reviews and a proposed inventory of new services, and we related their features and effects to the identified components of empowerment. Based on 26 articles, we identified five main attributes of patient empowerment: (1) being autonomous and respected, (2) having knowledge, (3) having psychosocial and behavioral skills, (4) perceiving support from community, family, and friends, and (5) perceiving oneself to be useful. The latter two were specific for the cancer setting. Systematic reviews of IT services and our additional inventory helped us identify five main categories: (1) educational services, including electronic survivorship care plan services, (2) patient-to-patient services, (3) electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) services, (4) multicomponent services, and (5) portal services. Potential impact on empowerment included knowledge enhancement and, to a lesser extent, enhancing autonomy and skills. Newly developed services offer promising and exciting opportunities to empower cancer survivors, for instance, by providing tailored advice for supportive or follow-up care based on

  7. Consequences of Gossiping on Women Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Shumaila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gossip is prevalent and is widespread in human society. Gossip has been denigrated as ‘idle talk’, mostly among women based on ‘trifling or groundless rumour’. The nature and intensity of gossiping victimise women in society. Consequently, women bear serious threat to their well standardized lives. The study aims to understand the women’s experiences with gossiping as a barrier to empowerment. This is a qualitative study with inductive approach. Men and Women are selected as a informants for this study. The data were congregated through in-depth interviews. The results indicate that gossiping or fear of being gossiped is a strong social control in the social setup of Balochistan. This prevents women from being empowered. This paper is intended to be a contribution to exploiting the ideas of women about gossiping as an essential social control or barrier for empowering women.

  8. Mindfulness as a Path of Women's Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja FURLAN ŠTANTE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings together social mindfulness as a path of empowerment for women within its concept of the interrelatedness of all beings in the web of life. The paradigm of social mindfulness is thus established as the foundation of feminist spirituality. The focus of this work is on the possibility of applying the ethics of mindfulness as a paradigm to interpersonal interrelatedness. The relations among humans, nature, reason and emotion in self-development are confronted with the paradigm of mindfulness. This paper carries out a theoretical analysis of the possibility of integrating the paradigm of mindfulness with the paradigm of feminist spirituality. In this view, the paradigm shift toward integrating spiritual and social justice and ecological balance is examined. It also examines possibility of transformation of negative gender stereotypes with the help of mindfulness, loving kindness, compassion and ethics. From this point of view, the application of mindfulness in education (especially childhood, primary and secondary schools is considered.

  9. Transformative social innovation and (dis)empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avelino, Flor; Wittmayer, Julia; Pel, Bonno

    2017-01-01

    This article responds to increasing public and academic discourses on social innovation, which often rest on the assumption that social innovation can drive societal change and empower actors to deal with societal challenges and a retreating welfare state. In order to scrutinise this assumption......, this article proposes a set of concepts to study the dynamics of transformative social innovation and underlying processes of multi-actor (dis)empowerment. First, the concept of transformative social innovation is unpacked by proposing four foundational concepts to help distinguish between different pertinent...... ‘shades’ of change and innovation: 1) social innovation, (2) system innovation, (3) game-changers, and (4) narratives of change. These concepts, invoking insights from transitions studies and social innovations literature, are used to construct a conceptual account of how transformative social innovation...

  10. The role of empowerment in youth development: a study of sociopolitical control as mediator of ecological systems' influence on developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christens, Brian D; Peterson, N Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Empowerment has become an influential concept and theoretical framework for social policy and practice. Still, relatively little is known about the roles that empowerment plays in the ecology of human development, particularly among young people. This article reports results of a study of psychological empowerment among young people, using data from 629 high school students (65.8% female; 96.5% non-white). Using a path analysis, we examined the role of perceived sociopolitical control--an indicator of the intrapersonal component of psychological empowerment--as a mediator between ecological support systems and developmental outcomes. Findings confirmed that social support in family, peer, and school settings, and family cohesion positively predict self-esteem and perceived school importance, which, in turn, have protective effects on psychological symptoms, violent behaviors and substance use. Sociopolitical control was found to mediate the relationships between ecological supports and risk factors and developmental outcomes, leading to the conclusion that perceived efficacy in the sociopolitical domain, and youth empowerment, more generally, should be considered as core elements of the ecology of human development. Policy and practice aimed at promoting positive developmental outcomes and preventing risk behaviors should take their relationship to sociopolitical control into account.

  11. Empowerment: ciclo de implementação, dimensões e tipologia Empowerment: implementation cycle, dimensions and typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Heloisa Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O empowerment é uma abordagem de projeto de trabalho que objetiva a delegação de poder de decisão, autonomia e participação dos funcionários na administração das empresas. Este artigo mostra as especificidades do empowerment em termos de suas dimensões, ciclo de implementação e tipologia. Discutem-se as etapas do ciclo de implementação do empowerment com o objetivo de enfatizar sua complexidade e sua natureza estratégica. Como dimensões tratadas têm-se: a visão compartilhada, a estrutura organizacional e o gerenciamento, a responsabilidade pela gestão do conhecimento e aprendizagem, e o reconhecimento institucional dos funcionários. A diversidade do empowerment é analisada em função de dois tipos de autoridade para tomada de decisão: sobre o conteúdo do trabalho e a sobre o contexto do trabalho. Com base nesta análise, os seguintes tipos de empowerment são apresentados: nulo, estabelecimento de atividades, participativo, definição de missão e auto-gerenciamento. Estabelecem-se também relações do empowerment com as configurações organizacionais, os estágios evolutivos das áreas funcionais e a administração de recursos humanos.Empowerment is an approach of work design which aims at delegating decision power, autonomy and employees’ participation in managing the company. This paper shows the peculiarities of empowerment in terms of its dimension, implementation cycle and typology. The steps of its implementation cycle are discussed in order to highlight its complexity and strategic nature. The following dimensions are presented: shared vision, organizational structure and management, responsibility for knowledge management and learning, and employees’ institutional recognition. The diversity of empowerment is analyzed in function of two types of authority for decision-making: over job content and over job context. Based on this analysis, the following typology of empowerment is presented: no discretion

  12. The Thermal Expansion Of Feldspars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, G. L.; Medford, A.; Conlon, M.

    2009-12-01

    Hovis and others (1) investigated the thermal expansion of natural and synthetic AlSi3 feldspars and demonstrated that the coefficient of thermal expansion (α) decreases significantly, and linearly, with increasing room-temperature volume (VRT). In all such feldspars, therefore, chemical expansion limits thermal expansion. The scope of this work now has been broadened to include plagioclase and Ba-K feldspar crystalline solutions. X-ray powder diffraction data have been collected between room temperature and 925 °C on six plagioclase specimens ranging in composition from anorthite to oligoclase. When combined with thermal expansion data for albite (2,3,4) a steep linear trend of α as a function of VRT emerges, reflecting how small changes in composition dramatically affect expansion behavior. The thermal expansion data for five synthetic Ba-K feldspars ranging in composition from 20 to 100 mole percent celsian, combined with data for pure K-feldspar (3,4), show α-VRT relationships similar in nature to the plagioclase series, but with a slope and intercept different from the latter. Taken as a group all Al2Si2 feldspars, including anorthite and celsian from the present study along with Sr- (5) and Pb-feldspar (6) from other workers, show very limited thermal expansion that, unlike AlSi3 feldspars, has little dependence on the divalent-ion (or M-) site occupant. This apparently is due to the necessitated alternation of Al and Si in the tetrahedral sites of these minerals (7), which in turn locks the tetrahedral framework and makes the M-site occupant nearly irrelevant to expansion behavior. Indeed, in feldspar series with coupled chemical substitution it is the change away from a 1:1 Al:Si ratio that gives feldspars greater freedom to expand. Overall, the relationships among α, chemical composition, and room-temperature volume provide useful predictive tools for estimating feldspar thermal expansion and give insight into the controls of expansion behavior in

  13. Delegation versus empowerment: what, how, and is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, C R

    1995-09-01

    Delegation--or empowerment--represents the essence of the supervisory task: getting things done through people. The terms are no different from each other; empowerment is simply delegation done properly. The process still fails for the same old reasons, and failure still causes the same kinds of problems. Delegation or empowerment involves authority; it is authority that is delegated, not responsibility, as commonly claimed. Under either name it is an imperfect process requiring subjective judgments and chronic risk. Although either label is acceptable--the few differences between delegation and empowerment are semantic only--the significant constant that must be present is a sense of task ownership on the part of the empowered employee.

  14. Community Empowerment through Islamic Microfinances: Perceptions in Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lathif Hanafir Rifqi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BMT (Islamic saving and loan cooperative has continuosly been one of the Islamic microfinance institutions playing a significant role in empowering economic society. There has been a number of research discussing on the effort, however none of them discussed on the perception between the empowers and the empowered group. Comparing these perceptions is a salient effort to find similarities or differencess of perceptions. This research seeks to compare empowerment perception between two organizations. One hand hand, the first party taking BMT BIF Ledok Timoho as the empowering organization and on the other hand focusing on a group of women's empowerment Ledok Timoho. Gathering data through doing observation and in-depth interview had been employed with selecting the purposive informants that contains a BMT BIF and four empowerment group representatives. To conclude, this research found that are similarities of perceptions on empowerment goals, process, outcomes and constraints.

  15. An appraisal of the state fund and empowerment programme in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An appraisal of the state fund and empowerment programme in Nigeria. ... Distributive politics is one of the most important and controversial aspects of the policy ... all stakeholders in the federal polity should thread softly, be objective, rational, ...

  16. Empowerment of Marginalized Producer Groups through Fair Trade ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Empowerment of Marginalized Producer Groups through Fair Trade Practices ... Fair Trade Forum India (FTF I) is the national network of fair trade ... An IDRC delegation will join international delegates and city representatives at the ICLEI ...

  17. Climate change, mobility, and women's economic empowerment in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-14

    May 14, 2018 ... Climate change, mobility, and women's economic empowerment in Pakistan ... engage in paid work, go to school, and stay safe and healthy in their daily ... initiative with the UK's Department for International Development, The ...

  18. Empowerment of Adolescent Girls for Sexual and Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Keywords: Adolescent girls, empowerment, self-care, sexual and reproductive health, Iran. Résumé ... activities, providing opportunities for skill ... promote the self-efficacy, self-esteem, and ..... adolescent communication, and parental control.

  19. The Care Economy, Women's Economic Empowerment, and China's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the past three decades, China's economy has grown rapidly, creating ... of care work on women's labour market outcomes and economic empowerment; ... Socially equitable climate action is essential to strengthen the resilience of all ...

  20. Women's Empowerment in Agricultural Index: Proof of Concept

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The index is a significant innovation in its field that measures multiple indicators of empowerment, and generates "scores" that can be compared over time. It is the...

  1. INTERNET5: Shaping an Internet for women's empowerment | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-08

    Dec 8, 2017 ... Young women learn computer skills, Hyderabad, Pakistan ... works in building social, political, and economic empowerment for women and girls. ... to the Internet and to explore how digital and networking tools can best be ...

  2. Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania: A Case of Onion ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Therefore the government, nongovernmental organisations and development programmes espousing to ...

  3. The Position and Empowerment of & Women in Rural Nigeria: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Position and Empowerment of & Women in Rural Nigeria: The Gender ... base on the continued entrenchment and perpetuation of traditional cultures as ... have manifested itself in gender inequality and discrimination that has far reaching ...

  4. ICTs are not a magic bullet for women's empowerment | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-08

    Oct 8, 2010 ... Cellphones, the Internet, and other information and communication ... enormous potential for transforming the lives of women in developing countries, ... of empowerment offered by ICTs is better met are outlined in the book.

  5. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1979-10-15

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of development reviewed. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows.

  6. Managing empowerment and control in an intranet environment

    OpenAIRE

    Duane, A.; Finnegan, Jason

    2003-01-01

    An intranet increases in sophistication and complexity as it evolves. This evolution leads to an increasing need for control over the intranet. However, this is a contentious issue, as an intranet is deemed to be an empowering technology. Consequently, intranet control systems must balance empowerment and control so as not to negate each other. This paper investigates intranet control activities and their effect on users' perceptions of empowerment throughout the evolution of an intranet in H...

  7. An empowerment intervention for Indigenous communities: an outcome assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Irina; Jacups, Susan; Tsey, Komla; Lines, Katrina

    2015-08-21

    Empowerment programs have been shown to contribute to increased empowerment of individuals and build capacity within the community or workplace. To-date, the impact of empowerment programs has yet to be quantified in the published literature in this field. This study assessed the Indigenous-developed Family Wellbeing (FWB) program as an empowerment intervention for a child safety workforce in remote Indigenous communities by measuring effect sizes. The study also assessed the value of measurement tools for future impact evaluations. A three-day FWB workshop designed to promote empowerment and workplace engagement among child protection staff was held across five remote north Queensland Indigenous communities. The FWB assessment tool comprised a set of validated surveys including the Growth and Empowerment Measure (GEM), Australian Unity Wellbeing Index, Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) and Workforce engagement survey. The assessment was conducted pre-intervention and three months post-intervention. The analysis of pre-and post-surveys revealed that the GEM appeared to be the most tangible measure for detecting positive changes in communication, conflict resolution, decision making and life skill development. The GEM indicated a 17 % positive change compared to 9 % for the Australian Unity Wellbeing Index, 5 % for the workforce engagement survey and less than 1 % for K10. This study extended qualitative research and identified the best measurement tool for detecting the outcomes of empowerment programs. The GEM was found the most sensitive and the most tangible measure that captures improvements in communication, conflict resolution, decision making and life skill development. The GEM and Australian Unity Wellbeing Index could be recommended as routine measures for empowerment programs assessment among similar remote area workforce.

  8. Youth Empowerment and High School Gay-Straight Alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Stephen T.; Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    In the field of positive youth development programs, “empowerment” is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led organizations characterized by social justice goals: high school Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). Through focus group interviews, fifteen youth leaders of GSAs fr...

  9. The Effect of Customer Empowerment on Adherence to Expert Advice

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Nuno; Jong, Martijn; Stremersch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    textabstractCustomers often receive expert advice related to their health, finances, taxes or legal procedures, to name just a few. A noble stance taken by some is that experts should empower customers to make their own decisions. In this article, we distinguish informational from decisional empowerment and study whether empowerment leads customers to adhere more or less to expert advice. We empirically test our model using a unique dataset involving 11,735 respondents in 17 countries on four...

  10. (Re) politicizing empowerment : lessons from the South African wine industry.

    OpenAIRE

    McEwan, C.; Bek, D.

    2006-01-01

    Despite being a poorly defined and vague concept, empowerment is currently of political and theoretical significance and nowhere more so than in South Africa, where it seen as central to post-apartheid transformation. This paper explores the ways in which empowerment has been understood, defined and deployed by post-apartheid governments in the context of a gradual shift from nation-building to neo-liberal governance. It examines the impact of legislation and government policy throug...

  11. Factors affecting Korean nursing student empowerment in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yang-Heui; Choi, Jihea

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the phenomenon of nursing student empowerment in clinical practice is important. Investigating the cognition of empowerment and identifying predictors are necessary to enhance nursing student empowerment in clinical practice. To identify empowerment predictors for Korean nursing students in clinical practice based on studies by Bradbury-Jones et al. and Spreitzer. A cross-sectional design was used for this study. This study was performed in three nursing colleges in Korea, all of which had similar baccalaureate nursing curricula. Three hundred seven junior or senior nursing students completed a survey designed to measure factors that were hypothesized to influence nursing student empowerment in clinical practice. Data were collected from November to December 2011. Study variables included self-esteem, clinical decision making, being valued as a learner, satisfaction regarding practice with a team member, perception on professor/instructor/clinical preceptor attitude, and total number of clinical practice fields. Data were analyzed using stepwise multiple regression analyses. All of the hypothesized study variables were significantly correlated to nursing student empowerment. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that clinical decision making in nursing (t=7.59, pempowerment in clinical practice will be possible by using educational strategies to improve nursing student clinical decision making. Simultaneously, attitudes of nurse educators are also important to ensure that nursing students are treated as valued learners and to increase student self-esteem in clinical practice. Finally, diverse clinical practice field environments should be considered to enhance experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Empowerment in the Treatment of Diabetes and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczyński, Włodzimierz; Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Bossowski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    As the available therapies for diabetes and obesity are not effective enough, diabetologists and educators search for new methods to collaborate with patients in order to support their health behaviors. The aim of this review is to discuss perspectives for the development of new empowerment-type therapies in the treatment of diabetes/obesity. Empowerment is a process whereby patients gain the necessary knowledge to influence their own behavior to improve the quality of their lives. It is carried out in five stages: (1) identify the problem, (2) explain the feelings and meanings, (3) build a plan, (4) act, and (5) experience and assess the execution. Although many years have passed since the advent and popularization of the concept of empowerment, the area remains controversial, mainly with regard to the methodology of therapy. Some previous studies have confirmed the positive effect of empowerment on body weight, metabolic control, and quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes; however, few studies have been conducted in patients with type 1 diabetes. There is still a need to confirm the effectiveness of empowerment in accordance with Evidence Based Medicine by performing long-term observational studies in a large group of patients. In future, empowerment may become part of the standard of care for patients with diabetes and/or obesity.

  13. Empowerment and coping strategies in menopause women: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2015-03-01

    Menopause is described as a period of psychological difficulties that changes the lifestyle of women in multiple ways. Menopausal women require more information about their physical and psychosocial needs. Empowerment during the menopause can contribute to improving the perception of this stage and the importance of self-care. It is essential to increase women's awareness and adaptation to menopause, using empowerment programs. The aim of this study was to review the empowerment and coping strategies in menopause women. In this review, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases were scanned for relevant literature. A comprehensive search was performed, using the combinations of the keywords "empowerment, menopause, coping with" to review relevant literature and higher education journals. Most interventions for menopause women have focused on educational intervention, physical activity/exercise, healthy diet, stress management, healthy behaviors, preventing certain diseases and osteoporosis. Health education intervention strategy is one of the alternative strategies for improving women's attitudes and coping with menopause symptoms, identified as severalof the subcategories of health promotion programs. Empowerment of menopausal women will guarantee their health during the last third of their life. It will also help them benefit from their final years of reproductive life. The results of the present study can pave the way for future research about women's health promotion and empowerment.

  14. The Influence of Exercise Empowerment on Life Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya M. Parker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological stress – when an individual perceives that the environment exceeds their ability to meet the demands placed on them - is common in college students and exercise, and specifically instructional physical activity courses, is frequently cited as a one method of stress reduction. Objective: Determine any relationship between exercise empowerment and perceived life stress for those participating in instructional physical activity courses (IPAC. Methods: All undergraduate students (n = 3388 enrolled in IPAC in 15-week IPAC at a large university were surveyed on perceived life stress (PSS, empowerment in exercise (EES, and specific demographic variables. Results: 944 of 3388 enrolled students (Nov. 2015, April 2016 completed the survey. The data revealed GPA (p < 0.002, sex (p < 0.000, and EES (p < 0.001 showed differences for PSS. It was determined that EES, sex, and GPA predicted PSS differently for students according to their year in college. Conclusions: For freshman and seniors, sex and lower GPA were a stronger predictor of PSS with no mitigating effect of exercise empowerment. For sophomores and juniors the level of life stress was lower at higher levels of exercise empowerment. These findings support a complex relationship between exercise empowerment and life stress. While exercise is cited as a method for stress reduction the relationship between exercise empowerment and life stress for college-aged students is not as straightforward as it may seem.

  15. Epidemic impacts of a community empowerment intervention for HIV prevention among female sex workers in generalized and concentrated epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Pretorius, Carel; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan; Decker, Michele R; Sherman, Susan G; Sweat, Michael; Poteat, Tonia; Butler, Jennifer; Oelrichs, Robert; Semini, Iris; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Sex workers have endured a high burden of HIV infection in and across HIV epidemics. A comprehensive, community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention emphasizes sex worker organization and mobilization to address HIV risk and often includes community-led peer education, condom distribution, and other activities. Meta-analysis of such interventions suggests a potential 51% reduction in inconsistent condom use. Mathematical modeling exercises provide theoretical insight into potential impacts of the intervention on HIV incidence and burden in settings where interventions have not yet been implemented. We used a deterministic model, Goals, to project the impact on HIV infections when the community empowerment interventions were scaled up among female sex workers in Kenya, Thailand, Brazil, and Ukraine. Modeling scenarios included expansion of the comprehensive community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention from baseline coverage over a 5-year period (5-65% in Kenya and Ukraine; 10-70% in Thailand and Brazil), while other interventions were held at baseline levels. A second exercise increased the intervention coverage simultaneously with equitable access to ART for sex workers. Impacts on HIV outcomes among sex workers and adults are observed from 2012-2016 and, compared to status quo when all interventions are held constant. Optimistic but feasible coverage (65%-70%) of the intervention demonstrated a range of impacts on HIV: 220 infections averted over 5 yrs. among sex workers in Thailand, 1,830 in Brazil, 2,220 in Ukraine, and 10,800 infections in Kenya. Impacts of the intervention for female sex workers extend to the adult population, cumulatively averting 730 infections in Thailand to 20,700 adult infections in Kenya. Impacts vary by country, influenced by HIV prevalence in risk groups, risk behaviors, intervention use, and population size. A community empowerment approach to HIV prevention and access to universal ART for female sex workers is a

  16. Convergence of mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydges, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The tree graph bound of Battle and Federbush is extended and used to provide a simple criterion for the convergence of (iterated) Mayer expansions. As an application estimates on the radius of convergence of the Mayer expansion for the two-dimensional Yukawa gas (nonstable interaction) are obtained

  17. An operator expansion technique for path integral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, I.V.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of path integral analysis in the framework of a power series technique is presented. The method is based on the operator expansion of an exponential. A regular procedure to calculate the correction terms is found. (orig.)

  18. Toxic releases and risk disparity: a spatiotemporal model of industrial ecology and social empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Hannah; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2015-06-02

    Information-based regulations (IBRs) are founded on the theoretical premise that public participation in accomplishing policy goals is empowered by open access to information. Since its inception in 1988, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) has provided the framework and regulatory impetus for the compilation and distribution of data on toxic releases associated with industrial development, following the tenets of IBR. As TRI emissions are reputed to disproportionately affect low-income communities, we investigated how demographic characteristics are related to change in TRI emissions and toxicity risks between 1989 and 2002, and we sought to identify factors that predict these changes. We used local indicators of spatial association (LISA) maps and spatial regression techniques to study risk disparity in the Los Angeles urban area. We also surveyed 203 individuals in eight communities in the same region to measure the levels of awareness of TRI, attitudes towards air pollution, and general environmental risk. We discovered, through spatial lag models, that changes in gross and toxic emissions are related to community ethnic composition, poverty level, home ownership, and base 1989 emissions (R-square=0.034-0.083). We generated a structural equation model to explain the determinants of social empowerment to act on the basis of environmental information. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) supports the theoretical model that individual empowerment is predicted by risk perception, worry, and awareness (Chi-square=63.315, p=0.022, df=42). This study provides strong evidence that spatiotemporal changes in regional-scale environmental risks are influenced by individual-scale empowerment mediated by IBRs.

  19. Toxic Releases and Risk Disparity: A Spatiotemporal Model of Industrial Ecology and Social Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Aoyagi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Information-based regulations (IBRs are founded on the theoretical premise that public participation in accomplishing policy goals is empowered by open access to information. Since its inception in 1988, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI has provided the framework and regulatory impetus for the compilation and distribution of data on toxic releases associated with industrial development, following the tenets of IBR. As TRI emissions are reputed to disproportionately affect low-income communities, we investigated how demographic characteristics are related to change in TRI emissions and toxicity risks between 1989 and 2002, and we sought to identify factors that predict these changes. We used local indicators of spatial association (LISA maps and spatial regression techniques to study risk disparity in the Los Angeles urban area. We also surveyed 203 individuals in eight communities in the same region to measure the levels of awareness of TRI, attitudes towards air pollution, and general environmental risk. We discovered, through spatial lag models, that changes in gross and toxic emissions are related to community ethnic composition, poverty level, home ownership, and base 1989 emissions (R-square = 0.034–0.083. We generated a structural equation model to explain the determinants of social empowerment to act on the basis of environmental information. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA supports the theoretical model that individual empowerment is predicted by risk perception, worry, and awareness (Chi-square = 63.315, p = 0.022, df = 42. This study provides strong evidence that spatiotemporal changes in regional-scale environmental risks are influenced by individual-scale empowerment mediated by IBRs.

  20. Concepts and measures of patient empowerment: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Paloma Garcimartín; Juvé-Udina, Maria-Eulália; Delgado-Hito, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Analyze the definitions and dimensions of empowerment. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of empowerment measures based on the conceptual model. This was a comprehensive literature review of publications on the MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. Twenty-nine articles were selected. Seventeen definitions and seven dimensions of empowerment, and 10 empowerment measures were selected. Empowerment can be seen as an enabling process involving a shift in the balance of power, or as an outcome of this process. The dimensions reflect outcome indicators, such as participation in decision-making and control, and process indicators, such as knowledge acquisition and coping skills. Six of the tools analyzed by this study could be said to provide a robust measure of patient empowerment. we propose a definition of empowerment that helps to deepen understanding of the term and, therefore, its operationalization. Analizar definiciones y dimensiones de empoderamiento. Identificar fortalezas y debilidades de los instrumentos de medida de empoderamiento respecto al modelo conceptual. Revisión integrativa de la literatura en las bases de datos MEDLINE y Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Fueram seleccionados 29 artículos . Se identificaron 17 definiciones, 7 propuestas de dimensiones y 10 instrumentos de medida. Empoderamiento puede ser un proceso de capacitación o habilitación en el que se transfiere el poder de un individuo a otro, o bien un resultado producto de ese proceso. Las dimensiones reflejan indicadores de resultados como son la participación en la toma de decisiones y tomar el control, e indicadores relativos al proceso como son la adquisición de conocimientos y las habilidades de afrontamiento. De los instrumentos analizados seis son los instrumentos que presentan mayor robustez. Se propone una definición de empoderamiento que puede ayudar a mejorar la comprensión del t

  1. Elders Health Empowerment Scale: Spanish adaptation and psychometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrani Azcurra, Daniel Jorge Luis

    2014-01-01

    Empowerment refers to patient skills that allow them to become primary decision-makers in control of daily self-management of health problems. As important the concept as it is, particularly for elders with chronic diseases, few available instruments have been validated for use with Spanish speaking people. Translate and adapt the Health Empowerment Scale (HES) for a Spanish-speaking older adults sample and perform its psychometric validation. The HES was adapted based on the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form. Where "diabetes" was mentioned in the original tool, it was replaced with "health" terms to cover all kinds of conditions that could affect health empowerment. Statistical and Psychometric Analyses were conducted on 648 urban-dwelling seniors. The HES had an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach's α of 0.89. The convergent validity was supported by significant Pearson's Coefficient correlations between the HES total and item scores and the General Self Efficacy Scale (r= 0.77), Swedish Rheumatic Disease Empowerment Scale (r= 0.69) and Making Decisions Empowerment Scale (r= 0.70). Construct validity was evaluated using item analysis, half-split test and corrected item to total correlation coefficients; with good internal consistency (α> 0.8). The content validity was supported by Scale and Item Content Validity Index of 0.98 and 1.0, respectively. HES had acceptable face validity and reliability coefficients; which added to its ease administration and users' unbiased comprehension, could set it as a suitable tool in evaluating elder's outpatient empowerment-based medical education programs.

  2. A model for empowerment of nursing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salsali Mahvash

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the Iranian nursing profession tries to reach to its full capacity for participating in the maintenance of public health, its desire to develop is strongly influenced by cultural, economic, and religious factors. The concept of empowerment is frequently used in nursing and the health services, particularly in relation to the quality of care, since the mission of nursing is to provide safe and quality nursing care thereby enabling patients to achieve their maximum level of wellness. When considering the importance of nursing services in any health system, the 54th World Health Assembly recommended that programs be designed to strengthen and promote the nursing profession. Since empowerment is crucial to the role of nurses, a qualitative study was conducted and aimed at designing a model for empowering nurses in Iran. Methods A grounded theory approach was used for analyzing the participants' experiences, their perceptions and the strategies affecting empowerment. Data collection was done through Semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Forty-four participants were interviewed and 12 sessions of observation were carried out. Results Three main categories emerged from the data collected; these are "personal empowerment", "collective empowerment", and "the culture and structure of the organization." From the participants' perspective, empowerment is a dynamic process that results from mutual interaction between personal and collective traits of nurses as well as the culture and the structure of the organization. Impediments, such as power dynamics within the health care system hinder nurses from demonstrating that they possess the essential ingredients of empowerment. Conclusion A model was designed for empowering the nursing profession in Iran. Implementing this model will not only define nursing roles, identify territories in the national healthcare system, but it will restructure nursing systems, sub

  3. Empowerment model of biomass in west java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, C.; Fitriani, N. I.; Saad, A.; Yuliah, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Scarcity of fossil energy accelerates the search of renewable energy sources as the substitution. In West Java, biomass has potential to be developed into bio-briquette because the resources are abundant. The objectives of this research are mapping the potency of biomass as bio-briquette in West Java, and making the model of the empowerment biomass potential involving five fundamental step which are raw material, pre-processing process, conversion mechanism, products, and end user. The main object of this model focused on 3 forms which are solid, liquid, and gas which was made by involving the community component as the owner biomass, district government, academics and researcher communities, related industries as users of biomass, and the central government as the policy holders and investors as a funder. In the model was described their respective roles and mutual relationship one with another so that the bio-briquette as a substitute of fossil fuels can be realized. Application of this model will provide the benefits in renewability energy sources, environmental, socio economical and energy security.

  4. Community Empowerment via Economic and Technical Assistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined implementation strategies, approaches, constraints and revenue generation potentials of hybrid plantain/banana enterprise expansion progamme in Rivers State – a community werment programme funded by USAID in Southern Nigeria. Forty contact farmers directly involved in the project were ...

  5. Correlation expansion: a powerful alternative multiple scattering calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haifeng; Wu Ziyu; Sebilleau, Didier

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a powerful alternative expansion method to perform multiple scattering calculations. In contrast to standard MS series expansion, where the scattering contributions are grouped in terms of scattering order and may diverge in the low energy region, this expansion, called correlation expansion, partitions the scattering process into contributions from different small atom groups and converges at all energies. It converges faster than MS series expansion when the latter is convergent. Furthermore, it takes less memory than the full MS method so it can be used in the near edge region without any divergence problem, even for large clusters. The correlation expansion framework we derive here is very general and can serve to calculate all the elements of the scattering path operator matrix. Photoelectron diffraction calculations in a cluster containing 23 atoms are presented to test the method and compare it to full MS and standard MS series expansion

  6. Women's empowerment and contraceptive use: the role of independent versus couples' decision-making, from a lower middle income country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Waqas; Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Sheikh, Muhammad Ishaque; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Temmerman, Marleen; Avan, Bilal Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    There is little available evidence of associations between the various dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use having been examined--and of how these associations are mediated by women's socio-economic and demographic statuses. We assessed these phenomena in Pakistan using a structured-framework approach. We analyzed data on 2,133 women who were either using any form of contraceptive or living with unmet need for contraception. The survey was conducted during May - June 2012, with married women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in three districts of Punjab. The dimensions of empowerment were categorized broadly into: economic decision-making, household decision-making, and women's mobility. Two measures were created for each dimension, and for the overall empowerment: women's independent decisions, and those taken jointly by couples. Contraceptive use was categorized as either female-only or couple methods on the basis of whether a method requires the awareness of, or some support and cooperation from, the husband. Multinomial regression was used, by means of Odds Ratios (OR), to assess associations between empowerment dimensions and female-only and couple contraceptive methods. Overall, women tend to get higher decision-making power with increased age, higher literacy, a greater number of children, or being in a household that has superior socio-economic status. The measures for couples' decision-making for overall empowerment and for each dimension of it showed positive associations with couple methods as well as with female-only methods. The only exception was the measure of economic empowerment, which was associated only with the couple method. Couples' joint decision-making is a stronger determinant of the use of contraceptive methods than women-only decision-making. This is the case over and above the contribution of women's socio-demographic and economic statuses. Effort needs to be made to educate women and their husbands equally, with

  7. Women's empowerment and contraceptive use: the role of independent versus couples' decision-making, from a lower middle income country perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Hameed

    Full Text Available There is little available evidence of associations between the various dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use having been examined--and of how these associations are mediated by women's socio-economic and demographic statuses. We assessed these phenomena in Pakistan using a structured-framework approach.We analyzed data on 2,133 women who were either using any form of contraceptive or living with unmet need for contraception. The survey was conducted during May - June 2012, with married women of reproductive age (15-49 years in three districts of Punjab. The dimensions of empowerment were categorized broadly into: economic decision-making, household decision-making, and women's mobility. Two measures were created for each dimension, and for the overall empowerment: women's independent decisions, and those taken jointly by couples. Contraceptive use was categorized as either female-only or couple methods on the basis of whether a method requires the awareness of, or some support and cooperation from, the husband. Multinomial regression was used, by means of Odds Ratios (OR, to assess associations between empowerment dimensions and female-only and couple contraceptive methods.Overall, women tend to get higher decision-making power with increased age, higher literacy, a greater number of children, or being in a household that has superior socio-economic status. The measures for couples' decision-making for overall empowerment and for each dimension of it showed positive associations with couple methods as well as with female-only methods. The only exception was the measure of economic empowerment, which was associated only with the couple method.Couples' joint decision-making is a stronger determinant of the use of contraceptive methods than women-only decision-making. This is the case over and above the contribution of women's socio-demographic and economic statuses. Effort needs to be made to educate women and their husbands

  8. Women's Empowerment and Contraceptive Use: The Role of Independent versus Couples' Decision-Making, from a Lower Middle Income Country Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Waqas; Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Sheikh, Muhammad Ishaque; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Temmerman, Marleen; Avan, Bilal Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is little available evidence of associations between the various dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use having been examined - and of how these associations are mediated by women's socio-economic and demographic statuses. We assessed these phenomena in Pakistan using a structured-framework approach. Methods We analyzed data on 2,133 women who were either using any form of contraceptive or living with unmet need for contraception. The survey was conducted during May - June 2012, with married women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in three districts of Punjab. The dimensions of empowerment were categorized broadly into: economic decision-making, household decision-making, and women's mobility. Two measures were created for each dimension, and for the overall empowerment: women's independent decisions, and those taken jointly by couples. Contraceptive use was categorized as either female-only or couple methods on the basis of whether a method requires the awareness of, or some support and cooperation from, the husband. Multinomial regression was used, by means of Odds Ratios (OR), to assess associations between empowerment dimensions and female-only and couple contraceptive methods. Results Overall, women tend to get higher decision-making power with increased age, higher literacy, a greater number of children, or being in a household that has superior socio-economic status. The measures for couples' decision-making for overall empowerment and for each dimension of it showed positive associations with couple methods as well as with female-only methods. The only exception was the measure of economic empowerment, which was associated only with the couple method. Conclusion Couples' joint decision-making is a stronger determinant of the use of contraceptive methods than women-only decision-making. This is the case over and above the contribution of women's socio-demographic and economic statuses. Effort needs to be made to educate

  9. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Us....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  10. Strategic Expansion Models in Academic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Rajni; Yang, Wei T; Tannir, Habib; Parikh, Jay

    2016-03-01

    In response to economic pressures, academic institutions in the United States and their radiology practices, are expanding into the community to build a larger network, thereby driving growth and achieving economies of scale. These economies of scale are being achieved variously via brick-and-mortar construction, community practice acquisition, and partnership-based network expansion. We describe and compare these three expansion models within a 4-part framework of: (1) upfront investment; (2) profitability impact; (3) brand impact; and (4) risk of execution. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural empowerment, job stress and burnout of nurses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiajia; Chen, Juan; Fu, Jie; Ge, Xinling; Chen, Min; Liu, Yanhui

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the status of structural empowerment, job stress and burnout in China, and to explore the relationships among them. The questionnaires of CWEQ-II, job stressors and MBI were used to investigate 1002 nurses working at tertiary-level hospitals. The average score of CWEQ-II was 2.23±0.59. The score of EE of MBI was 29.75±13.94, PA was 27.40±11.21, both of them showed a high level of exhaustion, DP was 8.07±5.82 and showed a middle level of exhaustion. The findings showed that workload and time pressure were the most frequently encountered job stress among staff nurses, the score was 3.23±0.95; There was a significantly correlation among structural empowerment, job stressors and the level of burnout(pburnout, job stressors had significant influence on the every factors of burnout (pnurses felt that structural empowerment in their workplace resulted in lower levels of job stress which in turn strongly influenced Burnout. These results provide initial support for an expanded model of structural empowerment, and offer a broader understanding of the empowerment process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Education for women's empowerment or schooling for women's subordination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwe, S H

    1998-07-01

    This article distinguishes between "schooling for subordination," the notion that promotes conventional schooling for women within existing school systems as a possible basis for them to improve their position in society and "education for empowerment," a more radical perspective that links women's advancement with the transformation of the patriarchal social order. The article opens by defining gender training as provision of skills and methods for improved gender-orientation of development programs. The conservative interpretation of gender training holds that it seeks to increase women's access to resources. The radical definition holds that inequality in access to resources is a mere symptom of a deeper problem caused by structural gender inequality and calls for conscientization of this problem. The two definitions of women's empowerment that follow this distinction are 1) a watered-down view of empowerment as self-reliance reflecting the conservative definition and 2) a more robust and pure view of empowerment as enabling women to identify and end the discriminatory practices that block their access to resources. It follows that education may be mere schooling for subordination in systems where patriarchal gatekeepers limit chances for women and where women who do succeed become "honorary males" and "queen bees" intent on repelling the advancement of other women. Education for empowerment can be found in gender training, which holds objectives that are opposite to those found in formal schooling and may be more readily adopted by women with less exposure to formal, patriarchal schools.

  13. Social Entrepreneurship Andragogy-Based for Community Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Dayat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of social entrepreneurship is the ability to initiate, lead and implement problem-solving strategies, through cooperation with others in all types of social networks. The purpose of this study analyzes: 1 entrepreneurship training, 2 adult education assumptions, and 3 community empowerment. This study is discussed by using a comparative theory analysis method that related to entrepreneurship training, andragogy, and community empowerment from various literary sources. Analysis is conducted to find conclusions that can be justified scientifically. The results of the study conclude that: 1 social entrepreneurship training is an organized learning process from planning, implementation, and evaluation on non-formal education path aimed at enhancing community knowledge, attitude and skills for learning and endeavor, 2 entrepreneurship training based on andragogy conducted through a learning process that implements adults’ assumptions of self-conceptual, learning experiences, learning readiness, and learning orientation. 3 Community empowerment is a process of empowerment or strength to community to have the ability of individuals who completely agreed with the community in building social and economic empowerment of the community.

  14. WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT, HOUSEHOLD STATUS AND CONTRACEPTION USE IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Sarah R

    2017-07-01

    Gender inequality is often cited as a barrier to improving women's sexual and reproductive health outcomes, including contraceptive use, in low- and middle-income countries such as those in sub-Saharan Africa. To date there is limited, recent, evidence available regarding women's empowerment, household status and contraceptive use in Ghana. The objective of this study was to investigate whether women's empowerment and status in the household were associated with contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception using the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The study sample consisted of 1828 women aged 15-49. Women's empowerment was measured based on two composite indexes created by the DHS: attitudes towards intimate partner violence and decision-making. Women's status in the home was measured using indicators of work status, relationship to household head, control over monetary earnings and land ownership. Decision-making was found to be positively associated with contraceptive use and not having unmet need for contraception. Women who justified wife beating in one or more instances were less likely to use contraception, and more likely to have unmet need for contraception. Current or past employment and higher levels of male partner education were associated with contraceptive use. This study indicates that women's empowerment and household status are influential for contraceptive indicators. Future interventions aimed at improving contraceptive uptake and use should promote women's empowerment, i.e. decision-making, self-worth and education.

  15. Structural empowerment and work–family fit in nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Orłowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of the study was to investigate the relationship between structural empowerment and work–family fit in Polish nurses. Structural empowerment is a strategy for managing by providing the employees with opportunities, information, support and resources essential for the effective performance of work duties. Work–family fit takes 2 forms of relationships between these 2 spheres: conflict (functioning in one role is more difficult because of participation in the other role and facilitation (fulfilling the duties associated with one role enriches filling up the other role. Material and Methods: A total of 159 nurses employed in hospitals took part in the study. The Polish versions of the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire and the Work–Family Fit Questionnaire were used. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was applied for data analysis. Results: The results show statistically signifficant relationships between structural empowerment and work–family fit in nurses. In the hospital environment, characterized by a high degree of empowerment, nurses experience a lower level of work–family conflict and a higher level of facilitation in both directions. Conclusions: Hospital management strategy based on structural empowerment of nurses favors reconciliation of professional and family roles. Therefore, it is important for hospitals to create appropriate working conditions that allow nurses to effectively deal with demands arising from work and family spheres. Med Pr 2016;67(6:787–800

  16. Empowerment evaluation of a Swedish gender equity plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gavriilidis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empowerment is essential for gender equity and health. The city of Malmö, Sweden, has formulated a development plan for gender equity integration (GEIDP. A ‘Policy Empowerment Index’ (PEI was previously developed to assess the empowerment potential of policies. Objectives: To pilot-evaluate the GEIDP's potential for empowerment and to test the PEI for future policy evaluations. Design: The GEIDP was analyzed and scored according to electronically retrieved evidence on constituent opinion, participation, capacity development, evaluation–adaptation, and impact. Results: The plan's PEI score was 64% (CI: 48–78 and was classified as ‘enabling’, ranging between ‘enabling’ and ‘supportive’. The plan's strengths were: 1 constituent knowledge and concern; 2 peripheral implementation; 3 protection of vulnerable groups; and 4 evaluation/adaptation procedures. It scored average on: 1 policy agenda setting; 2 planning; 3 provisions for education; 4 network formation; 5 resource mobilization. The weakest point was regarding promotion of employment and entrepreneurship. Conclusions: The PEI evaluation highlighted the plan's potential of constituency empowerment and proposed how it could be augmented.

  17. Nurse aide decision making in nursing homes: factors affecting empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Tanni; Yeatts, Dale E; Cready, Cynthia M

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate factors affecting structural empowerment among nurse aides in nursing homes. Structural empowerment can be defined as the actual rather than perceived ability to make autonomous decisions within an organisation. Given the paucity of research on the subject, this study helps to close the gap by identifying factors that affect nurse aide empowerment, that is, decision-making among nurse aides. The data for the study come from self-administered questionnaires distributed to direct-care workers (nurse aides) in 11 nursing homes in a southern state in the USA. Ordinary least square regression models were estimated to analyse the effects of demographic predictors, personal factors (competency, emotional exhaustion and positive attitude) and structural characteristics (coworker and supervisor support, information availability and shared governance) on nurse aide decision-making. Findings suggest race among demographic predictors, emotional exhaustion among personal characteristics, and supervisor support, and shared governance among structural factors, significantly affect nurse aide decision-making. It is important to explore race as one of the central determinants of structural empowerment among nurse aides. In addition, the nature and type of emotional exhaustion that propels decision-making needs to be further examined. The study shows the importance of shared governance and supervisor support for fostering nurse aide empowerment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Controlled Thermal Expansion Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has always been a need for controlled thermal expansion alloys suitable for mounting optics and detectors in spacecraft applications.  These alloys help...

  19. Fuel Thermal Expansion (FTHEXP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymann, G.A.

    1978-07-01

    A model is presented which deals with dimensional changes in LWR fuel pellets caused by changes in temperature. It is capable of dealing with any combination of UO 2 and PuO 2 in solid, liquid or mixed phase states, and includes expansion due to the solid-liquid phase change. The function FTHEXP models fuel thermal expansion as a function of temperature, fraction of PuO 2 , and the fraction of fuel which is molten

  20. Hope in Hard Times: Women’s Empowerment and Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha Desai

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the conceptual and methodological issues related to women’s empowerment, the trends in women’s empowerment over the last 20 years in key areas such as education, health, economic and political participation, and finally the best practices of state and non-state actors in empowering women. Following a brief critique of human development, it begins with a discussion of the growing conceptual consensus around empowerment, i.e., empowerment being control over resources, women...

  1. Operator expansion in quantum chromodynamics beyond perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.A.; Shifman, M.A.; Vainshtejn, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    The status of operator expansion at short distances is descussed within the frameworks of nonperturbatue QCD. The question of instanton effects is investigated in various aspects. Two-point functions induced by the gluonic currents are considered. It is shown that certain gluonic correlations vanish in the field of definite duality. It is proved that there does exist a very special relation between the expansion coefficients required by consistancy between instanton calculations and the general operator expansion. At last a certain modification of the naive version of operator expansion is proposed, which allows one to go beyond the critical power and construct, if necessary, an infinite series

  2. Exploring empowerment in settings: mapping distributions of network power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2014-06-01

    This paper brings together two trends in the empowerment literature-understanding empowerment in settings and understanding empowerment as relational-by examining what makes settings empowering from a social network perspective. Specifically, extending Neal and Neal's (Am J Community Psychol 48(3/4):157-167, 2011) conception of network power, an empowering setting is defined as one in which (1) actors have existing relationships that allow for the exchange of resources and (2) the distribution of network power among actors in the setting is roughly equal. The paper includes a description of how researchers can examine distributions of network power in settings. Next, this process is illustrated in both an abstract example and using empirical data on early adolescents' peer relationships in urban classrooms. Finally, implications for theory, methods, and intervention related to understanding empowering settings are explored.

  3. Women, Poverty, and Trauma: An Empowerment Practice Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jean Francis; Roll, Susan J

    2015-10-01

    This article describes an empowerment approach for working with diverse women who experience poverty, trauma, and multiple structural oppressions. The approach is the result of 20 years of experience developing, implementing, and evaluating this practice in a metropolitan community, and is grounded in women's empowerment theory and relational-cultural theory. The interventions combine social work's clinical interventions with community organizing strategies to promote personal and collective empowerment, supporting the "personal is political" tenet of feminist practice. The interventions, including nonclinical interviews, story circles, and leadership and advocacy education and training, can guide practitioners in providing services and programs that create a space for women to make changes in their personal lives and in their community. Program outcomes report successful changes for women in improving symptoms, increasing self-efficacy, and engaging in community advocacy. Women who participated also reported an increased sense of power, balancing commonality and difference among women, and a sense of hope for their future.

  4. INCREASING ECONOMIC WELFARE OF CHURCH CONGREGATION : A CONCEPT OF EMPOWERMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONGAM SIHOL NABABAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In our community, many structural problems unresolved well, especially in social and economic life. Seeing this reality, the Church needs to have a sensitivity and a strong commitment to encourage cooperation of some parties to empower people, especially its congregation. Congregation of the Church, especially the poor need to be raised and empowered to pursue their own welfare through economic business. One manifestation of the Church's task is to empower the community-based and to revitalize its role more focused on optimizing the institution of community economy. For that, it is important to use the Model of Empowerment of Congregation-Based Community Economic in form of business partnership. The success of congregation economic empowerment lies in the motivation and orientation of the actors themselves, where the Church is expected to seriously fight. Keywords: Church, Congregation, Community-Based Economic, Business Partnership,  Empowerment.

  5. Is perceived patient involvement in mental health care associated with satisfaction and empowerment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambuyzer, Else; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2015-08-01

    Patients increasingly assume active roles in their mental health care. While there is a growing interest in patient involvement and patient-reported outcomes, there is insufficient research on the outcomes of patient involvement. The research questions in this study are as follows: 'To what extent is perceived patient involvement associated with satisfaction and empowerment?'; 'What is the nature of the relationship between satisfaction and empowerment?'; and 'To what extent are background variables associated with satisfaction and empowerment?'. We assumed that a higher degree of patient involvement is associated with higher satisfaction and empowerment scores and that satisfaction and empowerment are positively associated. Data were gathered using surveys of 111 patients of 36 multidisciplinary care networks for persons with serious and persistent mental illness. Demographic characteristics, patient involvement and satisfaction were measured using a new questionnaire. Empowerment was assessed using the Dutch Empowerment Scale. Descriptive, univariate (Pearson's r and independent-samples t-tests), multivariate (hierarchical forced entry regression) and mixed-model analyses were conducted. The hypotheses of positive associations between patient involvement, satisfaction and empowerment are confirmed. The demographics are not significantly related to satisfaction or empowerment, except for gender. Men reported higher empowerment scores than did women. Making patient involvement a reality is more than just an ethical imperative. It provides an opportunity to enhance patient-reported outcomes such as satisfaction and empowerment. Future research should focus on the nature of the association between satisfaction and empowerment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  7. Single Session Email Consultation for Parents: An Evaluation of Its Effect on Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwboer, Christa C.; Fukkink, Ruben G.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of single session email consultation (SSEC) on empowerment of parents. Practitioners in a control group (n = 19) received no training and practitioners in an experimental group (n = 21) were trained to use empowerment-oriented techniques in online consultation. Parental empowerment was measured (n = 96) through a…

  8. Disentangling the relationships between staff nurses' workplace empowerment and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahinten, V S; Lee, S E; MacPhee, M

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationships between structural empowerment, psychological empowerment and job satisfaction among staff nurses, after controlling for their leaders' use of empowering behaviours. Nurses' job satisfaction is a critical factor in health-care organisations because of its association with nurse turnover and quality of patient care. Nurses continue to report high levels of job dissatisfaction. Cross-sectional data for 1007 Canadian staff nurses were analysed using hierarchical multiple regression. Structural empowerment was the strongest independent predictor of job satisfaction, followed by leader empowering behaviours and psychological empowerment. After accounting for the effects of structural empowerment and leader empowering behaviours, the four dimensions of psychological empowerment showed only small independent effects on job satisfaction. Psychological empowerment did not mediate the effects of structural empowerment on job satisfaction. Nurses' job satisfaction is most influenced by their access to organisational empowerment structures. Leader empowering behaviours, structural empowerment, and psychological empowerment, operating together, enhance nurses' job satisfaction. Nurse leaders should use a variety of empowerment strategies that are important to nurses' job satisfaction and potentially to the quality of patient care and nurse turnover. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Empowerment Program for People With Prediabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang; Hung, Shu-Ling; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2017-04-01

    Practicing a health-promoting lifestyle is believed to be effective for delaying or preventing the onset of diabetes. However, although empowerment interventions have proven effective for encouraging the adoption of a health-promoting lifestyle in people with diabetes, these interventions are rarely promoted to people with prediabetes. The aims of this study were to develop an empowerment program for people with prediabetes and to examine its efficacy in terms of the adoption of a health-promoting lifestyle and improvements in blood sugar, body mass index, and self-efficacy. A randomized controlled trial was conducted between May and December 2013. A convenience sample of people with a fasting blood sugar level of 100-125 mg/dl during the previous 3 months was recruited from the health examination center of a hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Participants were assigned to either the experimental group or the control group using block randomization with a block size of 8. The experimental group (n = 38) participated in a 4-month empowerment program (the ABC empowerment program), which encouraged participants to practice a health-promoting lifestyle in three phases: awareness raising, behavior building, and results checking. The control group (n = 40) received routine clinical care. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, independent t test, paired t test, and generalized estimated equations. After controlling for the differences at baseline and considering the interaction between group and time from baseline to 1 week and 3 months after completing the intervention, the generalized estimating equation showed significantly larger improvements in a health-promoting lifestyle, blood sugar, and self-efficacy in the experimental group than in the control group (p empowerment program was shown to have short-term, positive effects on behavioral, physical, and psychosocial outcomes in a Taiwan population with prediabetes. The results of this study provide a useful

  10. Patient empowerment and hand hygiene, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuckin, M; Govednik, J

    2013-07-01

    Multi-modal hand hygiene programmes that include patient empowerment are promoted as a necessary component of hand hygiene compliance. However, the question still remains, do we have enough information to determine if, and under what conditions, patients will be able to play an immediate role in healthcare workers' hand hygiene behaviour? To review the current literature on patient willingness to be empowered, barriers to empowerment, and hand hygiene programmes that include patient empowerment and hand hygiene improvement. A Medline (Ovid) search of all English-language papers for 1997-2007 and 2008-2012 was conducted using the following keywords alone and in various combinations: 'patient participation', 'involvement', 'empowerment', 'education', 'decision-making', 'professional-patient relations', 'behavioural change', 'culture of safety', 'social marketing', 'consumer awareness', 'leadership', 'institutional climate', 'hand hygiene' and 'patient reminders'. The 1997-2007 review was conducted as part of the World Health Organization's Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care, and updated with the 2008-2012 review. Several studies show that, in principle, patients are willing to be empowered. However, there is variation in the actual number of patients that practice empowerment for hand hygiene, ranging from 5% to 80%. The actual performance of patient empowerment can be increased when a patient is given explicit permission by a healthcare worker. There is ongoing support from patients that they are willing to be empowered. There is a need to develop programmes that empower both healthcare workers and patients so that they become more comfortable in their roles. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Empoderamiento: Proceso, Nivel y Contexto Empowerment: Process, Level, and Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discute el fenómeno del empoderamiento y se analiza la distinción teórica entre proceso y resultado de empoderamiento (Zimmerman, 2000. A partir de las formulaciones de este autor y el aporte de una perspectiva interaccional (Bronfenbrenner, 1987, se sostiene que aquella diferenciación es poco viable en términos objetivos y absolutos o de esencia, pero sí útil, en términos analíticos, desde la percepción de la propia comunidad involucrada, que debe ser comprendida por el colaborador externo. También se propone establecer una diferencia entre contexto y nivel de empoderamiento, y analizar el contexto del fenómeno en los niveles individual, organizacional y comunitario del agregado social, lo que aporta claridad a su definición. De esta manera adquiere centralidad la concepción del empoderamiento como proceso en sucesivos contextos que benefician no sólo a los individuos sino que a los colectivos socialesA critical analysis of the concept of empowerment and the theoretical distinction between empowerment process and outcome (Zimmerman, 2000 are presented. Based on Zimmerman's conceptualisation, and the interaccional perspective (Bronfenbrenner, 1987, we argue that the distinction between empowerment process and outcome, though analytically useful (if based on the perception of the community itself from their own experience, which must be understood by professional agent is not always viable in absolute or objective terms. In addition, we suggest to distinguish between context and level of analyses in empowerment theory, and to analyze the context of the empowerment phenomenon at the individual, organizational and community level, which clarifies the definition of each of them. In sum, empowerment is conceived as a process within successive contexts that benefits not only individuals, but also different social aggregate kinds of groups

  12. Resonant state expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P.

    1993-02-01

    The completeness properties of the discrete set of bound state, virtual states and resonances characterizing the system of a single nonrelativistic particle moving in a central cutoff potential is investigated. From a completeness relation in terms of these discrete states and complex scattering states one can derive several Resonant State Expansions (RSE). It is interesting to obtain purely discrete expansion which, if valid, would significantly simplify the treatment of the continuum. Such expansions can be derived using Mittag-Leffler (ML) theory for a cutoff potential and it would be nice to see if one can obtain the same expansions starting from an eigenfunction theory that is not restricted to a finite sphere. The RSE of Greens functions is especially important, e.g. in the continuum RPA (CRPA) method of treating giant resonances in nuclear physics. The convergence of RSE is studied in simple cases using square well wavefunctions in order to achieve high numerical accuracy. Several expansions can be derived from each other by using the theory of analytic functions and one can the see how to obtain a natural discretization of the continuum. Since the resonance wavefunctions are oscillating with an exponentially increasing amplitude, and therefore have to be interpreted through some regularization procedure, every statement made about quantities involving such states is checked by numerical calculations.Realistic nuclear wavefunctions, generated by a Wood-Saxon potential, are used to test also the usefulness of RSE in a realistic nuclear calculation. There are some fundamental differences between different symmetries of the integral contour that defines the continuum in RSE. One kind of symmetry is necessary to have an expansion of the unity operator that is idempotent. Another symmetry must be used if we want purely discrete expansions. These are found to be of the same form as given by ML. (29 refs.)

  13. The Difficult Empowerment in Danish Hospital: Power to the nurses!?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Flemming; Nielsen, Jørn Flohr

    The employee empowerment literature promises better organizational performance as well as more motivated and satisfied employees. However, this literature often neglects the specific context of public services in general, or the health care sector, hospitals, and nursing in particular. Nurses...... in Danish public hospitals work in a unique situation that makes the uncritical transfer of empowerment interventions intended to redesign their work difficult or even unfeasible. Analysis from an institutional perspective of the ongoing power struggle between agens of change at several levels in the Danish...

  14. ”Det monitorerede mig – empowerment eller patologisering?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Lisbeth Højbjerg

    2015-01-01

    the "monitored me” and hereafter discuss how these self-interpretations position the user. Is “the monitored me” an opportunity for liberating autonomy – for empowerment? Or does it contribute to individualization or pathologization? Keywords: Ethics, humanistic health research, self-monitoring, Ecological...... arbejdsmiljø bør være? Nøgleord: Etik, humanistisk sundhedsforskning, selvmonitorering, Ecological Momentary Storytelling English summary: The Monitored Me - empowerment or pathologization? Healthcare apps have become a major industry. We can freely download thousands of apps, that enable us to monitor...

  15. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1980-01-01

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of the development reviewed. Large Na (sodium)-heat transfer systems require a lot of valuable space if the component lay-out does not include compensation devices. So, in order to condense the spatial requirement as much as possible, expansion joints must be integrated into the pipe system. There are two basic types to suit the purpose: axial expansion joints and angular expansion joints. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows. Expansion joints must be designed and mounted in a manner to completely withstand seismic forces. The design must exclude any damage to the bellows during intermittent operations, that is, when sodium is drained the bellows' folds must be completely empty; otherwise residual solidified sodium could destroy the bellows when restarting. The expansion joints must be engineered on the basis of the following design data for the secondary system of the SNR project: working pressure: 16 bar; failure mode pressure: 5 events; failure mode: 5 sec., 28.5 bar, 520 deg. C; working temperature: 520 deg. C; temperature transients: 30 deg. C/sec.; service life: 200,000 h; number of load cycles: 10 4 ; material: 1.4948 or 1.4919; layer thickness of folds: 0.5 mm; angular deflection (DN 800): +3 deg. C or; axial expansion absorption (DN 600): ±80 mm; calculation: ASME class. The bellows' development work is not handled within this scope. The bellows are supplied by leading manufacturers, and warrant highest quality. Multiple bellows were selected on the basis of maximum elasticity - a property

  16. Accelerating the loop expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingermanson, R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi 4 theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs

  17. Virial Expansion Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Stephen James

    2013-10-01

    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  18. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathsman, J.

    2000-02-07

    The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factorially increasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increase is not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations between observables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infrared fixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion the authors study the effect of the large-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients. The authors find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing. However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalon integral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect the conformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients will indeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previous observations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specific observables. The authors further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with the skeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. The BLM coefficients can be interpreted as the conformal coefficients in the series relating the fixed-point value of the observable with that of the skeleton effective charge. Through the skeleton expansion the relevance of renormalon-free conformal coefficients extends to real-world QCD.

  19. A phylogenetic framework for root lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus (Nematoda): Evidence from 18S and D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S ribosomal RNA genes and morphological characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, Sergei A; Ragsdale, Erik J; Mullens, Teresa; Roberts, Philip A; Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Baldwin, James G

    2008-08-01

    The root lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 are migratory endoparasites of plant roots, considered among the most widespread and important nematode parasites in a variety of crops. We obtained gene sequences from the D2 and D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA partial and 18S rRNA from 31 populations belonging to 11 valid and two unidentified species of root lesion nematodes and five outgroup taxa. These datasets were analyzed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. The alignments were generated using the secondary structure models for these molecules and analyzed with Bayesian inference under the standard models and the complex model, considering helices under the doublet model and loops and bulges under the general time reversible model. The phylogenetic informativeness of morphological characters is tested by reconstruction of their histories on rRNA based trees using parallel parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the 28S D2-D3 dataset with 145 accessions for 28 species and 18S dataset with 68 accessions for 15 species confirmed among large numbers of geographical diverse isolates that most classical morphospecies are monophyletic. Phylogenetic analyses revealed at least six distinct major clades of examined Pratylenchus species and these clades are generally congruent with those defined by characters derived from lip patterns, numbers of lip annules, and spermatheca shape. Morphological results suggest the need for sophisticated character discovery and analysis for morphology based phylogenetics in nematodes.

  20. Multimodal aspects of CSR communication related to gender empowerment and environmental protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    Purpose – This paper explores how the multimodal persuasive strategies of CSR communication related to Coca-Cola’s “5 by 20” succeed to highlight the company’s continuous commitment to gender empowerment and environmental protection. Launched in 2010, “5 by 20” is a program designed to empower 5...... million female entrepreneurs throughout the company’s global business system by 2020. The program has recently received 2013 Catalyst Award for its accomplishments. According to the company’s homepage, hundreds of thousands of women around the world are building stronger businesses, families...... and communities due to the implementation of this program. The environmental concerns are embedded in their activities. Approach – Drawing on an interdisciplinary methodological framework related to CSR communication, multimodal discourse analysis, gender theory and environmental communication, the paper proposes...

  1. Thermal expansion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper gives regression data for a modified second order polynomial fitted to the expansion data of, and percentage expansions for dioxides with (a) the fluorite and antifluorite structure: AmO 2 , BkO 2 , CeO 2 , CmO 2 , HfO 2 , Li 2 O, NpO 2 , PrO 2 , PuO 2 , ThO 2 , UO 2 , ZrO 2 , and (b) the rutile structure: CrO 2 , GeO 2 , IrO 2 , MnO 2 , NbO 2 , PbO 2 , SiO 2 , SnO 2 , TeO 2 , TiO 2 and VO 2 . Reduced expansion curves for the dioxides showed only partial grouping into iso-electronic series for the fluorite structures and showed that the 'law of corresponding states' did not apply to the rutile structures. (author)

  2. Research on Influencing Factors of Salespeople's Empowerment Readiness in Green Energy Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuan; Liu, Xiaohui

    As market competition in green energy enterprises continues to intensify, marketing activities are enlarging and customer demand is increasingly growing and diversifying. More and more green energy enterprises have empowered their own salespeople. And managers in green energy enterprises are more concerned with the issues which employees suit to be empowered and which factors will influence employee empowerment readiness. This paper proposes the definition of salespeople's empowerment readiness, analyzes influencing factors of salespeople's empowerment readiness, discusses the effect mechanism of influencing factors of salespeople's empowerment readiness, finally, and puts forward some suggestions to enhance salespeople's empowerment readiness from the perspective of human resource management practice.

  3. Uniform gradient expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  4. Information technology for patient empowerment in healthcare

    CERN Document Server

    Grando, Maria Adela; Bates, David

    2015-01-01

    The authors explore novel information-based mechanisms that are changing the way patients are involved in their own health care. The book covers models, frameworks and technologies to improve patient-to-provider communication, patient interaction with information technologies, patient education and involvement in health care decision processes, and patient access, understanding and control over their clinical data.

  5. Low-temperature thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter discusses the thermal expansion of insulators and metals. Harmonicity and anharmonicity in thermal expansion are examined. The electronic, magnetic, an other contributions to low temperature thermal expansion are analyzed. The thermodynamics of the Debye isotropic continuum, the lattice-dynamical approach, and the thermal expansion of metals are discussed. Relative linear expansion at low temperatures is reviewed and further calculations of the electronic thermal expansion coefficient are given. Thermal expansions are given for Cu, Al and Ti. Phenomenologic thermodynamic relationships are also discussed

  6. Influence of Psychological Empowerment on Organizational Commitment among Medical Employees in a Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebriaei, A; Rakhshaninejad, M; Mohseni, M

    2014-12-01

    People within organizations are a key factor for efficiency. Thus employee empowerment has become a popular management strategy. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between psychological empowerment and organizational commitment among medical staff of a hospital in Zahedan city. This cross sectional study was carried out in 2013. A random sample of 172 medical employees in Khatam-ol-Anbia hospital at Zahedan city was selected and responded to items of the questionnaires using a 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7. For measuring psychological empowerment and organizational commitment, Mishra & Spreitzer's scale and Meyer and Allen's questionnaire were used. A higher score means a higher degree of psychological empowerment or organizational commitment. Analysis was carried out using SPSS. The level of organizational commitment and psychological empowerment significantly were higher than average. There was a significant positive relationship between employees' empowerment and their commitment to organization. Psychological empowerment was a significant predictor of organizational commitment (β = .524). Out of the five dimensions of empowerment three dimensions are significant predictors of commitment and explain 37.1% of the variance in commitment. Due to The positive influence of psychological empowerment on organizational commitment, programs for in-service education should focus on facilitating psychological empowerment to improve and increase organizational commitment. Also, since impact of employees psychological empowerment on organizational commitment partially supported, there are other variables that influence the organizational commitment.

  7. Relationship between nurse psychological empowerment and job satisfaction: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Shi, Ying; Li, Yuan; Xing, Zhuangjie; Wang, Shouqi; Ying, Jie; Zhang, Meiling; Sun, Jiao

    2018-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize and analyse studies that explored the relationship between the psychological empowerment and job satisfaction of nurses. Nurse turnover is an important cause of staff shortage. Job satisfaction is a major predictor of nurse turnover and is connected to the psychological empowerment of nurses. This systematic review and meta-analysis is based on the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. A total of 1,572 articles on psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were retrieved from PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Science. The articles were written in English and published before or by April 2017. Studies on the relationship between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were summarized. The majority of the included studies revealed that psychological empowerment and job satisfaction are significantly correlated. Only two studies showed that the two factors are not significantly correlated. The result of this meta-analysis is consistent with the results of most studies. One study reported that psychological empowerment partially mediates the structural empowerment and job satisfaction of school health nurses. Two studies, however, did not find that the mediating role of psychological empowerment between structural empowerment and job satisfaction. The results of this review provided evidence for the importance of psychological empowerment for the job satisfaction of among nurses. Exploring the correlation between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction can provide guidelines and recommendation for the development of strategies to promote nurse retention and alleviate nursing shortage. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Assessment of patient empowerment - a systematic review of measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barr, P.J.; Scholl, I.; Bravo, P.; Faber, M.J.; Elwyn, G.; Mcallister, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient empowerment has gained considerable importance but uncertainty remains about the best way to define and measure it. The validity of empirical findings depends on the quality of measures used. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of studies assessing psychometric

  9. Women Empowerment as a Determinant of Investments in Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women Empowerment as a Determinant of Investments in Children in Selected Rural Communities in Nigeria. ... the individuals for modifying attitudes and behaviours on gender issues. Key words: Decision-making autonomy, Access to economic resources, Freedom from fear and coercion, Schooling, health and survival.

  10. Developing e-Health Information by Empowerment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Bodil; Engberg, Axel; Barlach, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This innovative study relates patient empowerment to strategies for education and e-health information to support self-care to patients with knee surgery in a Danish university hospital outpatient clinic. Interdisciplinary teamwork and Information and Communication Technology are integral parts...

  11. Access to Paid Work and Women's Empowerment in Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    married women and 8 young girls from each of both cases. In order to collect ... getting empowered through such employment. Many scholars have ... greater purchasing power, but if it is undertaken in conditions that erode their health and ... empowerment materialized in terms of control of the use of the salary, access to.

  12. [Empowerment, stress vulnerability and burnout among Portuguese nursing staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgambídez-Ramos, Alejandro; Borrego-Alés, Yolanda; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The work environment in Portuguese hospitals, characterized by economic cutbacks, can lead to higher levels of burnout experienced by nursing staff. Furthermore, vulnerability to stress can negatively affect the perception of burnout in the workplace. However, structural empowerment is an organizational process that can prevent and decrease burnout among nurses. Consequently, the aim of the study was to examine to what extent structural empowerment and vulnerability to stress can play a predictive role in core burnout in a sample of Portuguese nurses. A convenience sample of 297 nursing staff members from Portuguese hospitals was used in this study. Core burnout was negatively and significantly related to all the dimensions of structural empowerment, and it was positively and significantly related to vulnerability to stress. Regression models showed that core burnout was significantly predicted by access to funds, access to opportunities and vulnerability to stress. Organizational administrations must make every effort in designing interventions focused on structural empowerment, as well as interventions focused on individual interventions that enhance skills for coping with stress.

  13. Social Empowerment in Mexican Violent Contexts through Media Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva-Verdugo, Abel-Antonio; Moreno-Candil, David

    2017-01-01

    The acquisition of digital skills, media diet management, and general knowledge of ICT, is essential for the development and empowerment of audiences in the current media ecology, particularly considering the political and social challenges of the Latin American environment. In that sense, the study of media competence is urgent for sizing up the…

  14. Moringa oleifera as a Source of Economic Empowerment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the use of Moringa oleifera as a source of economic empowerment for farmers in Bomo Village, Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Twenty farmers whose previous knowledge of the tree was first investigated through oral discussion were randomly selected to participate in the study.

  15. Participation in online patient support groups endorses patients' empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uden-Kraan, C. F.; Drossaert, Constance H C; Taal, E; Seydel, E. R.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    Objective: Although much has been expected of the empowering effect of taking part in online patient support groups, there is no direct evidence thus far for the effects of participation on patient empowerment. Hence our exploring to what extent patients feel empowered by their participation in

  16. Factors involved in social mobilization and empowerment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many community mobilizers in Uganda do not recognize that psychological empowerment is central in social mobilization, and that social mobilization involves an interplay among several social psychological variables including; social capital, psychological sense of community and group member satisfaction to produce ...

  17. Women empowerment in Nigerian drama: a contextual study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as long as concerted efforts are being made towards the realization of that course, the discourse will continue to be on the front burner of gender developmental discourse. The dramatic space like other realms of the Nigerian society has invested a great deal of talent on female empowerment and positive female character ...

  18. Gender Research in Africa into ICTs for Empowerment (GRACE ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Final technical report - appendix D / citations of African women and ICTs : investigating technology, gender and empowerment (2009), as of 24 February 2012. Rapports. Final technical report - appendix B / publications, presentations and reports. Rapports. Final technical report - appendix A / information sharing and ...

  19. Making healthy choices easy choices: the role of empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelen, M.A.; Lindström, B.

    2005-01-01

    An important goal of health promotion is to make it easier for people to make healthy choices. However, this may be difficult if people do not feel control over their environment and their personal circumstances. An important concept in relation to this is empowerment. Health professionals are

  20. Empowerment of Cancer Survivors Through Information Technology : An Integrative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Wim G.; Kuijpers, Wilma; Oldenburg, Hester S.A.; Wouters, Michel W.J.M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient empowerment may be an effective approach to strengthen the role of cancer survivors and to reduce the burden on health care. However, it is not well conceptualized, notably in oncology. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent information technology (IT) services can contribute

  1. Empowerment of cancer survivors through information technology: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.G.; Kuijpers, W.; Oldenburg, H.S.A.; Wouters, M.W.J.M.; Aaronson, N.K.; van Harten, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient empowerment may be an effective approach to strengthen the role of cancer survivors and to reduce the burden on health care. However, it is not well conceptualized, notably in oncology. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent information technology (IT) services can contribute

  2. Women NGO's and Women Empowerment in Nigeria | Arum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out into the activities of various women non – governmental organizations (NGO) in Nigeria, as a veritable tool for women empowerment. The results of the research revealed that women NGO's have ventured into areas that were previously ignored by government such areas include female ...

  3. Child Protection and Family Empowerment: Competing Rights or Accordant Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentles-Gibbs, Natallie

    2016-01-01

    Since the advent of the Family Support movement in the 1970s, child welfare systems have been challenged to simultaneously protect children and empower the families they serve. Despite the passage of decades, however, the systems continue to struggle with adequately integrating the pursuit of family empowerment into the fabric of their work. While…

  4. Kognitiv empowerment gennem virtuelle fællesskaber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dorte; Konnerup, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    samfundet. Med afsæt i den nyeste hjerneforskning diskuteres, hvordan kognitiv fitness i virtuelle fællesskaber kan føre til kognitiv empowerment, således at hjerneskadede mennesker fortsat kan fungere som selvstændige og myndige personer, der er i stand til selv at modvirke afmagt og afhængighed samt...

  5. Teacher Perceptions of Empowerment and Promotion during Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Arviv-Elyashiv, Rinat

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the relationship between teachers' professional role, their sense of empowerment, and their attitudes toward managerial promotion (career development) following the implementation of educational forms. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in Israel in 2015 and included 663 teachers,…

  6. Supporting Minority Students through a Reflexive Approach to Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Referring to the experiences of three Muslim refugee girls recently settled in Australia, this paper examines issues of schooling and empowerment. The paper draws on teacher and student interview data from a study that investigated inclusive approaches to addressing issues of cultural diversity in a secondary state high school in Queensland. The…

  7. My Beloved Blackboard: Teacher Empowerment for Students' Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan-Carbin, Elizabeth

    This paper describes a university German teacher's experience using the file transfer capabilities of the Blackboard Internet tool. The introduction highlights some of the features and advantages of Blackboard. The first section discusses teacher empowerment, noting that the Internet empowers the teacher by providing the wealth of the worlds…

  8. Het lot zelf in handen nemen. Empowerment in beweging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.D. Pruijt (Hans)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractEmpowerment – het tegenovergestelde van beheersing – is een centraal element in de ideologie van sociale bewegingen geworden. Maar ook daarbuiten is het een populair concept. Het concept wordt vaak enthousiast gepresenteerd als een win-win formule, waarbij zowel activisten als degene

  9. Perceptions of Social Support, Empowerment and Youth Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF EMPOWERMENT PROGRAM FOR FISHERMAN SOCIETY: A THEORETICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mh I.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at describing and explaining a set of theoretical review on the implementation of human empowerment program for fisherman society. This article was composed using review of related literature method. The result of the review points out some interesting findings: policy is a set of actions that contain some agreements agreed by a person or a group of people to solve certain problem or to achieve certain goal; implementation of a policy involves a long process in implementing the program which should be oriented to achieve the predetermined goals as stated in the policy; fisherman society can be classified into several categories, such as traditional fisherman, subsystem fisherman, pure fisherman, recreational and commercial fisherman; traditional fisherman refers to those who seize resources from the nature using traditional tools, small capital, and relatively simple organization; empowerment is an effort to develop certain capability or potential by driving, motivating and raising society’s awareness upon their own capability to be explored; society empowerment is an attempt to strengthen the dignity of certain society, to get themselves free from poverty or poor quality of life. In another word, empowerment is a program that helps a society to grow their ability and independence.

  11. Economic empowerment and rehabilitation of ex-servicemen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is premised on the need to illuminate the experience and attempt to empower Second World War ex-servicemen in Western Nigeria economically with the light of historical scholarship. Economic empowerment was the most critical issue in the rehabilitation of the ex-servicemen in Nigeria after the Second World ...

  12. Empowerment of parents in the neonatal intensive care unit by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parents of infants who are admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) need to be empowered to improve bonding, attachment and care-giving skills. Neonatal nurses play a critical role in the empowerment of such parents, but often find it difficult due to a lack of clarity on how it has to be done. A qualitative contextual ...

  13. From patriarchy to women empowerment: Socio-religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender issues especially those concerning the place and role of women in societal development are increasingly assuming position of prominence in our world today. Most socio-economic, religio-cultural and political discourses in recent times are agog with issues related to the rights, empowerment, dignity and duties of ...

  14. Gender Research in Africa into ICTs for Empowerment (GRACE ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reports. Final technical report - appendix D / citations of African women and ICTs : investigating technology, gender and empowerment (2009), as of 24 February 2012. Download PDF. Reports. Final technical report - appendix B / publications, presentations and reports. Download PDF. Reports. Final technical report ...

  15. Deaf Employees' Empowerment in Two Different Communication Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backenroth, G. A. M.

    1997-01-01

    This study with 64 deaf employees working in either signing work groups or nonsigning workgroups found that employees' perceived empowerment was significantly higher in the signing work groups. Deaf associates in signing work groups experienced greater psychological stress and role conflicts, whereas deaf associates in nonsigning groups…

  16. Does economic empowerment protect women from intimate partner violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koustuv Dalal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study compared working and non-working groups of women in relation to intimate partner violence. The paper aims to explore the relationship between women’s economic empowerment, their exposures to IPV and their help seeking behavior using a nationally representative sample in India. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of 124,385 ever married women of reproductive age from all 29 member states in India. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in proportions of dependent variables (exposure to IPV and independent variables. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the independent contribution of the variables of economic empowerment in predicting exposure to IPV. RESULTS: Out of 124,385 women, 69432 (56% were eligible for this study. Among those that were eligible 35% were working. In general, prevalence of IPV (ever among women in India were: emotional violence 14%, less severe physical violence 31%, severe physical violence 10% and sexual violence 8%.For working women, the IPV prevalence was: emotional violence 18%, less severe physical violence 37%, severe physical violence 14% and sexual violence 10%; whilst for non-working women the rate was 12, 27, 8 & 8 percents, respectively. Working women seek more help from different sources. CONCLUSIONS: Economic empowerment is not the sole protective factor. Economic empowerment, together with higher education and modified cultural norms against women, may protect women from IPV.

  17. El empowerment como predictor del compromiso organizacional en las Pymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ríos Manríquez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre las variables de empowerment y compromiso organizacional ha sido un campo poco explorado desde la perspectiva organizacional. Esta investigación establece el nivel de influencia del empowerment queexperimentanloscolaboradores con respecto al compromiso hacia la organización para la cual laboran. Se utiliza como referencia un modelo generado con base en la descripción del empowerment en cuatro dimensiones: significado, competencia, autodeterminación e impacto; y del compromiso organizacional en tres: compromiso continuo, normativo y afectivo. Para validar el modelo propuesto, a partir de los resultados obtenidos en otros países, se administró una encuesta a 147 participantes de seis Pymes localizadas en el municipio de Celaya, Guanajuato, México. Las empresas pertenecen a los sectores de servicios, comercio y producción. Los resultados confirman las hipótesis planteadas en el sentido de que el empowerment es un predictor del compromiso organizacional; sin embargo, al analizar el impacto individual de cada una de las dimensiones se observa que sólo el compromiso afectivo tiene un impacto directo en las cuatro dimensiones planteadas.

  18. The relationship between empowerment and effectiveness of staff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness is one of the management concepts considered and studied always by management scientists and experts. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different dimensions of empowerment (servicing staff, staff monitoring, consulting staff, and training staff) on dimensions of effectiveness of staff (staff ...

  19. How economic empowerment reduces women's reproductive health vulnerability in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westeneng, J.; D'Exelle, B.S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses data from Northern Tanzania to analyse how economic empowerment helps women reduce their reproductive health (RH) vulnerability. It analyses the effect of women's employment and economic contribution to their household on health care use at three phases in the reproductive cycle:

  20. The relationship between a black economic empowerment score ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    company's BEE score/rating and shareholder returns, using an event study methodology and a ... the form of the Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act, no. 53 of 2003 .... asset pricing model). Although more ... portfolios of companies with a specific BEE score, a buy-and-hold or 'style' investment methodology was ...

  1. Access to micro credit and economic empowerment: Perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the perceptions of market women on access to micro credit and economic empowerment in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State. The study adopted the descriptive research design and a total of 180 market women were randomly selected from Swali, Opolo, and Tombia markets in Yenagoa. The study adopted the ...

  2. Economic Empowerment of Women and Fertility Behaviour in Ogbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings from the study revealed that women who are empowered economically, are more likely to have positive fertility behaviour. Based on the findings, recommendations such as; encouraging men to embrace the concept of women empowerment, government setting up small scale businesses for women to aid their ...

  3. From Power to Empowerment: A Paradigm Shift in Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambe, M.; Moorad, F.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that there has been a clear shift in leadership approaches from those where the leader is in control and commanding i.e., power-based leadership to one where there is empowerment. Here the power comes from the followers and is shared. Burns concepts of transactional and transformational leadership are used interchangeably with…

  4. The Relationship of Clinical Nurses' Perceptions of Structural and Psychological Empowerment and Engagement on Their Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Jean Marie; O'Flaherty, Deirdre; Musil, Carol; Clavelle, Joanne T; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe relationships between structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, and engagement among clinical nurses. Empowerment and engagement are key drivers of retention and quality in healthcare. Creating an empowering culture and an engaged staff supports initiatives that are essential for positive work environments. A survey of 280 nurses in a national conference was conducted using the Conditions of Work Effectiveness, Psychological Empowerment Instrument, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis were used to determine relationships between demographic data and study variables. Overall, nurses had high perceptions of structural empowerment and psychological empowerment and were moderately engaged. Also, significant positive relationships were found between the key study variables. Results show positive correlations between empowerment and perceived engagement among clinical nurses.

  5. Women's empowerment in Iran: a review based on the related legislations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janghorban, Roksana; Taghipour, Ali; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Abbasi, Mahmoud

    2014-04-20

    Women's empowerment can be defined as a change in the circumstances of a woman's life, which enables her to raise her capacity to manage more enriched and rewarding life. Improvement in women's empowerment is a salient issue to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. National laws are influential factors in promoting women's empowerment. Lack of awareness of legal and constitutional provisions and failure to recognize it, is a factor that hinders the process of empowerment. This paper provides a review based on Iranian legislations which have considered various aspects of women's empowerment. Although this work has specifically dealt with women's needs, it encompasses a right-based approach to women's empowerment suggested by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities. However, there is still a great need for further inquiries in the area of legislations concerning women's empowerment around the world in general and Iran in particular.

  6. Empowerment of patients in online discussions about medicine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkel, Jasper J; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Hegger, Ingrid

    2015-04-08

    Patient empowerment is crucial in the successful self-management of people with chronic diseases. In this study, we investigated whether discussions about medicine use taking place on online message boards contribute to patient empowerment and could subsequently result in the more effective use of medicines. We discuss the extent to which patient empowerment processes occur in discussions on online message boards, focusing on patients with three disorders with different characteristics: diabetes, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Because information is an important factor in both patient empowerment and self-management, we also evaluate the quality of the information being exchanged. We used a deductive thematic analysis method based on pre-existing categories. We gathered and analysed 5532 posts related to the conditions ADHD, ALS and diabetes from seven message boards (three for ADHD, three for diabetes, and one for ALS). We coded the posts for empowerment processes and the quality of the information exchanged. We identified patient empowerment processes in posts related to all three disorders. There is some variation in the frequency of these processes, but they show a similar order in the results: patients used the online message boards to exchange information, share personal experiences and for empathy or support. The type of information shared in these processes could contribute to the patient's self-efficacy when it comes to medicine use. The exchanged information was either correct or largely harmless. We also observed a tendency whereby participants correct previously posted incorrect information, and refer people to a healthcare professional following a request for medical advice, e.g. concerning the choice of medicines or dosage. Our findings show that patient empowerment processes occur in posts related to all three disorders. The type of information shared in these processes can contribute to the

  7. Lace expansion for dummies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolthausen, Erwin; Van Der Hofstad, Remco; Kozma, Gady

    2018-01-01

    We show Green's function asymptotic upper bound for the two-point function of weakly self-Avoiding walk in d >4, revisiting a classic problem. Our proof relies on Banach algebras to analyse the lace-expansion fixed point equation and is simpler than previous approaches in that it avoids Fourier

  8. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrea, I.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  9. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  10. Assessment of patient empowerment--a systematic review of measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Barr

    Full Text Available Patient empowerment has gained considerable importance but uncertainty remains about the best way to define and measure it. The validity of empirical findings depends on the quality of measures used. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of studies assessing psychometric properties of questionnaires purporting to capture patient empowerment, evaluate the methodological quality of these studies and assess the psychometric properties of measures identified.Electronic searches in five databases were combined with reference tracking of included articles. Peer-reviewed articles reporting psychometric testing of empowerment measures for adult patients in French, German, English, Portuguese and Spanish were included. Study characteristics, constructs operationalised and psychometric properties were extracted. The quality of study design, methods and reporting was assessed using the COSMIN checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was assessed using Terwee's 2007 criteria.30 studies on 19 measures were included. Six measures are generic, while 13 were developed for a specific condition (N=4 or specialty (N=9. Most studies tested measures in English (N=17 or Swedish (N=6. Sample sizes of included studies varied from N=35 to N=8261. A range of patient empowerment constructs was operationalised in included measures. These were classified into four domains: patient states, experiences and capacities; patient actions and behaviours; patient self-determination within the healthcare relationship and patient skills development. Quality assessment revealed several flaws in methodological study quality with COSMIN scores mainly fair or poor. The overall quality of psychometric properties of included measures was intermediate to positive. Certain psychometric properties were not tested for most measures.Findings provide a basis from which to develop consensus on a core set of patient empowerment constructs and for further work to develop a

  11. Redefining genomic privacy: trust and empowerment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Erlich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fulfilling the promise of the genetic revolution requires the analysis of large datasets containing information from thousands to millions of participants. However, sharing human genomic data requires protecting subjects from potential harm. Current models rely on de-identification techniques in which privacy versus data utility becomes a zero-sum game. Instead, we propose the use of trust-enabling techniques to create a solution in which researchers and participants both win. To do so we introduce three principles that facilitate trust in genetic research and outline one possible framework built upon those principles. Our hope is that such trust-centric frameworks provide a sustainable solution that reconciles genetic privacy with data sharing and facilitates genetic research.

  12. Redefining genomic privacy: trust and empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Yaniv; Williams, James B; Glazer, David; Yocum, Kenneth; Farahany, Nita; Olson, Maynard; Narayanan, Arvind; Stein, Lincoln D; Witkowski, Jan A; Kain, Robert C

    2014-11-01

    Fulfilling the promise of the genetic revolution requires the analysis of large datasets containing information from thousands to millions of participants. However, sharing human genomic data requires protecting subjects from potential harm. Current models rely on de-identification techniques in which privacy versus data utility becomes a zero-sum game. Instead, we propose the use of trust-enabling techniques to create a solution in which researchers and participants both win. To do so we introduce three principles that facilitate trust in genetic research and outline one possible framework built upon those principles. Our hope is that such trust-centric frameworks provide a sustainable solution that reconciles genetic privacy with data sharing and facilitates genetic research.

  13. Interplay between economic empowerment and sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanga, Pius Tangwe; Tangwe, Magdaline Nji

    2014-01-01

    Economic empowerment brings with it a wide range of consequences, both positive and negative. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between economic empowerment and the sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry. Data for this paper were extracted from the findings of a larger study which had been conducted concerning HIV and AIDS in the textile industry in Lesotho. Using in-depth interviews, data were collected from 40 participants who were purposively selected from five factories which had been chosen randomly. Empowerment theory was used as a lens to provide meanings for the experiences of the participants. The findings show that the participants were empowered only in certain respects in terms of Kabeer's empowerment model of 'power to' and 'power within', on one hand, and in terms of Malhotra's comprehensive empowerment framework at the household level, on the other, as being employed in the industry enabled them to participate in the economy. Employment in the sector provided the participants with the means to be able to acquire basic needs and the ability to participate in household decision-making: for the female participants, the ability to make independent sexual decisions was also enhanced. These improvements were greeted enthusiastically, particularly by the female participants, given their previously disadvantaged status as a result of coming from rural patriarchal villages with gender-defined hegemonic notions of respectability. The findings also indicate that environmental factors and others, such as meagre salaries, encouraged some of the female workers to engage in transactional sex, while some of the male participants tended to increase their sexual relationships as a result of acquiring employment and income from the industry. It is the contention of the authors of this study that true empowerment requires both vital resources and individual and

  14. Expansion at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date

  15. Financing electricity expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    Expansion of electricity supply is associated with economic development. The installation and enlargement of power systems in developing countries entails a huge financial burden, however. Energy consumers in such countries must pay not only for supplies but for the cost of raising the capital for expansion on the international markets. Estimates are presented for the capital expenditure for electricity supply over the period 1990 to 2020 for the major world regions, using approximations for the cost of plant and capital and for the returns earned. These data lead to the conclusion that the five regions with the lowest per capita incomes are those which will need the major part of the capital expenditure and the highest percentage of external finance. (6 tables) (UK)

  16. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  17. Expansion of magnetic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic clouds are a carefully defined subclass of all interplanetary signatures of coronal mass ejections whose geometry is thought to be that of a cylinder embedded in a plane. It has been found that the total magnetic pressure inside the clouds is higher than the ion pressure outside, and that the clouds are expanding at 1 AU at about half the local Alfven speed. The geometry of the clouds is such that even though the magnetic pressure inside is larger than the total pressure outside, expansion will not occur because the pressure is balanced by magnetic tension - the pinch effect. The evidence for expansion of clouds at 1 AU is nevertheless quite strong so another reason for its existence must be found. It is demonstrated that the observations can be reproduced by taking into account the effects of geometrical distortion of the low plasma beta clouds as they move away from the Sun

  18. Empowerment and performance of managers and subordinates in elderly care: A longitudinal and multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, Heidi; Högberg, Hans; Skytt, Bernice; Wadensten, Barbro; Engström, Maria

    2017-11-01

    To investigate relationships between first-line managers' ratings of structural and psychological empowerment, and the subordinates' ratings of structural empowerment, as well as their ratings of the managers' leadership-management performance. Work situations in elderly care are complex. To date, few studies have used a longitudinal, correlational and multilevel design to study the working life of subordinates and managers. In five Swedish municipalities, questionnaires were answered twice during 2010-12 by 56 first-line managers and 769 subordinates working in nursing homes or home-help services. First-line managers' empowerment at Time 1 partially predicted subordinate's structural empowerment and ratings of their managers' leadership-management performance at Time 2. Changes over time partially revealed that the more access managers had to structural empowerment, i.e. increase over time, the higher the ratings were for structural empowerment and managerial leadership-management performance among subordinates. Findings strengthen research and theoretical suggestions linking first-line managers' structural empowerment to their subordinates' structural empowerment and ratings of their manager's leadership-management performance. Managers with high access to structural empowerment are more likely to provide subordinates access to structural empowerment. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Urban caregiver empowerment: Caregiver nativity, child asthma symptoms and emergency department use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Maria Teresa; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Williams, Brittney; Dansereau, Katie; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study examines the associations between caregiver empowerment, child asthma symptoms, and emergency department use in a sample of school aged urban children with asthma. We examined differences in caregiver empowerment, and in the associations among caregiver empowerment, proportion of days with child asthma symptoms, and emergency department use as a function of caregiver nativity. Methods Participants for this study were part of a larger longitudinal study and included Latino, African American and non-Latino White urban caregivers and their children with asthma (ages 7–9; N=130). Caregiver empowerment was assessed within family, asthma services, and community domains. Results Children whose caregivers reported greater empowerment within the family (knowledge and ability to care for their family) presented with fewer asthma symptoms. Children whose caregivers reported greater empowerment within asthma services (ability to collaborate with asthma providers and healthcare system), presented with more asthma symptoms. Foreign-born caregivers endorsed greater empowerment within the family, while US-born caregivers reported greater empowerment within asthma services. For foreign-born caregivers, higher levels of empowerment in the family were associated with fewer child asthma symptoms. For US-born caregivers, higher levels of empowerment in asthma services were associated with more child asthma symptoms. Discussion Results suggest that caregivers who feel more confident and better able to manage problems within their family may better manage their child's asthma more effectively navigate the asthma healthcare system and manage their child's asthma. PMID:27632543

  20. Integrating patient empowerment as an essential characteristic of the discipline of general practice/family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Ernesto; De Bonis, Judith A; Giancane, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to improve the quality of healthcare for patients with chronic conditions have resulted in growing evidence supporting the inclusion of patient empowerment as a key ingredient of care. In 2002, WONCA Europe issued the European Definition of General Practice/Family Medicine, which is currently considered the point of reference for European health institutions and general medical practice. Patient empowerment does not appear among the 11 characteristics of the discipline. The aim of this study is to show that many characteristics of general practice are already oriented towards patient empowerment. Therefore, promoting patient empowerment and self-management should be included as a characteristic of the discipline. The following investigation was conducted: analysing the concept and approach to empowerment as applied to healthcare in the literature; examining whether aspects of empowerment are already part of general medical practice; and identifying reasons why the European definition of general practice/family medicine should contain empowerment as a characteristic of the discipline. General practice/family medicine is the most suitable setting for promoting patient empowerment, because many of its characteristics are already oriented towards encouraging it and because its widespread presence can ensure the generalization of empowerment promotion and self-management education to the totality of patients and communities. "Promoting patient empowerment and self-management" should be considered one of the essential characteristics of general practice/family medicine and should be included in its definition.

  1. IKEA's International Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Harapiak, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    This case concerns a global retailing firm that is dealing with strategic management and marketing issues. Applying a scenario of international expansion, this case provides a thorough analysis of the current business environment for IKEA. Utilizing a variety of methods (e.g. SWOT, PESTLE, McKinsey Matrix) the overall objective is to provide students with the opportunity to apply their research skills and knowledge regarding a highly competitive industry to develop strategic marketing strateg...

  2. Symmetric eikonal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Takayuki

    1976-01-01

    Symmetric eikonal expansion for the scattering amplitude is formulated for nonrelativistic and relativistic potential scatterings and also for the quantum field theory. The first approximations coincide with those of Levy and Sucher. The obtained scattering amplitudes are time reversal invariant for all cases and are crossing symmetric for the quantum field theory in each order of approximation. The improved eikonal phase introduced by Levy and Sucher is also derived from the different approximation scheme from the above. (auth.)

  3. Series expansions without diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, G.; Creutz, M.; Horvath, I.; Lacki, J.; Weckel, J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the use of recursive enumeration schemes to obtain low- and high-temperature series expansions for discrete statistical systems. Using linear combinations of generalized helical lattices, the method is competitive with diagrammatic approaches and is easily generalizable. We illustrate the approach using Ising and Potts models. We present low-temperature series results in up to five dimensions and high-temperature series in three dimensions. The method is general and can be applied to any discrete model

  4. Health promotion and empowerment in Henganofi District, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcham, Richard; Silas, Esther; Irie, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that the government of Papua New Guinea is failing to provide basic services in health to the majority of its people. Local non-government organisations (NGOs), partnered with international NGOs, are attempting to fill this gap. With limited resources, these small Indigenous organisations must focus much of their effort on training that supports self-reliance as the main strategy for communities to improve their quality of life. This project explored the training content and methodology of Touching The Untouchables (TTU), a small Indigenous NGO based in Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province, that has trained a network of village volunteers in health promotion and safe motherhood.Village life imposes multiple demands, from self-sufficiency in food to maintaining law and order. There are established attitudes about power and dependence, referred to as 'cargo thinking'. Cargo thinking stands as a barrier to the necessity of self-reliance, and requires training strategies that seek to empower participants to create change from their own initiative. Empowerment is understood as oriented towards individual people taking collective action to improve their circumstances by rectifying disparities in social power and control. To achieve self-reliance, empowerment is necessarily operational on the levels of person, community and society.In addition to being operational on all three levels of empowerment, the training content and methodology adopted and developed by TTU demonstrate that empowering practice in training employs approaches to knowledge that are evidence-based, reflexive, contextual and skill-based. Creating knowledge that is reflexive and exploring knowledge about the broader context uses special kinds of communicative tools that facilitate discussion on history, society and political economy. Furthermore, training methodologies that are oriented to empowerment create settings that require the use of all three types of communication required for

  5. Node-Expansion Operators for the UCT Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Tsuyoshi; Matsui, Toshiki; Hashimoto, Junichi; Spoerer, Kristian

    Recent works on the MCTS and UCT framework in the domain of Go focused on introducing knowledge to the playout and on pruning variations from the tree, but so far node expansion has not been investigated. In this paper we show that delaying expansion according to the number of the siblings delivers a gain of more than 92% when compared to normal expansion. We propose three improvements; one that uses domain knowledge and two that are domain-independent methods. Experimental results show that all advanced operators significantly improve the UCT performance when compared to the basic delaying expansion. From the results we may conclude that the new expansion operators are an appropriate means to improve the UCT algorithm.

  6. Thermal expansion accompanying the glass-liquid transition and crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Q. Jiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the linear thermal expansion behaviors of a Zr-based (Vitreloy 1 bulk metallic glass in its as-cast, annealed and crystallized states. Accompanying the glass-liquid transition, the as-cast Vitreloy 1 shows a continuous decrease in the thermal expansivity, whereas the annealed glass shows a sudden increase. The crystallized Vitreloy 1 exhibits an almost unchanged thermal expansivity prior to its melting. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the nucleation of crystalline phases can induce a significant thermal shrinkage of the supercooled liquid, but with the growth of these nuclei, the thermal expansion again dominates. These results are explained in the framework of the potential energy landscape, advocating that the configurational and vibrational contributions to the thermal expansion of the glass depend on both, structure and temperature.

  7. Renormalizations and operator expansion in sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentyev, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    The operator expansion (OPE) is studied for the Green function at x 2 → 0 (n(x) is the dynamical field ofσ-model) in the framework of the two-dimensional σ-model with the O(N) symmetry group at large N. As a preliminary step we formulate the renormalization scheme which permits introduction of an arbitrary intermediate scale μ 2 in the framework of 1/N expansion and discuss factorization (separation) of small (p μ) momentum region. It is shown that definition of composite local operators and coefficient functions figuring in OPE is unambiguous only in the leading order in 1/N expansion when dominant are the solutions with extremum of action. Corrections of order f(μ 2 )/N (here f(μ 2 ) is the effective interaction constant at the point μ 2 ) in composite operators and coefficient functions essentially depend on factorization method of high and low momentum regions. It is shown also that contributions to the power corrections of order m 2 x 2 f(μ 2 )/N in the Green function (here m is the dynamical mass-scale factor in σ-model) arise simultaneously from two sources: from the mean vacuum value of the composite operator n ∂ 2 n and from the hard particle contributions in the coefficient function of unite operator. Due to the analogy between σ-model and QCD the obtained result indicates theoretical limitations to the sum rule method in QCD. (author)

  8. Edgeworth expansion for the pre-averaging estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolskij, Mark; Veliyev, Bezirgen; Yoshida, Nakahiro

    In this paper, we study the Edgeworth expansion for a pre-averaging estimator of quadratic variation in the framework of continuous diffusion models observed with noise. More specifically, we obtain a second order expansion for the joint density of the estimators of quadratic variation and its...... asymptotic variance. Our approach is based on martingale embedding, Malliavin calculus and stable central limit theorems for continuous diffusions. Moreover, we derive the density expansion for the studentized statistic, which might be applied to construct asymptotic confidence regions....

  9. Thermal Expansion Anomaly Regulated by Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, Shunli

    2014-11-01

    Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions.

  10. Getting to social action: the Youth Empowerment Strategies (YES!) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nance; Minkler, Meredith; Dasho, Stefan; Wallerstein, Nina; Martin, Anna C

    2008-10-01

    This article describes the social action component of the Youth Empowerment Strategies (YES!) project funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through its community-based prevention research (CBPR) initiative. YES! is designed to promote problem-solving skills, social action, and civic participation among underserved elementary and middle school youth. The after-school program focuses on identifying and building youths' capacities and strengths as a means of ultimately decreasing rates of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and other risky behaviors. The article discusses the conceptual models of risk and intervention and factors contributing to successful social action work, including group dynamics, intragroup leadership, facilitator skills, and school-community contexts. Attention is focused on how the nature of the projects themselves played a key role in determining the likelihood of experiencing success. Implications and recommendations for other youth-focused empowerment education projects are discussed, including the effective use of Photovoice in such projects.

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAM THE VILLAGE EMPOWERMENT IN RIAU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    trio saputra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Village empowerment program Implementation (PPD is a program of the Riau provincial government and the community empowerment directed to rural villages to accelerate poverty reduction through economic development and rural communities. The method used in this research is qualitative discriftif, collecting data through interviews, observation and documentation. The theory used is Edward III of policy implementation. Four variables in the analysis of public policies is Communications, Resources, attitudes and bureaucratic structures. PPD Communications implemented in two ways, namely as a reference guide book uniformity of language policy and technical meetings Tiered as form of direct communication between stakeholders in dealing with problems that arise. Resources consist of human resources and budget. The attitude and commitment of the determination visible implementing decree on the implementation team, commitment to cooperation and commitment duplication of programs by the district / city. While PPD graded organizational structure that is provincial, district / city and district. Each level has a structure and job descriptions of each.

  12. Expansions for Coulomb wave functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, J.

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we derive a number of expansions for Whittaker functions, regular and irregular Coulomb wave functions. The main result consists of a new expansion for the irregular Coulomb wave functions of orders zero and one in terms of regular Coulomb wave functions. The latter expansions are

  13. EMPOWERMENT OF RURAL MASSES IN HEALTH SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Mathur

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The health status of 80% population residing in rural areas has not improved to desired goals from the basic health services provided to them. Local people have remained indifferent to them. They should be equal partners in the management of health services operating in their areas, therefore, a process needs to be designed to create conditions to know of economic, social and health problems for the whole community with their active participation and fullest possible relience upon the communities initiative to solve them.A community development programme was launched on 2nd Oct. 1952 in first five year plan and was hailed as a programme "of the people, for the people, by the people" to exterminate the triple enemies - poverty illness and ignorance. The community development programmes were envisaged as a multipurpose programme cordinated for agriculture, social welfare, education and health.      .It is currently recognized that despite of expansion of the primary health care infra structure upto village level, a comprehensive and effective approach to community health has not been yet achieved. Local community is not sufficiently involved in its own health care, consequently the impact in terms of community health remains small. A comprehensive and integrated approach to community health for population control and response to family welfare planning depends more than any other factor but on an assurance of survival of the children and by creating the right environment for small family norms. All this and change in attitude for the desire of a male child and improvement in low status of women is possible by community itself. Low rate of literacy in women, early marriage of girls are seriously impending the

  14. Empowerment of rural masses in health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Mathur

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The health status of 80% population residing in rural areas has not improved to desired goals from the basic health services provided to them. Local people have remained indifferent to them. They should be equal partners in the management of health services operating in their areas, therefore, a process needs to be designed to create conditions to know of economic, social and health problems for the whole community with their active participation and fullest possible relience upon the communities initiative to solve them. A community development programme was launched on 2nd Oct. 1952 in first five year plan and was hailed as a programme "of the people, for the people, by the people" to exterminate the triple enemies - poverty illness and ignorance. The community development programmes were envisaged as a multipurpose programme cordinated for agriculture, social welfare, education and health.      . It is currently recognized that despite of expansion of the primary health care infra structure upto village level, a comprehensive and effective approach to community health has not been yet achieved. Local community is not sufficiently involved in its own health care, consequently the impact in terms of community health remains small. A comprehensive and integrated approach to community health for population control and response to family welfare planning depends more than any other factor but on an assurance of survival of the children and by creating the right environment for small family norms. All this and change in attitude for the desire of a male child and improvement in low status of women is possible by community itself. Low rate of literacy in women, early marriage of girls are seriously impending the

  15. Garment Industry and Economic Empowerment: A case study of Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Panin, Anthony; Mthombo, Thabile T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which garment industry in Swaziland has contributed to the economic empowerment of the Swazi people through creation of new jobs and improvement in their overall welfare. In Swaziland as elsewhere in many African countries, unemployment has been and is still a major constraint to the country’s sluggish economic growth. In response to the unemployment situation in the country, Swaziland Investment Promotion Authority (SIPA) was established in 1977 under the Mi...

  16. Social Empowerment in Mexican Violent Contexts through Media Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Grijalva-Verdugo, Abel-Antonio; Moreno-Candil, David

    2017-01-01

    The acquisition of digital skills, media diet management, and general knowledge of ICT, is essential for the development and empowerment of audiences in the current media ecology, particularly considering the political and social challenges of the Latin American environment. In that sense, the study of media competence is urgent for sizing up the needs and characteristics of these communities. This work analyses the axiological and ideological dimension of media competence during an electoral...

  17. Community empowerment needs in the struggle for environmental justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The paper addresses the specific empowerment needs of communities and workers fighting for environmental justice. Thousands of people of color and poor communities throughout the United States are victimized by policies and practices of environmental racism which resulted in the disproportionate burden of exposure to environmental contamination where they live, work and play. Powerful interests who own and operate polluting industries and waste disposal facilities prey on poor, low income and non-white communities because they view them as areas of least resistance and {open_quotes}sacrifice zones.{close_quotes} Leaders and members of organizations from communities threatened or already devastated by contamination are waging determined, courageous and heroic struggles against giant corporate polluters. In many instances, the leaders and members of these grassroots environmental groups are literally sick and dying from contamination as they seek to organize for clean, safe and healthy communities. A key issue for communities and workers fighting for environmental justice is realizing true empowerment. Communities and workers must develop empowerment and capacity building skills in the areas of community and labor organizing; media relations and public education; legal advocacy; legislative and regulatory tracking; lobbying; health monitoring and health services; research; scientific technical needs (eg. air, water and soil testing); fundraising and economic sustainable development; institutional and organizational development; voter education and electoral politics; and youth and adult leadership training. When these empowerment skills are combined with a clear vision of justice for the future, communities will be able to fight cooporations armed with high-powered lawyers, lobbyists, public relations firms and bought-off politicians.

  18. IKT som empowerment af lærer og elever!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, René B.; Binggeli, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    I denne korte artikel ønsker vi at pege på at ikt kan fungere som empowerment for både lærere og elever i skolen. It optræder i forvejen i alt for mange menneskers bevidsthed som en barriere eller som en sten i den pædagogiske sundhedssandal. Vi har begge på egen krop oplevet at arbejdet med ny t...

  19. Property Rights in Women's Empowerment in Rural India: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Kartik C.; Tisdell, Clement A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of property rights in women’s empowerment in rural India. Arguments justifying the need for granting property rights to women are presented and the distinction is made between legal (formal) and customary (informal) rights. The ineffectiveness of legal right in absence of customary rights has been discussed. Customary rights also become ineffective due to other institutional impediments. These impediments have been discussed. The results of extensive field w...

  20. Women Empowerment through Higher Education in Gilgit-Baltistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khush Funer Murtaza

    2012-01-01

    The growing social awareness across the globe has brought a number of issues to the fore among which gender equality and empowerment of women are very significant. Discrimination against women in the form of male-female differentiation constitutes the core of the gender-biased system. Education is the biggest liberating force and rise in the levels of education, which nourishes progressive outlook, and the advent of industrialization and moderanization have effected a sea change in the attitu...

  1. Empowerment of Mustaḥiq Zakat Model Towards Business Independency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Hamzah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zakat has not been utilized intensively for the empowerment of mustaḥiq (zakat beneficiaries in the form of productive economic business. The objective of the research was to analyze the level of mustaḥiqs’ business independency; to analyze dominant factors that influenced mustaḥiqs’ business independency, and to formulate an appropriate strategy to develop the mustaḥiqs’ business independency. The research has been carried out on 254 mustaḥiqs in Bogor Regency (66 mustaḥiqs engaged in vegetable production at Cibungbulang District, 85 mustaḥiqs in skewer business at Tenjolaya District, and 103 mustaḥiqs in shoe business at Taman Sari District. A census sampling, data collection through a questionnaire, an in-depth interview and observation were carried out in 2013. Data were analyzed descriptively and statistically, using structural equation model (SEM. The results of the research showed that: (1 the strategy of mustaḥiq empowerment could be carried out through strengthening the intrinsic motivation, training technical aspects, assisting business capital and assistance. Empowerment can be conducted synergically by the government (arrangement, service, and counseling, private sectors/State Owned Business (BUMN, higher education and community.

  2. Understanding How Domestic Violence Shelter Rules May Influence Survivor Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Katie; Nnawulezi, Nkiru; Sullivan, Cris M

    2017-10-01

    Domestic violence shelters have historically gone beyond providing emergency residential space for survivors by assisting in obtaining future housing, employment, health care, child care, or legal services. Domestic violence shelters are expected to operate within an empowerment philosophy, with an understanding that survivors are self-determining, can identify their needs, and know what it takes to meet those needs. Recent research has indicated that, as many shelters have become more rigid in creating rules that survivors must follow to access and retain free temporary housing, the result has been survivors' feelings of disempowerment, the complete opposite of what was originally intended. This study builds on the small amount of research conducted regarding survivors' experiences of shelter rules by specifically examining how rules were perceived to affect empowerment. Seventy-three survivors from two domestic violence shelters were asked about their experiences around specific shelter rules relating to curfew, parenting, chores, time limits, food, alcohol, drugs, and medications. A transcendental phenomenological approach was used to analyze the qualitative data, seeking explanations of how survivors made meaning of the rules and how those rules influenced their empowerment. Among those survivors who found the rules problematic, three major themes emerged: (a) rules acted as barriers to carrying out their normal, day-to-day activities; (b) the shelter staff's flexibility with rules was based on contingencies; and (c) rules negatively affected their psychological well-being, and required them to engage in protective behaviors. Recommendations are made for the reexamination and restructuring of rules within domestic violence shelters.

  3. Use of a patient empowerment tool for hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastinger, Allison; Gomez, Kayeromi; Manegold, Ellen; Khakoo, Rashida

    2017-08-01

    Patient empowerment is recognized as an important component of a multimodal strategy to improve hand hygiene adherence. We examined the attitudes of adult patients and parents of pediatric patients toward a new patient empowerment tool (PET) at our hospital. We also surveyed physicians to determine their perceptions about the PET. A cross-sectional survey was performed of hospitalized children's parents and adult patients in a 531-bed tertiary care teaching hospital in West Virginia. Surveys were anonymous and self-administered. A separate survey was administered via e-mail to resident and attending physicians from the departments of internal medicine, pediatrics, and family medicine. Most parents and adult patients felt it was their role to speak up if a provider did not perform hand hygiene, but a smaller number actually felt comfortable using the PET. Only 54.9% of physicians felt that patients should be involved in reminding providers to perform hand hygiene. Overall, physicians indicated that they would prefer a patient to use words rather than the PET to remind them to perform hand hygiene. In our study, parents and adult patients supported use of the PET, but physicians were less supportive. As the patient empowerment movement grows, we should work to improve physician acceptance of patient involvement if it is to be successful. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. GENDER EMPOWERMENT INDICATORS: BETTER MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES TO OPTIMIZE RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lanteri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.As a cultural anthropologist I strongly believe in the value of applied anthropology especially when it comes to international cooperation and development. Thanks to a methodology principally based on participant observation I found that anthropologists benefit from a deep understanding of the social dynamics within a group.  In this working paper I discuss my work for AIDA, a Spanish NGO, in Dhaka. Several years ago, I was called to collaborate with this organization in order to set ‘gender empowerment indicators’ for their projects. The activities, approved and financed by AIDA, were implemented by Tarango, a local NGO. The main goal of AIDA was to improve the conditions of women in specific urban and rural areas of Bangladesh.  Women are seen by the international community as one of the major driving forces in the development of a country. Gender equality and the empowerment of women have been defined by The Millennium Development Goals Report as ‘preconditions for overcoming poverty, hunger and disease’ (UN 2010, p.4. What I have found extremely interesting while working at Tarango was the strict relationship between economic and gender empowerment, social capital and creativity. I found that being aware of the positive externalities of this relationship can lead to a more efficiently organized production, economic independence and most importantly a stronger sense of identity.

  5. IDENTITY AND EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN TRAINING PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Delgado-Piña

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work analyze the processes the identity changes and of empowerment in the case of a concrete experience of a group of women in the empowerment project, 2004, in Celaya, Guanajuato. The objective was to know the bond establish between both processes. For this analysis was used information provided through interviews, life stories and observation with seven promoter women who participate in the workshops in Celaya, Guanajuato, who were in the program of state trust fund ZUMAR-FIDEPO (Marginated urban areas-Trust fund for popular development. This program helps people who live in urban marginalized areas through the identification of their needs and problems, by means of community promoters. The Women institute of Guanajuato (IMUG, the United Nations for women fund (UNIFEM, and ZUMAR-FIDEPO were the institutions that were involved in the empowerment project in order to strengthen the process through the implementation of training workshops for the promoters training. In the study were included seven from twenty women who participate in the workshops, which remains in the state program making various activities such as: training in various activities, management of productive projects and they are community promoters. The analysis was carried out based on the speech of the promoters, what they say of themselves and the changes they detect in their identity taking into account the changes in self-esteem, in the auto-concept and the exercise of alternative forms to the authoritarian power.

  6. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Salge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent’s environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  7. Divine empowerment: The Holy Spirit and church revitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. DeVries

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available How do principles of church revitalisation correlate with the divine work of the Holy Spirit? This article argues that the Spirit is the primary agent of church revitalisation, and churchleaders should cooperate with the Spirit as he works for revitalisation. Thus the Spirit empowers church leaders who are used by him to revive, renew, and revitalise a church community. After briefly defining the Spirit’s empowerment with biblical examples, this article examines the underlying principles of empowerment for church leaders, followed by briefly considering methodology for church revitalisation. The author concludes by suggesting several signs of biblical empowerment in a local church community. Goddelike bemagtiging: Die Heilige Gees en kerkherstel. Watter plek beklee die goddelike werking van die Heilige Gees in die beginsels van kerkherstel? Hierdie artikel poneer dat die Heilige Gees die primêre agent is om nuwe lewe in die kerk te bring en kerkleiers behoort onder leiding van die Heilige Gees hulle hiervoor te beywer. Die Heilige Gees bemagtig dus die kerkleiers wat Hy gebruik om ’n kerklike gemeenskap te laat herleef, te vernuwe en hulle te besiel met lewenskragtigheid. Die Gees se bemagtiging word kortliks aan die hand van bybelse voorbeelde gedefineer, waarna die grondliggende beginsels vir die bemagtiging van die kerkleiers ondersoek word. Daarna word die metodologie om nuwe lewenskrag in die kerk te bring kortliks oorweeg. Die outeur sluit af deur verskeie tekens uit te lig wat op skriftuurlike bemagtiging van die Heilige Gees in die plaaslike kerkgemeenskap dui.

  8. Seeking Connectivity in Nurses' Work Environments: Advancing Nurse Empowerment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udod, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how staff nurses and their managers exercise power in a hospital setting in order to better understand what fosters or constrains staff nurses' empowerment and to extend nurse empowerment theory. Power is integral to empowerment, and attention to the challenges in nurses' work environment and nurse outcomes by administrators, researchers, and policy-makers has created an imperative to advance a theoretical understanding of power in the nurse-manager relationship. A sample of 26 staff nurses on 3 units of a tertiary hospital in western Canada were observed and interviewed about how the manager affected their ability to do their work. Grounded theory methodology was used. The process of seeking connectivity was the basic social process, indicating that the manager plays a critical role in the work environment and nurses need the manager to share power with them in the provision of safe, quality patient care. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.

  9. Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...

  10. Local Voices and Perspectives : A Study on the Contextualisation of Women's Empowerment in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Lazo, Henry Osmar

    2013-01-01

    The present study sets forth to contextualise women’s empowerment to the Peruvian setting by asking Peruvian women to identify what women’s empowerment should entail. More specifically, this academic project, on the one hand, attempts to examine how prominent scholars conceptualise empowerment and, on the other hand, analyse to what extent Peruvian women’s own understanding of the concept is similar and to what extent it is different from this scholarly conceptualisation. The ultimate goal is...

  11. Does economic empowerment protect women against domestic violence? Evidence from the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    S. Quimbo; X. Javier

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, we ask whether women's economic empowerment -defined alternatively as having the ability to decide on (i) daily needs, (ii) major purchases, and (iii) spending own income - protects women against domestic violence. Using a simple model of choice of conflict resolution technology among spouses, we find evidence that economic empowerment protects women in a non-linear way. Low and high levels of empowerment reduce the likelihood o...

  12. Viljen til at frigøre. En undersøgelse af empowerment i praksis

    OpenAIRE

    Wright Nielsen, Tabitha

    2009-01-01

    Empowerment is a concept and a method in social work associated with liberation from oppression. Some paradoxes inherent in the concept and method of empowerment, however, lead to questioning the contradiction between freedom and force that is usually framed by “empowerment”. This dissertation investigates how empowerment is created in a concrete language and an integration project directed towards a group of women with refugee and immigrant background. The Project was part of the Equal Progr...

  13. Rethinking expansive learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika

    Abstract: This paper analyses an online community of master’s students taking a course in ICT and organisational learning. The students initiated and facilitated an educational design for organisational learning called Proactive Review in the organisation where they are employed. By using an online...... discussion forum on Google groups, they created new ways of reflecting and learning. We used netnography to select qualitative postings from the online community and expansive learning concepts for data analysis. The findings show how students changed practices of organisational learning...

  14. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  15. The Women's Health Care Empowerment Model as a Catalyst for Change in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroi, Lavinia R; Sahak, Medina; Sherzai, Ayesha Z; Sherzai, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Women's empowerment has been attempted through a number of different fields including the realms of politics, finance, and education, yet none of these domains are as promising as health care. Here we review preliminary work in this domain and introduce a model for women's empowerment through involvement in health care, titled the "women's health care empowerment model." Principles upon which our model is built include: acknowledging the appropriate definition of empowerment within the cultural context, creating a women's network for communication, integrating local culture and tradition into training women, and increasing the capability of women to care for their children and other women.

  16. Australian health promotion practitioners' perceptions on evaluation of empowerment and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, Susanne; McCool, Megan; Wise, Marilyn; Loss, Julika

    2014-03-01

    Although participation and empowerment are hallmarks of the WHO vision of health promotion, it is acknowledged that they are difficult to evaluate. Devising adequate study designs, indicators and methods for the assessment of participation and empowerment should consider the experiences, concerns and constraints of health promotion practitioners. The aim of this study was to investigate health promotion practitioners' perspectives on general and methodological aspects of evaluation of empowerment and participation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 experienced practitioners in community-based health promotion in New South Wales, Australia. The interviews covered benefits of and barriers to the evaluation of participation and empowerment, key indicators and methodological aspects. Interview transcripts were examined using thematic content analysis. The idea of evaluating empowerment and participation is supported by health promotion practitioners. Including indicators of empowerment and participation in the evaluation could also emphasise-to practitioners and citizens alike-the value of involving and enabling community members. The interviews highlighted the importance of a receptive environment for evaluation of empowerment and participation to take root. The resistance of health authorities towards empowerment indicators was seen as a challenge for funding evaluations. Community members should be included in the evaluation process, although interviewees found it difficult to do so in a representative way and empowering approach. Qualitative methods might capture best whether empowerment and participation have occurred in a programme. The positive experiences that the interviewees made with innovative qualitative methods encourage further investment in developing new research designs.

  17. Investigating the Determinants of Maternal Empowerment During Pregnancy: A Strategy for Prenatal Healthcare Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Sadat Borghei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empowerment of pregnant mothers promotes their health and pregnancy outcomes. Given the importance of empowerment of women during pregnancy, this study was conducted to determine the level of empowerment during pregnancy and its determinants. Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 161 pregnant mothers who were selected using random cluster sampling in Gorgan, North East of Iran in 2015. To measure the level and determinants of empowerment, Kameda’s prenatal empowerment scale was used. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive and inferential statistical tests including linear regression analysis. P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The regression analysis showed that age at first pregnancy (βeta standardized coefficient (β=0.474, marital satisfaction (β=0.239 and spiritual support (β=0.227 had the highest coefficient in the regression. However, the age of marriage, the size of family as well as experience of violence had negative impact on prenatal empowerment. Conclusion: Awareness of determinants of maternal empowerments could help policy makers to develop programs for promotion of mothers' empowerment during pregnancy. It seems that through developing counseling and educational programs with special focus on reducing domestic violence and enhancing marital satisfaction as well as offering spiritual support could promote prenatal empowerment and as a consequence facilitate moving towards safe motherhood.

  18. PRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP, EMPOWERMENT AND FOLLOWERS’ PERFORMANCE: A EMPIRICAL STUDY IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Further research reveals that the effect of transformational leadership on followers’ performance is indirectly affected by empowerment. The nature of this relationship is less emphasized in organizational leadership literature. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the effect of transformational leadership on followers’ performance and investigate the mediating effect of empowerment in the relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ performance. Findings showed that the relationship between empowerment and transformational leadership had increased followers’ performance. This result confirms that empowerment acts as a full mediating role in the leadership model of the studied organization.

  19. The Effects of Level of Training on Employee Perceived Empowerment, Commitment and Job Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Backeberg, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of level of training on employees' perceived psychological empowerment, commitment, and resultant job performance within the hospitality industry...

  20. Religion, faith and the empowerment process: stories of Iranian people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Samereh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Parvizy, Soroor; Dunning, Trisha

    2011-06-01

    Empowerment concerning people with diabetes is well researched. However, few researchers specifically focus on the barriers to and facilitators of empowerment in Iranian people with diabetes. Understanding the factors could help health professionals facilitate self-empowerment more effectively. This study aims to determine the barriers to and facilitators of empowerment in Iranian people with diabetes. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect the data from 11 women and men in 2007. Themes were identified using constant comparative analysis method. Common barriers to empowerment were similar to other chronic diseases: prolonged stress, negative view about diabetes, ineffective health-care systems, poverty and illiteracy. Diabetes education, fear of diabetes' complications, self-efficacy and hope for a better future emerged as being crucial to empowerment. Facilitators specific to Iranians were: the power of religion and faith, the concept of the doctor as holy man, accepting diabetes as God's will, caring for the body because it was God's gift and support from families especially daughters. Empowerment was strongly influenced by cultural and religious beliefs in Iran and the power of faith emerged as an important facilitator of diabetes empowerment. The findings will help health professionals understand how Iranian people with diabetes view life and the factors that facilitate empowerment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Women's empowerment and ideal family size: an examination of DHS empowerment measures in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Karasek, Deborah

    2012-06-01

    The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) program collects data on women's empowerment, but little is known about how these measures perform in Sub-Saharan African countries. It is important to understand whether women's empowerment is associated with their ideal number of children and ability to limit fertility to that ideal number in the Sub-Saharan African context. The analysis used couples data from DHS surveys in four Sub-Saharan African countries: Guinea, Mali, Namibia and Zambia. Women's empowerment was measured by participation in household decision making, attitudes toward wife beating and attitudes toward refusing sex with one's husband. Multivariable linear regression was used to model women's ideal number of children, and multivariable logistic regression was used to model women's odds of having more children than their ideal. In Guinea and Zambia, negative attitudes toward wife beating were associated with having a smaller ideal number of children (beta coefficients, -0.5 and -0.3, respectively). Greater household decision making was associated with a smaller ideal number of children only in Guinea (beta coefficient, -0.3). Additionally, household decision making and positive attitudes toward women's right to refuse sex were associated with elevated odds of having more children than desired in Namibia and Zambia, respectively (odds ratios, 2.3 and 1.4); negative attitudes toward wife beating were associated with reduced odds of the outcome in Mali (0.4). Women's empowerment--as assessed using currently available measures--is not consistently associated with a desire for smaller families or the ability to achieve desired fertility in these Sub-Saharan African countries. Further research is needed to determine what measures are most applicable for these contexts.

  2. Nurses’ Empowerment in Self-Care Education to Stroke Patients: An Action Research Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aslani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-care needs are major problems among stroke patients. Nurses can support them through interventions such as education, a change in their attitude and emphasis on their remaining abilities. However, research has shown some weak points in the quality of care given to these patients. So the aim of this study was to improve the nurses’ practice in self-care education to stroke patients. Methods: This is a participatory action research, conducted in internal neurology ward of Al-Zahra hospital in Isfahan, Iran during 2013-2014 in five stages of diagnosis, planning, action, reflection and evaluation. Participants comprised 27 nursing personnel including staff nurses, matrons, educational supervisors and the staff in charge of Nurse Educators’ Al_Zahra Role Expansion Action Research (NEAREAR project. In the evaluation stage, data were collected from five personal interviews and two focus group discussions and analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Results: The findings of evaluation phase showed that during action research, approaching the nurses’ empowerment in self-care education to stroke patients has been set in motion. The nursing practice improvement, knowledge based practice, nurses’ attitude change, ability to respond against routinization, and motivation promotion emphasize the success of change process. Facilitators and barriers of educating patients are acknowledged by the participants as a factor influencing the continuation of change. Conclusions: The lack of nurses’ educating performance skills was overcome using action research and changes were made to improve the performance of nurses.

  3. THE STRATEGY OF EMPOWERMENT SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN THE EFFORT FOR INCREASING REVENUE AND MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRASETIO ARIWIBOWO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of SMEs sector, explicitly aimed at the efforts to realize the power of the nation-competitiveness in order to strengthen the global competitive economy. This research uses qualitative descriptive method to describe each variable analyzed. The analysis is SWOT analysis and Analytical Hierarchy Procees (AHP to calculate any case the most preferred and influence the development of the empowerment of SMEs especially in terms of revenue and market expansion in Semarang based and questionnaire that sample scrambled by the author. Objectives and results of this study is to determine the priority of the strategy used by the Semarang city government and become the main reference for entrepreneurs of SMEs in Semarang to increase revenue and market share in the city of Semarang is improving managerial skills by improving capacity, work ethic, and the performance of the institution and the staff of the local government of Semarang, and increase community participation in the planning, implementation, and monitoring of development of SMEs.

  4. Thermal expansion of granite rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1978-04-01

    The thermal expansion of rocks is strongly controlled by the thermal expansion of the minerals. The theoretical thermal expansion of the Stripa Granite is gound to be 21 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 25 deg C and 38 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 400 deg C. The difference in expansion for the rock forming minerals causes micro cracking at heating. The expansion due to micro cracks is found to be of the same order as the mineral expansion. Most of the micro cracks will close at pressures of the order of 10 - 20 MPa. The thermal expansion of a rock mass including the effect of joints is determined in the pilot heater test in the Stripa Mine

  5. Provincial hydro expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froschauer, K J

    1993-01-01

    A study of the development of five provincial hydroelectric utilities in Canada indicates that power companies and the state invited manufacturers to use hydroelectricity and natural resources in order to diversify provincial economies. These hydro expansions also show that utilities and government designed hydro projects to serve continental requirements; serving both objectives became problematic. It is argued that when the Canadian state and firms such as utilities use hydro expansions to serve both continentalism and industrialization, then at best they foster dependent industrialization and staple processing. At worst, they overbuild the infrastructure to generate provincial surplus energy for continental, rather than national, integration. Hydro developments became subject to state intervention in Canada mainly through the failures of private utilities to provide power for the less-lucrative industrial markets within provincial subregions. Although the state and utilities invited foreign firms to manufacture hydro equipment within the provinces and others to use electricity to diversify production beyond resource processing, such a diversification did not occur. Since 1962, ca 80% of industrial energy was used to semi-process wood-derived products, chemicals, and metals. The idea for a national power network became undermined by interprovincial political-economic factors and since 1963, the federal national/continential power policy prevailed. 187 refs., 6 figs., 52 tabs.

  6. Measuring of tube expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogeleer, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The expansion of the primary tubes or sleeves of the steam generator of a nuclear reactor plant are measured while the tubes or sleeves are being expanded. A primary tube or sleeve is expanded by high pressure of water which flows through a channel in an expander body. The water is supplied through an elongated conductor and is introduced through a connector on the shank connected to the conductor at its outer end. A wire extends through the mandrel and through the conductor to the end of the connector. At its inner end the wire is connected to a tapered pin which is subject to counteracting forces produced by the pressure of the water. The force on the side where the wire is connected to the conductor is smaller than on the opposite side. The tapered pin is moved in the direction of the higher force and extrudes the wire outwardly of the conductor. The tapered surface of the tapered pin engages transverse captive plungers which are maintained in engagement with the expanding tube or sleeve as they are moved outwardly by the tapered pin. The wire and the connector extend out of the generator and, at its outer end, the wire is connected to an indicator which measures the extent to which the wire is moved by the tapered pin, thus measuring the expansion of the tube or sleeve as it progresses

  7. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  8. Technology choice in a least-cost expansion analysis framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guziel, K.A.; South, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the current outlook for new capacity additions by electric utilities is uncertain and tenuous. Regardless of the amount, it is inevitable that new capacity will be needed in the 1990s and beyond. The fundamental question about the additional capacity requirements centers on technology choice and the factors influencing the decision process. Under current market conditions, utilities have become capital aversive due to rate base disallowances by state regulatory commissions, difficulties in funding long-term capital-intensive projects, uncertainties about future demand, and the ability to purchase power from sources such as independent power producers (IPPs) and cogenerators. Instead of building capital-intensive power plants, utilities have begun relying on natural gas technologies, which permit rapid construction/deployment and low capital investment

  9. A Three-Dimensional Model of Women's Empowerment : Implications in the Field of Microfinance and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, Marloes A.; Hansen, Nina; Otten, Sabine; Lensink, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Women's empowerment is an important goal in achieving sustainable development worldwide. Offering access to microfinance services to women is one way to increase women's empowerment. However, empirical evidence provides mixed results with respect to its effectiveness. We reviewed previous research

  10. A prescription for sustaining community engagement in malaria elimination on Aneityum Island, Vanuatu: an application of Health Empowerment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Noriko; Kaneko, Akira; Yamar, Sam; Taleo, George; Tanihata, Takeo; Lum, J Koji; Larson, Peter S; Shearer, Nelma B C

    2015-07-31

    Community engagement has contributed to disease control and elimination in many countries. Community engagement in malaria elimination (ME) on Aneityum Island has been sustained since its introduction in the early 1990s. Capacity developed within this population has led to a health empowered community response. Health Empowerment Theory (HET) can account for the innovative community actions and capacity development efforts taken to realize and sustain meaningful changes in well-being. This study used the HET framework to investigate participant perceptions of ME efforts on the island focusing on two HET elements, personal and social-contextual resources. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of empowerment as a critical element of community engagement. Six focus group discussions, ten key informant interviews and 17 in-depth interviews were conducted in July 2012 on Aneityum. Both deductive and inductive approaches to qualitative content analysis were used to identify themes, which were condensed, coded and classified based on the HET elements above. Awareness and use of personal and social-contextual resources played an important role in ME efforts. Most participants shared their knowledge to prevent malaria reintroduction. Many participants reported their skills needed for behavioral maintenance, problem-solving or leadership. Participants who perceived a threat took preventive actions even in the dry season. Community leaders focused on second generation capacity development. A local health coalition provided ME services. Members of networks were sources of information and assistance. Face-to-face was the preferred method of communication. Barriers to engagement (e.g., financial difficulties, health literacy issues and underdeveloped infrastructure) were minimized through active collaboration and mutual assistance. In the community engagement continuum, health empowerment develops incrementally overtime as people gain their knowledge and skills, form

  11. Thermal expansion of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, A.V.; Kruzhalov, A.V.; Mazurenko, V.G.; Maslov, V.A.; Medvedev, V.A.; Polupanova, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    Precise measurements of temperature dependence of the coefficient of linear expansion in the 22-320 K temperature range on beryllium oxide monocrystals are conducted. A model of thermal expansion is suggested; the range of temperature dependence minimum of the coefficient of thermal expansion is well described within the frames of this model. The results of the experiment may be used for investigation of thermal stresses in crystals

  12. Empowerment evaluation at the Stanford University School of Medicine: using a critical friend to improve the clerkship experience

    OpenAIRE

    Fetterman,David

    2009-01-01

    Empowerment evaluation was adopted by Stanford University's School of Medicine to engage in curricular reform. It was also used to prepare for an accreditation site visit. Empowerment evaluation is a guided form of self-evaluation. It was selected because the principles and practices of empowerment evaluation resonated with the collaborative and participatory nature of the curricular reform in the School. This article highlights one of the most important features of an empowerment evaluation:...

  13. PHP frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Srša, Aljaž

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents one of the four most popular PHP web frameworks: Laravel, Symfony, CodeIgniter and CakePHP. These frameworks are compared with each other according to the four criteria, which can help with the selection of a framework. These criteria are size of the community, quality of official support, comprehensibility of framework’s documentation and implementation of functionalities in individual frameworks, which are automatic code generation, routing, object-relational mapping and...

  14. The effects of applying information technology on job empowerment dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Arab-Chadegani, Raziyeh

    2014-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) is known as a valuable tool for information dissemination. Today, information communication technology can be used as a powerful tool to improve employees' quality and efficiency. The increasing development of technology-based tools and their adaptation speed with human requirements has led to a new form of the learning environment and creative, active and inclusive interaction. These days, information is one of the most important power resources in every organization and accordingly, acquiring information, especially central or strategic one can help organizations to build a power base and influence others. The aim of this study was to identify the most important criteria in job empowerment using IT and also the advantages of assessing empowerment. This study was a narrative review. The literature was searched on databases and journals of Springer, Proquest, PubMed, science direct and scientific information database) with keywords including IT, empowerment and employees in the searching areas of titles, keywords, abstracts and full texts. The preliminary search resulted in 85 articles, books and conference proceedings in which published between 1983 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 40 papers and books were selected based on their relevancy. According to Ardalan Model IT plays a significant role in the fast data collection, global and fast access to a broad range of health information, a quick evaluation of information, better communication among health experts and more awareness through access to various information sources. IT leads to a better performance accompanied by higher efficiency in service providing all of which will cause more satisfaction from fast and high-quality services.

  15. The effects of applying information technology on job empowerment dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Arab-Chadegani, Raziyeh

    2014-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) is known as a valuable tool for information dissemination. Today, information communication technology can be used as a powerful tool to improve employees’ quality and efficiency. The increasing development of technology-based tools and their adaptation speed with human requirements has led to a new form of the learning environment and creative, active and inclusive interaction. These days, information is one of the most important power resources in every organization and accordingly, acquiring information, especially central or strategic one can help organizations to build a power base and influence others. The aim of this study was to identify the most important criteria in job empowerment using IT and also the advantages of assessing empowerment. This study was a narrative review. The literature was searched on databases and journals of Springer, Proquest, PubMed, science direct and scientific information database) with keywords including IT, empowerment and employees in the searching areas of titles, keywords, abstracts and full texts. The preliminary search resulted in 85 articles, books and conference proceedings in which published between 1983 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 40 papers and books were selected based on their relevancy. According to Ardalan Model IT plays a significant role in the fast data collection, global and fast access to a broad range of health information, a quick evaluation of information, better communication among health experts and more awareness through access to various information sources. IT leads to a better performance accompanied by higher efficiency in service providing all of which will cause more satisfaction from fast and high-quality services. PMID:25250350

  16. Reclaiming the Maiden: Use of Archetypes in a 6-Week Women's Empowerment Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese; Hofsess, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a 6-week, semi-structured group counseling experience for university women students (undergraduate and graduate) from diverse backgrounds exploring archetypes and using group empowerment skills. Theoretical perspectives on women's empowerment groups and the use of archetypes in counseling are discussed as…

  17. Revisiting the Impact of Perceived Empowerment on Job Performance: Results from Front-Line Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Devrim Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the probable effect of perceived empowerment on job performance and the sample of research consisted of 230 participants working in tourism sector as front-line employees. The outcomes of this study indicated that psychological empowerment was positively correlated with employee job performance and employees’ job performance were mostly effected from self-determination and impact dimensions of empowerment. Moreover, tests were conducted to analyze the significant differences in participants’ perception of empowerment and job performance according to their demographic characteristics. There was a significant difference between perceived empowerment and gender, age and work experience where as there was no significant difference between empowerment and education levels. On the other hand, the relationship between job performance and work experience was supported however no relationship was found between job performance and gender, age and education level of the participants. Trying to find out what might possibly lead front-line employees to increased job performance, it can be claimed that psychological empowerment still turns out to be a central issue and therefore this research makes useful contributions to the current knowledge by entirely investigating the direct effect of perceived empowerment on employee job performance in hospitality industry where especially front-line employees spend most of their time directly with customers.

  18. Structural Empowerment and Organizational Commitment of Lecturers in Private International Educational Institutions at Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to measure the level of structural empowerment and organizational commitment of lecturers at private international educational institutions at Thailand. Further to measure the relationship between structural empowerment and organizational commitment of lecturers. The target respondents of the study were lecturers…

  19. Influence of Teacher Empowerment on Teachers' Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogler, Ronit; Somech, Anit

    2004-01-01

    The present study focuses on the relationship between teacher empowerment and teachers' organizational commitment, professional commitment (PC) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). It examines which subscales of teacher empowerment can best predict these outcomes. The data were collected through a questionnaire returned by a sample of…

  20. Single session email consultation for parents : An evaluation of its effect on empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof.dr. Jo Hermanns; prof.dr. Ruben Fukkink; dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of single session email consultation on empowerment of parents. Practitioners in a control group (N = 19) received no training; practitioners in an experimental group (N = 21) were trained to use empowerment oriented techniques in online consultation. Parental

  1. Linking Social Cohesion and Gender to Intrapersonal and Interactional Empowerment: Support and New Implications for Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Aquilino, Mary L.; Schneider, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Empowerment is a social-action process through which people gain greater control, efficacy, and social justice. One way to develop empowerment is through active, meaningful participation in community groups and activities. Social cohesion is an emerging construct that expands the notion of community participation to include elements such as shared…

  2. The Impact of Religion on Women Empowerment as a Millennium Development Goal in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoh, Ambe J.; Akiwumi, Fenda A.

    2012-01-01

    The study examines the impact of religion on women empowerment. Three religions, indigenous African, Islam and Christianity, comprising Africa's triple heritage, are considered. The hypothesized relationships are confirmed. Christianity correlates with each of the four Development Targets specified for women empowerment under the third of the…

  3. Adult 4-H Volunteer Empowerment in 4-H Youth Development Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine which factors related to adult 4-H volunteer empowerment in 4-H youth development settings. This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of Oregon 4-H Youth Development Educators (YDE) to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. In addition,…

  4. Effect of Demographic Factors on Empowerment Attributions of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ashley H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of demographic factors on empowerment attributions of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Data were collected to determine differences between demographic factors of participants and self-reported empowerment attributions. A quantitative research design was employed in…

  5. Positive resources for combating job burnout among Chinese telephone operators: Resilience and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaohong; Liu, Chunqin; Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Guopeng; Kong, Linghua; Li, Ping

    2015-08-30

    Job burnout is a major concern within the service industry. However, there is a lack of research exploring positive resources for combating burnout among telephone operators. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between resilience, psychological empowerment, and job burnout, and the mediating role of psychological empowerment. A cross-sectional survey of 575 telephone operators was conducted in 2 call centers in Shandong Province, China. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess job burnout symptoms, resilience, and psychological empowerment. Hierarchical linear regression was performed to analyze the degree to which resilience and psychological empowerment are associated with job burnout, and the mediating role of psychological empowerment. The results showed that resilience and psychological empowerment had significant "net effects" on job burnout, which may represent positive resources for combating job burnout. Psychological empowerment may partially mediate the relationship between resilience and job burnout. Thus, interventions focused on resilience and psychological empowerment may be useful options for managers concerned about burnout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Trust on Teacher Empowerment: The Mediation of Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong-biao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Jin, Yu-le; Zhang, Zhong-hua

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the impact of teachers' perception of trust in colleagues on their sense of empowerment in Mainland China, with a particular focus on the mediating role of teacher efficacy. The results of a survey of 1646 teachers indicate that although teachers scored positively on trust in colleagues, efficacy and empowerment, they had…

  7. Perceived empowerment in people with a dual diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder and substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Katherine; Allott, Rory; Emsley, Richard; Ennion, Sarah; Barrowclough, Christine

    2014-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to validate a measure of empowerment in a British population of people with a dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and substance misuse and assess relationships between empowerment and other key outcomes. Patients participating in a large randomised control trial for Motivational Interviewing for Drug and Alcohol misuse in Schizophrenia or psychosis (MIDAS trial) completed measures of empowerment, symptoms, global functioning and substance use at baseline, 12- and 24-month follow-ups. A three factor model of empowerment: self-efficacy and control; power and anger; and activism provided the best fit of the data across all three time points. There was some evidence of associations between empowerment and both symptoms and global functioning, although these associations were not consistent across subscales. Changes in empowerment predicted changes in symptoms and functioning at follow-up. Empowerment is a broadly defined construct and its meaning may differ across different populations of people with severe and enduring mental health problems. Empowerment is a key component of recovery and should be assessed in treatments in addition to more traditional outcome measures of symptoms and functioning.

  8. Empowerment in the field of health promotion: recognizing challenges in working toward equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Nicole S; Murphy, Jill; Coser, Larissa

    2014-12-01

    Over the last 25 years, the language of empowerment has been woven into the guiding missions and descriptions of institutions, funding and projects globally. Although theoretical understandings of empowerment within the domain of health promotion remain contentious, we have little idea of how a shift toward an empowerment agenda has affected the daily work of those in the field of health promotion. A systematic examination of the implementation of the empowerment agenda is important as it can help us understand how redistributive agendas are received within the multiple institutional contexts in which health promotion work is carried out. The goal of this study, therefore, was to try to understand the empowerment agenda within the context of everyday health promotion. We conducted semi-structured interviews with health promoters from a variety of geographical regions, institutional backgrounds, and job capacities. Essentially we found that empowerment remains conceptually dear to health promoters' understanding of their work, yet at the same time, mainstreaming empowerment is at odds with central trends and initiatives that govern this work. We argue that many of the stumbling blocks that have hindered this specific agenda are actually central stumbling blocks for the wider field of health promotion. We examine some of the barriers to implementing transformational change. Overcoming the primary limitations uncovered in this exploration of empowerment is actually crucial to progressive work in health promotion in general, particularly work that would seek to lessen inequities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Critical Review on Power in Organization: Empowerment in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Jun; Park, Sunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze current practices, discuss empowerment from the theoretical perspectives on power in organizations and suggest an empowerment model based on the type of organizational culture and the role of human resource development (HRD). Design/methodology/approach: By reviewing the classic viewpoint of power, Lukes'…

  10. The impact of psychological empowerment and organisational commitment on Chinese nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Zhou, Wen-Bin; Qu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Research findings have shown that job satisfaction of Chinese nurses is at a low level. Limited studies have focused on the impact of psychological empowerment and organisational commitment on job satisfaction of Chinese nurses. The aim of this study is to describe job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organisational commitment of Chinese nurses and to explore the impact of psychological empowerment and organisational commitment on the nurses' job satisfaction. A total of 726 nurses were recruited in a convenience sample from 10 tertiary hospitals. Data were collected using four questionnaires including Job Satisfaction Survey, Psychological Empowerment Scale, Organisational Commitment Scale and Demographic Questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used for data analysis. Nurses' job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organisational commitment were identified at moderate levels. Nurses' job satisfaction and psychological empowerment were significantly different in terms of age and length of service; nurse job satisfaction varied with respect to marital status. Findings further indicated that nurse job satisfaction was positively correlated with psychological empowerment and organisational commitment. Psychological empowerment, organisational commitment and marital status were significant predicting factors of nurse job satisfaction. This study provides evidence to help nursing managers and health policy-makers to develop intervention programs aimed at enhancing nurse job satisfaction and retaining nurses.

  11. Development and validation of a new tool to measure Iranian pregnant women's empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei, N S; Taghipour, A; Roudsari, R Latifnejad; Keramat, A

    2016-03-15

    Empowering pregnant women improves their health and reduces maternal mortality, but there is a lack of suitable tools to measure women's empowerment in some cultures. This study aimed to design and validate a questionnaire for measuring the dimensions of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. After a literature review, and face and content validity testing, a 38-item questionnaire was developed and tested on a sample of 161 pregnant women. Factor analysis grouped the items into 3 subscales: educational empowerment (e.g. prenatal training), autonomy (e.g. financial independency and mental ability) and sociopolitical empowerment (e.g. involvement in social and political activities). Criterion validity testing showed a strong positive correlation of the total scale and subscales scores with the Kameda and the Spritzer empowerment scales. Cronbach alpha was 0.92 for total empowerment. A total of 32 items remained in the Self-Structured Pregnancy Empowerment Questionnaire, which is a valid new tool to measure the dimensions of pregnant women's empowerment.

  12. The relation between leadership style and empowerment on job satisfaction of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R S; Jones, L; Fuller, B

    1997-05-01

    The authors explore the relation between leadership style and empowerment and its effect on job satisfaction among the nursing staff of a regional medical center. Several empirical studies on transformational leadership-found that transformational leadership behaviors were positively related to work team success and leadership effectiveness. Transformational leadership processes have also been suggested to enhance followers' work-oriented values and shape the self-efficacies of followers. Employee empowerment may be influenced by the perception that the organization cares about its employees' well-being and that their work is valued. Empowering nurses may increase job satisfaction and improve patient care. Leadership style and empowerment influence job satisfaction among workers. All nursing department staff were invited to complete a self-report questionnaire with no identifying information. Leadership style was measured using Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, empowerment was measured with items from Spreitzer's Psychological Empowerment instrument, and job satisfaction was measured by Warr, Cook, and Wall's job satisfaction questionnaire. Both transformational and transactional leadership were positively related to job satisfaction, as was empowerment. Differences in the contributions of empowerment and leadership style in predicting job satisfaction for licensed and unlicensed workers was evident. Designing interventions that allow for the relative influence of leadership style as well as empowerment on varying classifications of nursing personnel may be a more effective strategy and have a greater effect on staff attitudes and behaviors.

  13. Physical Education Students' Ownership, Empowerment, and Satisfaction with PE and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. Whitney G.; Fry, Mary D.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals experiencing a highly caring, task-involving, and low ego-involving exercise climate have reported greater ownership in exercise class and empowerment to exercise in general. Purpose: This study examined the relationship between ownership and empowerment in exercise, with 2 context-specific outcomes, satisfaction with physical…

  14. Job Embedded Teacher Leadership Training: A Study of Teacher Empowerment in an Elementary Public School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Lauren Langer

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methodology case study explored one district's attempt to provide teacher leadership training in an effort to increase feelings of empowerment. Empowerment is defined as the degree to which an individual feels capable of influencing his or her work role and context (Spreitzer, 1995) and in the field of education, empowering teachers is…

  15. The role of the follower in the relationship between empowering leadership and empowerment: A longitudinal investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dierendonck, D.; Dijkstra, M.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study among 212 Dutch prison officers was to enhance insight into the nature of the relationship between empowering leader behavior and follower psychological empowerment. Empowerment was conceptualized as intrinsic task motivation, manifested in a set of 4

  16. Teacher Teams, Teamwork, and Empowerment: Exploring Associations and the Nexus to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Alan B.; Park, Sungmin; Singleton, Carole A.

    2007-01-01

    Research on team-based schools suggests the importance of teacher empowerment as a factor in the school revitalization and reform equation and as a critical element in redefining schools as collaborative workplaces. In this study, the authors inquire into potential associations between teamwork skills and teacher team empowerment. Research…

  17. Empowerment of women and mental health improvement with a Preventive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Shooshtari

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: The indicators determined in this study show that empowerment has an important role in determining women's real position in society. Since women make up half of the population and affect society as a whole, the advantages of empowerment of women will be felt in the entire society.

  18. What Facilitates "Patient Empowerment" in Cancer Patients During Follow-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Clara R; Thomsen, Thora G; Ross, Lone

    2018-01-01

    Empowerment is a concept of growing importance in cancer care, but little is known about cancer patients' experiences of empowerment during follow-up. To explore this area, a qualitative systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. A total of 2,292 papers were...

  19. The impact of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment on Chines nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Bin; Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Qu, Hui

    2014-11-10

    Abstract Background: Research findings have shown that job satisfaction of Chinese nurses is at a low level. Limited studies have focused on the impact of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment on job satisfaction of Chinese nurses. Aims: The aim of this study is to describe job satisfaction, psychological empowerment and organizational commitment of Chinese nurses and to explore the impact of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment on the nurses' job satisfaction. Methods: A total of 726 nurses were recruited in a convenience sample from 10 tertiary hospitals. Data were collected using four questionnaires including Job Satisfaction Survey, Psychological Empowerment Scale, Organizational Commitment Scale and Demographic Questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, correlation and stepwise multiple regression were used for data analysis. Results: Nurses' job satisfaction, psychological empowerment, and organizational commitment were identified at moderate levels. Nurses' job satisfaction and psychological empowerment were significantly different in terms of age and length of service; nurse job satisfaction varied with respect to marital status. Findings further indicated that nurse job satisfaction was positively correlated with psychological empowerment and organizational commitment. Psychological empowerment, organizational commitment, and marital status were significant predicting factors of nurse job satisfaction. Conclusions: This study provides evidence to help nursing managers and health policy-makers to develop intervention programs aimed at enhancing nurse job satisfaction and retaining nurses.

  20. Women's empowerment and gender inequality in adolescent nutritional status: evidence from the Indonesian family life survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunto, Yohanes Sondang; Bras, Hilde

    2017-01-01



    In contrast to the extensive knowledge on the association between women’s empowerment and the nutritional status of children under the age of five, relatively little is known about the influence of women’s empowerment on adolescents’ nutritional status. This study aimed to assess the

  1. E-health applications and services for patient empowerment: Directions for best practices in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, L.L.; Henkemans, O.B.; Otten, W.; Rövekamp, T.A.J.M.; Dumay, A.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: E-health may enable the empowerment process for patients, particularly the chronically ill. However, e-health is not always designed with the requirements of patient empowerment in mind. Drawing on evidence-based e-health studies, we propose directions for best practices to develop

  2. A Reaction to EGAS: An Important New Approach to African American Youth Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Courtland C.

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the concept of empowerment, particularly as it relates to urban youth of color. The author agrees with Bemak et al.'s underlying premise that much of what is written about and practiced with respect to the empowerment of African American youth makes the assumption that counselors somehow empower young…

  3. Empowerment Theory for the Professional School Counselor: A Manifesto for What Really Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipolito-Delgado, Carlos P.; Lee, Courtland C.

    2007-01-01

    Borrowing from the legacy of feminist and multicultural theories, various counseling fields have applied portions of empowerment theory to their work with oppressed clients. This article examines the main concepts associated with empowerment theory and provides important implications for professional school counselors.

  4. E-health Applications and Services for Patient Empowerment : Directions for Best Practices in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, L.L.; Blanson Henkemans, O.; Otten, W.; Rövekamp, T.A.J.M.; Dumay, A.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: E-health may enable the empowerment process for patients, particularly the chronically ill. However, e-health is not always designed with the requirements of patient empowerment in mind. Drawing on evidence-based e-health studies, we propose directions for best practices to develop

  5. Measuring women's empowerment: A need for context and caution - Authors' reply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, A.J.D.; Ewerling, F.; Victora, C.G.; Eerdewijk, A.H.J.M. van; Tyszler, M.; Lynch, J.W.

    2018-01-01

    Women's empowerment is a complex concept, with no consensus on its definition or on the domains that compose the construct. Thus, it is expected that any attempt to measure empowerment will have limitations and will not satisfy all parties interested in the topic. However, we know that an attribute

  6. Experiential Education and Empowerment Evaluation: Mars Rover Educational Program Case Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David; Bowman, Cassie

    2002-01-01

    Empowerment evaluation helps people improve their programs using self-evaluation. Empowerment evaluation has three steps: establishing a mission; taking stock of the most significant activities; and planning for the future by establishing goals, strategies, and criteria for evidence. A NASA experiential program for small, distributed groups of…

  7. Leptodermous expansion of finite-nucleus incompressibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the influence of higher-order terms in the leptodermous expansion used to extract the incompressibility K v of infinite nuclear matter from data on the breathing mode of finite nuclei. The terms we calculate are the curvature term K cv A -2/3 , the surface-symmetry term K ss I 2 A -1/3 , the quartic volume-symmetry term K 4 I 4 , and a Coulomb-exchange term. Working within the framework of the scaling model we derive expressions for their coefficients in terms of quantities that are defined for infinite and semi-infinite nuclear matter. We calculate these coefficients for four different Skyrme-type forces, using the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation. With the same forces we also calculate the incompressibility K (A, I) for a number of finite nuclei, fit the results to the leptodermous expansion, and thereby extract new results for the same coefficients. The comparison of the two calculations shows that the leptodermous expansion is converging rapidly. Of the new terms, the term K 4 I 4 is quite negligible, the curvature term should be included, and we discuss to what extent the other higher-order terms are significant. (orig.)

  8. Paradoxical empowerment of produsers in the context of informational capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Serge; Heaton, Lorna; Kwok Choon, Mary Jane; Millette, Mélanie

    2011-04-01

    This article develops a critical perspective on how online contribution practices participate in the creation of economic value under informational capitalism. It discusses the theoretical relevance of the concept of empowerment for exploring online contribution practices. We argue that produsage practices are paradoxical insofar as they can be simultaneously alienating and emancipatory. This theoretical lens allows us to take a fresh look at the collective intelligence of produsers and the role of communities in the collective production of content. We illustrate the fruitfulness of this conceptual approach with two case studies: Facebook and TelaBotanica, a platform for the collaborative production of scientific knowledge.

  9. Black economic empowerment in the South African coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    South Africa has experienced great change and progress in the ten years since the end of apartheid and the inauguration of its first democratic government. Back in 1994, many were concerned about whether such a young and fragile democracy could survive. The new government needed to unify the country, while bringing about the significant change necessary to address the massive racial inequality at the heart of the apartheid system. The article explains actions and initiatives taken under the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) programme, one of which is the establishment of Eyesizwe Coal. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  10. Good for Her: empowerment scenes in feminist pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Capibaribe Leite

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the notion of women’s empowerment through the audiovisual products covered by the Feminist Porn Award. The intention is to analyze in which sense an initiative that stimulates a pornography production dislocated from the phallocentric male gaze to the affirmation of female sexuality and pleasure promotes breaks in the pornography production and consumption logics, and triggers autonomy processes to women in a broader perspective. To sustain this discussion, its being related the triad composed by: a the subjectivity narratives and processes linked to them; b the discourses construction focused on women as social minorities and c the analyzes approaching filmic addressing modes and its associated events.

  11. 34 CFR 299.3 - What priority may the Secretary establish for activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? 299.3 Section 299.3 Education Regulations of the... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? For any ESEA discretionary grant program, the... significant portion of the program funds to address substantial problems in an Empowerment Zone, including a...

  12. Community Empowerment on Program PNPM MP, Desa Peradaban, CSR and Posdaya (Context of the UU No. 6 Tahun 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Ahfan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Before Undang-Undang Number 6 Year 2014 about Village was issued, there is no legislation that explicitly set the task, the function, the authority, budget the village government in the context of community empowerment. Objectives of the study is to identify rural community empowerment program before the enactment of Undang-Undang Nomor 6 Tahun 2014 and assess the empowerment community aspect in Undang-Undang Nomor 6 Tahun 2014. This study used a qualitative approach and are explanatory, with qualitative analysis techniques. Community empowerment programs in this study focus on 4 program (PNPM MP, Desa Peradaban, CSR and Posdaya not entirely relevant to Undang Undang Nomor 6 Tahun 2014 because government institutions in empowering involvement village structurally weak. The village administration has not carried out the empowerment function caused the absence of the community delegation of authority and financing from the district government. While community empowerment models villages that in accordance with Undang Undang Nomor 6 Tahun 2014 focused on aspects: the involvement of the community empowerment actor; The direction of community empowerment; A collaborative aspects village development in community empowerment; Community empowerment implementing; Institutionalization of community empowerment acceleration; and ethics/ a norm community empowerment.

  13. Effects of organizational change on work-related empowerment, employee satisfaction, and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Härkönen, Eeva; Kukkurainen, Marja-Leena; Doran, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a longitudinal quantitative study on nurses' views on factors promoting and impeding empowerment and examines the relationship between work-related empowerment and background variables in one hospital. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed statistically. Nurses gave lowest assessments of promoting factors on the second measurement occasion, a time when the organization was going through major changes. Both job satisfaction and motivation showed a positive relationship with factors promoting empowerment. Organizational changes have a direct effect on the work environment in terms of empowerment and job satisfaction. To cope successfully with changes, special attention must be paid to personnel management. It seems that factors promoting and impeding empowerment can be used to measure effects of organizational changes as well.

  14. Consumer and case manager perspectives of service empowerment: relationship to mental health recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane-Ross, Dushka; Lutz, Wilma J; Roth, Dee

    2006-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between service empowerment and recovery. Service empowerment is defined as the extent to which consumers participate in service decisions and the level of reciprocity and respect within the relationship with their case managers. Assessments were made from two perspectives: consumers and their case managers. Structural equation models were developed to examine the direct and indirect effects of service empowerment on four recovery outcomes: Quality of Life, Level of Functioning, Consumer-Reported Symptomatology, and Case Manager-Reported Symptomatology. Consumers' perceptions of service empowerment were the most powerful predictor of recovery outcomes across the four models. Consumers' and case managers' perceptions were related but the magnitude of the relationship was small, indicating that considerable differences exist between their perceptions of service empowerment.

  15. Obtaining large-scale funding for empowerment-oriented qualitative research: a report from personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah K; Henwood, Benjamin F

    2009-06-01

    Obtaining funding for qualitative research remains a challenge despite greater openness to methodological pluralism. Such hurdles are presumably compounded when the proposed study employs empowerment theory, rendering it susceptible to charges of elevating ideology over rigor. This article draws on the authors' experience in securing large-scale funding for an empowerment-oriented qualitative study of homeless mentally ill adults. Lessons learned include the importance of weaving empowerment theory into the proposal's "argument," and infusing empowerment values into study protocols while simultaneously paying close attention to rigorous and transparent methods. Additional benefits accrue from having prior relationships with study sites and being willing to revise and resubmit proposals whenever possible. Though representing a fraction of all externally funded projects in the United States, qualitative research has tremendous untapped potential for success in this competitive arena-success that need not entail surrendering a commitment to empowerment values.

  16. EFFECTS OF ETHICAL LEADERSHIP ON EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shania Dwi Rantika

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaders who promote ethical behavior are believed to affect their employees’ well-being. This study was conducted to examine psychological empowerment as the intervening variable that connects ethical leadership to employees’ well-being, work engagement, and emotional exhaustion. By using a mail survey, we distributed questionnaires to 219 auditors from 11 public accounting firms in Jakarta. All the hypotheses in this study were supported. Ethical leadership has a positive effect on psychological empowerment. Thus, psychological empowerment positively relates to work engagement and negatively relates to emotional exhaustion. The result demonstrated that psychological empowerment partially mediates the effect of ethical leadership on work engagement and fully mediates the effect on ethical leadership and emotional exhaustion. The findings reveal that ethical leadership stimulates the psychological empowerment of the employee, thus, it enhances work engagement and also minimizes emotional exhaustion.

  17. An application of Huber model on the effect of psychological empowerment of employees on organizational learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdie Mirzaiefar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this descriptive–survey study is to determine the effect of psychological empowerment of employees on organizational learning based on Huber model. The study selects a sample of 54 people randomly from 499 regular employees of a Gas distribution firm located in province of Lorestan, Iran. For collecting data, two questionnaires of Huber organizational learning and psychological empowerment based on Spreitzer (1995 model [Spreitzer, G. M. (1995. Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of management Journal, 38(5, 1442-1465.] are used. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of organizational and psychological empowerment questionnaires are 0.706 and 0.92, respectively. SPSS software and linear regression test, binomial test, Pearson correlation test, and Friedman tests are used to analyze data and examine the hypotheses. The results of the data analysis show that psychological empowerment of employees could influence on organizational learning aspects in organization, significantly.

  18. Women's empowerment and its differential impact on health in low income communities in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lwendo Moonzwe; Schensul, Stephen L.; Schensul, Jean J.; Verma, Ravi; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Singh, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of empowerment to women's self-reported general health status and women's self-reported health during pregnancy in low-income communities in Mumbai. The data on which this paper is based were collected in three study communities located in a marginalized area of Mumbai. We draw on two data sources: in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 66 married women and a survey sample of 260 married women. Our analysis shows that empowerment functions differently in relation to women's reproductive status. Non-pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment experience greater general health problems, while pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment are less likely to experience pregnancy related health problems. We explain this non-intuitive finding and suggest that a globally defined empowerment measure for women may be less useful that one that is contextually and situationally defined. PMID:24766149

  19. Restorative justice and the active victim: Exploring the concept of empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aertsen Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper departs from the observation that the victim image leading public discourse has transformed in recent years: increasingly victims reject the traditional victim label implying helplessness and dependency to adopt the image of the emancipated victim that wishes to participate in the criminal proceedings. Restorative justice at first sight provides an answer to these emancipated victims’ wishes, offering them participation in criminal proceedings. Yet, using the concept of empowerment as an example and the community psychology perspective as a theoretical reference, our analysis suggests that restorative justice uses a restricted definition of empowerment: it reduces empowerment to developing self-confidence and new understandings of the offence, neglecting the behavioural component of empowerment. This characteristic of restorative justice seems to deny victims’ capacities to promote social change and inhibit them from reaching true empowerment.

  20. The influence of authentic leadership and empowerment on new-graduate nurses' perceptions of interprofessional collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschinger, Heather K S; Smith, Lesley Marie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine new-graduate nurses' perceptions of the influence of authentic leadership and structural empowerment on the quality of interprofessional collaboration in healthcare work environments. Although the challenges associated with true interprofessional collaboration are well documented, new-graduate nurses may feel particularly challenged in becoming contributing members. Little research exists to inform nurse leaders' efforts to facilitate effective collaboration in acute care settings. A predictive nonexperimental design was used to test a model integrating authentic leadership and workplace empowerment as resources that support interprofessional collaboration. Multiple regression analysis revealed that 24% of the variance in perceived interprofessional collaboration was explained by unit-leader authentic leadership and structural empowerment (R = 0.24, F = 29.55, P = .001). Authentic leadership (β = .294) and structural empowerment (β = .288) were significant independent predictors. Results suggest that authentic leadership and structural empowerment may promote interprofessional collaborative practice in new nurses.

  1. Policy advocacy and leadership training for formerly incarcerated women: an empowerment evaluation of ReConnect, a program of the Women in Prison Project, Correctional Association of New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, R M; Rahman, R; Williams, A

    2014-12-01

    There is limited knowledge on re-entry initiatives for formerly incarcerated women specifically on building women's advocacy and leadership skills. Our research highlights an empowerment evaluation on ReConnect, a 12-session; innovative advocacy and leadership development program rooted in an integrated framework of empowerment, and transformational leadership theories. Using thematic analysis, we coded three focus groups with 24 graduates, for themes that matched our framework's concepts. ReConnect graduates reported being empowered by the information they received on parental rights, housing, and employment. Participants agreed that ReConnect improved their communication skills, preparing them to advocate for themselves and community members. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Promoting the health of Aboriginal Australians through empowerment: eliciting the components of the family well-being empowerment and leadership programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Arlene; Haswell, Melissa; Tsey, Komla

    2012-12-01

    Most policies addressing Aboriginal health in Australia promote initiatives that are based on empowerment principles. Articulated programme components are necessary to support personal and group empowerment and to assist individuals in gaining the sense of control and purposefulness needed to exert their political and personal power in the face of the severe stress and powerlessness faced by the Australian Aboriginal people. This paper aims to provide a detailed description of the mechanisms underpinning a 'bottom-up' empowerment initiative, the Family well-being empowerment and leadership programme (FWB), and to analyze how the programme supports empowerment. The five stages of FWB were described and the validity of this model was assessed through the combination of participatory observation, documentation analysis, literature review, semi-structured interviews and iterative feedback with different analytical perspectives. Our study results articulated four distinct programme components: the setting plus inter-relational, educational and experiential actions. FWB is an example of the promotion of both outcome and process pathways towards empowerment. Potential applications of the programme are discussed.

  3. Empowerment in nurse leader groups in middle management: a quantitative comparative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Caroline; McLaren, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate structural empowerment in nurse leaders in middle management positions. Objectives were to determine levels of empowerment of nurse leaders and to compare levels of empowerment between nurse leader groups. Access to formal and informal power, opportunity, resources, information and support are determinants of structural empowerment. Empowerment of nurse leaders in middle management positions is vital given their roles in enabling nursing teams to deliver high-quality care, benefitting both patient and workforce outcomes. Quantitative component of a mixed methods study using survey principles. The Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire II was distributed to the total population (n = 517) of nurse leaders in an NHS Foundation Trust in England. Nurse leader groups comprised unit leaders (sisters, matrons) and senior staff nurses. Quantitative data entered on spss v 17/18, were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Overall, the unit response rate was 44·1% (n = 228). Levels of total and global empowerment were moderate and moderate to high respectively. Groups did not differ significantly on these parameters or on five elements of total empowerment, but significantly higher scores were found for unit leaders' access to information. Significantly higher scores were found for senior staff nurses on selected aspects of informal power and access to resources, but scores were significantly lower than unit leaders for components of support. A moderately empowered population of nurse leaders differed in relation to access to information, aspects of support, resources and informal power, reflecting differences in roles, spheres of responsibility, hierarchical position and the constraints on empowerment imposed on unit leaders by financial and resource pressures. Empowerment of nurse leaders in middle management is vital in enabling nursing teams to deliver high-quality care. Roles, spheres of responsibility, hierarchical

  4. Relationship between organizational climate and empowerment of nurses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Esther; Au-Yeung, Betty

    2002-05-01

    The authors explore the relationship between organizational climate and empowerment among the nursing staff of a regional hospital in Hong Kong. The main purpose of the study was to apply the modified Spreitzer measure of empowerment in a hospital and to examine the relationship of organizational climate to perceptions of empowerment. From 658 questionnaires sent out, 331 nurses participated in the study with a response rate of 50.3%. Survey measures administered included the modified Litwin and Stringer Organizational Climate Questionnaire (LSOCQ) and the modified Spreitzer empowerment instrument. The relationships between organizational climate and empowerment were examined in a series of bivariate correlational analyses. The final section of the questionnaire asked the respondents to list three elements in the organizational climate that they perceived would further increase their feelings of empowerment. Exploratory factor analysis of the modified LSOCQ resulted in six factors: leadership, working harmony, challenge, recognition, teamwork and decision making. There was a positive correlation between organizational climate and psychological empowerment. Using multiple regression analysis, all the six derived climate factors significantly accounted for 44% of the variance. Among the six predicting factors, leadership and teamwork showed the most positive relationship with psychological empowerment. Responses from the open questions on perception of organizational climate that further enhance nurses' feelings of empowerment were categorized into eight areas. They include leadership, communication, working relationship, recognition, structure, training, teamwork and stress management. The study echoes previous studies in finding that organizational climate and, in particular, supportive leadership and teamwork are related to empowerment. The findings also suggest that the nurses in the study did not put much emphasis on the importance of participative decision

  5. Urban caregiver empowerment: Caregiver nativity, child-asthma symptoms, and emergency-department use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Maria Teresa; Kopel, Sheryl J; Williams, Brittney; Dansereau, Katie; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we examined the associations between caregiver empowerment, child-asthma symptoms, and emergency-department (ED) use in a sample of school-age urban children with asthma. We examined differences in caregiver empowerment, and in the associations among caregiver empowerment, proportion of days with child-asthma symptoms, and ED use as a function of caregiver nativity. Participants for this study were part of a larger longitudinal study and included Latino, African American and non-Latino White urban caregivers and their children with asthma (ages 7-9; N = 130). Caregiver empowerment was assessed within family, asthma services, and community domains. Children whose caregivers reported greater empowerment within the family (i.e., possessing sufficient knowledge and ability to care for their families) presented with fewer asthma symptoms. Children whose caregivers reported greater empowerment within asthma services (i.e., the ability to collaborate with asthma providers and the health-care system), presented with more asthma symptoms. Foreign-born caregivers endorsed greater empowerment within the family, whereas U.S.-born caregivers reported greater empowerment within asthma services. For foreign-born caregivers, higher levels of empowerment in the family were associated with fewer child-asthma symptoms. For U.S.-born caregivers, higher levels of empowerment in asthma services were associated with more child-asthma symptoms. Results suggest that caregivers who feel more confident and better able to manage problems within their families may better manage their children's asthma symptoms. Foreign-born caregivers may benefit from increased support to more effectively navigate the asthma health-care system and manage their children's asthma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Negative thermal expansion in functional materials: controllable thermal expansion by chemical modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Hu, Lei; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran

    2015-06-07

    Negative thermal expansion (NTE) is an intriguing physical property of solids, which is a consequence of a complex interplay among the lattice, phonons, and electrons. Interestingly, a large number of NTE materials have been found in various types of functional materials. In the last two decades good progress has been achieved to discover new phenomena and mechanisms of NTE. In the present review article, NTE is reviewed in functional materials of ferroelectrics, magnetics, multiferroics, superconductors, temperature-induced electron configuration change and so on. Zero thermal expansion (ZTE) of functional materials is emphasized due to the importance for practical applications. The NTE functional materials present a general physical picture to reveal a strong coupling role between physical properties and NTE. There is a general nature of NTE for both ferroelectrics and magnetics, in which NTE is determined by either ferroelectric order or magnetic one. In NTE functional materials, a multi-way to control thermal expansion can be established through the coupling roles of ferroelectricity-NTE, magnetism-NTE, change of electron configuration-NTE, open-framework-NTE, and so on. Chemical modification has been proved to be an effective method to control thermal expansion. Finally, challenges and questions are discussed for the development of NTE materials. There remains a challenge to discover a "perfect" NTE material for each specific application for chemists. The future studies on NTE functional materials will definitely promote the development of NTE materials.

  7. Participatory evaluation of community actions as a learning methodology for personal and community empowerment: case studies and empowerment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Úcar Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Participatory evaluation (PE is a hybrid methodology that can be used simultaneously to investigate and act in groups and communities. It can generate new knowledge about reality, but italso allows changes in the participants and their sociocultural context. This research project, developed over three years, aims to find out whether PE processes are useful and appropriate to evaluate community actionsand to generate learning that contribute to the empowerment of people who develop them.Method: The methodological structure of the research process design Participatory Evaluation processes that are applied in three selected communities-cases, over one year. The steering groups in each caseevaluated four dimensions of Community Development Plans: context, evolution, performance and results, using different techniques and group dynamics. Throughout this process, participants identify the acquiredknowledge and this is linked to indicators of empowerment, using questionnaires, content analysis and semi-structured interviews.Results: The development PE process in the three analyzed cases confirmed that PE is a useful strategy to assess participatory community actions of a territory; to report them to the people of the community; andto make shared decisions, about initiatives in order to improve community actions. The obtained results also verify that, throughout PE, there has been learning in the participants.Conclusions: The involvement of community members in the evaluation makes it more useful, fairer and more valid, but also a fourth positive consequence of PE is empowerment. From the process and the resultsof these cases of Participatory Evaluation, we consider that community EP is social transformation.

  8. Using the blog and media resources for the expansion of forms of communication and social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes of the use of media and interactive resources for the empowerment of individuals in vulnerable situations to expand their possibilities of communication and social participation, starting from the report of the experience of a university extension program, which proposed the development and use of a blog among other media resources, in workshops activities, Dynamics and Projects that integrate an intervention of social occupational therapy with the poor youth. This experience allowed the expansion of the repertoire of activities of the youth, promoting awareness of concepts, techniques and equipment, previously little available, accessible and used. The records of the contents of the blog were done in a participatory manner, generating reflection on roles and identities. Being and doing in virtual space allowed actions and real productions of adolescents and youths to be empowered when “virtualized”, providing a dimension that is not always possible to achieve in the “real” context. The blog posts resulted in a self-valorization of the population, creating places of belonging for particular social subjects, with the right to culture, communication and technology. Consequently, there was the empowerment of subjects, from the increasing social participation and achievement of the new media, which expanded their sociocultural boundaries. Moreover, it offered an expansion of the scope of resources for action on social occupational therapy, opening spaces, real and virtual, for collective experiences, for sociability and the understanding and transformation of meanings about life and about the reality in which we live.

  9. Renormalization group and Mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1984-02-01

    Mayer expansions promise to become a powerful tool in exact renormalization group calculations. Iterated Mayer expansions were sucessfully used in the rigorous analysis of 3-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge theory by Goepfert and the author, and it is hoped that they will also be useful in the 2-dimensional nonlinear sigma-model, and elsewhere. (orig.)

  10. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  11. Renormalization group and mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1984-01-01

    Mayer expansions promise to become a powerful tool in exact renormalization group calculations. Iterated Mayer expansions were sucessfully used in the rigorous analysis of 3-dimensional U (1) lattice gauge theory by Gopfert and the author, and it is hoped that they will also be useful in the 2-dimensional nonlinear σ-model, and elsewhere

  12. On summation of perturbation expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzela, A.

    1985-04-01

    The problem of the restoration of physical quantities defined by divergent perturbation expansions is analysed. The Pad'e and Borel summability is proved for alternating perturbation expansions with factorially growing coefficients. The proof is based on the methods of the classical moments theory. 17 refs. (author)

  13. Predicted range expansion of Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) in forestlands of the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang; William Grant; Todd Swannack; Jianbang Gan; William Rogers; Tomasz Koralewski; James Miller; John W. Taylor Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We present an integrated approach for predicting future range expansion of an invasive species (Chinese tallow tree) that incorporates statistical forecasting and analytical techniques within a spatially explicit, agent-based, simulation framework.

  14. Progress towards Millennium Development Goals with women empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Chaturvedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women empowerment is a powerful determinant of their own, children’s and their families’ health. Perhaps, due to this fact, promotion of gender equality and empowering women was kept as one of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs.Objective: The present analysis was undertaken to study the effect of women empowerment on health of women, family planning and various health indicators of children.Methods: Available data from National Surveys in India, various research studies and evidences from published global studies were gathered and further analyzed.Results: Census 2011 (India have shown that states having higher women literacy, like Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra (75%, have better positive indicators of health than states like Rajasthan with 53 % literacy. NFHS -3 (India showed that empowered women had better access to maternal services (76 %, more use of contraception (66.6% and resultantly, had lower neonatal mortality (36%. As against this, for less empowered women, access to maternal services (72 % is low, lesser use of contraception (44% and relatively higher neonatal mortality (43%. A systematic analysis of 175 countries (Lancet, 2010 has established that increase in women education decreases under five child mortality.Conclusions: Investments in women’s employment, health and education, are correlated with a range of positive outcomes, including greater economic growth and children’s health and survival.

  15. Religion, spirituality, and cancer: the question of individual empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonarx, Nicolas; Hyppolite, Shelley-Rose

    2013-01-01

    It has often been noted that people with a severe illness endeavor to deepen their religious and spiritual practice and knowledge. It is generally accepted that spiritual and religious factors help sick people confront their suffering. The authors conducted a qualitative research on the role of religious and spiritual practices and knowledge among 10 cancer patients in Québec, Canada. Individual interviews focused on their illness experience confirmed that religion and spirituality can be present and contribute to coping when life is threatened. More precisely, the analyses of the place and use of these resources during the patient's illness showed that these resources contributed to an individual empowerment process that was undertaken in response to a biographic and existential disruption induced by the illness diagnosis. The sick people took advantage of religious and spiritual content in their quest for meaning and a cure, progressing from a stage of despair and powerlessness to a stage of hope, a critical analysis of the disease, and a better management and control of it and its evolution. This article describes how people suffering from cancer use and participate in religious and spiritual content. It demonstrates the contribution of this content to an individual empowerment process. The use of religion and spirituality constitutes a quest for self-mastery, an acquiring of power and control. We understand that religious and spiritual phenomena do not always prevent people from fighting against their suffering, limit their freedom, or systematically reduce people's viewpoints and worldviews.

  16. Virtues in participatory design: cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Marc

    2013-09-01

    In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and based on key texts in PD, the virtues of cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity are discussed. Cooperation helps people in PD projects to engage in cooperative curiosity and cooperative creativity. Curiosity helps them to empathize with others and their experiences, and to engage in joint learning. Creativity helps them to envision, try out and materialize ideas, and to jointly create new products and services. Empowerment helps them to share power and to enable other people to flourish. Moreover, reflexivity helps them to perceive and to modify their own thoughts, feelings and actions. In the spirit of virtue ethics-which focuses on specific people in concrete situations-several examples from one PD project are provided. Virtue ethics is likely to appeal to people in PD projects because it is practice-oriented, provides room for exploration and experimentation, and promotes professional and personal development. In closing, some ideas for practical application, for education and for further research are discussed.

  17. Progress towards Millennium Development Goals with women empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Chaturvedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women empowerment is a powerful determinant of their own, children’s and their families’ health. Perhaps, due to this fact, promotion of gender equality and empowering women was kept as one of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. Objective: The present analysis was undertaken to study the effect of women empowerment on health of women, family planning and various health indicators of children. Methods: Available data from National Surveys in India, various research studies and evidences from published global studies were gathered and further analyzed. Results: Census 2011 (India have shown that states having higher women literacy, like Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra (75%, have better positive indicators of health than states like Rajasthan with 53 % literacy. NFHS -3 (India showed that empowered women had better access to maternal services (76 %, more use of contraception (66.6% and resultantly, had lower neonatal mortality (36%. As against this, for less empowered women, access to maternal services (72 % is low, lesser use of contraception (44% and relatively higher neonatal mortality (43%. A systematic analysis of 175 countries (Lancet, 2010 has established that increase in women education decreases under five child mortality. Conclusions: Investments in women’s employment, health and education, are correlated with a range of positive outcomes, including greater economic growth and children’s health and survival.

  18. [Study on empowerment factors for career continuity of hospital nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirosato; Ito, Yukie; Yoshida, Aki; Mizuno, Shizue; Ogoshi, Kumiko; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2015-01-01

    The resignation rate of nurses working in hospitals is extremely high. This study aims to identify both the factors related to the resignation of nurses and the empowerment factors supporting their job retention. In 2011 we conducted a Web-based questionnaire survey of nurses with less than 10 years of working experience. There were 25 survey items including the following reasons for choosing the current employment position, intention of continuing work, sense of fulfillment and the presence or absence of problems in the current workplace. In addition, nurses who previously had resigned were asked why they left their last workplace. The reasons why they chose the current workplace were markedly different between the not-resigned (A group) and previously resigned (B group) nurses. As a result of cluster analysis, the reasons for resignation were classified into six clusters; "overwork", "burnout", "bad atmosphere", "work life balance factors", "working conditions" and "marriage". In this study, it is shown that there is a positive correlation between the sense of fulfillment at work and the intention to do research work. It is suggested that encouragement of nurses to undertake research work is one of the empowerment factors supporting their job retention.

  19. Social Empowerment of Intellectually Impaired through a Cloud Mobile System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Freina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is not a unique definition of “empowerment”, nevertheless the idea that it involves, on the one hand, people having control over their own lives and, on the other, some social aspects seems to be a common characteristic. Most authors recognize three levels of empowerment: individual, group, and community level, which are interconnected and changes at one level influence the others. Enhancing individual competence and self-esteem has a direct effect on the control of one’s own life and, in turn, on the social components of empowerment. In this paper we present Smart Angel, a project that aims at creating a network involving families, caregivers, experts, and tutors, as well as the final users and their friends, based on a mobile cloud system in support of both everyday living and urban mobility for people with medium-mild intellectual disabilities, with particular attention to the Down syndrome. The system can be seen as a tool to empower its users to be more independent and therefore increasing their possibility to have an active role in their life and an active participation to the community.

  20. Effects of Child Marriage on Girls’ Education and Empowerment

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    Shamnaz Arifin Mim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although Convention on the Rights of Child declared that any marriage of an under 18 child will be considered as “Child Marriage”, the age limit of girls’ marriage was proposed to change from 18 to 16 in the draft Child Marriage Restraint Act Bangladesh 2014. This paper aims to analyse the effects of child marriage on Bangladeshi village girls’ formal education and empowerment which hopefully will lead to bring awareness among the patriarchal societies. Rangpur region was purposively selected to design this study in a case study approach. The concept of empowerment was used with an interpretive methodological approach which allowed to consciously interpreting the data from secondary relevant sources. The findings of this review article revealed the ways in which child marriages hinder the opportunity of girls to be educated and push them back to not being empowered in the patriarchal society. The study’s implication for policy and practice rooted deeply on the collaboration of NGO programmes, government interventions and family support.