WorldWideScience

Sample records for employment protection legislation

  1. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  2. Reflections On Employment Protection Legislation: An International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMINE SAMIR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, as in the rest of industrialized countries, reforms of the labour market have generally concerned employment protection legislation (EPL. One of the main missions of this legislation is to insure security for workers, particularly in case of redundancy. The object of this article is to compare the strictness and the degree of rigidity of EPL in two different economies, namely, Canada and France. This choice is justified by the fact that the labour market policies in both countries do not have the same orientation and are based on different ideological references.

  3. Employment protection

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Scarpetta

    2014-01-01

    Laws on hiring and firing are intended to protect workers from unfair behavior by employers, to counter imperfections in financial markets that limit workers’ ability to insure themselves against job loss, and to preserve firm-specific human capital. But by imposing costs on firms’ adaptation to changes in demand and technology, employment protection legislation may reduce not only job destruction but also job creation, hindering the efficient allocation of labor and productivity growth....

  4. Flexibility in radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.; Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The UK approach to radiation protection legislation is described in detail. The advantages are outlined of a flexible approach whereby the objectives of the legislation are clearly identified but the means of achieving these are left open or qualified by terms such as 'where reasonably practicable'. The roles and viewpoints of management and unions in such an approach are discussed especially with respect to legislation such as the Health and Safety at Work Act. Specific topics include requirements for notification of use, criteria for controlled areas and the tasks of the radiation protection adviser. (UK)

  5. Characteristics of radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig Cardozo, Diva E.

    2001-01-01

    The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

  6. Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, Lars.

    1990-01-01

    Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

  7. Legal protection of the right to work and employment for persons with mental health problems: a review of legislation across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardodkar, Renuka; Pathare, Soumitra; Ventriglio, Antonio; Castaldelli-Maia, João; Javate, Kenneth R; Torales, Julio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    The right to work and employment is indispensable for social integration of persons with mental health problems. This study examined whether existing laws pose structural barriers in the realization of right to work and employment of persons with mental health problems across the world. It reviewed disability-specific, human rights legislation, and labour laws of all UN Member States in the context of Article 27 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). It wes found that laws in 62% of countries explicitly mention mental disability/impairment/illness in the definition of disability. In 64% of countries, laws prohibit discrimination against persons with mental health during recruitment; in one-third of countries laws prohibit discontinuation of employment. More than half (56%) the countries have laws in place which offer access to reasonable accommodation in the workplace. In 59% of countries laws promote employment of persons with mental health problems through different affirmative actions. Nearly 50 years after the adoption of the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights and 10 years after the adoption of CRPD by the UN General Assembly, legal discrimination against persons with mental health problems continues to exist globally. Countries and policy-makers need to implement legislative measures to ensure non-discrimination of persons with mental health problems during employment.

  8. Domestic hygienic legislation concerning population radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems and principles of domestic sanitary legislation, concerning population radiation protection, are considered. The legislation envisages preventive measures, directed to contamination preventation of the main environmental objects, it regulates their content in the objects, their human intake and ionizing radiation doses, which might affect population. Existing domestic hygienic guides and safety standards for personnel and population are enumerated and characterized

  9. Contextualising institutional complementarity. : How long-term unemployment depends on active labour market policies, employment protection legislation and the economic climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda, L; F. Koster (Ferry); R.J. van der Veen (Romke)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigated if and how active labour market policies (ALMPs) and employment protection interact with each other in light of long‐term unemployment reduction. We argue that how well the interaction between both labour market institutions reduces long‐term unemployment depends

  10. Standardization and workers' protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliesch, G.

    1979-01-01

    There are distinct laws guaranteeing the protection of workers in the social and medical field, but the protection of workers in the technical field is based on a simple, general clause relating to technical standards, i.e. to a confusing variety of regulations. The author therefore asks for DIN standards to be set up in order to achieve a consistent and uniform set of rules and regulations. He furthermore points out that it is up to the government to initiate appropriate procedures within the framework of constitutional law towards solving the essential problem, namely that of directly incorporating technical expert knowledge in legal provisions. (HSCH) [de

  11. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Lemesch, C.

    1980-01-01

    Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

  12. Radiation protection - the employer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.

    1983-01-01

    A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned the employers' viewpoint on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. It was concluded that there was already a very good standard of radiological protection in the UK and that any improvements could therefore only be fringe improvements, although the cost to the employer of introducing and implementing the new proposed Regulations was bound to be high. (U.K.)

  13. THE STATUS OF THE EMPLOYED PEOPLE WITH MENTAL RETARDATION IN THE PROTECTIVE COMPANIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ACCORDING TO THE CONTEMPORARY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena DIMKOVA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Employment, i.e. the right of people with disabili­ties to work, is the last phase of an extended and complex process of their rehabilitation. The em­ployment is the last phase of the integration of these people in the social environment. In all developed counties, the right to work presents one of the fundamental human rights. The question regarding employment of people with mental retar­dation is a current issue at present, especially be­cause a lot of people with disability who are able to work have met resistance by the employers.

  14. Welfare Effects of Employment Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belot, M.V.K.; Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Employment protection is often related to costs incurred by the firms when they hire a worker.The stability of the employment relationship, enhanced by employment protection, is also favorable to the productivity of the job.We analyze employment protection focusing on this trade-off between

  15. Perspectives for environmental radiation protection in EU radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    2000-01-01

    The basis of EU radiation protection legislation is the EURATOM Trealy. It is discussed whether the Treaty offers a legal basis for the protection of the natural environment. The incorporation of provisions pertaining to the nuclear fuel cycle or to radioactive substances in general environmental legislation is explained, as well as the possible implications of international conventions subscribed by the European Union. The European Commission is in the process of developing an overall approach to risk analysis for the protection of health, consumer interests, and the environment. It is examined to what extent the consideration of the impact of radiation on the natural environment fits in the overall framework and whether the principles underlying classical radiation protection are applicable to biota. Specific attention is given to situations where high levels of environmental radioactivity would require intervention. (Author)

  16. Legal Knowledge of Legislated Employment Rights: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hapriza Ashari; Nik Ahmad Kamal Nik Mahmod

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to assess the level of basic knowledge of statutory employment rights at the workplace as prescribed by the Malaysian Employment Act 1955. The statutory employment rights comprises of a variety of individual employment rights such as protections of wages, statutory right to the general standard of working time, statutory right to rest day, public holidays, annual leave and sick leave as well as female employee’s statutory right to paid maternity leave. A field survey was car...

  17. How to use pre-employment medical examinations and comply with Anti-Discrimination legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, D. [Sparke Helmore Solicitors and Notaries, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The law including legislation such as the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1983 imposes stringent obligations on employers to ensure the health and safety of their employees. The use of pre-employment medical examinations is one tool that employers can use to assess the suitability of applicant for a particular position and protect themselves from persecution or claims for compensation or damages. At the same time, however, legislation such as The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 (Commonwealth) (DDA) and The Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (New South wales) (ADA) affords protection to individuals against discrimination. This legislation is intended to ensure, as far as is practicable, that people with disabilities are treated equally to other members of the community and are brought into the mainstream of our society as far as possible. It makes it unlawful for employers to discriminate against prospective employees because of their disability. In the context of pre-employment medicals, the protection from discrimination is designed to ensure that job applicants with disabilities have as much opportunity to obtain employment as able bodied applicants. Employers must ensure that they use pre-employment medical examinations in a way that is both relevant for their workplace and complies with the requirements of Anti-Discrimination legislation. The definition of discrimination in the Federal and State Acts is virtually identical except for variations in the type and extent of various exceptions. Complainants are free to choose between State and Federal jurisdiction in situations which are covered by both. While the Equal Opportunity Tribunal (State) cannot order damages in excess of 40,000,000 dollars there is no limit on the amount of damages the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (Federal) can award.

  18. Globalization and protection of employment

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina A.V.; Somogyi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Unionists and politicians frequently claim that globalization lowers employment protection of workers. This paper tests this hypothesis in a panel of 28 OECD countries from 1985 to 2003, differentiating between three dimensions of globalization and two labor market segments. While overall globalization is shown to loosen protection of the regularly employed, it increases regulation in the segment of limited-term contracts. We find economic and political globalization to drive deregulation ...

  19. Radiation protection legislation in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1992-01-01

    A close collaboration exists in the Nordic countries in the field of radiation protection. The radiation protection authorities attach major importance to a uniform interpretation of the international recommendations. The legal situation of the Nordic countries in the radiation protection field will be reviewed with the main emphasis on the new Swedish and Finnish laws. (author)

  20. New radiation protection legislation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jender, M.; Persson, Lars

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the new Act is to protect humans, animals and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing as well as non-ionizing radiation. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with a single central radiation protection authority. According to the Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will assign greater responsibility than in the past to persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Persons engaged in such activities will be responsible for the safe processing and storage of radioactive waste. The Act also contains rules governing decommissioning of technical equipment capable of generating radiation. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervisory authority may, in particular, decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The scope for using penal provisions has been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders regarding radiation protection measures has been introduced. (authors)

  1. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Lemesch, C.

    1980-01-01

    A committee of experts appointed by the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs has proposed a comprehensive draft regulation, concerning the legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. The first section of the proposed regulation sets forth guidelines for control in facilities where workers handle radioactive materials or radiation equipment. This includes the duties of the managers of such places to ensure adequate radiation protection and also the maximum recommended doses (whole body and individual organs) for radiation workers. The second section deals with the monitoring regulations for radiation workers who may be exposed to doses in excess of 500 mRem/y. The third section outlines the nature of the mechanical supervision required, i.e. routine and special examinations. Finally the committee also proposed six miscellaneous recommendations for radiation protection. (UK)

  2. The new Brazilian legislation on nuclear protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Denise

    1981-10-01

    This paper considers the new system on nuclear protection in Brazil which was established to integrate all government agencies and private bodies involved in nuclear activities. The role of each organisation is analysed in relation to the Brazilian political and administrative structure, in particular that of the Nuclear Energy Commission. (NEA) [fr

  3. Globalization and deregulation: does flexicuritiy protect atypically employed?

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, Hartmut; Tangian, Andranik S.

    2006-01-01

    "Hitherto, discussion of flexicurity has focused on normal employment (permanent full-time), with atypical work receiving only cursory attention. Nevertheless, the most affected are just atypically employed (= other than normally employed). To monitor effects of flexicurity policies in Europe, flexicurity indices are constructed from: (a) scores of the strictness of employment protection legislation provided by the OECD, (b) qualitative juridical data on social security benefits (unemployment...

  4. Radiation protection and atomic energy legislation in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation protection and atomic energy laws of the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden are presented in this report in their status of March 1, 1984. As a background to this legislation the Nordic co-operation is briefly reviewed and the common basis for the legal texts is given. Some historical remarks for the legislation of each country are included. (orig./HP)

  5. Radiation Protection of Patients in Croatian Legislative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, M.; Molnar, M.; Kozuh, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The value of radiological examinations has been established over the last 100 years by custom and practice. Problem often occurs when scientific initiatives affect usual philosophy and tradition. At present, to many X-ray examinations are performed which are not clinically justified. In some counties in Croatia there are about 1000 examinations per 1000 inhabitants. Whereas in others, as well as in developed countries, it is at the 500 - 600 level. There is still a need to know what is the desirable level of radiological practice. Subsidiary is often used as an excuse not to take any action at all. Criteria are needed for deciding on the optimum number for particular procedures like CT or the length of time for fluoroscopy. Europe has repeatedly been the scene for harmonised improvements in medical exposure through introduction of its Medical Exposure Directive (1997). To be in a line Croatian authorities issued Regulation on Patient Protection (1999) based on this Directive and ICRP Publication 73. This Regulation includes a number of issues which have potential to improve the safety and quality of medical use of ionising radiation. Introduced diagnostic dose reference values are related to clinical questions and radiographic techniques as recommended in European or similar guidelines. These are supplementary to clinical judgement on image quality. Quality assurance programmes should be in place and these should be audited. There should be inspections of X-ray departments by the competent authorities and there should be clinical evaluation of the outcomes of various radiological examinations. Equipment must be quality assured on a regular basis. It must be capable of producing satisfactory images within reference levels set down at national level. Every effort should be made to avoid high and unnecessary exposures.(author)

  6. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the legislation activities of the UJD are presented. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD) of the Slovak Republic, as the central body, performs legislative activities within its competence and defines binding criteria in the area of nuclear safety. In the area of nuclear safety the Act No.130/1998 Coll. 'on peaceful use of nuclear energy' (Atomic Act) is the principal document which came into force on July 1, 1998. Based on the Atomic Act UJD issued decrees on special materials and installations, limits for maximum quantities of nuclear materials at which nuclear damage is not presumed. Furthermore, the regulations are issued which deal with provision of physical protection of nuclear material and radioactive waste, professional ability of employees at nuclear installations, registration and control of nuclear materials, emergency planning for the case of an incident or an events on nuclear installations at their decommissioning, transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive waste. Simultaneously, other 6 regulations are just before the before the completion and they are in various stages of the of the legislative process. In addition, UJD performs remarkable activities in legislative area by preparation of comments to drafts of other relating generally binding legal provisions of the Slovak Republic. UJD also acts as the participant of the review procedure in the area of technical standards and publication. UJD also issues documents which have character of the recommendations, so called safety guides. These guides contain methods and approach how to meet safety requirements presented in binding documents, as acts and decrees. In accordance with the Atomic act it is possible to use nuclear energy or make business in the area of nuclear energy only the basis of the authorisation issued by UJD. Authorisations are following

  7. "Unnecessary suffering": the cornerstone of animal protection legislation considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, M

    1999-09-01

    Causing "unnecessary suffering" has been widely adopted in legislation to define criminal liability in respect of the treatment of animals. This article examines the way in which the term has been interpreted and applied by the courts, and considers its effectiveness in affording animals protection from abuse.

  8. Legislative Protection of Property Rights in Ethiopia: An Overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are ambiguities, inconsistencies, gaps and outdated features in the legislative protection of some property rights in Ethiopia. Moreover, there is the bestowal of wide and undue discretion to various administrative authorities without judicial scrutiny. These problems clearly lead to discretionary and arbitrary ...

  9. Flexibility in radiation protection legislation -the UK approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.; Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The case for flexibility in the formulation of radiation protection legislation and that for precise invariable requirements which are applicable to all users of ionising radiations are presented. It is asserted that greater participation on the part of persons affected in the shaping of legislation brings with it a commitment to flexibility if consensus is to be achieved. The nature of the participative and consultative processes in the UK is described. The means by which flexibility will be inbuilt into future UK legislation are discussed, taking as examples, three particular areas: a) Notification of use of ionising radiations, where flexibility needs to be introduced to take care of improved knowledge of potential risk, the avoidance of bureaucratic procedures, and the wide variation in practice from one work activity to another; b) The definition of controlled areas, where flexibility is needed to cope with the wide range of potential use situations, yet if controlled areas are to be the route to defining Category A workers, where that flexibility must be restrained to ensure proper categorysation and effective enforcement; c) The criteria for the need to appoint and for the selection of radiation protection advisers where flexibility must be invoked to ensure that any particular task is matched by the quality of the radiation protection adviser concerned. It is concluded that the proposed UK legislation will achieve flexibility where this is appropriate and cost-effective and on the other hand demand adherence to strictly expressed levels of exposure where that is appropriate. (author)

  10. The Impact of Employment Nondiscrimination Legislation in South Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Naomi G; Badgett, M V Lee; Ramos, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the issue of employment discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) citizens of South Dakota. We used the best available data from government sources and from recent research to examine the impact of employment discrimination on LGBT people and on South Dakota businesses. Specifically this report concludes that as many as 12,400 gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals live in South Dakota, and estimates suggest that 2,000 transgender individuals l...

  11. Some remarks on the Austrian radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, H.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the provisions of the Austrian Radiation Protection Law and Radiation Protection Ordinance differ from those recommended by ICRP and IAEO. This is particularly true for the definition of working conditions, the categorization of radiation areas and the classification of radiation workers. It is suggested that the responsible authorities when considering a revision of the legislation in the light of ICRP 26 and the revised IAEA Basic Safety Standards, also study the desirability of adapting the currently applicable provisions to the universally accepted international norms. (Auth.)

  12. Regional legislation in Italy for the protection of local varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertacchini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the consequences of regional legislation in Italy on protecting local and autochthonous varieties. In accordance with the objectives of the FAO treaty on plant genetic resources (ITPGRFA, these laws have emerged as one of the most interesting institutional attempts at Italian and European level towards enhancing and protecting agricultural biodiversity. A description of the regional laws and their implementation highlights the importance of supporting farming systems that are close relationship with the territory and local communities, creating sufficient juridical space for the varieties that are not part of the ‘formal’ seed system.

  13. Sexual orientation, gender identity and non-discrimination - The Albanian labor legislation and its effects on employment and vocational training potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Shtylla

    2013-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of Albania, the Albanian labour legislation and the legislation generally, are inspired in accordance with the non-discrimination principles, objectives and definitions of international acts, promoting and expressing protection of human rights and freedoms in general, and in particular in the field of employment and vocational training. This paper will analyze, if the sexual orientation, is one of the causes of discrimination for employment and vocational training, in Albanian legislation, especially how it is expressed this issue on the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, the Albanian Labour Code, the Albanian law “On the protection against discrimination” ect.

  14. Legal protection of pet animals in domestic legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić-Trninić Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the author's analysis is the issue of legal protection of pet animals. Through analysis of applicable provisions contained in the Act on Animal Welfare of Serbia, on one hand, and the fundamental principles and provisions set out in the European Convention for the Protection of Pet animals, on the other hand, this paper attempts to point out the degree of legal protection that pet animals are awarded under domestic legal regulations, as well as to answer the question of compatibility of the national legislation with the international standards set out in the mentioned European Convention regarding the above mentioned question. In addition, since the legal protection of pet animals is also regulated by relevant by-laws in our law, the analysis of certain aspects of protection provided to pet animals, specifically the Decision of the city of Novi Sad on keeping of domesticated animals, the paper attempts to draw attention to compliance of the solutions adopted in this legal act, with the fundamental principles of protection, provided to pets by laws or the Act on Animal Welfare of Serbia. Finally, in order to provide a more comprehensive insight in terms of achievement of the legal protection of pets in Serbian law, the paper analyzes the types of unlawful conduct of the owner or the holder of the animals, as well as their respective sanctioning prescribed in specific laws or bylaws.

  15. Employment protection and temporary work agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Florian; Mechtel, Mario; Stähler, Nikolai

    2008-01-01

    Employers who use temporary agency staff in contrast to regular staff are not affected by employment protection regulations when terminating a job. Therefore, services provided by temporary work agencies may be seen as a substitute for regular employment. In this paper, we analyze the effects of employment protection on the size of the temporary work agency sector in a model of equilibrium unemployment. We find that higher firing costs may even reduce temporary work agency employment if agenc...

  16. The International Employment Protection Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Pavlo V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the need for corporate protection of staff in accordance with both the European and the International labor law. The author defines the essence of the category of «protection of staff», its constituent elements and the importance of function of this mechanism in terms of corporate security. The main methods used in the international practice to achieve a high degree of protection of staff have been systematized and presented. The main stages of development and tendencies concerning the formation of instruments for protection of staff have been analyzed, and the principal indices to assess the degree of protection of staff have been determined.

  17. Protection of Mutual Interests? Employment Protection and Skill Formation in Different Labour Market Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund, Jonas; Grönlund, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Abstract ? The `varieties of capitalism' school argues that firm-specific skills are more common in coordinated than in liberal economies and that appropriate training is facilitated by employment protection legislation. We compare the level of firm-specific skills across 21 countries with different capacities for labour market coordination. The data provide very limited support ...

  18. Protective legislation, ionizing radiation and health: a new appraisal and international survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellman, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Restrictive regulations (protective legislation) on employment conditions of female workers limiting maximum hours of work and prohibiting certain toxic exposures have existed for decades. In some countries, such as the United States, Canada and the Nordic countries, the growth of civil rights and equal opportunity legislation has led to their elimination, either in fact or in practice, and only a small number of disparate regulations for male and female workers still exist. Most other industrialized countries, as well as the International Labour Office of the United Nations, still have active restrictive rules for women's employment. However, restrictive regulation is an area of active policy debate around the world. International examples of the debate on protective legislation are given here. A specific case study of the occupational health standards governing exposure to ionizing radiation is used and its technical rationale discussed as an illustration of the basic issues. These include: overbroad categorization of all women as potential childbearers, no matter what their childbearing intentions; failure to recognize the full range of potential adverse health effects to males; disparate application of the restrictive regulations, generally to occupations or areas of employment that are traditionally held by men, while traditional female jobs with the same exposures are excluded from the regulatory restriction

  19. Patient advocacy versus employer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubner, David; Sturm, Richard E

    2002-01-01

    In a departure from the usual Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews article, this piece comprises responses from two occupational physicians to the question of how balance is achieved between employer and patient interests in occupational medicine. The authors discuss the ethical dilemmas that may arise in such relationships, negotiation of confrontations, physician responsibilities, and conflict resolution.

  20. Uniformity in radiation protection legislation in Australia: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robotham, F.P.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a recent licensing/approval process conducted by a company that has three plants utilizing large sealed sources of Cobalt-60, in one case approximately 70PBq. The company has operated successfully in one Australian State since 1971 and in a second since 1985. By 1999 it became apparent that there was sufficient business to warrant the opening of a third plant in a third Australian State. The plant chosen has a design capacity of 185PBq and an initial loading of 1 IPBq. This paper describes some of the licensing process and demonstrates, I believe, the urgent need for both uniformity in Australian Radiation Safety Legislation and consistency in interpretation and implementation. Copyright (2003) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  1. Employment protection in Dutch collective labour agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, T.

    2007-01-01

    The Dutch system of employment protection is often perceived as too strict for workers on permanent contracts, because of the large procedural inconveniences, difficulty of dismissal and high severance pay. It is suggested that the system of employment protection lowers labour market flexibility by

  2. New Ontario power legislation aims to protect consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-09-01

    New legislation designed to improve regulation of the electricity sector in Ontario was introduced by the provincial government in June 2000, the first such legislation since the government mandated an open electricity market with the Energy Competition Act of 1998. The new legislation is described as narrowly focused on putting limits on local power rate increases. The legislation was introduced in combination with a directive to the Ontario Energy Board, and is designed to ensure that the Board approves municipal electric utility rates only when certain conditions are met. The Energy Minister was at great pains to point out that the legislation should not be interpreted as the government interfering in the marketplace, it is merely to help the utility wires side of the business during a two-year transition period. Municipal authorities reacted unfavorably to the legislation because it appears to require them to return significant assets to their utilities, assets that they considered as theirs under municipal restructuring. Energy Probe, an environmental advocacy group, suggested an alternative to the legislation, i. e., the government should allow the price increases requested by the municipal utilities to go through, but to leave consumers whole, it should impose a windfall profits tax on municipal governments, use the proceeds to reduce debt retirement taxes in the electricity bill, a leftover from Ontario Hydro's debt and stranded nuclear waste liabilities, and eliminate the province's own electricity tax on consumers. No direct reaction has been received from the Minister to date. If the legislation is passed in its present form it will prevent municipalities from using windfall profits from their utilities to justify rate hikes.

  3. Towards Uniformity of Radiation Protection Legislation in a Multi-jurisdictional country- the Australian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J. G.

    2004-01-01

    Australia is a federation of nine jurisdictions, each with independent radiation protection legislation. The existing legislative non-uniformity across the jurisdictions has constituted an impediment for operators who must comply with differing legislative requirements in different jurisdictions. To address this issue, a National Competition Policy Review of Radiation Protection Legislation took place in 2000/2001. It has produced 19 Recommendations, which addressed objectives of the legislation, the need to regulate, alternative regulatory approaches, national uniformity, licensing and registration, strict and prescriptive standards, advertising and promotional activities, compliance costs and cost recovery issues. The Review has recommended that jurisdictions should retain the regulatory approach to achieve radiation protection objectives rather than leave them to be decided by market forces. But the approach should be performance-based, i.e. outcome-focused rather than prescriptive. An Implementation Plan of the Recommendations has been created which, by the end of 2004, will produce the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The Directory, which will become a consolidated repository of radiation protection standards, guidelines, codes of practice and administrative principles will provide a uniform national framework for radiation protection legislation in Australia. It will provide guidance for the jurisdictions redrawing their legislations. Because of its central role in shaping future legislation, the Directory will contain only those provisions, which have passed a formal process (process for issue resolution) concluded by an approval by the Australian Health Ministers Conference. Such process will also expedite the uniform adoption nationwide of legislative trends emerging from international radiation protection recommendations and standards. This Australian model might be a viable example for other multi-jurisdictional countries to consider

  4. Social protection of marginal part-time, self-employment and secondary jobs in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Gijsbert; Jansen, Annette

    In many European countries, marginal part-time, (solo-) self-employment and secondary jobs has been increasing since the last decades. The question about the provision of social protection and labour legislation for these types of employment is the starting point for a project entitled “Hybrid

  5. The Protection of Animals in Thailand--An Insight into Animal Protection Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Dorloh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many critics of current Thai law concerning the welfare of animals. They argue that the PACPAWA,2014 is inadequate to protect the welfare of animals. The absence of clear guidelines in the legislation concerning animal welfare has resulted in animal welfare receiving inadequate protection. There are other limitations contributing to the inadequacy of existing laws in protecting animals in Thailand. The possible penalties are very low. For the offence of cruelty against an animal, the PACPAWA,2014 sets a maximum fine of TBH 2000. This is considered inadequate and ineffective in preventing cruelty to animals. The study utilises doctrinal legal research or library-based research approach to provide valuable insights in understanding the law and and ascertaining the principles of legal interpretation and analysis. The study also provides possible suggestions to enhance the protection of the welfare of animals in Thailand. The research suggests that education should play an important role in promoting kindness towards animals.

  6. A battle over birth "control": legal and legislative employer prescription contraception benefit mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, C Keanin

    2002-12-01

    Under the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), employers are prohibited from discriminating against women by treating pregnancy and childbirth different from other medical conditions. Employers who offer medical benefits to their employees have thus been required to cover pregnancy-related medical costs on the same terms as other medical coverage. The cost of prescription contraception, however, has generally not been covered by employer-sponsored medical plans, even while other prescription drugs were. This Note examines the recent case of Erickson v. Bartell Drug Co., which challenged this practice of excluding prescription contraception coverage as discriminatory under the PDA, and argues that further federal legislation is necessary to ensure the equal treatment of women in the workplace.

  7. [The REACH legislation: the consumer and environment protection perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, Ursula

    2008-12-01

    REACH has been initiated with the aim of improving existing legislation. In order to assist in the interpretation of the REACH legislation, guidance documents have been developed, which have only lately become available. According to the REACH annexes and supported by guidance documents, waiving of test requirements will be possible, thus, opening the possibility that under REACH no new (eco)toxicological data will be required. Concerning products, a guidance document was released in April 2008 stating that the substance concentration threshold of 0.1 % (w/w) applies to the article as produced or imported and it does not relate to the homogeneous materials or parts of an article, but relates to the article as such (i.e., as produced or imported). Hence, notification will not be required for many products containing chemicals with properties which place them on the candidate list for authorization. In summary, it is at present not foreseeable whether the expected benefit of the REACH legislation will materialise for the environment and for the health of consumers and at the work place.

  8. The development of occupational, public and environmental radiation protection legislation in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bines, W.P.; Chandler, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    In Great Britain, legislation to protect workers exposed to ionising radiation has developed separately from, but largely in parallel with, legislation to protect the public and the environment. Occupational radiation protection started from a narrow and industry specific base in 1947. Over the succeeding years, and partly in response to the obligations arising from the United Kingdom's accession to the European Community, this narrow base has broadened. As the nuclear power industry developed in Great Britain so did a separate and rigorous regulatory regime for nuclear installations, starting with the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959. The 1959 Act was amended by the Nuclear Installations Act 1965. From 1974, all occupational health and safety legislation began to be brought under the umbrella of a new legal framework, the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act, which for the first time adopted an across-the board approach to all work activities and goal-setting, rather than prescriptive, legislation. The purpose of the Act was to provide one comprehensive and integrated system of law concerning health and safety (including the self-employed) and also public safety, so far as it was affected by work activities. The Act also provided for consultation with all interested parties during the development of legislation. The first across the board occupational radiation protection legislation, covering all uses and users of ionising radiation (including, for the first time, exposure to natural radiation), arrived with the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 and supporting Approved Codes of Practice and non-statutory guidance. The need for some controls on the use of radioactive materials that went wider than simply the protection of workers was recognised in 1948, when the first Radioactive Substances Act was made. Although the 1948 Act was the first to mention radioactive waste specifically, it proved ineffective as a regulatory tool. The first

  9. Debating LGBT Workplace Protections in the Bible Belt: Social Identities in Legislative and Media Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Claire D; Stewart, Craig O

    2016-07-01

    This article reports a case study of the legislative and media discourse surrounding the addition of sexual orientation and gender identity language to the employment nondiscrimination ordinance of a city in the heart of the Bible Belt. The purpose of the study is to uncover how different identities were constructed and contested at city council meetings and in the news media on the way to passing legal protection for LGBT city employees in a region that is often characterized by anti-gay prejudice. This debate over the nondiscrimination ordinance centered on the question of whether LGBT identities are equivalent to identity categories based on race, gender, or religious belief, and it was shaped by various intergroup communication dynamics, specifically between members of the LGBT minority and the straight majority, between LGBT and Christian identities, and between "true" and "false" Christian identities.

  10. Legislation for radiation protection and nuclear safety in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.

    1994-01-01

    The main prerequisite of radiation protection and nuclear safety development and improvement in the Republic of Croatia are: national legislation for radiation protection and nuclear safety in accordance with international recommendations; and development of state infrastructure for organization and management of radiation protection and nuclear safety measures. In this paper I the following topics are present: inherited legislation for radiation protection and nuclear safety; modern trends in world nowadays; and what is done and has to be done in the Republic of Croatia to improve this situation

  11. Characteristics of radiation protection legislation; Caracteristicas de la legislacion en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig Cardozo, Diva E. [Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria (MIEM), Montevideo (Uruguay). Direccion Nacional de Tecnologia Nuclear

    2001-07-01

    The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

  12. Legislation and employment relations in South Africa: A narrative overview of workplace dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrack Themba Mzangwa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of legislative measures applied in handling grievances and disciplinary matters in the workplace from the South African perspective. South Africa is one of the unionised countries in the world and the involvement of trade unions in resolving disputes including grievances and disciplinary matters is crucial. Trade unions, employers’ organisations and the state play an integral role in employment relations. Unions represent their members during dispute proceedings at various institutions where they (trade unions are recognised. The country’s statutory measures must always be adhered-to in the handling of grievances and disciplinary procedures. The author relates the manner in which grievances and disciplinary proceedings are handled in a unionised workplace environment

  13. The philosophy of German radiation protection legislation and supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, H.

    1976-01-01

    It is the objective of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance to protect life, health and property from the harmful effects of ionizing radiations and to ensure compensation for damage caused by ionizing radiations. This scope is already fixed in section 1 of the Atomic Law of the FRG and in accord with the comparable regulation or decrees of other countries all over the world. To reach this objective, by the Radiation Protection Ordinance: 1) the handling of radioactive material is subjected to an extensive control by the state or his organisations (part of this control are the licensing prcedures for handling, carriage, import and exprot, and transactions of radioactive materials as well as the direct supervision by the concerned authorities), 2) dose limits and limits of activity and concentrations are defined, 3) safety provisions are fixed which are legally binding the holder of a license and other persons appointed by him, responsible for radiation protection, 4) statutory offences are listed so that any person who wilfully or negligently contravenes the prescriptions shall be punished. (orig./RW) [de

  14. Application of Spanish legislation on radiation protection in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba Alonso, C.; Robles Atienza, B.

    2013-01-01

    As the developments that have led the regulations on contaminated soils conventional pollutants are more advanced than those due to radioactive contaminants, this work is a state of the art of the current situation and is framed within the developments in R and D for radiation protection of the public and the environment. (Author)

  15. A Synopsis of Proposed Data Protection Legislation in SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis S Cronjé

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Privacy International made the following statement regarding South Africa’s financial sector in its 2005 world survey:“South Africa has a well-developed financial system and banking infrastructure. Despite the sophistication of the financial sector, the privacy of financial information is weakly regulated by a code of conduct for banks issued by the Banking Council.”This extract highlights some of the problems South Africa are experiencing with its current status on privacy as viewed from an International perspective. In recent years the International society has stepped up its efforts in creating a global village wherein the individual could be assured of having his/her privacy protected. Various conventions and guidelines2 have previously laid the foundation for privacy but it was not until the European Union’s (EU launch of its Directive on Data Protection in 1995 that we have seen a real coerced shift in the focus of such protection. Cross border data transfers from the EU became something of the past unless third countries (those countries outside the EU could prove the existence of adequate data protection provisions. It seemed to a big extend that international trade would be hampered and some of its biggest trading partners, such as the US, suddenly felt the impact due to its lagging protection measures. In order to curtail such inadequacies, a Safe Harbor Agreement was entered into between the EU and US whereby cross border data flow would be allowed under certain prerequisites. This Agreement however, does not cover Financial Institutions.

  16. Climate Protection and Employment in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2015-01-01

    One of the largest problem in Croatia are high rate of unemployment and climate protection with mitigation of consequences from climate changes. These two problems are closely related and the main connection is energy industry, as the largest cause of climate change because of greenhouse gases emissions from fossil fuels combustion. The most important measures of climate protection in energy industry are increase in energy efficiency (ENEF) and giving priority to renewable energy sources (RES) projects over fossil fuels combustion projects. Other than contributing to climate protection and mitigating the consequences from climate changes, ENEF and RES have other advantages over fossil fuel combustion projects. That is notably larger specific domestic employability of investment in ENEF and RES, regarding fossil fuels. Moreover, the import of fossil fuels is reduced, which fixes foreign trade balance sheet and reduces Croatian foreign debt and increases energy security. Wider application of ENEF and RES is dealing with a lot of obstacles, e.g. resistance from suppliers, which have smaller revenues and sell less energy because of expansion of ENEF and RES. There are multiple methods of dealing with such obstacles. Countries that put ENEF and RES in their energy policy focus, are dealing easier with crisis, with minimum unemployment rates. Regardless of results of COP21 in Paris in December 2015, Croatia would benefit from orientation to rapid development and implementation of ENEF and RES. (author).

  17. Social protection of marginal part-time, self-employment and secondary jobs in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Vonk, Gijsbert; Jansen, Annette

    2017-01-01

    In many European countries, marginal part-time, (solo-) self-employment and secondary jobs has been increasing since the last decades. The question about the provision of social protection and labour legislation for these types of employment is the starting point for a project entitled “Hybrid working arrangements in Europe”, directed by the WSI. Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Poland, Italy, Denmark and Austria comprise the group of countries selected in order to investigate “hybrid...

  18. Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Gibbs

    Full Text Available It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain <13% of the variation in recovery status among species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task.

  19. Protecting Endangered Species: Do the Main Legislative Tools Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Katherine E.; Currie, David J.

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect) that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task. PMID:22567111

  20. Children employed in the performing arts, advertising and fashion industry: what legal protection do they have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clin, Bénédicte; Ferrant, Ophélie; Marquignon, Marie-France; Letourneux, Marc

    2009-09-01

    Ill-treatment can sometimes take on an unfamiliar face. Particularly, this is the case for certain types of child employment. In France, as in most European countries, there are laws for protecting children and guaranteeing their right to schooling. Over and above the frequently observed apprenticeship contracts, obtained by eligible under 16 years, there is also the dispensatory case of children employed in the performing arts, advertising and the fashion industry. In France, legislators take the child's vulnerability into account when developing legislative and regulatory mechanisms, concerning the modalities of his/her professional activity, particularly in artistic fields and in fashion modelling. Since both may employ very young children, or even infants, one essential question ought to be raised: from a legal point of view, are these children sufficiently protected, with regard to the potential physical and psychological consequences of their particular professional activities?

  1. Legislation and Organization of Radiological Protection in the Republic of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Carrea, A.; Nowotny, G.

    1979-01-01

    The history of legislation and organization of radiological protection goes hack to 1950 in Argentina. The terms of references of the National Commission of Atomic Energy in Argentina are outlined and the actual organization of the authority is also presented. (author)

  2. Supporting Employers in the Reserve Operational Forces Era: Are Changes Needed to Reservists’ Employment Rights Legislation, Policies, or Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Universal Numbering System EN Employer Notification EP Employer Partnership of the Armed Services EPF Employment Policy Foundation ESGR Employer Support of...on Employers 33 lished in 2005 by the Employment Policy Foundation ( EPF ). According to that report, about half of FMLA leave-takers do not give...Magazine (Bates, 2005), summarizes the findings of a report published in 2005 by EPF ; the original report could not be located because EPF has closed. 4

  3. New legislative regulations for ensuring radiation protection using ionizing radiation sources in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.

    2018-01-01

    European Commission Directive No. 2013/59 / EURATOM laying down basic safety requirements for the provision of radiation protection regulates the provision of radiation protection for workers with radiation sources and residents in all areas of use of ionizing radiation sources. This Directive also addresses radiation protection in the use of ionizing radiation sources in medicine. The European Commission Directive regulates the requirements for radiation protection but also extends to its scope and provisions on the use of medical radiation sources (so-called m edical exposure ) in the scope of further legislation in the field of health care, which has to be amended and modified or possibly issued new. It was necessary in the preparation of the new act on radiation protection to amend simultaneously Act no. 576/2004 on the provision of health care and services related to provision of health care and Act no. 578/2004 on Health care Providers, Health care Professionals and Organizations in Health Care and to prepare a series of implementing regulations not only to the Law on Radiation Protection but also to the Laws governing the Provision of Health Care. The paper presents changes to existing legislation on radiation protection in medical radiation and new requirements for the construction and operation of health workplaces with radiation sources, the protection of the health of patients, the requirements for instrumentation used for medical radiation and radiological instrumentation tests. (authors)

  4. The implications of the new ICRP recommendations on the legislation community radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriskat, H.

    1992-01-01

    One of the fundamental tasks attributed to the European Community by the Euratom Treaty is to establish uniform safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionising radiation. Ever since 1959, when for the first time, following a proposal by the Commission, the Council of Ministers issued the Basic Safety Standards under form of a Directive, they were reviewed and amended on a regular basis taking into account to a large extent the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The aim of the ongoing revision of the Basic Safety Standards Directives (80/836 EURATOM and 84/466 EURATOM) is to reinforce radiation protection thoughout the Community to assure the best possible protection of the workers and public. This partial revision of the basic safety standards needs careful interpretation of the ICRP recommendations, taking into account existing legislation in Member States and an evaluation of the applicability of such a revision in both implementation in legislation and in the daily practice of radiation protection. At the same time, the actual revision's impact on other community Directives in the area of radiation protection has to be considered and, if necessary, these Directives have to be brought in line with the modified Basic Safety Standards. Finally, this revision has to take into account as well the possible repercussion on radiation protection of the future single European Market in order to continue to assure the high level of protection obtained until now. (author)

  5. Development of Ukrainian legislation on sanitary protection of water resources in the XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. А. Чуприна

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem Setting. The article investigates the formation in Ukraine of legal regulation of the state sanitary control of water, the process of creating of general and special jurisdiction for its implementation, as well as the regulation regime, methods and tools for health protection of waters of different categories. The relevance of this article due to the need to systematize the individual areas of water law, including the protection of water and sanitation of the twentieth century. Analysis of the recent researches and publications. The article devoted to the study of formation in Ukraine of legal regulation of the state sanitary control of water, the process of creating of general and special jurisdiction for its implementation, as well as the regulation regime, methods and tools for health protection of waters of different categories. Paper objective. The relevance of this article due to the need to identify viable methods and instruments of legal regulation of sanitary protection of water during the formation of the main areas of water legislation of Ukraine in the twentieth century. Terms used in the legal protection of water, sanitary water use rules, the bodies of sanitary supervision, the state sanitary inspection. Conclusions. Research in the field of water legislation, and therefore the individual concerned and its protection issues, many scientists were engaged as ecologists and environmentalists. However, the special historical and legal work in a range twentieth century. no. This gap makes it difficult to analyze the current state of affairs in the field of sanitary protection of water. Detection of historical stages of development of water legislation in this area, identifying the main patterns and dynamics of legal regulation of sanitary protection of water in specific historical circumstances will improve the current regime of water protection. The author analyzes the main laws and regulations in the field of materials of

  6. The Impact of Active Conductors on Czech and Hungarian Lightning Protection Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikeš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the developmental conditions for the emergence of protection against lightning. It reviews the legislation especially in the Czech Republic over the last 15 years, and its application for active lightning conductors. The paper presents examples of the damage caused bylightning strikes on buildings protected by ESE lightning rods constructed using the French nationalstandard NFC 17-102 [1] and STN 34 1391 [2]. Installation of lightning conductors based on thesestandards is not, however, in accordance with the valid legislation in the Czech Republic and Hungary.In response to a growing number of ESE installations in the Czech Republic, it is vital to inform boththe broader professional publc and the lay public of cases involving failures of this type of lightningconductor.

  7. Maximum Hours Legislation and Female Employment in the 1920s: A Reasse ssment

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Goldin

    1986-01-01

    The causes and consequences of state maximum hours laws for female workers, passed from the mid-1800s to the 1920s, are explored and are found to differ from a recent reinterpretation. Although maximum hours legislation reduced scheduled hours in 1920, the impact was minimal and it operated equally for men. Legislation affecting only women was symptomatic of a general desire by labor for lower hours, and these lower hours were achieved in the tight, and otherwise special, World War I labor ma...

  8. IMPROVING PATENT PROTECTION OF INVENTIVE ACTIVITY IN THE CONTEXT OF EU LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Philyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: clarify legal nature of relations emerging in connection with registration of patent law objects. In this article the authors research special features of legal regulation of inventive activity. In particular, they consider several issues of patenting the patent law objects and clarify legal nature of relations arose during registration of the rights to the patent law objects. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction inventive activity Results: during the research the authors focus their attention to the drawbacks of the effective legislation and form the main directions of the effective legislation improvement in accordance with international law in the context of the patent law objects protection. Special attention is devoted to analysis of the main threats of the patent law violations and ways to overcome them. Conclusions: the results confirming improving the efficiency of the system of intellectual property protection through institutional changes and changes in the legal regulation of inventive activity and results will have a positive impact on the reform of the system of intellectual property protection in Ukraine.

  9. Differences in legislation of data privacy protection in internet marketing in USA, EU and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing number of companies that are, in its operations and dealings with consumers, turning to the Internet and using huge opportunities that it provides. Therefore, Internet marketing is now experiencing extreme expansion and it is considered to be the marketing segment that is vulnerable to intensive and continuous change. Along with the positive effects brought to both businesses and consumers, there are some negatives associated with this form of marketing, and one of them is the insufficient protection of privacy. The fact is that we must raise the level of data protection, and improve its quality. Intense changes have to be taken on the normative level, because there are still plenty of reasons for the dissatisfaction of consumers when it comes to protecting their privacy. Thus, the legislation must play a key role in building consumer confidence as well as in the establishment of a positive relationship with marketers. The aim of this paper is to show the importance of the construction of such levels of private data protection which will establish longterm partnerships between consumers, marketers and other participants in the market, since only the aforementioned relations can bring prosperity to all parties. The paper will make a comparative analysis of the legislative framework in this field in the United States, the European Union and Serbia, as well as stress still present significant backlog of Serbia in relation to the aforementioned developed countries.

  10. [Legislative and legal security of supervisory activities in the sphere of protection of consumers' rights and human well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantsev, G I; Kutsenko, G I; Polesskiĭ, V A

    2007-01-01

    Sanitary legislation plays an important role in supervisory activities ensuring the protection of consumers' rights and human well-being. The paper considers the basic laws and standard acts allowing for legal regulation in this sphere of activities.

  11. Consequences of the new Slovenian legislation on radiation protection and nuclear safety for radiation protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozelj, M.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents brief description of the old Slovenian regulations and an overview of the new, harmonised regulations in the field of radiation protection training. The most important novelties were pointed out with possible consequences for the implementation of radiation protection training. Some suggestions on how to overcome transitional problems and how to improve training were also given. (author)

  12. Diet pills and the cataract outbreak of 1935: reflections on the evolution of consumer protection legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of cataracts in 1935 caused by dinitrophenol (DNP), the active ingredient of popular diet pills, highlighted the inability of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent harmful drugs from entering the marketplace. Just two years earlier, the FDA used horrific images of ocular surface injury caused by cosmetics at the World's Fair in Chicago to garner public support for legislative reform. The FDA had to walk a fine line between a public awareness campaign and lobbying Congress while lawmakers debated the need for consumer protection. The cataract outbreak of 1935 was conspicuous in the medical literature during the height of New Deal legislation, but questions persist as to how much it affected passage of the proposed Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (of 1938). The legislation languished in committee for years. The cataract outbreak probably had little impact on the eventual outcome, but medical opinion concerning the safety of DNP may have contributed to the voluntary withdrawal of the diet drug from the market. We review the DNP cataract outbreak and examine it in context of the challenges facing regulatory reform at that time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The International Methodologies of Assessment of Employment Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Pavlo V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with International methodology of assessment of employment protection. The main problem that is raised in this article is the following one – what indicator and criteria should be used in order to determine the degree of employment protection in a particular country? Author outlines and comprises the basic indicators that were created by the leading institutions: the OECD, the World Bank and Cambridge Center for Business research. The positive as well as negative consequences and also an influence of having a stringent degree of employment protection on the areas like productivity, labor market, labor market flows, etc. are described and discussed. Author also suggests different steps that should be taken in order to reform the current situation and solve problems in the labor area. Three possible ways of how to reform and enhance employment protection are analyzed and characterized.

  14. Revolution in New Zealand's Radiation Protection Legislation and Evolution and Continual Improvement in its Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, V.

    2004-01-01

    The safe use of ionising radiation in New Zealand is regulated by the Radiation Protection Act 1965 and the Radiation Protection Regulations 1982, which are administered by the National Radiation Laboratory (NRL). This legislation is now out of date and creates difficulties for New Zealand in meeting international standards of radiation safety and security, and complying with obligations under international treaties. These problems can be addressed by new legislation that would change the powers and functions of the regulatory authority, and change the responsibilities of licensees under the Act. However historically NRL has provided radiation services as well as acting as regulatory authority. This has the potential to create a conflict of interest in making regulatory judgements. Over the preceding 50 years NRL has undergone an evolution that has resulted in a clarification of the regulatory functions, and development of a quality management system that is now accredited to ISO standards. This paper presents a possible structure of a new Act, and discusses the role of quality management in maintaining the independence of regulatory authority. (Author)

  15. The trend on legislation of physical protection law and the effective measures for its implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    As a part of strengthening the international regime of physical protection, the 'Legal and Technical Experts Meeting' to prepare a draft amendment of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material(INFCIRC/274/Rev.1) has been held under the auspices of IAEA Secretariat, based on the results of about two-year discussion related to its amendment among the Member States. In addition, terrorism of last September in the United States has made the amendment work of the Convention speed up to quickly cope with the real threat of nuclear facility, and the Diplomatic Conference for its amendment would be held at the end of this year. In order to meet these international strengthening trends and to prepare the measures against radiological emergency with the re-establishment of domestic protection system, Korean government has currently pursued to establish a comprehensive 'law for Physical Protection and Measures against Radiological Emergency' This paper suggests the consideration on domestic status of the legal system, the trend of its legislation and the effective measures for its implementation, to efficiently maintain domestic system of physical protection

  16. Genetic testing for the BRCA1 gene and the need for protection from discrimination: an evolving legislative and social issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, L

    1998-04-01

    Genetic testing for the BRCA1 gene is available commercially and clinically. The information gained from this test impacts not only on the individual tested, but on family members as well. The test can offer an individual and their family the opportunity to gain valuable information about their risks of developing certain forms of inherited breast cancer and other inherited cancers. In addition to its emotional and psychological impact, this information is associated with significant social and economic issues. This includes the potential for denial, loss, or increased rates for health insurance as well as denial and loss of employment based on genetic test information. The risk for such discrimination can lead to fear of seeking testing and can discourage participation in and potential benefit from prevention, screening, and treatment programs. Therefore, misuse of this information carries significant risk for the individual being tested and for their family members. It is imperative that the potential benefits of genetic testing and genetic information be afforded to all without this risk and fear. In addition to protecting all individuals from genetic discrimination, there is a need to protect the confidentiality of genetic information and an individual's right to privacy. This article discusses protection currently available through legislation at the federal and state level, focusing on the experience in North Carolina in developing and passing a genetic antidiscrimination bill. Although progress has been made, troublesome issues still remain.

  17. From 'precarious informal employment' to 'protected employment': The 'positive transitioning effect' of trade unions

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Melisa R.; Xhafa, Edlira

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the discussions on the challenge of transitioning from precarious informal employment to more protected employment. This paper looks into a rather under-researched area - the role of trade unions in facilitating this process of 'transitioning' as well as in containing the spread of this type of employment. We refer to this process, along with its outcomes, as the 'positive transitioning effect' of trade unions. Through 10 case studies from nine countries (Br...

  18. Legislation regarding social protection of children and youth in Sweden with particular emphasis on protection from abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Slobodan 2

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of children from abuse and neglect is a current problem in the world. The consequences of violence against children are very important because they can leave behind permanent bodily injuries up to severe invalidity, as well as psychological consequences which very often lead to transmission of violence into next generations. In most extreme cases death occurs as a consequence of abuse and neglect. In this paper authors present legislation which regulate social protection of children and youth in Sweden, with special emphasis on protection from abuse and neglect. Sweden is a country in which social care of most vulnerable groups including children, was always at the top of priorities. Authors made comparative analysis of Swedish and domestic (Serbian laws regarding protection of children from violence, with particular emphasis on mandatory report of these cases from professionals who are in regular professional contact with children. Authors will also put emphasis on duties of medical doctors in the system of protection of children and youth from abuse and neglect.

  19. Protection of Children in Malaysia through Foster Care Legislation and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children are immature, naive and unable to care for themselves. Due to this verynature of children, they are in need of among others, care, attention andsupervision from adults. Care, attention and supervision are among the means ofcare and protection of children, which can only be acquired in a familyenvironment. One of the ways to achieve family environment is through FosterCare where a child who is in need of care and protection will be placed with afamily permanently or temporarily or until they are able to care for themselves.Foster care will at least provide for a family life experience especially for childrenwithout family or who have problems in their family life. This paper is to examinethe Concept of Foster care in Malaysia and the law relating to it as to provideprotection to children in need of care and protection. Examination will focus onrelevant legislations and policy relating to Foster Care. Discussion will extend toanalysis on whether the available laws and policies are adequate to sustainchildren protection in Malaysia through Foster Care.

  20. (Another Bankruptcy Legislation reform - functionalization of bankruptcy legal protection or placebo effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Bodul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the most current topic in the field of collective civil law protection. The reforms of the Bankruptcy Act (seven of them as well as implementation of the Financial Operations and Pre-Bankruptcy Settlements Act (three amendments, which were implemented in 2012, have significantly altered Croatian insolvency legislation. Nevertheless, the indicative methods of determining the facts show that the bankruptcy and preliminary bankruptcy procedures, in relation to other countries in the region, are consuming less time. They are more expensive and have lower satisfaction from creditors. In comparison to countries with developed bankruptcy systems, Croatian regulations still need improvement. One has to take into consideration a substantial impact of multiple external, institutional factors on legislative solutions (unfavourable social context, problems in the payment system, the precarious recordings of immovable and movable property, an insufficient number of judges who were entrusted with the liquidation proceedings, weak training of bankruptcy administrators, inadequate methods of financing, and consequently weak motivation to work. The legislators are planning to make another functionalization of the Bankruptcy Act. His intention is, after two years of experimentation in the Financial Operations and Pre-Bankruptcy Settlements Act, to accept provisions on pre-bankruptcy settlements and reinstate many pre-existing options in the preparation of the reorganization plan. Since the existing framework is not allowing for a detailed analysis of the aforementioned subjects, one must emphasize that the space here does not permit a detailed analysis of these issues. Therefore, authors of this article will deal with subjects they see as relevant and essential for understanding key issues within the domain of the Bankruptcy Act. This work has been supported by the Croatian science foundation under the project number 6558 "Business and

  1. Identifying the gaps: Armenian health care legislation and human rights in patient care protections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopunyan, Violeta; Krmoyan, Suren; Quinn, Ryan

    2013-12-12

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia has undergone an extensive legislative overhaul. Although a number of developments have aimed to improve the quality and accessibility of Armenia's health care system, a host of factors has prevented the country from fully introducing measures to ensure respect for human rights in patient care. In particular, inadequate health care financing continues to oblige patients to make both formal and informal payments to obtain basic medical care and services. More generally, a lack of oversight and monitoring mechanisms has obstructed the implementation of Armenia's commitments to human rights in several international agreements. Within the framework of a broader project on promoting human rights in patient care, research was carried out to examine Armenia’s health care legislation with the aim of identifying gaps in comparison with international and regional standards. This research was designed using the 14 rights enshrined in the European Charter on Patient Rights as guiding principles, along with domestic legal acts relevant to the rights of health care providers. The gaps analysis revealed numerous problems with Armenian legislation governing the relationships between stakeholders in health care service delivery. It also identified several practical inconsistencies with the international legal instruments ratified by the Armenian government. These legislative shortcomings are illustrated by highlighting key health-related rights violations experienced by patients and their health care providers, and by indicating opportunities for improved rights protections. A full list of human rights relevant to patient care and recommendations for promoting them in the Armenian context is provided in Tables 1 and 2. A number of initiatives must be undertaken in order to promote the full spectrum of human rights in patient care in Armenia. This section highlights certain recommendations flowing from the findings of

  2. Modernization and consolidation of the European radiation protection legislation. The new EURATOM radiation protection basic safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundigl, S.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of new basic safety standards for the protection against the dangers arising from ionising radiation, foreseen in Article 2 and Article 30 of the Euratom Treaty, the European Commission modernises and consolidates the European radiation protection legislation. The new Directive offers in a single coherent document, basics safety standards for radiation protection which take account of the status-quo of science and technology, cover all relevant radiation sources, including natural radiation sources, integrate protection of workers, members of the public, patients and the environment, cover all exposure situations, planned, existing, emergency, and harmonise numerical values with international standards. After having received very positive opinions of the Article 31 Group of Experts and the European Economic and Social Committee, the proposed Directive has reached agreement in the Working Party on Atomic Questions of the European Council (WPAQ). The Opinion of the European Parliament is expected in September 2013, which would allow a publication of the Directive in the Official Journal of the European Union by the end of 2013. (orig.)

  3. A legislative history of the Social Security Protection Act of 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Passage of the original Social Security Act in 1935, Public Law (P.L.) 74-271, represented one of the watershed achievements of social welfare reform in American history. For the first time, workers were guaranteed a basic floor of protection against the hardships of poverty. In the ensuing decades, more than 100 million beneficiaries have realized the value of this protection through the receipt of monthly Social Security payments. As this guarantee has endured and progressed, the policies and administration of such a vast and complex program have required ongoing modifications-more than 150 such revisions over the past 73 years. To some extent, these amendments can be seen as an ongoing refinement process, with the Social Security Protection Act of 2004 (SSPA) being another incremental step in the development of a social insurance program that best meets the evolving needs of American society. This article discusses the legislative history of the SSPA in detail. It includes summaries of the provisions and a chronology of the modification of these proposals as they passed through the House and Senate, and ultimately to the president's desk.

  4. Legislative and statutory framework of radiation protection of patients in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milu, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the legislative and statutory framework of radiation protection of patients in Romania, starting with the basic Law 111/1996 on the Safe Deployment of Nuclear Activities, and its amendments in 1998 and 2006 and the general nuclear safety regulation, which is in agreement with the international regulation. Regarding the medical exposure, jointly the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Ministry of Public Health issued in 2002 a separate regulation, which was published in the Official Gazette Part I No. 446 bis in 25 June 2002 and represents the transposition of the European Directive 97/43/EURATOM of 30 June 1997 on health protection on individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure, and repealing Directive 84/466/EURATOM. Following this document, several specific regulations on radiation protection of the patients were approved by the Ministry of Public Health. Some practical problems already arise, particularly due to the lack of medical physics departments in hospitals. (author)

  5. Employment protection and the consequences for displaced workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; van Audenrode, Marc; Browning, Martin

    We compare the wage and employment consequences of a job displacement in Belgium and Denmark. These two countries both have generous unemployment insurance schemes but job protection laws vary dramatically between the two. Using comparable data we find that the incidence of displacement and the c...... and the consequences for wages are similar in the two countries. The consequences for employment are very different with Danish workers experiencing much less unemployment after a displacement...

  6. Environmental protection and employment: the link for a worthwhile future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Driven by increasing environmental awareness as well as numerous environmental policy measures, the market for environmental goods has expanded over the last few years, bringing a growing number of jobs. A study of leading German economics research institutes shows that the employment effects of environmental protection have attained considerable dimensions, with nearly a million jobs in 1994 alone, with the service sector being the main beneficiary. And of particular importance: In terms of both population and economic performance, the new Laender are in a better position than the old Laender (the former FRG states) in respect of environmental jobs. In the new Laender important impulses towards creating and safeguarding jobs have emerged from environmental clean-up and development. The concern of this publication is not to promise a job-creation miracle by means of environmental protection alone. Nor is it a matter of legitimising environmental protection in terms of employment policy, for environmental protection does not require employment policy for legitimisation. Rather, the paper wants to provide up-to-date background information to point out the synergies between environmental and employment objectives. It also presents fields of activity which can be helpful to address both environmental and employment policy problems. I do hope that this study can provide some incentives for further action. (orig.)

  7. A new genre of social protection policy for older people: a critical analysis of legislative development in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma Bhattarai, Lok P

    2013-01-01

    This commentary critically discusses recent legislation promulgated in Nepal to safeguard older people's rights and promote their well-being. Using a human-rights-based framework, the legislation is analyzed for its strengths and weaknesses. Emphasis has also been placed on discussing various aspects overlooked by the legislation, such as changing family structure, relations, and social values; the impact of employment structure and migration; and, importantly, maintaining a desired balance between the roles of the state and of the family in providing social security, support, and care to older people. Efforts have been made to reflect the promulgated law in light of the contemporary developments taking place globally, particularly in regions of Asia. Areas for future policy work are also identified in order to make legislation more inclusive and effective.

  8. 5 CFR 630.1208 - Protection of employment and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... position (e.g., life insurance, health benefits, retirement coverage, and leave accrual); (5) The same or... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1208 Protection of employment and benefits. (a) Any employee who takes leave under § 630.1203(a) of this part shall be entitled, upon return to the...

  9. Legislations set out to protect workers against ionizing radiations in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grivelet-Denais, M.-F.

    1975-01-01

    A physical review on ionizing radiations and a biological survey of their possible effects on exposed workers are followed by a study, first general and then analytical, of the various legislations set out to protect these workers in the European Community. In the light of this study a few comments are called for. In all member States the rules are particularly strict for everything to do with approval and homologation of plants and equipment, technical qualifications of users, safety measures, physical protection control, atmospheric checks and individual dosimetry. Reservations must be made as to the exact organization of controls and the interdependence between supervisory and user bodies, these points generally remaining rather vague. France more than the other member States has made an effort at precision which deserves credit but is disappointing in practice where medical supervision of exposed workers is concerned. This inadequacy of the medical examination is due mainly to the lack of any significant symptom betraying a biological overdose. The hematological examination is also disparaged for its lack of sensitivity and above all specificity [fr

  10. Integrated environmental protection obligations under European law, survey analysis of Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthaler, W.

    2001-05-01

    This work focuses on legal instruments serving integrated environmental protection, especially with respect to administrative procedures concerning plant permits, and their inhorent limits. Initially, the legal and scientific approach pursued under the notion of 'integrated environmental protection' and 'environmental impact assessment' is examined and clarified in chapter A. Based thereon, chapter B deals with the obligations resulting from the EIA-Directive and - compared therewith - from the IPPC-Directive with regard to procedures for plant permits. Further, Austria's delay in fully transposing these directives is examined. When dealing with the constitutional basis for transposing the EIA- and IPPC-D into Austrian administrative law (chapter C), the inherent limits of some competence of legislation are discovered to be too narrow to ensure full compliance with EC law; only with regard to EIA, legistation is based on sound constitutional ground. The second part of the work is devoted to three areas of discussion on EIA- and IPPC-procedures under Austrian law: the scope of their applicability (chapter D), the problems of integrated evaluation and the limits of ecological expertise (chapter E) and aspects of public participation (chapter F). The study is concluded by a summary of the main results (chapter G). (author)

  11. Register of legislative and regulatory dispositions relative to the radiation protection of the population and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    This collection of legislative arrangements concerns the protection of population and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations. Each chapter is divided in two parts: a legislative part and a statutory or regulation part. We find the different chapters in relation with protection of populations, protection of workers, public health and labour laws. (N.C.)

  12. Dignity in Employment – the Protection of a Fundamental Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Răzvan Popescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code brought a series of important changes also in respect to those offences that can be committed by employees. Both at the European and at the national level, the concept of dignity in employment suffered transformations. This change of perspective at the national level makes the object of this article. The regulation of sexual harassment in the work place was first introduced in the domestic legislation in 2001, undergoing, since then, a series of modifications which we shall analyze in depth. Sexual harassment in the work place is one of the most difficult problems to solve, at the European level because in the majority of situations there is a subordination relation between the two parties – the employer having the upper hand over the employee who is, in many cases, afraid of endangering his/her job by reporting the harassment offence. We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem erased by the sexual harassment concept.

  13. Job tenure and self-reported workplace discrimination for cancer survivors 2 years after diagnosis: does employment legislation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraponaris, Alain; Teyssier, Luis Sagaon; Ventelou, Bruno

    2010-12-01

    To assess the risk of leaving employment for cancer survivors 2 years after diagnosis and the role of workplace discrimination in this risk. A representative sample of 4270 French individuals older than 17 and younger than 58 years when diagnosed with cancer in 2002 were interviewed 2 years later. Their occupational status was analyzed with the help of Probit and IV-Probit models. Overall, 66% of the cancer survivors who were working at the time of diagnosis were still employed 2 years later. Age, education level, income at diagnosis, work contract, professional status, affective support, relative prognosis at diagnosis, tumor site and treatment have contrasting impacts upon the probability of job loss across gender. Even after having controlled for these variables, self-reported workplace discrimination increases the probability of job loss by 15%. Despite protective labor law and favorable health insurance arrangements, French cancer survivors continue to experience problems to stay in or to return to the labor force. Measures targeting only the employment protection of cancer survivors do not seem to be sufficient to end prior social inequalities in job attainment. Intervention for specific populations particularly exposed to job-loss risks would also be needed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Who foregoes survivor protection in employer-sponsored pension annuities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard W; Uccello, Cori E; Goldwyn, Joshua H

    2005-02-01

    Retirees in traditional pension plans must generally choose between single life annuities, which provide regular payments until death, and joint and survivor annuities, which pay less each month but continue to make payments to the spouse after the death of the retired worker. This article examines the payout decision and measures the share of married retirees with pension annuities who forego survivor protection. The analysis consists of a probit model of the pension payout decision, based on data from the 1992-2000 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. More than one quarter (28%) of married men and two thirds of married women receiving employer-sponsored retirement annuities declined survivor protection. Men with small pensions and limited household wealth, men in better health than their spouses, and men whose spouses have pension coverage from their own employers are more likely than other men to reject survivor protection. Most workers appear to make payout decisions by rationally balancing the costs and benefits of each type of annuity, suggesting that existing measures to encourage joint and survivor annuities are adequate. However, the growth in 401(k) plans, which are generally not covered by existing laws protecting spousal pension rights, may leave widows vulnerable.

  15. Constitutional limits on federal legislation practically compelling medical employment: Wong v Commonwealth; Selim v Professional Services Review Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    A recent decision by the High Court of Australia (Wong v Commonwealth; Selim v Professional Services Review Committee (2009) 236 CLR 573) (the PSR case) has not only clarified the scope of the Australian constitutional prohibition on "any form of civil conscription" in relation to federal legislation concerning medical or dental services (s 51xxiiiA), but has highlighted its importance as a great constitutional guarantee ensuring the mixed State-federal and public-private nature of medical service delivery in Australia. Previous decisions of the High Court have clarified that the prohibition does not prevent federal laws regulating the manner in which medical services are provided. The PSR case determined that the anti-overservicing provisions directed at bulk-billing general practitioners under Pt VAA of the Health Insurance Act 1973 (Cth) did not offend the prohibition. Importantly, the High Court also indicated that the s 51(xxiiiA) civil conscription guarantee should be construed widely and that it would invalidate federal laws requiring providers of medical and dental services (either expressly or by practical compulsion) to work for the federal government or any specified State, agency or private industrial employer. This decision is likely to restrict the capacity of any future federal government to restructure the Australian health care system, eg by implementing recommendations from the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission for either federal government or private corporate control of presently State-run public hospitals.

  16. European union legislation in medical application of ionizing radiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanlic-Razumenic, N.; Pavlovic, R.; Plecas, I.

    1999-01-01

    The most important aspects of the latest EU legislation concerning medical application of ionizing radiation, with the special emphasis on nuclear medicine are presented in this paper. The EU member countries will start to apply this regulation on 13 th May 2000. Our legislation is already adjusted to IAEA standards and ICRP Recommendation. Those regulations are of special concerns in the Radioisotope Laboratory of The Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences. (author)

  17. Units for the protection of child victims and witnesses in the criminal proceedings: Domestic legislation and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević-Đukić Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Serbia has invested maximum efforts in adjusting national legislation with the international legal framework, as well in fulfilling its obligations foreseen in relevant international documents, including the Child Rights Convention. The purpose of this paper is to present Units for the Protection of Child Victims and Witnesses in the Criminal Proceedings that were developed within the IPA project “Improvement of Children's Right through the System of Justice and Social Protection in Serbia”, funded by the EU, and implemented by the UNCEF in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Labour, Employment, Veteran and Social Policy of the Republic of Serbia. The project was implemented from August 2014 to March 2017. The purpose of the Units is to ensure the best interest of children in situation when a child is identified as a victim or a witness of a crime and appears in the criminal or other court procedure. In this way, the state protects children who are important and infallible part of judicial proceedings from secondary victimization and traumatisation, given that the processes within institutions inevitably reflect on mental state of a child. Units were established in four cities: Belgrade, Niš, Novi Sad, and Kragujevac, and they operate at the regional level. This enables that all children, even those in rural areas, will be provided with adequate assistance and support during preparations for the hearing, during criminal proceedings, as well as in its aftermath. The role of the Units is multiple: along with the support to children, it also includes support to the judiciary agencies since the hearing may be performed with a help of professional personnel, psychologist, pedagogue or social worker. Since the members of the Units are trained for conducting forensic interviews according to the Protocol of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, their involvement by the judiciary becomes even

  18. Promoting and Protecting Apologetic Discourse through Law: A Global Survey and Critique of Apology Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Charles Kleefeld

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The year 2016 was a milestone for the law-and-apology field, marking the thirtieth anniversary of the first general law aimed at enabling apologies for civil wrongs, introduced in Massachusetts in 1986, as well as the tenth anniversary of the Apology Act, enacted in British Columbia in 2006. The Apology Act seeks to promote apologies and apologetic discourse as an important form of out-of-court dispute resolution, chiefly by making apologetic statements inadmissible for proving liability in civil wrongs. It has served as a benchmark from which subsequent law reform efforts in Canada and abroad have been measured. In 2017, that benchmark was passed with the enactment in Hong Kong of the most ambitious apology law yet, which privileges not only statements of remorse, but also statements of facts embedded in apologies. This article summarises global apology legislation and court decisions to date. Part I considers each major jurisdiction, starting with the USA and concluding with Hong Kong. Part II draws some conclusions about where we have been and where we are going in our efforts to promote or protect apologetic discourse, including recommendations on interpreting existing laws and on drafting or redrafting apology legislation. El año 2016 supuso un hito en el campo del derecho y las disculpas, marcando el trigésimo aniversario de la primera ley general destinada a permitir las disculpas para daños civiles, aprobada en Massachusetts en 1986, así como el décimo aniversario de la Ley de Disculpa, aprobada en la Columbia Británica en 2006. La Ley de Disculpa busca promover las disculpas y el discurso de arrepentimiento como una forma importante para resolver disputas fuera de los tribunales, principalmente haciendo que las afirmaciones de arrepentimiento no fueran admisibles para probar la responsabilidad por daños civiles. Ha servido como ejemplo con el que comparar siguientes intentos de reforma jurídica en Canadá y el extranjero. En

  19. Tanning Salon Compliance Rates in States With Legislation to Protect Youth Access to UV Tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melissa S; Buhalog, Brittany; Blumenthal, Laura; Stratman, Erik J

    2018-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has classified tanning beds as carcinogenic. Most states have enacted legislation to prevent or create barriers for minors accessing tanning establishments. Determining tanning salon compliance with legislation would provide an indication of the influence of legislation at preventing exposure to the carcinogen in minors. To investigate compliance rates in the 42 states and the District of Columbia with legislation restricting tanning bed use in minors and to identify differences in compliance based on population, regional location, salon ownership, age group being regulated, and time since the law was enacted. This investigation was a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted between February 1, 2015, and April 30, 2016, by callers posing as minors attempting to schedule a tanning appointment. The setting was tanning salons in the 42 states and the District of Columbia that currently have legislation restricting tanning bed use in minors. Included in the study were 427 tanning salons, 10 randomly selected from each state or territory with tanning legislation. Overall compliance of tanning salons with state tanning legislation and differences in compliance based on community population, regional location, independent vs chain tanning salon, age group being regulated, and time since the law was enacted. Of the 427 tanning salons surveyed, overall noncompliance with state legislation was 37.2% (n = 159). There were more noncompliant tanning salons in rural locations (45.5%; 95% CI, 37.5%-53.7%; P = .009), southern regions of the United States (49.4%; 95% CI, 41.4%-57.4%; P = .001), independently owned salons (43.9%; 95% CI, 37.3%-50.6%; P = .003), states with younger age groups being regulated (53.5%; 95% CI, 45.7%-61.2%; P legislation aimed at limiting tanning bed use among US minors is unsatisfactory, indicating that additional efforts to enforce the laws and education of the harmful effects of UV tanning are

  20. Register of legislative and regulatory dispositions relative to the radiation protection of the population and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiations; Recueil des dispositions legislatives et reglementaires concernant la protection de la population et des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    This collection of legislative arrangements concerns the protection of population and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations. Each chapter is divided in two parts: a legislative part and a statutory or regulation part. We find the different chapters in relation with protection of populations, protection of workers, public health and labour laws. (N.C.)

  1. Birds protected by national legislation show improved population trends in Eastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koleček, Jaroslav; Schleuning, M.; Burfield, I. J.; Báldi, A.; Böhning-Gaese, K.; Devictor, V.; Fernández-García, J. M.; Hořák, D.; Van Turnhout, C. A. M.; Hnatyna, O.; Reif, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 172, April (2014), s. 109-116 ISSN 0006-3207 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conservation effectiveness * Ecological trait * Environmental legislation * Global change * Life history strategy * Population growth rate Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.762, year: 2014

  2. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  3. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country: Bulgaria: General legislation; Czech Republic: General legislation; France: General legislation, Regulatory infrastructure and activity; Germany: General legislation; India: Liability and compensation, Organisation and structure; Ireland: Radiation protection, General legislation; Korea (Republic of): Organisation and structure; Lithuania: Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Radioactive waste management, Radiation protection, international cooperation, Nuclear safety; Poland: General legislation; Romania: Environmental protection; Russian Federation: Radioactive waste management; Slovenia: Nuclear safety; Spain: Liability and compensation, Nuclear security; Sweden: Nuclear safety; Turkey: Radiation protection, Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Nuclear safety, Liability and compensation; United States: General legislation

  4. Limiting value definition in radiation protection physics, legislation and toxicology. Fundamentals, contrasts, perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeddinck, Ulrich; Koenig, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The volume is the documentation of an ENTRIA workshop discussion on limiting value definition in radiation protection including the following contributions: Introduction in radiation protection -fundamentals concepts of limiting values, heterogeneity; evaluation standards for dose in radiation protection in the context of final repository search; definition of limiting values in toxicology; public participation to limiting value definition - a perspective for the radiation protection regulation; actual developments in radiation protection.

  5. Legislation on The Protection of Agricultural Land in the context of the implementation of the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in Slovak Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palšová Lucia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protecting the qualitative aspect of the agricultural land is in the interest of European Union policies and Slovakia as well. The EU adopted in 2006 a Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection to ensure protection and sustainable use of land, including agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to analyze and evaluate legislation protecting agricultural land in the context of the implementation of the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in Slovakia. The basic legislation for the protection of agricultural land in Slovakia is the Act No. 220/2004 Coll. on the conservation and use of agricultural land and amending Act No. 245/2003 Coll. concerning integrated pollution prevention and control and amending certain laws, as amended, which provides a basic framework for conservation of the agricultural land. In terms of preserving, agricultural land has significant importance in the Common Agricultural Policy -pillar I and II which stipulate cross-compliance requirements, requirements for agri-environmental measures for applicants for single area payment scheme, for applicants for support under agri-environmental measures respectively.

  6. Labour Market Effects of Employment Protection. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwei, Ulrich

    The labor market effects of employment protection were examined in a study of Germany's employment protection regulations and their impact on employment practices and patterns. The following topics were considered: (1) the question of whether Germany's labor market problems are a result of regulations; (2) employment security as a subject of labor…

  7. Actions of the Cuban Nuclear Regulatory Authority in the adequate implementation of the legislation in matter of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornet R, O.M.; Guillen C, A.; Betancourt H, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of the regulatory activity in matter of safety and radiological protection it depends in great measure of the practical implementation level of the legislation in this matter. In our country this objective has been achieved through the one continuous improvement of the Hierarchical System of Nuclear Regulation, the reconciliation with specialists and national experts in each matter during the elaboration of the legal documents; the popularization and gratuitous distribution of it approved; the precision in the validation conditions of the authorizations of those main precepts applicable to the practices; the legal foundation of the deficiencies evidenced in the regulatory inspections; the development of a Safety Culture; the realization of Annual Regulatory Conferences and mainly in the training of the personnel related with the safety. Also, the constant analysis on the part of the specialists of the Regulatory Authority of the grade of implementation of this legislation, it discussion in national and international events and the actions recommended in these works. As a result of this focus, it is considered that the Regulatory Authority has impacted appropriately in the implementation of this legislation. (Author)

  8. Employers' statutory vicarious liability in terms of the Protection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the defences available to an employer at common law and developed by case law differ from the statutory defences available to an employer in terms of POPI, it is necessary to compare the impact this new statute has on employers. From a risk perspective, employers must be aware of the serious implications of POPI.

  9. Using research data to impact consumer protection legislation: lessons learned from CITY100 dissemination efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerster, Katherine D; Mayer, Joni A

    2013-09-01

    The Correlates of Indoor Tanning in Youth (CITY100) project evaluated individual, built-environmental, and policy correlates of indoor tanning by adolescents in the 100 most populous US cities. After CITY100's completion, the research team obtained supplemental dissemination funding to strategically share data with stakeholders. The primary CITY100 dissemination message was to encourage state-level banning of indoor tanning among youth. We created a user-friendly website to broadly share the most relevant CITY100 data. Journalists were a primary target audience, as were health organizations that would be well positioned to advocate for legislative change. CITY100 data were used to pass the first US state law to ban indoor tanning among those under 18 (CA, USA), as well as in other legislative advocacy activities. This paper concludes with lessons learned from CITY100 dissemination activities that we hope will encourage more health researchers to proactively address policy implications of their data and to design relevant, effective dissemination strategies.

  10. Content and implementation of new legislation governing atomic safety and radiation protection in the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifflaender, G.

    1987-01-01

    In the regulatory framework of the GDR all measures aiming to ensure the safe use of atomic energy are defined by the term Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, where atomic safety includes nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear material control. In 1984, a new Atomic Energy Act went into effect followed, in 1985, by the new Ordinance on the Assurance of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection and the pertaining Executory Provision. Section 2 of the Ordinance defines the following goals for the safe use of atomic energy: (1) the protection of life and health of man, and, from the genetic point of view, also of future generations from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation; (2) the protection of the environment from radioactive contamination, in particular by the careful handling of radioactive materials and safe disposal of radioactive wastes; (3) the protection of workers in nuclear facilities and of members of the public in their surroundings, and of material assets by strict observance and implementation of nuclear safety and radiation protection measures; (4) the protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities from any criminal attacks and unauthorized interference; and (5) the fulfilment of the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Government of the GDR and the IAEA by accounting for the use of nuclear material exclusively for peaceful purposes. Under Section 6 of the Atomic Energy Act, the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection (SAAS) is the competent authority for the state control in the field of protection against the risks from the use of atomic energy, which is exercised by licensing and surveillance as described in this report. Other topics also dealt with in more detail are the in-plant organization of atomic safety and radiation protection and the powers of the regulatory body to impose enforcement measures and sanctions in the event of non-compliance with the pertinent provisions. (author)

  11. Data protection legislation: A very hungry caterpillar: The case of mapping data in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, H.D.; van Loenen, Bastiaan; Kulk, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The European Union's policy on open data aims at generating value through re-use of public sector information, such as mapping data. Open data policies should be applied in full compliance with the principles relating to the protection of personal data of the EU Data Protection Directive. Increased

  12. Data protection legislation : A very hungry caterpillar. The case of mapping data in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loenen, Bastiaan; Kulk, Stefan; Ploeger, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The European Union's policy on open data aims at generating value through re-use of public sector information, such as mapping data. Open data policies should be applied in full compliance with the principles relating to the protection of personal data of the EU Data Protection Directive. Increased

  13. The Development of Russian Legislation Relating to the Protection of the Rights of Separated Parents and Their Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Krasnova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article deals with the challenges created by legal regulations concerning divorced or separated couples and focuses on the rights of separated parents with children. The article analyzes the problems associated with law enforcement practices in this area, the gaps in existing family law, as well as the disputed aspects of theory concerning parents’ legal relations. Suggestions for legislative developments in Russia concerning the protection of family rights within separated families are given. The authors of this paper argue for a rethink of existing approaches to legal regulations in this field of law due to the fact that existing family legislation does not take into consideration many of the challenges and realities of modern parenthood. Furthermore, current legal regulations in Russia do not fully correspond to international legal norms. The authors contend that this will lead to the curtailment of the legal rights of the separated parents. Such status is characterized, on the one hand, by unreasonable restrictions on parental rights. On the other hand, it permits only a limited degree of responsibility for a child’s upbringing and financial support on the part of a parent living separately from their child. The authors propose that, in this respect, it is necessary to rethink disputed legal decisions relating to family law and the implementation of family law in practice. By analyzing such implementation, the authors single out a number of interrelated factors that must be overcome in order to effectively protect separated parents’ relationships with their children. The aim of the article is to initiate a new approach to parental legal relations after divorce or separation and to propose new legislative regulations concerning the legal status of a parent who lives separately from their child. New developments in family law are proposed in order to ensure a balance between parental responsibilities and rights as well as

  14. Health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain: The legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esco, R.; Biete, A.; Pardo, J.; Carceller, J.A.; Veira, C.; Palacios, A.; Vazquez, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The Royal Decree 1566/1998 of July 17th establishes the criteria on quality in radiation therapy and is a cornerstone in Spanish regulation of this medical field. The Royal Decree gives some rules that, from a medical point of view, are considered as a good practice. Radiation protection of patients is necessary to achieve a high quality radiation oncology treatments. That is the reason why Royal decree 1566/1998 is titled 'quality criteria in radiation therapy'. A quality control program must be tailored to every single radiation oncology department and, for this reason, its standardization is difficult. Nevertheless, some medical procedures are defined by the royal decree and such procedures are the minimum criteria that all the departments must follow in the development of its own quality control program. The authors make some reflections about health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain, pointing out that a legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer due to application of the legislative rules may occur. The social and medical cost of rigid bureaucratic procedures is pointed out. A large amount of equipment controls and measurements takes time that could be used in treating patients. This is more important in an environment of limited technical and human resources. (author)

  15. Health sector employment: a tracer indicator for universal health coverage in national Social Protection Floors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheil-Adlung, Xenia; Behrendt, Thorsten; Wong, Lorraine

    2015-08-31

    Health sector employment is a prerequisite for availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of health services. Thus, in this article health worker shortages are used as a tracer indicator estimating the proportion of the population lacking access to such services: The SAD (ILO Staff Access Deficit Indicator) estimates gaps towards UHC in the context of Social Protection Floors (SPFs). Further, it highlights the impact of investments in health sector employment equity and sustainable development. The SAD is used to estimate the share of the population lacking access to health services due to gaps in the number of skilled health workers. It is based on the difference of the density of the skilled health workforce per population in a given country and a threshold indicating UHC staffing requirements. It identifies deficits, differences and developments in access at global, regional and national levels and between rural and urban areas. In 2014, the global UHC deficit in numbers of health workers is estimated at 10.3 million, with most important gaps in Asia (7.1 million) and Africa (2.8 million). Globally, 97 countries are understaffed with significantly higher gaps in rural than in urban areas. Most affected are low-income countries, where 84 per cent of the population remains excluded from access due to the lack of skilled health workers. A positive correlation of health worker employment and population health outcomes could be identified. Legislation is found to be a prerequisite for closing access as gaps. Health worker shortages hamper the achievement of UHC and aggravate weaknesses of health systems. They have major impacts on socio-economic development, particularly in the world's poorest countries where they act as drivers of health inequities. Closing the gaps by establishing inclusive multi-sectoral policy approaches based on the right to health would significantly increase equity, reduce poverty due to ill health and ultimately contribute

  16. Eggs and Abortion: "Women-Protective" Language Used by Opponents in Legislative Debates over Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesudason, Sujatha; Weitz, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we undertake an examination of the presence of similar "women-protective" discourses in policy debates occurring over two bills on reproductive-related topics considered during the 2013 California legislature session. The first bill (AB154), now signed into law, allows nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives, and physician assistants to perform first-trimester aspiration abortions. The second bill (AB926), had it passed, would remove the prohibition on paying women for providing eggs to be used for research purposes. Using frame analysis we find evidence of similar protective arguments by opponents of both bills, although these advocates do not share ideological positions on abortion rights or women's autonomy. In the case of AB154, anti-abortion advocates use language and frames that call for protecting the health of women against the imputed interests of the "abortion industry." In the case of AB926, feminists and pro-choice advocates evoke similar frameworks for the protection of women against the interests of the "medical research industry." Both sides argue for the "protection of women," from opposing positions on the rights and autonomy of women in relationship to reproductive freedom. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  17. 41 CFR 50-201.104 - Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 50-201.104 Protection against unintentional employment of underage minors. An employer shall not be deemed to have knowingly employed an underage minor in the performance of contracts subject to the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Protection against...

  18. Comprehensive Legislative Reform to Protect the Integrity of the 340B Drug Discount Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeta, Lowell M

    2015-01-01

    The 40B Drug Discount Program (340B Program) is a federally facilitated program that requires drug manufacturers to provide steep discounts on outpatient prescription drugs to qualifying safety net health care providers. The federal program is intended as a safeguard to ensure access to affordable drugs to the indigeut. However, over the last two decades safety net health care providers have exploited financial incentives under the 340B Program at the expense of drug manufacturers and patients, including the most needy and vulnerable populations-they are committed to serve. Although the federal government has been applauded for increasing effortsto combat health care fraud and abuse including recovering $3.3 billion in 2014, federal officials and the general public have paid markedly less attention to pervasive abuse of the 340B Program. In 2014, drug purchases of 340B-designated drugs totaled $7 billion and are expected to increase to $12 billion: by 2016 as a result of the expansion of the program under the Affordable Care Act. The 340B Program has completely lost its way, and comprehensive legislation is necessary to realign the program with its intent.

  19. Implementation of smoke-free legislation in Malaysia: are adolescents protected from respiratory health effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Aziemah; Abidin, Najihah Zainol; Abidin, Emilia Zainal; Hashim, Zailina; Rahman, Anita Abd; Rasdi, Irniza; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah; Semple, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between respiratory health of Malaysian adolescents with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoke-free legislation (SFL) implementation. A total of 898 students from 21 schools across comprehensive- and partial-SFL states were recruited. SHS exposures and respiratory symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure information was obtained from parental-completed questionnaire. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was: 11.9% ever wheeze, 5.6% current wheeze, 22.3% exercise-induced wheeze, 12.4% nocturnal cough, and 13.1% self-reported asthma. SHS exposure was most frequently reported in restaurants. Hierarchical logistic regression indicates living in a comprehensive-SFL state was not associated with a lower risk of reporting asthma symptoms. SHS exposure in public transport was linked to increased risk for wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 16.6; 95%confidence interval (CI), 2.69-101.7) and current wheezing (AOR 24.6; 95%CI, 3.53-171.8). Adolescents continue to be exposed to SHS in a range of public venues in both comprehensive- and partial-SFL states. Respiratory symptoms are common among those reporting SHS exposure on public transportation. Non-compliance with SFL appears to be frequent in many venues across Malaysia and enforcement should be given priority in order to reduce exposure.

  20. Protection of media pluralism in the republic of Serbia under the new legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a short review of the provisions of the Law on Public Information and Media and Law on Electronic Media, concerning to the protection of media pluralism and media concentrations. The author points out that these rules focus on better protection of media pluralism and on providing greater transparency of media ownership, because the major changes introduced by the laws are the media register and new, more detailed regulated, media concentration regime. Therefore, the new laws establish the modern regulatory framework of the Republic of Serbia in the area of media concentration, which represent a solid basis for further development of media pluralism.

  1. Anti-Spam Legislation in Consideration of Personal Data Protection and Other Legal Instruments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matejka, Ján

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2016), s. 90-114 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : spam * personal data protection * e- marketing Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  2. VIDEO SURVEILLANCE: STANDPOINT OF THE EU AND NATIONAL LEGISLATION ON DATA PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia CLIZA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulation (EU 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of April 27th, 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (“GDPR” entails a series of major changes in the field personal data protection. The new developments mainly concern the introduction of data protection controller, of specific rights of data subject, such as: the right to be forgotten and the right to data portability, as well as special provisions on minors. Notwithstanding, certain items seem at first sight to be left untreated by G.D.P.R., which is not true! GDPR applies to all data processing operations, even if not all of these are expressly regulated. One of these personal data modalities is represented by the video surveillance. Despite not expressly regulated by G.DP.R., this is one of the most commonly used means of personal data processing. The particular importance of this subject is given by the potential issues that may occur when the captured images clearly disclose the identity of a person, so that they lead to the unique identification of the data subject. In this case, the issue that arises is whether the processed data would somehow fall under the scope of special data, such as biometric data.

  3. RPE and RPO in the revised Swiss radiation protection legislation; RPE und RPO in der revidierten schweizerischen Strahlenschutzgesetzgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, S.G. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat (ENSI), Brugg (Switzerland); Stritt, N.; Bogni, S. [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit (BAG), Bern (Switzerland); Hammans, M. [Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt (SUVA), Luzern (Switzerland); Duerst, B. [Departement fuer Verteidigung, Bevoelkerungsschutz und Sport (VBS), Bern (Switzerland); Kuehne, G. [Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), Wuerenlingen (Switzerland); Besancon, A. [Institut de Radiophysique (IRA), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    Currently the Swiss 'Ordinance on Radiation Protection' and the 'Ordinance about Education and Training in RP' are undergoing a revision process. Concerning responsibilities and obligations as well as the capabilities and skills in RP the new ordinances are supposed to take account on the new EU Basic Safety Standard on the one hand and on the other hand to resume the approved approaches on RP in Switzerland. An overview of the planned content of the revised ordinances will be given in this report. In the Swiss system the education, training and retraining of RPO has a higher priority. Particularly it will be described which groups of persons assume the roles of RPE and therefore the definition of RPE in the new Swiss legislation is needless. (orig.)

  4. Unintended Consequences of State and Federal Antidiscrimination and Family Medical Leave Legislation on the Employment Rates of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Ilana; Crimando, William

    2008-01-01

    Although some writers have suggested that the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA), contrary to its intent, was responsible for a decline in employment for persons with disabilities, there is little strong empirical support for such an assertion. This study is an attempt to demonstrate that, in fact, the dismal labor market experience following…

  5. Assessing the Need for Personal Protective Equipment: A Guide for Small Business Employers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires employers to protect their employees from workplace hazards such as machines, work procedures, and hazardous substances that can cause injury...

  6. European legislation impedes critical care research and fails to protect patients' rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Rossel, Peter Johannes Hancke

    2011-01-01

    in which a waiver of consent is deemed necessary, the Ethical Review Board should ensure that non-therapeutic risks are minimal, that the research is specifically designed to benefit critically ill patients, and that it cannot be conducted under circumstances where an informed consent can be obtained....... If the European Directive is changed accordingly, this permits clinical trials in critical care settings, while adequate protection from risky non-therapeutic procedures is ensured and exploitation of the patient as an easily accessible research subject is prevented....

  7. Radiation protection: Creating capacity, legislation and regulation, control of exposure and emergency preparedness through technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Every year, the IAEA technical cooperation (TC) programme provides more than US $70 million worth of training services, and equipment in approximately 100 countries and territories throughout Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Latin America. TC projects span an ever increasing range of sectors that have direct links to human and environmental health. Wherever nuclear and other radiation based technologies are applied, protecting the safety and health of employees, medical patients and the public at large is a top priority and a demanding responsibility. One of the primary aims of the TC's radiation protection programme is to help Member States fulfil their safety and security obligations. Rarely in the history of the IAEA has radiation based technology provided so much opportunity. Just as Member States - particularly developing countries - acquire the expertise needed to utilize technologies that contribute to social and economic development, they need to ensure that they have an adequate national infrastructure for radiation safety and security. Beyond the existing infrastructure for radiation safety and security, other factors increasingly call for attention. They are, on the one hand: - The development and deployment of new nuclear technologies; - Renewed interest in large scale nuclear energy production and on the other hand: - Geopolitical instability and global terrorism, which create a black market for radioactive materials; - Ongoing attempts to acquire capacity in nuclear weapons. If the world is to realize the potential of radiation based technologies for peaceful purposes, each country must be prepared to confront the associated risks. The nature of today's global environment is such that a significant threat can arise virtually any time, anywhere. Thus, there is a pressing need to strengthen the safety and security network at every level. The TC programme is committed to building a global safety regime for nuclear technology, country by country

  8. The patient's radiological protection in medical practices: Legal support in the Cuban legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, I.; Duran Delgado, M.

    2001-01-01

    Peaceful applications of nuclear energy have a great importance in medical practice, for their use in diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. The possibility to detect diseases and the use of radiation as a palliative or curative method, enables the use of such polemic energy. Practices associated with the use of ionizing radiation are under regulatory control, and in this regard it becomes necessary to prescribe a series of administrative requirements aimed at granting the corresponding authorization, once it has been demonstrated that the technical requirements that ensure the safe performance of the practice, without undue risk on life, goods and environment, are met. This includes the protection of any patient who could be under treatment, who is considered the main user of this application. (author)

  9. The patient's radiological protection in medical practices, legal support in the cuban legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, Ivonne; Duran Delgado, Marlen

    2005-01-01

    Peaceful applications of nuclear energy have a great importance in medical practice, for their use in diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. The possibility to detect diseases and the use of radiation as a palliative or curative method, ennobles the use of such polemic energy. Practices associated with the use of ionizing radiation are under regulatory control, and in this regard it becomes necessary to prescribe a series of administrative requirements aimed at granting the corresponding authorization, once it has been demonstrated that the technical requirements that ensure the safe performance of the practice, without undue risk on life, goods and environment are met. This includes the protection of any patient who could be under treatment, who is considered the main user of this application

  10. Employment Protection of School Psychologists: A Cautionary Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses legal issues arising from a district's decision not to renew the employment contract of a 61-year-old school psychologist after 9 years of service. The case focuses on the issues of age discrimination and whistleblowing, although it raises other questions of current relevance to school psychologists, such as the…

  11. Job Market Polarization and Employment Protection in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertold-Gebicka, Barbara

    Although much attention has been paid to the polarization of national labor markets, with employment and wage growth occurring in both low- and high- but not middle-skill occupations, there is little consistent evidence on cross-country dierences in this process. I analyze job polarization in 12...

  12. REALIZING LEGAL PROTECTION FOR OUTSOURCING WORKERS THROUGH EMPLOYMENT SETTING SYNCHRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Debating on the outsourcing existence in Law No.13 of 2003 regarding to Labor, is still continuing even though there has been a decision of Indonesia Constitutional Court (MK who stated the rules that the content of Article 65 paragraph (7 and Article 66 paragraph (2 has been outlawed. The problems of this research are: How is the outsourcing concept of regulating in the labor law and the regulation of the labor minister No. 19 of 2012; and What effort to keep the outsourcing arrangement can provide legal protection for workers? This research use juridical normative method. The research finds that some of the concept is in contradiction with the 1945 constitution and another Law which is related to the protection of labor, and even with the other articles that exists in the Labor Law itself so thats the norm contains contradictio adconceptio. Therefore, the system of outsourcing that will be regulated should consider the principles of goof outsourcing governance. They are: legal protection, non-discrimination, worker as the subject not as an object, benefit and welfare, sustainable working relation, and the shifting of protection to the labor.

  13. Modernization and consolidation of the European radiation protection legislation. The new EURATOM radiation protection basic safety standards; Modernisierung und Konsolidierung der europaeischen Strahlenschutzgesetzgebung. Die neuen Euratom-Strahlenschutzgrundnormen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundigl, S. [Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Directorate-General for Energy, Abt. D3 - Strahlenschutz, EUFO

    2013-07-01

    With the development of new basic safety standards for the protection against the dangers arising from ionising radiation, foreseen in Article 2 and Article 30 of the Euratom Treaty, the European Commission modernises and consolidates the European radiation protection legislation. The new Directive offers in a single coherent document, basics safety standards for radiation protection which take account of the status-quo of science and technology, cover all relevant radiation sources, including natural radiation sources, integrate protection of workers, members of the public, patients and the environment, cover all exposure situations, planned, existing, emergency, and harmonise numerical values with international standards. After having received very positive opinions of the Article 31 Group of Experts and the European Economic and Social Committee, the proposed Directive has reached agreement in the Working Party on Atomic Questions of the European Council (WPAQ). The Opinion of the European Parliament is expected in September 2013, which would allow a publication of the Directive in the Official Journal of the European Union by the end of 2013. (orig.)

  14. Radiological risk assessment of isotope laboratories according to the requirements of the radiation protection ordinance and the protective labour legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuerm, R.P.; Kuster, M.; Traub, K.

    2001-01-01

    According to the Swiss Radiation Safety Ordinance the supervising authority may require a safety report from the operator of a radioactive laboratory (Art.95) and establish the methodology of the risk analysis. Isotope laboratories of the chemical industry are supervised by Swiss accident insurance agency (SUVA). In that respect SUVA safeguards both radiation protection issues and general protection of the workers and established guide lines in order to assess conventional risks in industrial premises. In these conventional analysis the working process is analysed according to its possible detriment (death, severe invalidity, slight invalidity, injury with absence, injury without absence) and the probability of occurrence (frequent, seldom, rare, improbable, virtually impossible). According to this the risks are categorised in a matrix as 'high', 'medium' and 'low'. SUVA requested such a risk analysis for two isotope laboratories of B type in Basel in which on the one hand the hazard to the workers on the other hand to the public should be analysed and radiologically assessed. It was proposed to use a methodology established in workers safety and the insurance section. This required a comparison of risks of radiation doses in mSv to the consequences of conventional working accidents (death, invalidity) and the risk perception of the public and politicians. In this paper this risk matrix derived in discussions among the supervising body, the company management, the laboratory head and workers is described. In the opinion of the authors such a comparison between radiological and conventional risks has not been performed up to now and the results obtained here are open to discussion. (orig.) [de

  15. Protecting Children from Cybercrime : Legislative Responses in Latin America to Fight Child Pornography, Online Grooming, and Cyberbullying through Information and Communication Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Santos Lemos Fernandes, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This regional study is focused on the prevention and combat of violence against children through the internet in Latin American countries in order to illuminate problems shared by the different countries, identify the gaps in legislation, and highlight good practices in the prevention and protection of minor victims of online sexual exploitation. Framed by international and regional standa...

  16. Radiation protection training for personnel employed in medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, N.L.; Brodsky, A.

    1985-05-01

    This report provides information useful for planning and conducting radiation safety training in medical facilities to keep exposures as low as reasonably achievable, and to meet other regulatory, safety and loss prevention requirements in today's hospitals. A brief discussion of the elements and basic considerations of radation safety training programs is followed by a short bibliography of selected references and sample lecture (or session) outlines for various job categories. This information is intended for use by a professional who is thoroughly acquainted with the science and practice of radiation protection as well as the specific procedures and circumstances of the particular hospital's operations. Topics can be added or substracted, amplified or condensed as appropriate. 8 refs

  17. Legislation and supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Legislative and supervision-related framework (reviews of structure of supervisory bodies; legislation; state supervision in the nuclear safety area, and state supervision in the area of health protection against radiation are given); (2) Operator's responsibility

  18. State Legislators as Co-Pilots: Some "Helicopter Parents" Play Politics to Protect Their Children's Interests on Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Sara

    2005-01-01

    The US state lawmakers are concerned with the budgets and management of public colleges, though with a little push from "helicopter parents" who hover over their college-age children and challenge administrative decisions, legislators are increasingly intervening in a range of student-life issues. Frequently, legislators who are parents…

  19. Texas passes first law for safe patient handling in America: landmark legislation protects health-care workers and patients from injury related to manual patient lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mary Anne

    2005-01-01

    On June 17,2005, Texas Governor Rick Perry (R) signed into law Senate Bill 1525, making Texas the first state in the nation to require hospitals and nursing homes to implement safe patient handling and movement programs. Governor Perry is to be commended for this heroic first stand for safe patient handling in America. The landmark legislation will take effect January 1, 2006, requiring the establishment of policy to identify, assess, and develop methods of controlling the risk of injury to patients and nurses associated with lifting, transferring, repositioning, and movement of patients; evaluation of alternative methods from manual lifting to reduce the risk of injury from patient lifting, including equipment and patient care environment; restricting, to the extent feasible with existing equipment, manual handling of all or most of a patient's weight to emergency, life-threatening, or exceptional circumstances; and provision for refusal to perform patient handling tasks believed to involve unacceptable risks of injury to a patient or nurse. Manually lifting patients has been called deplorable, inefficient, dangerous to nurses, and painful and brutal to patients; manual lifting can cause needless suffering and injury to patients, with dangers including pain, bruising, skin tears, abrasions, tube dislodgement, dislocations, fractures, and being dropped by nursing staff during attempts to manually lift. Use of safe, secure, mechanical lift equipment and gentle friction-reducing devices for patient maneuvering tasks could eliminate such needless brutality. Research has proven that manual patient lifting is extremely hazardous to health-care workers, creating substantial risk of low-back injury, whether with one or two patient handlers. Studies on the use of mechanical patient lift equipment, by either nursing staff or lift teams, have proven repeatedly that most nursing staff back injury is preventable, leading to substantial savings to employers on medical and

  20. REGIONAL GOVERNMENT'S RESPONSIBILITY TO THE PROTECTION OF INDONESIAN WORKER EMPLOYED (TKIs ABROAD (Review of Human Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Lasatu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the establishment of the Republic of Indonesia is to protect and realize the welfare of citizens. Therefore, the main responsibility of the government is to provide protection and guarantee to every citizen to get a job and a decent living for humanity. Limitations of domestic employment, as well as the public's desire to work overseas, should be responded positively by the government, by formulating regulations both at the central and regional levels. This study will examine the roles and responsibilities of local governments as an effort the law protection against Indonesian Migrant Worker working abroad.This research is a normative legal research with approach of legislation and concept approach and analyzed qualitatively to give perspective on legal issue to the object of this research study. The results show that the responsibility of local government, especially in the pre-placement, post-placement, and empowerment phase of placement of migrant workers, while the placement of migrant workers is the responsibility of the central government. Implementation of local government responsibilities should be supported by regulations established by local governments.

  1. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents a summary of the recent national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country and topic: - Algeria: Nuclear security. - France: Radioactive waste management; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; General legislation; International co-operation. - Germany: International trade. - Indonesia: Nuclear security, General legislation. - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; General legislation. - Lithuania: Nuclear security; Nuclear safety and radiological protection. - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; Environmental protection. - Switzerland: Radioactive waste management. - United Arab Emirates: Liability and compensation. - United States: Radioactive waste management; Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  2. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Canada: Liability and compensation; 2 - France: Liability and compensation; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 3 - Greece: Organisation and structure; 4 - Hungary: General legislation; 5 - India: Liability and compensation; 6 - Japan: Liability and compensation; 7 - Korea: Liability and compensation; 8 - Lithuania: General legislation; Transport of radioactive material; 9 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; 10 - Slovenia: General legislation; 11 - Switzerland: Liability and compensation; 12 - United States: Radioactive waste management

  3. Radiation protection and safety in medical use of ionising radiation in Republic of Bulgaria - Harmonisation of the national legislation with Euratom directives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingilizova, K.; Vassileva, J.; Rupova, I.; Pavlova, A.

    2005-01-01

    From February 2002 to November 2003 the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection conducted a PHARE twinning project 'Radiation Protection and Safety at Medical Use of Ionising Radiation'. The main purposes of the project were the harmonisation of Bulgarian legislation in the field of radiation protection with EC Directives 96/29 and 97/43 Euratom, and the establishment of appropriate institutional infrastructure and administrative framework for their implementation. This paper presents the main results of the project: elaboration of Ordinance for Protection of Individuals from Medical Exposure; performance of a national survey of distribution of patient doses in diagnostic radiology and of administered activities in nuclear medicine and establishment of national reference levels for the most common diagnostic procedures. (authors)

  4. Labour legislations in India: tourism industry dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Rajasekharan

    2012-01-01

    Labour laws shape industrial relations addressing the socio-economic security of the working class. The legislative framework of labour conditions the working conditions, employer-employee relations, mode of wage payments, provide social security, class and protect the interests of special categories of working class. The paper discusses various labour statutes of India that are applicable to tourism. Almost all labour laws prevailing in the country were enacted even before tourism attained i...

  5. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umubyeyi, Aline; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis. The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter. Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.

  6. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Umubyeyi

    Full Text Available Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda.Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis.The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter.Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.

  7. Employers' Statutory Vicarious Liability in Terms of the Protection of Personal Information Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleen Millard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A person whose privacy has been infringed upon through the unlawful, culpable processing of his or her personal information can sue the infringer's employer based on vicarious liability or institute action based on the Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 (POPI. Section 99(1 of POPI provides a person (a "data subject" whose privacy has been infringed upon with the right to institute a civil action against the responsible party. POPI defines the responsible party as the person who determines the purpose of and means for the processing of the personal information of data subjects. Although POPI does not equate a responsible party to an employer, the term "responsible party" is undoubtedly a synonym for "employer" in this context. By holding an employer accountable for its employees' unlawful processing of a data subject's personal information, POPI creates a form of statutory vicarious liability. Since the defences available to an employer at common law and developed by case law differ from the statutory defences available to an employer in terms of POPI, it is necessary to compare the impact this new statute has on employers. From a risk perspective, employers must be aware of the serious implications of POPI. The question that arises is whether the Act perhaps takes matters too far. This article takes a critical look at the statutory defences available to an employer in vindication of a vicarious liability action brought by a data subject in terms of section 99(1 of POPI. It compares the defences found in section 99(2 of POPI and the common-law defences available to an employer fending off a delictual claim founded on the doctrine of vicarious liability. To support the argument that the statutory vicarious liability created by POPI is too harsh, the defences contained in section 99(2 of POPI are further analogised with those available to an employer in terms of section 60(4 of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA and other

  8. Where Are You? Targeting Marginal Workers and Partial Employment Protection Reform: Evidence from Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias Moreno, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    quasi-experiment in Spain that decreased employment protection of new permanent hires who were younger than 31 between 2001 and 2006. Only firms with very low employment volatility could hire with lower levels of EP. Using an administrative dataset, we show that the reform had no effect on hirings, lay......-offs, quits, contract length, starting wages and post-entry wages. We compare the results for the policy in 2001-2006 with a similar policy in 1999-2000 but, that instead of restricting which firms could benefit from it, targeted only workers who had not been in a permanent contract for a certain time...

  9. Consumer protection through a legislative ban on industrially produced trans fatty acids in foods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne

    2006-01-01

    or quality of foods previously containing high amounts of IP-TFA. Various public health organizations, including the World Health Organization, have recommended reducing the consumption of IP-TFA, and efforts have been made in several countries to comply, through the mandatory TFA labelling of prepackaged......Legislation has, within a few years, virtually eliminated the intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) in Denmark, by banning any food with an IP-TFA content greater than 2% of total fat. This accomplishment has been obtained without noticeable effects on the availability, price...... food, societal pressure and industrial initiatives to lower the content of IP-TFA in foods. Yet still, high concentrations of IP-TFA are found in popular foods in several countries including Norway and Sweden. This indicates that millions of people currently have intakes of IP-TFA that increase...

  10. Present scenery of cuban legislation in the field of legal verification of dosimetric instruments used in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas G, Walwyn; Morales Monzon, J.A.; Hernandez Blanche, E.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of legal metrology is to ensure the public guaranty from the point of view of safety, and the suitable accuracy of the measurements that are made on health, environmental applications, and trade. The International Organization of Legal Metrology included the ionizing radiation field on those for which the use of the verified measuring instruments are suggested. . The paper presents the advances of Cuban legislation in this field, promoted by issue of the Decree-Law 183 of Metrology. As part of such advances, the Cuban standards for verification NC 44:1999 'X and Gamma Radiation Measuring Instruments. Verification methods' is discussed. This standard was elaborated in the Cuban Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, and it is based on the available relevant international standards. Results from verification service during the year 2000 are also provided.(author)

  11. The protection and compensation of workers employed in the uranium mining industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, P.

    1983-01-01

    The hazards associated with uranium mining are outlined. The extent to which the law has provided for the protection of Australian uranium mine and mill workers from avoidable injury is examined. The single most significant step taken towards adequate protection of workers from the dangers of excessive exposure to ionising radiation was the approval of the Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores (1980). The extent to which existing compensatory mechanisms, both common law and statutory, provide for the compensation of uranium mine and mill workers who sustain diseases peculiar to their employment is also examined. The capacity of the law to deal with cancers and other diseases of long latency periods is discussed

  12. The Romanian legislative framework for protection of terrestrial and freshwater vertebrate tetrapodes potentially affected by activities for exploitation of wind-resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÖRÖK Zsolt

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian legislation nominates for variosus conservative statuses the following terrestrial or freshwater tetrapode species which should be included in the analyses of teh studies on the potential negative impact of wind-turbines and related infrastructures or activities: 11 species of amphibians, 16 species of reptiles, 273 species of birds and 38 species of mammals that have “strictly protected species” status (according to ActNo. 13 / 1993, which enforces the Bern Convention on conservation of wildlife; 7 species of amphibians, 5 species ofreptiles, 94 species of birds and 31 species of mammals that have “protected species” status (according to the same ActNo. 13 / 1993; 6 species of amphibians, 5 species of reptiles, 54 species of mammals of which protection needs designaton of Special Areas of Conservation (Governmental Urgency Ordinance No. 57 / 2007; 11 species of amphibians, 18 species of reptiles, 48 species of mammals having “Species of Community Interest that need strictprotection” status (Governmental Urgency Ordinance No. 57 / 2007; 6 species of amphibians, 5 species of reptiles, 67 species of birds and 6 species of mammals that have “Species of National Interest that need strict protection” status (Governmental Urgency Ordinance No. 57 / 2007. At least 122 species of birds are nominated among the species of which protection needs designaton of Special Protection Areas (Governmental Urgency Ordinance No. 57 / 2007, 112migratory waterbird species are protected by Act No. 89 / 2000, 20 migratory birds are considered as being treathened on European level (Act no. 13 / 1998 and 267 species have “unfavourable status on European level” (Act no. 13 / 1998. All 30 bat species are protected by Act No. 90 / 2000, and 25 species are also nominated in Act No. 13 / 1993 (that enforces the Bonn Convention on migratory species.

  13. Are organisations in South Africa ready to comply with personal data protection or privacy legislation and regulations?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, Ntsako

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available people. Organisations require people’s trust and in turn, people are entitled to demand, as far as practicable and lawful, certain privileges from these organisations, such as the right to data protection or privacy. The power imbalance between... of restrictions on international data transfers, where there are no ‘adequate’ levels of personal data protection [5, 6]. This could have dire consequences for businesses. The European Union (EU) Directive [5] was a game changer. It resulted in the conclusion...

  14. Are Retail Outlets Complying with National Legislation to Protect Children from Exposure to Tobacco Displays at Point of Sale? Results from the First Compliance Study in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Eadie

    Full Text Available From April 6th 2015, all small shops in the UK were required to cover up tobacco products at point of sale (POS to protect children from exposure. As part of a larger 5-year study to measure the impact of the legislation in Scotland, an audit was conducted to assess level and nature of compliance with the ban immediately following its introduction.A discreet observational audit was conducted 7-14 days post implementation which took measures of physical changes made to cover products, server/assistant practices, tobacco signage and advertising, and communication of price information. The audit was conducted in all small retail outlets (n = 83 selling tobacco in four communities in Scotland selected to represent different levels of urbanisation and social deprivation. Data were analysed descriptively.Compliance with the legislation was high, with 98% of shops removing tobacco from permanent display and non-compliance was restricted almost entirely to minor contraventions. The refurbishment of shops with new or adapted tobacco storage units resulted in the removal of nearly all commercial brand messages and images from POS, dropping from 51% to 4%. The majority of shops stored their tobacco in public-facing storage units (81%. Most shops also displayed at least one generic tobacco message (88%.Compliance with Scottish prohibitions on display of tobacco products in small retail outlets was high immediately after the legislation implementation date. However, although tobacco branding is no longer visible in retail outlets, tobacco storage units with generic tobacco messages are still prominent. This points towards a need to monitor how the space vacated by tobacco products is utilised and to better understand how the continuing presence of tobacco storage units influences people's awareness and understanding of tobacco and smoking. Countries with existing POS bans and who are considering such bans should pay particular attention to regulations

  15. Are Retail Outlets Complying with National Legislation to Protect Children from Exposure to Tobacco Displays at Point of Sale? Results from the First Compliance Study in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Douglas; Stead, Martine; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Murray, Susan; Best, Catherine; Pearce, Jamie; Tisch, Catherine; van der Sluijs, Winfried; Amos, Amanda; MacGregor, Andy; Haw, Sally

    2016-01-01

    From April 6th 2015, all small shops in the UK were required to cover up tobacco products at point of sale (POS) to protect children from exposure. As part of a larger 5-year study to measure the impact of the legislation in Scotland, an audit was conducted to assess level and nature of compliance with the ban immediately following its introduction. A discreet observational audit was conducted 7-14 days post implementation which took measures of physical changes made to cover products, server/assistant practices, tobacco signage and advertising, and communication of price information. The audit was conducted in all small retail outlets (n = 83) selling tobacco in four communities in Scotland selected to represent different levels of urbanisation and social deprivation. Data were analysed descriptively. Compliance with the legislation was high, with 98% of shops removing tobacco from permanent display and non-compliance was restricted almost entirely to minor contraventions. The refurbishment of shops with new or adapted tobacco storage units resulted in the removal of nearly all commercial brand messages and images from POS, dropping from 51% to 4%. The majority of shops stored their tobacco in public-facing storage units (81%). Most shops also displayed at least one generic tobacco message (88%). Compliance with Scottish prohibitions on display of tobacco products in small retail outlets was high immediately after the legislation implementation date. However, although tobacco branding is no longer visible in retail outlets, tobacco storage units with generic tobacco messages are still prominent. This points towards a need to monitor how the space vacated by tobacco products is utilised and to better understand how the continuing presence of tobacco storage units influences people's awareness and understanding of tobacco and smoking. Countries with existing POS bans and who are considering such bans should pay particular attention to regulations regarding the use

  16. Technology assessment with regard to the environment. Assessment of the consequences of legislation for environment protection shown for the example of the Law on Chemicals. Final report; Technikfolgenabschaetzung - Umwelt. Gesetzesfolgenabschaetzung im Umweltschutz. Untersuchung am Beispiel des Chemikaliengesetzes. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte-Hostede, S.

    1993-12-31

    The present report contains the result of a research project on `Technology assessment with regard to the environment` which was commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) and carried out jointly by the GSF Research Centre for Environment and Health (GSF) and the Institute for Applied Innovation Research (IAI). In this project the Law on Protection from Harzardous Substances (Law on Chemicals) was used to exemplify the procedure of assessing the consequences of legislation in the area of environmental law. The project proposal distinguished three project phases. In the first an exemplary ex post analysis was to be carried out on a significant legal regulation (the Law on Chemicals) concerning a specific branch of industry generally considered innovative (the chemical industry). In this way it was intended to collect empirical knowledge on how regulations affect innovation processes in the individual company. In the second phase the planned amendment of the Law on Chemicals was to serve as a case example for an assessment of the consequences of legislation. In the third project phase the methodology employed in the former was to be extended for the purpose of developing an instrumentarium for the ex ante assessment of legislation. Such an instrument could permit both the corporate innovator and the innovation promoter to assess the effets of environmental legislation at the corporate level and thus develop an anticipatory conflict management. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der vorgelegte Bericht beinhaltet die Ergebnisse des vom GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit (GSF) und dem Institut fuer Angewandte Innovationsforschung (IAI) gemeinsam bearbeiteten BMFT-Forschungsvorhabens `Technikfolgenabschaetzung - Umwelt`. Thema war die Gesetzesfolgenabschaetzung im Bereich der Umweltschutzgesetzgebung am Beispiel des `Gesetzes zum Schutz vor gefaehrlichen Stoffen (Chemikaliengesetz)`. Der Projektvorschlag sah dabei vor, zunaechst in einer

  17. State Employment Protection Statutes for Victims of Domestic Violence: Public Policy's Response to Domestic Violence as an Employment Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer E.; Ojha, Mamta U.; Macke, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates that domestic violence has negative consequences on victims' employment; yet employers lag in recognizing this as a workplace issue. To address the problem, some states have established several policy solutions. To understand the scope of the public sector's response to domestic violence as a workplace issue, a content analysis…

  18. Proposed UK legislation to provide radiological protection for workers, with emphasis on its application to the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holyoak, B.; Shaw, K.B.

    1983-01-01

    In terms of the standards for packaging and labelling the proposed Regulations are consistent with IAEA SS No. 6 and continue the existing UK statutory requirements; they will provide statutory controls for those modes of transport presently subject to non-statutory conventions and by-laws. There are new requirements in the administrative arrangements for the provision of radiological protection. These requirements reflect the procedures presently used by responsible organizations and are compatible with IAEA SS No. 9(10). Thus our proposals will be compatible with the various International Transport Conventions when these are brought into line with IAEA SS No. 6 (1984). The proposals should secure a system of working which is sufficiently flexible that it will not impede legitimate carriage but will ensure that everyone involved, either directly or indirectly, is provided with a satisfactory and uniform standard of radiological protection. As a consequence of the extensive consulation during the preparation of the proposals it is anticipated that the transport industry will be well disposed towards compliance; however should there be deviations from accepted standards enforcement action can be applied. 10 references

  19. Social protection and the employment contract: the impact on work absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; Scott-Marshall, Heather; Fang, Miao

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of temporary employment on all-cause sickness absence of one week or more with a focus on how this relationship is moderated by factors related to social protection (job tenure, union membership and firm size). A sample of 5,307 individuals who experienced 9,574 distinct job episodes was drawn from a longitudinal Canadian labour market survey (2000-2004). Duration analysis was undertaken to model the time from the start of a job to the first sickness absence. Specifically, a proportional hazard model was estimated using a complementary log-log function for continuous time processes. Findings showed that temporary employment was associated with a lower rate of sickness absence after controlling for tenure, prior health status, and several other individual and job characteristics. The results suggest that the lack of social protection in temporary jobs is a powerful determinant of absence taking, even in the case of serious health conditions that require an absence of one week or more.

  20. Legislative update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-23

    Recent State legislation on HIV-related issues is summarized. Connecticut enacted a bill imposing penalties when public servants and health care workers are deliberately exposed to body fluids. Louisiana passed a bill mandating HIV testing for each incoming State prison inmate. New York has several bills under consideration related to guardianship, confidentiality of crime victims who are potentially exposed to HIV, and disability benefits for firefighters and police officers who contract HIV, tuberculosis, or hepatitis in the line of duty. North Carolina has a new law aimed at serving additional clients in the State=s AIDS drug assistance program. Oregon is working on a bill authorizing HIV testing for all defendants who may have transmitted body fluids to a crime victim.

  1. Collection of legislative and regulatory arrangements relative to radiation protection. Part 1: laws and decrees of the Public Health Code and Labour Code concerning the protection of populations, patients and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations; Recueil des dispositions legislatives et reglementaires relatives a la radioprotection. Partie 1: lois et decrets du code de la sante publique et du code du travail concernant la protection de la population, des patients et des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This collection concerns on one hand the protection of the population and on the other hand the protection of the workers against ionizing radiations. As regards the protection of the populations, there is a quality control of waters, a control of the medical devices for the protection of patients. For the protection of the workers it is the employment law which serves as reference. (N.C.)

  2. The management of radiological protection in a multi-employer environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, Alex

    2000-01-01

    For more than 40 years the UKAEA has been a world leader in the field of nuclear power R and D, pioneering the world's first civil nuclear programme and developing new nuclear power reactor technologies. Now that the initial programme has been successfully completed, UKAEA is again leading the world by pioneering new approaches to managing nuclear liabilities. In this new role, UKAEA is making a significant use of other companies in carrying out its decommissioning tasks and in providing support services. Whilst bringing with it new ideas and useful outside experience, this approach has given new challenges to UKAEA in ensuring that the work is carried out safety and that UKAEA is able to continue to exercise it's responsibilities as site operator and nuclear site licensee. This paper draws upon the experience within UKAEA to explore the management of radiological protection in a multi-employer situation emphasising the importance of co-operation between radiological protection experts, the need to clarify roles and responsibilities and the importance of worker participation. It is concluded that properly managed such an arrangement can not only work but can strengthen radiation protection building on various parties' strengths and experiences. One particular area where considerable use of service contractors has been undertaken is in radiological protection support services. UKAEA has now some unique experience in UK and have demonstrated that again, with adequate and appropriate management arrangements a potential challenge can be turned into an advantage. It is vital however that UKAEA is able to demonstrate sufficient in-house knowledge and expertise to remain in control as the site Licensee. (author)

  3. Evidence of Persistent and Pervasive Workplace Discrimination Against LGBT People: The Need for Federal Legislation Prohibiting Discrimination and Providing for Equal Employment Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Pizer, Jennifer; Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad; Hunter, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have experienced a long and pervasive history of employment discrimination. Today, more than eight million people in the American workforce identify as LGBT, but there still is no federal law that explicitly prohibits sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination against them.This Article begins by surveying the social science research and other evidence illustrating the nature and scope of the discrimination against LGBT workers a...

  4. Led Up the Tribunal Path? Employment Disputes, Legal Consciousness and Trust in the Protection of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Joanne Kirk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores legal consciousness through a consideration of the trust that workers extend to employment law to protect them, and how they react when their expectations are frustrated, tracing evolving legal dispositions and reflections upon the boundaries of legality. Clients of Citizens Advice Bureaux were case-tracked as they attempted to resolve work-related disputes. Generally participants trusted employment law to be there for them, rarely anticipating the limits and conditionality of various rights, or the considerable difficulties that can accompany their enforcement. Frustrated expectations were met with varying degrees of acceptance and fatalism, with the redirection of grievances towards collectivised dissent or activism being exceptionally rare. People tend to engage with employment law in ways that legitimate institutions and reaffirm a system that, for a variety of reasons, offers weak protection and enforcement. Este artículo explora la conciencia jurídica, y, para ello, toma en consideración la confianza que depositan los trabajadores en que la legislación laboral los proteja, y cómo reaccionan cuando sus expectativas se ven frustradas, rastreando las disposiciones legales en desarrollo y sus reflejos sobre los límites de la legalidad. Se siguieron los casos de algunos clientes de las Oficinas de Asesoramiento a los Ciudadanos que intentaban solucionar conflictos laborales. En general, los participantes confiaban en que la ley del trabajo los protegiera, y rara vez preveían las limitaciones y condicionamientos de diversos derechos o las dificultades de su cumplimiento. Las expectativas frustradas generaban diversos grados de aceptación y fatalismo; la canalización de las quejas hacia la disensión colectiva o el activismo se daba de forma excepcionalmente rara. La gente tiende a comprometerse con la legislación laboral en formas que legitiman a las instituciones y que reafirman un sistema débil para ofrecer

  5. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - France: General legislation, regulations and instruments; Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation); International co-operation; 2 - India: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; Liability and compensation; 3 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); Transport of radioactive material; Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation); 4 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); Radioactive waste management; 5 - Luxembourg: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); 6 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; General legislation, regulations and instruments; 7 - Spain: Radioactive materials (including physical protection); Radioactive waste management; 8 - United States: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  6. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    This part gathers the national legislative and regulatory activities. The subjects tackled are as follow: radiological protection (Belgium), transport of radioactive materials (Belgium, France), general legislation (Brazil, Ireland, Republic of Moldova, Serbia, Turkey), third part liability (Japan), radioactive waste management (Korea, Romania, Slovenia, Usa), regime of radioactive materials (Romania), organisation and structure (Switzerland), regime of nuclear installations (Usa), regulations on nuclear trade (Usa). (N.C)

  7. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following activities sorted by country: 1 - Belarus: International cooperation, Organisation and structure, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 2 - France: Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Radioactive waste management, Environmental protection, Liability and compensation, International co-operation; 3 - Hungary: General legislation, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear security; 4 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including emergency planning); 5 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; 6 - Moldova: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 7 - Portugal: Radioactive waste management, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 8 - Slovak Republic: Radioactive waste management, Liability and compensation; 9 - Spain: Radioactive waste management; 10 - Ukraine: Radioactive waste management; 11 - United Kingdom: Organisation and structure

  8. Legislation, women, and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, G

    1987-01-01

    Governmental policies and legislation aimed at validating the dual role of women as mothers and wage earners can significantly strengthen breastfeeding promotion efforts. Examples of such laws and policies are maternity leave, breastfeeding breaks at the workplace, allowances for pregnant women and new mothers, rooming-in at hospitals, child care at the worksite, flexible work schedules for new mothers, and a national marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. The International labor Organization (ILO) has played an important role in setting international standards to protect working mothers. The ILO defines minimal maternity protection as encompassing: a compulsory period of 6 weeks' leave after delivery; entitlement to a further 6 weeks of leave; the provision during maternity leave of benefits sufficient for the full and healthy maintenance of the child; medical care by a qualified midwife or physician; authorization to interrupt work for the purpose of breastfeeding; and protection from dismissal during maternity leave. In many countries there is a lack of public awareness of existing laws or policies; i.e., working women may not know they are entitled to maternity leave, or pediatricians may not know that the government has developed a marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. Overall, the enactment and enforcement of legislation can ensure the longterm effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion by raising the consciousness of individuals and institutions, putting breastfeeding activities in the wider context of support for women's rights, recognizing the dual roles of women, and institutionalizing and legitimating support for breastfeeding.

  9. [Individual prevention of occupational contact dermatitis: protective gloves and skin protection recommendations as part of the patient management scheme by the public statutory employers' liability insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, A; Skudlik, C; Sonsmann, F K

    2018-05-02

    The dermatologist's procedure is a pivotal tool for early recognition of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD), for reporting OCD cases to the statutory accident insurance and for treating the diseases. The employer is in charge of implementing skin protection measures at the workplace. However, in terms of an individual prevention approach it may be necessary to propose targeted skin protection recommendations in specific patient cases. The patient's own skin protection behavior significantly contributes to regenerating and maintaining healthy skin. This behavior includes the use of occupational skin products, and in particular the correct use of appropriately selected protective gloves. Protective gloves are the most important personal protective measure in the prevention of OCD. Prevention services, occupational health and safety specialists, occupational physicians and centers specialized in occupational dermatology can support the identification of suitable protective measures. Nowadays, suitable protective gloves exist for (almost) every occupational activity and exposure. However, improper use in practice can become a risk factor by itself for the skin (e. g., incorrectly used gloves). Therefore, it is of utmost importance to identify application errors, to educate patients in terms of skin protection and to motivate them to perform an appropriate skin protection behavior. With particular focus on protective gloves, this article gives an overview of various types, materials and potentially glove-related allergens, presents strategies for reducing occlusion effects and discusses some typical application errors and solutions.

  10. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  11. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Belarus: general legislation with amendments to laws on the use of atomic energy (2009) and criminal law on acts concerning the use of radioactive sources and administrative law for non criminal violations of radiation safety requirement (2009). Egypt: general legislation with law on activities in the nuclear and radiation field (2010). France: radioactive waste management with a decree establishing a committee on industrial co-ordination of radioactive waste (2010) and third part liability with a law on the recognition and indemnification of victims of nuclear tests conducted by France (2010). Germany: general legislation with a tenth amendment to the atomic energy act (2010), and act on environmental impact assessment (2009) concerning organisation and structure we find a revised version of statutes of the Radiation Protection Commission (2009), about radiation protection we find an act on the protection against non-ionizing radiation (2009), and for transport of radioactive materials we have an ordinance on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (2009). Ireland: In radiation protection we have an order to amend Regulations on active implantable medical devices (2010). Italy: general legislation we have a decree setting out rules for the sitting, construction and operation of nuclear installations (2010). Romania: general legislation with a law on the reorganisation of public authorities (2009). Slovak Republic: general legislation with an amendment of the atomic act (2009). spain: radioactive waste management with a law regulation limited investment companies quoted on the real estate market (2009). Ukraine: general legislation with an overview of recent amendments to laws in the field of nuclear energy (2009). (N.C.)

  12. Ask Dr. Sue--OSHA Requires Employers to Give Hepatitis B Immunization and Protection to First Aiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1992-01-01

    Explains rules of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) that require employers to protect employees whose jobs may result in worker contact with potentially infectious materials. Describes conditions that apply to violations of OSHA rules. Urges child care programs to formulate plans for compliance with OSHA requirements. (SM)

  13. The Impact of FEP Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Arvil

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, had three express focuses: (1) on urban poverty among blacks in the non-south; (2) on the enforcement of Fair Employment Practice (FEP) legislation and its effect on the economic position of blacks and other minority groups; and, (3) on guidelines…

  14. TENORM legislation - Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurikov, N.; Koperski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Processing of minerals often increases concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in mineral concentrates, products and waste streams. This so-called TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) phenomenon can result in usually very small increases of radiation exposures to workers and the public. However, proposed international radiation protection standards are likely to bring the TENORM issue into the realm of regulatory concern. Verbatim adoption by the national legislation's of the radiation protection standards like those proposed in the IAEA's 1996 Basic Safety Standards (BSS) would present enormous practical problems. Many industries and industrial practices would, for the first time, become subjected to the provisions of radiation protection legislation. Consequently, registration, licensing, occupational and environmental monitoring, statutory reporting, appointment of appropriately qualified staff, new approaches to the management of minerals and waste labeled as 'radioactive', etc. would be required. This would be mirrored by corresponding demands on the regulatory authorities, needing to provide an increased radiation protection regulatory control. In response to new Australian and other national radiation protection legislation that have incorporated the BSS criteria, this paper illustrates their impact on a number of industries that historically have not been considered as dealing with radioactive materials. The paper also proposes a number of initiatives that could be considered. Nationally, those initiatives should aim at adopting radiation protection legislation that is commensurate with the nature of the minerals industry operations, national circumstances, conditions and interests without compromising rational radiation protection practices. Otherwise, non-judicious application of the BSS would result in major diversions of resources from well recognized occupational health and safety issues

  15. Maritime environmental penal law. International and German legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, Jan Frederik

    2017-01-01

    The book on maritime environmental penal law discusses the following issues: part I: introduction into the importance of oceanic environment and its thread, requirement of protective measures,; part II: focus of the study and terminology: oceanic pollution, maritime environmental legislation, international legislation; part 3: international legislative regulations concerning the protection of maritime environment: avoidance of environmental pollution, maritime legislative agreements, existing protective institutions; part 4: state penal power concerning maritime environmental protection; part 5: statutory offense according to German legislation; perspectives for regulations concerning criminal acts on sea.

  16. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation

  17. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation.

  18. Supervision of compliance with the environmental legislation especially from the point of view of the Environmental Protection Act; Ympaeristoelainsaeaedaennoen laillisuusvalvonta - erityisesti ympaeristoensuojelulain naekoekulmasta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennanen, J. (ed.)

    2006-07-01

    The topic of the publication is the supervision of compliance with the environmental legislation. The publication presents the environmental enforcement bodies and the practical use of administrative sanctions. The environmental authorities may use voluntary or administrative means and also make an official report of an offence. The publication is aimed at the environmental authorities, inspectors and other authorities. The appendices show models for documents in supervision. (orig.)

  19. 77 FR 43697 - Ensuring the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA) Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    .... Attracting and retaining the best talent means ensuring fair treatment for individuals who have served our... Management; (vi) the Office of the Special Counsel; and (vii) such other agencies or offices as the Co-Chairs... Personnel Management, in consultation with the Council on Veterans Employment established by Executive Order...

  20. 6 March 2013 - Committee for Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the LHC tunnel and visiting the LHCb experiment at LHC Point 8. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers with Vice-Chair T. Buchanan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    6 March 2013 - Committee for Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the LHC tunnel and visiting the LHCb experiment at LHC Point 8. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers with Vice-Chair T. Buchanan.

  1. Stakeholder Corporate Governance: The Combined Effects of Bank Competition and Employment Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Ueda, K.

    2014-01-01

    Between the early-1970s and the mid-1990s, the U.S. banking sector was deregulated and U.S. workers gained more statuary basic protections. The effects of these two reforms on productive activity have largely been studied separately in the finance and labor literatures. Yet they only have separable

  2. Actions of the Cuban Nuclear Regulatory Authority in the adequate implementation of the legislation in matter of radiological protection; Acciones de la Autoridad Reguladora Nuclear cubana en la adecuada implementacion de la Legislacion en materia de proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornet R, O.M. [Delegacion Territorial CITMA. Peralta No.16, Rpto Peralta, Holguin, CP 80400 (Cuba); Guillen C, A.; Betancourt H, L.A. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, Calle 28 No.504, Miramar Playa, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: ofelia@citmahlg.holguin.inf.cu

    2006-07-01

    The effectiveness of the regulatory activity in matter of safety and radiological protection it depends in great measure of the practical implementation level of the legislation in this matter. In our country this objective has been achieved through the one continuous improvement of the Hierarchical System of Nuclear Regulation, the reconciliation with specialists and national experts in each matter during the elaboration of the legal documents; the popularization and gratuitous distribution of it approved; the precision in the validation conditions of the authorizations of those main precepts applicable to the practices; the legal foundation of the deficiencies evidenced in the regulatory inspections; the development of a Safety Culture; the realization of Annual Regulatory Conferences and mainly in the training of the personnel related with the safety. Also, the constant analysis on the part of the specialists of the Regulatory Authority of the grade of implementation of this legislation, it discussion in national and international events and the actions recommended in these works. As a result of this focus, it is considered that the Regulatory Authority has impacted appropriately in the implementation of this legislation. (Author)

  3. Hawaii state legislator views on e-cigarettes and likelihood of legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Seto, Jason; Guimaraes, Alexander; Masterson, James; Davis, James; Seto, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    To examine perspectives on e-cigarette use and regulations in Hawaii through key informant interviews with state legislators. E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing, with sales in 2013 topping $1 billion in the United States, but e-cigarettes are still a largely unregulated industry. Although e-cigarettes are thought by most to be a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, long-term health effects are not yet known. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with Hawaii state legislators (n = 15). We found a lack of consensus among legislators, which suggests that substantial legislative action is unlikely in the upcoming session. However, most legislators believe that some type of incremental legislation will pass, such as enactment of a small tax, limitations on advertising to protect adolescents, or regulations concerning where people can use e-cigarettes. Legislators eagerly await further research to clarify the overall benefits and harms of e-cigarettes at both the individual and population levels.

  4. Food-borne zoonoses, the EU zoonosis legislation and the prospects for food safety and consumer protection during primary animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Frans J M; Vågsholm, Ivar; Korkeala, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    Zoonoses are diseases that are transmitted naturally between animals and humans. The control of food-borne zoonoses within the European Union is a prerequisite for assuring a functional internal market and consequently represents an important item on the political agenda. Unfortunately, until recently, gaining a clear view of the current incidence of food-borne zoonoses and the prevalence of its causative agents has been frustrated by the absence of reliable monitoring and reporting systems. Similarly, it has become clear that, Europe wide, one has witnessed only limited success with regard to the control of important food-borne agents such as Salmonella spp. The European Union has adopted legislation to remedy this situation and to control food-borne zoonoses in primary production. This contribution discusses the incentives for introducing EU Directive 2003/99/EC and EU Regulation No. 2160/2003, summarises their essentials and discusses major ramifications of both pieces of legislation for the prevention of food-borne zoonoses. It is concluded that there is reason for cautious optimism concerning human salmonellosis, while for other food-borne zoonoses there should be a call for action.

  5. Do flexicurity policies protect workers from the adverse health consequences of temporary employment? A cross-national comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Vahid Shahidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexicurity policies comprise a relatively novel approach to the regulation of work and welfare that aims to combine labour market flexibility with social security. Advocates of this approach argue that, by striking the right balance between flexibility and security, flexicurity policies allow firms to take advantage of loose contractual arrangements in an increasingly competitive economic environment while simultaneously protecting workers from the adverse health and social consequences of flexible forms of employment. In this study, we use multilevel Poisson regression models to test the theoretical claim of the flexicurity approach using data for 23 countries across three waves of the European Social Survey. We construct an institutional typology of labour market regulation and social security to evaluate whether inequalities in self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness between temporary workers and their permanent counterparts are smaller in countries that most closely approximate the ideal type described by advocates of the flexicurity approach. Our results indicate that, while the association between temporary employment and health varies across countries, institutional configurations of labour market regulation and social security do not provide a meaningful explanation for this cross-national variation. Contrary to the expectations of the flexicurity hypothesis, our data do not indicate that employment-related inequalities are smaller in countries that approximate the flexicurity approach. We discuss potential explanations for these findings and conclude that there remains a relative lack of evidence in support of the theoretical claims of the flexicurity approach. Keywords: Health inequalities, Cross-national, Temporary, Employment, Flexicurity, Multilevel

  6. Actual tasks and directions of protection of mental health of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants employers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlevskij, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The problems of mental health of employers of the Ukrainian Nuclear Power Stations (UNPS) are considered on a background increasing the economic and the social crisis in our society. Is marked, that the psychological instability and mental disorders of the engineers, operators and administrative personnel can adverse influence economic parameters of the UNPS and, especially, on maintenance of nuclear and radiating safety of the Nuclear Power Station. We have information about small numbers of research works in this area and necessity of creation the modern government Social-Medical-Psychological Service of the UNPS. We submitted the basic goals, tasks and complex actual parts of the program 'Logos'. These Service and program directed on preservation and strengthening of the mental health of UNPS workers

  7. 29 CFR 783.28 - General legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 783.28 Section 783.28 Labor... TO EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN Legislative History and Judicial Construction of the Exemptions § 783.28 General legislative history. As originally enacted in 1938, section 13(a)(3) of the Fair Labor...

  8. Do flexicurity policies protect workers from the adverse health consequences of temporary employment? A cross-national comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Faraz Vahid; De Moortel, Deborah; Muntaner, Carles; Davis, Owen; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2016-12-01

    Flexicurity policies comprise a relatively novel approach to the regulation of work and welfare that aims to combine labour market flexibility with social security. Advocates of this approach argue that, by striking the right balance between flexibility and security, flexicurity policies allow firms to take advantage of loose contractual arrangements in an increasingly competitive economic environment while simultaneously protecting workers from the adverse health and social consequences of flexible forms of employment. In this study, we use multilevel Poisson regression models to test the theoretical claim of the flexicurity approach using data for 23 countries across three waves of the European Social Survey. We construct an institutional typology of labour market regulation and social security to evaluate whether inequalities in self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness between temporary workers and their permanent counterparts are smaller in countries that most closely approximate the ideal type described by advocates of the flexicurity approach. Our results indicate that, while the association between temporary employment and health varies across countries, institutional configurations of labour market regulation and social security do not provide a meaningful explanation for this cross-national variation. Contrary to the expectations of the flexicurity hypothesis, our data do not indicate that employment-related inequalities are smaller in countries that approximate the flexicurity approach. We discuss potential explanations for these findings and conclude that there remains a relative lack of evidence in support of the theoretical claims of the flexicurity approach.

  9. PENGATURAN PRINSIP TRANSFER OF UNDERTAKING PROTECTION OF EMPLOYMENT (TUPE DALAM DUNIA KETENAGAKERJAAN INDONESIA (DIANTARA POTENSI DAN HAMBATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Agus Sudiarawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed identifying the advantages of the regulation of TUPE principles, as well as inhibiting factors for outsourcing companies to apply the TUPE principles after the Decision of the  Constitutional Court Number 27/PUU-IX/ 2011. The research was conducted by using normative-empirical method. The data of the research consisted of primary data and secondary data. All of the collected data were analyzed using qualitative method. The results of this research were presented in a descriptive analysis report. The results of the research indicated he advantages that could be obtained by workers in relation with regulation of the TUPE principles included protection of wages, welfare and working requirements, protection of workers when the company was taken over, protection of workers when there is a change of outsourcing company and regulation of the right to file a lawsuit to the industrial relations court. The inhibiting  factors in the application of the TUPE principles in the  outsourcing companies after the  Decision of Constitutional Court  were the lack of socialization and supervision of the government, various legal loopholes of discrepancies between the implementing regulation and  the Decision of Constitutional Court, uncertainty severance regulation, assumptions that TUPE was a new burden which may disadvantage employers, and the lack of understanding of the workers related to their rights.

  10. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder

  11. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  12. The Legislative and Institutional Framework of Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article shall present a detailed and critical review of the legislative and institutional framework of environmental protection and pollution control in the oil and gas sector in Nigeria; it shall conclude with some recommendations for a better, more efficient and effective environmental protection and pollution control regime ...

  13. Basis and development of legislative radiation protection regulations in medicine; Basis und Entwicklung der gesetzlichen Regelungen des Strahlenschutzes in der Medizin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian

    2017-07-01

    In the frame of the radiation protection law (version 2017) the medical exposure has a special exceptional position because even in case of profound radiation protection measures the annual dose limit of 1 mSv is very often surmounted. The acting radiologist using ionizing radiation or radioactive materials within diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicine has a high responsibility with respect to benefit or hazard of the planned exposure. Especially in the cases of children, pregnant women or persons with high radiation sensitivity the consideration of radiation hazards is of eminent importance.

  14. Application of Spanish legislation on radiation protection in contaminated soils; Aplicacion de la normativa espanola sobre suelos contaminados en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba Alonso, C.; Robles Atienza, B.

    2013-07-01

    As the developments that have led the regulations on contaminated soils conventional pollutants are more advanced than those due to radioactive contaminants, this work is a state of the art of the current situation and is framed within the developments in R and D for radiation protection of the public and the environment. (Author)

  15. Labour Rights Protection in Industrial Relations Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Adi Susanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many violations of the terms of employment at Surabaya, employment protection  and working conditions for workers who are not provided by employers to the maximum, according to the legislation in force, while the legal protection for workers constrained because of the weakness in the system of employment law, both the substance and the culture built by governments and companies. How To Cite: Susanto, E. (2015. Labour Rights Protection in Industrial Relations Issues. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 109-120. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.78

  16. Genetic testing in the workplace: the employer's coin toss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Samantha

    2002-09-05

    A toss of the coin by the modern-day employer reveals two options regarding genetic testing in the workplace. The employer may choose to take advantage of increasingly precise, available, and affordable genetic testing in order to ascertain the genetic characteristics--and deficiencies--of its employees. This outcome exposes the employer to a vast array of potential litigation and liability relating to the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Fourth Amendment, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, and state legislation designed to protect genetic privacy. Alternatively, the employer may neglect to indulge in this trend of genetic testing and may face liability for employer negligence, violations of federal legislation such as OSHA regulations, and increased costs associated with insuring the health of genetically endangered employees. In the rapidly developing universe of genetic intelligence, the employer is faced with a staggering dilemma.

  17. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  18. Protecting workers from pathogens. Employers must act now to comply with OSHA's new standard on bloodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C L

    1992-04-01

    A new standard set forth by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires healthcare employers to implement sweeping new controls in areas such as record keeping, engineering, hazard prevention, and work practice. Through the bloodborne pathogen standard, which went into effect on March 6, OSHA acknowledges that healthcare workers face significant health risks as a result of occupational exposure to blood and other infectious materials. Although most prudent healthcare providers already adhere to the Centers for Disease Control's universal precautions, the OSHA regulations include several additional mandatory measures that are more specific and stringent. The additional measures include the development of an exposure control plan, procedures for responding to an employee's exposure to bloodborne pathogens, the implementation of certain engineering and work practice controls to eliminate or minimize on-the-job exposure risks, and the provision of personal protective equipment and information and training programs. OSHA estimates that the greatest cost component of implementing procedures to bring a facility into compliance is attributable to the purchase of personal protective equipment. Although the costs of compliance are substantial, OSHA has estimated that these costs represent less than 1 percent of the healthcare industry's annual revenues. Violation of the bloodborne pathogen standard may result in penalties of up to $70,000, depending on the severity of the infraction. Criminal penalties are also possible for willful violations that result in worker death.

  19. Acid rain legislation update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the author's view that the coal industry should develop a strategy to respond to the global warming issue. A few weeks ago a speaker stated that the global warming issue placed coal at the crossroads. He stated that global warming legislation, could reduce the consumption of coal by approximately twenty-five percent, without global warming legislation coal would continue to grow at a approximately three percent per year. It is believed there is a path to be traveled between the two options, legislation or no legislation, that can result in coal obtaining the position as the primary fuel source for electrical generating throughout the world. This is a path the coal industry can define and should follow

  20. Considerações sobre a legislação correlata à zona-tampão de unidades de conservação no Brasil Interpretation of the legislation about buffer zones of protected areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia De Luca Vitalli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Zonas tampão são áreas ao redor de unidades de conservação, sujeitas a normas específicas, que visam mitigar impactos sobre os ecossistemas protegidos. Analisamos os instrumentos jurídicos que tratam dessas zonas no Brasil e consideramos que podem ser classificadas como limitações ao exercício do direito de propriedade, cabendo aos gestores das unidades de conservação, juntamente com os órgãos licenciadores, indicar quais atividades devem ser submetidas ao licenciamento ambiental para que possam ser instaladas ao redor de unidades de conservação.Buffer zones are areas around natural reserves under special laws, aiming at minimizing threats to the protected ecosystems. After analyzing the Brazilian legislation concerning the subject, we interpret buffer zones as a sort of limitation to the property rights. It is in the hands of the managers of protected areas, together with the licensing institutions, to indicate which activities are potentially of great impact and must have an environmental license to be permitted in the buffer zone of protected areas.

  1. Specific Statistics of Czech Legislation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2015), s. 162-183 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : legislation * quantitative description of legislation * structure and development of the legislation in the CR Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  2. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Australia: General legislation - Bill to amend the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998; 2 - France: General legislation - Law No. 2015-992 of 17 August 2015 on the energy transition for green growth; ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2014; 3 - Germany: Radioactive waste management - First Ordinance to amend the 2005 Gorleben Development Freeze Ordinance (2015); 4 - Greece: Radioactive waste management - Joint Ministerial Decision establishing the national policy on the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste; 5 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection - Revised requirements for modifications, Plan for enhancement of nuclear safety, New requirements for the commissioning of nuclear power plants, Revised requirements regulating the provision of information on abnormal events; Radioactive waste management - Revised requirements for acceptance criteria for near surface repository; Nuclear security - Revised requirements for physical protection; 6 - Romania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure - Government Decision No. 600/2014 for approval of National Nuclear Safety and Security; International co-operation - Government Decision No. 525/2014 for approval of the Co-operation Agreement on the radioactive waste management between the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and Nuclear Agency and Radioactive Waste (ANDR) Strategy; Memorandum of Understanding for Co-operation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) of Romania and the President of National Atomic Energy Agency (PAA) of Poland; Government Decision No. 540/2015 for approval of the Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of the People's Republic of China regarding co-operation in the peaceful

  3. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, C.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the House legislation, the major differences between the House and Senate legislation and a preview of what is likely to take place during the lame duck session in December are presented. The House legislation provides: long-term program leading toward permanent disposal of nuclear waste; an interim program for storage and for expansion of storage space for spent fuel; provides an R and D component through what is called a test and evaluation facility; an alternative long-term storage program based on a proposal to be completed by the Department of Energy on what's called Monitored Retrievable Storage; full upfront financing of the program through user fees based on contracts between the government and the users of the nuclear waste disposal services

  4. Legislation for nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Shozo

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear disaster accident clarified problems on nuclear-related legislation and its application. Legislation for nuclear disaster (LNA) could not respond to severe accident because assumed size of accident was not enough. After emergency event corresponding to the article 15 of LNA, was reported by the operator, more than two hours passed by the issuance of Emergency State Declaration. Off-site center could not work at all. This article reviewed outline of LNA and introduced discussion on the reform of legislation and its application. Reform discussion should be focused on swift and effective response readiness to emergency: 1) operator's substantial nuclear emergency drilling, (2) reinforcement of government's headquarters for emergency response, (3) after nuclear emergency, government's headquarters remained to enhance resident's safety from radiation hazard and (4) enactment of nuclear emergency preparedness guidelines for local communities. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Implementing the legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstrom, L.

    1982-01-01

    Leon Silverstrom explained how nuclear waste disposal legislation would be implemented. The legislation provides a framework that recognizes the tremendous number of views and opinions on the subject and provides a mechanism that will allow all these interests to be expressed before final decisions are reached. Implementing procedures are outlined for: (1) the final repository; (2) interim or last resort storage; (3) research and development; (4) the monitored retrievable storage phases. The whole process will involve: environmental assessments and licensing requirements for each phase; construction of a test and evaluation facility; provision for sharing information with the states and interested parties; and procedures for public hearings and state rejection of propoped sites

  6. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Senate passed 69 to 6 legislation to provide a comprehensive nuclear waste policy. This legislation restates some things the Department of Energy is already doing. It modifies some others, and in some cases it provides new authorities, principally in those areas of state participation and in the area of financing of the program. Some of the provisions of the Senate bill are: schedule for a number of items in the disposal of nuclear waste, the first being an area referred to as away-from reactor storage; a timetable for geologic disposal; a plan for the long-term storage of nuclear waste for spent fuels; a financing mechanism; and states participation

  7. Do employment protection policies reduce the relative disadvantage in the labour market experienced by unhealthy people? A natural experiment created by the Great Recession in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Karanikolos, Marina; Mackenbach, Johan; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy persons are more likely to lose their jobs than those who are healthy but whether this is affected by recession is unclear. We asked how healthy and unhealthy persons fared in labour markets during Europe's 2008-2010 recessions and whether national differences in employment protection helped mitigate any relative disadvantage experienced by those in poor health. Two retrospective cohorts of persons employed at baseline were constructed from the European Statistics of Income and Living Conditions in 26 EU countries. The first comprised individuals followed between 2006 and 2008, n = 46,085 (pre-recession) and the second between 2008 and 2010, n = 85,786 (during recession). We used multi-level (individual- and country-fixed effects) logistic regression models to assess the relationship (overall and disaggregated by gender) between recessions, unemployment, and health status, as well as any modifying effect of OECD employment protection indices measuring the strength of policies against dismissal and redundancy. Those with chronic illnesses and health limitations were disproportionately affected by the recession, respectively with a 1.5- and 2.5-fold greater risk of unemployment than healthy people during 2008-2010. During severe recessions (>7% fall in GDP), employment protections did not mitigate the risk of job loss (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.94-1.21). However, in countries experiencing milder recessions (recession, women with severe health limitations especially benefited, with additional reductions of 22% for each unit of employment protection (AORfemale = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.97), such that at high levels the difference in the risk of job loss between healthy and unhealthy women disappeared. Employment protection policies may counteract labour market inequalities between healthy and unhealthy people, but additional programmes are likely needed to protect vulnerable groups during severe recessions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Selected Developments in South African Labour Legislation related to Persons with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Basson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa marginalised groups have historically been afforded legislative protection in order to ensure that the rights of these groups are respected, protected, promoted and fulfilled. Examples of two such groups are older persons, whose rights are provided for in terms of the Older Persons Act 13 of 2006 and children, whose rights are provided for in terms of the Children's Act 38 of 2005. Persons with disabilities have, however, not yet been the subject of dedicated legislation outlining the content of the rights to which they are entitled. As a result of this lack of dedicated legislation, the rights of persons with disabilities are dealt with in a piecemeal fashion, often in disparate pieces of legislation. In addition to this focus on the rights of persons with disabilities, South African labour law has recently undergone extensive amendments. These amendments have led to the rights of persons with disabilities in the workplace being affected substantially. Since these amendments are as yet untested, little scrutiny of these provisions and the effect they may have on persons with disabilities has been undertaken. This article will thus discuss selected amendments of the labour legislation, and interrogate the practical effect these amendments may have on the rights of such persons. Of particular importance for the purposes of this article is the updating of an existing institution known as Sheltered Employment Factories, as well as the introduction of harsher penalties for employers who remain non-compliant with certain provisions of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998.

  9. Working with Your Legislative Delegation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safransky, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to work with legislative delegation to get positive legislation passed. Most school districts have a person who is responsible for working with the legislators and informing them of the district's position on bills and issues that arise in each legislative session. Even if one has a full-time or part-time…

  10. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Algeria, Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Executive Decree No. 17-126 of 27 March 2017; 2 - Belgium, Liability and compensation, Law of 7 December 2016 modifying the law of 22 July 1985 on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy; 3 - Canada, Liability and compensation, Ratification by Canada of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; 4 - France, Radioactive waste management: Decree No. 2017-231 of 23 February 2017 implementing Article L. 542-1-2 of the French Environmental Code (Code de l'environnement) and setting out the provisions of the National Radioactive Material and Waste Management Plan; and Order of 23 February 2017 implementing Decree No. 2017-231 of 23 February 2017 implementing Article L. 542-1-2 of the French Environmental Code setting out the provisions of the National Radioactive Material and Waste Management Plan; Liability and compensation: Order of 10 November 2016 amending the Appendix to the Order of 19 August 2016, setting the list of reduced liability amount sites pursuant to Decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the nuclear energy field; International co-operation: Decree No. 2016-1225 of 16 September 2016 making public the Protocol to the Co-operation Agreement between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan for the Development of the Pacific Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed in Paris on 27 August 2008; 5 - Germany, Transport of radioactive materials: New Versions of Ordinances on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (2017); Radioactive Waste Management: Act on the Reorganisation of the Responsibility of Nuclear Waste Disposal (2017); 6 - Lithuania, Nuclear security: Cyber security; Nuclear installations: Free release criteria of buildings and site of nuclear

  11. Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Delgado, Eva Isolina

    2004-01-01

    The paper makes a historical recount of the mining legislation in Colombia, it is about the more relevant aspects of the Code of Mines, like they are the title miner, obligations, economic aspects, integration of mining areas and of the benefits contemplated in the law 685 of 2001

  12. Recent US legislative actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, P.

    1987-01-01

    A view on legislative events in the US from the outside is presented. The author comments on the general principles and advantages of free trade against the possibility of an embargo into the US on uranium, on the issue of sanctions against South Africa, and Namibia, and how these issues affect the world market for uranium

  13. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  14. Foreign trade legislation, war weapons control legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hucko, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    The volume contains, in addition to an introduction into the matter, the texts of the Foreign Trade Act (FTA), the War Weapons Control Act and all relevant ordinances. Foreign trade transactions of the Federal Republic of Germany are essentially, but not exclusively, governed by the FTA. They are strongly influenced by the legislation of the European Communities which in the form of directives are immediately effective here, and in the form of guidelines oblige the German lawgiver or ordinance giver to translate them into practice, mostly by appropriate modifications of the foreign trade ordinance, the import and export lists. It is not the war weapons which are the problem, but the so-called dual-use goods, namely articles, technologies and knowledge which, as a rule, serve civil purposes, which, however, may be used also to produce weapons, in particular ABC weapons or rockets. Nowadays we are concerned about several third-world states which are obsessed by the wish to build their own atomic bomb. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. SU-E-T-279: Dose Enhancement Effect Due to Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Employed as Radiation Protectants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Z; Altundal, Y; Sajo, E [Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Ngwa, W [Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The goal of radiotherapy is to maximize radiation dose to diseased cells while minimizing radiation damage to normal tissues. In order to minimize damage to normal tissues, cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are currently considered as a radioprotectant. However, some studies have reported concerns that nanoceria can also lead to radiotherapy dose enhancement due to the high atomic number of cerium, especially when used in conjunction with kV energy and brachytherapy sources. In this study, this concern is investigated to determine if the concentrations of nanoceria employed in in-vivo studies to confer radioprotection can engender a significant dose enhancement. Methods: Radiation with energies ranging from 50kVp to 140kVp is investigated in this work along with brachytherapy sources Pd-103 and I-125. A previously established theoretical model is used to calculate the dose enhancement factor (DEF). In this model, each cell is assumed to be a voxel of size (10 µm, 10 µm, 10 µm) with nanoceria homogeneously distributed among them. Electron energy loss formula of Cole is used to calculate energy (and hence dose) deposited by photoelectrons and Auger electrons in each tissue voxel due to irradiation of nanoceria. The DEF is defined as the ratio of the dose with and without nanoparticles. Results: DEF calculation results are smaller than 1.02 with dosages of nanoceria smaller than 0.645 mg/g, which is shown to be sufficiently protective by some previous in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. The brachytherapy sources show higher DEF’s than kVp radiations. DEF peaks are consistent with K shell and L shell energies of cerium, 40 keV and 6 keV, respectively. Conclusion: The results show that for sufficiently radioprotective concentrations of nanoceria, there will be minimal DEF when used in conjunction with clinically applicable kV energy radiotherapy sources or brachytherapy sources.

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 100th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the General Counsel, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document. Persons using this document are placed on notice that it may not be used as an authoritative citation in lieu of the primary legislative sources. Furthermore, while every effort has been made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of this material, neither the United States Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees makes any expressed or implied warranty or assumes liability for the accuracy or completeness of the material presented in this compilation

  17. Legislation in the electricity economy 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, W.; Haeusler, C.; Hermann, H.P.; Meyer-Woebse, G.; Schmidt, K.

    1981-01-01

    The authors survey substantial developments of legislation in the electricity economy in 1980. They deal with prominent, legal subjects of a political nature and discuss questions posed by the interpretation and application of laws with regard to supply concepts, to the 4th amendment to the anti-trust law, to legislation relating to the anti-trust law, to recommendations by the Investigation Committee, to rate approvals, general terms and conditions governing supplies, to atomic energy law, to the environmental protection law, to the law relating to the conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, to the law relating to roads and to developments of tax laws. (HSCH) [de

  18. Legislation on and regulation of nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This work is a compilation of legislative texts and regulations published by the Atomic Energy Commission's Legal Affairs Department (CEA). It provides a comprehensive source of knowledge and information on nuclear energy law. Legislative texts published over the last forty years, are collected and analytically indexed. The publication covers both French regulations and regulations of international organisations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and Euratom. It is divided into eight different chapters, dealing with regulations relevant to international and national institutions, nuclear installations, third party liability, protection of persons and the environment, etc. A chronological table of the texts of international and national laws is also included in this work. (NEA) [fr

  19. Maritime environmental penal law. International and German legislation; Maritimes Umweltstrafrecht. Voelkerrechtliche Grundlagen und deutsches Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Jan Frederik

    2017-07-01

    The book on maritime environmental penal law discusses the following issues: part I: introduction into the importance of oceanic environment and its thread, requirement of protective measures,; part II: focus of the study and terminology: oceanic pollution, maritime environmental legislation, international legislation; part 3: international legislative regulations concerning the protection of maritime environment: avoidance of environmental pollution, maritime legislative agreements, existing protective institutions; part 4: state penal power concerning maritime environmental protection; part 5: statutory offense according to German legislation; perspectives for regulations concerning criminal acts on sea.

  20. Legislative efforts to protect children from tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranza, J R; Norwood, B D; Garner, D W; Tye, J B

    1987-06-26

    Public health laws intended to prevent children from smoking have been enacted in many states. We surveyed the relevant laws in all states and the District of Columbia. The efficacy of one such law prohibiting the sale of tobacco to individuals under the age of 18 years was assessed with the cooperation of an 11-year-old girl. She was successful in 75 of 100 attempts to purchase cigarettes. On the basis of this experience and a review of existing laws, we have made recommendations for a model law. These include a prohibition of the possession of tobacco by minors, a prohibition of the sale of tobacco to minors, a requirement for a warning sign at the point of sale, a ban on cigarette vending machines, and a reward for individuals reporting violators of vending laws.

  1. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    These columns treat of the legislative and regulatory activities of different OECD countries: Australia (environment protection and biodiversity conservation act and regulations, 1999-2000); Bulgaria (basic standards for radiation protection, 2000); France (decree on the standard tax charged on polluting activities due from operators of installations classified for environmental protection purposes, 2000; amendment of the orders on the transport of dangerous goods by road and by rail, 2000); Georgia (law on nuclear and radiation safety, 1998); Germany (amendments to nuclear legislation implementing EURATOM directives, 2000; amendment to the nuclear third party liability provisions of the atomic energy act, 2001; amendment to the foreign trade ordinance, 2000; ordinance on the treatment of foodstuffs with radiation, 2000; general administrative regulations on radioactivity limits in food and feeds); Ireland (European communities regulations on foodstuffs treated with ionizing radiations, 2000); Japan (law for nuclear sitting area development, 2000; Republic of Korea (amendments to the act on compensation for nuclear damage, 2001); Latvia (act on radiation safety and nuclear safety, 2000); Lithuania (resolution approving the decommissioning program for Unit 1, Ignalina NPP, 2001); Luxembourg (grand-ducal regulations on the protection of the public against the risks resulting from ionizing radiation, 2000; grand-ducal regulations relating to foods and food ingredients treated with ionizing radiation, 2000); Mexico (norm regarding selection, qualification and training requirements for staff of a NPP, 2000; norm regarding solid residue as radioactive waste, 2000); Mongolia (law on nuclear weapons free status and its implementing resolution, 2000); Netherlands (amendment to the nuclear energy act, 2000); Norway (act on radiation and use of radiation, 2000); Pakistan (nuclear authority ordinance, 2001); Poland (atomic energy act, 2000); Spain (royal decree on activities

  2. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter of Nuclear Law Bulletin gathers some documents about national legislative and regulatory activities: - Belgium: Amendment of the Act on classification and security clearances, certifications and security notifications; Czech Republic: Resolution of the government of the Czech Republic on the time schedule of preparatory works for enlarging the nuclear power plant Temelin; Finland: Temporary Amendment to the Nuclear Liability Act; Ireland: Merchant Shipping Act; Romania: Emergency Ordinance on the identification, designation and protection of critical infrastructures; Emergency Ordinance on the control regime of dual-use items; Amendment to the Act on the safe conduct of nuclear activities; Nuclear safety norms on design and construction of nuclear power plants and nuclear safety norms on siting of nuclear power plants; United Kingdom: Establishment of the Office for Nuclear Regulation; United States: Waste Confidence Decision and Rule Update; Response to recent events in Japan

  3. The new Italian IVF legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Gianaroli, Luca

    2004-08-01

    Last February, the Italian Parliament gave final approval to a new Law regulating assisted reproduction technology. The new legislation fell short of the expectations of infertile couples and of all specialists in the field. There are three problems with the new Italian law; they involve social issues, human rights and the application of technology. The present paper focuses on the fact that the new rules infringe upon basic human rights and the proper application of IVF technology, because they mandate procedures that are against the best interest of the woman seeking pregnancy. The main point of controversy is the combination of a mandatory limit of three embryos for transfer, and an obligation to reimplant all produced embryos; cryopreservation of excess embryos is prohibited. Obviously, this decreases the chances of most women to achieve pregnancy, while at the same time it increases the number and complexity of procedures they need to undergo and may expose some to an unacceptable increase in the risk of multiple pregnancy. The new law is inspired by the desire to protect every newly produced embryo; this is a commendable aim, although it is in total opposition to a law passed over 25 years ago that liberalized voluntary termination of first trimester pregnancies. This means that today Italy has a law that protects every early, pre-implantation embryo, and another that allows the 'suppression' of every post-implantation one. From a technical point of view, given the low level of human fecundity, the only way to prevent the 'loss' of even one preimplantation embryo is to simply ban IVF altogether, an option that Italian legislators obviously did not have the courage to opt for. The tragedy is that Italian infertile couples are now confronted with new rules that not only severely limit the ability of physicians to correctly apply IVF technology, but are so confused that, depending on the interpretation, anyone may try to nullify the main ideological premise upon

  4. Legislation and patients' rights: some necessary remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujovic-Zornic, Hajrija

    2007-12-01

    The essence of a patient's rights and legislation framework requires an answer to the question on how legislation can work towards better defining, respecting, protecting and effectiveness of these rights. First, it is necessary to give a short introduction to patients' rights, their definition and different classifications. In the long list of human rights, patients' rights obviously take one of the very important places. Human life and health are the values, which, in comparison with all other human values, are considered as values of the highest rank. Patients' rights represent a legal expression of something, which every person basically and naturally expects from a doctor, medical staff, and from a health care system in general. The subject of the second part of this paper presents the intention, scope and conception of necessary legislation. How should it be considered - in a wider sense or as a special law? Some theoretical and practical questions regarding interaction between medical ethics regulation, confidentiality, and legislation are discussed as well. In the European context there are numerous examples of laws with the specific purpose of protecting patients' rights. Special attention and critical review will be paid to the situation of patients' rights in Serbia. The paper concludes with the point that the role of legislation is evidently important, but the traditional view should be replaced with a new one, due to the reason that modem health law puts the protection of patients' rights on a higher level. De lege lata, the whole system of health law in its diversity (civil, penal and administrative) is characterized by better understanding of rights, duties and legal relations, either through regulation or the protection of patients' rights.

  5. Effects of the EU law on the climate protection. On the implementation of the European guideline on carbon capture and storage (CCS) into German legislation; Auswirkungen des EU-Rechts auf den Klimaschutz. Zur Umsetzung der europaeischen Richtlinie zu Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in das deutsche Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greb, Tobias [SammlerUsinger Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution is covering the implementation of the European guideline on climate protection and carbon capture and storage (CCS) into German legislation. The CCS technology and special critical aspects concerning the CCS technology are described. The specific legal frame includes the facilities for carbon dioxide precipitation, carbon dioxide pipelines, and carbon dioxide storage sites. The legal drafts concerning CCD are discussed including commissioning, and conflicts of interest. The long-term responsibility including transfer of responsibilities and follow-up regulations are further problems with respect to the implementation into German legislation.

  6. [History of psychiatric legislation in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.

  7. Synthesis of Automated Vehicle Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report provides a synthesis of issues addressed by state legislation regarding automated vehicles (AV); AV technologies are rapidly evolving and many states have developed legislation to govern AV testing and deployment and to assure safety on p...

  8. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE ROMANIAN FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN TERMS OF LABOUR PROTECTION FOR THE EMPLOYED WORKERS IN ROMANIA AND IN OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POJAR DANIELA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the main stages of development within the financial accounting system for the protection of the personnel engaged in Romania and at the same time, to compare it with the one of other European countries. The importance of the work consists in identifying forms of social protection through the legislative framework in order to achieve a diagnosis of Romanian social welfare. As a research model used in a particular study, the methodology includes information accompanying theoretical basis and methods for it. This paper contains a positivist tinge and it's constructive, going with the research's mainstream. Of course, one aspect is not left out: the critical approaches to the accounting referential standard concerning the protection of the staff in Romania as well as in Europe. The foundation of the research is represented by the last decades economic reality. The work tries to find answers to the question: How did the Romanian social protection develop and which was its legal framework? The research type is a deductive one which means that the there's a way crossed from the general to the particular, starting from a theory which has as purpose applying the prediction itself and, at the same time, assuring a wider range of knowledge and being more operative. Information gathering was done through various methods such as quantitative and qualitative research and the pieces of information presented in this paper were collected from various sources such as published articles, books, legal documents, all from the economical field. Afterwards, the collection of the pieces of information was followed by data analysis. Having this as purpose, the following research methods and techniques have been applied: cross-section (analysis protection staff at a time and longitudinal (protection of staff development in Romania, survey (protection of staff is described, compared and explained in Romania and the European context, non

  9. Acid rain legislation and local areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    This study explores the local economic impacts of the phase I requirements of the 1990 acid rain legislation. This legislation allows electric utilities to adopt least cost ways of reducing sulfur dioxide pollution. The impact on employment, income and size distribution of income due to a switch to low sulfur coal is examined for a selected number of high sulfur coal producing counties in southern Illinois. In order to achieve the above objectives a generalized non-survey input-output model, IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning), is employed to estimate first- and second-order employment and income effects of a switch to low sulfur coal. Two models, I and II, are constructed to provide these estimates. In Model I, income is generated and adjusted to reflect income retained and spent within the four county region. In Model II, no adjustment is made for flows into and out of the region. In addition to adjustments in income, adjustments in direct employment impacts were made in both models to account for retirements. Scenarios reflecting different degrees of coal switching, low and high switching options, were examined under both models. With regards to size distribution impacts, a newly developed operational model compatible with IMPLAN and developed by Rose et al (1988) was employed. This model is a member of a class of models collectively termed extended input-output models. As in the case of employment and income, allowance was made for income generated, retained and spent within the four counties in the assessment of income distribution impacts. The findings indicate that the adverse effects of a switch to low sulfur coal under the 1990 acid rain legislation will primarily hurt the coal mining industry. Coal mining employment and income will be adversely affected. Employment and income declines in other industries in the region will be fairly slight. Second, income distribution becomes slightly more equal for the local area due to acid rain control

  10. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, M.

    1983-06-01

    Legislation that would consent to the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact has been introduced into Congress as H.R. 3002. Similar legislation is expected to be introduced into the Senate soon. This is the second compact consent legislation to be introduced into Congress this year - the first was the Northwest Compact, introduced in January. States in the Central Compact are AR, KS, LA, NE and OK. Enacted and introduced radioactive waste management legislation in various states is summarized

  11. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.

  12. The legislative perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the United States Congress has only recently become interested in the issue of ballistic missile proliferation. It was primarily as a result of the outcome of the debate over chemical weapons legislation that Congress joined the issue of ballistic missile proliferation in the matter of restraints on foreign countries, particularly those based in Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) countries. This paper addresses the following questions: Is it Congress's place to enforce compliance with international agreements? More importantly, will such measures have the desired effect?

  13. Employment for Young People with Cognitive Impairments: Current Inclusive Situation in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelianovych, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    The present paper contains a research into the issue of employment and legal safeguarding of social protection of young individuals suffering from cognitive disorders in Ukraine. The importance of legislative guarantees of equal rights and possibilities for such category of individuals, in comparison with all other members of the society, in…

  14. Cybersecurity: Current Legislation, Executive Branch Initiatives, and Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-30

    responsibilities of cybersecurity stakeholders. Privacy and civil liberties—maintaining privacy and freedom of speech protections on the Internet...securing networks before tackling the attendant issues such as freedom of speech , privacy, and civil liberty protections as they pertain to the Internet...legislation to mandate privacy and freedom of speech protections to be incorporated into a national strategy. • Assessing current congressional

  15. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Argentina: Organisation and structure; 2 - France: Radioactive waste management (Act No. 2016-1015 of 25 July 2016 specifying the procedures for creating a reversible deep geological repository for long-lived medium and high-level radioactive waste), Liability and compensation (Decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy; Ministerial Order of 19 August 2016 listing the sites benefiting from a reduced amount of liability pursuant to decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy), Nuclear facilities (Decree No. 2016-846 of 28 June 2016 related to the modification, final shutdown and decommissioning of basic nuclear installations, and to subcontracting); 3 - Germany: Nuclear trade - including non-proliferation (Amendments to the Foreign Trade Act and the Foreign Trade Ordinance (2015)), Radioactive waste management (Act on the Organisational Restructuring in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management (2016); Final report of the Commission to Review the Financing for the Phase-out of Nuclear Energy; Draft Bill of an Act on the Reorganisation of the Responsibility of Nuclear Waste Disposal (2016)); 4 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning), Nuclear security (Physical security of sources of ionising radiation), Radioactive waste management, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure (Enforcement measures); 5 - Luxembourg: Radioactive waste management (Agreement between the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Kingdom of Belgium on the Management and Final Disposal of the Radioactive Waste of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on the Territory of the Kingdom of Belgium, signed on 4 July 2016); 6

  16. Legislative Framework for Landscape Planning in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga

    2017-10-01

    With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the

  17. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section compiles the presentations of the following texts sorted by country. Armenia - Licensing and regulatory infrastructure: New design safety requirements adopted, New seismic hazard assessment guidelines adopted; France - Licensing and regulatory infrastructure: Decree No. 2012-1248 of 9 November 2012 authorising the ITER Organisation to create the 'ITER' basic nuclear installation in Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (Bouches-du-Rhone); - Nuclear security: Law No. 2012-1473 of 28 December 2012 authorizing the approval of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; - Nuclear safety and radiological protection: Complementary safety assessments. Follow-up of the stress tests carried out on French nuclear power plants. Action Plan of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) - December 2012; - International cooperation: Decree No. 2012-1178 of 22 October 2012 publishing the Cooperation Agreement between the government of the French Republic and the government of the Republic of Tunisia for the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, signed in Tunis on 23 April 2009; Decree No. 2012-1180 of 22 October 2012 publishing the Cooperation Agreement between the government of the French Republic and the government of Mongolia in the field of nuclear energy (with annex), signed in Ulaanbaatar on 14 October 2010; Germany - General legislation: Bill to amend the Atomic Energy Act to expedite the retrieval of radioactive waste from and to decommission the Asse II Mine (2013); Act to amend the Act on Environmental Legal Remedies and other environmental provisions (2013); - Radiation protection: General administrative rules on Section 47 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (2012); - Nuclear Safety: Safety requirements for nuclear power plants (2012); - Transport of radioactive material: International Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road (2010, 2012); - Regulations on nuclear trade (including non-proliferation): Export List (2013); Greece

  18. Draft Legislative Proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Niculita, Angela

    2015-01-01

    the objectives of the legislative proposals; discusses risks and challenges that HE in Moldova faces today and in the next 10-15 years; identifies expected outcomes; identifies basic principles on which the process will be founded; proposes a new structure for the HE sector; offers an example...... of a rationalization process, incl., a road map, recommending that there should be 7 universities in Moldova: 3 regional universities and 4 universities in Chisinau (capital); following the principle of clear demarcation between state regulation and institutional university autonomy, specifies universities powers...... and responsibilities; suggests a distinct separation between governance and management; suggests teaching and research funding formulae based on inputs and outputs; and outlines a new National Qualifications Framework....

  19. Romanian Nuclear Liability Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in the Romanian legislation is defined especially by the Law no. 703/2001 on civil liability for nuclear damage, as well as the Government Decision no. 894/2003 for the approval of the Norms for the enforcement of Law no. 703/2001. These two documents constitute the legal framework that regulates the third party civil liability for nuclear damages. The paper is proposing to present the main elements of the relatively recent legal framework, namely: the principles content in the international acts on civil liability for nuclear damages, the subject to whom such law applies, the regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in Romania and provisions regarding the terrorist acts.(author)

  20. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These columns summarize the recent changes made in the nuclear legislation and regulation of OECD countries: Argentina: Reorganization of the National Atomic Energy Commission (2001); Canada: Order aiming to increase security at major nuclear installations (2001); France: Establishment of the French Agency for Environmental Health Safety and the Institute for the Protection of Nuclear Safety (2001). Amendment of the Decree on the Holding Company of the Atomic Energy Commission (2001). Decree on the Special Commission for Major Nuclear Installations Classified as Secret (2001).Ordinance on the Implementation of EU Directives in the Field of Protection against Ionising Radiation (2001). Decree on Information of the Public (2001). Decree governing the Safety and Radiation Protection of Nuclear Installations and Activities used for Defence Purposes (2001). Order on Postal Deliveries of Radioactive Materials (2001). Order on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road ('ADR Order') (2001). Order on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail ('RID Order') (2001). Germany: Agreement on the phase-out of nuclear energy (2001). Ordinance implementing Euratom Directives on Radiation Protection (2001). Greece: Radiation Protection Regulations (2001). Italy: Amendment of the Decree implementing the Euratom basic radiation protection standards (2001) Implementation of the European Directive on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption (2001). JAPAN: Revision of the Nuclear Disaster Prevention Guidelines (2000). Republic of Korea: Amendments to the Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2001). Lithuania: Regulations for the Classification of Legal Acts Regulating Nuclear Safety (2001); Hygiene Standard 'Radiation Safety in Nuclear Power Plants' (2001). Guidelines governing the Procedure on Radiological Monitoring and Limitation of Releases of Radionuclides into the Environment from Nuclear Facilities (2001). Law on the Decommissioning Fund for the Ignalina Nuclear Power

  1. Radiological risk assessment of isotope laboratories according to the requirements of the radiation protection ordinance and the protective labour legislation; Beurteilung des radiologischen Risikos von Isotopenlaboratorien nach den Vorgaben der Strahlenschutzverordnung und den Richtlinien fuer Arbeitssicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuerm, R.P. [SafPro AG, Ausbildung und Beratung in Strahlenschutz, Basel (Switzerland); Kuster, M. [Novartis International AG, Corporate Health, Safety and Environment, Basel (Switzerland); Traub, K. [Novartis Pharma AG, Zentralstelle fuer Strahlenschutz, Basel (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    According to the Swiss Radiation Safety Ordinance the supervising authority may require a safety report from the operator of a radioactive laboratory (Art.95) and establish the methodology of the risk analysis. Isotope laboratories of the chemical industry are supervised by Swiss accident insurance agency (SUVA). In that respect SUVA safeguards both radiation protection issues and general protection of the workers and established guide lines in order to assess conventional risks in industrial premises. In these conventional analysis the working process is analysed according to its possible detriment (death, severe invalidity, slight invalidity, injury with absence, injury without absence) and the probability of occurrence (frequent, seldom, rare, improbable, virtually impossible). According to this the risks are categorised in a matrix as 'high', 'medium' and 'low'. SUVA requested such a risk analysis for two isotope laboratories of B type in Basel in which on the one hand the hazard to the workers on the other hand to the public should be analysed and radiologically assessed. It was proposed to use a methodology established in workers safety and the insurance section. This required a comparison of risks of radiation doses in mSv to the consequences of conventional working accidents (death, invalidity) and the risk perception of the public and politicians. In this paper this risk matrix derived in discussions among the supervising body, the company management, the laboratory head and workers is described. In the opinion of the authors such a comparison between radiological and conventional risks has not been performed up to now and the results obtained here are open to discussion. (orig.) [German] Gemaess schweizerischer Strahlenschutzverordnung kann die Aufsichtsbehoerde vom Inhaber einer Bewilligung zum Umgang mit radioaktiven Stoffen einen Sicherheitsbericht verlangen (Art. 95) und die Methodik der Stoerfallanalyse festlegen (Art

  2. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section reviews the recent National legislative and regulatory activities: Algeria (Establishment of a nuclear security centre); Armenia (Amendment to the Law of the Republic of Armenia on the Safe Utilization of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes); Brazil (creation of a Support Centre for Safety and Radiation Protection - Centro de Apoio a Seguranca Fisica Nuclear e Radiologica - CENASF); Canada (enacting of the Nuclear Terrorism Act,4 which amends the Criminal Code, creating four new Criminal Code offences related to nuclear terrorism; proposal to replace the existing Nuclear Liability Act with the increase of the amount of compensation available to address civil nuclear damage); France (National plan for the management of radioactive materials and waste - PNGMDR; Law No.2013-580 of 4 July 2013 authorising approval of the agreement between France and Monaco on the management of Monegasque radioactive waste in the French territory; Decree No.2013-675 of 25 July 2013 publishing an agreement of co-operation between France and Saudi Arabia for the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes); Germany (Act for retrieving radioactive waste from and decommissioning the Asse II Mine); Greece (Decree transposing Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom); Ireland (Adoption of European Communities Regulations on Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment); Luxembourg (Transposition of Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom of 19 July 2011 establishing a Community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste); Poland (New requirements for employees concerning radiological protection; New detailed requirements for nuclear facility siting, design, commissioning and operation, organisational unit commissioning, periodical safety assessment, decommissioning and fund contributions; New regulation on subsidies related to nuclear safety and radiological protection; New requirements on transparency of

  3. Navigating SA's climate change legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    It is proposed that there should be a legislation to address climate change and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Bill. South Australian Government Greenhouse Strategy and climate change legislation in light of the far-reaching implications this legislation could have on clients, who face the impacts of climate change in the business and natural environment. It is a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in South Australia by 2050 to 60 per cent of 1990 levels

  4. Regulatory control, legislation and framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    The legislation and regulations, a regulatory authority to authorise and inspect the regulated activities and to enforce the legislation and regulations, sufficient financial and man-power resources are the essential parts of a national infrastructure to implement the Basic Safety Standards. The legal framework consists of legislation (Act passed by Parliament) and the regulations (framed by the government and endorsed by the Parliament). This paper is primarily deals with the the legal framework set up in India for atomic energy activities

  5. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 6,800 LGBT workers in North Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, legislative testimony, the media, and in reports to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in North Dakota support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, thr...

  6. Stricter antitrust legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear legislation in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the status of nuclear legislation in the Czech Republic, specifying the fields of nuclear activities covered, partially covered and uncovered by the present legislation. The licensing process and the competence and powers of the State Office for Nuclear Safety are also briefly described

  8. The impact of safety legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.L.; Gill, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The impact of medicines legislation for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed with regard to product licensing, production and quality control, marketing authorisation within the EC, licensing exemptions and authorisation for administration. As regards safety legislation for radiopharmaceuticals the requirements of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 are outlined. (UK)

  9. Legislative and Judicial Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Louise Giovane

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer applications in judicial, legal, and legislative information activities being used to support litigation and court administration, assist in searching for legislation and laws, aid criminal justice information systems, and provide appropriate bibliographic and reference assistance. Management issues in automating systems are…

  10. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  11. European social model and the harmonization of Macedonian labour legislation with the European Union community labour law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamatiev Todor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process accompanied by the harmonization of the EU member states' legislation will inevitably lead to the establishment of a European social model which has a 'sui generis' legal nature. European social model forms a part of the common legal heritage of the European countries and it can be defined as a system of values that include democracy and individual rights, free collective bargaining, market economy, equal opportunities for all, and social protection and solidarity. Subject of analysis in this paper are both, the essential components of the European social model such as: the social 'acquis communautaire' and the European industrial relations. The social 'acquis communautaire' is an integral part of the general 'acquis communautaire' and it encompasses the regulations arising from the primary and secondary labour law legislation of the EU, decisions of the European Court of Justice and other legal measures of the European Union with a binding or non-binding legal nature. European industrial relations encompass the key features of the European trade union models as well as the types of social dialogue in different EU member states. This paper pays attention to a profound elaboration of the harmonization of two EU labour law directives with the Macedonian employment legislation. The first Directive (Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employers' obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship may be classified in the field of individual employment relations, while the second one (Directive 2002/14/EC of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community can be subsumed within the field of collective employment relations. Finally, the authors illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian labour legislation in the process of harmonization with the relevant EU directives

  12. Product Market Deregulation and Employment Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Senftleben-König, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the short- and medium-term effects of the deregulation of shopopening hours legislation on retail employment in Germany. In 2006, the legislative competence was shifted from the federal to the state level, leading to a gradual deregulation of shop opening restrictions in most of Germany’s sixteen federal states. The paper exploits regional variation in the legislation in order to identify the effect product market deregulation has on retail employment. We find robust e...

  13. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... on coherence and accessibility with respect to environmental legislation and that such issues deserve more attention in the transposition process.......A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... a coherent and accessible body of environmental legislation, while at the same time ensuring adequate transposition of EU environmental legislation. This article analyses the existence, or emergence, of transposition principles and practices in three Member States—the United Kingdom, the Netherlands...

  14. Bulgarian energy legislation. Status quo and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denchev, P.

    1996-01-01

    The author gives a general survey of the present situation and the development tendencies in the Bulgarian nuclear legislation. The latest amendments of the Atomic Energy Act passed by the Bulgarian Parliament are discussed. Special attention is paid to the ratification of the following four groups of international documents: 1) The Convention on Nuclear Safety; 2) The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Joint Protocol on the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 3) The Convention for the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; 4) The European Energy Charter and its Protocol on Energy Efficiency. The need of adoption of new legislative documents regulating the supply of radioactive materials according to the EURATOM Treaty is stressed

  15. Legislative Support for the Social Integration of the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Jacques

    This paper brings together and discusses the implications of various statements of children's rights and legislation protecting children. The Declaration on the Rights of the Child, proclaimed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 20 November 1959 is detailed in terms of individual and social rights. The new (1979) Youth Protection Act…

  16. Gun Control Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    harassing, stalking , or threatening an intimate partner or child of such intimate partner; and (9) persons convicted of misdemeanor domestic violence...reducing violent crime and illegal gang activity. However, the committee recommendation did not include $25 million for Phase Two of the NCETR project... Gang Deterrence and Community Protection Act of 2005 (H.R. 1279) was amended with a provision offered by Representative Diane Watson that would have

  17. Evidence and argument in policymaking: development of workplace smoking legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to identify factors that affect the passage of public health legislation by examining the use of arguments, particularly arguments presenting research evidence, in legislative debates regarding workplace smoking restrictions. Methods We conducted a case-study based content analysis of legislative materials used in the development of six state workplace smoking laws, including written and spoken testimony and the text of proposed and passed bills and amendments. We coded testimony given before legislators for arguments used, and identified the institutional affiliations of presenters and their position on the legislation. We compared patterns in the arguments made in testimony to the relative strength of each state's final legislation. Results Greater discussion of scientific evidence within testimony given was associated with the passage of workplace smoking legislation that provided greater protection for public health, regardless of whether supporters outnumbered opponents or vice versa. Conclusion Our findings suggest that an emphasis on scientific discourse, relative to other arguments made in legislative testimony, might help produce political outcomes that favor public health.

  18. Employing Escherichia coli-derived outer membrane vesicles as an antigen delivery platform elicits protective immunity against Acinetobacter baumannii infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shijie; Yao, Yufeng; Xia, Ye; Yang, Xu; Li, Kui; Sun, Pengyan; Liu, Cunbao; Sun, Wenjia; Bai, Hongmei; Chu, Xiaojie; Li, Yang; Ma, Yanbing

    2016-11-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have proven to be highly immunogenic and induced an immune response against bacterial infection in human clinics and animal models. We sought to investigate whether engineered OMVs can be a feasible antigen-delivery platform for efficiently inducing specific antibody responses. In this study, Omp22 (an outer membrane protein of A. baumannii) was displayed on E. coli DH5α-derived OMVs (Omp22-OMVs) using recombinant gene technology. The morphological features of Omp22-OMVs were similar to those of wild-type OMVs (wtOMVs). Immunization with Omp22-OMVs induced high titers of Omp22-specific antibodies. In a murine sepsis model, Omp22-OMV immunization significantly protected mice from lethal challenge with a clinically isolated A. baumannii strain, which was evidenced by the increased survival rate of the mice, the reduced bacterial burdens in the lung, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood, and the suppressed serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro opsonophagocytosis assays showed that antiserum collected from Omp22-OMV-immunized mice had bactericidal activity against clinical isolates, which was partly specific antibody-dependent. These results strongly indicated that engineered OMVs could display a whole heterologous protein (~22 kDa) on the surface and effectively induce specific antibody responses, and thus OMVs have the potential to be a feasible vaccine platform.

  19. Antinomy in Legislation in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Arifin Mochtar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of reality for laws as a production of Parliament and President was canceled by the Constitutional Court, occur as a result of the legislation matter that plural reflects the injustice and legal uncertainty. The high number of judicial review becomes signal less accommodation of citizen interests and rights in a legislation product. The absence of arrangement harmony made by Parliament gives impact on plural legislation sued. This paper attempts to describe some debate antinomy that characterizes the existence of legislation in Indonesia. The analysis showed, antinomy-conflict-norm in the legislation is one thing that is difficult to avoid, especially given the poor-legislative process in the parliament today. In each establishment of legislation, synchronization and norms harmonization is not a major pressing point, but defeated by transnational politics inter-faction in the parliament that actually looked more dominant. But when these norms conflict constituted a rule of law which are simultaneous, dynamic, and meet legal ideals, would not be a problem. As long as not to cause harm to the fulfillment of constitutional rights of citizens.

  20. Combating sexual orientation discrimination in employment: legislation in fifteen EU members states (France) : Report of the European Group of Experts on Combating sexual orientation discrimination about the implementation up to April 2004 of Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatement in employment and occupation

    OpenAIRE

    Borrillo , Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Report of the European Group of Experts on Combating sexual orientation discrimination about the implementation up to April 2004 of Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatement in employment and occupation; France was the first country in the world to discriminalize sodomy.....

  1. Nuclear liability legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives some basic data about nuclear installations in Slovenia, reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third-party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in the Slovenian legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It also aims to give some facts about history and present status of nuclear insurance pool and the insurance of nuclear risks in Slovenia. Paper finally indicates also some future legislative steps with respect to nuclear third party liability, at national and international level. (author)

  2. Does transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment protect mental health? Results from a 14-year follow-up of school-leavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarström Anne

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having secure employment, in contrast to being unemployed, is regarded as an important determinant of health. Research and theories about the negative health consequences of unemployment indicated that transition from unemployment to a paid job could lead to improved health. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that obtaining permanent employment after being in an unstable labour market position protects mental health. Methods A 14-year follow-up of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in northern Sweden was performed at ages 16, 18, 21 and 30 years. Complete data on the cohort were collected for 1044 individuals with the aid of a comprehensive questionnaire. The response rate was 96.4%. The health measurement used in this study was the psychological symptoms analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Those who obtained permanent employment were the focus of the analysis. This group consisted of people who were in an unstable labour market position for a year or more between the ages of 25 and 29, and who had acquired a permanent job one year before and at the time of the investigation. Results After controlling for gender as well as for an indicator of health-related selection, possible confounders and mediators, an association was found between the lower probability of psychological symptoms and obtaining permanent employment (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.19–0.63 as well as having permanent employment (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.10–0.51. Conclusion Our findings suggest that transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment could be health-promoting, even after controlling for possible confounders and mediators, as well as for an indicator of health-related selection. However, as there are few studies in the field, there is a need for more longitudinal studies in order to further analyse the relationship and to examine possible explanations. The policy implication of

  3. Does transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment protect mental health? Results from a 14-year follow-up of school-leavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reine, Ieva; Novo, Mehmed; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-05-13

    Having secure employment, in contrast to being unemployed, is regarded as an important determinant of health. Research and theories about the negative health consequences of unemployment indicated that transition from unemployment to a paid job could lead to improved health. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that obtaining permanent employment after being in an unstable labour market position protects mental health. A 14-year follow-up of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in northern Sweden was performed at ages 16, 18, 21 and 30 years. Complete data on the cohort were collected for 1044 individuals with the aid of a comprehensive questionnaire. The response rate was 96.4%. The health measurement used in this study was the psychological symptoms analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Those who obtained permanent employment were the focus of the analysis. This group consisted of people who were in an unstable labour market position for a year or more between the ages of 25 and 29, and who had acquired a permanent job one year before and at the time of the investigation. After controlling for gender as well as for an indicator of health-related selection, possible confounders and mediators, an association was found between the lower probability of psychological symptoms and obtaining permanent employment (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.19-0.63) as well as having permanent employment (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.51). Our findings suggest that transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment could be health-promoting, even after controlling for possible confounders and mediators, as well as for an indicator of health-related selection. However, as there are few studies in the field, there is a need for more longitudinal studies in order to further analyse the relationship and to examine possible explanations. The policy implication of our study is that the transformation of unstable labour market

  4. Contemporary problems of health protection for workers employed at a large industrial enterprise and working under occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Ya. Titova

    2017-12-01

    drawbacks in periodical medical examinations procedure: 26.3% respondents mentioned medical staff were indifferent and even rude to them; 40.8 % complained on having to wait for a long time to get to a specialist; 26.2 % said they had to wait for a reception in rather unfavorable conditions; all the respondents mentioned untimely receipt of their "health passport". The data we collected can be applied in assessing risks of health disorders occurrence in workers employed at industrial enterprises and in the process of creating prevention activities aimed at health risks minimization.

  5. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of laws enacted by states, during 1982, dealing with the management of low-level radioactive wastes are presented in this report. Also included are adopted resolutions, introduced legislation and introduced resolutions

  6. Legislative coalitions with incomplete information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragu, Tiberiu; Laver, Michael

    2017-03-14

    In most parliamentary democracies, proportional representation electoral rules mean that no single party controls a majority of seats in the legislature. This in turn means that the formation of majority legislative coalitions in such settings is of critical political importance. Conventional approaches to modeling the formation of such legislative coalitions typically make the "common knowledge" assumption that the preferences of all politicians are public information. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework to investigate which legislative coalitions form when politicians' policy preferences are private information, not known with certainty by the other politicians with whom they are negotiating over what policies to implement. The model we develop has distinctive implications. It suggests that legislative coalitions should typically be either of the center left or the center right. In other words our model, distinctively, predicts only center-left or center-right policy coalitions, not coalitions comprising the median party plus parties both to its left and to its right.

  7. Legislative Bargaining and Incremental Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala

    2002-01-01

    The notion of 'incrementalism', formulated by Aaron Wildavsky in the 1960's, has been extremely influential in the public budgeting literature. In essence, it entails the claim that legislators engaged in budgetary policymaking accept past allocations, and decide only on the allocation of increments to revenue. Wildavsky explained incrementalism with reference to the cognitive limitations of lawmakers and their desire to reduce conflict. This paper uses a legislative bargaining framework to u...

  8. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  9. ROUNDTABLE - SESSION 2 EXPLOITATION, CONSERVATION AND LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSMAN L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  10. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  11. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  12. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 101st Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 101st Congress, 2nd Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended: Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended; Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statues and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  13. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for

  14. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m 3 . Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for 50

  15. Environmental Legislation in China: Achievements, Challenges and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Mu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the environmental legislation of many developed countries, China’s environmental legislation was initiated late, beginning in 1979, but nevertheless has obtained considerable achievements. As many as thirty environmental laws have provided rules regarding prevention and control of pollution, resource utilization, and ecological protection in China. However, China’s environmental legislation still faces a series of challenges and problems, including that the sustainable development concept has not yet been fully implemented, as well as presence of gaps and non-coordination phenomena between laws and regulations, unclear responsibility, imperfect system design, imbalance between rights and obligations, higher impacts resulted from the GDP-centralized economy, lack of operability and instruments in the legal content, as well as difficulty of public participation. In contrast, China’s environmental legislation has improved, as a result of learning from experience in developed countries and introducing innovations stimulated by domestic environmental pressure. Looking into the future, increased attention to environmental protection and ecological consciousness paid by China’s new leaders will bring a valuable opportunity to China’s further development concerning environmental legislation. In the future, there are prospects for the gradual improvement of legal approaches, continuous improvements of legislation to mitigate environmental problems, and more opportunities to strengthen public participation can be predicted.

  16. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General regulatory regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Fissionable materials, ores, radioactive materials and equipment (Fissionable materials and ores; Radioactive materials and equipment); 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection (Protection of workers; Protection of the public; Protection of individuals undergoing medical exposure); 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister for Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment; Minister for Economic Affairs; Minister for Social Affairs and Employment; Minister for Health, Welfare and Sports; Minister for Finance; Minister for Foreign Affairs); 2. Advisory body - Health Council of the Netherlands; 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group - NRG; Central Organisation for Radioactive Waste - COVRA)

  17. Why Third World urban employers usually prefer men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, R; Hein, C

    1985-01-01

    Males outnumber female employees by 3 to 1 in the modern sector of developing countries; moreover, women tend to be concentrated in a limited number of occupations. This underrepresentation of women in employment in Third World countries is generally attributed to the restricted supply of qualified women willing and able to work away from home in modern sector occupations. However, this approach pays insufficient attention to the demand for labor and the recruitment policy of employers. Employer concerns and perceptions that limit the overall demand for women workers and thereby reduce their employment opportunities include the need for pregnancy and maternity leave and protection, absenteeism, turnover, and cultural restrictions. Among the factors that contribute to the sexual segmentation of the labor market are protective legislation that excludes women from certain sectors of the labor market, sex-typing of jobs, and employer perceptions that women lack muscular strength, are not effective supervisors, and cannot work well with men. At the same time, women are preferred for certain jobs because of their greater docility, acceptance of lower wages, household-type skills, and sex appeal. The general factor limiting employment opportunities for women is the employer's perception that women are more costly and less productive than male employees. This perception is directly related to women's role in childbearing and rearing, and is reinforced by legislation that places the costs of maternity leave, nursing breaks, and child care directly on the employer. Thus, women's childbearing and family responsibilities not only limit their availability for work but also discourage employers from hiring them.

  18. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  19. A moral justification for gay and lesbian civil rights legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samar, V J

    1994-01-01

    This essay explores, in two parts, the problems of justifying civil rights legislation for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals. Part I shows that discrimination against gays and lesbians at least in respect to employment, housing, and public accommodations is an evil unsupported by ethical traditions in utilitarianism, rights theory, and communitarianism. It also shows that two theories, Kantian theory and natural law theory, which do support such discrimination on the claim that homoerotic behavior is universally or objectively immoral only do so because of a failure to make precise the concept of "natural" which underlies those theories. Part II argues that anti-discrimination legislation is both an appropriate and effective means to promote the idea that discrimination against lesbians and gays in respect to most employment, housing, and public accommodations is sufficiently injurious to both individuals and society that it should not be tolerated. The section also explains how such legislation might succeed practically in eliminating discrimination in these areas.

  20. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymaking....... To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election...

  1. Nuclear Liability Legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)

  2. Legislation on violence against women: overview of key components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Barreda, Gaby; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if legislation on violence against women (VAW) worldwide contains key components recommended by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the United Nations (UN) to help strengthen VAW prevention and provide better integrated victim protection, support, and care. A systematic search for VAW legislation using international legal databases and other electronic sources plus data from previous research identified 124 countries/territories with some type of VAW legislation. Full legal texts were found for legislation from 104 countries/territories. Those available in English, Portuguese, and Spanish were downloaded and compiled and the selection criteria applied (use of any of the common terms related to VAW, including intimate partner violence (IPV), and reference to at least two of six sectors (education, health, judicial system, mass media, police, and social services) with regard to VAW interventions (protection, support, and care). A final sample from 80 countries/territories was selected and analyzed for the presence of key components recommended by PAHO and the UN (reference to the term "violence against women" in the title; definitions of different types of VAW; identification of women as beneficiaries; and promotion of (reference to) the participation of multiple sectors in VAW interventions). Few countries/territories specifically identified women as the beneficiaries of their VAW legislation, including those that labeled their legislation "domestic violence" law ( n = 51), of which only two explicitly mentioned women as complainants/survivors. Only 28 countries/territories defined the main forms of VAW (economic, physical, psychological, and sexual) in their VAW legislation. Most highlighted the role of the judicial system, followed by that of social services and the police. Only 28 mentioned the health sector. Despite considerable efforts worldwide to strengthen VAW legislation, most VAW laws do not incorporate the key

  3. Compliance of the legal treatment of experimental animals in Serbian legislation with the legislation of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić-Trninić Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author focuses on compliance of the legal treatment of experimental animals in Serbian law with the provisions of the European legislation. Analysing, on one hand, the treatment that experimental animals have under the law of European Union, and on the other hand, the treatment that they have in the law of Serbia, in accordance with the relevant acts and subordinate legislation acts, this article seeks to answer the question whether the degree of legal protection of experimental animals in domestic law is satisfactory, as well as whether and to what extent the relevant national legislation complies with the European standards. At the same time, the article attempts to point out the appropriate measures necessary to be taken in the future in order to achieve as high quality and comprehensive protection of experimental animals as possible in Serbian law.

  4. ACHP | News | Legislation Passes Senate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillary Clinton. "Bipartisan approval of this legislation by an overwhelming margin reflects the Bingaman, former Senator Pete Domenici, and Senators Hillary Clinton and Richard Burr." At a Capitol , who introduced the House version; Sen. Hillary Clinton and former Sen.Pete Domenici, who introduced

  5. Seismic maps foster landmark legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Brown, Robert B.; Page, Robert A.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hendley, James W.

    1995-01-01

    When a powerful earthquake strikes an urban region, damage concentrates not only near the quake's source. Damage can also occur many miles from the source in areas of soft ground. In recent years, scientists have developed ways to identify and map these areas of high seismic hazard. This advance has spurred pioneering legislation to reduce earthquake losses in areas of greatest hazard.

  6. New Legislation on Capitol Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, John

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, John Wertman describes the evolution of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, the role the American Association of Geographers (AAG) played over the last decade in getting it passed, and the impact the Act has on funding for K-12 geography education. The legislation, while not perfect, includes promising new…

  7. Disposal facilities for radioactive waste - legislative requirements for siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova-Mihaylova, Radosveta

    2015-01-01

    The specifics of radioactive waste, namely the content of radionuclides require the implementation of measures to protect human health and the environment against the hazards arising from ionizing radiation, including disposal of waste in appropriate facilities. The legislative requirements for siting of such facilities, and classification of radioactive waste, as well as the disposal methods, are presented in this publication

  8. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) developed a methodology and the NRA SR Chairman's Regulation that sets out a uniform administration procedure in collecting administration fees, for the purpose of applying the Act of the National council of the Slovak Republic on Administration Fees. Pursuant to the Act on Czech-Slovak technical standards, NRA SR has a function of an uneglectable participant in commenting on draft Slovak technical standards (STN). A total of 101 drafts were reviewed. The standard drafts in most cases concerned taking European standards and international standards over into the STN system, with respect to the Slovak Republic integration into the European Union. Coordination of technical standardization is assessed by the Council for Technical Standardization that is established at the Slovak Institute of Technical Standardization. The NRA SR's staff member takes part at meetings of the Council. In the third year of their existence, NRA SR started to issue their own publications that should provide legal and qualified information about peaceful use of nuclear power. NRA SR in co-operation with VUJE a.s. Trnava issued the first publication 'Selected legal documents on peaceful use of nuclear power (general binding legal regulations)'. The publication contains texts or extracts from 21 regulations

  9. Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, David H.

    1979-01-01

    Highlights the issues to be dealt with during the 96th Congress including the establishment of a Department of Education, reauthorization of the Higher Education Act and related programs, and funding for fiscal 1980 and 1981. (JMF)

  10. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  11. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    for the renovation of the Cannon House Office Building and the condition of the Rayburn building, the effect of the sequester on overtime work, plans...provided by the Joint Committee on Taxation for all revenue legislation (Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, P.L. 99-177...Committee, the Joint Committee on Taxation , the Office of the Attending Physician, and the Office of Congressional Accessibility Services. The FY2012

  13. CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT AND LEGISLATION THE UK EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBLEY P. J.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Underpinning the conservation management of Austropotamobius pallipes in the UK is the process of monitoring and reporting crayfish distribution. Should the current trend in the decline of A. pallipes continue, the species could be virtually extinct in mainland Britain within 30 years (SIBLEY, 2003. Conversely, if the increase in the distribution of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS continues at its current rate, the distribution (by 10 km squares of these species could double within 15 years. These forward projections are based on a number of possibly unreliable assumptions; they illustrate however the magnitude of the challenge facing those concerned with the conservation of A. pallipes in the UK at this time. Recent work in crayfish conservation management in the UK has yielded guidance in several areas including monitoring, habitat enhancement and a re-introduction protocol for A. pallipes (KEMP and HILEY, 2003. Similarly, scientific research continues to inform our understanding of the movement and behaviour of NICS and explores new methods for the potential management of these species. In addition, the protection afforded to A. pallipes by current legislation is key to the long-term survival prospects of the species, albeit with a probable fragmented distribution, across the British Isles and continental Europe. Legal provisions in the UK derive in part from European instructions (e.g. EC Habitats and Species Directive and also from national legislation (e.g. Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981. Also, a raft of “quasi-legislation” exists which requires responsible organisations in the UK to implement the white-clawed crayfish biodiversity action plan (BAP. Altogether these provisions constitute a considerable volume of legal protection for crayfish and provide the legal framework on which UK management policy and practice are based.

  14. Brazilian agriculture and environmental legislation: status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparovek, Gerd; Berndes, Göran; Klug, Israel L F; Barretto, Alberto G O P

    2010-08-15

    Brazilian agriculture covers about one-third of the land area and is expected to expand further. We assessed the compliance of present Brazilian agriculture with environmental legislation and identified challenges for agricultural development connected to this legislation. We found (i) minor illegal land use in protected areas under public administration, (ii) a large deficit in legal reserves and protected riparian zones on private farmland, and (iii) large areas of unprotected natural vegetation in regions experiencing agriculture expansion. Achieving full compliance with the environmental laws as they presently stand would require drastic changes in agricultural land use, where large agricultural areas are taken out of production and converted back to natural vegetation. The outcome of a full compliance with environmental legislation might not be satisfactory due to leakage, where pristine unprotected areas become converted to compensate for lost production as current agricultural areas are reconverted to protected natural vegetation. Realizing the desired protection of biodiversity and natural vegetation, while expanding agriculture to meet food and biofuel demand, may require a new approach to environmental protection. New legal and regulatory instruments and the establishment of alternative development models should be considered.

  15. Environmental protection economically viable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dartsch, B.; Hildebrandt, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Technology Forum for Industry and Research (Utech) was held for the fifth time this year at the International Congress Centre in Berlin. The main themes of this year's Utech were additive environmental protection, production-integrated environmental protection, management and economic aspects of environmental protection, research and development in environmental protection as well as environmental information legislation. (orig.) [de

  16. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  17. Sex Discrimination in Employment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

    The conference on sex discrimination in employment practices was held at the University of California at Los Angeles in cooperation with the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor. Speeches included: (1) "New Legislation--New Action" by Rosalind K. Loring and William Foster, (2) "Compliance Policies and Procedures for Business and Industry" by…

  18. [Labor legislation reform: law 50 of 1990. The context of the reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanuzova, M

    1991-12-01

    Labor legislation reforms contained in Law 50 of 1990 were intended to facilitate international opening of Colombia's economy, which has been beset by external debt, an absence of foreign investment, technological backwardness, and low productivity. The weakness of the labor movement, aggravated by the failure of the socialist economic model and its power organization, made possible a dismantling of past labor victories. The labor reform is intended to combat stagnation in productivity which is believed by the government to result from labor instability; to create a climate permitting generation of employment, and to adapt internal labor laws to recommendations of the International Labour Organization. The effort to make labor legislation more flexible and more adaptable to market conditions removed some protectionist measures and facilitated firing or laying off of workers. Several categories of workers were removed from the jurisdiction of labor laws and placed under the jurisdiction of civil law and ultimately of market forces. The new labor law will lead to salary reductions for most workers. A 36-hour work week without overtime was created for new enterprises as a strategy to encourage job creation. The principle that labor laws should protect workers because of their unequal power relative to employers has been suppressed in the new legislation. Although it is too early to draw definite conclusions about the effect of the law on women workers, some effects are predictable. The liberating power of employment for married women has been limited in Colombia as in many other countries because women are expected to carry out their full traditional domestic role in addition to their paid employment. Women's status in the workplace has improved considerably over the past 50 years, but they still have higher unemployment rates than men, receive lower wages, and are concentrated in less skilled jobs and the informal sector. Employment in the informal sector allows

  19. Impact of the legislation on electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Long, M.

    1982-01-01

    The possible impact of Federal nuclear waste legislation on electric utilities is discussed. The proposed legislation will set forth a well defined program enabling utilities with nuclear plants to make long term plans under a statutory mandate committed to an available technology and implementation timetable. The legislation includes the necessary specificity for the utility companies to fulfill their responsibilities in describing their waste disposal plans to their customers, the concerned public, and state and local legislators

  20. US legislative proposals for nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the topics covered are: Congress' perception of proliferation; completed legislation for non-proliferation; partially complete legislative initiatives in the 94th Congress; non-proliferation measures defeated or vetoed; and legislation for non-proliferation in the 95th Congress

  1. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  2. Legislations the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An outline is given of the national legislation in 39 countries in the field of food irradiation. Where available the following information is given for each country: form of legislation, object of legislation including information on the irradiation treatment, the import and export trade of irradiated food, the package labelling and the authorization and control of the irradiation procedures

  3. Coverage of the employment of people with functional diversity in the press: ABC and El País newspapers (1978-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja González Luna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyses performed on news articles related to ordinary and protected employment for people with functional diversity in a sample taken from ABC and El País newspapers between 1978 and 2012. Employment is a common topic covered in the press and present in news that reports on percentages of unemployed people with functional diversity, personal stories of job success, opinions on the business sector, the failure of legislation, demands of associations, and special employment centers. A common theme is employment as a measure of social integration and normalization, which is understood in a capitalist society to mean the ability to produce an economic value to make earnings for acquiring goods and services. The speeches obtained have been supplemented with relevant legislation and have been contrasted with available secondary data on employment.

  4. Positive and negative implications entailed by fixed-term employment contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Emilia Marica

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally, fixed-term employment contracts are seen as a stepping stone to permanent employment; they have become popular among the flexible forms of work contracts, and are the object of an increasing number of debates and assessments, investigating both the respective legislation and the specific consequences on the parties concluding a fixed-term employment contract. Despite the positive aspects of temporary employment – a positive effect on the rate of employment, and the common perception of such contracts as a preliminary step to permanent employment, as well as the flexibility they bring to the labor market – one cannot ignore the negative implications of fixed-term contracts on the nature of the employment relationship, the system of social protection, the working conditions, the economic security, and the job stability. Based on these considerations, the present paper investigates the advantages and disadvantages of the individual fixed-term employment contract from the standpoints of both employers and employees. Obviously, this approach aims to explore the usefulness and importance of these contract types, as means for balancing the needs of employers and employees on the labor market, and for identifying concrete instances that justify the liberalization of fixed-term employment, despite all the inherent risks entailed by any type of non-standard work: lack of job security; reduced social protection and security for those concluding such a contract.

  5. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  6. Allergens in law - European legislation assessed against the preferences of food allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.J.; Frewer, L.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews current European legislation concerning allergens and their labelling, in particular in relation to the need to optimise consumer protection and improve the quality of life of food allergic consumers. Adequate communication concerning the presence of (potentially) allergenic

  7. Peer Effects in Legislative Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Fisman, Raymond; Kamenica, Emir

    2016-01-01

    variation in seating across the two venues of the Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg), we show that this effect reflects persistent peer influence: a pair of MEPs who have sat together in the past are less likely to disagree on a vote even if they do not sit together during that particular vote.......Abstract We exploit seating rules in the European Parliament to estimate causal peer effects in legislative voting. We find that sitting next to each other reduces by 13 percent the likelihood that two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the same party differ in their vote. Using...

  8. Fungi in the legislation of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančević Boris N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and protection of fungi have lately been considered as extremely important elements of the environmental conservation, and numerous environmental, scientific, medical, economic, cultural, ethical, and other reasons for such attitude exist today. This paper presents an overview of official regulations on the protection of fungi in the Republic of Serbia from the Act of Protection of 1991 until today. The paper lists and analyses the good and bad provisions of individual legal regulations. It registers the effects of the adopted regulations on the actual efficiency of protection of endangered species of fungi (macrofungi, mushrooms, and considers the impact of chronological development of legislation on the population of fungi in nature, and presents general measures to improve protection of mushrooms in the future. These measures primarily include reliable information and study of fungi as a basis for their effective protection based on scientific knowledge. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-179079

  9. Mobilität der Solo-Selbständigen im europäischen Vergleich (The employment status mobility of the solo-self-employed and their social protection in a European comparison)

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze Buschoff, Karin; Schmidt, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    "In the past decades self-employment has gained in importance in the majority of EU Member States. In particular the proportion of small and one-person businesses shows an increasing trend. In contrast to the classical research into business start-ups, which usually focuses on sustainability in the sense of the longest possible survival of the enterprises, this paper determinedly goes into the dynamics and flexibility on the labour market of solo-self-employment. In the context of the theory ...

  10. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN ARCHITECTURE: BETWEEN LEGISLATIONS AND ETHICAL MANIFESTATIONS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE EGYPTIAN CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Nehad Mohamed Eweda

    2011-01-01

    Several international and local legislations have been enacted to protect intellectual property rights. Nevertheless, legislations cannot alone provide protection for architects, and defend the right of owners over architectural products. The importance of this research paper is derived from the hypothesis that accepting, fostering and valuing intellectual property in architecture education and practice are similarly essential to enacting laws. This paper is an analytical discussion of intell...

  11. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  12. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted

  13. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Nuclear facilities (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response; Decommissioning); 4. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 5. Radiological protection; 6. Radioactive waste management; 7. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and physical protection of nuclear material (International aspects; National control and security measures); 8. Transport; 9. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC; Federal Public Service for Home Affairs; Federal Public Service for Economy, SME's, Self-Employed and Energy; Federal Public Service for Employment, Labour and Social Dialogue; Federal Public Service for Defence; Federal Public Service for Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Co-operation; Federal Public Planning Service for Science Policy); 2. Advisory bodies (Scientific Council for Ionizing Radiation of the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control; Superior Health Council; Superior Council for Safety, Hygiene and Enhancement of Workplaces; Advisory Committee for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Commission for Electricity and Gas Regulation - CREG)

  14. Reforming Labor Legislation of the Belarus Republic: some problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motina E. V.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several directions of reforming the Belarusian labor legislation are considered in this article, taking into account so urgent politics of flexicurity. For that reason causes of giving flexibility to legal regulation of employment agreement termination are explored. The conclusion is made about the necessity of taking into account the objective criteria of differentiation by determining the specifics of separate employers’ categories in the situation of labor relations termination

  15. EPA seeks to make RCRA more effective through legislative changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Since RCRA was enacted in 1976 and amended in 1984, hazardous waste management has been transformed. To protect human health and the environment as mandated by the act, EPA has developed a complex cradle-to-grave system for managing hazardous waste. The agency recognizes that some targeted legislative changes could make RCRA even more useful, particularly by (1) establishing some open-quotes middle groundclose quotes for waste posing low risks, and (2) emphasizing sensible and enforceable hazardous waste management practices

  16. Equality, Legal Certainty and Tax Legislation in the Netherlands
    Fundamental Legal Principles as Checks on Legislative Power: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Gribnau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental legal principles may function as a check on legislative power protecting citizens against arbitrary interferences with their liberty. This contribution deals with the principle of equality and the principle of certainty. First, the testing of legislation against the principle of equality is presented as a case study of constitutional review. In the Netherlands, the constitutional dialogue between the legislator and the Dutch Supreme Court revolving around the principle of equality demonstrates a fair amount of subtle details. As a result, constitutional review can hardly be called an all or nothing affair.Secondly, retroactive tax legislation is dealt with. The legislator does seem to take the principle of legal certainty, another fundamental legal principle, quite seriously, although no testing of statutory legislation is possible by the courts. With regard to retroactive tax legislation the Government has committed itself in a memorandum, requested by Parliament, to adhere to rules of conduct with regard to different situations where it deems retroactive tax legislation to be justified. Thus, a soft law instrument facilitates a dialogue between different partners in the business of law-making.

  17. Making a home for the homeless in hate crime legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakim, Mohamad

    2015-06-01

    Several jurisdictions in the United States (e.g., Florida and Washington) have recently incorporated the status of "homeless" under the protection of hate crime legislation. This was largely promoted by new data and reports by the National Coalition for the Homeless urging added protection for the homeless. The issue of whether the homeless belong under hate crime provisions raises the following question: What criteria must a group meet to be eligible for its inclusion? What similarities do the homeless have with other protected groups? Finally, what implications does the recognition of economic status have on other economic groups, particularity the top wealthy 1%? In this article, I explore some of the issues raised by including the homeless as a protected group. I survey several rationales offered for the selection of protected characteristics. I argue that the rationales currently offered suffer from descriptive inadequacy by either being under- or over-inclusive. I turn instead to the political conception of "disadvantage" for an identity marker that better explains the link between the various protected groups and identities under hate crime legislation. Moreover, the use of disadvantage allows for the inclusion of the homeless without the need for incorporating other socio-economic identities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Organising social protection through solidarity of women workers: experiences of the Self-Employed Women’s Association, SEWA, in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Mirai

    2017-01-01

    The world of work has changed significantly in all corners of the globe. In India too, particularly over the last twenty years, there have been major changes. India has always had a large informal economy, with a majority being self-employed workers. However, in recent decades, the numbers of informal workers has grown to over 430 million or over 93 per cent of the workforce. These are workers with no employer-employee relationship – purely self-employed workers like small and marginal farmer...

  19. Developing genetic privacy legislation: the South Carolina experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J G; Young, S R; Brooks, K A; Aiken, J H; Patterson, E D; Pritchett, S T

    1998-01-01

    The availability of presymptomatic and predisposition genetic testing has spawned the need for legislation prohibiting health insurance discrimination on the basis of genetic information. The federal effort, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996, falls short by protecting only those who access insurance through group plans. A committee of University of South Carolina professionals convened in 1996 to develop legislation in support of genetic privacy for the state of South Carolina. The legislation prevents health insurance companies from denying coverage or setting insurance rates on the basis of genetic information. It also protects the privacy of genetic information and prohibits performance of genetic tests without specific informed consent. In preparing the bill, genetic privacy laws from other states were reviewed, and a modified version of the Virginia law adopted. The South Carolina Committee for the Protection of Genetic Privacy version went a step further by including enforcement language and excluding Virginia's sunset clause. The definition of genetic information encompassed genetic test results, and importantly, includes family history of genetic disease. Our experience in navigating through the state legislature and working through opposition from the health insurance lobby is detailed herein.

  20. California's minimum-nurse-staffing legislation and nurses' wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Barbara; Harless, David W; Spetz, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, California became the first state to implement minimum-nurse-staffing ratios in acute care hospitals. We examined the wages of registered nurses (RNs) before and after the legislation was enacted. Using four data sets-the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, the Current Population Survey, the National Compensation Survey, and the Occupational Employment Statistics Survey-we found that from 2000 through 2006, RNs in California metropolitan areas experienced real wage growth as much as twelve percentage points higher than the growth in the wages of nurses employed in metropolitan areas outside of California.

  1. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  2. Impact of ARPANS-like legislation on minerals industry in Australia - the TENORM issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.

    2001-01-01

    Processing of minerals results in increased concentrations of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in mineral products and/or process wastes, relative to those in the source materials. Due to the current legislative trends this technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) phenomenon may bring mineral processing practices, including disposal of NORM-elevated wastes, into the realm of regulatory concern for practically all mineral-processing operations in Australia. The 1999 Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (ARPANS) legislation has been based on the 1996 International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As such, it contains very restrictive exemption criteria from the provisions of the legislation. ARPANS legislation is only binding upon Commonwealth entities. They, incidentally, do not include minerals industry operations. This legislation has been incompatible with the nature of the minerals industry. However, the current legislative developments have been aimed at imposing this legislation onto States and Territories. If this happens, and the current ARPANS legislative exemption criteria are not rationalised, major radiation safety-related operational and administrative impacts on the Australian minerals industry will occur. They will result in a marked burden to the national economy for yet to be clearly identified health and safety benefits. It is thus recommended that, without compromising rational radiation protection principles and practices, legislation commensurate with the nature of the minerals industry operations, national and state circumstances, conditions and interests be adopted in Australia. Such legislation would follow the spirit of the IAEA 1996 recommendations. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  3. Legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations in the arab counties a comparative analytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baroudy, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the developments taking place in nuclear sciences and technologies during the twentieth century and the resulting increase of useful applications of these technologies, the international efforts aiming at helping different countries to establish nuclear safety systems. This was also increased through the promulgation of legislations that render the practices, which could be accompanied with exposure to ionizing radiations, more safe within a firm legal system that is also backed by promulgating suitable executive regulations. Most Arab countries are keen to promulgate their legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations and protection against their dangers. Those legislations usually get their genesis and provisions from the international recommendations as well as from the general legal system of the country. The present work consists of four chapters. The first chapter deals with the definition of legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations. Chapter two discusses the international trend to promulgate legislations for protection against ionizing radiations. Chapter three includes an analytical comparative study on the legislations that regulates the work with ionizing radiations in the Arab countries. Finally, chapter four deals with the legislations for protection against ionizing radiations in the Arab Republic of Egypt

  4. Some international perspectives on legislation for the management of human-induced safety risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Niemand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legislation that governs the health and safety of communities near major-hazard installations in South Africa is largely based on existing legislation that had been developed in the United Kingdom and other European Union countries. The latter was developed as a consequence of several major human-induced technological disasters in Europe. The history of the evolution of health-and-safety legislation for the protection of vulnerable communities in European Union (EU countries, France, Malaysia and the USA is explored through a literature survey. A concise comparison is drawn between EU countries, the USA and South Africa to obtain an exploratory view of whether current South-African legislation represents an optimum model for the protection of the health-and-safety of workers and communities near major-hazard installations. The authors come to the conclusion that South-African legislation needs revision as was done in the UK in 2011. Specific areas in the legislation that need revision are an overlap between occupational health and safety and environmental legislation, appropriate land-use planning for the protection of communities near major-hazard installations, the inclusion of vulnerability studies and the refinement of appropriate decision-making instruments such as risk assessment. This article is the first in a series that forms part of a broader study aimed at the development of an optimised model for the regulatory management of human-induced health and safety risks associated with hazardous installations in South Africa.

  5. Employer Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Stroblová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the Master Thesis is to describe how to build Employer Brand a company. It is based on the description of Employer Branding project of a particular company and the evaluation its process. The thesis is a case study and consists of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focuses on trends and changes in leadership approach, definition of Employer Branding and HR Marketing. The practical part deals with the brand building process itself, describes the outputs of the proj...

  6. Employer branding

    OpenAIRE

    Mičková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...

  7. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  8. Climate protection laws in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The contribution on climate protection laws in Taiwan is first describing the international position and cooperation with UNFCCC, The national climate protection policy covers energy and industry, trading and economy, forestry and agriculture, traffic and local affairs, society and education. The description of the actual legislation includes the constitutional framework, environmental legislation, air pollution legislation, environmental compatibility regulations, renewable energy development legislation, energy management laws, legal drafts concerning reduction of greenhouse gas emission and energy taxes. Finally the competences and responsibilities of authorities are summarized.

  9. Employer Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuli, Kelli J.; Hong, Esther

    This document consists of two guides intended for either employers or service providers involved in school to work partnerships for students with disabilities. "Tools for Service Providers" is intended to be used for training local-level providers who are developing school to work linkages with employers. Following an introduction, this…

  10. The veterinary surgeon in natural disasters: Italian legislation in force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passantino, A; Di Pietro, C; Fenga, C; Passantino, M

    2003-12-01

    Law No. 225/1992 established a National Service of Civil Protection, with the important role of 'safeguarding life, goods, settlements and the environment from damage deriving from natural disasters, catastrophes and calamities' (art. 1). This law arranges civil protection as a co-ordinated system of responsibilities administrated by the state, local and public authorities, the world of science, charitable organisations, the professional orders and other institutions, and the private sector (art. 6). The President of the Republic's Decree No. 66/1981 'Regulation for the application of Law No. 996/1970, containing norms for relief and assistance to populations hit by natural disasters--Civil Protection' mentions veterinary surgeons among the people that are called upon to intervene. In fact, in natural disasters the intervention of the veterinary surgeon is of great importance. The authors examine these laws and other legislation relating to the National Service of Civil Protection.

  11. Impact of hazardous waste handling legislation on nuclear installations and radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosten, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The United States has enacted complex legislation to help assure proper handling of hazardous waste and the availability of funds to cover the expenditures. There are a number of uncertainties concerning the impact of this legislation, and regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency and the states, upon nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. This report provides an overview of the U.S. hazardous waste legislation and examines the outlook for its application to the nuclear industry (NEA) [fr

  12. Model Legislation for GAAP and GASB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, George E.

    1987-01-01

    The use of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) by all state and local governments may require legislation. Findings from a survey of states to get data on current accounting and financial reporting practices are summarized. Model legislation to provide uniformity in accounting and reporting is presented. (MLF)

  13. Military legislation: explaining military officers' writing deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Borysov, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In performing jobs related to national security and defense, personnel must comply with rules and decisions communicated in the form of written legislation, which includes directives, memos, instructions, manuals, standard operating procedures, and reports. Incorrect understanding of legislative provisions may lead to disastrous consequences, making clear communication through these documents paramount. The vast majority of military of...

  14. Legislative policy in Brazil : limits and possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Paula F.

    2018-01-01

    This doctoral thesis discusses the limits and possibilities for developing a new legislative-regulatory policy in Brazil, understood as a public policy whose purpose is to improve the process of drafting legislation and regulation and to increase the quality of rules. It considers the

  15. [Occupational skin cancer : Prevention and recommendations for UV protection as part of the treatment approved by the public statutory employers' liability insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocholl, M; Ludewig, M; Skudlik, C; Wilke, A

    2018-04-27

    In Germany, approximately 2 to 3 million employees work in outdoor professions. They are exceptionally exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation for a large part of their daily working time. Cumulative UV exposure is associated with a significantly increased risk of skin cancer for outdoor workers from various occupational groups (e. g. landscape and horticulture, agriculture and forestry, fisheries and seafaring, construction and trade, as well as sports teachers, lifeguards and mountain guides). Since 1 January 2015, squamous cell carcinoma and multiple actinic keratosis due to natural UV radiation can be recognised as occupational disease No. 5103 by the German statutory social accident insurance. Reducing cumulative UV exposure is the main prevention aspect of this type of skin damage. Therefore, technical, organisational and personal UV protection measures should be implemented in the professional and private environment. Moreover, they have to be regularly used in an appropriate way. In addition to guideline-oriented therapy, training and counselling of patients with already existing actinic skin damage or a recognised occupational disease No. 5103 is therefore of particular importance. The focus should be on improving the individual UV protection behaviour. This article gives an overview of current recommendations for UV protection in the professional environment. It outlines possible solutions for patient counselling in terms of UV protection in everyday practice.

  16. Legislating for advocacy: The case of whistleblowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Chanel L; O'Connor, Tom

    2017-05-01

    The role of nurses as patient advocates is one which is well recognised, supported and the subject of a broad body of literature. One of the key impediments to the role of the nurse as patient advocate is the lack of support and legislative frameworks. Within a broad range of activities constituting advocacy, whistleblowing is currently the subject of much discussion in the light of the Mid Staffordshire inquiry in the United Kingdom (UK) and other instances of patient mistreatment. As a result steps to amend existing whistleblowing legislation where it exists or introduce it where it does not are underway. This paper traces the development of legislation for advocacy. The authors argue that while any legislation supporting advocacy is welcome, legislation on its own will not encourage or enable nurses to whistleblow.

  17. Utility regulation and the legislative process in Oregon: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This case study discusses the strategies employed by the Public Utility Commissioner and the Oregon Department of Energy in the design, passage and implementation of a set of energy conservation bills. Information is included on the development of new legislation for energy conservation and management, on developing public acceptance of such legislation, and the cooperation received from utility companies to affect implementation. The lessons in strategy and tactics and the skillful use of the legislative process to get the package of bills enacted should have immediate value for those about to undertake a similar effort in their state. (LCL)

  18. VIA Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2017-01-01

    ’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased......The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it...

  19. From drafting guideline to error detection: Automating style checking for legislative texts

    OpenAIRE

    Höfler Stefan; Sugisaki Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of methods for the automated detection of violations of style guidelines for legislative texts, and their implementation in a prototypical tool. To this aim, the approach of error modelling employed in automated style checkers for technical writing is enhanced to meet the requirements of legislative editing. The paper identifies and discusses the two main sets of challenges that have to be tackled in this process: (i) the provision of domain-specific NLP ...

  20. What the growth of a space tourism industry could contribute to employment, economic growth, environmental protection, education, culture and world peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patrick; Autino, Adriano

    2010-06-01

    The authors argue that the creation of a popular new industry of passenger space travel could be economically and socially very beneficial in creating new employment in aerospace and related fields in order to supply these services. In doing so, the application of nearly a half-century of technological development that has yet to be used commercially could create many new aerospace engineering business opportunities. In addition, by growing to large scale, space tourism has unique potential to reduce the cost of space travel sharply, thereby making many other activities in space feasible and profitable. The paper discusses the scope for new employment, stimulating economic growth, reducing environmental damage, sustaining education particularly in the sciences, stimulating cultural growth, and preserving peace by eliminating any need for "resource wars".

  1. Governance, legislation and protection of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institutions and processes governing the conveyance and control of water have a long history. In this chapter, we discuss the extent to which water governance systems consider the management of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) and identify where research could inf...

  2. Non-legislative means of consumer protection: The Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    This report approaches the new spheres of self-regulation, soft law and deregulation in the Netherlands from both a factual and historical point of view. Using the Dutch Advertising Code as an example, the article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of self-regulation, thereby illustrating

  3. Radiation protection for EMF harmonizing legislation in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyaruba, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    To effect a change in biological material through which it is passing, an Electromagnetic wave must deposit enough energy to alter some structure significantly. But:- Every material particle within the body already possesses an average thermal kinetic energy (kT) and these particles continually collide with other particles of similar energy. For a change to occur an EM wave should transfer energy greater than kT. There is a bond energy which is within an order of magnitude of electron volt (1.6 X 10-19 J). For a change to occur an EM photon which typically carries an energy of hf should deposit packets of energy larger than bond energy. RF fields : It is concluded (epidemiological, animal and in vitro studies) that exposure to RF fields is unlikely to lead to an increase in cancer in humans. IF fields: The data are still too limited for an appropriate risk assessment. ELF fields: No new studies support a causal relationship between ELF fields and self-reported symptoms. Preliminary study of RF radiation levels in the residential areas. The study was conducted 2007 - 2008.Measurements of RF radiation levels to 200 cellular phone base stations, 2 Television stations and 5 radio stations. Measurements done aat to 300 meters from the fence of base stations. Preliminary results showed public exposed to 0.05% of the ICNIRP reference levels. Need to re-confirm measurements

  4. Legislative Protection of Property Rights in Ethiopia: An Overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muradu_A.

    the economic potentials of assets, integrates dispersed information into one ... over a piece of property (which allows long term investments using one's own capital, through .... Ethiopia which not only takes into account the present economic.

  5. The role of social support in protecting mental health when employed and unemployed: A longitudinal fixed-effects analysis using 12 annual waves of the HILDA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Krnjacki, Lauren; Butterworth, Peter; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2016-03-01

    Perceived social support is associated with overall better mental health. There is also evidence that unemployed workers with higher social support cope better psychologically than those without such support. However, there has been limited research about the effect of social support among people who have experienced both unemployment and employment. We assessed this topic using 12 years of annually collected cohort data. The sample included 3190 people who had experienced both unemployment and employment. We used longitudinal fixed-effects modelling to investigate within-person changes in mental health comparing the role of social support when a person was unemployed to when they were employed. Compared to when a person reported low social support, a change to medium (6.35, 95% 5.66 to 7.04, p social support (11.58, 95%, 95% CI 10.81 to 12.36, p health (measured on an 100 point scale, with higher scores representing better mental health). When a person was unemployed but had high levels of social support, their mental health was 2.89 points (95% CI 1.67 to 4.11, p social support. The buffering effect of social support was confirmed in stratified analysis. There was a strong direct effect of social support on mental health. The magnitude of these differences could be considered clinically meaningful. Our results also suggest that social support has a significant buffering effect on mental health when a person is unemployed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. AGAIN ABOUT GENDER BASED VIOLENCE IN ROMANIA LEGISLATIVE MODIFICATIONS PROMULGATED ON MARCH 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MIHAELA VLĂDILĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article continues our last year article, presented in the same conference, on the evolution of the legislation on domestic violence in Spain and in Romania. This new study shall approach only the legislative modifications of the Law No 217/2003 inserted in March 2012 after the shooting at “Perla” Hairdresser in Bucharest, which influenced not only the lives of those involved, but also legislative changes, as an attempt from the Government to offer a better protection for women, who are usually the victims of this type of violence. The present study is dedicated to these new modifications ad their social and legal impact.

  7. [Incorporation of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP) in food legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Rey, Liliana C; Villamil Jiménez, Luis C; Romero Prada, Jaime R

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP), recommended by different international organizations as the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Office of Epizootics (OIE) and the International Convention for Vegetables Protection (ICPV) amongst others, contributes to ensuring the innocuity of food along the agro-alimentary chain and requires of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for its implementation, GMP's which are legislated in most countries. Since 1997, Colombia has set rules and legislation for application of HACCP system in agreement with international standards. This paper discusses the potential and difficulties of the legislation enforcement and suggests some policy implications towards food safety.

  8. Consumer Legislation and E-Commerce Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Freeman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Where there is vigorous competition, and consumer confidence, there is economic growth. E-commerce drives both of these but there remain situations where traders exploit technology or consumer behavioural biases, and seek to compete on the wrong things –such as unrealistic up front prices. This harms competition and can reduce consumer trust, meaning that consumers consume less. This could occur when traders: i prevent consumers from accessing, assessing or acting on information, and so make the wrong choice; ii take advantage of their superior understanding of technology to collect data or money from consumers; iii abuse the advantages of the internet (ease of set up, cross jurisdictional reach, access to markets to misrepresent the price, the quality, the range of products on offer, or the service you will get.Firms should therefore behave responsibly, and not seek to steal an unfair march on their competitors. Effective enforcement incentivises the right behaviours. In order to enforce effectively, EU agencies need to prioritise robustly and build strong competence in internet investigation. Increasingly enforcement activities need to be run as international projects involving non EU enforcers and industry allies –and we need to be willing to protect overseas consumers as well as our own. It is important that the legal framework facilitates, rather than hinders, enforcement –so that for example investigators can easily discover the true identity of traders who run anonymous websites, that they are able to carry out covert test purchases, and so that websites causing harm to the economic interests of consumers can swiftly be removed.There are a number of areas where the EU legislator should consider further work, in order to address those persistent threats that have proven difficult to eradicate so far: clarifying the scope of platform responsibility; extending consumer protection to all individuals; ensuring all CPC enforcers have

  9. The relevance of introducing opposition proceedings into the Serbian trademark legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the quality of certain legal procedures applied in domestic trademark legislation in the light of harmonizing our legislation with those of the EU. Trademark Law in the Republic of Serbia (2009) does not rely on opposition proceedings as a phase in the process of trademark registration and a tool that would ensure that only those trademarks that fulfill the necessary conditions are granted legal protection. Intellectual Property Office examines the so-called relative groun...

  10. Discrimination in Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzug, Bella

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, expressly focuses on discrimination in employment, asserting that this has had the most direct effect on minorities and women in the country; while legal protections have grown stronger, they have not been used effectively. (Author/JM)

  11. Employment Challenges in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    of foreigners in rural trade, use of work permits to limit employment of expatriates, .... as social and trade union protection, job security, and wage negotiations to the worker. .... are Republic of Korea (1960–2001); Malaysia (1967–1997); Malta ...

  12. Reproductive and therapeutic cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos: comments on Canadian legislation governing reproduction technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, L; Gregoire, D

    2004-01-01

    In this article the three main topics covered in the new legislation are commented on: cloning, germline therapy, and purchase of gametes and embryos. Some important issues also covered in the new legislation, such as privacy and access to information, data protection, identity of donors, and inspection, will not be addressed. PMID:15574437

  13. FORENSIC DNA BANKING LEGISLATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: PRIVACY AND CONFIDENTIALITY CONCERNS REGARDING A DRAFT FROM TURKISH LEGISLATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgili, Önder; Arda, Berna

    This paper presents and analyses, in terms of privacy and confidentiality, the Turkish Draft Law on National DNA Database prepared in 2004, and concerning the use of DNA analysis for forensic objectives and identity verification in Turkey. After a short introduction including related concepts, we evaluate the draft law and provide articles about confidentiality. The evaluation reminded us of some important topics at international level for the developing countries. As a result, the need for sophisticated legislations about DNA databases, for solutions to issues related to the education of employees, and the technological dependency to other countries emerged as main challenges in terms of confidentiality for the developing countries. As seen in the Turkish Draft Law on National DNA Database, the protection of the fundamental rights and freedoms requires more care during the legislative efforts.

  14. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  15. Tradition and change in power industry legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.F.; Boerner, B.; Friauf, K.H.; Salzwedel, J.; Selmer, P.

    1986-01-01

    On September 24-25, 1985 the 15th conference of the Institute for Energy Law took place in Cologne. This book contains five of the lectures held at the conference. They deal with the following subjects: Constitutional restrictions of autonomous energy policy of the Land governments; compulsory connection to and use of district heating; is there any necessity for amending the anti-trust law for reasons of energy policy; environmental law - planning law - gaps in the legislation concerning the energy sector; Energy Industry Law - are there legislative deficiencies, or is it an adequate, correct legislative instrument. (HSCH) [de

  16. The Effects of the Revised CPPNM on Legislative Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung-Woo; Yoo, Ho-Sik; Shim, Hye-Won; Chang, Sun-Young; Lee, Jong-Uk

    2006-01-01

    A Diplomatic Conference was held last July at Vienna of Austria and adopted an important Convention in physical protection field. The Convention is the revised Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. A State Party to the revised CPPNM has obligation to meet the Convention. Since the Amendment to CPPNM is expected to enter into force in near future, there is an urgent need to prepare for implementing the international obligation. Thus, it is important to assess the effect of the revised Convention on national legislative and regulatory framework to govern physical protection of domestic nuclear material and facilities. The objective of this paper is to perform comparative assessment between new provisions of the revised Convention and national law in order to prepare for the implementation of the international norm

  17. Changing social policy: Grassroots to legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiska, Liz; McCann, Eileen M; Mancuso, Margaret

    2002-05-01

    Health care in the United States has evolved into a multimillion dollar business. As the health care industry has grown, so too has government regulation and involvement. As both insurers and patients vie to get the most for their health care dollars, federal and state governments attempt to mediate, prevent fraud and abuse, and protect all parties involved. Consumers feel the effects of this "tug of war" in the form of higher copayments, premiums, and out-of-pocket costs, as well as denial of coverage. This denial of coverage sparked a very successful grassroots effort to stop commercial insurers in the state of Connecticut from defining ostomy supplies as cosmetic and thus denying reimbursement. A tremendous amount of collaboration between Connecticut WOC nurses, state legislators, local American Cancer Society advocates, United Ostomy Association chapter members, and health care providers resulted in a powerful mobilization and support for House Bill No. 5120. This bill went beyond defining ostomy supplies as medically necessary but also set a minimum rate for reimbursement. Social policy changed, improving the lives of Connecticut citizens with an ostomy. Although many people fear they do not have the power to make necessary changes in government, this experience proved otherwise. The collaboration that occurred was patient advocacy at its best. This article describes the process that allowed this successful collaboration to take place with the hope that others will be inspired to get involved with patient advocacy through political involvement. It is the intention of this work to capture the essence of dedication of a grassroots campaign involving a small group of well-organized, highly focused participants who were responsible for changing public health care policy in the state of Connecticut.

  18. Student employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix

    2018-01-01

    , according to social origins, in student employment from first-year students through graduating students. We show that inequality in job quality exists and is partly attributable to the need for students from lower social origins to work to finance their studies. We hypothesise that initial inequalities......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  19. [Legislation concerning alcohol and drug intake in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszczyńiska, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    It is likely that the complex law concerning alcohol and drugs in the workplace is one of the reasons for unwillingness to resolve the problem of intake of such psychoactive substances by employees. 'Iherefore, the author made an attempt to depict Polish legislation in this field based on the review of legal acts and regulations, as well as on their extensive judiciary interpretation. Such an information can be used by employers in developing their workplace policy of diminishing the intake of psychoactive substances by employees. This information can also be helpful for the bodies supporting workplaces in solving problems derived from alcohol and drugs consumption, such as occupational medicine specialists and local governments.

  20. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  1. The Emerging Legislative Role in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Changes in the capacity, internal distribution of power, habits of work, and composition of state legislators have increased their involvement and assertiveness in educational policy formation, oversight, and control. (Author/MLF)

  2. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  3. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  4. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  5. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  6. Page | 133 LEGISLATIVE APPROVAL OF EXECUTIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    NAUJILJ 9 (2) 2018. Page | 133 ... Keywords: Executive appointments, Legislative approval, National Assembly, Constitutional duty. 1. ... Representatives is led by a Speaker.6 The election of the leadership of the senate is entirely the affair of.

  7. Changes in public attitudes towards confidential adolescent sexual and reproductive health services in Lithuania after the introduction of new legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sauliune, Skirmante

    2015-01-01

    was employed to estimate absolute differences in prevalence of belief in whether or not adolescents would find confidentiality important when consulting a physician on SRH issues. A log-binomial regression model was fitted to estimate the relative changes (prevalence ratio) of the independent variables......BACKGROUND: In Lithuania, the right to confidentiality in healthcare for adolescents over the age of 16 was guaranteed in 2010 through the adoption of new legislation. This study sets out to explore changes in Lithuanian residents' attitudes towards confidentiality protection in adolescent sexual....... RESULTS: The total number of respondents was 1054 (response rate 83%) in 2005 and 1002 (response rate 80%) in 2012. The proportion of respondents who reported a belief that adolescents would find confidentiality important when seeing a physician for SRH issues increased significantly from 62% in 2005...

  8. The economic impact of merger control legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, Elena; Hartmann, Philipp; Onega, Steven

    2007-01-01

    We construct a unique dataset of legislative reforms in merger control legislation that occurred in nineteen industrial countries in the period 1987-2004, and investigate the economic impact of these changes on stock prices. In line with the hypothesis that merger control should challenge anticompetitive mergers and thus limit future monopolistic profits, we find that the strengthening of merger control decreases the stock prices of non-financial firms. In contrast, we find that bank stock pr...

  9. Legislation on treating animals in human care

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Petra

    2016-01-01

    1 Abstract This Master's thesis entitled Legislation on treating animals in human care compares Czech and Australian legislation in selected aspects of three categories of animals in human care - farm animals, companion animals and animals used for scientific and other research purposes. The thesis is composed of 5 main chapters. The first chapter describes sources of law regarding treating animals in human care from the perspectives of international law, European Union law, federal Czech law...

  10. Legal aspects of workers' health protection against asbestos in Poland in the light of the EU legal framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Świątkowska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Legal protection of human life and health against asbestos dust-related hazards is carried out in various dimensions of the European Union law mainly focused on health protection of employees and responsibilities of employers, as well as on environmental protection. The aim of this paper is to present the Community legal issues emphasizing the protection of workers against asbestos and discuss the current state of Polish law in this regard. An analysis of recent legal solutions provides a comprehensive look at the extensive steps currently taken to reduce the risk of exposure to asbestos dust. The legislation in the European Union, including Poland indicates sound foundations for assuring health and safety of workers still exposed to asbestos and those formerly employed in asbestos processing plants. It is only postulated to unify high standards of healthcare to provide all workers employed in asbestos exposure with equal and particular legal protection. Med Pr 2013;64(5:689–697

  11. Rare disease patients in China anticipate the sunlight of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J J; Song, P P; Tang, W

    2013-06-01

    It is estimated that there are over ten million rare disease patients in China currently. Due to a lack of effective drugs and reimbursement regulations for medical expenses the diseases bring most patients enormous physical suffering and psychological despair. Past experience in other countries such as the United States, Japan, and the European Union have shown that legislation is the critical step to improve the miserable situation of rare disease patients. Laws and regulations for rare diseases in these countries prescribe a series of incentives for research and development of orphan drugs which turn out to obviously allow these drugs to flourish. Legislation has also established a drug reimbursement system to reduce the medical burden of the patients. These measures effectively protect the rights and interests of patients with rare diseases. In China, legislation for rare diseases has begun to attract the attention of authorities. It is anticipated that relevant laws and regulations will be established as early as possible to provide safeguards for rare disease patients in China.

  12. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 1, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  13. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress. Volume 2, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  14. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress. Volume 1, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  15. Firearm violence and the effects of gun control legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, R S; Jason, L A

    1988-08-01

    Two gun control laws designed to reduce different types of violent crimes were evaluated. In 1981, East St. Louis, IL, imposed stricter penalties for individuals who carry firearms outside their homes for protection (individuals could keep firearms in their homes). This law had only a temporary impact in reducing firearm use in assaults and robberies. In Evanston, IL, a slightly different approach was taken with legislation that banned handguns in the entire city (i.e., individuals could not keep handguns within their homes). A temporary reduction in firearm assaults occurred a few months before the gun law took effect. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 1, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  17. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 2, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  18. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 2, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  19. Legislating Interprofessional Regulatory Collaboration in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lahey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To shift health professions regulation from traditional to ‘collaborative’ self-regulation, Nova Scotia has adopted legislation which will: make all self-regulating health professions members of the Regulated Health Professions Network; mandate the Network to facilitate voluntary collaboration among its members; and enable regulators to work together on investigations of patient complaints, to adjust scopes of practice on an ongoing basis and to adjudicate appeals of unsuccessful applicants for registration. The goals are to give health professions regulation the capacity to enable and support the functioning of interprofessional teams. The legislation was adopted primarily for two reasons: collaborative development and unanimous support by all of the province’s self-regulating professions; and alignment with the government’s health care reform agenda and its emphasis on collaborative team-based care. Contrary to the approach of several other provinces, the legislation will enable but not require regulators to collaborate on the premise that consensual collaboration is more likely to happen, to be meaningful and to yield tangible benefits. Support for this approach can be taken from the impressive collaborative work on which the legislation is based. Evaluation will be critical, and the five-year review required by the legislation will give Nova Scotia the opportunity to test not only the legislation but the ideas on which it is based. The extent of the legislation’s reliance on voluntary process will prove to be either its greatest strength or its greatest weakness.

  20. A survey on new nuclear legislative documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiripus, Vlad

    2005-01-01

    The paper is an overview of 21 legislative documents concerning the nuclear field in Romania published in the 'Official Gazette' of Romania (Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei) between February 2, 2005 and September 12, 2005. A list of these documents is as follows: 1. Standards concerning the requirements of the quality management systems for product manufacturing and services for nuclear facilities; 2. The Agreement of July 19, 2004 between Romanian Nuclear Agency, AN, the Romanian National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, CNCAN, and US Department of Energy, DOE, referring to cooperation in the combat against nuclear weapon and technologies proliferation; 3. Governmental Ordinance on continuation of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 construction in the frame of the 5x700 MW Cernavoda NPP Project. Within the Ordinance provisions are given concerning the exportation of heavy water produced by Heavy Water Plant of Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities; 4. Environmental License for Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti; 5. Ministry of Economy and Trade Order concerning the reports of data on environmental protection by industrial agents implied in nuclear power production and nuclear fuel fabrication; 6. Governmental Decision (Gov. D.) on criteria for ensuring individual protection of Romanian citizens working in units presenting nuclear, radiologic, chemical or biological risk; 7. Law referring to the Agreement with EURATOM on information exchange in radiological emergency (EUCURIE) and tasks of National Center for Coordination of Interventions in case nuclear accident or radiological emergency; 8. Ministerial Order referring to Generic procedures concerning the data acquisition, validation and actions in case of radiological emergency; 9. Methodological norms on planning, preparation and interventions in case of nuclear accident or radiologic emergency; 10; A CNCAN Order referring to Norms for classification of radioactive wastes in Romania; 11. General provisions

  1. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances, Nuclear Fuel and Equipment; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment (Trade governed by nuclear energy legislation; Trade governed by radiation protection legislation; Trade governed by export/import control legislation); 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities: A. Ministerial Level (Ministry of Health and Social Affairs; Ministry of Trade and Industry; Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Other Ministries); B. Subsidiary Level: (The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA; The Norwegian Nuclear Emergency Organisation); 2. Public and Semi-Public Agencies - Institute for Energy Technology - IFE

  2. National Legislative and Regulatory Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    This section gathers several amendments, rules and acts published in 2010 and sorted by country: 1 - Bulgaria: Amendment to the Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy (2010); 2 - France: Law on the new organisation of the electricity market (2010); 3 - Germany: Amendment to the Atomic Energy Act extending the operating lifetime of nuclear power plants (2010); Amendment to the Reliability Assessment Ordinance (2010); Amendment to the Ordinance on Persons Responsible for Nuclear Safety and on Reportable Events (2010); Amendment to the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (2010); 4 - Greece: Decree transposing European Council Directive 2006/117/EURATOM (2010); 5 - India: Civil Nuclear Liability Act (2010); 6 - Romania: Amendment to Article 35 of Law 111/1996 regarding new tasks of CNCAN (2010); Order approving norms regarding the radiological monitoring or recyclable metal materials (2010); 7 - Serbia: Establishment of the Agency for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (2009); 8 - Slovenia: Rules on operational safety of radiation and nuclear facilities (2009); Rules on radiation and nuclear safety factors (2009); Act on Liability for Nuclear Damage (2010); 9 - Sweden: Abolishment of the Act on phasing out of nuclear energy (2010); Act on Liability and Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2010); 10 - United States: Final rule on the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel (2010); Status of the high-level waste repository programme (2010); Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability and Divestment Act (2010); Final rule on the export and import of nuclear equipment and material (2010)

  3. Turkish nuclear legislation: Developments for a nuclear newcomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Erinc; Schneider, Horst

    2013-01-01

    The scope of legal investigation in this article focuses on nuclear legislation with regard to siting, construction, operation and decommissioning of NPPs, taking into account the main issues of nuclear safety, security, safeguards, radiological protection and nuclear third party liability. The state of existing legislation and, furthermore, of drafts published or announced related to substantive regulations and organisational aspects are at the centre of this article. International conventions and agreements, national legislation consisting of the constitution, laws, decrees and regulations as binding norms and otherwise, directives and non-binding guides provide the legal structure for nuclear activities. The evaluation of Turkish nuclear legislation with regard to the accomplishment of the obligations under, in particular, the CNS and Euratom directives, leads finally to the perspective on the specific issues that should be addressed in the regulation of nuclear energy for Turkey's future energy needs and to ensure conformity with international standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). A brief discussion of Turkish energy legislation and institutional structure is necessary, because NPPs also need a licence for electricity production under Turkey's energy legislation. The Turkish government is aiming for greater privatisation in the energy sector. The current electricity market is governed, on the one hand, by the Electricity Market Law and Electricity Market License Regulation, which requires NPPs to have an electricity production licence and, on the other hand, by specific institutions. In terms of the Electricity Market Law, private legal entities who wish to obtain an electricity generation licence must 'be established as incorporated or limited liability companies in accordance with the provisions of the Turkish Commercial Law'. The relevant institutions in Turkey's energy sector include: the Energy

  4. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  5. Mental illness and employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-09-01

    Work is a major determinant of mental health and a socially integrating force. To be excluded from the workforce creates material deprivation, erodes self-confidence, creates a sense of isolation and marginalization and is a key risk factor for mental disability. This review summarizes recent evidence pertaining to employment-related stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental disabilities. A broad understanding of the stigmatization process is adopted, which includes cognitive, attitudinal, behavioural and structural disadvantages. Stigma is both a proximate and a distal cause of employment inequity for people with a mental disability who experience direct discrimination because of prejudicial attitudes from employers and workmates and indirect discrimination owing to historical patterns of disadvantage, structural disincentives against competitive employment and generalized policy neglect. Against this background, modern mental health rehabilitation models and legislative philosophies, which focus on citizenship rights and full social participation, are to be welcomed. Yet, recent findings demonstrate that the legislation remains vulnerable to the very prejudicial attitudes they are intended to abate. Research conducted during the past year continues to highlight multiple attitudinal and structural barriers that prevent people with mental disabilities from becoming active participants in the competitive labour market.

  6. Mental health legislation and human rights in England, Wales and the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) published its Resource Book on Mental Health, Human Rights and Legislation (Geneva: WHO) presenting a detailed statement of human rights issues which need to be addressed in national legislation relating to mental health. The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which revised mental health legislation in England, Wales (2007) and Ireland (2001) accords with these standards (excluding standards relating solely to children or mentally-ill offenders). Legislation in England and Wales meets 90 (54.2%) of the 166 WHO standards examined, while legislation in Ireland meets 80 standards (48.2%). Areas of high compliance include definitions of mental disorder, relatively robust procedures for involuntary admission and treatment (although provision of information remains suboptimal) and clarity regarding offences and penalties Areas of medium compliance relate to competence, capacity and consent (with a particular deficit in capacity legislation in Ireland), oversight and review (which exclude long-term voluntary patients and require more robust complaints procedures), and rules governing special treatments, seclusion and restraint. Areas of low compliance relate to promoting rights (impacting on other areas within legislation, such as information management), voluntary patients (especially non-protesting, incapacitated patients), protection of vulnerable groups and emergency treatment. The greatest single deficit in both jurisdictions relates to economic and social rights. There are four key areas in need of rectification and clarification in relation to mental health legislation in England, Wales and Ireland; these relate to (1) measures to protect and promote the rights of voluntary patients; (2) issues relating to competence, capacity and consent (especially in Ireland); (3) the role of "common law" in relation to mental health law (especially in England and Wales); and (4) the extent to which each jurisdiction

  7. European Community legislation and recommendations in the field of radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Orlowski, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation protection principles are the foundation for national and European Community legislation and recommendations in the field of management and disposal of radioactive waste. Directives set up at Community level, which are to be implemented in the national legislative framework of the Member States are summarized. Policies and strategies in radioactive waste management are of national competence, as well as ensuring safety of all steps of handling, storage and final disposal; recommendations at Community level are developed to assist national authorities and agencies in determining their strategy. Existing recommendations are described and a preview of recommendations under preparation is given. Legislation in this field is mainly aimed at radioactive waste arising from operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations; for radioactive waste produced outside the nuclear fuel cycle and for material with significant levels of naturally occurring radionuclides special situations exist, and harmonization of legislation and the development of common practices on the management of such wastes may be desirable

  8. 40 CFR 12.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 12.140 Section 12.140... IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY § 12.140 Employment. No... employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The definitions, requirements, and...

  9. Does State Legislation Improve Nursing Workforce Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene; Cohn, Elizabeth Gross

    2015-08-01

    A health-care workforce representative of our nation's diversity is a health and research priority. Although racial and ethnic minorities represent 37% of Americans, they comprise only 16% of the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of state legislation on minority recruitment to nursing. Using data from the National Conference of State Legislatures, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and U.S. census, we compared minority enrollment in baccalaureate nursing programs of states (Texas, Virginia, Michigan, California, Florida, Connecticut, and Arkansas) before and 3 years after enacting legislation with geographically adjacent states without legislation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Following legislation, Arkansas (13.8%-24.5%), California (3.3%-5.4%), and Michigan (8.0%-10.0%) significantly increased enrollment of Blacks, and Florida (11.8%-15.4%) and Texas (11.2%-13.9%) significantly increased enrollment of Hispanic baccalaureate nursing students. States that tied legislation to funding, encouragement, and reimbursement had larger enrollment gains and greater minority representation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Legislations combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W; Chan, W K

    2013-08-01

    To understand legislation combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two parts. In part I, counterfeit drugs–related ordinances and court cases were reviewed. In part II, indepth interviews of the stakeholders were described. Hong Kong. All Hong Kong ordinances were screened manually to identify those combating counterfeit drugs. Court cases were searched for each of the identified cases. Then, the relevant judgement justifications were analysed to identify sentencing issues. Indepth interviews with the stakeholders were conducted to understand their perceptions about such legislation. Trade Marks Ordinance, Patents Ordinance, Trade Descriptions Ordinance, and Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance were current legislative items combating counterfeit drugs. Sentencing criteria depended on: intention to deceive, quantity of seized drugs, presence of expected therapeutic effect or toxic ingredients, previous criminal records, cooperativeness with Customs officers, honest confessions, pleas of guilty, types of drugs, and precautionary measures to prevent sale of counterfeit drugs. Stakeholders’ perceptions were explored with respect to legislation regarding the scale and significance of the counterfeit drug problem, penalties and deterrents, drug-specific legislation and authority, and inspections and enforcement. To plug the loopholes, a specific law with heavy penalties should be adopted. This could be supplemented by non-legal measures like education of judges, lawyers, and the public; publishing the names of offending pharmacies; and emphasising the role of pharmacists to the public.

  11. THE INFLUENCES OF CHANGES IN TAX LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR IOAN DAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a fairly important field in the relationship between taxpayers and tax authorities, especially given the frequent changes in specific legislation. Legislative changes affect the patrimonial position of the taxpayers, but also their behavior, therefore this phenomenon is important to advise those interested and also to analyze the changes resulting from changes in tax legislation. This paper aims to meaningfully present the latest legislative changes and to analyze their influences on taxpayers and on budget revenues from taxes subject to change. The research methodology is based on comparison and inference, based on previous analyzes for such studies on the tax system. In the literature there are known ways and methods of increasing the tax burden and, based on these variables, in the present paper we will highlight the particular influences on the taxpayer’s , loaded by weight imposed by the official distribution of the tax burden. The implications of legislative changes in tax matters should be sought in the innermost chord of taxpayers and also in the increasingly large and patched pockets of the modern state. In the first place, we will point out the implications on changing tax procedures, in terms of the workload for the taxpayer and the tax collectors. By accurately and relevantly analyzing the influences generated by such changes, the author aims to demonstrate the harmful influences of some changes in terms of discouraging investments and honest labor.

  12. Employment of security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    If a company or institution hires personnel of a security service company to protect its premises, this kind of employment does not mean the company carries on temporary employment business. Within the purview of section 99, sub-section 1 of the BetrVG (Works Constitution Act), the security service personnel is not 'employed' in the proper sense even if the security tasks fulfilled by them are done at other times by regular employees of the company or institution. The court decision also decided that the Works Council need not give consent to employment of foreign security personnel. The court decision was taken for settlement of court proceedings commenced by Institute of Plasma Physics in Garching. In his comments, W. Hunold accedes to the court's decision and discusses the underlying reasons of this decision and of a previous ruling in the same matter by putting emphasis on the difference between a contract for services and a contract for work, and a contract for temporary employment. The author also discusses the basic features of an employment contract. (orig./HP) [de

  13. A review of conservation legislation in Nepal: Past progress and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Joel T.; Kattel, Bijaya

    1992-11-01

    Nepal is considered a leader among developing nations with regard to conservation legislation and programs; it was among the first Asian nations to develop national conservation legislation, sign CITES, and develop a national conservation strategy. We review the history of modern conservation law in Nepal from the Rana period (early 1950s) to the present. The early legislation focused mainly on strict preservation of areas and species; this phase culminated in the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Subsequent legislation has evolved more in the direction of an integrated, holistic approach to conservation and is beginning to incorporate the participation of local people; subsequent amendments to the 1973 act allowed greater rights to rural villagers, and the designation of conservation areas in addition to the more strictly defined protected areas (national parks, wildlife reserves, etc.). Our review of conservation legislation suggests that Nepal has had many successes to date; the country has a protected area system covering over 10% of its land area, and many target species are recovering in parks and reserves. There are also some causes of concern, including staff shortages, financial constraints within the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, and the fact that there is little legal infrastructure outside of protected areas to enforce conservation laws; further, some aspects of hunting regulations are in need of revision. Primary needs include a comprehensive review of these policies and a nationalized strategy to ameliorate the shortcomings.

  14. A minimalist legislative solution to the problem of euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komesaroff, Paul A; Charles, Stephen

    2015-05-18

    Intense debate has continued for many years about whether voluntary euthanasia or assisted suicide should be permitted by law. The community is bitterly divided and there has been vigorous opposition from medical practitioners and the Australian Medical Association. Despite differences of religious and philosophical convictions and ethical values, there is widespread community agreement that people with terminal illnesses are entitled to adequate treatment, and should also be allowed to make basic choices about when and how they die. A problem with the current law is that doctors who follow current best practice cannot be confident that they will be protected from criminal prosecution. We propose simple changes to Commonwealth and state legislation that recognise community concerns and protect doctors acting in accordance with best current practice. This minimalist solution should be widely acceptable to the community, including both the medical profession and those who object to euthanasia for religious reasons. Important areas of disagreement will persist that can be addressed in future debates.

  15. The effects of seat belt legislation on road traffic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinca, G W; Dooley, B J

    1977-04-01

    The compulsory wearing of seat belts, first introduced in the world in Victoria in 1970, has effectively reduced the number of deaths and injuries by approximately one-third for car occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. Initially, the legislation did not apply to children under the age of eight years, but in 1975 a further law was introduced banning children from the front seat of any vehicle unless properly harnessed. Seat belts offer the best protection for front seat drivers and passengers involved in frontal impacts, but offer less protection to the recipient of a side impact. Ten per cent of car occupants admitted to hospital after a frontal impact show injuries, mostly minor, directly attibutable to the wearing of seat belts.

  16. Role of joy in farm animal welfare legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gall, Philipp; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    While animal welfare is commonly invoked in legal debates regarding non-human animals kept for food purposes, the concept of animal joy is rarely mentioned in such contexts. This paper analyzes the relationship between welfare and joy in the German animal protection law (GAPL) and in the EU...... directive 98/58/EC. Based on a review of scientific and philosophical approaches towards animal welfare, joy is argued to be a part of welfare. Nevertheless, joy is ignored in the German and EU legal provisions. While there may be economic disadvantages of legally protecting animal joy, it is argued...... that overlooking elements of joy cannot be justified from any ethical perspective that claims to take animal welfare into consideration. In order to clarify the aims of the legal provisions, decision-makers need to define the role joy ought to play in welfare legislation....

  17. Does Unstable Employment Have an Association with Suicide Rates among the Young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungah; Cho, Youngtae

    2017-04-28

    Although a growing body of literature has indicated that unemployment has a positive association with suicide, the dynamic aspects of unstable employment have not yet been considered in suicidology. This study explored the association between employment stability and completed suicide among people aged 25-34 years in 20 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries with time-series data (1994-2010). In order to consider the different aspects of unstable employment, we tested the impacts of employment protection legislation indicators as another proxy of job insecurity (employed, but unstable) apart from unemployment rates. Covariates, including economic growth rates, GDP per capita, fertility rates, and divorce rate, were controlled for. The analysis was designed to be gender- and age-specific, where observations with ages of 25-29 were separated from those with ages of 30-34. Random effect models were applied to examine changes over time in suicide rates, and other models were presented to check robustness. The results showed that it is a low level of employment protection, rather than unemployment itself, that was associated with increased suicide rates among all of the studied populations. The magnitude of the effect differed by gender.

  18. New protein sources and food legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Simone; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Ricci, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Growing global food demand has generated a greater interest in the consumption of new and diversified protein sources. Novel foodstuffs represent a challenge for food law as they need proper safety assessments before obtaining market permission. The case of edible insects and European law is a good...... representation of this issue because a selection of food grade insect species may be available on the European market in the coming years. However, European legislation does not explicitly address edible insects. Consequently, this has left a grey area, allowing different interpretations of the legislation among....... Particular attention will be paid to the evolution of legislation and to the experiences of both EU and non-EU countries. In recent years, a number of different stakeholders have supported the legalization of edible insect consumption in Europe, but market permission is just the first step towards a new...

  19. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  20. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  1. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  2. Before and after study of bar workers' perceptions of the impact of smoke-free workplace legislation in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullally Bernie J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives: To compare support for, and perceptions of, the impacts of smoke-free workplace legislation among bar workers in the Republic of Ireland (ROI pre- and post-implementation, and to identify predictors of support for the legislation. Methods Setting: Public houses (pubs in three areas of the ROI. Design: Comparisons pre- and post-implementation of smoke-free workplace legislation. Participants: From a largely non-random selection, 288 bar workers volunteered for the baseline survey; 220 were followed up one year later (76.4%. Outcome measures: Level of support for the legislation, attitude statements concerning potential impacts of the law and modelled predictors of support for the legislation. Results Pre-implementation 59.5% of participants supported the legislation, increasing to 76.8% post-implementation. Support increased among smokers by 27.3 percentage points from 39.4% to 66.7% (p Pre-legislation three-quarters of participants agreed that the legislation would make bars more comfortable and was needed to protect workers' health. Post-legislation these proportions increased to over 90% (p Conclusion Smoke-free legislation had the support of three-quarters of a large sample of bar workers in the ROI. However, this group holds complex sets of both positive and negative perspectives on the legislation. Of particular importance is that negative economic perceptions did not diminish the widely held perception that the ban is needed to protect workers' health.

  3. Protecting Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  4. Impact of the legislation on consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    Douglas Lee points out that the question of nuclear waste will not go away. Nuclear waste is with us and consumers should support legislation to deal with the problem once and for all. The spent fuel is growing, and twenty-nine nuclear plants will face onsite storage problems in this decade. If these plants shut down, consumers will face higher electric generating costs if a switch to a more expensive fuel is necssary, or if the utilities are forced to purchase power of the grid. The cost of waste disposal under this proposed legislation will amount to about 75 cents per month for those electric customers serviced by nuclear plants

  5. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  6. Product Market Deregulation and Employment Outcomes: Evidence from the German Retail Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Senftleben-König

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the short- and medium-term effects of the deregulation of shopopening hours legislation on retail employment in Germany. In 2006, the legislative competence was shifted from the federal to the state level, leading to a gradual deregulation of shop opening restrictions in most of Germany’s sixteen federal states. The paper exploits regional variation in the legislation in order to identify the effect product market deregulation has on retail employment. We find robust...

  7. Handbook on Nuclear Law: Implementing Legislation (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Cherf, A.; Tonhauser, W.; Vez Carmona, Maria de Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the IAEA published the Handbook on Nuclear Law (the 2003 Handbook), which emphasized that the safe and peaceful uses of nuclear energy in any State can only be ensured with the promulgation and implementation of an effective national legal framework to govern this technology. The IAEA has long been involved in providing assistance to its Member States in developing these frameworks, and demand for such assistance has increased dramatically. Since publication of the 2003 Handbook, requests for IAEA legislative assistance have - if anything - been even more numerous, in large part due to the fact that over sixty Member States that currently do not utilize nuclear energy for the production of electrical power have recently expressed interest in pursuing this option. The current nuclear laws in many of these States are limited to non-power uses of ionizing radiation, such as those utilizing radiation sources for medical, agricultural and industrial purposes. If these States move toward nuclear power development, they will need to adopt legislation consistent with the various relevant international legal instruments covering the field (such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, among others) and with relevant voluntary guidance documents developed under the aegis of the IAEA. The 2003 Handbook has already made an important contribution to enhancing national capabilities to develop the necessary legal frameworks by setting out the general scheme of nuclear law. However, a number of important developments in nuclear law have occurred since its publication. These developments are discussed in the present volume. Also, over the past six years, representatives of many Member States receiving IAEA legislative assistance have suggested that it would be valuable to develop model texts of legislative provisions covering the key elements needed in a national nuclear law. The present volume provides such

  8. Marketing and Distribution: New Minimum Wage Legislation: Impact on Co-Op DE Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Stewart W.

    1978-01-01

    Impact on distributive education cooperative programs due to the legislation increasing the minimum wage effective January 1, 1978, indicates that the change could greatly restrict future cooperative placements, thereby reducing distributive education enrollments. Employer strategies (for example, reducing student work hours) to overcome wage…

  9. The congressional viewpoint: Deficit reduction and risk legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakoff, H.E.

    1995-12-31

    This presentation will provide a current congressional status of legislation related to low-level waste and DOE cleanup. Key legislation discussed will include S. 755 for Privatization of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and the markup of H.R. 1020, the Nuclear Waste Legislation. In addition, the session will include a discussion of legislation related to the approval of the Texas compact.

  10. The congressional viewpoint: Deficit reduction and risk legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakoff, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation will provide a current congressional status of legislation related to low-level waste and DOE cleanup. Key legislation discussed will include S. 755 for Privatization of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and the markup of H.R. 1020, the Nuclear Waste Legislation. In addition, the session will include a discussion of legislation related to the approval of the Texas compact

  11. SRP scientific meeting: recent legislation - achievements and future challenges, London, 9 October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallani, Barbara

    2001-12-01

    Full text: The SRP Regulations, Legislation and Standards topic group organised a one-day meeting on 'Recent Legislation - Achievements and Future Challenges' to address the considerable change in the UK radiological protection legislation in recent years. The aim of the meeting was to examine, from the point of view of both the regulators and the users, three of the new regulations: Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99), Ionising Radiations (Medical Exposures) Regulations 2000 (IRMER) and Radiation (Emergency Preparedness and Public Information) Regulations 2001 (REPPIR). The meeting was held in the prestigious lecture theatre of the Royal Institution in London and the 140 delegates had the opportunity, during the day, to visit the Faraday Museum hosted in the building, as well as the stands of the exhibitors. The meeting was divided into a morning session mainly on IRR99 and two afternoon sessions on IRMER and REPPIR, respectively. John Gill (HSE), chairman of the morning session, gave an update on the activities of the SRP Regulations, Legislation and Standards topic group and welcomed all SRP members to participate in the group's work, before introducing the first speaker. Gregg Butler (University of Manchester and Westlakes Research Institute) opened the morning session with a talk on risk, regulation and level playing fields. Gregg expressed his concerns about the implementation of a 'progressive and substantial reduction of discharges' and the possibility of losing a sensible holistic approach to radiological safety issues. He commented on the difficulty of getting a balance between detriment and economic benefit, all historically based on evaluation of doses, when new requirements on radioactive discharges require consideration of activities. He also invited the community to concentrate on 'real problems', like the necessity of making waste more passive, instead of investing money and resources for political reasons

  12. 40 CFR 5.500 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 5.500 Section 5.500... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No... subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether...

  13. Philosophocal and legislation aspects of surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariadze, A

    2011-06-01

    Among current bioethical issues one of the most dilemmatic is an issue of surrogacy. It causes great moral, ethical and legal debate. The article aims to show philosophical and legislation aspects of surrogacy. The meaning of "motherhood", "kinship", "liberty" in connection with surrogacy is analyzed. The article provides an overview of Georgian Orthodox Church on surrogate motherhood.

  14. EU law revisions and legislative drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghetto, Enrico; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    in force in their original form for several years while others are revised soon after their enactment. What factors account for this variation? We empirically analyze the proposition that in the presence of ‘legislative drift,’ i.e. the intertemporal variation of decision-makers’ preferences, major...

  15. Colombian mining legislation; Legislacion minera colombiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Delgado, Eva Isolina

    2004-07-01

    The paper makes a historical recount of the mining legislation in Colombia, it is about the more relevant aspects of the Code of Mines, like they are the title miner, obligations, economic aspects, integration of mining areas and of the benefits contemplated in the law 685 of 2001.

  16. Institutional independence and the constitutionality of legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test for determining whether judicial independence is safeguarded is an objective one based on public confidence in the structure of the court and the ... in the analysis of the application of the principles of judicial independence to specific legislative schemes where the structure of the tribunal thereby established had ...

  17. Wole Soyinka's Glocal Cultural Legislation | Awosanmi | Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nobel Foundation‟s citation on Soyinka in 1986 as a writer “who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones, fashions the drama of existence” marks the zenith of recognition accorded his humanistic legislative mission. Implied here is a profound cultural intelligence which authenticates his ...

  18. Analysis of cosmetics with regard to legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    A general picture of toxicological approach and practical aspects of cosmetic safety is described in this thesis. Such considerations are the basis for introducing negative and positive lists of cosmetic ingredients into cosmetic legislation. The first Dutch Cosmetic Act of 1968 already has several

  19. The European legislative framework for audit committees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, C.F.

    In 2014 the European Union reformed the regulatory framework of statutory audits in Directive 2014/56/EC and Regulation (EU) Nr. 537/2014. Part of the new legislation addresses the composition and responsibilities of the audit committee of public-interest entities. This contribution studies the

  20. Federal/State Radiation Control Legislation, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.

    1975-07-01

    A review is presented of Federal and State radiation control legislation for calendar year 1974, in Federal-State, subject, and status order. A brief description of each bill introduced in 1974 is included, plus existing laws or statutes governing radiation control. (auth)

  1. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  2. Legislating health care coverage for the unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, H A; Feldman, G; Gallner, I; Tysor, M

    1985-01-01

    Because the unemployed and their families are often likely to develop stress-related health problems, ensuring them access to health care is a public health issue. Congressional efforts thus far to legislate health coverage for the unemployed have proposed a system that recognizes people's basic need for coverage but has several limitations.

  3. Data Base Legislation in the Digital Age: Balancing the Public Good and the Owners' Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the impact of federal legislative proposals considered between 1997 and 2004 that offer protection to databases. It investigates the effect that the proposals had on the balance between the economic interests of owners and the right of the public to unfettered access to information. This identified legislation…

  4. Policy and Statutory Responses to Advertising and Marketing in Schools. Legislation Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Koski, William S.; Boninger, Faith

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief describes the growth of schoolhouse advertising and marketing activities in the last few decades, assesses the harms associated with commercial activities in schools, and provides advocates, policymakers, and educators with a policy framework and model legislative language designed to protect children and the integrity of…

  5. Legislation and litigation related to low-level radiation injury claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCraw, T.

    1985-01-01

    Current legislation and litigation related to radiation exposure will have an enormous impact on the radiation protection and monitoring requirements of the future. A brief review of some proposed injury compensation bills for veterans and a recent court decision for low-level radiation injury claims are reviewed

  6. Legislation on university technology transfer and research management 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    This book deals with legislation on university technology transfer in 2012, which includes invention promotion act, legislation on technology transfer and promotion of industrialization, legislation on industrial education and industrial cooperation, and special legislation on venture business. It lists the legislation related research and development by government department : fundamental law of scientific technique, law on evaluation and management of domestic research development business, national science and technology council and the patent office.

  7. Foundations for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text; In 1996, the IAEA published the latest edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards or BSS) comprising basic requirements to be filled in all activities involving radiation exposure. The standards define internationally harmonized requirements and provide practical guidance for public authorities and services, employers and workers, specialized radiation protection bodies, enterprises and health and safety communities. In the same year, the IAEA, through the technical cooperation programme, launched the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure, a global initiative designed to help Member States establish the infrastructure needed to adhere to the BSS. To address the complexity of this task, the radiation protection team identified key elements, known as Thematic Safety Areas. These are: 1. Legislative Framework and Regulatory Infrastructure, Draft and put into effect radiation protection laws and regulations and establish and empower a national regulatory authority. 2. Occupational Exposure Control Protect the health and safety of each individual who faces the risk of radiation exposure in the workplace through individual and workplace monitoring programmes, including dose assessment, record keeping of doses and quality management. 3. Medical Exposure Control: Develop procedures and activities to control the exposure of patients undergoing diagnosis and/or treatment via diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine or radiotherapy through staff training, provision of basic quality control equipment, and the establishment of quality assurance programmes. 4. Public and Environmental Exposure Control: Develop means to protect both the public and the environment including: a) programmes to register, inventory and provide safe storage of unused radioactive sources and material; b) procedures to control and safely

  8. Participation without representation? Senior opinion, legislative behavior, and federal health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Katharine W V; Chen, Jowei

    2014-04-01

    Why do legislators sometimes engage in behavior that deviates from the expressed policy preferences of constituents who participate in politics at high rates? We examine this puzzle in the context of Democratic legislators' representation of their senior citizen constituents on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). We find that legislators' roll-call votes on the ACA did not reflect the stated preferences of their respective senior constituents; by contrast, these roll-call votes did reflect the preferences of nonsenior adults. We draw upon a theoretical framework developed by Mansbridge to explain this apparent nonresponsiveness to seniors on the ACA. This framework distinguishes between promissory representation, whereby legislators merely respond to constituents' preferences, and anticipatory representation, whereby legislators respond to constituents' underlying policy interests, even when such interests conflict with expressed preferences. By considering the Medicare provisions in the ACA and analyzing Democratic legislators' floor speeches on health reform, we provide preliminary evidence that members of Congress engaged in anticipatory representation of their senior constituents by attempting to educate seniors about how the ACA serves their policy interests.

  9. Legislative attitudes toward overpopulation: the case of EL Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, J G

    1975-10-01

    The members of the 1972-1974 national assembly of El Salvador were asked to complete questionnaires on population in an effort to determine what their general attitude toward the population problem was. Indications were that the legislators were factually aware of the dimensions of population growth and the existing overpopulation, and that both problems were seen as impediments to economic progress. They also showed a willingness to act quickly on various public programs for controlling population growth, primarily in the areas of public education and healht. However, while admitting the urgency of the problems, none of the legislators had individually done anything about them and no such plans were underway. They indicated in their responses that they would have to play a major role in formulating any population control policy and that such a policy would probably concentrate on measures to deal with overpopulation in the short run, i.e., to cut the population growth rate by educating and informing the populous both with general and governmental publicity and through sex education in schools. The policy would also in part attempt to alleviate the general social conditions that the legislators perceived as contributing to high birthrates, i.e., illiteracy, lack of sex information, unemployment, rural isolation, unavailability of contraceptives, and lack of family planning Support would be sought from the public in spite of the Catholic Church, though the Church would eventually have to be considered in the formulation of a final policy. The fact of religious opposition plus the fact that the government has not yet embarked on a policy make the adoption and implementation of such a policy unlikely in the forseeable future. The ligislators themselves were pessimistic as to the possibility of controlling the population and felt that in view of its rapid growth, the country would not be able to provide educational and employment opportunites for the advancement of the

  10. [History of the health protection of construction workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, M A; Cesana, G; Mosconi, G

    2012-01-01

    Construction has been one of the first sectors in which an organized system of occupational health protection has been implemented, as shown by the Egyptian physicians caring for workers and artisans in building sites. During the Middle Ages, first examples of accident prevention legislation in this field may be found among the Lombards. In the same period, craft organizations led to greater social recognition of skilled workers, without a improvement in their health conditions. Ramazzini accurately described some risks of stonemasons and brick-makers (chemical and microclimatic hazards). In the following centuries, the Industrial Revolution led to a population growth in metropolitan areas and increased employment as well as accidents in the construction sector, as demonstrated by some ex-voto paintings in churches. This phenomenon became more evident in postwar recovery, forcing Italy to adopt modern accident prevention rules. Nowadays Italian legislation, complying with EU directive, provides new challenges for occupational physician.

  11. Changes in Tax Legislation and Social Responsibility of Taxpayers and Legislative Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štager Vesna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the cost of tax compliance which arises for taxpayers from tax complexity and the constant changes in tax legislation. A socially responsible institution for the fiscal aggression is the Financial Administration of the Republic of Slovenia, as its powers and responsibilities creates the tax position of individuals, businesses and the entire economy. The aim of our research is to encourage socially responsible behaviour of legislation institutions in adopting the tax legislation, which will help to improve the social responsibility of taxpayers and increase tax compliance.

  12. The legislation of nuclear disposal. Text booklet with an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeddinck, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The book on the legislation of nuclear waste disposal covers the following issues: Part A: Introduction in the site selection law. Part B: Set of regulations: Constitutional law of the Federal Republic of Germany (extract), Guideline 2011/70 EURATOM on the responsible and safe disposal of spent fuel elements, common agreement on the safety of spent fuel treatment and on the safety of radioactive waste conditioning, law on search and selection of final repository site for heat generating radioactive wastes (site selection law), law on the civil use of nuclear energy and the protection against its hazards (Atomic Law AtG), federal mining act (BBergG), law on environmental impact assessment (UVPG), Law on supplementary regulations and legal remedies in environmental matters according EU guideline 2003/35EG, law on the construction of a Federal authority for nuclear disposal (BfkEEG), regulation on the protection against ionizing radiation hazards (Strahlenschutzverordnung), regulation on the transport of radioactive wastes or spent fuel elements. Regulation on the commissioning processes of facilities according paragraph 7 Atomic law, regulation on the definition of a development freeze for site protection for a final disposal, regulation on the warranty of nuclear safety and radiation protection, implementing rule for the nuclear safety warranty, regulation on the advance financing for the construction of Federal facilities for safeguarding and final disposal of radioactive wastes. Cost regulation for the Atomic Law.

  13. Implementation of the framework convention on tobacco control in Africa: current status of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwine, Jacqueline

    2011-11-01

    To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-(1) Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2) Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3) Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries' FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC implementation in Africa.

  14. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa: Current Status of Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Tumwine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC—(1 Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2 Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3 Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Methods: Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Results: Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries’ FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC

  15. Government capacities and stakeholders: what facilitates ehealth legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Newly established high-technology areas such as eHealth require regulations regarding the interoperability of health information infrastructures and data protection. It is argued that government capacities as well as the extent to which public and private organizations participate in policy-making determine the level of eHealth legislation. Both explanatory factors are influenced by international organizations that provide knowledge transfer and encourage private actor participation. Methods Data analysis is based on the Global Observatory for eHealth - ATLAS eHealth country profiles which summarizes eHealth policies in 114 countries. Data analysis was carried out using two-component hurdle models with a truncated Poisson model for positive counts and a hurdle component model with a binomial distribution for zero or greater counts. Results The analysis reveals that the participation of private organizations such as donors has negative effects on the level of eHealth legislation. The impact of public-private partnerships (PPPs) depends on the degree of government capacities already available and on democratic regimes. Democracies are more responsive to these new regulatory demands than autocracies. Democracies find it easier to transfer knowledge out of PPPs than autocracies. Government capacities increase the knowledge transfer effect of PPPs, thus leading to more eHealth legislation. Conclusions All international regimes – the WHO, the EU, and the OECD – promote PPPs in order to ensure the construction of a national eHealth infrastructure. This paper shows that the development of government capacities in the eHealth domain has to be given a higher priority than the establishment of PPPs, since the existence of some (initial) capacities is the sine qua non of further capacity building. PMID:24410989

  16. The paradoxes of application of the legislation on personal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Bobrova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article is devoted to the analysis of legislation on personal data and it’s enforcement in the educational process in higher educational institutions.The purpose of the article is highlight controversies in legislation on personal data, generating mistakes in enforcement during the educational procedures.The description of methodology. The author uses methods of complex analysis, synthesis, as well as formal-logical and formal-legal methods.The main results and scope of their application. The practice of interpreting the concepts of “personal data”, “confidential personal data”, “official secret”, “publicly available personal data” is extremely contradictory.Currently, there are hundreds departmental regulatory legal acts about various aspects of the protection of official secrets. Analysis of these acts shows that the rules aimed at preserving the confidentiality of official information regulate the following aspects of the functioning of state and municipal bodies, institutions and organizations: (a ensuring access to official information; (b providing state and municipal services; (c document flow and record keeping; (d staffing; (e anti-corruption; (f use of information systems; (g interaction with the media; (h prevention of conflicts of interest.The study load cannot be attributed to the personal data, that requires the consent of the teacher to be processed. The study load is nothing more than publicly available information, arising from the principles of collegiality of educational process management, competitiveness of education, its openness and transparency, that are established in the legislation on education.Conclusions. Extended interpretation of confidential personal data and inclusion of the teaching load to it is unacceptable. This contributes to conflicts of interest, corrupt factors and devaluation of higher education.

  17. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers’ strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed. PMID:25866421

  18. Ocular health among radiologists in the age of PACS: is it time for our profession to open its eyes to this issue in light of existing European legislation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2012-12-01

    The regular use of visual display units (VDUs) at work has been shown to cause the development of a constellation of symptoms ranging from dry eyes to temporary myopia. European workers who use VDUs are now protected under detailed legislation enacted by the European Union (Directive 90\\/270\\/EEC). The use of picture archiving and communications systems, which are almost ubiquitous in European countries, means that, as a profession, radiologists fall under the remit of this legislation. This paper aims to assess the impact that full implementation of this law would have on a radiologist\\'s practice and to more broadly examine the issue of eye care as an occupational health issue in radiology. The authors conclude that eye care in the setting of regular VDU use among radiologists is an important quality control and occupational health issue. There is a clear legal basis requiring employers to provide regular eye examinations and reporting breaks. In the absence of leadership from employers on this issue individual radiologists have a responsibility to ensure that their work practices reflect the legal situation and minimise the effect of eye strain on their performance.

  19. Legislation framework for Croatian renewable energy sources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raguzin Igor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector reform in the Republic of Croatia (started 2001, which comprises restructuring, liberalization, privatization, and changes in the overall energy sector, has a significant effect on the possibilities of introducing and increasing the share of renewable energy sources (RES. The adoption of a new legislative framework within the context of reforming Croatia’s energy sector is of key importance for further development and for the future or RES utilization. The Electricity Market Act sets out the le- gal obligation to purchase electricity produced from RES in the manner that a quota or a minimum obligatory share of RES in electricity production is determined by a Government ordinance combined with Tariff system for the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and co-generation. Consequently, on the one hand, incentive funds needed to cover increased costs of production from RES will be collected from customers through the supplier and distributed to privileged producers (feed-in-tariffs, purchase is guaranteed to RES producers on known terms through the Market Opera- tor. On the other hand, RES investment projects will be encouraged by pur- pose-specific government subsidy and by the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (out of public budget. By applying new energy legislation and associated by-laws (coming into force in 2007, RES projects in Croatia will be provided with a complete and stable legal framework as well as support through incentive measures which will equitably value environmental, social and other benefits of RES use.

  20. Forestry and Environment Legislation in Collision – Case Study Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Nevenić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Conflicts in the Serbian forestry sector have not been very often used as a research topic in our country. This paper presents the results from a case study conducted in the National park 'Fruška gora'. The aim of the study was to explore the collision between forestry and environmental legislation and related institutions and organizations. Material and Methods: Data were collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected through in-depth interviews. Interviews were conducted with the managers of the National park and the representatives of the scientific communities, private forest owners as well representatives from the relevant Ministry. The theoretical framework is a combination of the main conflict elements embedded in the structure of the main aspects like culture, conflict management and policy development. Results and Conclusion: According to the interviewees` opinions the roots of the conflict can be found in overlapping jurisdictions of the institutions and organizations in the forestry sector as well as in the implementation of the legislative and management plans. Conflict management strategy is based on sustainable management of protected areas and better implementation of laws.

  1. The impact of the credit legislation on consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlako Choma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine two South Africa legislations dealing with over indebtedness of a consumer. It is clear that in terms of the South African law, section 129 (1 and 130 (3 of the National Credit Act provide that a creditor provider who wishes to enforce a debt under a credit agreement must first issue a section 129 (1 (a notice to the consumer (the purpose of the notice is to notify the consumer of his/her arrears. On the other hand, the South African National Credit Act encourages the consumers to fulfil the financial obligations for which they are responsible. The second legislation to be examined which serve or appear to serve same purpose as the National Credit Act is the Insolvency Act. It therefore, postulated that the compulsory sequestration of a consumer in terms of the Insolvency Act would stand as an alternative remedy for a credit provider before she/he can have recourse mechanisms, such as debt review that are focused on satisfaction of the consumer’s financial obligation , in terms of the provisions of the National Credit Act. The paper determines to what extend these measures comply with the constitutional consumer protection demands. The legislature had been pertinently cognizant of the Insolvency Act when it lately enacted the National Credit Act. This is much apparent from the express amendment of section 84 of the Insolvency Act to the extent set out in schedule 2 of the National Credit Act

  2. Legislative recognition in France of psychological harassment at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graser, M; Manaouil, C; Verrier, A; Doutrellot-Phillipon, C; Jardé, O

    2003-01-01

    The recent French Law on Social Modernisation of 17 January 2002 introduced into the French Labour Code and into the French Criminal Code, the concept of "moral" harassment. The definition of psychological harassment under this law adopts quite a broad conception of the notion of psychological harassment. The legislator has established a means for "friendly" settlement of disputes: mediation. When it has not been possible to settle the dispute internally, the Courts have a number of sanctions available to them. The French Labour Code provides that any termination of the contract of employment resulting from a situation of psychological harassment is automatically null and void. Such nullification should therefore be applicable whatever the nature of the termination: dismissal, resignation or negotiated departure and it punishes psychological harassment at work by imprisonment for one year and a fine of 3,750 Euros. The French Criminal Code prescribes penalties of one year and 15,000 Euros.

  3. Legislation concerning alcohol and drug intake in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Goszczyńska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is likely that the complex law concerning alcohol and drugs in the workplace is one of the reasons for unwillingness to resolve the problem of intake of such psychoactive substances by employees. Therefore, the author made an attempt to depict Polish legislation in this field based on the review of legal acts and regulations, as well as on their extensive judiciary interpretation. Such an information can be used by employers in developing their workplace policy of diminishing the intake of psychoactive substances by employees. This information can also be helpful for the bodies supporting workplaces in solving problems derived from alcohol and drugs consumption, such as occupational medicine specialists and local governments. Med Pr 2013;64(4:593–608

  4. Critical analysis of the Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas P, Elkin; Gonzalez S, Carmen Lucia

    2003-01-01

    The document analyses the Colombian mining legislation, Act 685 of 2001, based on the reasons expressed by the government and the miners for its conceit and approval. The document tries to determine the developments achieved by this new Mining Code considering international mining competitiveness and its adaptation to the constitutional rules about environment, indigenous communities, decentralization and sustainable development. The analysis formulates general and specific hypothesis about the proposed objectives of the reform, which are confronted with the arguments and critical evaluations of the results. Most hypothesis are not verified, thus demonstrating that the Colombian mining legislation is far from being the necessary instrument to promote mining activities, making it competitive according to international standards and adapted to the principles of sustainable development, healthy environment, community participation, ethnic minorities and regional autonomy

  5. No let-up in transport legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutteridge, J M

    1978-02-01

    A discussion covers problems connected with the change from the current U.K. road transport legislation based on the 1968 U.K. Transport Act to the European Economic Community transport rules, which will go in effect Jan. 1 1978, with a three-year adjustment period, including the shortening of the drivers' working day from 10 to 8 hr with a four-hour limit of continuous driving, and 48 hr weekly and 92 hr fortnightly driving limits; the 450 km/day distance limit for drivers of articulate vehicles and vehicles exceeding 20 tons gross (except where a tachograph is used); new system of driver's license categories and professional competence examinations; proposed new taxation rules; and a special legislation for dangerous loads, e.g., for oil transport, including the mandatory use of hazard information marking of road tanks and the expected additional licensing of drivers.

  6. The Russian Federation legislation. The new laws. Prospects for international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A. YE.

    2002-01-01

    Survey of the regulatory basis for the international cooperation of the Russian Federation in the area of foreign commercial and research spent fuel management. Analysis of the latest legislative amendments. Complex approach and environmental priorities of the new legislative initiatives (three Federal laws): Amendments to Articles 1, 47 and 64 of the Federal Law on U tilization of atomic energy ; Amendments to Articles 50 of the Federal Law on E nvironmental protection ; The new Federal Law O n Special ecological programs for the clean- up of areas, contaminated by radiation . (author)

  7. HARMONIZATION OF UKRAINIAN LABOUR LEGISLATION ACCORDANCE WITH ACQUIS COMMUNAUTAIRE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodianka LIUBOV

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the necessity of harmonization of the Ukrainian labour legislation in accordance with Acquis communautaire. The main legal acts in the sphere of Ukrainian labour legislation are analyzed. Special attention in the article is devoted to the critics of the Draft Labour Code of Ukraine, also marked its contradictions, positive sides and shortcomings are indicated. Potential dangers of the protection of labour rights in Ukraine connected with the lack of regulation of activity of trade unions are identified. The conditions necessary for the successful implementation of international labour standards and principles in Ukrainian national law are proposed.

  8. The Russian Federation legislation. The new laws. Prospects for international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A. YE. [Department of project management TENEX, 26, Staromonetnyi Per., 109180 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Survey of the regulatory basis for the international cooperation of the Russian Federation in the area of foreign commercial and research spent fuel management. Analysis of the latest legislative amendments. Complex approach and environmental priorities of the new legislative initiatives (three Federal laws): Amendments to Articles 1, 47 and 64 of the Federal Law on {sup U}tilization of atomic energy{sup ;} Amendments to Articles 50 of the Federal Law on {sup E}nvironmental protection{sup ;} The new Federal Law {sup O}n Special ecological programs for the clean- up of areas, contaminated by radiation{sup .} (author)

  9. CFC legislation and its compliance with Community Law : Sweden's lack of double CFC tax relief

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Evelina

    2009-01-01

    CFC legislation has become an instrument to protect national tax bases and minimize the abusive effects of international tax planning. The Swedish CFC legislation is found in chapter 39a of the ITA whereas it is established under what circumstances CFC taxation can arise. If a shareholder of a foreign legal entity is liable of CFC taxation in Sweden such a holder is also entitled to deduct tax paid by the CFC abroad. The purpose of the granted tax credit is to avoid double taxation, although ...

  10. French legislation on food irradiation - Licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souverain, R.

    1977-01-01

    French legislation on food irradiation subjects marketing of such foodstuffs to a prior licence granted by an interministerial order on the type of goodstuff concerned. The basic text on the licensing procedure is the Decree of 8 May 1970 whose purpose is to ensure the health and safety of the consumer by laying down instructions for the operations, surveillance and labelling, which must set out clearly the type of treatment. (NEA) [fr

  11. Recent tendency of Nuclear Third Party Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohara, Fumiaki

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear accidents in Three Mile Island and Chernobyl have a great influence on Nuclear Third Party Legislation of many countries. Nuclear Third Party Law of Japan is due to expire as at 31st, December, 1989, under the recent circumstances in which threre exist pros and cons to nuclear installations among people. This report describes the outline of Japanese Nuclear Law compared with foreign ones and the prospect of its revision. (author)

  12. Sexting: Current Research Gaps and Legislative Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Fawn; Jaishankar, K; Agustina, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    'Sexting, the portmanteau of Sex and Texting, has become a hot topic of debate between the legislators, researchers, educators, parents and teens' (Jaishankar, 2009, para 1). In spite of the considerable and growing body of literature on sexting, there are significant gaps in the current research. A review of research to date also reveals a dearth of cross-national and cross-cultural research on the topic of sexting. Notably, legal and ethical issues abound with the current method for punishi...

  13. Fifty years of German nuclear legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The political situation and the state of legislation after World War II make it difficult to pinpoint a precise date of origin of German nuclear legislation. The restrictions imposed by the Allied High Commission (AHC) without any exception put a ban on the production of uranium and thorium metal as well as the construction of nuclear reactors. These restrictions were lifted expressly when the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) entered into force on January 1, 1960, i.e. much later than the formal step of gaining sovereignty, which was marked by the protocol of May 5, 1955 terminating the Occupation Statute. In October 1955, the German federal government established the then Federal Ministry for Atomic Matters also in an attempt to reconnect to developments in nuclear fission in other parts of the Western world. To supersede the AHC law, the German federal government in December 1956 publicized a draft Atomic Energy Act. It is safe, therefore, to consider that year the starting point of German atomic legislation. This step was followed by deliberations preparatory to the adoption of the Atomic Energy Act. In 1957, however, adoption failed because no two-thirds majority was reached to amend the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. As a consequence, some federal states saw the need to adopt state legislation to regulate this area. On December 3, 1959, a new draft Atomic Energy Act was adopted by the German federal parliament after the second and third readings - coupled with an amendment to the Basic Law on that same day - with the votes of the opposition and with one abstention. (orig.)

  14. Nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1991-02-01

    The cause for the urgent need of nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China is firstly described, and then a brief introduction to the basic principle and guideline of nuclear safety is presented. Finally the elaboration on the establishment of nuclear safety regulatory system, the enactment of a series of regulations and safety guides, and the implementation of licencing, nuclear safety supervision and research for ensuring the safety of nuclear energy, since the founding of the National Nuclear Safety Administration, are introduced

  15. First experiences with NORM regulations in the Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauke, Michael; Katzlberger, C.; Haider, W.; Ringer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper gives a brief overview of important aspects of the recently implemented NORM ordinance in the Austrian Radiation Protection Legislation. It describes first experiences from pilot studies and dose assessments in this field. The field of application of this ordinance is defined by a list of work activities which might cause a significant increase in the exposure of workers and of members of the public. This list includes work activities, which potentially increase the exposure due to radon or uranium, thorium and their progenies and work activities, where residues with elevated levels of natural radionuclides may lead to a significant increase in the exposure of workers and the public. The first level of a dose assessment is the determination of activity concentrations in materials. It is assumed that the dose of workers does not exceed 1 mSv per year, if the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides are below 1 Bq/g. A notification of the workplace to the radiation protection authority is sufficient in this case. Otherwise a detailed dose assessment considering all relevant exposure pathways has to be performed as well as radiation protection measures and organisational measures, if needed. If the results of the dose assessment show higher levels than 6 mSv per year, radiation protection measures like personal dosimeters and periodical medical examination and reporting to the radiation protection authority are obligatory. A similar dose assessment procedure has to be applied for residues. The residues are allowed to be disposed as conventional waste, as long as the dose assessment shows a dose lower than 1 mSv per year. Otherwise the residues have to be treated as radioactive waste. Only accredited or certified institutions may perform authorised dose assessments. The Austrian Agency for Food and Health Safety performed pilot studies in this field for getting more experience in the field of dose assessment and to get an overview of the

  16. Mental health legislation in Ireland: a lot done, more to do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Zahid; Malik, Mansoor A

    2012-01-01

    Mental health legislation is necessary to protect the rights of people with mental disorders, a vulnerable section of society. Ireland's new Mental Health Act 2001 was fully implemented in 2006 with the intent of bringing Irish legislation more in line with international standards, such as the European Convention on Human Rights and United Nations Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness. The new legislation introduced several important reforms in relation to involuntary admission, independent reviews of involuntary detention, consent to treatment, and treatment of children and adolescents. It also presented significant challenges in terms of service delivery and resources within Irish mental health services. Both mental health service users and providers reported a range of difficulties with the new legislation. In this article, we analyze the Irish Mental Health Act focusing on the enhanced protection that it provides for patients, but also highlighting some areas of concern such as the conduct of mental health tribunals, consent and capacity problems, resource allocation, and disruptions in mental health service delivery.

  17. Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-03-01

    New psychoactive drugs (NPDs, new psychoactive substances) enter the market all the time. However, it takes several months to ban these NPDs and immediate action is generally not possible. Several European countries and drug enforcement officers insist on a faster procedure to ban NPDs. Introduction of generic legislation, in which clusters of psychotropic drugs are banned in advance, has been mentioned as a possible solution. Here we discuss the pros and cons of such an approach. First, generic legislation could unintentionally increase the expenditures of enforcement, black market practices, administrative burden and health risks for users. Second, it may have a negative impact on research and the development of new treatments. Third, due to the complexity of generic legislation, problems in the enforcement are anticipated due to lack of knowledge about the chemical nomenclature. Finally, various legal options are already available to ban the use, sale and trade of NPDs. We therefore conclude that the currently used scientific benefit-risk evaluation should be continued to limit the adverse health effects of NPDs. Only in emergency cases, where fatal incidents (may) occur, should this approach be overruled.

  18. LEGISLATIVE ASPECTS CONCERNING THE LEATHER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMOFTE Claudia Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the current legislation and compliance issues leather waste in different waste groups according to relevant legislation and shows that, although seemingly harmless waste of skin sometimes contain dangerous compounds. As presented risks to human health were some restricted substances in leather. Since 2001 Romania had preoccupation in national legislation on waste management, but some categories, such as leather waste are not framed to this category. Also, another goal is implementing the EU management/storage strategy of industrial waste. Unfortunately, Romania imports huge quantities of used clothing and shoes. Transport, storage and use of them are poor, and many of these are subsequently stored waste by the fact that it is even sometimes improperly discarded. The paper also shows the statistics on waste management in the Bihor County by activity of national economy and by activity of industry at level of CANE REV.2 Section. Analyzing the postings on Internet regarding the sale and purchase of leather wastes in Romania, it was found that there are the following 'categories' of wastes: leather goods, leather from coats, leather from footwear industry, suede, leather, leather resulting from the production of upholstery. It was found that most car buyers use waste leather upholstery. It is recommended that production companies to highlight more transparent their inventory textile and leather waste on types for those interested (including online can access/capitalize them.

  19. An undignified side of death with dignity legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisted, Dennis

    2013-09-01

    The primary justification for Death with Dignity legislation has been the principle of respect for autonomy. However, some have objected that if respect for autonomy is the reason for allowing physician-assisted suicide, then why not allow it for people with longer than six months to live? Defenders of the laws have responded that respect for autonomy must be balanced against the state's interest in the lives of its citizens. Persons with less than six months remaining have virtually no life left to protect; persons with more time have a meaningfully long segment of life remaining. The state can therefore overrule their autonomy interests to preserve their lives. This paper will argue that this response constitutes an ironic affront to the dignity of people with less than six months to live, for it implies that their lives are not worth enough for the state to prevent them from committing physician-assisted suicide.

  20. Requirements for personal dosimetry in new Slovak legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, P.

    2008-01-01

    New Slovak legislation in an area of radiation protection is covering basics for surveillance and an evaluation of occupational doses, a general guidance for a workplace monitoring - law No. 355/2007 Coll., governmental decree No. 345/2006 Coll. adapting directive 96/29/EURATOM and ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. For users is necessary more detailed regulation and guidance with objective to ensure unified procedures for monitoring and evaluation of measured occupational doses. The draft of reference levels for occupational monitoring will be presented as useful example for most of workplaces with sources of ionizing radiation. The new ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. is adopting new requirements for using of two personal dosimeters mainly in interventional radiology and for using extremity dosimeters. (author)

  1. Requirements for personal dosimetry in new Slovak legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, P.

    2009-01-01

    New Slovak legislation in an area of radiation protection is covering basics for surveillance and an evaluation of occupational doses, a general guidance for a workplace monitoring - law No. 355/2007 Coll., governmental decree No. 345/2006 Coll. adapting directive 96/29/EURATOM and ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. For users is necessary more detailed regulation and guidance with objective to ensure unified procedures for monitoring and evaluation of measured occupational doses. The draft of reference levels for occupational monitoring will be presented as useful example for most of workplaces with sources of ionizing radiation. The new ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. is adopting new requirements for using of two personal dosimeters mainly in interventional radiology and for using extremity dosimeters. (author)

  2. Nuclear-industry employee protection provisions of federal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidell, E.R.; Marcoux, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Legislation enacted by Congress in 1978 to provide protection for those employed in the construction or operation of civil nuclear projects who express concerns to employers or others about the propriety of procedures in their places of employment from the standpoint of safety is summarized. The authors describe some recent and anticipated developments in the implementation of the law and offer practical suggestions for the avoidance of particular problems under the law. They counsel that the prudent utility company or other firm involved with nuclear energy will see the statute as another reason for facilitating the flow of bona fide safety concerns rather than as a vehicle for the expression of generalized complaints by malcontents and a convenient shield for substandard performers in the work force

  3. Sexual Harassment in Employment: Recent Judicial and Arbitral Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard-Hodges, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Review of national legislation and key cases on sexual harassment in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa identified the following trends: recognition of harassment as employment discrimination, the importance of the legal framework used and the composition of the hearing body, the issue of individual or employer liability, and the influence of…

  4. The Legislative Framework Regarding Bullying In South African Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Laas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying in schools is a global phenomenon that has the potential to impact on children not only physically but also psychologically. In South Africa countless children fall victim to bullying, harassment and abuse at schools. A myriad of constitutional rights are infringed upon when bullying occurs, and the problem is escalating. The Protection from Harassment Act 71 of 2011 was signed and accepted into law on the 27th of April 2013. This new Act may grant relief to victims of bullying inter alia by providing for protection orders, and therefore adds to the legislative framework available to victims. However, in terms of bullying in schools, the parties to these incidents are minors and therefore a critical analysis is necessary with regard to the rights of the victim and the offender. In this context the relationship and interaction between the Protection from Harassment Act 71 of 2011, the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 call for critical analysis.

  5. Manual of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.J.; Granier, R.; Boisserie, G.

    1992-01-01

    This manual explains the principles and practice of radiation protection for those whose work in research, in the field of medicine or in the industry requires the use of radiation sources. It provides the information radiation users need to protect themselves and others and to understand and comply with international recommendations, regulations and legislation regarding the use of radionuclides and radiation machines. It is designed to teach a wide audience of doctors, biologists, research scientists, technicians, engineers, students and others

  6. Dictionary of radiation protection, radiobiology and nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sube, R [comp.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation protection, including aspects of radiobiology, nuclear medicine, and nuclear legislation, has an important role within nuclear research and the use of radioactive materials. Radiation protection comprises all measures and efforts to prevent the unwanted distribution and negative influence of ionizing radiation, especially where the human organism and the living environment are involved. The increasing role of radiation protection is reflected by the foundation of institutes in all industrial countries to control such radiant energy and prevent radiation damage. Nowadays ionizing radiation is employed on a large scale for basic investigations in biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, in soil tests, fertilization problems and pest control in agriculture, as well as for medicinal diagnoses and therapy. This dictionary is a thematic enlargement of the four-language 'Dictionary of Nuclear Engineering', compiled by the same author. It comprises about 12,000 terms in each language.

  7. Dictionary of radiation protection, radiobiology and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sube, R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation protection, including aspects of radiobiology, nuclear medicine, and nuclear legislation, has an important role within nuclear research and the use of radioactive materials. Radiation protection comprises all measures and efforts to prevent the unwanted distribution and negative influence of ionizing radiation, especially where the human organism and the living environment are involved. The increasing role of radiation protection is reflected by the foundation of institutes in all industrial countries to control such radiant energy and prevent radiation damage. Nowadays ionizing radiation is employed on a large scale for basic investigations in biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, in soil tests, fertilization problems and pest control in agriculture, as well as for medicinal diagnoses and therapy. This dictionary is a thematic enlargement of the four-language 'Dictionary of Nuclear Engineering', compiled by the same author. It comprises about 12,000 terms in each language. (orig.)

  8. Radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, J.

    1981-01-01

    This article first reviews the general radiation protection law at international and national level, with particular reference to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which, although not mandatory, are nevertheless taken into consideration by international organisations establishing basic radiation protection standards such as the UN, IAEA, NEA and Euratom, at Community level, and by national legislation. These standards are therefore remarkably harmonized. Radiation protection rule applied in France for the different activities and uses of radioactive substances are then described, and finally, a description is given of the regulations governing artificial radioisotopes and radioactive effluents. (NEA) [fr

  9. Legislative Framework Required for Africa's M-Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa......This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa...

  10. [The public health legislation in conditions of globalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremov, D V; Jyliyaeva, E P

    2013-01-01

    The article demonstrates the impact of globalization on development of public health legislation at the international level and in particular countries. The legislation is considered as a tool to decrease the globalization health risks for population

  11. An Overview of Pending Asylum and Refugee Legislation in the US Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Nezer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no significant legislation related to the asylum process enacted in Congress in nearly a decade.  In 1996, the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act (IIRIRA became law, rolling back protections for asylum seekers by including a one-year deadline for filing asylum applications, subjecting asylum seekers to “expedited removal” procedures, and expanding the detention of asylum seekers. In 2005, Congress enacted the REAL ID Act, which created additional legal barriers to asylum, including new requirements for proving an asylum claim. During the past several sessions of Congress, bills have been introduced that would make significant changes to the country’s asylum laws and refugee admissions program. This paper provides an overview of the pending legislation and the changes proposed.  This overview is instructive in understanding (1 which members of Congress have demonstrated interest and leadership in refugee and asylum issues; (2 which refugee and asylum reform issues have been of most interest to members of Congress in recent years; (3 the different approaches to refugee and asylum issues by members of Congress who have shown leadership on these issues; and (4 which provisions have been enacted, which have gained traction, and which remain pending without significant movement through the legislative process.While it is difficult to imagine in the current partisan climate how any asylum or refugee legislation could be enacted into law, some legislative provisions have been reintroduced over a number of sessions of Congress and some have a history of bipartisan support.  Legislation focused on a group of particular interest or concern to members of Congress could gain traction.  A more comprehensive legislative approach framed by the need generally to improve the system could be less effective, particularly in the context of the years-long stalemate on comprehensive immigration reform

  12. The relationship between administrative court control and legislative control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, M.

    1986-01-01

    The legislator can determine the extent of control of administrative courts by reduction of substantive conditions. The author has the opinion that the judicial control cannot be stricter than the legislative control. For the range of the control of administrative courts is decisive, to what extent the legislator is forced to proper legislative settlements. In this context the author discusses the Kalkar-decision of the Federal Constitutional Court of 1978. (CW) [de

  13. Legislative amendments and informal politics in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cross, James P.; Hermansson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    the Commission’s proposals and the final legislative outcome passed by the European Union. It does so by implementing minimum edit distance algorithms to measure changes between legislative proposals and outcomes. The findings suggest that legislative amendments are determined by the formal and informal...... institutional structures in which negotiations take place and characteristics of the proposal itself. Our conclusions contribute to the ongoing debate on the nature and distribution of legislative powers in the European Union....

  14. Radiation protection, optimization and justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.; Brisse, H.; Foucart, J.M.; Clement, J.P.; Ribeiro, A.; Gomes, H.; Marcus, C.; Rehel, J.L.; Talbot, A.; Aubert, B.; Scanff, P.; Roudier, C.; Donadieu, J.; Pirard, P.; Bar, O.; Maccia, C.; Benedittini, M.; Bouziane, T.; Brat, H.; Bricoult, M; Heuga, O.; Hauger, O.; Bonnefoy, O.; Diard, F.; Chateil, J.F.; Schramm, R.; Reisman, J.; Aubert, B.

    2005-01-01

    Nine articles in the field of radiation protection relative to the medical examinations concern the new legislation in radiation protection, the optimization of this one in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, the side effects induced by irradiation and to give an evaluation of the medical exposure of french population to ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  15. The national radiation protection infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.

    1999-01-01

    The state system of radiation protection is still being created after Lithuania regained its independancy and in connection with recommendations laid in the ICRP-60 publication and requirements of legislation of European Community. A new regulation institutions was established and a number of laws and regulations related to radiation protection was prepared. The Radiation Protection Centre of Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for radiation protection of public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. A new Radiation Protection Law, Nuclear Energy Law, Radioactive Waste Management Law and different regulations was approved. Preparation of legislation, creation of state system of radiation protection and its upgrading allow to presume that the necessary level of radiation protection is to be achieved. (au)

  16. Malaysia water services reform: legislative issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabsiah Abdul Wahid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The latest attempt by the Malaysian government to restructure its water sector has managed to promulgate two important acts, the Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN Act (Act 654 and the Water Services Industry Act (WSIA/Act 655; these also complicate the governing of water services and water resources in the country as they affect the sovereignty of a state’s land and water issues. In Malaysia’s federated system of governance, water resources are placed fully within the purview of each State’s government, as stated in the Waters Act 1920 (Revised 1989, while water services are straddled across the purview of both the State and Federal government (Water Supply Enactment 1955. Any reforms will remain problematic unless further analysis is carried out on the available legislation that directly impacts said reform, particularly the Waters Act and Water Supply Enactment. For example, when the Waters Act stipulates “the entire property in and control of all rivers in any State is vested solely in the Ruler of that State”, it is clear that the Federal Government has no authority whatsoever over water resources of any states. The Water Supply Enactment 1955 (adopted by several States further empowers the state’s water supply authorities to supply water to domestic and commercial consumers. Other legislation that has been enacted to govern land and water issues in the country include the Geological Act 1974 on groundwater abstraction and the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (incorporating all amendments up to 1st January 2006 on some aspects of the environmental impact of groundwater abstraction. While these legislations seemed to provide adequate coverage on the governance of groundwater abstraction; treatment, distribution and wastewater management, which form the water supply value chain in the country, are not covered. Similarly, the Sewerage Services Act 1993 covers only wastewater governance issues rather than the whole value chain

  17. 29 CFR 784.102 - General legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 784.102 Section 784.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Aquatic Products Legislative History of Exemptions § 784.102 General legislative history. (a) As orginally...

  18. Canadian Firearms Legislation and Effects on Homicide 1974 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using…

  19. A Critique of the Key Legislative Framework Guiding Civil Liberties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key legislative framework presented in this paper is within the areas of media and access to information, individual rights and freedoms, as well as legislation pertaining to the conduct of elections. In some cases, colonial legislation that politicians claimed to have repealed was reincarnated, as the post-colonial dispensation ...

  20. Politeness Indicators in Nigeria Legislative Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Unoalegie Bola Agbara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In every human interaction, interlocutors strive to maintain appropriate decorum and politeness in order to avoid undue feeling of not being ‘nice’ or being insensitive to co-participant’s self-esteem or image. This culture of being ‘nice’ is expressed not only through verbal codes, but also through non-verbal cues such as pitch, tone, voice modulation, facial expression and other forms of body language. Nigeria legislative House reflects the uniqueness of Nigeria as a multicultural nation with about two hundred and fifty ethnic groups. Each tribe has a unique way of expressing ‘nice’ (politeness. This paper examines how Nigerian legislators from different ethnic groups acknowledge the self-esteem of other legislators during senate debates. The study used Scollon and Scollon’s politeness principle which states that in every interaction there is a continuous ‘face’ (self-image negotiation and this ‘face’ which is made up of two aspects - involvement and independent- must be balanced during interactions because ‘face’ is a paradoxical concept. The interest of this study is to identify and to explain how politicians, who though are in opposition, acknowledge the self-esteem of others. Six hansards were sampled from 2009 to 2010, one bill from each quarter of the year. It was discovered that speakers almost always punctuate their contributions to debate with different types of politeness indicators as a means of acknowledging both the involvement and dependent face wants of participants. The politeness indicators often used by senators include address forms which are used not only as vocative (to the presiding senator but also as designative (for reference to a third person mentioned in the speech, first person plural pronouns, rhetorical (speech politeness markers and ritualized utterances.

  1. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    situations. The Ethics Committees' approval of the trial justified by their competence and authority, combined with the NOK´s insight into the patient's wishes may be a relevant and feasible alternative to the current consent procedure. FUNDING: This work was supported by the European Regional Development......INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...

  2. Appeal for legislation on greater safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    An Essex-headquartered company which claims to manufacture the world's leading "brand" of glass vision panel, is calling for legislation to regulate the quality and design of such products. With no statutory governance currently in place, it is concerned that a rash of badly-designed, poorer quality variants, that it says have emerged in recent years, pose a significant self-harm and ligature risk to mentally unwell patients in hospitals, and a potential danger to staff when components like internal fittings and the glass itself, especially should the latter be too thin and thus easy to break, are used as "weapons". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports.

  3. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    in the field of outdoor recreation, and reveal similarities, differences, gaps and future needs. Among the main findings is a contradiction between the expressed political importance of outdoor recreation at the national level, and the absence of binding commitments for action. The majority of the countries...... surveyed recognise and express outdoor recreation in some form of political and/or legislative way. However, recreation monitoring or measurements are rarely mentioned in relevant policies or acts at the national, regional or local level, perhaps due to a l ack of political will or resources. The analysis...

  4. GMOs in Russia: Research, Society and Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, I V; Georgiev, P G; Skryabin, K G; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2016-01-01

    Russian legislation lags behind the rapid developments witnessed in genetic engineering. Only a scientifically based and well-substantiated policy on the place of organisms that are created with the use of genetic engineering technologies and an assessment of the risks associated with them could guarantee that the breakthroughs achieved in modern genetic engineering technologies are effectively put to use in the real economy. A lack of demand for such breakthroughs in the practical field will lead to stagnation in scientific research and to a loss of expertise.

  5. "Atypical" Employment and the Failure of Labour Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Increased casual employment and contract labor challenge the protective nature of Australian labor law. Laws and social policies should not cause casual and self-employed workers to be denied benefits nor allow employers to evade standards. (SK)

  6. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  7. Present situation and problems of nuclear-security-related legislation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows surveys of current Japanese regulations relevant to nuclear security, including regulations for nuclear damage compensation. It also shows the regulatory issues still left unresolved, particularly the question of whether existing laws are broad enough, or whether new legislation will be needed. The largest unresolved issue is how to establish a system of physical protection of nuclear materials for broader nuclear security purposes within a system that was originally introduced only to control nuclear proliferation. Such a system will necessitate a radical revision of the relevant law. Moreover, the current regulations have left unresolved the physical protection of radioactive materials used in research, medical, and non-nuclear-power-related industrial operations. Japanese legislation has already authorized an integrated Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Its mandate should include introduction of a physical protection system for currently unregulated radioactive materials. This will also necessitate a radical revision of the relevant law. Comprehensive consideration should also be given to transportation of nuclear materials away from the site of nuclear material processing businesses. Current regulation also leaves this issue unresolved. There is a possibility that consistent protective measures may not be possible across transportation modes even under the recent legislation that authorized reorganization of nuclear regulatory authorities. (author)

  8. New radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The structure of the existing legislation and its contents and aims are reconsidered. New rules which correspond to the present situation are to be established. Also the fundamental principles of the task and methods of radiation protection are to be changed. The main effort will be to create conditions so that all human beings will be protected against the harmful effects of radiation. The effects on plants, animals and on the environment should be considered as well. The legislation should include both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The main responsibility of protection should stay with the central authority. Licensing of apparatus, liability for medical applications and radioactive waste is discussed. Granting of permissions and control should be accomplished by the authority. Cooperation with other national and international authorities is dealt with. (G.B.)

  9. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  10. Legislation Vs. Obligation: Regarding Counselor Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Frank H.

    1970-01-01

    Employment service and vocational counselors must be aware of future technological trends. In counseling the unemployed the interviewer should focus on manhood rather than manpower. Employment counselors have a commitment to implement a positive course of action through role playing, psychodrama, audiovisual tapes showing how to take job…

  11. Problems encountered in embodying the principles of ICRP-26 and the revised IAEA safety standards into UK national legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the United Kingdom procedures and format for safety legislation and goes on to show how the necessary legislation for radiological protection will fit into the general framework. The United Kingdom, as a member of the European Community and EURATOM, is bound to implement the Euratom Directive on radiological protection within the next few years. The latest draft of the Directive takes account of the recommendations of ICRP-26 and further, a recent draft of the revised IAEA Basic Safety Standards is a composite of both the Directive and ICRP-26. Thus, the effect of embodying the principles of the Directive is to embody the principles of ICRP-26 and the Basic Safety Standards. Some of the problems which have been met are described and in particular there is discussion of the problems arising from the incorporation of the three ICRP-26 facets of dose control, namely justification, optimization and limitation, into a legislative package. The UK system of evolving safety legislation now requires considerable participation by all the parties affected (or by their representatives). This paper indicates that the involvement of persons affected, coupled with a legislative package which consists of a hierarchy of (a) regulations; (b) codes of practice; and (c) guidance notes, will result in the fundamental principles of ICRP-26 being incorporated into UK legislation in a totally acceptable way. (author)

  12. Autopsy issues in German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relevance of autopsy issues for German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997 against the background of legal traditions and the distribution of constitutional legislative powers. It is based on Federal Ministry of Justice records and German Parliament documents on transplantation legislation. Transplantation and autopsy legislation started with close ties in the 1970s. Viewing transplantation legislation as relevant for future autopsy regulation contributed to the decision to stall transplantation legislation, because the interests of the federal government and the medical profession converged to avoid subsequent restrictions on the practice of conducting autopsies and procuring tissues for transplantation. Sublegal norms were insufficient for the prosecution of the organ trade and area-wide transplantation regulation after the reunification of Germany. In contrast to autopsy issues, legislative power for transplantation issues was extended to the federal level by an amendment to the constitution, allowing decision making for Germany as a whole.

  13. The evolution of research participant protections in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The legislative basis for scientific research was first promulgated in 1945. However, there was ... for participant protections, the protections in the Bill of Rights of the SA .... human beings;. • improved methods for the provision of health services;.

  14. European regulation of cross-border hate speech in cyberspace: The limits of legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the complexities of regulating hate speech on the Internet through legal frameworks. It demonstrates the limitations of unilateral national content legislation and the difficulties inherent in multilateral efforts to regulate the Internet. The paper highlights how the US's commitment to free speech has undermined European efforts to construct a truly international regulatory system. It is argued that a broad coalition of citizens, industry and government, employing technol...

  15. Trees of Electoral District in Indonesian Legislative Election: Empirical Case of Assortments in 2004 General Election

    OpenAIRE

    Situngkir, Hokky; Mauludy, Rolan

    2007-01-01

    The short paper presents interesting discussions related to specific Indonesian legislative election system. We build algorithmic steps in computational geometry that employ the basic patterns that emerged from the legal decisions of Indonesian General Election Commission about the election district. Some interesting facts are observed and tried to be analyzed and concerning them to the democratization processes in the country. The further implementation of the model can be utilized as a tool...

  16. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  17. Russian Law on Discrimination in Employment: Can it be Compatible with International Labor Standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Lyutov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Law concerning discrimination in employment in Russia was expected to undergo a serious transformation after the fall of the Soviet system, when the Iron Curtain was lifted and the country became more open to Western legal concepts and international law. Nevertheless, most existing anti-discrimination norms in Russian law are based on the traditional concept of “uniformity and differentiation in regulation of labor” that is ill-suited to meet the challenges of amarket economy and the emergence of employment by privately owned enterprises which may have greater motivation to discriminate than state-owned-enterprises. The aim of the author is not to present an encyclopedic overview of all aspects of the topic of discrimination, but rather to concentrate on the most significant areas in which Russian law and practices diverge from international labor standards. To do so, this article analyzes current Russian legislation and landmark cases concerning gender, disability, age and some other areas of discrimination in employment with respect to their effectiveness and conformity to international labor standards on the matter. The issues of a clear definition of discrimination in employment, of protection from indirect discrimination, and of alleviation from the burden of proof are also examined. The author concludes this work by offering the reader several suggestions about how to harmonize Russian domestic law on employment discrimination with international labor standards while giving due respect to national legal and societal traditions and the current economic environment.

  18. Impacts of smoke-free public places legislation on inequalities in youth smoking uptake: study protocol for a secondary analysis of UK survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Philip Emeka; Craig, Peter; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Green, Michael James

    2018-03-27

    Smoke-free public places legislation has been introduced in many countries to protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoking. While evaluations of smoke-free policies have demonstrated major public health benefits, the impact on youth smoking and inequalities in smoking remains unclear. This project aims to evaluate how smoke-free public places legislation in the UK has impacted on inequalities in youth smoking uptake, and how much of any impact is via changes in parental smoking behaviour. The study will constitute secondary analyses of UK data (from the British Household Panel Survey and the Understanding Society study). Merging these datasets gives coverage of the period from 1994 to 2016. Missing data will be handled using multiple imputation. The primary outcomes are the rates and inequalities in initiation, experimentation, escalation to daily smoking and quitting among youths aged 11-15 years. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of smoking among parents of these youths. Discrete-time event history analysis will be conducted to examine whether changes in the probability of youth smoking transitions are associated with the implementation of the smoke-free public places legislation; and whether any observed effects differ by socioeconomic position and parental smoking. A multilevel logistic regression model will be used to investigate whether there is a step change or change in trend for the prevalence of parental smoking after the policy was implemented. The models will be adjusted for relevant factors (including cigarette taxation, the change in the legal age for purchase of cigarettes and e-cigarette prevalence) that may be associated with the implementation of the legislation. This project will use anonymised survey data which have been collected following independent ethical review. The dissemination of the study findings will adopt multiple communication channels targeting both scientific and non-scientific audiences. © Article

  19. Environmental legislation as the legal framework for mitigating natural hazards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jesús; Arana, Estanislao; Jiménez Soto, Ignacio; Delgado, José

    2015-04-01

    In Spain, the socioeconomic losses due to natural hazards (floods, earthquakes or landslides) are considerable, and the indirect costs associated with them are rarely considered because they are very difficult to evaluate. The prevention of losses due to natural hazards is more economic and efficient through legislation and spatial planning rather than through structural measures, such as walls, anchorages or structural reinforcements. However, there isn't a Spanish natural hazards law and national and regional sector legislation make only sparse mention of them. After 1978, when the Spanish Constitution was enacted, the Autonomous Communities (Spanish regions) were able to legislate according to the different competences (urban planning, environment or civil protection), which were established in the Constitution. In the 1990's, the Civil Protection legislation (national law and regional civil protection tools) dealt specifically with natural hazards (floods, earthquakes and volcanoes), but this was before any soil, seismic or hydrological studies were recommended in the national sector legislation. On the other hand, some Autonomous Communities referred to natural hazards in the Environmental Impact Assessment legislation (EIA) and also in the spatial and urban planning legislation and tools. The National Land Act, enacted in 1998, established, for the first time, that those lands exposed to natural hazards should be classified as non-developable. The Spanish recast text of the Land Act, enacted by Royal Legislative Decree 2/2008, requires that a natural hazards map be included in the Environmental Sustainability Report (ESR), which is compulsory for all master plans, according to the provisions set out by Act 9/2006, known as Spanish Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Consequently, the environmental legislation, after the aforementioned transposition of the SEA European Directive 2001/42/EC, is the legal framework to prevent losses due to natural hazards

  20. Harmonization of Legislation of a Candidate Country with EU Legislation: Insights from the Prism of the Citizens of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdula Azizi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the majority of the Western Balkan countries remain although they have expressed a willingness to join the EU, it is considered necessary to examine the topic of harmonization of national legislation of these countries with the EU legislation. So while until now, to this problem is not devoted adequate attention in scientific circles, it is considered necessary to explain and analyze the theoretical aspect of the harmonization of the legislation of the candidate countries with EU legislation, while they also learned things fr survey was conducted with the citizens of Macedonia where they express their opinions on the harmonization of Macedonian legislation and government policies related to Euro hope that in the future this work will encourage research and other activities related to government policy on the harmonization of national legislation with EU legislation.