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Sample records for employing rumen microorganisms

  1. The comparison of digestibility of treated sugarcane tops silage by bacteria or whole microorganisms of Holstein cow and buffalo rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Afrooz; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding sulfuric acid to sugarcane tops silage on rumen bacteria and whole rumen microorganisms (WRM) and compare the digestibility of sugarcane tops treated with different amount of urea, molasses and sulfuric acid between Holstein cow and Khouzestan buffalo. Regardless of the type of the treatment, potential of gas production (B) by cow WRM (130.670 mL) was more than buffalo (104.060 mL) ( p cow (0.021 and 0.014 mL per hr, respectively) ( p cow rumen bacteria (75.040 mL) was more than buffalo (67.150 mL), ( p cow (0.017 mL per hr), ( p cow rumen bacteria and whole microorganisms was higher than buffalo.

  2. Effect of Feedstock Concentration on Biogas Production by Inoculating Rumen Microorganisms in Biomass Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Yang, Fenglin; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Jian; Ping, Qingwei

    2017-10-05

    A methane production system with continuous stirred-tank reactor, rumen liquid as inoculate microorganisms, and paper mill excess sludge (PES) as feedstock was studied. The work mainly focused on revealing the effect of feedstock concentration on the biogas production, which was seldom reported previously for the current system. The optimal fermentation conditions were found as follows: pH = 7, T = 39 ± 1 °C, sludge retention time is 20 days, sludge with total solids (TS) are 1, 2, 3.5, 5, 10, and 13% in weight. Daily gas yields were measured, and biogas compositions were analyzed by gas chromatograph. Under such conditions, the optimum input TS was 10 wt%, and the biogas yield and volume gas productivity were 280.2 mL/g·TS and 1188.4 mL L-1·d-1, respectively. The proportions of CH4 and CO2 in the biogas were 65.1 and 34.2%. The CH4 yield reached 182.7 mL/g VS (volatile suspended solid), which was higher than previously reported values. The findings of this work have a significant effect on promoting the application of digesting PES by rumen microorganisms and further identified the technical parameter.

  3. Anaerobic fermentation of biogas liquid pretreated maize straw by rumen microorganisms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenyao; Xu, Xiaochen; Gao, Yang; Yang, Fenglin; Wang, Gang

    2014-02-01

    This study intended to investigate the effect of pretreatment of maize straw with biogas liquid on followed fermentation by rumen microorganisms in vitro. The multiple effects including treated time, temperature and dosage of biogas liquid in pretreatment on the followed fermentation performance were analyzed by orthogonal array. The optimum conditions of pretreatment were 9days, 25°C and 50% (v/w) dosage of biogas liquid, which were indicated by the corresponding crystallinity index, dry matter digestibility (DMD) and acetate limiting-step concentration were 57.5%, 73.76% and 1756mg/L, respectively. The ordering sequence of the influential factors for pretreatment was treated time > temperature > dosage of biogas liquid. The results of fermentation showed that the maize straw pretreated by biogas liquid was an efficient and economic pretreatment method of maize straw. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rumen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, Roderick I.; McSweeney, Christopher S.; Aminov, Rustam

    2013-01-01

    The rumen is a large pregastric fermentation compartment (foregut), which maintains a diverse but concentrated population of anaerobic bacteria, protozoa and fungi that are responsible for a variety of degradative and fermentative reactions. During this process biodegradable organic matter, mainly...... plant cell wall polymers, are converted into volatile fatty acids and microbial biomass that supply energy and protein to the host (ruminant) animal. An important reason for the evolution of foregut fermentation is detoxification of phytotoxins (of plant origin) and mycotoxins (of fungal origin...

  5. Rumen microorganisms, methane production, and microbial protein synthesis affected by mangosteen peel powder supplement in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-03-01

    Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian × 50 % Thai native), 404 ± 50.0 kg of body weight (4 years old) and 90 ± 5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9 ± 2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on rumen microorganisms, methane production, and microbial protein synthesis fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source fed ad libitum, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate-to-milk-yield ratio at 1:2. A quantitative real-time PCR approach was used to determine the population densities of ruminal microorganisms. The results revealed that supplementation of MSP did not affect on Fibrobactor succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Ruminococcus albus (P > 0.05). However, total bacteria was linearly increased (P methane production from 27.5 to 23.7 mmol/100 ml(3). Furthermore, cows that received MSP at 300 g/head/day had the highest microbial crude protein and efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis (416.8 g/day and 16.2 g/kg organic matter truly digested in the rumen (OMDR), respectively). In conclusion, supplementation of MSP at 300 g/head/day with YEFECAP as a protein source in the concentrate mixture revealed an enhancement of rumen fermentation and methane reduction in lactating dairy cows.

  6. Pretreatment of bagasse and coconut fibres for enhanced anaerobic degradation by rumen microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivaisi, A.K.; Eliapenda, S. (Dar es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania, United Republic of). Applied Microbiology Unit)

    1994-08-01

    Both chemical pretreatment and particle size affected total fibre degradation and production of methane and volatile fatty acids from these waste materials significantly compared to the untreated materials. Pretreatment of bagasse with sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and ammonium hydroxide followed by incubations for 168 h increased fibre degradation by 11, 31 and 14%, respectively. Pretreatment of coconut fibres increased degradation by 55, 74 and 46%. Methane yield from bagasse was increased by 44, 32 and 22%, and from coconut fibres 73,76 and 46%. Amounts of volatile fatty acids produced from bagasse and coconut fibres increased by 42, 37 and 11%, and 40, 28 and 11 %, respectively. By reducing particle sizes of bagasse and coconut fibres from 5 mm to less than 0.85 mm, total fibre degradation increased by over 40%, the yields of methane increased by an average of 30%, and those of volatile fatty acids by about the same order of magnitude. The suitability of using pretreated lignocellulosic waste biomass as a substrate for methane production in Rumen Derived Anaerobic Digestion -process is discussed. (Author)

  7. The stimulatory effect of the organic sulfur supplement, mercaptopropane sulfonic acid on cellulolytic rumen microorganisms and microbial protein synthesis in cattle fed low sulfur roughages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, C S; Denman, S E; Conlan, L L; Prasad, C S; Anandan, S; Chandrasekharaiah, M; Sampath, K T

    2009-06-01

    Two metabolism trials (experiments 1 and 2) were conducted to examine the effect of the organic S compound, sodium 3-mercapto-1-propane sulfonic acid (MPS) on feed intake, fiber digestibility, rumen fermentation and abundance of cellulolytic rumen microorganisms in cattle fed low S (Urea was provided in all treatments to compensate for the N deficiency (Sulfur supplementation did not significantly change whole tract dry matter digestibility or intake, even though sulfate and MPS supplementation was associated with an increase in the relative abundance of the fibrolytic bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes and anaerobic rumen fungi. Ruminal sulfide levels were significantly higher in the sulfate treatment, which indicated that the bioavailability of the two S atoms in the MPS molecule may be low in the rumen. Based on this observation, experiment 2 was conducted in which twice the amount of S was provided in the form of MPS (8.0 g/day) compared with sodium sulfate (6.6 g/day) to heifers (275 ± 9 kg liveweight) fed rice straw. Supplementation with MPS compared with sulfate in experiment 2 resulted in an increase in concentration of total volatile fatty acids, and ammonia utilization without a change in feed intake or whole tract fiber digestibility even though S and N were above requirement for growing cattle in both these treatment groups. In conclusion, supplementation of an S deficient low-quality roughage diet with either MPS or sodium sulfate, in conjunction with urea N, improved rumen fermentation, which was reflected in an increase in urinary purine excretion. However, MPS appeared to have a greater effect on stimulating short-chain fatty acid production and ammonia utilization when provided at higher concentrations than sulfate. Thus, the metabolism of MPS in the rumen needs to be investigated further in comparison with inorganic forms of S as it may prove to be more effective in stimulating fermentation of roughage diets.

  8. Assessment of viability of microorganisms employing fluorescence techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, P.

    1996-01-01


    Viability assessment of microorganisms is relevant for a wide variety of applications in industry, including evaluation of inactivation treatments and quality assessment of starter cultures for beer, wine, and yoghurt production.

    Usually, the ability of microbial cells to

  9. The effect of dietary Chlorella vulgaris supplementation on micro-organism community, enzyme activities and fatty acid profile in the rumen liquid of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, E; Abdullah, M A M; Skliros, D; Chatzikonstantinou, M; Flemetakis, E; Labrou, N; Zervas, G

    2017-04-01

    Microalgae might be considered as an alternative source of fat and/or protein for ruminant's diets. However, changes in populations of ruminal micro-organisms associated with biohydrogenation process, methane and ammonia production in response to microalgae dietary supplementation have not been well characterized. Thus, 16 cross-bred goats were divided into two groups. Each goat of both groups was fed individually with alfalfa hay and concentrates separately. The concentrates of the control group had no microalgae while those of the treated group were supplemented with 10 g lyophilized Chlorella vulgaris/kg concentrate (chlor). On the 30th experimental day, samples of rumen fluid were collected for microbial DNA extraction, fatty acid profile and enzyme activity analyses. The results showed that the chlor diet compared with the control increased significantly the populations of Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Methanogens bacteria and protozoa in the rumen of goats. A significant reduction in the cellulase activity and in the abundance of Ruminococcus albus, and a significant increase in the protease activity and in the abundance of Clostridium sticklandii in the rumen liquid of goats fed with the chlor diet, compared with the control, were found. Chlorella vulgaris supplementation promoted the formation of trans C18:1 , trans-11 C18:1 and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), while the proportions of C18:0 and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) reduced significantly in the rumen liquid of goats. This shift in ruminal biohydrogenation pathway was accompanied by a significant increase in Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens trans C18:1 -producing bacteria. In conclusion, the supplementation of diets with microalgae needs further investigation because it enhances the populations of methane-producing bacteria and protozoa. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Dominance of rumen microorganisms during cheese whey acidification: acidogenesis can be governed by a rare Selenomonas lacticifex-type fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Tsiamis, George; Soultani, Despoina; Melidis, Paraschos

    2015-11-01

    The microbial basis of acidification process during spontaneous cheese whey wastewater fermentation was decrypted by implementing both culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Lac tobacillus and Bifidobacterium were the predominant taxa among the microbiota growing on MRS (deMan, Rogosa, and Sharpe), while Kazachstania unispora and Dekkera anomala yeast species were also isolated. Almost all Lactobacillus isolates were heterofermentative that could ferment glucose and lactose, with most of them being related to Lactobacillus hilgardii (99.0-100 % similarity). By employing fluorescence techniques, the dominance of long crescent-shaped bacteria in the acidogenic sludge was observed. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), clone library, and next-generation sequencing techniques revealed the dominance of Selenomonas lacticifex. Based on Illumina data, Selenomonas in the continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) represented 70.13 ± 4.64 % of the bacterial reads, while other Veillonellaceae taxa (Megasphaera and Pectinatus) represented a notable proportion (6.54 %). Prevotella was only detected by Illumina sequencing as an important constituent of the microbial population (14.97 ± 1.71 %). Budding yeasts represented 97 % of the fungal population in the CSTR, with Yarrowia strains representing 88.85 ± 5.52 % of the fungal reads. Spontaneous cheese whey acidification can favor the dominance of rumen bacteria and here was driven by the rarely reported S. lacticifex-type fermentation, which should be taken into consideration during evaluation of acidogenesis in process simulation and modelling. Moreover, the important nervonic acid content detected indicates that acidogenic sludge can be used as a source for the production of high value-added biomedical substrates.

  11. Increasing Alfalfa Rumen Bypass Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa has one of the highest crude protein contents among forage crops, but is is rapidly and extensively degraded by rumen microorganisms. To examine differential protein digestion, three distinct varieties of alfalfa, grown from single plants, were subjected to fermentation in the rumen of a ca...

  12. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) with subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal in diets of Najdi goats: effect on digestion activity of rumen microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Jolazadeh, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing alfalfa hay by subabul leaf meal (SLM) on digestion, fermentation parameters and rumen bacteria and fungi activity of Najdi goats. Six Najdi goats (150 ± 15 days of age and initial body weight of 35 ± 1.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments in a balanced completely randomized design (three goats per treatment) for 56 days. Experimental treatments included alfalfa hay as control group and diet containing SLM (SLM replacing alfalfa hay at 50% level). Bacterial and fungi activity and rumen fermentation parameters of animals fed experimental diets were determined. Dry matter disappearance (DMD) was unaffected by replacing SLM with alfalfa hay for both rumen bacteria and fungi in different incubation times, except for 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria, which decreased for SLM group (P > 0.05). NDF disappearance (NDFD) and ADF disappearance (ADFD) after 24 and 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria was not affected by experimental diets (P > 0.05). However, 72 h after incubation, NDFD in SLM treatment decreased (P > 0.05). Gas production parameters of rumen bacteria were similar for both experimental diets, but partitioning factor (PF), efficiency microbial biomass production (EMBP), microbial protein production (MP), and organic matter truly digested (OMTD) decreased (p goats, so it may be used as an alternative for alfalfa (at 50% level) in susceptible areas.

  13. Rumen Metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rumen microbiome plays a critical role in normal physiology and nutrition of ruminants. Alterations in the rumen microbiome have important physiological and pathological implications. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies and rapid development of computational tools and reference...

  14. Metagenomic insights into the carbohydrate-active enzymes carried by the microorganisms adhering to solid digesta in the rumen of cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    Full Text Available The ruminal microbial community is a unique source of enzymes that underpin the conversion of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the microbial consortia adherent on solid digesta in the rumen of Jersey cattle were subjected to an activity-based metagenomic study to explore the genetic diversity of carbohydrolytic enzymes in Jersey cows, with a particular focus on cellulases and xylanases. Pyrosequencing and bioinformatic analyses of 120 carbohydrate-active fosmids identified genes encoding 575 putative Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes and proteins putatively related to transcriptional regulation, transporters, and signal transduction coupled with polysaccharide degradation and metabolism. Most of these genes shared little similarity to sequences archived in databases. Genes that were predicted to encode glycoside hydrolases (GH involved in xylan and cellulose hydrolysis (e.g., GH3, 5, 9, 10, 39 and 43 were well represented. A new subfamily (S-8 of GH5 was identified from contigs assigned to Firmicutes. These subfamilies of GH5 proteins also showed significant phylum-dependent distribution. A number of polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs were found, and two of them contained genes encoding Sus-like proteins and cellulases that have not been reported in previous metagenomic studies of samples from the rumens of cows or other herbivores. Comparison with the large metagenomic datasets previously reported of other ruminant species (or cattle breeds and wallabies showed that the rumen microbiome of Jersey cows might contain differing CAZymes. Future studies are needed to further explore how host genetics and diets affect the diversity and distribution of CAZymes and utilization of plant cell wall materials.

  15. The Effect of Selected Biostimulating Substance on the Degradation in the Rumen

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    Eva Petrášková

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cows with the canulla were divided into two groups - experimental and control. One cow was added to experimental product Biopolym FZT, second Biopolym granules. The samples of rumen fluid and feces were analyzed. The growth of microorganisms in the rumen fluid of experimental animals means the possibility of a positive impact of Biopolym on the degradation of feeding the rumen.

  16. Mathematical modelling and integration of rumen fermentation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.

    1993-01-01

    In ruminants, the profile of nutrients available for absorption generally differs considerably from that ingested. These differences result from the metabolic activities of the rumen microorganisms. The main aim of the present study, was to model the rumen fermentation processes, to achieve

  17. Study of methanogen communities associated with different rumen protozoal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Newbold, Charles J

    2014-12-01

    Protozoa-associated methanogens (PAM) are considered one of the most active communities in the rumen methanogenesis. This experiment investigated whether methanogens are sequestrated within rumen protozoa, and structural differences between rumen free-living methanogens and PAM. Rumen protozoa were harvested from totally faunated sheep, and six protozoal fractions (plus free-living microorganisms) were generated by sequential filtration. Holotrich-monofaunated sheep were also used to investigate the holotrich-associated methanogens. Protozoal size determined the number of PAM as big protozoa had 1.7-3.3 times more methanogen DNA than smaller protozoa, but also more endosymbiotic bacteria (2.2- to 3.5-fold times). Thus, similar abundance of methanogens with respect to total bacteria were observed across all protozoal fractions and free-living microorganisms, suggesting that methanogens are not accumulated within rumen protozoa in a greater proportion to that observed in the rumen as a whole. All rumen methanogen communities had similar diversity (22.2 ± 3.4 TRFs). Free-living methanogens composed a conserved community (67% similarity within treatment) in the rumen with similar diversity but different structures than PAM (P methane mitigation strategies. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  18. Experimental modeling of aerosols produced by microorganisms in working area air as risk factor exerting hazardous impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production

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    N.V. Dudchik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific foundation and practices in the sphere of hygienic and ecological standardization concerning biological factors of the environment have a number of peculiarities and are methodically less developed than chemical factors standardization. Efficient industrial control over maximum permissible concentrations of standardized microorganisms-producers in working area air is based on validated instrumental techniques of quantitative assessment. Our goal was to create experimental models for microorganisms-producers' aerosols of a multi-component microbe specimen in working area air as a risk factor causing impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production; another task was to work out a procedure for measuring Pseudomonas aurantiaca B-162/255.17concentration and cells and spores of Bacillus sp. BB58-3 strain in working area air. We gave grounds for a technology aimed at quantitative determination of microorganisms-producers in working area air in a modeling experiment; it was based on conventional stages and tech-niques accepted in microbiological practices, namely air samples taking via aspiration technique allowing for a volume taken; cultivation under conditions which are optimal for examined microorganisms-producers in a nutrient medium with reduced composition; calculation of evolved colonies with specific morphological features; morphologic identification of microorganisms and colonies; calculation of microorganisms' quantity on dishes with recalculation per 1 m3 of air. Bas-ing on the detected regular concentration dependences of microbe contamination dynamics in air we worked out a proce-dure for quantitative determination of microorganisms-producers; we also performed metrological estimate of opera-tional properties for assessing microorganisms-producers of a multi-component microbe specimen as a risk factor caus-ing hazardous impacts on health of workers employed at biotechnological production. We validated our

  19. Methanogens: methane producers of the rumen and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Sarah E; Wright, André-Denis G; McBride, Brian W

    2010-12-30

    Methanogens are the only known microorganisms capable of methane production, making them of interest when investigating methane abatement strategies. A number of experiments have been conducted to study the methanogen population in the rumen of cattle and sheep, as well as the relationship that methanogens have with other microorganisms. The rumen methanogen species differ depending on diet and geographical location of the host, as does methanogenesis, which can be reduced by modifying dietary composition, or by supplementation of monensin, lipids, organic acids, or plant compounds within the diet. Other methane abatement strategies that have been investigated are defaunation and vaccines. These mitigation methods target the methanogen population of the rumen directly or indirectly, resulting in varying degrees of efficacy. This paper describes the methanogens identified in the rumens of cattle and sheep, as well as a number of methane mitigation strategies that have been effective in vivo.

  20. Methanogens: Methane Producers of the Rumen and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Hook

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanogens are the only known microorganisms capable of methane production, making them of interest when investigating methane abatement strategies. A number of experiments have been conducted to study the methanogen population in the rumen of cattle and sheep, as well as the relationship that methanogens have with other microorganisms. The rumen methanogen species differ depending on diet and geographical location of the host, as does methanogenesis, which can be reduced by modifying dietary composition, or by supplementation of monensin, lipids, organic acids, or plant compounds within the diet. Other methane abatement strategies that have been investigated are defaunation and vaccines. These mitigation methods target the methanogen population of the rumen directly or indirectly, resulting in varying degrees of efficacy. This paper describes the methanogens identified in the rumens of cattle and sheep, as well as a number of methane mitigation strategies that have been effective in vivo.

  1. Methanogens: Methane Producers of the Rumen and Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Sarah E.; Wright, André-Denis G.; McBride, Brian W.

    2010-01-01

    Methanogens are the only known microorganisms capable of methane production, making them of interest when investigating methane abatement strategies. A number of experiments have been conducted to study the methanogen population in the rumen of cattle and sheep, as well as the relationship that methanogens have with other microorganisms. The rumen methanogen species differ depending on diet and geographical location of the host, as does methanogenesis, which can be reduced by modifying dietary composition, or by supplementation of monensin, lipids, organic acids, or plant compounds within the diet. Other methane abatement strategies that have been investigated are defaunation and vaccines. These mitigation methods target the methanogen population of the rumen directly or indirectly, resulting in varying degrees of efficacy. This paper describes the methanogens identified in the rumens of cattle and sheep, as well as a number of methane mitigation strategies that have been effective in vivo. PMID:21253540

  2. The contribution of mathematical modeling to understanding the dynamic aspects of rumen metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bannink

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available All rumen models cover the main drivers of variation in rumen function, which are feed intake, the differences between feedstuffs and feeds in their intrinsic rumen degradation characteristics, and fractional outflow rate of fluid and particulate matter. Dynamic modeling approaches are best suited to the prediction of more nuanced responses in rumen metabolism, and represent the dynamics of the interaction between substrates and micro-organisms and inter-microbial interactions. The concepts of dynamics are discussed for the case of rumen starch digestion as influenced by starch intake rate and frequency of feed intake, and for the case of fermentation of fiber in the large intestine. Adding representations of new functional classes of micro-organisms (i.e. with new characteristics from the perspective of whole rumen function in rumen models only delivers new insights if complemented by the dynamics of their interactions with other functional classes. Rumen fermentation conditions have to be represented due to their profound impact on the dynamics of substrate degradation and microbial metabolism. Although the importance of rumen acidity is generally acknowledged, more emphasis is needed on predicting its variation as well as variation in the processes that underlie rumen fluid dynamics. The rumen wall has an important role in adapting to rapid changes in the rumen environment, clearing of volatile fatty acids (VFA, and maintaining rumen pH within limits. Dynamics of rumen wall epithelia and its role in VFA absorption needs to be better represented in models which aim to predict rumen responses across nutritional or physiological states. For a detailed prediction of rumen N balance there is merit in a dynamic modeling approach compared to the static approaches adopted in current protein evaluation systems. Improvement is needed on previous attempts to predict rumen VFA profiles, and this should be pursued by introducing factors that relate more

  3. Effects of plants containing secondary compounds and plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, Metha; Kongmun, Pongthon; Poungchompu, Onanong; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Kaenpakdee, Sujittra

    2012-03-01

    A number of experiments have been conducted to investigate effects of tropical plants containing condensed tannins and/or saponins present in tropical plants and some plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology in ruminants. Based on both in vitro and in vivo trials, the results revealed important effects on rumen microorganisms and fermentation including methane production. Incorporation and/or supplementation of these plants containing secondary metabolites have potential for improving rumen ecology and subsequently productivity in ruminants.

  4. Diversity of rumen bacteria in canadian cervids.

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    Robert J Gruninger

    Full Text Available Interest in the bacteria responsible for the breakdown of lignocellulosic feedstuffs within the rumen has increased due to their potential utility in industrial applications. To date, most studies have focused on bacteria from domesticated ruminants. We have expanded the knowledge of the microbial ecology of ruminants by examining the bacterial populations found in the rumen of non-domesticated ruminants found in Canada. Next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA was employed to characterize the liquid and solid-associated bacterial communities in the rumen of elk (Cervus canadensis, and white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Despite variability in the microbial populations between animals, principle component and weighted UniFrac analysis indicated that bacterial communities in the rumen of elk and white tail deer are distinct. Populations clustered according to individual host animal and not the association with liquid or solid phase of the rumen contents. In all instances, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant bacterial phyla, although the relative abundance of these differed among ruminant species and between phases of rumen digesta, respectively. In the elk samples Bacteroidetes were more predominant in the liquid phase whereas Firmicutes was the most prevalent phyla in the solid digesta (P = 1×10(-5. There were also statistically significant differences in the abundance of OTUs classified as Fibrobacteres (P = 5×10(-3 and Spirochaetes (P = 3×10(-4 in the solid digesta of the elk samples. We identified a number of OTUs that were classified as phylotypes not previously observed in the rumen environment. Our results suggest that although the bacterial diversity in wild North American ruminants shows overall similarities to domesticated ruminants, we observed a number of OTUs not previously described. Previous studies primarily focusing on domesticated ruminants do not fully represent the microbial diversity of the

  5. Nutrition and feeding of swamp buffalo: feed resources and rumen approach

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    P. Rowlins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal feed resources are of prime importance for swamp buffaloes to support the efficient production under the prevailing small-holder farming systems. Manipulations of rumen microorganisms, fermentation and subsequent absorption by the animals are essential. Current research work on locally available feed resources such as urea-treated rice straw, cassava hay etc. revealed significant improvement in rumen ecology with higher cellulolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores and subsequent fermentation endproducts. However, investigation of rumen microorganisms diversity of swamp buffalo and their roles in fermentation using molecular technique especially the use of PCR – DGGE/ Real Time- PCR warrant future research undertakings.

  6. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Ruidong; Oddy, Victor Hutton; Archibald, Alan L.; Vercoe, Phillip E.; Dalrymple, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification) and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections o...

  7. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Ruidong Xiang; Victor Hutton Oddy; Archibald, Alan L.; Vercoe, Phillip E.; Dalrymple, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Background.Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification) and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of...

  8. High throughput whole rumen metagenome profiling using untargeted massively parallel sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Elizabeth M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation of microorganism communities in the rumen of cattle (Bos taurus is of great interest because of possible links to economically or environmentally important traits, such as feed conversion efficiency or methane emission levels. The resolution of studies investigating this variation may be improved by utilizing untargeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS, that is, sequencing without targeted amplification of genes. The objective of this study was to develop a method which used MPS to generate “rumen metagenome profiles”, and to investigate if these profiles were repeatable among samples taken from the same cow. Given faecal samples are much easier to obtain than rumen fluid samples; we also investigated whether rumen metagenome profiles were predictive of faecal metagenome profiles. Results Rather than focusing on individual organisms within the rumen, our method used MPS data to generate quantitative rumen micro-biome profiles, regardless of taxonomic classifications. The method requires a previously assembled reference metagenome. A number of such reference metagenomes were considered, including two rumen derived metagenomes, a human faecal microflora metagenome and a reference metagenome made up of publically available prokaryote sequences. Sequence reads from each test sample were aligned to these references. The “rumen metagenome profile” was generated from the number of the reads that aligned to each contig in the database. We used this method to test the hypothesis that rumen fluid microbial community profiles vary more between cows than within multiple samples from the same cow. Rumen fluid samples were taken from three cows, at three locations within the rumen. DNA from the samples was sequenced on the Illumina GAIIx. When the reads were aligned to a rumen metagenome reference, the rumen metagenome profiles were repeatable (P  Conclusions We have presented a simple and high throughput method of

  9. The rumen plasmidome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    Plasmids are episomally replicating genetic elements which carry backbone genes that are important for their replication and maintenance within their host, and accessory genes that might confer an advantage to their host in its ecological niche. As such, they are often perceived as a powerful evolutionary force, which horizontally introduces new traits into bacterial cells and genomes. In our recent publication “Insight into the rumen plasmidome” we characterized the metagenomic plasmid population of the bovine rumen microbial ecological niche. The rumen is the first compartment of the digestive tract of ruminants; it functions as a pre-gastric anaerobic fermentation chamber, where plant fibers are degraded and converted into chemical compounds which are subsequently absorbed and digested by the animal. PMID:23061023

  10. Control of rumen methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nevel, C J; Demeyer, D I

    1996-09-01

    During the last decades, considerable research on methane production in the rumen and its inhibition has been carried out. Initially, as methane production represents a significant loss of gross energy in the feed (2-15%), the ultimate goal of such intervention in rumen fermentation was an increase in feed efficiency. A second reason favouring research on methane inhibition is its role in the global warming phenomenon and in the destruction of the ozone layer. In this review, the authors describe briefly several interventions for reducing methane emission by ruminants. The objective can be reached by intervention at the dietary level by ration manipulation (composition, feeding level) or by the use of additives or supplements. Examples of additives are polyhalogenated compounds, ionophores and other antibiotics. Supplementation of the ration with lipids also lowered methanogenesis. More biotechnological interventions, e.g., defaunation, probiotics and introduction of reductive acetogenesis in the rumen, are also mentioned. It can be concluded that drastic inhibition of methane production is not unequivocally successful as a result of several factors, such as: instantaneous inhibition often followed by restoration of methanogenesis due to adaptation of the microbes or degradation of the additive, toxicity for the host animal, negative effects on overall digestion and productive performance. Therefore, methanogenesis and its inhibition cannot be considered as a separate part of rumen fermentation and its consequences on the animal should be taken into account.

  11. Perturbation dynamics of the rumen microbiota in response to exogenous butyrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Li

    Full Text Available The capacity of the rumen microbiota to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs has important implications in animal well-being and production. We investigated temporal changes of the rumen microbiota in response to butyrate infusion using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Twenty one phyla were identified in the rumen microbiota of dairy cows. The rumen microbiota harbored 54.5±6.1 genera (mean ± SD and 127.3±4.4 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, respectively. However, the core microbiome comprised of 26 genera and 82 OTUs. Butyrate infusion altered molar percentages of 3 major VFAs. Butyrate perturbation had a profound impact on the rumen microbial composition. A 72 h-infusion led to a significant change in the numbers of sequence reads derived from 4 phyla, including 2 most abundant phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. As many as 19 genera and 43 OTUs were significantly impacted by butyrate infusion. Elevated butyrate levels in the rumen seemingly had a stimulating effect on butyrate-producing bacteria populations. The resilience of the rumen microbial ecosystem was evident as the abundance of the microorganisms returned to their pre-disturbed status after infusion withdrawal. Our findings provide insight into perturbation dynamics of the rumen microbial ecosystem and should guide efforts in formulating optimal uses of probiotic bacteria treating human diseases.

  12. Microorganism immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Live metabolically active microorganisms are immobilized on a solid support by contacting particles of aggregate material with a water dispersible polyelectrolyte such as gelatin, crosslinking the polyelectrolyte by reacting it with a crosslinking agent such as glutaraldehyde to provide a crosslinked coating on the particles of aggregate material, contacting the coated particles with live microorganisms and incubating the microorganisms in contact with the crosslinked coating to provide a coating of metabolically active microorganisms. The immobilized microorganisms have continued growth and reproduction functions.

  13. Morphological Identification of Rumen Microbial Isolate and Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition, nutrient intake and concentration of rumen metabolites were statistically compared. Also, rumen microbes were isolated and identified. Results ... can also improve the efficiency of the animals towards better performance. Keywords: Urea-molasses blocks, ruminant microbiota, fermentation indices ...

  14. Manipulation of rumen ecology by dietary lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) powder supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Pakdee, P; Wanapat, S

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.] powder (LGP) on rumen ecology, rumen microorganisms, and digestibility of nutrients. Four ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman native) beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were LGP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/d with urea-treated rice straw (5%) fed to allow ad libitum intake. Digestibilities of DM, ether extract, and NDF were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation. However, digestibility of CP was decreased with LGP supplementation (P 0.05). Total viable bacteria, amylolytic bacteria, and cellulolytic bacteria were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation (4.7 x 10(9), 1.7 x 10(7), and 2.0 x 10(9) cfu/mL, respectively). Protozoal populations were significantly decreased by LGP supplementation. In addition, efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis based on OM truly digested in the rumen was enriched by LGP supplementation, especially at 100 g/d (34.2 g of N/kg of OM truly digested in the rumen). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of LGP at 100 g/d improved digestibilities of nutrients, rumen microbial population, and microbial protein synthesis efficiency, thus improving rumen ecology in beef cattle.

  15. Rumen microbial growth estimation using in vitro radiophosphorous incorporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Machado, Mariana de Carvalho; Cabral Filho, Sergio Lucio Salomon; Gobbo, Sarita Priscila; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Rumen microorganisms are able to transform low biological value nitrogen of feed stuff into high quality protein. To determine how much microbial protein that process forms, radiomarkers can be used. Radiophosphorous has been used to mark microbial protein, as element P is present in all rumen microorganisms (as phospholipids) and the P:N ratio of rumen biomass is quite constant. The aim of this work was to estimate microbial synthesis from feedstuff commonly used in ruminant nutrition in Brazil. Tested feeds were fresh alfalfa, raw sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, rice meal, soybean meal, wheat meal, Tifton hay, leucaena, dehydrated citrus pulp, wet brewers' grains and cottonseed meal. {sup 32} P-labelled phosphate solution was used as marker for microbial protein. Results showed the diversity of feeds by distinct quantities of nitrogen incorporated into microbial mass. Low nutrient availability feeds (sugarcane bagasse and rice hulls) promoted the lowest values of incorporated nitrogen. Nitrogen incorporation showed positive relationship (r=0.56; P=0.06) with the rate of degradation and negative relationship (r=-0.59; P<0.05) with fiber content of feeds. The results highlight that easier fermentable feeds (higher rates of degradation) and/or with lower fiber contents promote a more efficient microbial growth and better performance for the host animal. (author)

  16. Roles of Dietary Cobalt and Administration of Mixed Rumen Bacteria in Regulating Hematological Parameters of Pre-weaning Twin Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Adelina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt (Co is required by rumen microorganism for vitamin B12 synthesis. Vitamin B12 is an important cofactor for methionine synthesis and gluconeogenesis. In young ruminants up to 6–8 wk old, the rumen has not been completely developed and rumen microorganisms are not ready to supply vitamin B12. The aim of this research was to determine the potency of mixed rumen bacteria and dietary supplementation of Co and its effect on plasma glucose, blood minerals (Co, Fe, and Zn concentrations, and hematology of pre-weaning twin lambs. Twelve one month-old local twin lambs were assigned to 4 groups in a randomized complete block design. Lambs were fed cow milk at 10% body weight, adjusted weekly for 80 d. Mixed rumen bacteria were offered at 15 mL/d (8.295x1010 cfu. Dietary treatments were: 1 basal diet (Control, 2 basal diet + 1 mg/kg DM cyanocobalamin (VitB12 and 3 basal diet + 1 mg/kg DM of Co + administration of 15 mL mixed rumen bacteria (CoBac. There were no treatment effects on neither plasma glucose and blood mineral concentrations nor hematological profiles. This study demonstrated that pre-weaning twin lambs are not responsive to supplementation of Co and administration of mixed rumen bacteria.

  17. Effects of an extract of plant flavonoids (Bioflavex) on rumen fermentation and performance in heifers fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcells, J; Aris, A; Serrano, A; Seradj, A R; Crespo, J; Devant, M

    2012-12-01

    To study the effects of an extract of plant flavonoids [Bioflavex (FL)] in cattle fed high-concentrate diets, 2 experiments were designed. In the first experiment, the effects of Bioflavex on the development of rumen acidosis was evaluated in 8 Holstein-Friesian crossbreed heifers (451 kg; SEM 14.3 kg of BW) using a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22 d; from d 1 to 20, the animals were fed rye grass, on d 21 the animals were fasted, and on d 22, rumen acidosis was induced by applying 5 kg of wheat without [ (CTR) heifers who did not receive Bioflavex] or with flavonoids [heifers who received FL; 300 mg/kg DM] through a rumen cannula. Rumen pH was recorded continuously (from d 19 to d 22). On d 22, average rumen pH was significantly (P Flavonoid supplementation might be effective in improving rumen fermentation and reducing the incidence of rumen acidosis. This effect of flavonoids may be partially explained by increasing the numbers of lactate-consuming microorganisms (e.g., M. elsdenii) in the rumen.

  18. Rumen function in vivo and in vitro in sheep fed Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos Antonio; Solorio-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Klieve, Athol; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael Antonio; Briceño-Poot, Eduardo Gaspar; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of Leucaena leucocephala inclusion in sheep diets upon rumen function was evaluated. Nine Pelibuey sheep, 32.6 ± 5.33 kg live weight (LW), fitted with rumen cannula were used. A complete randomized block design was employed. Two experimental periods of 60 days each, with 60-day intervals between them, were used. Experimental treatments were as follows (n = 6): T1 (control), 100 % Pennisetum purpureum grass; T2, 20 % L. leucocephala + 80 % P. purpureum; T3, 40 % L. leucocephala + 60 % P. purpureum. In situ rumen neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and crude protein (CP) degradation, dry matter intake (DMI), volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, estimated methane (CH4) yield, rumen pH, ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3), and protozoa counts were measured. The aNDF in situ rumen degradation of P. purpureum and leucaena was higher (P 0.05). Protozoa counts and in vitro gas production (48 h) were lower in T2 and T3 (P methane yield (mol CH4/day) was higher in sheep fed leucaena (P sheep diets did not modify rumen fermentation pattern (same VFA ratios) nor reduce the amount of CH4 per unit of DMI (mol CH4/g DMI). However, leucaena inclusion does increase rumen N-NH3, aNDF and CP digestibility, and voluntary intake.

  19. Invited review: Essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsamiglia, S; Busquet, M; Cardozo, P W; Castillejos, L; Ferret, A

    2007-06-01

    Microorganisms in the rumen degrade nutrients to produce volatile fatty acids and synthesize microbial protein as an energy and protein supply for the ruminant, respectively. However, this fermentation process has energy (losses of methane) and protein (losses of ammonia N) inefficiencies that may limit production performance and contribute to the release of pollutants to the environment. Antibiotic ionophores have been very successful in reducing these energy and protein losses in the rumen, but the use of antibiotics in animal feeds is facing reduced social acceptance, and their use has been banned in the European Union since January 2006. For this reason, scientists have become interested in evaluating other alternatives to control specific microbial populations to modulate rumen fermentation. Essential oils can interact with microbial cell membranes and inhibit the growth of some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. As a result of such inhibition, the addition of some plant extracts to the rumen results in an inhibition of deamination and methanogenesis, resulting in lower ammonia N, methane, and acetate, and in higher propionate and butyrate concentrations. Results have indicated that garlic oil, cinnamaldehyde (the main active component of cinnamon oil), eugenol (the main active component of the clove bud), capsaicin (the active component of hot peppers), and anise oil, among others, may increase propionate production, reduce acetate or methane production, and modify proteolysis, peptidolysis, or deamination in the rumen. However, the effects of some of these essential oils are pH and diet dependent, and their use may be beneficial only under specific conditions and production systems. For example, capsaicin appears to have small effects in high-forage diets, whereas the changes observed in high-concentrate diets (increases in dry matter intake and total VFA, and reduction in the acetateto-propionate ratio and ammonia N concentration) may be beneficial

  20. Induction of a transient acidosis in the rumen simulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, M; Riede, S; Breves, G

    2017-03-16

    Feeding high concentrate diets to cattle results in an enhanced production of short-chain fatty acids by the micro-organisms in the rumen. Excessive fermentation might result in subclinical or clinical rumen acidosis, characterized by low pH, alterations in the microbial community and lactate production. Here, we provide an in vitro model of a severe rumen acidosis. A transient acidosis was induced in the rumen simulation technique by lowering bicarbonate, dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate concentrations in the artificial saliva while providing a concentrate-to-forage ratio of 70:30. The experiment consisted of an equilibration period of 7 days, a first control period of 5 days, the acidosis period of 5 days and a second control period of 5 days. During acidosis induction, pH decreased stepwise until it ranged below 5.0 at the last day of acidosis (day 17). This was accompanied by an increase in lactate production reaching 11.3 mm at day 17. The daily production of acetate, propionate and butyrate was reduced at the end of the acidosis period. Gas production (methane and carbon dioxide) and NH3 -N concentration reached a minimum 2 days after terminating the acidosis challenge. While the initial pH was already restored 1 day after acidosis, alterations in the mentioned fermentation parameters lasted longer. However, by the end of the experiment, all parameters had recovered. An acidosis-induced alteration in the microbial community of bacteria and archaea was revealed by single-strand conformation polymorphism. For bacteria, the pre-acidotic community could be re-established within 5 days, however, not for archaea. This study provides an in vitro model for a transient rumen acidosis including biochemical and microbial changes, which might be used for testing feeding strategies or feed additives influencing rumen acidosis. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. High genetic diversity and different distributions of glycosyl hydrolase family 10 and 11 xylanases in the goat rumen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozeng Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rumen harbors a complex microbial ecosystem for efficient hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides which are the main constituent of the diet. Xylanase is crucial for hemicellulose hydrolysis and plays an important role in the plant cell wall degradation. Xylanases of ruminal strains were widely studied, but few studies have focused on their diversity in rumen microenvironment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the genetic diversity of xylanases belonging to two major glycosyl hydrolase families (GH 10 and 11 in goat rumen contents by analyzing the amplicons generated with two degenerate primer sets. Fifty-two distinct GH 10 and 35 GH 11 xylanase gene fragments (similarity <95% were retrieved, and most had low identities with known sequences. Based on phylogenetic analysis, all GH 10 xylanase sequences fell into seven clusters, and 88.5% of them were related to xylanases from Bacteroidetes. Five clusters of GH 11 xylanase sequences were identified. Of these, 85.7% were related to xylanases from Firmicutes, and 14.3% were related to those of rumen fungi. Two full-length xylanase genes (one for each family were directly cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Both the recombinant enzymes showed substantial xylanase activity, and were purified and characterized. Combined with the results of sheep rumen, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes are the two major phyla of xylan-degrading microorganisms in rumen, which is distinct from the representatives of other environments such as soil and termite hindgut, suggesting that xylan-degrading microorganisms are environment specific. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The numerous new xylanase genes suggested the functional diversity of xylanase in the rumen microenvironment which may have great potential applications in industry and agriculture. The phylogenetic diversity and different distributions of xylanase genes will help us understand their roles in plant cell wall degradation in the rumen

  2. Potential of Selected Rumen Bacteria for Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Zorec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous animals harbour potent cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic microorganisms that supply the host with nutrients acquired from degradation of ingested plant material. In addition to protozoa and fungi, rumen bacteria contribute a considerable part in the breakdown of recalcitrant (hemicellulosic biomass. The present review is focused on the enzymatic systems of three representative fibrolytic rumen bacteria, namely Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Prevotella bryantii and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans. R. flavefaciens is known for one of the most elaborated cellulosome architectures and might represent a promising candidate for the construction of designer cellulosomes. On the other hand, Prevotella bryantii and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans produce multiple free, but highly efficient xylanases. In addition, P. xylanivorans was also shown to have some probiotic traits, which makes it a promising candidate not only for biogas production, but also as an animal feed supplement. Genomic and proteomic analyses of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial species aim to identify novel enzymes, which can then be cloned and expressed in adequate hosts to construct highly active recombinant hydrolytic microorganisms applicable for different biotechnological tasks.

  3. Effect of biochanin A on corn grain (Zea mays) fermentation by bovine rumen amylolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Flythe, M D; Aiken, G E

    2017-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of biochanin A (BCA), an isoflavone produced by red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), on corn fermentation by rumen micro-organisms. When bovine rumen bacterial cell suspensions (n = 3) were incubated (24 h, 39°C) with ground corn, amylolytic bacteria including group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC; Streptococcus bovis; enterococci) proliferated, cellulolytic bacteria were inhibited, lactate accumulated and pH declined. Addition of BCA (30 μg ml -1 ) inhibited lactate production, and pH decline. BCA had no effect on total amylolytics, but increased lactobacilli and decreased GPC. The initial rate and total starch disappearance was decreased by BCA addition. BCA with added Strep. bovis HC5 supernatant (containing bacteriocins) inhibited the amylolytic bacteria tested (Strep. bovis JB1; Strep. bovis HC5; Lactobacillus reuteri, Selenemonas ruminatium) to a greater extent than either addition alone. BCA increased cellulolytics and dry matter digestibility of hay with corn starch. These results indicate that BCA mitigates changes associated with corn fermentation by bovine rumen bacteria ex vivo. BCA could serve as an effective mitigation strategy for rumen acidosis. Future research is needed to evaluate the effect of BCA on mitigating rumen acidosis in vivo. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Snapshot of the eukaryotic gene expression in muskoxen rumen--a metatranscriptomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herbivores rely on digestive tract lignocellulolytic microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi and protozoa, to derive energy and carbon from plant cell wall polysaccharides. Culture independent metagenomic studies have been used to reveal the genetic content of the bacterial species within gut microbiomes. However, the nature of the genes encoded by eukaryotic protozoa and fungi within these environments has not been explored using metagenomic or metatranscriptomic approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, a metatranscriptomic approach was used to investigate the functional diversity of the eukaryotic microorganisms within the rumen of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus, with a focus on plant cell wall degrading enzymes. Polyadenylated RNA (mRNA was sequenced on the Illumina Genome Analyzer II system and 2.8 gigabases of sequences were obtained and 59129 contigs assembled. Plant cell wall degrading enzyme modules including glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases and polysaccharide lyases were identified from over 2500 contigs. These included a number of glycoside hydrolase family 6 (GH6, GH48 and swollenin modules, which have rarely been described in previous gut metagenomic studies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The muskoxen rumen metatranscriptome demonstrates a much higher percentage of cellulase enzyme discovery and an 8.7x higher rate of total carbohydrate active enzyme discovery per gigabase of sequence than previous rumen metagenomes. This study provides a snapshot of eukaryotic gene expression in the muskoxen rumen, and identifies a number of candidate genes coding for potentially valuable lignocellulolytic enzymes.

  5. Feeding, evaluating, and controlling rumen function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ian J; Golder, Helen M; Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Achieving optimal rumen function requires an understanding of feeds and systems of nutritional evaluation. Key influences on optimal function include achieving good dry matter intake. The function of feeds in the rumen depends on other factors including chemical composition, rate of passage, degradation rate of the feed, availability of other substrates and cofactors, and individual animal variation. This article discusses carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism in the rumen, and provides practical means of evaluation of rations in the field. Conditions under which rumen function is suboptimal (ie, acidosis and bloat) are discussed, and methods for control examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnosis and Treatment of Clinical Rumen Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Emily; Credille, Brent

    2017-11-01

    Clinical rumen acidosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both large and small ruminants. Feeding and management practices that lead to the consumption of large amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates precipitate clinical disease. The fermentation of carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids and lactate causes acidosis (local and systemic), rumen ulceration, cardiovascular compromise, and organ dysfunction. Animals affected with acidosis can suffer from numerous sequelae. Treatment of animals with clinical rumen acidosis is focused on addressing plasma volume deficits, correcting acid-base disturbances, and restoring a normal rumen microenvironment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microorganism billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Wahl, Colin; Lukasik, Joseph; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2017-02-01

    Recent experiments and numerical simulations have shown that certain types of microorganisms "reflect" off of a flat surface at a critical angle of departure, independent of the angle of incidence. The nature of the reflection may be active (cell and flagellar contact with the surface) or passive (hydrodynamic) interactions. We explore the billiard-like motion of a body with this empirical reflection law inside a regular polygon and show that the dynamics can settle on a stable periodic orbit or can be chaotic, depending on the swimmer's departure angle and the domain geometry. The dynamics are often found to be robust to the introduction of weak random fluctuations. The Lyapunov exponent of swimmer trajectories can be positive or negative, can have extremal values, and can have discontinuities depending on the degree of the polygon. A passive sorting device is proposed that traps swimmers of different departure angles into separate bins. We also study the external problem of a microorganism swimming in a patterned environment of square obstacles, where the departure angle dictates the possibility of trapping or diffusive trajectories.

  8. Hops (Humulus lupulus L. Bitter Acids: Modulation of Rumen Fermentation and Potential As an Alternative Growth Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Flythe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics can improve ruminant growth and efficiency by altering rumen fermentation via selective inhibition of microorganisms. However, antibiotic use is increasingly restricted due to concerns about the spread of antibiotic-resistance. Plant-based antimicrobials are alternatives to antibiotics in animal production. The hops plant (Humulus lupulus L. produces a range of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antimicrobial prenylated phloroglucinols, which are commonly called alpha- and beta-acids. These latter compounds can be considered phyto-ionophores, phytochemicals with a similar antimicrobial mechanism of action to ionophore antibiotics (e.g., monensin, lasalocid. Like ionophores, the hop beta-acids inhibit rumen bacteria possessing a classical Gram-positive cell envelope. This selective inhibition causes several effects on rumen fermentation that are beneficial to finishing cattle, such as decreased proteolysis, ammonia production, acetate: propionate ratio, and methane production. This article reviews the effects of hops and hop secondary metabolites on rumen fermentation, including the physiological mechanisms on specific rumen microorganisms, and consequences for the ruminant host and ruminant production. Further, we propose that hop beta-acids are useful model natural products for ruminants because of (1 the ionophore-like mechanism of action and spectrum of activity and (2 the literature available on the plant due to its use in brewing.

  9. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KONSENTRASI RUMEN SAPI TERHADAP PRODUKSI BIOGAS DARI VINASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rr. Dewi Artanti Putri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vinasse merupakan limbah yang dihasilkan oleh produksi bioetanol yang mempunyai kandungan COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand yang tinggi. Dengan karakteristik tersebut vinasse lebih tepat diuraikan dengan proses anaerob menjadi biogas. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji pengaruh suhu dan perbandingan rumen sapi  yang dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan biogas dengan hasil yang optimum. Suhu mempengaruhi pertumbuhan mikroorganisme dan kecepatan reaksi dalam pembentukan biogas. Rumen sapi adalah inokulum atau starter yang merupakan bahan yang perlu ditambahkan ke dalam sistem digester biogas. Percobaan dilakukan dalam digester volum 500 ml, dioperasikan pada pH 7 dengan memvariasikan perbandingan suhu,yaitu suhu ruang, suhu 50 oC, dan suhu60 oC dan variasi konsentrasi rumen sapi  5%, 10%, 15%. Proses fermentasi dilakukan dengan cara batch dengan pengukuran gas setiap 2-3 hari menggunakan metode water displacement technique sampai gas tidak terbentuk selama 60 hari. Respon yang diambil pada penelitian ini adalah volume gas yang dihasilkan berdasarkan pengaruh suhu dan konsentrasi rumen sapi terhadap produksi biogas. Perubahan suhu dan konsentrasi rumen sapi sangat mempengaruhi produksi biogas. Hasil yang terbaik dari penelitian ini adalah pada konsentrasi rumen 15% pada suhu ruang yaitu sebanyak 370 ml. Kata kunci: biogas, vinasse, suhu, rumen sapiVinasse is the waste generated by the production of bioethanol which has high content of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand. With these characteristics, it is more appropriate to convert it into biogas through anaerobic digestion process. This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperature and the cow rumen concentration needed to obtain biogas with optimum results. Temperature affects the growth of microorganisms and speed of reaction in the formation of biogas. The cow rumen was used as inoculum or starter material that needs to be added to the biogas digester system. Experiments conducted in the digester

  10. The Influence of Feed Energy Density and a Formulated Additive on Rumen and Rectal Temperature in Hanwoo Steers

    OpenAIRE

    Sangbuem Cho; David Tinotenda Mbiriri; Kwanseob Shim; A-Leum Lee; Seong-Jin Oh; Jinho Yang; Chaehwa Ryu; Young-Hoon Kim; Kang-Seok Seo; Jung-Il Chae; Young Kyoon Oh; Nag-Jin Choi

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the optimum blending condition of protected fat, choline and yeast culture for lowering of rumen temperature. The Box Benken experimental design, a fractional factorial arrangement, and response surface methodology were employed. The optimum blending condition was determined using the rumen simulated in vitro fermentation. An additive formulated on the optimum condition contained 50% of protected fat, 25% of yeast culture, 5% of choline, 7% of organic zinc, 6.5%...

  11. Media lacking nrmen fluid for enumeration of rumen bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rumen population, cellulolytic bacteria, amylolytic bacteria. Introduction. Media containing rumen fluid are unsuitable as niche- simulating media because their composition cannot be ade- quately and repeatably defined. A semi-defined culture medium for enumerating rumen bacteria is described. This medium lacks rumen ...

  12. Protease activities of rumen protozoa.

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, C W; Lovelock, L K; Krumholz, L; Buchanan-Smith, J G

    1984-01-01

    Intact, metabolically active rumen protozoa prepared by gravity sedimentation and washing in a mineral solution at 10 to 15 degrees C had comparatively low proteolytic activity on azocasein and low endogenous proteolytic activity. Protozoa washed in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) at 4 degrees C and stored on ice autolysed when they were warmed to 39 degrees C. They also exhibited low proteolytic activity on azocasein, but they had a high endogenous proteolytic activity with a pH op...

  13. Metabolism of aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone, and three trichothecenes by intact rumen fluid, rumen protozoa, and rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, K H; Pettersson, H; Sandholm, K; Olsen, M

    1984-01-01

    The effect of rumen microbes on six mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, and deoxynivalenol ) considered to be health risks for domestic animals was investigated. The mycotoxins were incubated with intact rumen fluid or fractions of rumen protozoa and bacteria from sheep and cattle in the presence or absence of milled feed. Rumen fluid had no effect on aflatoxin B1 and deoxynivalenol . The remaining four mycotoxins were all metabolized, and protozoa were more active than bacteria. Metabolism of ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and diacetoxyscirpenol was moderately or slightly inhibited by addition of milled feed in vitro. The capacity of rumen fluid to degrade ochratoxin A decreased after feeding, but this activity was gradually restored by the next feeding time. Ochratoxin A was cleaved to ochratoxin alpha and phenylalanine; zearalenone was reduced to alpha-zearalenol and to a lesser degree to beta-zearalenol; diacetoxyscirpenol and T-2 toxin were deacetylated to monoacetoxyscirpenol and HT-2 toxin, respectively. Feeding of 5 ppm (5 mg/kg) of ochratoxin A to sheep revealed 14 ppb (14 ng/ml) of ochratoxin A and ochratoxin alpha in rumen fluid after 1 h, but neither was detected in the blood. Whether such conversions in the rumen fluid may be considered as a first line of defense against toxic compounds present in the diet is briefly discussed. PMID:6234859

  14. The dynamics of major fibrolytic microbes and enzyme activity in the rumen in response to short- and long-term feeding of Sapindus rarak saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wina, E; Muetzel, S; Becker, K

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the short- and long-term effects of an extract of Sapindus rarak saponins (SE) on the rumen fibrolytic enzyme activity and the major fibrolytic micro-organisms. Two feeding trials were conducted. In the short-term trial, four fistulated goats were fed a basal diet containing sugar cane tops and wheat pollard (65:35, w/w) and were supplemented for 7 days with SE at a level of 0.6 g kg(-1) body weight. Rumen liquor was taken before, during and after SE feeding. In the long-term trial, 28 sheep were fed the same basal diet as the goats and were supplemented for 105 days with 0.24, 0.48 and 0.72 g kg(-1) body mass of the extract. Rumen liquor was taken on days 98 and 100. Protozoal numbers were counted under the microscope. Cell wall degradation was determined by enzyme assays and the major fibrolytic micro-organisms were quantified by dot blot hybridization. Sapindus extract significantly depressed rumen xylanase activity in both trials and carboxymethylcellulase activity in the long-term trial (P Sapindus rarak saponins partially defaunate the rumen flora. Their negative effect on cell wall degradation, however, is not related to rumen organisms currently recognized as the major cell wall degrading species. The adaptation of microbes in the long-term feeding experiment suggests that the results from short-term trial on the ruminal microbial community have to be interpreted carefully.

  15. Classifying Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the coexistence of two systems for classifying organisms and species: a dominant genetic system and an older naturalist system. The former classifies species and traces their evolution on the basis of genetic characteristics, while the latter employs physiological characteris......This paper describes the coexistence of two systems for classifying organisms and species: a dominant genetic system and an older naturalist system. The former classifies species and traces their evolution on the basis of genetic characteristics, while the latter employs physiological...... characteristics. The coexistence of the classification systems does not lead to a conflict between them. Rather, the systems seem to co-exist in different configurations, through which they are complementary, contradictory and inclusive in different situations-sometimes simultaneously. The systems come...

  16. Passive mechanical properties of ovine rumen tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Stephen J.; Cater, John E.; Walker, Cameron G.; Amirapu, Satya; Waghorn, Garry C.; Suresh, Vinod

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical and structural properties of ovine rumen tissue have been determined using uniaxial tensile testing of tissue from four animals at five rumen locations and two orientations. Animal and orientation did not have a significant effect on the stress-strain response, but there was a significant difference between rumen locations. Histological studies showed two orthogonal muscle layers in all regions except the reticulum, which has a more isotropic structure. A quasi-linear viscoelastic model was fitted to the relaxation stage for each region. Model predictions of the ramp stage had RMS errors of 13-24% and were within the range of the experimental data.

  17. Cereals Bond Trounces Subacute Rumen Acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Nikkhah

    2015-01-01

    This perspective article provides a feasible ideology based on which modern ruminant enterprises will learn to vigilantly include mixtures of hard and soft cereal grains in optimizing rumen environment. Subacute Rumen Acidosis (SARA), variably defined as a common and economically important metabolic disease, occurs arguably when rumen pH declines below 5.8-6 for a long-lasting period of time of several hours. Prolonged SARA reduces high-producing dairy and bee...

  18. Abundance and genetic diversity of microbial polygalacturonase and pectate lyase in the sheep rumen ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yuan

    Full Text Available Efficient degradation of pectin in the rumen is necessary for plant-based feed utilization. The objective of this study was to characterize the diversity, abundance, and functions of pectinases from microorganisms in the sheep rumen.A total of 103 unique fragments of polygalacturonase (PF00295 and pectate lyase (PF00544 and PF09492 genes were retrieved from microbial DNA in the rumen of a Small Tail Han sheep, and 66% of the sequences of these fragments had low identities (<65% with known sequences. Phylogenetic tree building separated the PF00295, PF00544, and PF09492 sequences into five, three, and three clades, respectively. Cellulolytic and noncellulolytic Butyrivibrio, Prevotella, and Fibrobacter species were the major sources of the pectinases. The two most abundant pectate lyase genes were cloned, and their protein products, expressed in Escherichia coli, were characterized. Both enzymes probably act extracellularly as their nucleotide sequences contained signal sequences, and they had optimal activities at the ruminal physiological temperature and complementary pH-dependent activity profiles.This study reveals the specificity, diversity, and abundance of pectinases in the rumen ecosystem and provides two additional ruminal pectinases for potential industrial use under physiological conditions.

  19. Response of the Rumen Microbiota of Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) Fed Different Concentrations of Tannin Rich Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Wright, André-Denis G.; Liu, Hanlu; Fan, Zhongyuan; Yang, Fuhe; Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    High throughput sequencing was used to examine the rumen microbiota of sika deer fed high (OLH) and low concentration (OLL) of tannin rich oak leaves. The results showed that Prevotella spp. were the most dominant bacteria. The most predominant methanogens were the members of the order Methanoplasmatales. The dominant rumen protozoa were Entodinium longinucleatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, and Epidinium caudatum, and the fungal communities were mostly represented by Piromyces spp. Moreover, the relative abundance of Pseudobutyrivibrio spp. (P=0.026), unidentified bacteria (P=0.028), and Prevotella spp. (P=0.022) was lower in the OLH group than in the OLL group. The concentration of propionate in the OLH group was greater than in the OLL group (P=0.006). Patterns of relationships showed that methanogens belonging to the order Methanoplasmatales were negatively correlated with Treponema spp., Ent. Longinucleatum, and acetate. Methanosphaera stadtmanae was positively correlated to propionate, while Methanobrevibacter ruminantium was negatively associated with Methanobrevibacter thaueri and Methanobrevibacter millerae. Tannins altered the rumen microbes and fermentation patterns. However, the response of the entire rumen microbiota and the relationship between rumen microorganisms and the fermentation parameters were not fully understood. PMID:25955033

  20. Effect of fumarate reducing bacteria on in vitro rumen fermentation, methane mitigation and microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamuad, Lovelia; Kim, Seon Ho; Jeong, Chang Dae; Choi, Yeon Jae; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Sang-Suk

    2014-02-01

    The metabolic pathways involved in hydrogen (H(2)) production, utilization and the activity of methanogens are the important factors that should be considered in controlling methane (CH(4)) emissions by ruminants. H(2) as one of the major substrate for CH(4) production is therefore should be controlled. One of the strategies on reducing CH(4) is through the use of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms such as fumarate reducing bacteria. This study determined the effect of fumarate reducing bacteria, Mitsuokella jalaludinii, supplementation on in vitro rumen fermentation, CH(4) production, diversity and quantity. M. jalaludinii significantly reduced CH(4) at 48 and 72 h of incubation and significantly increased succinate at 24 h. Although not significantly different, propionate was found to be highest in treatment containing M. jalaludinii at 12 and 48 h of incubation. These results suggest that supplementation of fumarate reducing bacteria to ruminal fermentation reduces CH(4) production and quantity, increases succinate and changes the rumen microbial diversity.

  1. Quantification of Transcriptome Responses of the Rumen Epithelium to Butyrate Infusion using RNA-seq Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ransom L; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Li, Congjun; Bequette, Brian J; Li, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms, play a critical role in energy metabolism and physiology of ruminants as well as in human health. In this study, the temporal effect of elevated butyrate concentrations on the transcriptome of the rumen epithelium was quantified via serial biopsy sampling using RNA-seq technology. The mean number of genes transcribed in the rumen epithelial transcriptome was 17,323.63 ± 277.20 (±SD; N = 24) while the core transcriptome consisted of 15,025 genes. Collectively, 80 genes were identified as being significantly impacted by butyrate infusion across all time points sampled. Maximal transcriptional effect of butyrate on the rumen epithelium was observed at the 72-h infusion when the abundance of 58 genes was altered. The initial reaction of the rumen epithelium to elevated exogenous butyrate may represent a stress response as Gene Ontology (GO) terms identified were predominantly related to responses to bacteria and biotic stimuli. An algorithm for the reconstruction of accurate cellular networks (ARACNE) inferred regulatory gene networks with 113,738 direct interactions in the butyrate-epithelium interactome using a combined cutoff of an error tolerance (ɛ = 0.10) and a stringent P-value threshold of mutual information (5.0 × 10(-11)). Several regulatory networks were controlled by transcription factors, such as CREBBP and TTF2, which were regulated by butyrate. Our findings provide insight into the regulation of butyrate transport and metabolism in the rumen epithelium, which will guide our future efforts in exploiting potential beneficial effect of butyrate in animal well-being and human health.

  2. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahim Abubakr

    Full Text Available Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO, decanter cake (DC or palm kernel cake (PKC on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD, decanter cake diet (DCD, palm kernel cake diet (PKCD and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0 and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05 DNA copy number of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefeciens, and Ruminococcus albus. Rumen methanogenic archaea was significantly lower (P<0.05 in goats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

  3. Intake and rumen degradation in cattle fed napier grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    created by a corked plastic container connected to the pipe. A portion of the rumen sample was acidified (1 ml. 20% H2SO4 per 5 ml rumen fluid) and kept frozen in tightly capped containers until analysis for ammonia nitrogen (AOAC, 1990). A second portion was acidified with 5% metaphosphoric acid (1 ml per 5 ml rumen.

  4. Studies on fibrolytic bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens isolated from sheep rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawanon, S.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolytic Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was an attractive target for genetic engineering in rumen bacteria. The experiment was initiated in making culture collection of this species, some of which may be useful ascandidate strain in the future. Hay suspended in sheep rumen was used as the source of isolates. The source was enriched with filter paper degradation, diluted with an anaerobic solution and used for pure culturing bya roll tube technique. After colony forming, Gram-negative curved rods bacteria were selected and screened for further identification with volatile fatty acid (VFA profiling and 16S rDNA sequencing. Fibrolyticstrains were selected to find fibrolytic enzymes and attachment to and digestion of various fibers. Fortyseven strains of Gram-negative curved rods were isolated. After determining cellulase, xylanase activities and VFA profile, 2 strains were chosen and employed for 16S rDNA sequencing. Both strains producingbutyrate were B. fibrisolvens. Of these 2 strains, most fibrolytic S-28 was selected. The strain S-28 could degrade natural fibers but not cellulose and showed strong attachment to them. A strong xylanase activitywas detected and presence of cellulase, β-glucosidase, β-xylosidase, α-L-arabinofuranosidase and β- cellobiosidase were also demonstrated.

  5. Enteral fluid therapy through nasogastric tube in rumen cannulated goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Atoji-Henrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effects of fluid therapy in goats through nasogastric route with an electrolyte solution composed by concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride similar to goat plasma (140mmol/L of Na+, 4.5mmol/L of K+, 110mmol/L of Cl-. Four Alpine Chamoisee goats, two of them with evident leakage of the rumen cannulas, were used in a crossover experimental design of two periods and two groups. In one group the two goats were submitted to a treatment protocol to induce dehydration before the fluid therapy, whereas the other group was not. Fluid therapy consisted supplying 10mL/kg/h of the electrolyte solution during 8 hours. No signs of discomfort or stress were observed. The dehydration model employed caused a mild dehydration indicated by decrease in feces humidity, body weight and abdominal circumference, and increase in plasma total solids concentration. During fluid therapy globular volume and plasma total solids decreased, whereas % body weight and abdominal circumference increased. No signs of hyperhydration were observed and serum electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+ presented no significant alterations in both groups. Fluid therapy proposed in this study was efficient to treat dehydration, even for rumen cannulated animals with evident leakage, and can be administrated safely with no electrolyte imbalance.

  6. Rumen management during aphagia : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants that for any reason are unable to eat enough to survive can be supported via rumen fistulation. To successfully accomplish this task, an understanding of rumen physiology is necessary. Some adaptation and modification of the normal physiological processes will be necessary because the extended time normally required to ingest food will, for obvious practical reasons, be reduced to a few minutes repeated once to three times a day. The physiology of significance to aphagic or dysphagic animals is discussed and relevant examples of clinical cases are used to illustrate practical applications.

  7. Beneficial microorganisms [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    The web of life depends on microorganisms, a vast network of small and unseen allies that permeate the soil, water, and air of our planet. For people who work with plants, the greatest interest in microorganisms is in the complex communities that are part of the soil. Beneficial microorganisms are naturally occurring bacteria, fungi, and other microbes that play a...

  8. Effect of wheat processing on rumen characteristics and rumen parameters in Holstein-Friesian calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghaffari, S S; Karkoodi, K; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Maheri-Sis, N

    2013-10-01

    In this experiment, effect of wheat processing on rumen conditions and development were investigated. Fifty-six neonatal Holstein-Friesian calves (22 male and 34 female) were fed calf starters and post-weaning diets containing 35 (pre-weaning) and 21.90% (post-weaning) popped wheat (PW), steam-flaked wheat (SFW), dry-rolled wheat (DRW) or ground wheat (GW) till 12 weeks of age. Calves were weaned at the end of 9th week, and a post-weaning-specific starter diets were fed for 1 month. Rumen liquor was analysed in days 30, 60 and 90 of the experiment to determine volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Twelve male calves (three calves/treatment) were slaughtered, and digestive tract was emptied. Forestomach empty weight and rumen parameters were assessed. Results indicated that calves received PW had the highest total VFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate, ammonia nitrogen, rumen wall thickness, papilla width and density. Calves fed DRW experienced the lowest rumen pH throughout the experiment probably because high proportion of fine particles in GW. Calves consuming PW apparently had more functional rumen in comparison with other groups. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Fractional rate of degradation (kd) of starch in the rumen and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruminal starch pool was estimated from rumen evacuation and starch flow was estimated by duodenal and faeces sampling. Fractional rate of rumen degradation was estimated from the equation [kd = rumen degraded/rumen pool] and rumen and total digestibility of starch from flow measurements. The relation between kd ...

  10. The Type And Number Of Ciliate Protozoa In The Rumen, Omasum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protozoal density in the rumen contents was significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to rumen liquor, omasal and colon contents. Isotricha spp were significantly higher (P<0.001) in the rumen liquor compared to the rumen contents possibly due to their preference of soluble carbohydrates richly available in the rumen liquor.

  11. Rumen degradation characteristics of two tropical forages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rumen degradation characteristics of Panicum maximum and Gmelina arborea forages in response to monensin supplementation were studied in a 2 x 4 factorial experiment using an N'dama fistulated steer. Monensin had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the soluble fraction 'a' of nutrients but showed reductions (P<0.05) ...

  12. Effects of dietary Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) supplementation on rumen fermentation, enzyme profile and microbial communities in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevakis, N

    2017-10-14

    This study was conducted to examine in vivo long-term effects of dietary dried oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) whole plant on rumen fermentation, enzyme profile and microbial communities. For this purpose, eight healthy, adult, non-lactating Alpine goats were kept in tie stalls equipped for individual feeding and randomly divided into two homogeneous groups: one fed 0.6 kg of a concentrate mixture and 0.6 kg of wheat straw without any supplementation and served as control group (CON) while the other group (OR) fed the same diet of CON but supplemented with 20 g of dried oregano plants (OPs) to provide daily dosage of 1 ml of essential oil (EO) per animal. The experimental period lasted 69 days and individual rumen fluid samples were obtained every 2 weeks at 0 and 4 hr after feeding. The results showed that dietary supplementation with OPs increased the protease activity (p oregano at the current dosage. Furthermore, the total methanogen population significantly decreased (p < .05). It is concluded that a long-term dietary administration of OPs can suppress specific rumen micro-organisms and modify rumen fermentation favourably at least by means of suppressing methanogens. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Manipulation of Bioprocess in Rumen to Improve Fiber Feed Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisri Puastuti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruminant has a unique digestive organ that has big capacity to digest fiber. The digestive process includes the interaction of feed, rumen microbe and animal itself. Fementative digestion gives an advantage for ruminant as majority of feed consists of fiber, i.e: cellulose, hemi cellulose and xylan. Rumen microbes have an important role to digest fiber. Rumen microbes could be manipulated by several strategies to increase microbial protein synthesis and microbial activity. Feed supplement could stimulate growth and activity of rumen microbes, while buffer could stabilize the rumen pH and also the fermentation. Defaunating agent was given to control the existence of rumen microfauna (protozoa so increase the population of bacteria. Essensial amino acid was used as a growth factor of rumen microbe the amino acid or its precursor could be given as supplementation. Feeding probiotic could maintain anaerob condition in the rumen, and caused population and activity of rumen microbe increased. Addition of micro mineral or enzyme could improve the fermentation and feed degradation in the rumen, hence, improved feed intake and animal productivity.

  14. An evaluation of parameters for the detection of subclinical rumen acidosis in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, J M D; Jørgensen, R J; Kristensen, N B

    2004-11-01

    An observational study was conducted in six Danish dairy herds. A specially designed stomach tube was compared to the rumenocentesis technique as part of the monitoring of rumen pH. In contrast to a previous study, the use of the stomach tube appeared to reduce saliva contamination. However, correlation with the rumenocentesis technique was poor ( r = 0.33; p = 0.019) and a linear model could only partly explain variations between either results. The presence of subclinical rumen acidosis (SRA) was evidenced in one herd only, as judged by results obtained by the rumenocentesis technique. The present study revealed some limitations of the rumenocentesis technique in small or medium-sized herds due to difficulties in selecting sufficient numbers of cows in the respective groups at risk. The finding of two apparently clinical normal cows with rumen pH values below 5.0 leads to the consideration that such fluctuations may be temporary and at least does not give rise to clinical symptoms. However, the long-term effect of such fluctuations is not known. In general, primiparous cows seemed more prone to low ruminal pH values (acidosis, than were multiparous cows. Ruminal propionate was the most precise predictor of rumen pH, whereas milk fat percentage varied greatly between lactational groups. Blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and fructosamine as well as urine phosphorus excretion and renal net acid-base excretion (NABE) were related to ruminal acid load, but were not predictive of rumen pH. Monitoring of dairy herds for SRA should be performed routinely and employ several diagnostic tools (rumenocentesis, renal NABE determination) as well as specific knowledge of herd management and feeding routines.

  15. Title: Effects of supplementing humic/fulvic acid on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casey McMurphy

    on serum urea nitrogen, rumen pH, rumen ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. Steers .... cheesecloth (BBA Nonwovens, Simpsonville, SC, USA) until 100 mL of rumen fluid was obtained in a 150 ... 500 °C), dry matter (DM; oven dried at 110 °C), crude protein (CP; g/kg N x 6.25; LECO Corporation, St.

  16. Progress in the development of vaccines against rumen methanogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedlock, D N; Janssen, P H; Leahy, S C; Shu, D; Buddle, B M

    2013-06-01

    Vaccination against rumen methanogens offers a practical approach to reduce methane emissions in livestock, particularly ruminants grazing on pasture. Although successful vaccination strategies have been reported for reducing the activity of the rumen-dwelling organism Streptococcus bovis in sheep and S. bovis and Lactobacillus spp. in cattle, earlier approaches using vaccines based on whole methanogen cells to reduce methane production in sheep have produced less promising results. An anti-methanogen vaccine will need to have broad specificity against methanogens commonly found in the rumen and induce antibody in saliva resulting in delivery of sufficiently high levels of antibodies to the rumen to reduce methanogen activity. Our approach has focussed on identifying surface and membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across a range of rumen methanogens. The identification of potential vaccine antigens has been assisted by recent advances in the knowledge of rumen methanogen genomes. Methanogen surface proteins have been shown to be immunogenic in ruminants and vaccination of sheep with these proteins induced specific antibody responses in saliva and rumen contents. Current studies are directed towards identifying key candidate antigens and investigating the level and types of salivary antibodies produced in sheep and cattle vaccinated with methanogen proteins, stability of antibodies in the rumen and their impact on rumen microbial populations. In addition, there is a need to identify adjuvants that stimulate high levels of salivary antibody and are suitable for formulating with protein antigens to produce a low-cost and effective vaccine.

  17. The role of ciliate protozoa in the rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles James Newbold

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear.Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fibre degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in  phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterisation of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small entodiniium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described.

  18. Effects of nitro compounds and feedstuffs on in vitro methane production in chicken cecal contents and rumen fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengkerdsub, Suwat; Kim, Woo-Kyun; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J; Ricke, Steven C

    2006-04-01

    Short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) and methane are the products from a wide variety of microorganisms living in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to examine effects of feedstuff and select nitro compounds on VFA and methane production during in vitro incubation of laying hen cecal contents and rumen fluid from cattle and sheep. In the first experiment, one of the three nitro compound was added to incubations containing cecal contents from laying hens supplemented with either alfalfa (AF) or layer feed (LF). Both feed material influenced VFA production and acetic acid was the primary component. Incubations with nitro ethanol and 2-nitropropanol (NP) had significantly (Pmethane production in the incubations although methane was lower (Pmethane production in incubations of both rumen fluids. The results show that NE impedes methane production, especially in incubations of chicken cecal contents.

  19. Monitoring rumen environment in finishing Lidia bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan García G

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this work was to characterize the changes in rumen pH and temperature in finishing Lidia breed bulls reared on pasture and fed a total mixed ration (TMR. Materials and methods. Five 4-year-old Lidia bulls received approximately 10 kg of the TMR per animal and day in the morning. Bulls could move freely in a 17-ha fenced area and express normally their feeding behaviour. Internal wireless boluses were used to collect pH and temperature values every 10 minutes throughout the measurement period. Results. Average daily pH was 6.2. Average and maximum daily temperatures were not high enough to be indicative of disease (infections of other pathologies. Conclusions. When rations and feeding systems are appropriately managed, Lidia bulls can be supplemented with concentrates in the finishing stages of their productive cycle without impairing the rumen environment.

  20. Immature rumen fluke cause deaths of ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-26

    Ewe deaths due to immature rumen flukeAmyloidosis in a Suffolk-cross lambHaemonchosis in Valais blacknose ewesDeaths and diarrhoea due to Salmonella Reading in 26-week-old giltsFeline dysautonomia in a kittenThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for August 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  1. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  2. The rumen plasmidome: A genetic communication hub for the rumen microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2012-05-01

    Plasmids are episomally replicating genetic elements which carry backbone genes that are important for their replication and maintenance within their host, and accessory genes that might confer an advantage to their host in its ecological niche. As such, they are often perceived as a powerful evolutionary force, which horizontally introduces new traits into bacterial cells and genomes. In our recent publication "Insight into the rumen plasmidome" we characterized the metagenomic plasmid population of the bovine rumen microbial ecological niche. The rumen is the first compartment of the digestive tract of ruminants; it functions as a pre-gastric anaerobic fermentation chamber, where plant fibers are degraded and converted into chemical compounds which are subsequently absorbed and digested by the animal.

  3. Tropical legume supplementation influences microbial protein synthesis and rumen ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phesatcha, K; Wanapat, M

    2017-06-01

    Four rumen-fistulated male swamp buffaloes, 5-year-old with initiated live weight at 360 ± 12 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate the effect of feeding high level of dried Leucaena leaf (DLL) on feed intake, fermentation efficiency and microbial protein synthesis. The dietary treatments were the feeding levels of DLL at 0, 2, 4 and 6 kg/head/day. All buffaloes were supplemented with concentrate mixtures at 0.1% of body weight, and rice straw was fed ad libitum with the availability of water and mineral block at all time. The results revealed that the total feed intake and nutrient digestibility were significantly improved with the increasing levels of DLL feeding, and the highest was in the buffaloes consuming DLL at 6 kg/head/day. Feeding high levels of DLL did not affect on ruminal pH and temperature, while ammonia nitrogen, blood urea nitrogen and volatile fatty acid concentration were significantly enhanced. Moreover, methane production was dramatically reduced by increasing levels of DLL feeding. Total direct counts of the micro-organism population were increased with the increasing levels of DLL feeding. According to the application of quantitative PCR to quantity cellulolytic bacteria (16S rRNA) targets, it was found that the population of total bacteria and Fibrobactor succinogenes was affected by treatments, while Ruminococcus flavefaciens and methanogen population were significantly decreased as buffaloes were fed with DLL. The nitrogen balance and microbial nitrogen supply were remarkably improved with the increasing levels of DLL feeding. Based on this study, it could be concluded that high levels of DLL feeding at 6 kg/head/day could enhance feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation efficiency and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw without any adverse effect. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  5. [Genetic diversity of microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2012-11-01

    Microorganisms are important components of the biosphere in maintaining the ecological balance. With the development of molecular biology techniques, researches on the microbial genetic diversity have been developed from morphological and/or protein levels to molecular level. The development of high-throughout sequencing and metagenomics technology not only provide more abundant information and powerful evidence for understanding microbial diversities, but also have great significance for rational utilization and protection of biological resources. The advances in research on genetic diversity of microorganisms, such as separation and identification, population genetic structure, speciation, phylogeny, and evolution of microorganisms, were discussed in this paper.

  6. Rumen bacterial community structure impacts feed efficiency in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed efficiency is a main indicator of economical and environmental sustainable beef production. Although the importance of the rumen microbiota on nutrient cycling to the animal is well recognized, our understanding of the influence of the rumen microbiome composition on feed efficiency is limited....

  7. Rumen fermentative activity in the goat and sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mitotic index of the rumen epithelium, are shown in. Table 2. The dramatic increase of gas production (about. IS-fold) observed on the first diet at the point of maximum. Table 1 Fermentation gas production rate, with or without added glucose and nitrate reduction capacity of rumen fluid from goat and sheep. Sampling time (h).

  8. Foreign Body Rumen Impaction with Indigestible Materials in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign Body Rumen Impaction with Indigestible Materials in Ruminants in Nigeria: A Review. ... Rumen impaction due to foreign indigestible materials has become one of the major gastro- intestinal disorders in ruminant livestock causing severe loss of production and high mortality rates. Foreign bodies affect the health of ...

  9. Rumen Manipulation for Enhanced Feed Utilization and Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    reported on volatile fatty production, increased total fatty acid production, enhanced proportion of propionate, and decreased methane production with subsequent decrease in rumen methanogens by Hart et al. (2008). Ethanol and methanol extracts of fennel and garlic have the potential to inhibit rumen methanogenesis, ...

  10. Morphological studies on rumen development in West African Dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the gross and light microscopic structures of rumen in fetal, neonatal and adult West African Dwarf (WAD) goats obtained from Nsukka and Igboeze South Local Government Areas (L.G.A) of Enugu State. After euthanasia the rumen was ligated, dissected out and the volume determined by flotation and ...

  11. The effects of different levels of sodium caseinate on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of peptide supplementation on rumen fermentation pattern, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis. Three rumen-cannulated. Holstein dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square experiment within 21 days period. The ruminal.

  12. concentrate ratio and rumen ammonia concentration on in situ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roffler, 1975; Roffler et al., 1976) for maximum microbial protein synthesis. Volatile fatty acid concentrations in rumen fluid were not affected by rumen ammonia concentration (P,> 0.05), but the concentration of propionic acid increased (P < 0.05) as dietary roughage was replac"d by concentrate, and acelate concentra-.

  13. Variation among Dairy Cows in Rumen Liquid Fermentation Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jan; Løvendahl, Peter; Kristensen, Lise

    Volatile fatty acids are the main energy product from rumen fermentation. This study investigated the individuality of VFA concentrations in samples of rumen fluid obtained from 10 Holstein cows using a esophageal probe to take samples repeatedly over a 7 week period. Systematic changes were seen...

  14. The effects of different levels of sodium caseinate on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of peptide supplementation on rumen fermentation pattern, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis. Three rumen-cannulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square experiment within 21 days period. The ruminal infusion of sodium ...

  15. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was intended to evaluate in situ rumen degradability characteristic of soybean curd residue (SCR) and peppermint compared to rice straw, which are used as a functional feed source for beef cattle for high quality beef production. Two steers were fitted with rumen and duodenum cannulae and in situ degradable ...

  16. Changes in rumen bacterial communities and rumen chemistry in primiparous Holstein cows during the periparturient period

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to study the changes in: 1) rumen bacterial community composition (BCC) and fermentation as influenced by feeding regimen and period; and 2) pH and VFA profiles among selected cows with minimum (stable) and maximum variation (unstable) between pre- and post-parturie...

  17. Variation in rumen fermentation and the rumen wall during the transition period in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; France, J.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Strong adaptive changes occur in the peri-parturient dairy cow related to a marked rise in dry matter intake and alteration in diet composition after calving. Early lactation dairy cattle are susceptible to metabolic disorders and impaired rumen function during the transition period, with

  18. Cooperation among microorganisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Wingreen, Ned S.; Levin, Simon A

    2006-01-01

    Understanding cooperation among microorganisms presents conceptual and mathematical challenges at the interface of evolutionary biology and the theory of emergent properties of independent agents, two of the most exciting areas in modern mathematical biology.

  19. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  20. Microorganisms (Microbes), Role of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms (microbes) are those life forms too small to be seen by the naked eye; that is, those that require a microscope or other form of magnification in order to be observed. The term microorganism is thus a functional description rather than a taxonomic one, and the grouping includes...... a wide variety of organisms. The article focuses on the functional role of microbes in the biosphere and in different types of habitats - especially in terms of flow of energy and matter....

  1. Micro-Organ Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Chang, Robert C. (Inventor); Starly, Binil (Inventor); Culbertson, Christopher (Inventor); Holtorf, Heidi L. (Inventor); Sun, Wei (Inventor); Leslie, Julia (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for fabricating a micro-organ device comprises providing a microscale support having one or more microfluidic channels and one or more micro-chambers for housing a micro-organ and printing a micro-organ on the microscale support using a cell suspension in a syringe controlled by a computer-aided tissue engineering system, wherein the cell suspension comprises cells suspended in a solution containing a material that functions as a three-dimensional scaffold. The printing is performed with the computer-aided tissue engineering system according to a particular pattern. The micro-organ device comprises at least one micro-chamber each housing a micro-organ; and at least one microfluidic channel connected to the micro-chamber, wherein the micro-organ comprises cells arranged in a configuration that includes microscale spacing between portions of the cells to facilitate diffusion exchange between the cells and a medium supplied from the at least one microfluidic channel.

  2. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hook, S.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Wright, A.G.; McBride, B.W.; France, J.

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few

  3. The effect of age on in sacco estimates of rumen dry matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Keywords: calves, protein degradability, rumen volatile fatty acids, rumen pH, rumen ammonia nitrogen. #Author to whom .... solution or 1 ml of a 10 % (m/v) NaOH solution for rumen ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) and VFA analysis, ..... fermentation end-products and digesta kinetics in calves weaned at 5 weeks of age. J. Dairy ...

  4. Effect of starch fermentation in the rumen on voluntary intake of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of starch fermentation in the rumen on voluntary intake of roughage and kinetics of digestion* ... Regardless of diet, the negative effects of starch on intake could not be ascribed to reduced rumen fill, nor to a reduced concentration of rumen ammonia. Furthermore, pH of the rumen contents was not lowered. Rate of ...

  5. Rumen content stratification in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Cathrine; Clauss, Marcus; Bertelsen, Mads F; Weisbjerg, Martin R; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Ruminants differ in the degree of rumen content stratification, with 'cattle-types' (i.e., the grazing and intermediate feeding ruminants) having stratified content, whereas 'moose-types' (i.e., the browsing ruminants) have unstratified content. The feeding ecology, as well as the digestive morphophysiology of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), suggest that it is a 'moose-type' ruminant. Correspondingly, the giraffe should have an unstratified rumen content and an even rumen papillation pattern. Digesta samples were collected from along the digestive tract of 27 wild-caught giraffes kept in bomas for up to 2months, and 10 giraffes kept in zoological gardens throughout their lives. Samples were analysed for concentration of dry matter, fibre fractions, volatile fatty acids and NH3, as well as mean particle size and pH. There was no difference between the dorsal and ventral rumen region in any of these parameters, indicating homogenous rumen content in the giraffes. In addition to the digesta samples, samples of dorsal rumen, ventral rumen and atrium ruminis mucosa were collected and the papillary surface enlargement factor was determined, as a proxy for content stratification. The even rumen papillation pattern observed also supported the concept of an unstratified rumen content in giraffes. Zoo giraffes had a slightly more uneven papillation pattern than boma giraffes. This finding could not be matched by differences in physical characteristics of the rumen content, probably due to an influence of fasting time ante mortem on these parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Xiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT of ruminants compared to non-ruminants? Methods. Transcriptome data from 11 tissues covering the sheep GIT, two stratified epithelial and two control tissues, was analysed using principal components to cluster tissues based on gene expression profile similarity. Expression profiles of genes along the sheep GIT were used to generate a network to identify genes enriched for expression in different compartments of the GIT. The data from sheep was compared to similar data sets from two non-ruminants, pigs (closely related and humans (more distantly related. Results. The rumen transcriptome clustered with the skin and tonsil, but not the GIT transcriptomes, driven by genes from the epidermal differentiation complex, and genes encoding stratified epithelium keratins and innate immunity proteins. By analysing all of the gene expression profiles across tissues together 16 major clusters were identified. The strongest of these, and consistent with the high turnover rate of the GIT, showed a marked enrichment of cell cycle process genes (P = 1.4 E−46, across the whole GIT, relative to liver and muscle, with highest expression in the caecum followed by colon and rumen. The expression patterns of several membrane transporters (chloride, zinc, nucleosides, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and bile acids along the GIT was very similar in sheep, pig and humans. In contrast, short chain fatty acid uptake and metabolism appeared to be

  7. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ruidong; Oddy, Victor Hutton; Archibald, Alan L; Vercoe, Phillip E; Dalrymple, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification) and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants compared to non-ruminants? Methods. Transcriptome data from 11 tissues covering the sheep GIT, two stratified epithelial and two control tissues, was analysed using principal components to cluster tissues based on gene expression profile similarity. Expression profiles of genes along the sheep GIT were used to generate a network to identify genes enriched for expression in different compartments of the GIT. The data from sheep was compared to similar data sets from two non-ruminants, pigs (closely related) and humans (more distantly related). Results. The rumen transcriptome clustered with the skin and tonsil, but not the GIT transcriptomes, driven by genes from the epidermal differentiation complex, and genes encoding stratified epithelium keratins and innate immunity proteins. By analysing all of the gene expression profiles across tissues together 16 major clusters were identified. The strongest of these, and consistent with the high turnover rate of the GIT, showed a marked enrichment of cell cycle process genes (P = 1.4 E-46), across the whole GIT, relative to liver and muscle, with highest expression in the caecum followed by colon and rumen. The expression patterns of several membrane transporters (chloride, zinc, nucleosides, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and bile acids) along the GIT was very similar in sheep, pig and humans. In contrast, short chain fatty acid uptake and metabolism appeared to be different

  8. Eubacterium rangiferina, a novel usnic acid-resistant bacterium from the reindeer rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundset, Monica A.; Kohn, Alexandra; Mathiesen, Svein D.; Præsteng, Kirsti E.

    2008-08-01

    Reindeer are able to eat and utilize lichens as an important source of energy and nutrients. In the current study, the activities of antibiotic secondary metabolites including usnic, antranoric, fumarprotocetraric, and lobaric acid commonly found in lichens were tested against a collection of 26 anaerobic rumen bacterial isolates from reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus tarandus) using the agar diffusion method. The isolates were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences. Usnic acid had a potent antimicrobial effect against 25 of the isolates, belonging to Clostridiales, Enterococci, and Streptococci. Isolates of Clostridia and Streptococci were also susceptible to atranoric and lobaric acid. However, one isolate (R3_91_1) was found to be resistant to usnic, antranoric, fumarprotocetraric, and lobaric acid. R3_91_1 was also seen invading and adhering to lichen particles when grown in a liquid anaerobic culture as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. This was a Gram-negative, nonmotile rod (0.2-0.7 × 2.0-3.5 μm) with a deoxyribonucleic acid G + C content of 47.0 mol% and main cellular fatty acids including 15:0 anteiso-dimethyl acetal (DMA), 16:0 iso-fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), 13:0 iso-3OH FAME, and 17:0 anteiso-FAME, not matching any of the presently known profiles in the MIDI database. Combined, the phenotypic and genotypic traits including the 16S rRNA gene sequence show that R3_91_1 is a novel species inside the order Clostridiales within the family Lachnospiraceae, for which we propose the name Eubacterium rangiferina. This is the first record of a rumen bacterium able to tolerate and grow in the presence of usnic acid, indicating that the rumen microorganisms in these animals have adapted mechanisms to deal with lichen secondary metabolites, well known for their antimicrobial and toxic effects.

  9. Effect of rare earth elements on feed digestibility, rumen fermentation, and purine derivatives in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Xun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of rare earth elements (REE on feed digestibility, rumen fermentation, and urinary purine derivatives (PDs in sheep. Eight sheep (44.58±2.9 kg of body weight fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design 20-day experiment. Sheep were fed a basal diet containing 100, 200 and 300 mg REE-citrate per kg dry matter (DM. Mixture of REE mainly consisted of cerium (56.8%, lanthanum (35.0% and praseodymium (6.5%. Ruminal pH value was linearly (P<0.01 and quadratically (P<0.01 decreased, and ammonia N concentration (9.73 to 11.83 mg/100 mL was quadratically (P<0.05 decreased, whereas total volatile fatty acids concentration was linearly increased with increasing REE supplementation (P<0.05. The ratio of acetate to propionate was linearly (P<0.01 and quadratically (P<0.01 decreased due to increase of propionate concentration (P<0.05. In situ ruminal neutral detergent fibre (aNDF degradation of Leymus chinensis was improved (P<0.01, but the in situ ruminal crude protein (CP degradation of soybean meal was decreased by feeding REE (P<0.01. Moreover, digestibility of DM, organic matter, aNDF, acid detergent fibre and CP in the total tract and urinary excretion of PD were also linearly (P<0.01 and quadratically (P<0.01 increased with increasing REE addition. In conclusion, supplementation of the basal diet with REE improved rumen fermentation and feed digestion in sheep. It was suggested that REE stimulated rumen microbial activity, digestive microorganisms or enzyme activity in a dose-dependent manner. The optimum supplemental dose of REE was about 200 mg/kg dietary DM in sheep.

  10. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  11. Quantitative analysis of cellulose degradation and growth of cellulolytic bacteria in the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James B; Muck, Richard E; Weimer, Paul J

    2009-02-01

    Ruminant animals digest cellulose via a symbiotic relationship with ruminal microorganisms. Because feedstuffs only remain in the rumen for a short time, the rate of cellulose digestion must be very rapid. This speed is facilitated by rumination, a process that returns food to the mouth to be rechewed. By decreasing particle size, the cellulose surface area can be increased by up to 10(6)-fold. The amount of cellulose digested is then a function of two competing rates, namely the digestion rate (K(d)) and the rate of passage of solids from the rumen (K(p)). Estimation of bacterial growth on cellulose is complicated by several factors: (1) energy must be expended for maintenance and growth of the cells, (2) only adherent cells are capable of degrading cellulose and (3) adherent cells can provide nonadherent cells with cellodextrins. Additionally, when ruminants are fed large amounts of cereal grain along with fiber, ruminal pH can decrease to a point where cellulolytic bacteria no longer grow. A dynamic model based on STELLA software is presented. This model evaluates all of the major aspects of ruminal cellulose degradation: (1) ingestion, digestion and passage of feed particles, (2) maintenance and growth of cellulolytic bacteria and (3) pH effects.

  12. Bioplastics from microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo, José M; García, Belén; Sandoval, Angel; Naharro, Germán; Olivera, Elías R

    2003-06-01

    The term 'biomaterials' includes chemically unrelated products that are synthesised by microorganisms (or part of them) under different environmental conditions. One important family of biomaterials is bioplastics. These are polyesters that are widely distributed in nature and accumulate intracellularly in microorganisms in the form of storage granules, with physico-chemical properties resembling petrochemical plastics. These polymers are usually built from hydroxy-acyl-CoA derivatives via different metabolic pathways. Depending on their microbial origin, bioplastics differ in their monomer composition, macromolecular structure and physical properties. Most of them are biodegradable and biocompatible, which makes them extremely interesting from the biotechnological point of view.

  13. Kinetics of digestion of low-quality forage grazed by beef cattle fed supplements containing increasing levels of rumen undegradable protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael dos Santos Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the degradation kinetics and microbial efficiency of beef cattle grazing on low-quality forage and receiving supplements with different levels of rumen undegradable protein (RUP. The animals grazed on palisade grass pasture solely or this pasture and supplement containing 40 or 60 g of RUP per 100 g of crude protein (CP. The degradation profiles of neutral detergent fiber, fiber carbohydrates, and neutral detergent insoluble protein were interpreted kinetically by using a decreasing logistic model. Treatments (no supplement, or RUP at 40 or 60 g−1 100 g CP did not affect rumen fill; however, the increase in the indigestible fiber carbohydrate fraction that occurred at the expense of the digestible fiber carbohydrate fraction resulted in a greater rumen fill effect. The palisade grass showed a significant proportion of its nitrogen in the form of slowly degradable protein as neutral detergent insoluble protein, which amounted to 26 g per 100 g CP. Supplementation with 40 g of RUP per 100 g CP decresead the indigestible fraction of the low-quality forage. However, the absence of a rumen-fill effect demonstrates that the additional supply of nutrients contributes greatly to increasing growth efficiency and use of the available energy from the forage by the ruminal microorganisms.

  14. Effects of spent craft brewers’ yeast on fermentation and methane production by rumen microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key component of beer brewing and a major by-product. The leftover, spent brewers’ yeast, from large breweries has been used for some time as a protein supplement in cattle, however the possible advantages of spent yeast from smaller craft breweries, containing much hig...

  15. Natural variation in methane emission of sheep fed on a lucerne pellet diet is unrelated to rumen ciliate community type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Pinares-Patiño, Cesar S; Seedorf, Henning; Kirk, Michelle R; McEwan, John C; Janssen, Peter H

    2016-03-01

    Only limited information is available on the roles of different rumen ciliate community types, first described by Eadie in 1962, in enteric methane (CH4) formation by their ruminant hosts. If the different types were differentially associated with CH4 formation, then ciliate community typing could be used to identify naturally high and low CH4-emitting animals. Here we measured the CH4 yields [g CH4 (kg feed dry matter intake, DMI)(-1)] of 118 sheep fed a standard pelleted lucerne diet at two different times, at least 2 weeks apart. There were significant differences (P sheep selected as high [16.7 ± 1.5 g CH4 (kg DMI)(-1)] and low emitters [13.3 ± 1.5 g CH4 (kg DMI)(-1)]. A rumen sample was collected after each of the two measurements, and ciliate composition was analysed using barcoded 454 Titanium pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA genes. The genera found, in order of mean relative abundance, were Epidinium, Entodinium, Dasytricha, Eudiplodinium, Polyplastron, Isotricha and Anoplodinium-Diplodinium, none of which was significantly correlated with the CH4 emissions ranking associated with the rumen sample. Ciliate communities naturally assembled into four types (A, AB, B and O), characterized by the presence and absence of key genera. There was no difference in CH4 yield between sheep that harboured different ciliate community types, suggesting that these did not underlie the natural variation in CH4 yields. Further research is needed to unravel the nature of interactions between ciliate protozoa and other rumen micro-organisms, which may ultimately lead to contrasting CH4 emission phenotypes.

  16. Recent developments in nucleic acid based techniques for use in rumen manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher McSweeney

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid-based techniques which can be used to characterise complex microbial communities without incubation are now being employed regularly in ruminant nutrition studies. Conventional culture-based methods for enumerating rumen microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, protozoa, and fungi have been superseded and are now used mainly to obtain pure isolates of novel organisms and reference strains that are required for the development and validation of the nucleic acid approaches. These reference strains are also essential for physiological studies of the lifestyle of the organisms as well as sources of genomic DNA and RNA that can be analysed for functional gene activity. The foundation of the molecular ecology techniques is 16S/18S rDNA sequence analysis which has provided a phylogenetically based classification scheme for enumeration and identification of microbial community members. The use of this marker gene in assays involving the use of single nucleic acid probes or primer sets is rapidly evolving to high throughput approaches such as microarray analysis and new generation sequencing technologies. While these analyses are very informative for determining the composition of the microbial community and monitoring changes in population size, they can only infer function based on these observations. The focus of nucleic acid research is now shifting to the functional analysis of the ecosystem which involves the measurement of functional genes and their expression in the predominant or specific members of the rumen microbial community. Functional gene studies are less developed than 16S rDNA-based analysis of community structure. Also for gene expression studies there are inherent problems involved in extracting high quality RNA from digesta, and priming cDNA synthesis from bacterial mRNA. This paper reviews nucleic acid based molecular methods which have recently been developed for studying the structure and function of rumen microbial

  17. Study of the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on rumen fermentation and microbial protein contribution to the chyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, A; Abecia, L; Holtrop, G; Guada, J A; Castrillo, C; de la Fuente, G; Balcells, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of presence or absence of protozoa on rumen fermentation and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis under different diets. Of 20 twin paired lambs, 1 lamb of each pair was isolated from the ewe within 24 h after birth and reared in a protozoa-free environment (n = 10), whereas their respective twin-siblings remained with the ewe (faunated, n = 10). When lambs reached 6 mo of age, 5 animals of each group were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 experimental diets consisting of either alfalfa hay as the sole diet, or 50:50 mixed with ground barley grain according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. After 15 d of adaptation to the diet, the animals were euthanized and total rumen and abomasal contents were sampled to estimate rumen microbial synthesis using C(31) alkane as flow marker. Different ((15)N and purine bases) and a novel (recombinant DNA sequences) microbial markers, combined with several microbial reference extracts (rumen protozoa, liquid and solid associated bacteria) were evaluated. Absence of rumen protozoa modified the rumen fermentation pattern and decreased total tract OM and NDF digestibility in 2.0 and 5.1 percentage points, respectively. The effect of defaunation on microbial N flow was weak, however, and was dependent on the microbial marker and microbial reference extract considered. Faunated lambs fed with mixed diet showed the greatest rumen protozoal concentration and the least efficient microbial protein synthesis (29% less than the other treatments), whereas protozoa-free lambs fed with mixed diet presented the smallest ammonia concentration and 34% greater efficiency of N utilization than the other treatments. Although (15)N gave the most precise estimates of microbial synthesis, the use of recombinant DNA sequences represents an alternative that allows separate quantification of the bacteria and protozoa contributions. This marker showed that presence of protozoa decrease the

  18. In sacco degradability of grass hay and rumen characteristics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disappearance of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and degradation kinetics were determined. Rumen pH of Diets 1 and 2 were significantly different (P 0.05). For DM degradability the ...

  19. La capacidad desfaunante del extracto de plantas en el rumen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ley de Coss, Alejandro; Martinez Tinajero, Jaime Jorge; Marroquin Agreda, Francisco Javier; Garcia Castillo, Carlos Gumaro; Montanez Valdez, Oziel Dante; Guerra Medina, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la capacidad de eliminar protozoarios del rumen con el uso del extracto soluble en agua de las plantas Buddleia cordata, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Datura...

  20. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    김성진

    2012-10-05

    Bostauruscoreanae), each weighing approximately 500 ± 2.0 kg, that were fitted with rumen and duodenum cannulae, at the National. Institute of Animal Science (NIAS, RDA), Korea. Experimental steers in metabolic cages were ...

  1. The effect of dietary protein degradability and rumen inert fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 30. The effect of dietary protein degradability and rumen inert fat supplementation on calf performance ... mass gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratios in veal calves, as well as digestibility coefficients, carcass masses.

  2. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID of dry matter, crude protein (CP, and amino acids (AA of cottonseed meal (CSM, sunflower seed meal (SFSM and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01. The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01. Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  3. Dynamique et intensité de biotransformation dans le rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Serment, Amélie

    2012-01-01

    “Ruminal biotransformation” is a concept aggregating all the reactions occurring in the rumen (degradation, synthesis and conversion). These reactions are driven by three major driving forces: laws of chemical kinetics, thermodynamics and the dynamics of microbial populations. The principal objective of the thesis was to study how a dietary factor (percentage of concentrate in the ration, oil supplementation) can modify rumen function and the ruminal biotransformation of dietary components in...

  4. Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites in bulls fed rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in rumen - cannulated bulls fed rice straw or straw supplemented with urea, groundnut hay or cotton seed cake. Total dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 7.55 Lo 8.29kg/d or 3.66 to 4.04% of liveweight and from 6.48 to 7. 21 kg/d for organic matter.

  5. Resistance of Soil-Bound Prions to Rumen Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Samuel E.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Bartz, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Before prion uptake and infection can occur in the lower gastrointestinal system, ingested prions are subjected to anaerobic digestion in the rumen of cervids and bovids. The susceptibility of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion has not been evaluated previously. In this study, prions from infectious brain homogenates as well as prions bound to a range of soils and soil minerals were subjected to in vitro rumen digestion, and changes in PrP levels were measured via western blot. Binding to clay appeared to protect noninfectious hamster PrPc from complete digestion, while both unbound and soil-bound infectious PrPSc proved highly resistant to rumen digestion. In addition, no change in intracerebral incubation period was observed following active rumen digestion of unbound hamster HY TME prions and HY TME prions bound to a silty clay loam soil. These results demonstrate that both unbound and soil-bound prions readily survive rumen digestion without a reduction in infectivity, further supporting the potential for soil-mediated transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) and scrapie in the environment. PMID:22937149

  6. Resistance of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E Saunders

    Full Text Available Before prion uptake and infection can occur in the lower gastrointestinal system, ingested prions are subjected to anaerobic digestion in the rumen of cervids and bovids. The susceptibility of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion has not been evaluated previously. In this study, prions from infectious brain homogenates as well as prions bound to a range of soils and soil minerals were subjected to in vitro rumen digestion, and changes in PrP levels were measured via western blot. Binding to clay appeared to protect noninfectious hamster PrP(c from complete digestion, while both unbound and soil-bound infectious PrP(Sc proved highly resistant to rumen digestion. In addition, no change in intracerebral incubation period was observed following active rumen digestion of unbound hamster HY TME prions and HY TME prions bound to a silty clay loam soil. These results demonstrate that both unbound and soil-bound prions readily survive rumen digestion without a reduction in infectivity, further supporting the potential for soil-mediated transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD and scrapie in the environment.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of methanogens from the bovine rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Robert J

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in methanogens from ruminants has resulted from the role of methane in global warming and from the fact that cattle typically lose 6 % of ingested energy as methane. Several species of methanogens have been isolated from ruminants. However they are difficult to culture, few have been consistently found in high numbers, and it is likely that major species of rumen methanogens are yet to be identified. Results Total DNA from clarified bovine rumen fluid was amplified using primers specific for Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of 41 rDNA sequences identified three clusters of methanogens. The largest cluster contained two distinct subclusters with rDNA sequences similar to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium 16S rDNA. A second cluster contained sequences related to 16S rDNA from Methanosphaera stadtmanae, an organism not previously described in the rumen. The third cluster contained rDNA sequences that may form a novel group of rumen methanogens. Conclusions The current set of 16S rRNA hybridization probes targeting methanogenic Archaea does not cover the phylogenetic diversity present in the rumen and possibly other gastro-intestinal tract environments. New probes and quantitative PCR assays are needed to determine the distribution of the newly identified methanogen clusters in rumen microbial communities.

  8. Composition and similarity of bovine rumen microbiota across individual animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Jami

    Full Text Available The bovine rumen houses a complex microbiota which is responsible for cattle's remarkable ability to convert indigestible plant mass into food products. Despite this ecosystem's enormous significance for humans, the composition and similarity of bacterial communities across different animals and the possible presence of some bacterial taxa in all animals' rumens have yet to be determined. We characterized the rumen bacterial populations of 16 individual lactating cows using tag amplicon pyrosequencing. Our data showed 51% similarity in bacterial taxa across samples when abundance and occurrence were analyzed using the Bray-Curtis metric. By adding taxon phylogeny to the analysis using a weighted UniFrac metric, the similarity increased to 82%. We also counted 32 genera that are shared by all samples, exhibiting high variability in abundance across samples. Taken together, our results suggest a core microbiome in the bovine rumen. Furthermore, although the bacterial taxa may vary considerably between cow rumens, they appear to be phylogenetically related. This suggests that the functional requirement imposed by the rumen ecological niche selects taxa that potentially share similar genetic features.

  9. Inactivation of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamora, Stella Maris; Guerrero, Sandra N.; Schenk, Marcela; Raffellini, Silvia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    Minimal processing techniques for food preservation allow better retention of product flavor, texture, color, and nutrient content than comparable conventional treatments. A wide range of novel alternative physical factors have been intensely investigated in the last two decades. These physical factors can cause inactivation of microorganisms at ambient or sublethal temperatures (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, and ultraviolet light). These technologies have been reported to reduce microorganism population in foods while avoiding the deleterious effects of severe heating on quality. Among technologies, high-energy ultrasound (i.e., intensities higher than 1 W/cm2, frequencies between 18 and 100 kHz) has attracted considerable interest for food preservation applications (Mason et al., 1996; Povey and Mason, 1998).

  10. The Effect of Stimulative Substance on the Content of Components in Cow´s Milk and the Number of Ciliates in Rumen Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hnisová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the impact of the liquid Biopolym FZT on quality components in cow´s milk and the number of microorganisms, respectively ciliates in the rumen fluid. Biopolym was, calibrated by a milking robot, given to dairy cows in a selected breeding in South Bohemian region for a selected period of time. The constituents of milk, there was a slight increase in both values in milk fat, and protein values. The number of ciliates in 1 ml of rumen fluid was higher in the experimental group (241 000 than in the control group (130 000.

  11. Efficacy of different essential oils in modulating rumen fermentation in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Roy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study was conducted to examine the modulatory effect of different essential oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using wheat straw based diet (concentrate: wheat straw 50:50. Materials and Methods: Four essential oils i.e. cinnamon, garlic, oregano and rosemary oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/litre (ppm of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique. Total gas production, methane production, nutrient degradability, volatile fatty acid (VFA production and ammonia nitrogen concentration were studied in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor. Results: Results indicated that all four essential oils decreased gas production significantly (P<0.05 at 600ppm concentration. However, in case of garlic oil, 300 ppm concentration was also found to be effective in decreasing total gas production. Reduction in methane production was found maximum (P<0.05 at higher doses in most of the oils. Maximum reduction in methane was noticed with garlic oil at 600ppm dose. Ammonia-N concentration was also decreased significantly (P<0.05 with essential oils and was found minimum with oregano oil at 600 ppm dose. Partition factor was found to be significantly (P<0.05 higher in 600 ppm concentration of garlic and oregano oil. The degradability of dry matter decreased significantly with higher concentration of essential oil in most of treatment combinations. Conclusion: Supplementation with different essential oils on wheat straw based diet modulates rumen fermentation and reduced methane and ammonia- N production and improved utilization of nutrients.

  12. Metagenomics detects functional shifts in the bovine rumen microbiota in response to propionate intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimizing rumen microbial ecosystem output is essential towards improved ruminant agriculture. Ruminal infusion or intake of propionate, one of the predominant volatile fatty acids, has important implications for host physiology. However, how the rumen microbiota responds to propionate administrat...

  13. Rumen passage kinetics of forage and concentrate derived fiber in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    Rumen passage kinetics of forage and concentrate fiber were analyzed to determine intrinsic feed effects and extrinsic ration effects on the retention time of fiber in the rumen. Sixteen Danish Holstein cows (557 + 37 kg body weight, 120 + 21 days in milk, mean + SD), 8 fitted with ruminal cannulas...... fitted to 1 and 2 pool models. Each cow received Yb-labeled fiber of the forage fed in the ration, Sm-labeled fiber of the forage not fed in the ration and concentrate fiber labeled with La, all as a single pulse dose. Nineteen fecal grab samples were taken per cow. Rumen liquid passage was studied using...... Cr-EDTA single pulse dosed into the rumen, followed by sampling of rumen liquid from both, the ventral and medial rumen. Rumen mean retention time did not differ between forages when based on Yb-excretion profiles but was numerically longer for grass silage than corn silage based rations using rumen...

  14. Molecular diversity of rumen bacterial communities from tannin-rich and fiber-rich forage fed domestic Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    tannins. Moreover, the mechanism and biological functions of Prevotella spp. in the rumen ecosystem, and synergistic interactions with other microorganisms should be noticed. PMID:23834656

  15. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on alfalfa nutrient degradation characteristics and rumen microbial populations of steers fed diets with different concentrate-to-forage ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Gengzhi; Chang, Ying; Zhao, Liping; Zhou, Zhenming; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) constitutes an effective additive for animal production; its probiotic effect may be related to the concentrate-to-forage ratio (CTFR). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of S. cerevisiae (SC) on fiber degradation and rumen microbial populations in steers fed diets with different levels of dietary concentrate. Ten Simmental × Local crossbred steers (450 ± 50 kg BW) were assigned to a control group or an SC group. Both groups were fed the same basal diet but the SC group received SC supplementation (8 × 10(9) cfu/h/d through the ruminal fistula) following a two-period crossover design. Each period consisted of four phases, each of which lasted 17 d: 10 d for dietary adaptation, 6 d for degradation study, and 1 d for rumen sample collection. From the 1(st) to the 4(th) phase, steers were fed in a stepwise fashion with increasing CTFRs, i.e., 30:70, 50:50, 70:30, and 90:10. The kinetics of dry matter and fiber degradation of alfalfa pellets were evaluated; the rumen microbial populations were detected using real-time PCR. The results revealed no significant (P > 0.05) interactions between dietary CTFR and SC for most parameters. Dietary CTFR had a significant effect (P degradation characteristics of alfalfa pellets and the copies of rumen microorganism; the increasing concentrate level resulted in linear, quadratic or cubic variation trend for these parameters. SC supplementation significantly (P degradation rates (c DM, c NDF) and NDF effective degradability (EDNDF). Compared with the control group, there was an increasing trend of rumen fungi and protozoa in SC group (P effect on degradation characteristics of forage and rumen microbial population. S. cerevisiae had positive effects on DM and NDF degradation rate or effective degradability of forage; S. cerevisiae increased rumen total bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and lactate-utilizing bacteria but reduced starch-degrading and

  16. The Effect of DNA Extraction Methods on Observed Microbial Communities from Fibrous and Liquid Rumen Fractions of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jueeli D. Vaidya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA based methods have been widely used to study the complexity of the rumen microbiota, and it is well known that the method of DNA extraction is a critical step in enabling accurate assessment of this complexity. Rumen fluid (RF and fibrous content (FC fractions differ substantially in terms of their physical nature and associated microorganisms. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effect of four DNA extraction methods (RBB, PBB, FDSS, PQIAmini differing in cell lysis and/or DNA recovery methods on the observed microbial diversity in RF and FC fractions using samples from four rumen cannulated dairy cows fed 100% grass silage (GS100, 67% GS and 33% maize silage (GS67MS33, 33% GS and 67% MS (GS33MS67, or 100% MS (MS100. An ANOVA statistical test was applied on DNA quality and yield measurements, and it was found that the DNA yield was significantly affected by extraction method (p < 0.001 and fraction (p < 0.001. The 260/280 ratio was not affected by extraction (p = 0.08 but was affected by fraction (p = 0.03. On the other hand, the 260/230 ratio was affected by extraction method (p < 0.001 but not affected by fraction (p = 0.8. However, all four extraction procedures yielded DNA suitable for further analysis of bacterial, archaeal and anaerobic fungal communities using quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of relevant taxonomic markers. Redundancy analysis (RDA of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data at the family level showed that there was a significant effect of rumen fraction (p = 0.012, and that PBB (p = 0.012 and FDSS (p = 0.024 also significantly contributed to explaining the observed variation in bacterial community composition. Whilst the DNA extraction method affected the apparent bacterial community composition, no single extraction method could be concluded to be ineffective. No obvious effect of DNA extraction method on the anaerobic fungi or archaea was observed, although fraction effects were evident for both. In

  17. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  18. In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics and Rumen Microbial Population of Diet Supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rumen Microbe Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Riyanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to select three strains of probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to evaluate the effect of S. cerevisiae and rumen bacteria isolate (MR4 supplementation and their combination on rumen fermentability and rumen microbial population. Experiment 1 was designed in a 4 x 5 factorial randomized block design with 3 replications. The first factor was S. cerevisiae strain consisted of control treatment (without S. cerevisiae supplementation, NBRC 10217, NRRL Y 567 and NRRL 12618, and the second factor was incubation time consisted of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 h. Ration was basal ration for feedlot with forage to concentrate ratio (F:C= 60:40. Dosage of each treatment with S. cerevisiae was 5 x 1010 cfu/kg ration. Experiment 2 was designed in randomized block design with 4 treatments: P0= basal ration of feedlot; P1= P0 + S. cerevisiae; P2= P0 + MR4 isolate (5 x 107 cfu/kg ration; P3= P0 + S. cerevisiae and MR4 isolate. The result of experiment 1 showed that supplementation of S. cerevisiae NRRL 12618 had the highest S. cerevisiae population and increased rumen bacterial population. This strain was selected as probiotic in experiment 2. The result from experiment 2 showed that probiotic supplementation stabilized rumen pH and produced the highest NH3 concentration (P<0.05 and bacterial population (P<0.05. As compared with control, all treatments reduced protozoa population (P<0.05. Combination of S. cerevisiae and MR4 probiotics produced the highest total volatile fatty acids (VFA and isovalerate (P<0.05. It was concluded that strain S. cerevisiae NRRL 12618 had potential as probiotic yeast. Supplementation with this strain increased fermentability, rumen isoacid and decreased A:P ratio. Those abilities could be improved with MR4 rumen isolate probiotic.

  19. Rumen fluid metabolomics analysis associated with feed efficiency on crossbred steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rumen has a central role in the efficiency of digestion in ruminants. To identify potential differences in rumen function that lead to differences in feed efficiency, rumen fluid metabolomic analysis by LC-MS and multivariate/univariate statistical analysis were used to identify differences in r...

  20. Board-invited review: Rumen microbiology: Leading the way in microbial ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Hungate, considered the father of rumen microbiology, was the first to initiate a systematic exploration of the microbial ecosystem of the rumen, but he was not alone. The techniques he developed to isolate and identify cellulose-digesting bacteria from the rumen have had a major impact not ...

  1. Sorghum grain supplementation affects rumen pH of animals fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martin Aguerre

    Rumen pH and NH3-N concentration of sheep fed temperate pastures supplemented ... However, grain supplementation may alter rumen environment and affect ruminal pH of sheep (Moss et al., 1995; Du ..... digestibility, in sacco degradability, rumen fermentation and methane production in sheep at two levels of intake.

  2. Host-rumen microbe interactions may be leveraged to improve the productivity of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle rumen serves as a digestive bioreactor for the dairy cow, yet our knowledge of the microbial contents, ecology, and host selection within the rumen is only precursory. This is despite the knowledge that the volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial crude protein (MCP) produced by rumen mic...

  3. RUMEN BACTERIAL AND PROTOZOAL RESPONSES TO INSECTICIDE SUBSTRATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WILLIAMS, P P; ROBBINS, J D; GUTIERREZ, J; DAVIS, R E

    1963-11-01

    Insecticides containing organophosphate, chlorinated hydrocarbon, and carbamate were tested with bovine ruminal ingesta fractions. Rumen bacteria exposed to insecticide levels of 0 to 500 ppm in rumen fluid for 4 hr were inoculated into rumen fluid-starch feed extract medium. No apparent significant bacterial count inhibitions were noted. Also, when insecticides were used as carbon sources at concentrations of 500 ppm in carbohydrate-limited media, no increases in bacterial counts were indicated. Warburg manometric data showed that paraffin oil-Triton X-155 preparations of dimethoate, Diazinon, lindane, Thiodan and Sevin stimulated gas production in holotrich protozoa. Entodinium simplex, an oligotrich, produced less gas with insecticide substrates per unit of dry weight than did an Isotricha sp. Rumen bacteria and plant debris fractions from ruminal ingesta provided with insecticides did not give increased manometric responses over the endogenous control vessels. Washed suspensions of I. intestinalis produced volatile fatty acids in excess of the endogenous suspensions when provided insecticide substrates. Thiodan dissimilation by I. intestinalis was followed colorimetrically with 15% loss in substrate in 1 hr of incubation at 39 C. Diazinon-C(14) substrate uptake was demonstrated with suspensions of E. simplex and I. intestinalis. Rumen ciliates are suggested as a possible means for screening out useful insecticides susceptible to microbial dissimilation for use on forage and other cattle-feed crops.

  4. Low-methane yield sheep have smaller rumens and shorter rumen retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goopy, John P; Donaldson, Alastair; Hegarty, Roger; Vercoe, Philip E; Haynes, Fay; Barnett, Mark; Oddy, V Hutton

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, following the measurement of methane emissions from 160 mature ewes three times, a subset of twenty ewes was selected for further emission and physiological studies. Ewes were selected on the basis of methane yield (MY; g CH4/kg DM intake) being low (Low MY: >1 sd below the mean; n 10) or high (High MY: >1 sd above the mean; n 10) when fed a blended chaff ration at a fixed feeding level (1·2-fold maintenance energy requirements). The difference between the Low- and High-MY groups observed at the time of selection was maintained (P= 0·001) when remeasured 1-7 months later during digesta kinetics studies. Low MY was associated with a shorter mean retention time of particulate (Psheep's rumens after an overnight fast revealed a trend towards the Low-MY sheep having more clearly demarcated rumen gas and liquid phases (P= 0·10). These findings indicate that the selection of ruminants for low MY may have important consequences for an animal's nutritional physiology.

  5. Toward Understanding Phage:Host Interactions in the Rumen; Complete Genome Sequences of Lytic Phages Infecting Rumen Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A. Gilbert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rumen is known to harbor dense populations of bacteriophages (phages predicted to be capable of infecting a diverse range of rumen bacteria. While bacterial genome sequencing projects are revealing the presence of phages which can integrate their DNA into the genome of their host to form stable, lysogenic associations, little is known of the genetics of phages which utilize lytic replication. These phages infect and replicate within the host, culminating in host lysis, and the release of progeny phage particles. While lytic phages for rumen bacteria have been previously isolated, their genomes have remained largely uncharacterized. Here we report the first complete genome sequences of lytic phage isolates specifically infecting three genera of rumen bacteria: Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, and Streptococcus. All phages were classified within the viral order Caudovirales and include two phage morphotypes, representative of the Siphoviridae and Podoviridae families. The phage genomes displayed modular organization and conserved viral genes were identified which enabled further classification and determination of closest phage relatives. Co-examination of bacterial host genomes led to the identification of several genes responsible for modulating phage:host interactions, including CRISPR/Cas elements and restriction-modification phage defense systems. These findings provide new genetic information and insights into how lytic phages may interact with bacteria of the rumen microbiome.

  6. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto and Different Components in Culture on Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Functional Bacteria In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Li, Jinan; Bu, Dengpan; Nan, Xuemei; Du, Hong

    2016-05-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto, their fermented products and media on rumen fermentation and rumen functional bacteria in vitro. Rumen fluid from three multiparous lactating Holstein cows was combined and transferred into serum bottles after diluted. Fifteen serum bottles were divided into five treatments, which were designed as following: CTR (the fermentation of 0.5 g TMR and ruminal fluids from dairy cows), LBS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu live Bacillus subtilis natto), ABS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto), BSC (CTR plus 1 ml Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation products without bacteria), and BSM (CTR plus 1 ml liquid fermentation medium). When separated from the culture, live Bacillus subtilis natto individually increased the concentrations of ammonia-N (P Bacillus subtilis natto has the similar function with the live bacteria except for the ratio of acetate and propionate. Except B. fibrisolvens, live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto did not influence or decreased the 16S rRNA gene quantification of the detected bacteria. BSC and BSM altered the relative expression of certain functional bacteria in the rumen. These results indicated that it was Bacillus subtilis natto thalli that played the important role in promoting rumen fermentation when applied as a probiotic in dairy ration.

  7. Effects of Synchronicity of Carbohydrate and Protein Degradation on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial Protein Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Seo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of in vitro studies were carried out to determine i the effects of enzyme and formaldehyde treatment on the degradation characteristics of carbohydrate and protein sources and on the synchronicity of these processes, and ii the effects of synchronizing carbohydrate and protein supply on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis (MPS in in vitro experiments. Untreated corn (C and enzyme-treated corn (EC were combined with soy bean meal with (ES and without (S enzyme treatment or formaldehyde treatment (FS. Six experimental feeds (CS, CES, CFS, ECS, ECES and ECFS with different synchrony indices were prepared. Highly synchronous diets had the greatest dry matter (DM digestibility when untreated corn was used. However, the degree of synchronicity did not influence DM digestibility when EC was mixed with various soybean meals. At time points of 12 h and 24 h of incubation, EC-containing diets showed lower ammonia-N concentrations than those of C-containing diets, irrespective of the degree of synchronicity, indicating that more efficient utilization of ammonia-N for MPS was achieved by ruminal microorganisms when EC was offered as a carbohydrate source. Within C-containing treatments, the purine base concentration increased as the diets were more synchronized. This effect was not observed when EC was offered. There were significant effects on VFA concentration of both C and S treatments and their interactions. Similar to purine concentrations, total VFA production and individual VFA concentration in the groups containing EC as an energy source was higher than those of other groups (CS, CES and CFS. The results of the present study suggested that the availability of energy or the protein source are the most limiting factors for rumen fermentation and MPS, rather than the degree of synchronicity.

  8. Comparison of Microbiological and Probiotic Characteristics of Lactobacilli Isolates from Dairy Food Products and Animal Rumen Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Maria Jose

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are employed in probiotic food preparations and as feed additives in poultry and livestock, due to health benefits associated with their consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the probiotic potential of ten lactobacilli strains isolated from commercial dairy food products and animal rumen contents in New Zealand. Genetic identification of the isolates revealed that all belonged to the genus Lactobacillus, specifically the species L. reuteri, L. rhamnosus and L. plantarum. All isolates did not show any haemolytic behaviour. Isolates of dairy origin showed better tolerance to low pH stress. On the other hand, rumen isolates exhibited a higher tolerance to presence of bile salts. All isolates exhibited resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics, however most were sensitive to ampicillin. Isolates of rumen origin demonstrated a higher inhibitory effect on Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella menston. Bacterial adherence of all isolates increased with a decrease in pH. This screening study on lactobacilli isolates has assessed and identified potential probiotic candidates for further evaluation.

  9. Rumen microbial communities influence metabolic phenotypes in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego P. Morgavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiota is an essential part of ruminants forging their nutrition and health. Despite its importance, it is not fully understood how various groups of rumen microbes affect host-microbe relationships and functions. The aim of the study was to simultaneously explore the rumen microbiota and the metabolic phenotype of lambs for identifying host-microbe associations and potential biomarkers of digestive functions. Twin lambs, separated in two groups after birth were exposed to practices (isolation and gavage with rumen fluid with protozoa or protozoa-depleted that differentially restricted the acquisition of microbes. Rumen microbiota, fermentation parameters, digestibility and growth were monitored for up to 31 weeks of age. Microbiota assembled in isolation from other ruminants lacked protozoa and had low bacterial and archaeal diversity whereas digestibility was not affected. Exposure to adult sheep microbiota increased bacterial and archaeal diversity independently of protozoa presence. For archaea, Methanomassiliicoccales displaced Methanosphaera. Notwithstanding, protozoa induced differences in functional traits such as digestibility and significantly shaped bacterial community structure, notably Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae lower up to 6 folds, Prevotellaceae lower by ~40%, and Clostridiaceae and Veillonellaceae higher up to 10 folds compared to microbiota without protozoa. An orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis of urinary metabolome matched differences in microbiota structure. Discriminant metabolites were mainly involved in amino acids and protein metabolic pathways while a negative interaction was observed between methylotrophic methanogens Methanomassiliicoccales and trimethylamine N-oxide. These results stress the influence of gut microbes on animal phenotype and show the potential of metabolomics for monitoring rumen microbial functions.

  10. Alternatives for optimisation of rumen fermentation in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Slavov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The proper knowledge on the variety of events occurring in the rumen makes possible their optimisation with respect to the complete feed conversion and increasing the productive performance of ruminants. The inclusion of various dietary additives (supplements, biologically active substances, nutritional antibiotics, probiotics, enzymatic preparations, plant extracts etc. has an effect on the intensity and specific pathway of fermentation, and thus, on the general digestion and systemic metabolism. The optimisation of rumen digestion is a method with substantial potential for improving the efficiency of ruminant husbandry, increasing of quality of their produce and health maintenance.

  11. Effects of rumen-escape starch and coarseness of ingredients in pelleted concentrates on performance and rumen wall characteristics of rosé veal calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Jarltoft, Terese Christel; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of rumen-escape starch and coarseness of ingredients in pelleted concentrates on performance, carcass quality and rumen wall characteristics in rosé veal calf production. Two alternative concentrates (Coarse and Slow) were compared with a traditional (Control...... show a high level of production performance with the three types of pelleted concentrates and indicates that neither the more coarse ingredients nor the additional rumen-escape starch tested, when fed ad libitum, could improve rumen wall characteristics or reduce LAs of rosé veal calves....

  12. Papaya (Carica papaya) leaf methanolic extract modulates in vitro rumen methanogenesis and rumen biohydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Saeid; Goh, Yong M; Rajion, Mohamed A; Jahromi, Mohammad F; Ahmad, Yusof H; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2017-02-01

    Papaya leaf methanolic extract (PLE) at concentrations of 0 (CON), 5 (LLE), 10 (MLE) and 15 (HLE) mg/250 mg dry matter (DM) with 30 mL buffered rumen fluid were incubated for 24 h to identify its effect on in vitro ruminal methanogenesis and ruminal biohydrogenation (BH). Total gas production was not affected (P > 0.05) by addition of PLE compared to the CON at 24 h of incubation. Methane (CH 4 ) production (mL/250 mg DM) decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of PLE. Acetate to propionate ratio was lower (P <0.05) in MLE (2.02) and HLE (1.93) compared to the CON (2.28). Supplementation of the diet with PLE significantly (P <0.05) decreased the rate of BH of C18:1n-9 (oleic acid; OA), C18:2n-6 (linoleic acid; LA), C18:3n-3 (linolenic acid; LNA) and C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared to CON after 24 h incubation, which resulted in higher concentrations of BH intermediates such as C18:1 t11 (vaccenic acid; VA), c9t11 conjugated LA (CLA) (rumenic acid; RA) and t10c12 CLA. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the total bacteria, total protozoa, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and methanogen population in HLE decreased (P <0.05) compared to CON, but the total bacteria and B. fibrisolvens population were higher (P < 0.05) in CON compared to the PLE treatment groups. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Rumen cellulosomics: divergent fiber-degrading strategies revealed by comparative genome-wide analysis of six ruminococcal strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bareket Dassa

    Full Text Available A complex community of microorganisms is responsible for efficient plant cell wall digestion by many herbivores, notably the ruminants. Understanding the different fibrolytic mechanisms utilized by these bacteria has been of great interest in agricultural and technological fields, reinforced more recently by current efforts to convert cellulosic biomass to biofuels.Here, we have used a bioinformatics-based approach to explore the cellulosome-related components of six genomes from two of the primary fiber-degrading bacteria in the rumen: Ruminococcus flavefaciens (strains FD-1, 007c and 17 and Ruminococcus albus (strains 7, 8 and SY3. The genomes of two of these strains are reported for the first time herein. The data reveal that the three R. flavefaciens strains encode for an elaborate reservoir of cohesin- and dockerin-containing proteins, whereas the three R. albus strains are cohesin-deficient and encode mainly dockerins and a unique family of cell-anchoring carbohydrate-binding modules (family 37.Our comparative genome-wide analysis pinpoints rare and novel strain-specific protein architectures and provides an exhaustive profile of their numerous lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. This work provides blueprints of the divergent cellulolytic systems in these two prominent fibrolytic rumen bacterial species, each of which reflects a distinct mechanistic model for efficient degradation of cellulosic biomass.

  14. Can Venus shed microorganisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2009-08-01

    The pale featureless cloud tops of Venus reveal a rich complexity when viewed in ultraviolet. These features result from an unknown absorber brought up from lower atmospheric levels by convection, particularly at lower latitudes. While the surface of Venus is extremely hostile to life as we know it, there exists a habitable region in the atmosphere, centered at approximately 50 km, where the temperature ranges from 30 to 80ºC and the pressure is one bar. Numerous examples of cloud-borne life exist on Earth. However, the environment in the Venus atmospheric habitable zone has only a few ppm of water which is present as misty droplets, strong sulfuric acid, and intense UV illumination. The proposal that putative cloud-borne life forms in Venus' atmospheric habitable zone can be transported to Earth by a solar conveyance face several challenges. Vigorous convective mixing, especially at the lower latitudes is considered as a means of transport to the upper reaches of Venus' atmosphere. Potential propulsive forces imparted by both solar wind and sunlight pressure are considered as a means of achieving escape velocity from Venus. Additional hurdles include direct exposure by such transported life forms to the rigors of the space environment. These are contrasted to those experienced by microorganisms that may be carried within meteorites and comets. A middle ground is perhaps demonstrated by plankton that has been observed at high altitudes on Earth, likely lofted there by a hurricane, which is encased in protective ice crystals.

  15. Mangosteen peel can reduce methane production and rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mangosteen peel (MP), an agricultural by-product of tropical countries, has been reported to contain condensed tannins and saponins, which can affect rumen microbes to reduce enteric methane emission. In the present study, the effects of mangosteen peel on in vitro ruminal fermentation, gas production, methane ...

  16. A comparison of rumen functioh in four Kalahari ungulates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ungulate species. Digestive parameter. Springbok. Blue wildebeest. Gemsbok. Red hartebeest. Summer n=8 n=8 n=6 n=2. Rumen pH. 6,31 ± 0,31. 6,40 ± 0,34 ... Discussion. The gemsbok, springbok and red hartebeest are ungulates typically associated with, and as a rule well adapted to, arid zones. This however is not ...

  17. Comparative digestive ability and rumen microbial community of N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    microbiota is well known, there is still a lack of information regarding the comparative composition of the rumen microbial community of different breeds of ruminants. The attachment of microbes to feed particles. (Forsberg & Lam, 1977; Craig et al., 1987; Forsberg & Cheng 1992; Weimer et al., 1999) and the morphological ...

  18. Mangosteen peel can reduce methane production and rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TROPIKA 18

    2016-11-24

    Nov 24, 2016 ... the present study, the effects of mangosteen peel on in vitro ruminal fermentation, gas production, methane production .... The column temperature programme started to run at 150 ºC, for 2 min, warmed to ..... Ammonia results from amino acid deamination in the rumen, and tannins can bind to the proteins in.

  19. Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... 2.0, 2.0, and 0.1% of DM corn silage, ground barley, cottonseed meal, wheat bran, beet pulp, rice straw, and mineral and vitamin supplement, respectively. ... plastic tube (5-mm diameter), which was fixed to the outside of the fistula with a string. The bags and the tubes had free movement inside the rumen ...

  20. Abattoir survey of foreign body rumen impaction small ruminants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plastic bag was the most prevalent material recovered as observed in 85% of cases. Other materials such as pieces of cloth and leather, shreds of twine and other ropes woven together into various patterns and mango seeds were also recovered. Animals with RI had a poor body condition. KEY WORDS: Rumen, impaction, ...

  1. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper ... hyacinth can be put into better use through biogas production. Key words: Rumen ... This result is markedly different from what was reported by Lucas and Bamgboye (1998). They obtained an average of 3.95 cm3 biogas. A number of reasons may ...

  2. Effects of rumen-protected tryptophan on performance, nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... Thirty-six Liaoning cashmere goat wethers (28.72 ± 0.59 kg) were used to determine the effects of rumen-protected tryptophan .... corn and wheat bran as energy sources and soybean meal as a protein source. Hay was .... plasma Trp penetrates through the blood-brain barrier into the brain, within pineal ...

  3. Physiologic Evidences Of Good Tolerance Of Concurrent Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve adult West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep of mean age and body weight of 18 ± 1.19 months and 14.69 ± 256 kg body weight respectively were used to study the compatibility of concurrent rumen fisulation and duodenal cannulation with normal life. The compatibility with norma life was assessed by differences in body ...

  4. Comparative digestive ability and rumen microbial community of N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbial community of the rumen was analyzed by 16S rRNA hybridisation, using phylogenetic probes of different levels: a universal probe, domain-specific probes for Bacteria, Eukarya and Archaea, and probes targeting cellulolytic organisms: Chytridiomycetes, Fibrobacter spp., Ruminococcus albus and ...

  5. Silage fermentation attributes and certain rumen parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare two tropical grass species,. Panicum maximum and Digitaria eriantha, in terms of silage fermentation attributes and certain rumen fermentation characteristics of silage made either at the boot or full bloom stages of growth. A lower silage pH was recorded for the D. eriantha than for the ...

  6. Rumen ammonia concentrations, and non-ammonia nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sheeps' burnet (Sanguisorba minor). Digesta flow was measured with reference to Yb-acetate and Cr-EDTA as particulate and fluid markers, respectively. Rumen ammonia concentrations were exponentially associated with the nitrogen (N) content of the forage, with concentrations increasing progressively above 2.5% N in ...

  7. The rumen degradation of nitrogen fractions in annual ryegrass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2486547

    Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar) was harvested at three and four ...... A.M., Tamminga, S. & Ketelaar, R.S., 1991. In sacco degradation of organic matter and crude protein of fresh grass (Lolium perenne) in the rumen of grazing dairy cows. J. Agric.

  8. Silage fermentation attributes and certain rumen parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silage fermentation attributes and certain rumen parameters in sheep fed two grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity. ... between the species, but the full bloom stage showed a higher nutritive value and better preservation compared to the boot stage silage in both D. eriantha and P. maximum silage.

  9. Estimation of protein degradation in rumen by three methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rumen degradability of protein in diets containing maize straw, fish meal and 0, 30 and 60% maize grain was estimated in three ways: (i) from the difference between the total non-ammonia Nand microbial N entering the duodenum over a 24-hour period using 35S and DAPAas microbial markers,. (H) from the ...

  10. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serial dilution was carried out and used to inoculate nutrient agar and chocolate agar. The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was ...

  11. Thermodynamic driving force of hydrogen on rumen microbial metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingen, Van Henk J.; Plugge, Caroline M.; Fadel, James G.; Kebreab, Ermias; Bannink, André; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen is a key product of rumen fermentation and has been suggested to thermodynamically control the production of the various volatile fatty acids (VFA). Previous studies, however, have not accounted for the fact that only thermodynamic near-equilibrium conditions control the magnitude of

  12. Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were carried out to determine ruminal degradability of sesame meal (SSM) and its effects on intake, digestibility, rumen parameters, chewing activity, and lamb performance when it replaced soybean meal (SBM). Degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were determined with the nylon bag ...

  13. Pseudo-affinity chromatography of rumen microbial cellulase on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudo affinity adsorption of bioproducts on Sepharose-cibacron blue F3-GA was subjected to rumen microbial enzyme evaluation through batch binding and column chromatography of cellulase. The results showed that homogenizing method had better performance in the release of enzyme, so that the amount of enzyme ...

  14. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were significant interaction effects between rumen juice and seed size on seed germination of V. angustifolia. Our results suggest that grazing pressure of animal feed present have significant negatively effects on seed germination for V. angustifolia with different seed size in alpine area of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  15. Response of finishing broiler chickens to diets containing rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparent digestibility results showed that dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and ether extract digestibility were influenced (p<0.05) by dietary treatments. They were optimized at rumen liquor fermented rice husk levels of 9.10, 9.29, 12.03, and 12.31 g/kg DM intake. However, nitrogen free extract was not significantly ...

  16. Human consumption of rumen flukes of cattle in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, P C; Laha, R; Bhattacharjee, K; Goswami, A; Raquib, M; Kakati, P

    2014-01-01

    The practice of eating rumen flukes of cattle by a section of people living in Meghalaya, a north eastern State of India, is reported in this communication. Economically backward, some rural people belonging to Khasi, Jaintia, Garo, and Karbi tribes of Christian and Nepali communities who eat beef are accustomed to consuming cooked flukes during breakfast, meals, and also along with rice beer or alcohol. Inspection of the rumens of cattle during slaughter indicated a prevalence of flukes belonging to Cotylophoron, Paramphistomum, Calicophoron, Gastrothylax, and Fischoederius genera in 74% cases, and their collection from rumen ranged approximately from 50 g to 600 g. Biochemical analysis of flukes found 12.60% total protein, 0.78% fat, and 0.87% ash on fresh weight basis. High prevalence of flukes, easy visualization in rumen, their bulk collection, presence of nutritive value, absence of any ill effect, and lack of imminent danger of transmissibility are believed to be the rationales influencing their consumption by people. It is suggested that dietary benefits obtained from flukes might contribute to the energy transfer and inclusion in the food web.

  17. Estimation of protein degradationin rumen by three methods | Meyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rumen degradability of protein in diets containing maize straw, fish meal and 0, 30 and 60% maize grain was estimated in three ways: (i) from the difference between the total non-ammonia Nand microbial N entering the duodenum over a 24-hour period using 35S and DAPAas microbial markers, (H) from the ...

  18. Effect of various levels of imbalance between energy and nitrogen release in the rumen on microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in growing double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls fed a corn silage-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkeners, D; Théwis, A; Amant, S; Beckers, Y

    2006-04-01

    microorganisms in the rumen. Therefore, imbalance between dietary energy and N created over a 24-h interval was not detrimental to rumen microbial growth for the animal as long as the level of imbalance did not exceed 40 g of OEB/kg of DM. Thus, these feeding patterns of the diet can be used under practical feeding conditions with minimal impact on the performance of ruminant animals for meat production.

  19. The effects of high levels of rumen degradable protein on rumen pH and histamine concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the supplementation of crude protein (CP) results in rumen acidosis and increased histamine concentrations in dairy cows. Six ruminally fistulated, non-pregnant dry cows were fed three experimental rations in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square

  20. Experimental acute rumen acidosis in sheep: consequences on clinical, rumen, and gastrointestinal permeability conditions and blood chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuti, A; Ahmed, S; Trevisi, E; Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Bertoni, G; Jahan, N; Bani, P

    2014-09-01

    Acute acidosis was induced in sheep, and gastrointestinal permeability was assessed by using lactulose as a permeability marker. Metabolism was evaluated by monitoring blood metabolites. Four rams (72.5 ± 4.6 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 changeover design experiment. The experimental period lasted 96 h from -24 to 72 h. After 24 h of fasting (from -24 to 0 h) for both controls and acidosis-induced rams (ACID), 0.5 kg of wheat flour was orally dosed at 0 and 12 h of the experimental period to ACID, while the basal diet (grass hay, ad libitum) was restored to control. At 24 h, a lactulose solution (30 g of lactulose in 200 mL of water) was orally administered. Blood samples were collected at -24, 0, 24, 48, and 72 h of the experimental periods for the analysis of metabolic profiles and during the 10 h after lactulose dosage to monitor lactulose changes in blood. In addition, rumen and fecal samples were collected at 24 h of the experimental period. The acidotic challenge markedly reduced (P rumen pH and VFA but increased rumen d- and l-lactic acid (P acidosis was effectively induced by our model. The increase of lactulose in blood in ACID indicates that gastrointestinal permeability for the marker increased and the large increment after 2 h from dosage suggests that most of the passage occurred through the rumen or abomasal walls.

  1. Dietary phytochemicals as rumen modifiers: a review of the effects on microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan K; Saxena, Jyotisna

    2009-11-01

    In the recent years, the exploration of bioactive phytochemicals as natural feed additives has been of great interest among nutritionists and rumen microbiologists to modify the rumen fermentation favorably such as defaunation, inhibition of methanogenesis, improvement in protein metabolism, and increasing conjugated linoleic acid content in ruminant derived foods. Many phytochemicals such as saponins, essential oils, tannins and flavonoids from a wide range of plants have been identified, which have potential values for rumen manipulation and enhancing animal productivity as alternatives to chemical feed additives. However, their effectiveness in ruminant production has not been proved to be consistent and conclusive. This review discusses the effects of phytochemicals such as saponins, tannins and essential oils on the rumen microbial populations, i.e., bacteria, protozoa, fungi and archaea with highlighting molecular diversity of microbial community in the rumen. There are contrasting reports of the effects of these phytoadditives on the rumen fermentation and rumen microbes probably depending upon the interactions among the chemical structures and levels of phytochemicals used, nutrient composition of diets and microbial components in the rumen. The study of chemical structure-activity relationships is required to exploit the phytochemicals for obtaining target responses without adversely affecting beneficial microbial populations. A greater understanding of the modulatory effects of phytochemicals on the rumen microbial populations together with fermentation will allow a better management of the rumen ecosystem and a practical application of this feed additive technology in livestock production.

  2. Does Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Production Affect Rumen Function and Animal Productivity in Dairy Cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneman, Jolien B; Muetzel, Stefan; Hart, Kenton J; Faulkner, Catherine L; Moorby, Jon M; Perdok, Hink B; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary additives: linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and the rumen microbiome in two experiments from New Zealand (Dairy 1) and the UK (Dairy 2). Dairy 1 was a randomized block design with 18 multiparous lactating cows. Dairy 2 was a complete replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square using 6 rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows. Treatments consisted of a control total mixed ration (TMR), supplementation with linseed oil (4% of feed DM) and supplementation with nitrate (2% of feed DM) in both experiments. Methane emissions were measured in open circuit respiration chambers and rumen samples were analyzed for rumen fermentation parameters and microbial population structure using qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Supplementation with nitrate, but not linseed oil, decreased methane yield (g/kg DMI; Pmethane emissions can be significantly decreased with nitrate supplementation with only minor, but consistent, effects on the rumen microbial population and its function, with no evidence that the response to dietary additives differed due to geography and different underlying microbial populations.

  3. Does Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Production Affect Rumen Function and Animal Productivity in Dairy Cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneman, Jolien B.; Muetzel, Stefan; Hart, Kenton J.; Faulkner, Catherine L.; Moorby, Jon M.; Perdok, Hink B.; Newbold, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary additives: linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and the rumen microbiome in two experiments from New Zealand (Dairy 1) and the UK (Dairy 2). Dairy 1 was a randomized block design with 18 multiparous lactating cows. Dairy 2 was a complete replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square using 6 rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows. Treatments consisted of a control total mixed ration (TMR), supplementation with linseed oil (4% of feed DM) and supplementation with nitrate (2% of feed DM) in both experiments. Methane emissions were measured in open circuit respiration chambers and rumen samples were analyzed for rumen fermentation parameters and microbial population structure using qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Supplementation with nitrate, but not linseed oil, decreased methane yield (g/kg DMI; P<0.02) and increased hydrogen (P<0.03) emissions in both experiments. Furthermore, the effect of nitrate on gaseous emissions was accompanied by an increased rumen acetate to propionate ratio and consistent changes in the rumen microbial populations including a decreased abundance of the main genus Prevotella and a decrease in archaeal mcrA (log10 copies/ g rumen DM content). These results demonstrate that methane emissions can be significantly decreased with nitrate supplementation with only minor, but consistent, effects on the rumen microbial population and its function, with no evidence that the response to dietary additives differed due to geography and different underlying microbial populations. PMID:26509835

  4. Rumen parameters of sheep fed Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Machado Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on animal nutrition have shown factors that affect livestock yield and their interaction with the environment, through assessments on food nutritional values, nutrient metabolism in livestock and biochemical parameters related to nutrition and animal breeding. Inclusion levels of hay Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte in the diet of sheep were studied by measuring the dry matter intake (DMI, production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and rumen pH. Four males Santa Inês sheep with cannulas in the rumen were used in a 4x4 Latin Square design with four periods (21 days each and four treatments that corresponded to the inclusion levels (0%, 30%, 60% and 100% of Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte to replace grass hay Cynodon dactylon cv. Coastcross in the diet. The DMI showed a quadratic effect increased until treatment with 60% of Arachis and reduced in the treatment with 100% of the legume. Significant interaction was observed between treatments and sampling times for NH3-N and acetate, propionate and butyrate concentration and the acetate:propionate ratio. There was no interaction between treatments and sampling time for rumen pH and total VFA concentration. It is observed a rapid increase in ammonia concentration until 2 hours after the feeding, and then a decline is seen. At 8 hours after the feeding, the quadratic effect occurred (P0.05 increasing NH3-N concentration with 60% of Arachis, declining afterwards. The acetate, propionate and butyrate concentration, showed a quadratic effect (P0.01 in the sampling time after the feeding for treatment with 60% of Arachis with the concentration rising until 4 hours and declining thereafter. For total SCFA concentration, when analyzed individually, we observed the effect of sampling time (P0.05, in which the means showed a quadratic effect, with maximum increase until 4 hours after the feeding, reducing at 8 hours. For acetate:propionate ratio was a linear effect (P0

  5. Methods for taxonomic studies of rumen ciliates (alveolata: ciliophora): a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedrola, Franciane; Rossi, Mariana; Dias, Roberto Júnio Pedroso; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the principal methods used in taxonomic studies of rumen ciliates: live observation, Lugol staining, fixation and staining with methyl-green formalin saline (MFS) solution, protargol staining, silver carbonate impregnation, scanning electron microscopy and molecular techniques. Mastering these techniques is essential for successful research on the taxonomy of rumen ciliates. No single technique reveals all of the characteristics required for a complete description of a rumen ciliate; therefore, it is necessary to combine the use of these techniques as appropriate to the rumen ciliate group under study. Tables are provided to summarize: 1) morphological methods more appropriate for revealing morphological structures of interest, 2) morphological methods indicated for each group of rumen ciliates, and 3) main primers used for PCR amplification of the 18S rDNA of rumen ciliates.

  6. Textiles for protection against microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauperl, O.

    2016-04-01

    Concerning micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, there is a huge progress in the development of textile materials and procedures which should effectively protect against these various pathogens. In this sense there is especially problematic hospital environment, where it is necessary to take into account properly designed textile material which, when good selected and composed, act as a good barrier against transfer of micro-organisms through material mainly in its wet state. Respect to this it is necessary to be familiar with the rules regarding selection of the input material, the choice of proper yarn construction, the choice of the proper weaving mode, the rules regarding selection of antimicrobial-active compound suitable for (eco-friendly) treatment, and the choice of the most appropriate test method by which it is possible objectively to conclude on the reduction of selected microorganism. As is well known, fabrics are three-dimensional structures with void and non-void areas. Therefore, the physical-chemical properties of the textile material/fabric, the surface characteristics together with the shape of microorganism, and the carriers' characteristics contribute to control the transfer of microorganism through textile material. Therefore, careful planning of textile materials and treatment procedure with the compound which is able to reduce micro-organism satisfactory is particularly important, especially due to the fact that in hospital environment population with impaired immune system is mainly presented.

  7. Rumen passage kinetics of forage- and concentrate-derived fiber in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, M; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-05-01

    Rumen passage kinetics of forage and concentrate fiber were analyzed to determine intrinsic feed effects and extrinsic ration effects on the retention time of fiber in the rumen. Sixteen Danish Holstein cows (557 ± 37 kg of body weight, 120 ± 21 d in milk, mean ± SD), 8 fitted with ruminal cannulas, were used in a completely randomized block experiment. Treatments differed in forage type (corn silage vs. grass silage) and forage:concentrate ratio (50:50 vs. 75:25 on organic matter basis). Fiber passage kinetics were studied based on rumen evacuations and on marker excretion profiles in feces fitted to 1 and 2 pool models. Each cow received ytterbium (Yb)-labeled fiber of the forage fed in the ration, samarium (Sm)-labeled fiber of the forage not fed in the ration, and concentrate fiber labeled with lanthanum (La), all as a single pulse dose. Nineteen fecal grab samples were taken per cow. Rumen liquid passage was studied using chromium-EDTA dosed as a single pulse into the rumen, followed by sampling of rumen liquid from both the ventral and medial rumen. Rumen mean retention time did not differ between forages when based on Yb-excretion profiles but was numerically longer for grass silage- than for corn silage-based rations using rumen evacuation data. Liquid rate of passage did not differ when calculated from medial or ventral rumen liquid samples, indicating that estimates for the probability of rumen liquid escape were independent of rumen sampling site. Total mean retention time decreased from forage fiber to concentrate fiber to liquid. The forage type itself (corn silage or grass silage) rather than the ration composition seemed to determine the total-tract retention time of forage fiber. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. General Purpose Segmentation for Microorganisms in Microscopy Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sebastian H. Nesgaard; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Rankl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach for achieving generalized segmentation of microorganisms in mi- croscopy images. It employs a pixel-wise classification strategy based on local features. Multilayer percep- trons are utilized for classification of the local features and is trained for each...

  9. Volatile compounds in the thermoplastic extrusion of bovine rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Conti e Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds of raw and extruded bovine rumen, extracted by dynamic headspace, were separated by gas chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS. Raw and extruded materials presented thirty-two volatile compounds. The following compounds were identified in raw bovine rumen: heptane, 1-heptene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, toluene, hexanal, ethyl butyrate, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, heptanal, limonene, nonanal, dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, heptadecane and octadecane. The following compounds were identified in the extruded material: 1-heptene, 2,4-dimethylhexane, toluene, limonene, undecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, heptadecane, octadecane and nonadecane. Mass spectra of some unidentified compounds indicated the presence of hydrocarbons with branched chains or cyclic structure.

  10. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods of rumen microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Rivera, Gabriela; Vargas-Cabrera, Yevani; González-Silva, Napoleón; Aguilera-García, Florentino; Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Ernestina; Bravo-Patiño, Alejandro; Cajero-Juárez, Marcos; Baizabal-Aguirre, Víctor Manuel; Valdez-Alarcón, Juan José

    2013-02-01

    The dynamism of microbial populations in the rumen has been studied with molecular methods that analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms of ribosomal RNA gene fragments (rDNA). Therefore DNA of good quality is needed for this kind of analysis. In this work we report the evaluation of four DNA extraction protocols (mechanical lysis or chemical lysis with CTAB, ethylxanthogenate or DNAzol(®)) from ruminal fluid. The suitability of two of these protocols (mechanical lysis and DNAzol(®)) was tested on single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) of rDNA of rumen microbial populations. DNAzol(®) was a simple method that rendered good integrity, yield and purity. With this method, subtle changes in protozoan populations were detected in young bulls fed with slightly different formulations of a supplement of multinutritional blocks of molasses and urea. Sequences related to Eudiplodinium maggi and a non-cultured Entodiniomorphid similar to Entodinium caudatum, were related to major fluctuating populations in an SSCP assay.

  11. In vitro assay for compounds toxic to rumen protozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.J.; Cumming, G.J.; Graham, C.A. (ICI Australia Operations Pty. Ltd, Merrindale Research Station. Croydon, Victoria, Australia); Leng, R.A. (New England Univ., Armidale (Australia). Dept. of Biochemistry and Nutrition)

    1982-01-01

    The viability of protozoa in whole rumen fluid was assessed by measuring the incorporation of Me-/sup 14/C-choline in vitro. The use of the technique as an assay for testing antiprotozoal agents was evaluated with a variety of surfactant detergents which have previously been shown to have antiprotozoal activity in vivo. A good correlation was obtained between the potency of these compounds in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Thermodynamic driving force of hydrogen on rumen microbial metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lingen, Van, Henk J.; Plugge, Caroline M.; Fadel, James G.; Kebreab,Ermias; Bannink, André; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen is a key product of rumen fermentation and has been suggested to thermodynamically control the production of the various volatile fatty acids (VFA). Previous studies, however, have not accounted for the fact that only thermodynamic near-equilibrium conditions control the magnitude of reaction rate. Furthermore, the role of NAD, which is affected by hydrogen partial pressure (PH 2), has often not been considered. The aim of this study was to quantify the control of PH 2 on reaction ra...

  13. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, Jindrich; Zabranska, Jana; Dohanyos, Michal [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Mrazek, Jakub; Strosova, Lenka; Fliegerova, Katerina [Laboratory of Anaerobic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, CAS, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Anaerobic fungi (AF) are able to degrade crop substrates with higher efficiency than commonly used anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate ways of use of rumen AF to improve biogas production from energy crops under laboratory conditions. In this study, strains of AF isolated from feces or rumen fluid of cows and deer were tested for their ability to integrate into the anaerobic bacterial ecosystem used for biogas production, in order to improve degradation of substrate polysaccharides and consequently the biogas yield. Batch culture, fed batch culture, and semicontinuous experiments have been performed using anaerobic sludge from pig slurry fermentation and different kinds of substrates (celluloses, maize, and grass silage) inoculated by different genera of AF. All experiments showed a positive effect of AF on the biogas yield and quality. AF improved the biogas production by 4-22%, depending on the substrate and AF species used. However, all the cultivation experiments indicated that rumen fungi do not show long-term survival in fermenters with digestate from pig slurry. The best results were achieved during fed batch experiment with fungal culture Anaeromyces (KF8), in which biogas production was enhanced during the whole experimental period of 140 days. This result has not been achieved in semicontinuous experiment, where increment in biogas production in fungal enriched reactor was only 4% after 42 days. (copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Isolation of chitinolytic Clostridium sp. NCR from Mehsani buffalo rumen, its genomic analysis and potential role in rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Neelam M; Duggirala, Srinivas M; M, Chandra Shekar; Kothari, Ramesh K; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-09-01

    Genomic analysis of Clostridium sp. NCR, an anaerobic Gram positive bacterium which was isolated from rumen fluid of Mehsani breed of buffalo revealed presence of various environmental gene tags (EGTs) involved in pathways for utilizing a wide range of substrates. Here we report the sequence of this rumen isolate, its whole genome sequence has been deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number JQHY00000000. The genome comprises of a 3.62-Mb draft genome with a G + C content of 28.10%, which encodes a total of 3126 proteins. Functional analysis provides information about the microbe's role in maintaining host homeostasis and its fiber degradation potential.

  15. Detoksifikasi Mikotoksin Melalui Optimalisasi Fungsi Rumen dengan Pemberian Ragi (MYCOTOXIN DETOXIFICATION THROUGH OPTIMIZATION THE RUMEN FUNCTION BY YEAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadik Pantaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by some fungal species commonly found in food and feed,particularly in cereals. In intensive production systems, dairy cattle are commonly fed with cereal-richdiets and, consequently, are more exposed to micotoxins. Besides, such diet is often associated with ahigher risk of rumen acidosis which can also affect the performance and the helath of animal. In addition,the efficacy of microbial detoxification can be reduced during acidosis. For instance, some authors observeda decrease in the number of protozoa that are responsible for the degradation of some mycotoxins. Anotherconsequence of acidosis is the potential modification of ruminal absorption of mycotoxins, which until nowhas received scarce attention. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, probiotic additives have been shown toreduce the post-feeding drop in rumen pH and to increase the number of ruminal protozoa. This effect canbe positive in reducing the absorption and toxicity of mycotoxins in ruminantia.

  16. Essential oils affect populations of some rumen bacteria in vitro as revealed by microarray (RumenBactArray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kumar Patra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study origanum oil (ORO, garlic oil (GAO, and peppermint oil (PEO were shown to effectively lower methane production, decrease abundance of methanogens, and change abundances of several bacterial populations important to feed digestion in vitro. In this study, the impact of these essential oils (EOs, at 0.50 g/L, on the rumen bacterial community composition and population was further examined using the recently developed RumenBactArray. Species richness (expressed as number of operational taxonomic units, OTUs in the phylum Firmicutes, especially those in the class Clostridia, was decreased by ORO and GAO, but increased by PEO, while that in the phylum Bacteroidetes was increased by ORO and PEO. Species richness in the genus Butyrivibrio was lowered by all the EOs. Increases of Bacteroidetes OTUs mainly resulted from increases of Prevotella OTUs. Overall, 67 individual OTUs showed significant differences (P≤0.05 in relative abundance across the EO treatments. The predominant OTUs affected by EOs were diverse, including those related to Syntrophococcus sucromutans, Succiniclasticum ruminis, and Lachnobacterium bovis, and those classified to Prevotella, Clostridium, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Bacteroidales, and Clostridiales. In total, 60 OTUs were found significantly (P≤0.05 correlated with feed degradability, ammonia concentration, and molar percentage of volatile fatty acids. Taken together, this study demonstrated extensive impact of EOs on rumen bacterial communities in an EO type-dependent manner, especially those in the predominant families Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. The information from this study may aid in understanding the effect of EOs on feed digestion and fermentation by rumen bacteria.

  17. 40 CFR 725.420 - Recipient microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recipient microorganisms. 725.420 Section 725.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.420 Recipient microorganism...

  18. Biodiesel production from oleaginous microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xin; Yang, Jianming; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Lei; Xian, Mo [Qingdao Institute of BioEnergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Nie, Qingjuan [Foreign Languages School, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China)

    2009-01-15

    High energy prices, energy and environment security, concerns about petroleum supplies are drawing considerable attention to find a renewable biofuels. Biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) derived from animal fats or vegetable oils, is rapidly moving towards the mainstream as an alternative source of energy. However, biodiesel derived from conventional petrol or from oilseeds or animal fat cannot meet realistic need, and can only be used for a small fraction of existing demand for transport fuels. In addition, expensive large acreages for sufficient production of oilseed crops or cost to feed animals are needed for raw oil production. Therefore, oleaginous microorganisms are available for substituting conventional oil in biodiesel production. Most of the oleaginous microorganisms like microalgae, bacillus, fungi and yeast are all available for biodiesel production. Regulation mechanism of oil accumulation in microorganism and approach of making microbial diesel economically competitive with petrodiesel are discussed in this review. (author)

  19. Industry Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  20. Effects of tea saponins on rumen microbiota, rumen fermentation, methane production and growth performance--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Kun; Ye, Jun-An; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2012-04-01

    Reducing methane emission from ruminant animals has implications not only for global environmental protection but also for efficient animal production. Tea saponins (TS) extracted from seeds, leaves or roots of tea plant are pentacyclic triterpenes. They have a lasting antiprotozoal effect, but little effect on the methanogen population in sheep. There was no significant correlation between the protozoa counts and methanogens. The TS decreased methanogen activity. It seems that TS influenced the activity of the methanogens indirectly via the depressed ciliate protozoal population. The TS addition decreased fungal population in the medium containing rumen liquor in in vitro fermentation, but no such effect was observed in the rumen liquor of sheep fed TS. Tea saponins had a minor effect on the pattern of rumen fermentation and hence on nutrient digestion. When added at 3 g/day in diets, TS could improve daily weight gain and feed efficiency in goats. No positive associative effect existed between TS and disodium fumarate or soybean oil on methane suppression. Inclusion of TS in diets may be an effective way for improving feed efficiency in ruminants.

  1. Effect of rice straw silage treated with rumen microbes of buffalo on digestibility and ecosystem of cattle rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalib A

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of rice straw silage with addition of buffalo rumen microbes was conducted to improve the ruminal digestion of rice straw in ongole cattle. Three fistulated cattles were each introduced to dietary treatment: I. Untreated rice straw (JPTP, II. Rice straw ensilaged with buffalo rumen microbes (SJPMR-Kr, and ID. Elephant grass (RG. All diets were formulated isonitrogeneous (14% crude protein and fed to animals over a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of feeding trial, rwnen fluid of the animals were evaluated to digest its own basal diet (as substrate. The results show that cumulative gas production resulting from the substrate fermented (96 hours by rumen fluid from cattle fed diet II is 205% of the diet I and 151 % of the diet ID. Measurements of DMD of the substrates after the gas production procedure show the similar trend (ie. DM digestibilities for JPTP= 33%; SJPMR-Kr= 54% dan RG= 45%. Means of in sacco DMD (72 hours incubation confirm the results of gas production (ie. in sacco DM Digestibilities for JPTP= 35%; SJPMR-Kr= 44% and RG= 39%. All results described between treatments are highly significant different (P0.05, except for total VFA (ie. JPTP= 0.52 mg Inri; SJPMR-Kr= 3,37 mg Inri and RG= 3.15 mg Inri.

  2. Degradation of lucerne stem cell walls by five rumen bacterial species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.; Weimer, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    The rumen bacterial strains Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, Lachnospira multiparus 40, Ruminococcus albus 7 and R. flavefaciens FD-1 were compared individually and as a five-species mixture with a rumen inoculum for their ability to degrade lucerne (Medicago sativa L.)

  3. Evaluation of the effect of fat content of sunflower meal on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... Rumen anaerobic fungi were isolated from wheat straw residues, which were incubated using polyester bags in the rumen of Holstein fistulated steers (420 ± 12 kg BW) that were feed by 30:70 concentrate : forage diet (corn grain, barley grain and wheat bran : sugarcane silage, corn silage, alfalfa hay and ...

  4. Pilot study to monitor body temperature of dairy cows with a rumen bolus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, A.H.; Goense, D.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Houwers, H.W.J.; Roest, H.I.J.

    2008-01-01

    A bolus containing a mote (temperature sensor, processor and radio) was placed in the rumen of a fistulated cow to monitor body temperature. Rumen temperature was measured every minute and stored in the internal buffer of the mote. The measured temperature was also transmitted to a base station by

  5. Fractional rate of degradation (kd) of starch in the rumen and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fractional rate of degradation (kd) of starch in the rumen and its relation to in vivo rumen and total digestibility. ... Estimates of kd for starch was obtained on 19 starch sources originating from barley, wheat, oat, maize and peas and treated in different ways both chemically and physically. The starch sources were fed in mixed ...

  6. A Study on Rumen Cilliate Protozoa Population, pH and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on rumen ciliate protozoa population, pH and some metabolites (total volatile fatty acids, rumen ammonia Nitrogen) was conducted on two fistulated WAD rams fed forage and concentrate diets. The 12-week study focused on the sequence of production of these parameters under each dietary regime.

  7. Effects of ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates to rumen degradable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    To evaluate the effect of different ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC) to rumen degradable protein (RDP) on lactation ... Keywords: Dairy cows, milk production, non-fibre carbohydrates, rumen degradable protein. # Corresponding author. E-mail: ..... Licitra, G., Hernandez, T.M. & Van Soest, P.J., 1996. Standardization of ...

  8. The effect of age on in sacco estimates of rumen dry matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five Holstein bull calves were rumen-fistulated at six weeks of age and were used in consecutive weekly 24 h trials from 8-20 weeks of age. Dry matter and crude protein degradability of two starter and two finisher veal calf diets of high or low rumen degradable protein content were estimated from 24 h in sacco incubation.

  9. Evaluation of the effect of fat content of sunflower meal on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... (Palmquist and Jenkins, 1980). Fats added to ruminant diets can disrupt fermentation in the rumen, and result in reduced degradation of plant cell wall components. (Jenkins, 1993). Getachew et al. (2001) showed that the addition of yellow grease and corn oil increased in vitro rumen degradation and gas ...

  10. Effect of diets differing in rumen soluble nitrogen on utilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lapop

    2015-12-14

    Dec 14, 2015 ... limited because the rapid conversion of urea to ammonia may often exceed the ability of rumen bacteria to utilize the rumen .... Data from the laboratory were subjected to analysis of variance using the Proc GLM model (Statistical. Analysis System ..... forage using Michaelis-menten kinetics. Livest. Sci. 126 ...

  11. Evaluation of the effect of fat content of sunflower meal on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... QC-PCR) and indirect (dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) disappearance in rumen fungi media culture for 12 days) methods. The results of QC-PCR showed that rumen anaerobic fungi population in the medium containing high fat sunflower meal was greater as compared to low fat sunflower meal (+0.14 ...

  12. Effect of dry period length on rumen adaption in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goselink, R.M.A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Duinkerken, van G.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of length of dry period on rumen papillae dimensions of dairy cows around parturition. Twelve rumen-cannulated Holstein dairy cows were assigned to a dry period length of 60 (G60), 30 (G30) or 0 (G0) days. The experiment started 60 d before

  13. The effects of oral magnesium hydroxide administration on rumen fluid in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey W; Correa, Maria T

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of oral magnesium hydroxide administration on rumen fluid in cattle. Six lactating Holstein cows (4-7 years of age) with rumen fistulas were studied. Cattle were randomly assigned to receive boluses of magnesium hydroxide (162 g) or a powdered form (450 g dissolved in 3.5 L of water) PO daily for 3 days. Analysis of rumen fluid, blood gas tensions, and pH and measurement of serum magnesium concentrations were conducted daily. The study was discontinued after 72 hours, or sooner if rumen pH exceeded 8.0. After at least 3 weeks, the study was repeated with each cow receiving the other form of magnesium hydroxide (powder or bolus). Compared with baseline rumen pH (mean +/- SD: 6.22 +/- 0.28), magnesium hydroxide boluses caused a significant increase (P magnesium hydroxide decreased rumen protozoal numbers and increased methylene blue reduction times compared with baseline values. There was no change in blood pH, bicarbonate, or base excess values. Serum magnesium concentrations were significantly increased (P magnesium hydroxide powder. The results of this study indicate that magnesium hydroxide has a potent alkalinizing effect on rumen pH and significantly decreases rumen microbial activity.

  14. The effect of age on in sacco estimates of rumen dry matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    degradation (Burroughs et al., 1975; Vérité & Jarrige, 1979). Quantitative information on the extent of protein degradation in the rumen is therefore needed. Estimates of the amount of protein escaping degradation in the reticulo-rumen are extremely variable. Part of the variation is due to analytical error and part to variation ...

  15. Hydrate sodium calcium aluminosilicate does not reduce rumen lipopolysacharide concentrations in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakorn, C.; Everts, H.; Vlaeminck, B.; Doekes, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrate sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) to reduce the concentrations of free lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rumen fluid of cows was investigated. Six, rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry cows were randomly assigned to three experimental rations in a study with

  16. Some studies on liver and rumen flukes of bovines in Sri Lanka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nkpc001

    particularly used in land preparation and post- harvest processing, while the milk is usually consumed in the form of curd .... Adults of rumen and liver flukes. During this study, five liver and rumen flukes were identified .... Site B, the main source of drinking water for animals during floods. The present study also revealed that.

  17. Biofuel production by recombinant microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, James C.; Atsumi, Shota; Cann, Anthony F.

    2017-07-04

    Provided herein are metabolically-modified microorganisms useful for producing biofuels. More specifically, provided herein are methods of producing high alcohols including isobutanol, 1-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol from a suitable substrate.

  18. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

  19. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hyman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world’s most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages, the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses, the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses, and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses. In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms.

  20. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  1. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding.......Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...

  2. Pediococcus acidilactici isolated from the rumen of lambs with rumen acidosis, 16S rRNA identification and sensibility to monensin and lasalocid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, M A; Ley de Coss, A; Ramirez, N D; Gonzalez, S S; Ferrera Cerrato, R

    2011-02-01

    A lactic-acid producing bacterium was isolated from the rumen of lambs with rumen acidosis. The cells were gram-positive, nonmotile, nonsporing, catalase negative spherical, 1.5-2.0 μm in diameter, and occur in pairs and tetrads. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA indicated that the rumen bacterium was a strain of Pediococcus acidilactici with 99% of nucleotide homology. This bacterium was sensible to monensin and lasalocid at the unique dose tested of 300 ppm. The concentration of lactic acid and DM degradation decreased (Prumen acidosis, but the importance of P. acidilactici should be also reconsidered in experimental studies focused on the control rumen acidosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of supplemental nitrogen from urea on digestibility, rumen fermentation pattern, microbial populations and nitrogen balance in growing goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwisa Ngampongsai

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available For this study, four Thai Native (TN x Anglo Nubian (AN crossbred growing goats with an average liveweight of 19.0+1 kg were randomly used in a 4x4 Latin square design to determine the effect of supplemental nitrogen from urea on digestibility, rumen fermentation pattern, microbial populations and nitrogen balance in growing goats. Fresh elephant grass(FEG was offered ad libitum as the roughage. Four dietary treatments with supplemental nitrogen from urea were T1 = urea at 0% cassava chip, (CC = 30%, T2 = urea at 1% (CC = 40%, T3 = urea at 2% (CC = 50% and T4 = urea at 3% (CC = 60%,respectively. Based on this experiment, it was found that there was no significant difference (p>0.05 among treatment groups regarding nutrient intake (OMI, CPI, NDFI and ADFI and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF, while digestible nutrient intake of CP (g/d was affected by increasing urea levels. Ruminal volatile fatty acidprofiles were similar among treatments. Moreover, rumen microorganism populations were not affected (p>0.05 by increasing urea levels. The amount of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except for T4 which tended to be slightly lower in N absorption as compared to control diet, but higher N output retained (% of N intake than the control-fed goats. From the overall results, it can be concluded that a higher level of urea (3% could be used with a high level of CC (60% in concentrate when fed with FEG and it was found to be a good approach to exploiting the use of local feedresources for goat production.

  4. Metatranscriptomic Profiling Reveals Linkages between the Active Rumen Microbiome and Feed Efficiency in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuyong; Guan, Le Luo

    2017-05-01

    Exploring compositional and functional characteristics of the rumen microbiome can improve the understanding of its role in rumen function and cattle feed efficiency. In this study, we applied metatranscriptomics to characterize the active rumen microbiomes of beef cattle with different feed efficiencies (efficient, n = 10; inefficient, n = 10) using total RNA sequencing. Active bacterial and archaeal compositions were estimated based on 16S rRNAs, and active microbial metabolic functions including carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) were assessed based on mRNAs from the same metatranscriptomic data sets. In total, six bacterial phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Cyanobacteria, and Synergistetes), eight bacterial families (Succinivibrionaceae, Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Veillonellaceae, Spirochaetaceae, Dethiosulfovibrionaceae, and Mogibacteriaceae), four archaeal clades (Methanomassiliicoccales, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii, and Methanosphaera), 112 metabolic pathways, and 126 CAZymes were identified as core components of the active rumen microbiome. As determined by comparative analysis, three bacterial families (Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, and Veillonellaceae) tended to be more abundant in low-feed-efficiency (inefficient) animals (P feed-efficiency (efficient) cattle (P 2 with a P value of efficient animals. These findings suggest that the rumen microbiomes of inefficient cattle have more diverse activities than those of efficient cattle, which may be related to the host feed efficiency variation.IMPORTANCE This study applied total RNA-based metatranscriptomics and showed the linkage between the active rumen microbiome and feed efficiency (residual feed intake) in beef cattle. The data generated from the current study provide fundamental information on active rumen microbiome at both compositional and functional levels, which serve as a foundation to study rumen

  5. Fermentation of Ammonia Fiber Expansion Treated and Untreated Barley Straw in a Rumen Simulation Technique using Rumen Inoculum from Cattle with Slow Versus Fast Rate of Fiber Disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ann Beauchemin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rumen inoculum from heifers with fast vs. slow rate of in situ fiber digestion on the fermentation of complex versus easily digested fiber sources in the forms of untreated and Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX treated barley straw, respectively, using an artificial rumen simulation technique (Rusitec. In situ fiber digestion was measured in a previous study by incubating untreated barley straw in the rumen of sixteen heifers fed a diet consisting of 700 g/kg barley straw and 300 g/kg concentrate. The two heifers with fastest rate of digestion (Fast > 4.18 % h-1 and the two heifers with the slowest rate of digestion (Slow 0.05 methane per gram of digested material for both untreated and AFEX straw, and reduced (interaction, P < 0.05 acetate: propionate ratio for untreated straw. Greater relative populations of Ruminococcus albus (P < 0.05 and increased microbial N production (P = 0.045 were observed in Fast rumen inoculum. AFEX straw in Fast inoculum had greater total bacterial populations than Slow, but for untreated straw this result was reversed (interaction, P = 0.013. These findings indicate that differences in microbial populations in rumen fluid contribute to differences in the capacity of rumen inoculum to digest fiber.

  6. Nutritional Interdependence Among Rumen Bacteria During Cellulose Digestion In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Miura, Hideki; Horiguchi, Masaaki; Ogimoto, Keiji; MATSUMOTO, Tatsuro

    1983-01-01

    A study has been made of the promoting effect of starch on cellulose digestion by mixed rumen bacteria in a cellulose-urea medium. Starch supplementation of the medium promoted the growth of bacteria that required neither amino acids (AA) nor branched-chain fatty acids (BrFA). The growth of these bacteria was followed by the growth of AA-dependent bacteria, AA- or BrFA-dependent bacteria, BrFA-producing bacteria, and finally, BrFA-dependent cellulolytic bacteria. Population changes of these b...

  7. Rumen liquor from slaughtered cattle as inoculum for feed evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius Lutakome

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of nonlinear mathematical models has been majorly based on in vitro gas production (GP data generated when substrates are incubated with rumen liquor from fistulated steers. However, existing evidence suggests that rumen liquor from slaughtered cattle of unknown dietary history also generates quantifiable in vitro GP data. Fitting and description of GP data obtained from 4 diets incubated with rumen liquor from slaughtered cattle was evaluated using single-pool exponential model with discrete lag time (EXPL, logistic (LOG, Groot's (GRTS and Gompertz (GOMP models. Diets were formulated by varying proportions of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana hay and a concentrate mixed on dry matter basis to be: 1,000 g/kg Rhodes grass hay (RGH and 0 of the concentrate (D1, 900 g/kg RGH and 100 g/kg concentrate (D2, 800 g/kg RGH and 200 g/kg concentrate (D3, 700 g/kg RGH and 300 g/kg concentrate (D4. Dietary kinetics for the models were determined by measuring GP at 2, 4, 8, 10, 18, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. Model comparison was based on derived GP kinetics, graphical analysis of observed versus predicted GP profiles plus residual distribution and goodness-of-fit from analysis of root mean square error (RMSE, adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj-R2 and Akaike's information criterion (AIC. Asymptotic GP, half-life and fractional rate of GP differed (P < 0.001 among the 4 models. The RMSE, Adj-R2 and AIC ranged from 1.555 to 4.429, 0.906 to 0.984 and 2.452 to 15.874, respectively, for all diets compared across the 4 models. Based on the goodness-of-fit statistical criterion, GP profiles of D1 were more appropriately fitted and described by GRTS and GOMP than the EXPL and LOG models. The GRTS model had the lowest AIC value for D2 (2.452. Although GRTS model had the most homogenous residual dispersion for the 4 diets, all the 4 models exhibited a sigmoidal behavior. Therefore, rumen liquor from slaughtered cattle of unknown dietary history can

  8. Microorganisms .

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and heat/pH-shift treatments. This technique resulted in 47% enzyme yield with a purification fac- tor of 12. Technique II which involved two extraction steps by' aqueous two - phase system. (APS) coupled with UF resulted in 62 % enzyme ...

  9. Improving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Nash, Robert J.; Braganca, Radek; Duval, Stephane; Bouillon, Marc E.; Lahmann, Martina; Newbold, C. Jamie

    2017-01-01

    The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the acute antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect over a 24 h incubation period using ivy saponins, a stevia extract rich in iminosugars, ivy saponins with stevia extract, and a chemically modified ivy saponin, hederagenin bis-succinate (HBS). The effects on fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities were also studied. Ivy saponins with stevia and HBS had a greater antiprotozoal effect than ivy saponins, and this effect was maintained after 24 h of incubation (Pstevia extracts was more effective in shifting the fermentation pattern towards higher propionate (+39%) and lower butyrate (-32%) and lower ammonia concentration (-64%) than the extracts incubated separately. HBS caused a decrease in butyrate (-45%) and an increase in propionate (+43%) molar proportions. However, the decrease in ammonia concentration (-42%) observed in the presence of HBS was less than that caused by ivy saponins, either alone or with stevia. Whereas HBS and stevia impacted on bacterial population in terms of community structure, only HBS had an effect in terms of biodiversity (Pstevia and the modified saponin HBS had a strong antiprotozoal effect, although they differed in their effects on fermentation parameters and bacteria communities. Ivy saponins combined with an iminosugar-rich stevia extract and/or HBS should be evaluated to determine their antiprotozoal

  10. Improving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ramos-Morales

    Full Text Available The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the acute antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect over a 24 h incubation period using ivy saponins, a stevia extract rich in iminosugars, ivy saponins with stevia extract, and a chemically modified ivy saponin, hederagenin bis-succinate (HBS. The effects on fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities were also studied. Ivy saponins with stevia and HBS had a greater antiprotozoal effect than ivy saponins, and this effect was maintained after 24 h of incubation (P<0.001. The combination of ivy and stevia extracts was more effective in shifting the fermentation pattern towards higher propionate (+39% and lower butyrate (-32% and lower ammonia concentration (-64% than the extracts incubated separately. HBS caused a decrease in butyrate (-45% and an increase in propionate (+43% molar proportions. However, the decrease in ammonia concentration (-42% observed in the presence of HBS was less than that caused by ivy saponins, either alone or with stevia. Whereas HBS and stevia impacted on bacterial population in terms of community structure, only HBS had an effect in terms of biodiversity (P<0.05. It was concluded that ivy saponins with stevia and the modified saponin HBS had a strong antiprotozoal effect, although they differed in their effects on fermentation parameters and bacteria communities. Ivy saponins combined with an

  11. In Vitro Degradation of Melamine by Ruminal Microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the extent of melamine degradation in rumen liquor. Rumen liquor was collected from two ruminally cannulated Holstein cows on four separate dates, one week apart. Erlenmeyer flasks (250 mL) were prepared for incubation by adding 1000 mg of a dairy feed substrate, 100 mg ...

  12. Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Victoria H.; Calvin, Melvin

    1951-07-24

    Resting cells of eleven microorganisms were exposed to radioactive carbon dioxide for 40 minutes. The radioactive compounds formed during this time were separated and identified by paper chromatography. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei fixed no carbon dioxide and growing cells fixed carbon dioxide primarily in malic and aspartic acids. All of the radioactive compounds formed could have become radioactive by reversal of known decarboxylation reactions.

  13. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  14. Microorganisms and ocean global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, David A; Fu, Feixue

    2017-05-25

    The prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that drive the pelagic ocean's biogeochemical cycles are currently facing an unprecedented set of comprehensive anthropogenic changes. Nearly every important control on marine microbial physiology is currently in flux, including seawater pH, pCO2, temperature, redox chemistry, irradiance and nutrient availability. Here, we examine how microorganisms with key roles in the ocean carbon and nitrogen cycles may respond to these changes in the Earth's largest ecosystem. Some functional groups such as nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and denitrifiers may be net beneficiaries of these changes, while others such as calcifiers and nitrifiers may be negatively impacted. Other groups, such as heterotrophic bacteria, may be relatively resilient to changing conditions. The challenge for marine microbiologists will be to predict how these divergent future responses of marine microorganisms to complex multiple variable interactions will be expressed through changing biogeography, community structure and adaptive evolution, and ultimately through large-scale alterations of the ocean's carbon and nutrient cycles.

  15. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  16. OPPORTUNISTIC MICROORGANISMS IN RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Gulneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature on the role of opportunistic microorganisms (OMs in rheumatic diseases (RDs. OMs are anticipated to be involved as triggers initiating the development of chronic inflammation. Along with this, OMs in autoimmune diseases may play a defensive role through the interaction with Toll-like receptors and the activation of T cells that have suppressor activity. The possible involvement of OMs in the pathogenesis of RDs provides support not only the isolation of microorganisms, but also the detection of antibacterial antibodies of different classes. Of great importance are OMs in the etiology of comorbid infections, the risk of which is due to both the presence of autoimmune RDs and the necessity of using the drugs having immunosuppressive activity. The active clinical introduction of biological agents is followed by a rise in the rate and severity of different infections, including those caused by OMs. Having a marked biological and environmental plasticity, OMs are able to persist long when there are changes in the immune defense of patients with RDs. There is evidence for the higher adhesive properties and persistent potential of the microorganisms that colonize the body of patients with RDs. In the latter, OMs that are distinguished by pronounced antibiotic polyresistance are isolated, making the treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections more difficult in rheumatology. The results of the papers analyzed in the review suggest that the study of OMs in RDs is of practical importance.

  17. PROBIOTICS BASED ON TRANSGENIC MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. А. Starovoitova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern tendencies of recombinant microorganisms creation for obtaining on their basis a new effective biopreparations (probiotics with wider spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties were considered. A lot of attention was focused on the main genera of perspective bacteria for creation of recombinant probiotics particularly: Lactococcus, Bifidobac terium,Bacillus, Escherichia. The main created Ukrainian and foreign gene-modified strains, that are widely used today in creation of effective recombinant biopreparations were characterized. Some fundamental directions and methods of gene-modified strains obtaining, which are used in getting effective biopreparations that used for therapy and prophylactic illness were reported, under which this group of pharmaceutical drugs were not used earlier. The safety matters of probiotics using on basis of genemodified strains were examined. Medical and veterinary biopreparations on basis of recombinant microorganisms could be used directly and effectively for therapy and prophylaxis of different illness, beginning from disbacteriosis up to cardiovascular diseases. It is related with some probiotic microorganisms ability for lowering of serum cholesterol at the host organism.

  18. Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Bacteriocin Gene Clusters in Rumen Microbial Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Analice C; Bento, Cláudia B P; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; Queiroz, Marisa V; Mantovani, Hilário C

    2015-10-01

    Some species of ruminal bacteria are known to produce antimicrobial peptides, but the screening procedures have mostly been based on in vitro assays using standardized methods. Recent sequencing efforts have made available the genome sequences of hundreds of ruminal microorganisms. In this work, we performed genome mining of the complete and partial genome sequences of 224 ruminal bacteria and 5 ruminal archaea to determine the distribution and diversity of bacteriocin gene clusters. A total of 46 bacteriocin gene clusters were identified in 33 strains of ruminal bacteria. Twenty gene clusters were related to lanthipeptide biosynthesis, while 11 gene clusters were associated with sactipeptide production, 7 gene clusters were associated with class II bacteriocin production, and 8 gene clusters were associated with class III bacteriocin production. The frequency of strains whose genomes encode putative antimicrobial peptide precursors was 14.4%. Clusters related to the production of sactipeptides were identified for the first time among ruminal bacteria. BLAST analysis indicated that the majority of the gene clusters (88%) encoding putative lanthipeptides contained all the essential genes required for lanthipeptide biosynthesis. Most strains of Streptococcus (66.6%) harbored complete lanthipeptide gene clusters, in addition to an open reading frame encoding a putative class II bacteriocin. Albusin B-like proteins were found in 100% of the Ruminococcus albus strains screened in this study. The in silico analysis provided evidence of novel biosynthetic gene clusters in bacterial species not previously related to bacteriocin production, suggesting that the rumen microbiota represents an underexplored source of antimicrobial peptides. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Transformation of the insecticide teflubenzuron by microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkelstein, Z.I.; Baskunov, B.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Vervoort, J.; Golovleva, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Transformation of teflubenzuron, the active component in the insecticide commercialized as Nomolt, by soil microorganisms was studied. It was shown that microorganisms, belonging to Bacillus, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera are capable to perform the hydrolytic cleavage of the

  20. Evaluation Nutritients Of Rice Bran Second Quality Fermented Using Rumen Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ayu afria ulita ermalia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is agriculture  waste that easy to find. Means to increase biological value of rice bran can do with decrease of highly crude fiber. Treatment that to do with fermentation use rumen fluid from cows. Rumen fluid potential is easy to find in slaughterhouse, this rumen fluid much to never utilization. This purpose of the research for evaluation of rice bran nutrition value that fermentating used rumen fluid, with different levels and long time incubations for get lower crude fiber and higher crude protein content. Methods of this research used Laboratory experiments with Factorial-Random Complete Design 4x4 and 6 repetitions. First factor is rumen fluid levels (0, 30, 40, 50 %/w and second factor is long incubations (0, 24, 48, 72 hours. This result  of ANOVA analysis to show that increment rumen fluid levels and long incubations on rice bran fermentating process can decrease Dry Matter, Organic Matter, Crude Fiber, NDF, ADF and NDR content; as well as increase Crude Protein content but not increase Crude Fat content. The best interaction between rumen fluid levels and long time incubations  is 30 %/w with 72 hours long time incubations, with 10.28±0.1 % of Crude Protein, 6.46±0.07 of Crude Fat and 22.31±0.4 of Crude Fiber content.

  1. The Effectiveness of Cumin as Natural Antioxidant to Improve Rumen Ecology of Mastitis Dairy Cow's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nurdin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The research was on the effect of supplementation of natural antioxidant (Cuminum cyminum to improve rumen ecology of Mastitis Dairy Cow's and improved milk production. This research was in-vitro treatments and using rumen fluids of Holstein dairy cows with mastitis condition. They were fed diets supplemented with various levels of a natural antioxidant ( A; 0 ppm; B: 500 ppm; C: 1000 ppm and D: 1500 ppm. Total of Rumen Bactery, pH, NH3, acetate acid, propionate acid and butirate acid were determined. The design of this experiment was used Randomized Design. The collected data were analyzed by Multiple Analysis of Variance. While the difference between the treatment effects was tested using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of 1 000 ppm of Cuminum cyminum caused increase of population bactery, Acetic acid and Propionic acid and decrease of NH3 concentration (P0.05. Our conclusion, the level 1 000 ppm of Cuminum cyminum improve to good condition of rumen ecology. It showed to increase bactery rumen (66.02%, decrease NH3 concentration (7.58%, increase asetic acid (49.91% and propionic acid (29.94 %. Condition of pH rumen is showed in normal condition. (Animal Production 11(3: 160-164 (2009 Key Words: Cumminum cyminum, anti-oxidant, rumen ecology, mastitis, dairy cows

  2. Utilization of digital differential display to identify differentially expressed genes related to rumen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Daichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Haga, Satoshi; So, KyoungHa; Yamauchi, Eri; Nakano, Miwa; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Choi, Kichoon; Katoh, Kazuo; Roh, Sang-Gun

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to identify the genes associated with the development of the rumen epithelium by screening for candidate genes by digital differential display (DDD) in silico. Using DDD in NCBI's UniGene database, expressed sequence tag (EST)-based gene expression profiles were analyzed in rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum and other tissues in cattle. One hundred and ten candidate genes with high expression in the rumen were derived from a library of all tissues. The expression levels of 11 genes in all candidate genes were analyzed in the rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum of nine Japanese Black male calves (5-week-old pre-weaning: n = 3; 15-week-old weaned calves: n = 6). Among the 11 genes, only 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2), aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1-like (AKR1C1), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) showed significant changes in the levels of gene expression in the rumen between the pre- and post-weaning of calves. These results indicate that DDD analysis in silico can be useful for screening candidate genes related to rumen development, and that the changes in expression levels of three genes in the rumen may have been caused by weaning, aging or both. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Compositional and functional dynamics of the bovine rumen methanogenic community across different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Nir; Jami, Elie; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2017-08-01

    Methanogenic archaea in the bovine rumen are responsible for the reduction of carbon molecules to methane, using various electron donors and driving the electron flow across the microbial food webs. Thus, methanogens play a key role in sustaining rumen metabolism and function. Research of rumen methanogenic archaea typically focuses on their composition and function in mature animals, while studies of early colonization and functional establishment remain scarce. Here, we investigated the metabolic potential and taxonomic composition of the methanogenic communities across different rumen developmental stages. We discovered that the methanogenesis process changes with age and that the early methanogenic community is characterized by a high activity of methylotrophic methanogenesis, likely performed by members of the order Methanosarcinales, exclusively found in young rumen. In contrast, higher hydrogenotrophic activity was observed in the mature rumen, where a higher proportion of exclusively hydrogenotrophic taxa are found. These findings suggest that environmental filtering acts on the archaeal communities and select for different methanogenic lineages during different growth stages, affecting the functionality of this ecosystem. This study provides a better understanding of the compositional and metabolic changes that occur in the rumen microbiome from its initial stages of colonization and throughout the animals' life. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Microorganism Reduction Methods in Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    ZÁHOROVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    In Bachelor thesis I deal with a theme of the influences on the reduction of microorganisms of meat products. First, I focused on the characteristics of individual organisms, the factors affecting their growth, incidence of microorganisms in meat, forms of microbial degradation and contamination of meat microorganisms in slaughterhouses. The next section deals with the means to fight against microorganisms and methods which can reduce their presence in meat products. In the end there is menti...

  5. Predatory Microorganisms Would Help Reclaim Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaminson, Morris A.; Lehrer, Stanley

    1995-01-01

    Wastewater-reclamation systems of proposed type use predatory, nonpathogenic microorganisms to consume pathogenic microorganisms. Unlike some other wastewater-reclamation systems, these systems do not require use of toxic chemicals, intense heat, or ionizing radiation (conductivity rays or ultraviolet) to destroy microorganisms.

  6. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior to... specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only to...

  7. Illegal employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mervartová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007 Labour Code contains the definition of dependent work, which can be carried out only in labour-law relations. The Amendment to Labour Code from 2012 makes the definition more precise, when it stipulates essential elements of dependent work and designates the others as conditions, under which dependent work should be carried out. The Amendment to Employment Act changes the definition of illegal work. Illegal work is a performance of dependent work by natural person except for labour-law relation, or if natural person – foreigner carries out work in conflict with issued permission to employment or without this permission. Since 2012 sanctions for illegal work were increased. Labour inspection is entitled to impose sanctions, in case of foreigners it is Customs Office. For control purposes employer is obliged to have copies of documents at the workplace proving the existence of labour-law relation. Goal of controls and high fines is to limit illegal employment of citizens of Czech Republic and foreigners as well. Illegal work has unfavourable economic impact on state budget. It comes to extensive tax evasions and also to evasions within health insurance and social security. If a concluded commercial-law relation meets the attributes of dependent work, then it stands for a concealed legal relationship. Tax Office can subsequently assess an income tax to businessman. Labour-law relationship enjoys a higher legal protection than commercial-law relationship; nonetheless it is not suitable to limit liberty of contract in cases when it is not unambiguously a dependent activity.

  8. Increasing Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono Budiyono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure (M was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid (R and tap water (W in several ratio resulting six different M:W:R ratio contents i.e. 1:1:0; 1:0.75:0.25; 1:0.5:0.5; 1:0.25:0.75; and 1:0:1 (correspond to 0; 12.5; 25, 37.5; 50, and 100 % rumen, respectively and six different total solid (TS contents i.e. 2.6, 4.6, 6.2, 7.4, 9.2, 12.3, and 18.4 %. The operating temperatures were at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. The best performance for biogas production was the digester with rumen fluid and TS content in the range of 25-50 % and 7.4 and 9.2 %, respectively. These results suggest that, based on TS content effects to biogas yield, rumen fluid inoculums exhibit the similar effect with other inoculums. Increasing rumen content will also increase biogas production. Due to the optimum total solid (TS content for biogas production between 7-9 % (or correspond to more and less manure and total liquid 1:1, the rumen fluid content of 50 % will give the best performance for biogas production. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.31-38 [How to cite this article: Budiyono, Widiasa, I.N., Johari, S. and Sunarso. (2014. Increasing Biogas

  9. QUANTIFICATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF RUMEN MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN STEERS FED GREEN TROPICAL GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHEN L. MULLIK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The rate of rumen microbial crude protein (MCP supply to the intestines is a crucial element in the current rumen models to predict respond of ruminants to a certain diet. Data from tropical pastures always below predicted results from the existing rumen models. Thus, quantification of the rumen MCP supply from tropical grass will improve predictive rate under tropical feeding conditions. Four Brahman crossbred steers (457±20.1 kg were used in a metabolism study. Pangola grass (Digitaria erianthe cv. Steudal was harvested every morning and fed to the animals soon after. Parameters measured were EMPS, intake, fractional passage rates, and rumen ammonia concentration. The EMPS was estimated using purine derivative excretion in urine. Crude protein and water soluble carbohydrates content were 6.3 and 7.4% of dry matter (DM respectively. DM intake was 1.6% live weight. Average rumen ammonia concentration was 69 mg/L whilst rumen passage rates were 7.84 and 6.92 %/h for fluid and solids respectively. EMPS was only 72 g MCP/kg digestible organic matter. It might be concluded that EMPS in steers consuming green pangola grass was below the minimum level for forage diets adopted in the current feeding standards. ABSTRAK Tingkat pasokan protein mikroba rumen (MCP ke usus halus merupakan salah satu unsur kunci dalam meramal respon pertumbuhan ruminan terhadap ransum tertentu. Data MCP hijauan tropis selalu berada di bawah nilai prediksi model rumen yang dipakai saat ini. Dengan demikian, kuantifikasi pasokan MCP rumput tropis diharapkan menjadi masukan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan prediksi model rumen untuk pakan daerah tropis. Empat sapi jantan muda Brahman persilangan (457±20,1 kg digunakan dalam sebuah penelitian metabolisme. Rumput pangola (Digitaria erianthe cv. Steudal dipanen setiap pagi dan langsung diberikan kepada ternak dalam kandang metabolis. Parameter yang diukur adalah produksi MCP dan efisiensi sintesis MCP (Emps, konsumsi, laju

  10. Fatty acid composition and bacterial community changes in the rumen fluid of lactating sheep fed sunflower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Belenguer, A; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2012-02-01

    Supplementation of ruminant diets with plant oils and marine lipids is an effective strategy for lowering saturated fatty acid (FA) content and increasing the concentration of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 FA in ruminant milk. However, changes in populations of ruminal microorganisms associated with altered biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA are not well characterized. Twenty-five lactating Assaf ewes were allocated at random to 1 of 5 treatments composed of dehydrated alfalfa hay and concentrates containing no additional lipid (control), or supplemented with 25 g of sunflower oil and 0 (SO), 8 (SOMA(1)), 16 (SOMA(2)), or 24 (SOMA(3)) g of marine algae/kg of diet dry matter. On d 28 on diet, samples of rumen fluid were collected for lipid analysis and microbial DNA extraction. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of FA methyl esters. Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis, and real-time PCR was used to quantify the known Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce trans-11 18:1 or 18:0. Dietary supplements of sunflower oil alone or in combination with marine algae altered the FA profile of rumen fluid, which was associated with changes in populations of specific bacteria. Inclusion of marine algae in diets containing sunflower oil resulted in the accumulation of trans 18:1 and 10-O-18:0 and a marked decrease in 18:0 concentrations in rumen fluid. At the highest levels of supplementation (SOMA(2) and SOMA(3)), marine algae also promoted a shift in ruminal biohydrogenation pathways toward the formation of trans-10 18:1 at the expense of trans-11 18:1. Changes in the concentration of biohydrogenation intermediates were not accompanied by significant variations in the abundance of known cultivated ruminal bacteria capable of hydrogenating unsaturated FA. However, certain

  11. Genome-based studies of marine microorganisms to maximize the diversity of natural products discovery for medical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Marine microorganisms are rich source for natural products which play important roles in pharmaceutical industry. Over the past decade, genome-based studies of marine microorganisms have unveiled the tremendous diversity of the producers of natural products and also contributed to the efficiency of harness the strain diversity and chemical diversity, as well as the genetic diversity of marine microorganisms for the rapid discovery and generation of new natural products. In the meantime, genomic information retrieved from marine symbiotic microorganisms can also be employed for the discovery of new medical molecules from yet-unculturable microorganisms. In this paper, the recent progress in the genomic research of marine microorganisms is reviewed; new tools of genome mining as well as the advance in the activation of orphan pathways and metagenomic studies are summarized. Genome-based research of marine microorganisms will maximize the biodiscovery process and solve the problems of supply and sustainability of drug molecules for medical treatments.

  12. Genome-Based Studies of Marine Microorganisms to Maximize the Diversity of Natural Products Discovery for Medical Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Qing Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms are rich source for natural products which play important roles in pharmaceutical industry. Over the past decade, genome-based studies of marine microorganisms have unveiled the tremendous diversity of the producers of natural products and also contributed to the efficiency of harness the strain diversity and chemical diversity, as well as the genetic diversity of marine microorganisms for the rapid discovery and generation of new natural products. In the meantime, genomic information retrieved from marine symbiotic microorganisms can also be employed for the discovery of new medical molecules from yet-unculturable microorganisms. In this paper, the recent progress in the genomic research of marine microorganisms is reviewed; new tools of genome mining as well as the advance in the activation of orphan pathways and metagenomic studies are summarized. Genome-based research of marine microorganisms will maximize the biodiscovery process and solve the problems of supply and sustainability of drug molecules for medical treatments.

  13. Cellulolytic Microorganisms from Thermal Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Raman, Babu [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Thermal, anaerobic environments rich in decaying plant material are a potential source of novel cellulolytic bacteria. Samples collected from geothermal aquifers in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were used to select for cellulolytic thermophiles. Laboratory enrichments on dilute-acid pretreated plant biomass (switchgrass, Populus), and crystalline cellulose (Avicel) resulted in the isolation of 247 environmental clones. The majority of individual clones were affiliated with the cellulolytic bacteria of phylum Firmicutes, followed by xylanolytic and saccharolytic members of the phylum Dictyoglomi. Among the Firmicutes, the clones were affiliated with the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (54.4%), Caloramator (11.5%), Thermoanaerobacter (8.8%), Thermovenabulum (4.1%), and Clostridium (2.0%). From established anaerobic thermophilic enrichments a total of 81 single strains of the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (57%) and Thermoanaerobacter (43%) were isolated. With continuous flow enrichment on Avicel, increases in the relative abundance of Caloramator sp. was observed over clones detected from the Caldicellulosiruptor. Complex communities of interacting microorganisms bring about cellulose decomposition in nature, therefore using up-to-date approaches may yield novel cellulolytic microorganisms with high activity and a rapid rate of biomass conversion to biofuels.

  14. Methylotrophic methanogenic Thermoplasmata implicated in reduced methane emissions from bovine rumen - in: GGAA2013 Conference Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    Introduction Enteric methane (CH4) production by ruminants is a major source of anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The CH4 is derived from complex anaerobic degradation of plant biomass by the rumen microbiota, the terminal group being methanogenic archaea. The methanogens have been targets of a plethora...... of methane mitigation strategies, often aiming at reducing concentrations of H2; the major energy source of most rumen methanogens known to date. However, not all rumen archaea are yet physiologically characterized. Using a metatranscriptomic approach the present study investigated the effect of dietary...... weeks per feeding period). One cow was excluded from the full experiment due to health considerations not related to the diets. Methane emission from the cows was quantified at the end of each feeding period in transparent polycarbonate chambers (Hellwing et al., 2012). Concomitantly, rumen fluid...

  15. Occurrence of rumen foreign bodies in sheep and goats slaughtered at

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Ababa municipality abattoir from November to March 2008. A total of 697 sheep and goats rumen was examined for the presence of indigestible foreign bodies. ..... could help environmental activists, veterinarians, policy makers and livestock.

  16. In Vitro Rumen Degradability of Phenolic Compound and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa oleifera Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badriyah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to study the degradability of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera in the rumen in vitro. Moringa and Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, as a comparison leaves were incubated in goat rumen liquid for 48 h in vitro. The in vitro degradabilities of dry matter, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in moringa leaf and lamtoro leaf were compared using the T-test. The dry matter degradability of moringa leaf was higher (p<0,05 than Leucaena leaf. The phenolic compound degradability of moringa leaf was lower (P<0,05 than Leucaena leaf. The decrease in antioxidant activity of moringa leaf was smaller than Leucaena leaf after incubation in the goat’s rumen. The incubation of moringa and leucaena leaves in rumen may reduce the phenolic compounds availability, and thus lowering their antioxidan activity.

  17. Improving the welfare of dairy goats: Feeding behaviour identifies goats at risk of subacute rumen acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Giger-Reverdin, Sylvie; Sauvant, Daniel; Duvaux-Ponter, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Main messages: Feeding behaviour is highly variable between animals. Feeding behaviour modifies rumen pH pattern and occurrence of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Avoiding SARA increases animal welfare, milk production and therefore farm profit - ability.

  18. Rumen microbial communities influence metabolic phenotypes in lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgavi, Diego P.; Rahahao-Paris, Estelle; Popova, Milka

    2015-01-01

    the acquisition of microbes. Rumen microbiota, fermentation parameters, digestibility and growth were monitored for up to 31 weeks of age. Microbiota assembled in isolation from other ruminants lacked protozoa and had low bacterial and archaeal diversity whereas digestibility was not affected. Exposure to adult...... sheep microbiota increased bacterial and archaeal diversity independently of protozoa presence. For archaea, Methanomassiliicoccales displaced Methanosphaera. Notwithstanding, protozoa induced differences in functional traits such as digestibility and significantly shaped bacterial community structure...... in microbiota structure. Discriminant metabolites were mainly involved in amino acids and protein metabolic pathways while a negative interaction was observed between methylotrophic methanogens Methanomassiliicoccales and trimethylamine N-oxide. These results stress the influence of gut microbes on animal...

  19. Evaluation of lugol solution used for counting rumen ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D'Agosto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes a modification of the technique described by PURSER & MOIR (1959 for the quantitative evaluation of rumen ciliate based on an adaptation described by DEHORITY (I984. The modifying process includes: the replacement of two drops of brilliant green dye, for at least four hours, by three drops of lugol solution, for at least 15 minutes. It was made a comparative evaluation of these stainings. It was concluded that lugol solution can replace the brilliant green dye showing the following advantages: staining time reduction and subsequent speeding of sample processing; evidence of skeletal plates of entodiniomorphs making its identification easier; improved observation of small ciliates and inconspicuous structures; improved total counting and generic identification of the ciliates.

  20. Downregulation of Cellular Protective Factors of Rumen Epithelium in Goats Fed High Energy Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Manfred Hollmann; Ingrid Miller; Karin Hummel; Sonja Sabitzer; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli; Qendrim Zebeli

    2013-01-01

    Energy-rich diets can challenge metabolic and protective functions of the rumen epithelial cells, but the underlying factors are unclear. This study sought to evaluate proteomic changes of the rumen epithelium in goats fed a low, medium, or high energy diet. Expression of protein changes were compared by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of about 2,000 sp...

  1. Rumen degradability and ileal digestibility of proteins and amino acids of feedstuffs for cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Maskaľová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the profile of amino acids of the rumen-undegradable protein can help in the formulation of diets to provide amino acids that complement microbial protein as well as supply amino acids, which are most limiting for milk production. Three non-lactating cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used to determine the effect of in situ rumen degradation on crude protein and amino acid profile of rumen-undegraded protein of feedstuffs. The obtained values of rumen degradability of crude protein with significant difference (P in vitro modified 3-step method was used to determine intestinal digestibility. Intestinal digestibility of undegraded protein varied from 54.5 ± 1.4% in raw soybean to 95.2 ± 1.0% in corn gluten feed. The absorbable amino acid profile of rumen-undegraded protein for each feedstuff was compared with profiles of the original feedstuff and the rumen-exposed undegraded protein. Absorbable lysine (9.3 ± 1.1 g/kg of crude protein was higher in products of soybean and sunflower cake. Corn gluten feed and meal supplied more absorbable methionine (3.6 ± 0.6 g/kg of crude protein. This study showed that the digestibility factor of crude protein and amino acid based on in situ and in vitro methods for thermal treatment of protein feeds can be used in models to optimize the amino acid nutrition of dairy cows and expand knowledge about rumen degradability and ileal digestibility of amino acids in feedstuffs.

  2. Investigations on rumen and claw health of different wild ruminants related to subacute ruminal acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Schilcher, B; Baumgartner, K; Liesegang, A

    2010-01-01

    In this study four ruminant species of Nuremberg Zoo were evaluated for subacute ruminal acidosis according to the feeding management. Parameters of microbiological fermentation of the rumen as well as rumen tissue samples were examined. Additionally, investigations on claw health, in terms of laminitis were made. Three of the four species, all grass- and roughage feeders, showed severe characteristics of subacute ruminal acidosis due to a diet high in fermentable carbohydrates and low in fib...

  3. Histamine Induces Bovine Rumen Epithelial Cell Inflammatory Response via NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA is a common disease in high-producing lactating cows. Rumenitis is the initial insult of SARA and is associated with the high concentrations of histamine produced in the rumen of dairy cows during SARA. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to investigate whether histamine induces inflammation of rumen epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism of this process. Methods: Bovine rumen epithelial cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of histamine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor cultured in different pH medium (pH 7.2 or 5.5. qRT-PCR, Western-blotting, ELISA and immunocytofluorescence were used to evaluate whether histamine activated the NF-κB pathway and inflammatory cytokines. Results: The results showed that histamine significantly increased the activity of IKK β and the phosphorylation levels of IκB α, as well as upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB p65 in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in neutral (pH=7.2 and acidic (pH=5.5 medium. Furthermore, histamine treatment also significantly increased the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65. High expression and transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 significantly increased the mRNA expressions and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, thereby inducing the inflammatory response in bovine rumen epithelial cells. However, inhibition of NF-κB p65 by PDTC significantly decreased the expressions and concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines induced by histamine in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in the neutral and acidic medium. Conclusion: The present data indicate that histamine induces the inflammatory response of bovine rumen epithelial cells through the NF-κB pathway.

  4. Effects of ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates to rumen degradable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows, averaging 171 ± 17 days in milk and producing 24.1 ± 3.3 kg of milk/d were assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to study the effects of altering the non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC) to rumen degradable protein (RDP) ratios on rumen and plasma parameters and ...

  5. Metagenomic analysis of buffalo rumen microbiome: Effect of roughage diet on Dormancy and Sporulation genes

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K.M.; Reddy, B; Patel, A K; H. Panchasara; Parmar, N.; Patel, A.B.; T.M. Shah; V.D. Bhatt; Joshi, C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Buffalo rumen microbiome experiences a variety of diet stress and represents reservoir of Dormancy and Sporulation genes. However, the information on genomic responses to such conditions is very limited. The Ion Torrent PGM next generation sequencing technology was used to characterize general microbial diversity and the repertoire of microbial genes present, including genes associated with Dormancy and Sporulation in Mehsani buffalo rumen metagenome. The research findings revealed the abunda...

  6. Convergent Evolution of Rumen Microbiomes in High-Altitude Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Dongming; Wang, Li; Hao, Junjun; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Weiwei; Qiu, Qiang; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhou, Jianwei; Long, Ruijun; Zhao, Fangqing; Shi, Peng

    2016-07-25

    Studies of genetic adaptation, a central focus of evolutionary biology, most often focus on the host's genome and only rarely on its co-evolved microbiome. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) offers one of the most extreme environments for the survival of human and other mammalian species. Yaks (Bos grunniens) and Tibetan sheep (T-sheep) (Ovis aries) have adaptations for living in this harsh high-altitude environment, where nomadic Tibetan people keep them primarily for food and livelihood [1]. Adaptive evolution affects energy-metabolism-related genes in a way that helps these ruminants live at high altitude [2, 3]. Herein, we report convergent evolution of rumen microbiomes for energy harvesting persistence in two typical high-altitude ruminants, yaks and T-sheep. Both ruminants yield significantly lower levels of methane and higher yields of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) than their low-altitude relatives, cattle (Bos taurus) and ordinary sheep (Ovis aries). Ultra-deep metagenomic sequencing reveals significant enrichment in VFA-yielding pathways of rumen microbial genes in high-altitude ruminants, whereas methanogenesis pathways show enrichment in the cattle metagenome. Analyses of RNA transcriptomes reveal significant upregulation in 36 genes associated with VFA transport and absorption in the ruminal epithelium of high-altitude ruminants. Our study provides novel insights into the contributions of microbiomes to adaptive evolution in mammals and sheds light on the biological control of greenhouse gas emissions from livestock enteric fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of changing forage on the dynamic variation in rumen fermentation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiao; Wang, Jia-Kun; Guan, Leluo; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2017-09-25

    To better understand rumen adaptation during dietary transitions between high- and low-quality forages, 10 rumen-cannulated Hu sheep were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments (five sheep each) with the same concentrate-to-forage ratio and concentration mixture, but different forage sequences: (i) alfalfa hay (AH) to corn stover (CS) and back to AH; and (ii) CS to AH and back to CS. A significant decrease in the rumen microbial protein concentration was observed on day 6 after dietary transition whether the transition was from AH to CS or from CS to AH, and this was accompanied by an increase in the ammonia nitrogen concentration as well as a decrease in the total volatile fatty acids concentration and pH. However, after transitioning back to the original forage, the rumen fermentation parameters returned to their initial levels within 2 weeks. Our findings suggest that abrupt substitutions of forages with large nutrient differences could influence rumen function to some extent, but recovery can occur within 2 weeks without detrimental effects. Furthermore, we speculate that the variation of fermentation in the first 6 days may indicate an important rumen transition stage that requires further study. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Immunization against Rumen Methanogenesis by Vaccination with a New Recombinant Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litai Zhang

    Full Text Available Vaccination through recombinant proteins against rumen methanogenesis provides a mitigation approach to reduce enteric methane (CH4 emissions in ruminants. The objective of present study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a new vaccine candidate protein (EhaF on methanogenesis and microbial population in the rumen of goats. We amplified the gene mru 1407 encoding protein EhaF using fresh rumen fluid samples of mature goats and successfully expressed recombinant protein (EhaF in Escherichia coli Rosetta. This product was evaluated using 12 mature goats with half for control and other half injected with 400ug/goat the purified recombinant protein in day 1 and two subsequent booster immunizations in day 35 and 49. All measurements were undertaken from 63 to 68 days after the initial vaccination, with CH4 emissions determined using respiration calorimeter chambers. The results showed that the vaccination caused intensive immune responses in serum and saliva, although it had no significant effect on total enteric CH4 emissions and methanogen population in the rumen, when compared with the control goats. However, the vaccination altered the composition of rumen bacteria, especially the abundance of main phylum Firmicutes and genus Prevotella. The results indicate that protein EhaF might not be an effective vaccine to reduce enteric CH4 emissions but our vaccine have potential to influence the rumen ecosystem of goats.

  9. Rumen bacteria at work: bioaugmentation strategies to enhance biogas production from cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayram, E G; Akyol, Ç; Ince, B; Karakoç, C; Ince, O

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of different bioaugmentation strategies for enhancing the biogas production from cow manure and evaluate microbial community patterns. Co-inoculation with cow rumen fluid and cow rumen-derived enriched microbial consortia was evaluated in anaerobic batch tests at 36°C and 41°C. Singular addition of both rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture had a promising enhancement on methane yields; however, the highest methane yield (311 ml CH4 per gram VS at 41°C) was achieved when the anaerobic seed sludge was co-inoculated together with rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture. Bacterial community profiles were investigated by Ion PGM Platform, and specific lignocellulolytic bacteria dynamics in batch tests were assessed by qPCR. The temperature had minor effects on the abundance of bacterial community; in which Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla in all digesters. Furthermore, Rikenellaceae, Clostridiaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Bacteroidaceae and Ruminococcaceae played a crucial role during the anaerobic degradation of cow manure. There was an important impact of Firmicutes flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus at 41°C, which in turn positively affected the methane production. The degree of enhancement in biogas production can be upgraded by the co-inoculation of rumen-derived bioaugmentation culture with anaerobic seed sludge with high methanogenic activity. A close look at the biotic interactions and their associations with abiotic factors might be valuable for evaluating rumen-related bioaugmentation applications. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Effect of bromochloromethane and fumarate on phylogenetic diversity of the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene in bovine rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumori, Makoto; Matsui, Hiroki; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Shinkai, Takumi; Takenaka, Akio; Denman, Stuart E; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    Effect of the methane inhibitor, bromochloromethane (BCM) and dietary substrate, fumarate, on microbial community structure of acetogen bacteria in the bovine rumen was investigated through analysis of the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene (fhs). The fhs sequences obtained from BCM-untreated, BCM-treated, fumarate-untreated and fumarate-treated bovine rumen were categorized into homoacetogens and nonhomoacetogenic bacteria by homoacetogen similarity scores. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that most of the fhs sequences categorized into homoacetogens were divided into nine clusters, which were in close agreement with a result shown in a self-organizing map. The diversity of the fhs sequences from the BCM-treated rumen was significantly different from those from BCM-non-treated rumen. Principal component analysis also showed that addition of BCM to the rumen altered the population structure of acetogenic bacteria significantly but the effect of fumarate was comparatively minor. These results indicate that BCM affects diversity of actogens in the bovine rumen, and changes in acetogenic community structure in response to methane inhibitors may be caused by different mechanisms. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. In vitro Evaluation of Sheep Rumen Fermentation Pattern After Adding Different Levels of Eugenol – Fumaric acid Combinations

    OpenAIRE

    T A M Baraka; Abdl-Rahman, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro gas production technique was used to evaluate the effect of three different levels of eugenol + fumaric acid combinations on rumen fermentation. Rumen contents were collected from five rams immediately after slaughtering and used for preparation of inoculums of mixed rumen microbes that were used in generation of five treatment systems, negative control with no additives (T1), fumaric acid 0.5 mg L–1 (T2) and fumaric acid 0.5 mg L–1 in combination with three differe...

  12. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O; Vogel, Timothy M; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-08-01

    Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned with

  13. PROTEIN INHIBITORS SYNTHESISED BY MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Matseliukh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a review the literature data on protein inhibitors of peptidases synthesised by different types of microorganisms are systematized. It is shown that at the present time on the basis of amino acid sequence homology protein inhibitors are grouped into 77 families, 29 of which include inhibitors of microorganisms. The mechanism of inhibition of peptidases by proteins may be related to their catalytic mechanism of action or include unrelated blocking of the active site or its surroundings. The structural elements of the protein inhibitors are responsible for binding to the peptidases, mostly include the N- or C-terminal sequences, the unprotected polypeptide loops (chains, which are acting independently or in combination with other elements. The basic properties, structural features and, where it is established, the functions of the protein inhibitors of peptidases are considered. Since some of these proteins effectively inhibit such peptidases as subtilisin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic elastase, their practical use in the treatment of diseases such as emphysema, arthritis, pancreatitis, thrombosis, hypertension, muscular dystrophy, cancer. It is suggested that the role of a bacterial homologue of Escherichia coli alphaacroglobulin, which is a periplasmic protein, is to protect the periplasmic space from the action of bacteria own proteases. Based on the specific properties of alpha-2-macroglobulin to bind endopeptidases active molecules, they are used in biotechnology to isolate endopeptidases from crude biological preparations and titration of its active centers. Some free–living bacteria are able to synthesize protein inhibitors to protect from the effects of its own enzymes, while the presence of these proteins in pathogens may play a certain role both in the infectious process and in the protection of the host proteases.

  14. Impact of subacute ruminal acidosis on the diversity of liquid and solid-associated bacteria in the rumen of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wenjie; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the impact of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) on the diversity of liquid (LAB) and solid-associated bacteria (SAB) following high-grain feeding. Six ruminally cannulated goats were divided into two groups: one group was fed a hay diet (COD), and the other group was fed a high grain diet (SAID). Rumen liquids and rumen solids were sampled after 2 weeks adaption. SARA was diagnosed with a pH below 5.8 for 8 h. SAID decreased ruminal pH (P rumen compared with the COD. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints analysis revealed a clear separation between both the diet and the fraction of rumen digesta in bacterial communities. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that the proportion of phylum Bacteroidetes in the SAID-LAB and SAID-SAB communities was less than in the COD group, whereas the SAID group had a greater percentage of Firmicutes in both the LAB and SAB libraries. UniFrac analyses and a Venn diagram revealed a large difference between the two diets in the diversity of rumen bacterial communities. Overall, our findings revealed that SARA feeding did alter the community structure of rumen liquids and rumen solids. Thus, manipulation of dietary factors, such as ratio of forage to concentrate may have the potential to alter the microbial composition of rumen liquid and rumen solid.

  15. Soybean oil and linseed oil supplementation affect profiles of ruminal microorganisms in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S L; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Hu, Z Y; Li, D; Wei, H Y; Zhou, L Y; Loor, J J

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ruminal microorganisms and fermentation parameters due to dietary supplementation of soybean and linseed oil alone or in combination. Four dietary treatments were tested in a Latin square designed experiment using four primiparous rumen-cannulated dairy cows. Treatments were control (C, 60 : 40 forage to concentrate) or C with 4% soybean oil (S), 4% linseed oil (L) or 2% soybean oil plus 2% linseed oil (SL) in a 4 × 4 Latin square with four periods of 21 days. Forage and concentrate mixtures were fed at 0800 and 2000 h daily. Ruminal fluid was collected every 2 h over a 12-h period on day 19 of each experimental period and pH was measured immediately. Samples were prepared for analyses of concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) by GLC and ammonia. Counts of total and individual bacterial groups (cellulolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic bacteria and total viable bacteria) were performed using the roll-tube technique, and protozoa counts were measured via microscopy in ruminal fluid collected at 0, 4 and 8 h after the morning feeding. Content of ruminal digesta was obtained via the rumen cannula before the morning feeding and used immediately for DNA extraction and quantity of specific bacterial species was obtained using real- time PCR. Ruminal pH did not differ but total VFA (110 v. 105 mmol/l) were lower (P oil supplementation compared with C. Concentration of ruminal NH3-N (4.4 v. 5.6 mmol/l) was greater (P oil compared with C. Compared with C, oil supplementation resulted in lower (P oil compared with C (P oil treatments, the amount of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens in ruminal fluid was substantially lower (P oil level or type. Overall, the results indicate that some ruminal microorganisms, except proteolytic bacteria, are highly susceptible to dietary unsaturated fatty acids supplementation, particularly when linolenic acid rich oils were fed. Dietary

  16. Electrical Retrieval of Living Microorganisms from Cryopreserved Marine Sponges Using a Potential-Controlled Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Sumihiro; Nishi, Shinro; Tokuda, Maki; Uemura, Moeka; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Seya, Takeshi; Chow, Seinen; Ise, Yuji; Hatada, Yuji; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Tsubouchi, Taishi

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel electrical retrieval method (ER method) for living sponge-associated microorganisms from marine sponges frozen at -80 °C. A -0.3-V vs. Ag/AgCl constant potential applied for 2 h at 9 °C induced the attachment of the sponge-associated microorganisms to an indium tin oxide/glass (ITO) or a gallium-doped zinc oxide/glass (GZO) working electrode. The electrically attached microorganisms from homogenized Spirastrella insignis tissues had intact cell membranes and showed intracellular dehydrogenase activity. Dead microorganisms were not attracted to the electrode when the homogenized tissues were autoclaved for 15 min at 121 °C before use. The electrically attached microorganisms included cultivable microorganisms retrieved after detachment from the electrode by application of a 9-MHz sine-wave potential. Using the ER method, we obtained 32 phyla and 72 classes of bacteria and 3 archaea of Crenarchaeota thermoprotei, Marine Group I, and Thaumarchaeota incertae sedis from marine sponges S. insignis and Callyspongia confoederata. Employment of the ER method for extraction and purification of the living microorganisms holds potential of single-cell cultivation for genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analyses of bioactive compounds producing sponge-associated microorganisms.

  17. Host Immune Selection of Rumen Bacteria through Salivary Secretory IgA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle M. Fouhse

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiome is integral to efficient production in cattle and shows strong host specificity, yet little is known about what host factors shape rumen microbial composition. Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA is produced in large amounts in the saliva, can coat both commensal and pathogenic microbes within the gut, and presents a plausible mechanism of host specificity. However, the role salivary SIgA plays in commensal bacteria selection in ruminants remains elusive. The main objectives of this study were to develop an immuno-affinity benchtop method to isolate SIgA-tagged microbiota and to determine if salivary SIgA preferentially binds selected bacteria. We hypothesized that SIgA-tagged bacteria would differ from total bacteria, thus supporting a potential host-derived mechanism in commensal bacterial selection. Whole rumen (n = 9 and oral secretion samples (n = 10 were incubated with magnetic beads conjugated with anti-secretory IgA antibodies to enrich SIgA-tagged microbiota. Microbial DNA from the oral secretion, whole rumen, SIgA-tagged oral secretion, and SIgA-tagged rumen was isolated for amplicon sequencing of V1–V3 region of 16S rDNA genes. Whole rumen and oral secretion had distinctive (P < 0.05 bacterial compositions indicated by the non-parametric multidimensional scaling plot using Euclidean distance metrics. The SIgA-tagged microbiota from rumen and oral secretion had similar abundance of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Fibrobacter, candidate phyla TM7, and Tenericutes and are clustered tightly. Composition of SIgA-tagged oral secretion microbiota was more similar to whole rumen microbiota than whole oral secretion due to enrichment of rumen bacteria (Lachnospiraceae and depletion of oral taxa (Streptococcus, Rothia, Neisseriaceae, and Lactobacillales. In conclusion, SIgA-tagged oral secretion microbiota had an increased resemblance to whole rumen microbiota, suggesting salivary SIgA-coating may be one host

  18. Metatranscriptome Sequencing Reveals Insights into the Gene Expression and Functional Potential of Rumen Wall Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Mann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiota of the rumen wall constitute an important niche of rumen microbial ecology and their composition has been elucidated in different ruminants during the last years. However, the knowledge about the function of rumen wall microbes is still limited. Rumen wall biopsies were taken from three fistulated dairy cows under a standard forage-based diet and after 4 weeks of high concentrate feeding inducing a subacute rumen acidosis (SARA. Extracted RNA was used for metatranscriptome sequencing using Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology. The gene expression of the rumen wall microbial community was analyzed by mapping 35 million sequences against the Kyoto Encyclopedia for Genes and Genomes (KEGG database and determining differentially expressed genes. A total of 1,607 functional features were assigned with high expression of genes involved in central metabolism, galactose, starch and sucrose metabolism. The glycogen phosphorylase (EC:2.4.1.1 which degrades (1->4-alpha-D-glucans was among the highest expressed genes being transcribed by 115 bacterial genera. Energy metabolism genes were also highly expressed, including the pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (EC:2.7.9.1 involved in pyruvate metabolism, which was covered by 177 genera. Nitrogen metabolism genes, in particular glutamate dehydrogenase (EC:1.4.1.4, glutamine synthetase (EC:6.3.1.2 and glutamate synthase (EC:1.4.1.13, EC:1.4.1.14 were also found to be highly expressed and prove rumen wall microbiota to be actively involved in providing host-relevant metabolites for exchange across the rumen wall. In addition, we found all four urease subunits (EC:3.5.1.5 transcribed by members of the genera Flavobacterium, Corynebacterium, Helicobacter, Clostridium, and Bacillus, and the dissimilatory sulfate reductase (EC 1.8.99.5 dsrABC, which is responsible for the reduction of sulfite to sulfide. We also provide in situ evidence for cellulose and cellobiose degradation, a key step in fiber-rich feed

  19. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2014-09-02

    Due to the increasing concerns about limited fossil resources and environmental problems, there has been much interest in developing biofuels from renewable biomass. Ethanol is currently used as a major biofuel, as it can be easily produced by existing fermentation technology, but it is not the best biofuel due to its low energy density, high vapor pressure, hygroscopy, and incompatibility with current infrastructure. Higher alcohols, including 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which possess fuel properties more similar to those of petroleum-based fuel, have attracted particular interest as alternatives to ethanol. Since microorganisms isolated from nature do not allow production of these alcohols at high enough efficiencies, metabolic engineering has been employed to enhance their production. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols. Copyright © 2014 Choi et al.

  20. Metabolic Engineering of Microorganisms for the Production of Higher Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the increasing concerns about limited fossil resources and environmental problems, there has been much interest in developing biofuels from renewable biomass. Ethanol is currently used as a major biofuel, as it can be easily produced by existing fermentation technology, but it is not the best biofuel due to its low energy density, high vapor pressure, hygroscopy, and incompatibility with current infrastructure. Higher alcohols, including 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which possess fuel properties more similar to those of petroleum-based fuel, have attracted particular interest as alternatives to ethanol. Since microorganisms isolated from nature do not allow production of these alcohols at high enough efficiencies, metabolic engineering has been employed to enhance their production. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols. PMID:25182323

  1. The sequential contractions of the rumen associated with eructation in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckebusch, Y.; Tomov, T.

    1973-01-01

    1. The orderly sequential movements of the reticulum and the rumen were studied in conscious sheep by electromyography using enamelled stainless-steel wires implanted in various regions of the stomach wall and by recording mechanical changes within the various parts of the organ. Electrical activity of the rumen and/or pressure changes were related to eructation when the animals were at rest, feeding or ruminating. 2. Secondary contractions of the rumen were found to originate in the ventral blind sac immediately following a primary contraction or independently. The wave of contraction originating in the ventral blind sac was seen to pass in a circular manner to the dorsal blind sac, the dorsal sac, the ventral sac and finally once more to the ventral blind sac. Eructation occurs at the end of the contraction of the dorsal sac. In each case, the time required to initiate the secondary cycle depended on the strength of contraction of the ventral blind sac. 3. Sustained gaseous distension elicited numerous secondary contractions of the rumen concurrent with a lower frequency of reticular contractions. Although some secondary contractions were incomplete, all began with contraction of the ventral blind sac and were associated with eructation. 4. Chemical stimulation of the rumen by fatty acids at pH 5·5-5·9 increased the ratio of secondary to primary contractions of the rumen to a varying extent depending on their initial rate. 5. It was concluded that the seemingly random occurrence of a secondary cycle of the rumen was dependent on the activity of the ventral blind sac and its pattern could be altered by both mechanical and chemical stimulation. PMID:4763997

  2. Downregulation of cellular protective factors of rumen epithelium in goats fed high energy diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hollmann

    Full Text Available Energy-rich diets can challenge metabolic and protective functions of the rumen epithelial cells, but the underlying factors are unclear. This study sought to evaluate proteomic changes of the rumen epithelium in goats fed a low, medium, or high energy diet. Expression of protein changes were compared by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of about 2,000 spots commonly detected in all gels, 64 spots were significantly regulated, which were traced back to 24 unique proteins. Interestingly, the expression profiles of several chaperone proteins with important cellular protective functions such as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, peroxiredoxin-6, serpin H1, protein disulfide-isomerase, and selenium-binding protein were collectively downregulated in response to high dietary energy supply. Similar regulation patterns were obtained for some other proteins involved in transport or metabolic functions. In contrast, metabolic enzymes like retinal dehydrogenase 1 and ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial precursor were upregulated in response to high energy diet. Lower expressions of chaperone proteins in the rumen epithelial cells in response to high energy supply may suggest that these cells were less protected against the potentially harmful rumen toxic compounds, which might have consequences for rumen and systemic health. Our findings also suggest that energy-rich diets and the resulting acidotic insult may render rumen epithelial cells more vulnerable to cellular damage by attenuating their cell defense system, hence facilitating the impairment of rumen barrier function, typically observed in energy-rich fed ruminants.

  3. Changes in the rumen bacterial microbiome of cattle exposed to ponderosa pine needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, K D; Stonecipher, C A; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Pfister, J A

    2017-05-01

    Consumption of ponderosa pine needles, as well as needles and bark from a number of other trees, can cause abortions in cattle. The abortifacient compounds in these trees are labdane resin acids, including isocupressic acid and agathic acid. Previous research has demonstrated that cattle conditioned to pine needles metabolize the labdane resin acids more quickly than naïve cattle. The results from that study indicated that changes had occurred in the rumen of conditioned cattle. Therefore, in this study, the changes that occurred in the rumen bacterial microflora of cattle during exposure to ponderosa pine needles were evaluated. Cattle were dosed with ground pine needles twice daily for 7 d. Rumen samples were collected on d 0, 3, 7, and 14 (7 d after treatment stopped) and ruminal bacterial microbiome analyses were performed. There were 372 different genera of bacteria identified in the rumen samples. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in the rumen bacterial composition between the time points. There were 18 genera that increased in abundance from d 0 to d 7. Twenty three genera decreased in abundance from d 0 to d 7. The results from this study demonstrated that exposure of cattle to pine needles caused a clear shift in the rumen microbiome composition. In general, this shift lasted less than 1 wk post exposure, which indicates that any prophylactic treatment to manipulate the ruminal metabolism of the abortifacient compounds in pine needles would need to be continuously administered to maintain the necessary microbial composition in the rumen.

  4. Thermodynamic Driving Force of Hydrogen on Rumen Microbial Metabolism: A Theoretical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lingen, Henk J; Plugge, Caroline M; Fadel, James G; Kebreab, Ermias; Bannink, André; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen is a key product of rumen fermentation and has been suggested to thermodynamically control the production of the various volatile fatty acids (VFA). Previous studies, however, have not accounted for the fact that only thermodynamic near-equilibrium conditions control the magnitude of reaction rate. Furthermore, the role of NAD, which is affected by hydrogen partial pressure (PH2), has often not been considered. The aim of this study was to quantify the control of PH2 on reaction rates of specific fermentation pathways, methanogenesis and NADH oxidation in rumen microbes. The control of PH2 was quantified using the thermodynamic potential factor (FT), which is a dimensionless factor that corrects a predicted kinetic reaction rate for the thermodynamic control exerted. Unity FT was calculated for all glucose fermentation pathways considered, indicating no inhibition of PH2 on the production of a specific type of VFA (e.g., acetate, propionate and butyrate) in the rumen. For NADH oxidation without ferredoxin oxidation, increasing PH2 within the rumen physiological range decreased FT from unity to zero for different NAD+ to NADH ratios and pH of 6.2 and 7.0, which indicates thermodynamic control of PH2. For NADH oxidation with ferredoxin oxidation, increasing PH2 within the rumen physiological range decreased FT from unity at pH of 7.0 only. For the acetate to propionate conversion, FT increased from 0.65 to unity with increasing PH2, which indicates thermodynamic control. For propionate to acetate and butyrate to acetate conversions, FT decreased to zero below the rumen range of PH2, indicating full thermodynamic suppression. For methanogenesis by archaea without cytochromes, FT differed from unity only below the rumen range of PH2, indicating no thermodynamic control. This theoretical investigation shows that thermodynamic control of PH2 on individual VFA produced and associated yield of hydrogen and methane cannot be explained without considering NADH

  5. Thermodynamic Driving Force of Hydrogen on Rumen Microbial Metabolism: A Theoretical Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk J van Lingen

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a key product of rumen fermentation and has been suggested to thermodynamically control the production of the various volatile fatty acids (VFA. Previous studies, however, have not accounted for the fact that only thermodynamic near-equilibrium conditions control the magnitude of reaction rate. Furthermore, the role of NAD, which is affected by hydrogen partial pressure (PH2, has often not been considered. The aim of this study was to quantify the control of PH2 on reaction rates of specific fermentation pathways, methanogenesis and NADH oxidation in rumen microbes. The control of PH2 was quantified using the thermodynamic potential factor (FT, which is a dimensionless factor that corrects a predicted kinetic reaction rate for the thermodynamic control exerted. Unity FT was calculated for all glucose fermentation pathways considered, indicating no inhibition of PH2 on the production of a specific type of VFA (e.g., acetate, propionate and butyrate in the rumen. For NADH oxidation without ferredoxin oxidation, increasing PH2 within the rumen physiological range decreased FT from unity to zero for different NAD+ to NADH ratios and pH of 6.2 and 7.0, which indicates thermodynamic control of PH2. For NADH oxidation with ferredoxin oxidation, increasing PH2 within the rumen physiological range decreased FT from unity at pH of 7.0 only. For the acetate to propionate conversion, FT increased from 0.65 to unity with increasing PH2, which indicates thermodynamic control. For propionate to acetate and butyrate to acetate conversions, FT decreased to zero below the rumen range of PH2, indicating full thermodynamic suppression. For methanogenesis by archaea without cytochromes, FT differed from unity only below the rumen range of PH2, indicating no thermodynamic control. This theoretical investigation shows that thermodynamic control of PH2 on individual VFA produced and associated yield of hydrogen and methane cannot be explained without

  6. Relative reticulo-rumen pH indicators for subacute ruminal acidosis detection in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villot, C; Meunier, B; Bodin, J; Martin, C; Silberberg, M

    2017-07-27

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is usually characterized by abnormal and intermittent drops in rumen pH. Nevertheless, high individual animal variability in rumen pH and the difference in measurement methods for pH data acquisition decrease the sensitivity and accuracy of pH indicators for detecting SARA in ruminants. The aim of this study was to refine rumen pH indicators in long-term SARA based on individual dairy cow reticulo-rumen pH kinetics. Animal performances and rumen parameters were studied weekly in order to validate SARA syndrome and rumen pH was continuously measured using reticulo-rumen sensors. In total, 11 primiparous dairy cows were consecutively fed two different diets for 12 successive weeks: a control diet as low-starch diet (LSD; 13% starch for 4 weeks in period 1), an acidotic diet as high-starch diet (HSD; 32% starch for 4 weeks in period 2), and again the LSD diet (3 weeks in period 3). There was a 1-week dietary transition between LSD and HSD. Commonly used absolute SARA pH indicators such as daily average, area under the curve (AUC) and time spent below pHrumen, whereas the ruminal concentration of lipopolysaccharide was increased. Commonly used pH SARA indicators were not able to discriminate SARA syndrome due to high animal variability and sensor drift and noise, whereas relative pH indicators developed in this study appeared more relevant for SARA detection as assessed by receiver operating characteristic tests. This work shows that absolute pH kinetics should be corrected for drift, noise and animal variability to produce relative pH indicators that are more robust for SARA detection. These relative pH indicators could be more relevant for identifying affected animals in a herd and also for comparing SARA risk among studies.

  7. Discovery of a novel rumen methanogen in the anaerobic fungal culture and its distribution in the rumen as revealed by real-time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The novel archaea belonging to Rumen Cluster C (RCC), which may play an important role in methane production in the rumen have received increased attention. However, the present information on RCC in the rumen is limited by the unsuccessful isolation of axenic pure RCC from the rumen. In the present study, RCC grown in anaerobic fungal subcultures was identified by the molecular and culture methods. Results A novel RCC species existing in the fungal subcultures was identified and demonstrated by the 16S rRNA gene clone library. Interestingly, the novel RCC species survived in the fungal cultures over all the subculture transferring, even in the 62nd subculture, in contrast to the other methanogens, which disappeared during subcultures. Further work showed that subculture transfer frequency significantly affected the relative abundance of the novel RCC species in the fungal subcultures. The five-day and seven-day transfer frequencies increased the relative abundance of the RCC species (Pculture containing the RCC species was successfully obtained. PCR and sequencing analysis showed that the novel RCC species contained a mcrA gene, which is known to play a crucial role in methanogenesis, and thus could be identified as a methanogen. Conclusion In this study, a novel RCC species was identified as a methanogen and closely associated with anaerobic fungi. This novel approach by using co-culture with anaerobic fungi may provide a feasible way to culture and investigate not yet identified methanogens. PMID:24758319

  8. Systems Biology of Industrial Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  9. Bioprospecting and antifungal potential of chitinolytic microorganisms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many chitinolytic microorganisms have potential to control fungal plant pathogens but they are not fully successful in all the cases due to different geological and environmental conditions. Thus, bioprospecting to find novel, highly chitinolytic microorganisms which help in developing potential biocontrol agent. Furthermore ...

  10. Biodiversity of the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant rhizosphere microorganisms having the phosphate solubilizing capacity can convert the insoluble soil organic and inorganic phosphates into a soluble form and make the phosphorus (P) available to the plant. With the objective of evaluating the phosphate solubilizing microorganism populations under the rice ...

  11. Biofouling of marbles by oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Zeki; Öztürk, Ayten; Çolak, Emel

    2015-08-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms disfigure the surfaces of different types of stone. Stone structure is damaged by the activity of photoautotrophic and other microorganisms. However, to date few, investigations have been undertaken into the relationship between microorganisms and the properties of different types of marble. In this study, biological activity of photoautotrophic microorganisms on three types of marble (Yatagan White, Giallo Anticato and Afyon White) was investigated under laboratory conditions over a short period of time. The three types of marble supported the growth of phototrophic microbial communities on their outer and inner layers, turning their original colour from white to a yellowish green colour. The porosity of the marble types facilitated filamentous microbial growth in the presence of water. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the accumulation of aggregates such as small spherical, fibrillar, calcified globular bodies on the inner surfaces of the marbles. This suggests that the microscopic characteristics of particular marble types may stimulate the growth of certain types of microorganisms.

  12. Rumen Manipulation for Enhanced Feed Utilization and Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    A change in roughage to concentrate ratio, as well as the supplementation of soapberry fruit – mango steen peel, containing condensed tannins and saponins, caused changes in ruminal microorganisms and their fermentation end-products in fistulated Holstein Friesian heifers (Poungchompu et al., 2009). Yaghoubi et al.

  13. Natural and artificial feeding management before weaning promote different rumen microbial colonization but not differences in gene expression levels at the rumen epithelium of newborn goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Abecia

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART while the other remained with the mother (NAT. Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life. On the sampling day, after slaughtering, the rumen content was sampled and epithelial rumen tissue was collected. Pyrosequencing analyses of the bacterial community structure on samples collected at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days showed that both systems promoted significantly different colonization patterns (P = 0.001. Diversity indices increased with age and were higher in NAT feeding system. Lower mRNA abundance was detected in TLR2, TLR8 and TLR10 in days 3 and 5 compared to the other days (7, 14, 21 and 28. Only TLR5 showed a significantly different level of expression according to the feeding system, presenting higher mRNA abundances in ART kids. PGLYRP1 showed significantly higher abundance levels in days 3, 5 and 7, and then experienced a decline independently of the feeding system. These observations confirmed a highly diverse microbial colonisation from the first day of life in the undeveloped rumen, and show that the colonization pattern substantially differs between pre-ruminants reared under natural or artificial milk feeding systems. However, the rumen epithelial immune development does not differentially respond to distinct microbial colonization patterns.

  14. Natural and artificial feeding management before weaning promote different rumen microbial colonization but not differences in gene expression levels at the rumen epithelium of newborn goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, Leticia; Jiménez, Elisabeth; Martínez-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Martín-García, A Ignacio; Ramos-Morales, Eva; Pinloche, Eric; Denman, Stuart E; Newbold, C Jamie; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART) on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART) while the other remained with the mother (NAT). Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups) were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life. On the sampling day, after slaughtering, the rumen content was sampled and epithelial rumen tissue was collected. Pyrosequencing analyses of the bacterial community structure on samples collected at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days showed that both systems promoted significantly different colonization patterns (P = 0.001). Diversity indices increased with age and were higher in NAT feeding system. Lower mRNA abundance was detected in TLR2, TLR8 and TLR10 in days 3 and 5 compared to the other days (7, 14, 21 and 28). Only TLR5 showed a significantly different level of expression according to the feeding system, presenting higher mRNA abundances in ART kids. PGLYRP1 showed significantly higher abundance levels in days 3, 5 and 7, and then experienced a decline independently of the feeding system. These observations confirmed a highly diverse microbial colonisation from the first day of life in the undeveloped rumen, and show that the colonization pattern substantially differs between pre-ruminants reared under natural or artificial milk feeding systems. However, the rumen epithelial immune development does not differentially respond to distinct microbial colonization patterns.

  15. Straw particle size in calf starters: Effects on digestive system development and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2016-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine effects of straw particle size in calf starter on rumen fermentation and development in calves. Holstein calves (n=17 in trial 1; n=25 in trial 2) were housed in individual pens; bedding (wood shavings) was covered with landscape fabric to completely avoid consumption of bedding. Milk replacer was fed at 12% of birth body weight per day and water offered free choice. Calves were randomly assigned to 4 treatments differing in geometric mean particle length (Xgm) of straw comprising 5% of starter dry matter. Straw was provided within the pellet at manufacture (PS; 0.82 mm Xgm) or mixed with the pellet at time of feeding at Xgm of 3.04 (SS), 7.10 (MS), or 12.7 (LS) mm. Calves (n=12; 3/treatment) in trial 1 were fitted with a rumen cannula by wk 2 of age. A fixed amount of starter that was adjusted with age and orts were fed through the cannula in cannulated calves. Calves were euthanized 6 wk after starter was offered (9 and 7 wk of age for trials 1 and 2, respectively). Rumen digesta pH linearly decreased with age, whereas volatile fatty acid concentration increased with age. Overall pH had a cubic trend with SS lower than that of PS and MS. Molar proportion of acetate decreased with age whereas propionate proportion increased. Overall molar proportions of volatile fatty acids were not affected by diet. Fecal Xgm was not different in spite of changes in diet particle size and rumen digesta of PS being greater than SS, MS, and LS at slaughter. Fecal pH and starch concentration were not affected by diet; however, pH decreased whereas starch content increased with age. Weight of stomach compartments, rumen papillae length and width, and rumen wall thickness did not differ between diets. Omasum weight as a percentage of body weight at harvest linearly decreased as straw particle size increased. Under the conditions of this study, modifying straw particle length in starter grain resulted in minimal rumen fermentation parameter

  16. Using the second law of thermodynamics for enrichment and isolation of microorganisms to produce fuel alcohols or hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Richard A; Kim, Seon-Woo

    2015-10-07

    Fermentation of crops, waste biomass, or gases has been proposed as a means to produce desired chemicals and renewable fuels. The second law of thermodynamics has been shown to determine the net direction of metabolite flow in fermentation processes. In this article, we describe a process to isolate and direct the evolution of microorganisms that convert cellulosic biomass or gaseous CO2 and H2 to biofuels such as ethanol, 1-butanol, butane, or hexane (among others). Mathematical models of fermentation elucidated sets of conditions that thermodynamically favor synthesis of desired products. When these conditions were applied to mixed cultures from the rumen of a cow, bacteria that produced alcohols or alkanes were isolated. The examples demonstrate the first use of thermodynamic analysis to isolate bacteria and control fermentation processes for biofuel production among other uses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome sequencing of rumen bacteria and archaea and its application to methane mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, S C; Kelly, W J; Ronimus, R S; Wedlock, N; Altermann, E; Attwood, G T

    2013-06-01

    Ruminant-derived methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, is a consequence of microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of livestock. Development of mitigation strategies to reduce CH4 emissions from farmed animals is currently the subject of both scientific and environmental interest. Methanogens are the sole producers of ruminant CH4, and therefore CH4 abatement strategies can either target the methanogens themselves or target the other members of the rumen microbial community that produce substrates necessary for methanogenesis. Understanding the relationship that methanogens have with other rumen microbes is crucial when considering CH4 mitigation strategies for ruminant livestock. Genome sequencing of rumen microbes is an important tool to improve our knowledge of the processes that underpin those relationships. Currently, several rumen bacterial and archaeal genome projects are either complete or underway. Genome sequencing is providing information directly applicable to CH4 mitigation strategies based on vaccine and small molecule inhibitor approaches. In addition, genome sequencing is contributing information relevant to other CH4 mitigation strategies. These include the selection and breeding of low CH4-emitting animals through the interpretation of large-scale DNA and RNA sequencing studies and the modification of other microbial groups within the rumen, thereby changing the dynamics of microbial fermentation.

  18. Rumen methanogenic genotypes differ in abundance according to host residual feed intake phenotype and diet type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Ciara A; Waters, Sinéad M; Waters, Sinead M; Kenny, David A; Creevey, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Methane is an undesirable end product of rumen fermentative activity because of associated environmental impacts and reduced host feed efficiency. Our study characterized the rumen microbial methanogenic community in beef cattle divergently selected for phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) while offered a high-forage (HF) diet followed by a low-forage (LF) diet. Rumen fluid was collected from 14 high-RFI (HRFI) and 14 low-RFI (LRFI) animals at the end of both dietary periods. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were used, and methanogen-specific tag-encoded pyrosequencing was carried out on the samples. We found that Methanobrevibacter spp. are the dominant methanogens in the rumen, with Methanobrevibacter smithii being the most abundant species. Differences in the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii and Methanosphaera stadtmanae genotypes were detected in the rumen of animals offered the LF compared to the HF diet while the abundance of Methanobrevibacter smithii genotypes was different between HRFI and LRFI animals irrespective of diet. Our results demonstrate that while a core group of methanogen operational taxonomic units (OTUs) exist across diet and phenotype, significant differences were observed in the distribution of genotypes within those OTUs. These changes in genotype abundance may contribute to the observed differences in methane emissions between efficient and inefficient animals.

  19. Monensin and Nisin Affect Rumen Fermentation and Microbiota Differently In Vitro

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    Junshi Shen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nisin, a bacteriocin, is a potential alternative to antibiotics to modulate rumen fermentation. However, little is known about its impacts on rumen microbes. This study evaluated the effects of nisin (1 and 5 μM on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics, microbiota, and select groups of rumen microbes in comparison with monensin (5 μM, one of the most commonly used ionophores in ruminants. Nisin had greater effects than monensin in inhibiting methane production and decreasing acetate/propionate ratio. Unlike monensin, nisin had no adverse effect on dry matter digestibility. Real-time PCR analysis showed that both monensin and nisin reduced the populations of total bacteria, fungi, and methanogens, while the population of protozoa was reduced only by monensin. Principal component analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed a clear separation between the microbiota shaped by monensin and by nisin. Comparative analysis also revealed a significant difference in relative abundance of some bacteria in different taxa between monensin and nisin. The different effects of monensin and nisin on microbial populations and bacterial communities are probably responsible for the discrepancy in their effects on rumen fermentation. Nisin may have advantages over monensin in modulating ruminal microbial ecology and reducing ruminant methane production without adversely affecting feed digestion, and thus it may be used as a potential alternative to monensin fed to ruminants.

  20. In Vitro Digestibilities of Six Rumen Protected Fat-Protein Supplement Formulas

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    Lilis Hartati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of protection method of rumen protected fat-protein supplements. In vitro digestibility test was carried out to examine nutrients digestibility of different supplement formula based on the sources of protein and oil. The research used two sources of fat namely crude palm oil (CPO and fish oil (FO and three sources of protein namely milk skim, soy flour, and soybean meal. Thus there were 6 combinations that subjected in the in vitro digestibility test. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude fat (CF, and crude protein (CP. Results indicated that the method for protecting protein and fat was effective. This was showed by low nutrients digestibility in the rumen and high nutrients digestibility in the post rumen. In conclusion the combination between skim milk and CPO gave the best results among the other supplement formula. Keywords: rumen protected nutrient, fat-protein supplement, rumen digestibility, in vitro Animal Production 14(1:1-5, January 2012

  1. Isolation and Identification of Sodium Fluoroacetate Degrading Bacteria from Caprine Rumen in Brazil

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    Expedito K. A. Camboim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to report the isolation of two fluoroacetate degrading bacteria from the rumen of goats. The animals were adult goats, males, crossbred, with rumen fistula, fed with hay, and native pasture. The rumen fluid was obtained through the rumen fistula and immediately was inoculated 100 μL in mineral medium added with 20 mmol L−1 sodium fluoroacetate (SF, incubated at 39°C in an orbital shaker. Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain DSM 8341 was used as positive control for fluoroacetate dehalogenase activity. Two isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Pigmentiphaga kullae (ECPB08 and Ancylobacter dichloromethanicus (ECPB09. These bacteria degraded sodium fluoroacetate, releasing 20 mmol L−1 of fluoride ion after 32 hours of incubation in Brunner medium containing 20 mmol L−1 of SF. There are no previous reports of fluoroacetate dehalogenase activity for P. kullae and A. dichloromethanicus. Control measures to prevent plant intoxication, including use of fences, herbicides, or other methods of eliminating poisonous plants, have been unsuccessful to avoid poisoning by fluoroacetate containing plants in Brazil. In this way, P. kullae and A. dichloromethanicus may be used to colonize the rumen of susceptible animals to avoid intoxication by fluoroacetate containing plants.

  2. THE UTILIZATION OF THE COMPLETE RUMEN MODIFIER ON DAIRY COWS

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    A. Thalib

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM to improve dairy cow productivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairy cows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD. Group I (Control fed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%, Group II (Pro. Woodii fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae fed by basal diet + probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurements were conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methane production. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg and improved FCR (9.2 vs 15.6. Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and total solid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%; 11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination of CRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combination of CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. Probiotic Noterae improved milk quality.

  3. Effect of dietary starch or micro algae supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckaert, C.; Vlaeminck, B.; Dijkstra, J.; Issa-Zacharia, A.; Nespen, van T.; Straalen, van W.; Fievez, V.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments with rumen-fistulated dairy cows were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3)-enriched diets or diets provoking a decreased rumen pH on milk fatty acid composition. In the first experiment, dietary treatments were tested during 21-d

  4. Starch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of ground corn by cassava meal on rumen pH, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histamine concentrations under typical Thai feeding conditions (high concentrate diets and rice straw as the sole source of roughage) was investigated. Four rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry

  5. The relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and microbial nucleic acid bases in rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keyuan; Hao, Xiaoyan; Li, Yang; Luo, Guobin; Zhang, Yonggen; Xin, Hangshu

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs) and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen, and to establish a model to accurately predict microbial protein flow by using OBCFA. To develop the regression equations, data on the rumen contents of individual cows were obtained from 2 feeding experiments. In the first experiment, 3 rumen-fistulated dry dairy cows arranged in a 3×3 Latin square were fed diets of differing forage to concentration ratios (F:C). The second experiment consisted of 9 lactating Holstein dairy cows of similar body weights at the same stage of pregnancy. For each lactation stage, 3 cows with similar milk production were selected. The rumen contents were sampled at 4 time points of every two hours after morning feeding 6 h, and then to analyse the concentrations of OBCFA and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen samples. The ruminal bacteria nucleic acid bases were significantly influenced by feeding diets of differing forge to concentration ratios and lactation stages of dairy cows (pacids and C15:0 isomers, strongly correlated with the microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen (pacid bases established by ruminal OBCFAs contents showed a good predictive capacity, as indicated by reasonably low standard errors and high R-squared values. This finding suggests that the rumen OBCFA composition could be used as an internal marker of rumen microbial matter.

  6. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olijhoek, D.W.; Hellwing, A.L.F.; Brask, M.; Weisbjerg, M.R.; Højberg, O.; Larsen, M.K.; Dijkstra, Jan; Erlandsen, E.J.; Lund, P.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient

  7. Application of flow cytometry to wine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, Cédric; Petitgonnet, Clément; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Alexandre, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful technique allowing detection and enumeration of microbial populations in food and during food process. Thanks to the fluorescent dyes used and specific probes, FCM provides information about cell physiological state and allows enumeration of a microorganism in a mixed culture. Thus, this technique is increasingly used to quantify pathogen, spoilage microorganisms and microorganisms of interest. Since one decade, FCM applications to the wine field increase greatly to determine population and physiological state of microorganisms performing alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. Wine spoilage microorganisms were also studied. In this review we briefly describe FCM principles. Next, a deep revision concerning enumeration of wine microorganisms by FCM is presented including the fluorescent dyes used and techniques allowing a yeast and bacteria species specific enumeration. Then, the last chapter is dedicated to fluorescent dyes which are used to date in fluorescent microscopy but applicable in FCM. This chapter also describes other interesting "future" techniques which could be applied to study the wine microorganisms. Thus, this review seeks to highlight the main advantages of the flow cytometry applied to wine microbiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Engineering biofuel tolerance in non-native producing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hu; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Weiwen

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of renewable biofuels through microbiological processes has drawn significant attention in recent years, mostly due to the increasing concerns on the petroleum fuel shortages and the environmental consequences of the over-utilization of petroleum-based fuels. In addition to native biofuel-producing microbes that have been employed for biofuel production for decades, recent advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have made it possible to produce biofuels in several non-native biofuel-producing microorganisms. Compared to native producers, these non-native systems carry the advantages of fast growth, simple nutrient requirements, readiness for genetic modifications, and even the capability to assimilate CO2 and solar energy, making them competitive alternative systems to further decrease the biofuel production cost. However, the tolerance of these non-native microorganisms to toxic biofuels is naturally low, which has restricted the potentials of their application for high-efficiency biofuel production. To address the issues, researches have been recently conducted to explore the biofuel tolerance mechanisms and to construct robust high-tolerance strains for non-native biofuel-producing microorganisms. In this review, we critically summarize the recent progress in this area, focusing on three popular non-native biofuel-producing systems, i.e. Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of cation source and dietary cation-anion difference on rumen ion concentrations in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterton, T L; Erdman, R A

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have focused on the influence of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on animal performance but few have examined the effect of DCAD on the rumen ionic environment. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of DCAD, cation source (Na vs. K), and anion source (Cl vs. bicarbonate or carbonate) on rumen environment and fermentation. The study used 5 rumen-fistulated dairy cows and 5 dietary treatments that were applied using a 5×5 Latin square design with 2-wk experimental periods. Treatments consisted of (1) the basal total mixed ration (TMR); (2) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of Na (dry matter basis) using NaCl; (3) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of K using KCl; (4) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of Na using NaHCO3; and (5) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of K using K2CO3. On the last day of each experimental period, rumen samples were collected and pooled from 5 different locations at 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 12h postfeeding for measurement of rumen pH and concentrations of strong ions and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Dietary supplementation of individual strong ions increased the corresponding rumen ion concentration. Rumen Na was decreased by 24mEq/L when K was substituted for Na in the diet, but added dietary Na had no effect on rumen K. Rumen Cl was increased by 10mEq/L in diets supplemented with Cl. Cation source had no effect on rumen pH or total VFA concentration. Increased DCAD increased rumen pH by 0.10 pH units and increased rumen acetate by 4mEq/L but did not increase total VFA. This study demonstrated that rumen ion concentrations can be manipulated by dietary ion concentrations. If production and feed efficiency responses to DCAD and ionophores in the diet are affected by rumen Na and K concentrations, then manipulating dietary Na and K could be used either to enhance or diminish those responses. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Sampling methods for rumen microbial counts by Real-Time PCR techniques

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    S. Puppo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fresh rumen samples were withdrawn from 4 cannulated buffalo females fed a fibrous diets in order to quantify bacteria concentration in the rumen by Real-Time PCR techniques. To obtain DNA of a good quality from whole rumen fluid, eight (M1-M8 different pre-filtration methods (cheese cloths, glass-fibre and nylon filter in combination with various centrifugation speeds (1000, 5000 and 14,000 rpm were tested. Genomic DNA extraction was performed either on fresh or frozen samples (-20°C. The quantitative bacteria analysis was realized according to Real-Time PCR procedure for Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens reported in literature. M5 resulted the best sampling procedure allowing to obtain a suitable genomic DNA. No differences were revealed between fresh and frozen samples.

  12. Manipulating Protein Degradability in the Rumen to Support Higher Ruminant Production

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    Budi Haryanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein is digested to a certain extent in the rumen causing decreases its potency as source of amino acids for the animal. Dietary protein should mostly reach the intestines where the protein digestion takes place and absorption occurs in the form of intact amino acids and subsequently becomes nutrient deposition in muscles or milk. The higher muscle or milk protein synthesis, the higher the protein in the products of animal, as long as energy for the metabolism is available. Strategies of feeding rumen degradable versus undegradable protein in ruminant have become a research interest for decades. Technologies of dietary protein protection to reduce its degradability in the rumen by heating, chelating or coating have been developed.

  13. Bovine rumen epithelium undergoes rapid structural adaptations during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Michael A; Croom, Jim; Kahler, Melissa; AlZahal, Ousama; Hook, Sarah E; Plaizier, Kees; McBride, Brian W

    2011-06-01

    Alterations in rumen epithelial structure and function during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) are largely undescribed. In this study, four mature nonlactating dairy cattle were transitioned from a high-forage diet (HF; 0% grain) to a high-grain diet (HG; 65% grain). After feeding the HG diet for 3 wk, the cattle were transitioned back to the original HF diet, which was fed for an additional 3 wk. Continuous ruminal pH was measured on a weekly basis, and rumen papillae were biopsied during the baseline and at the first and final week of each diet. The mean, minimum, and maximum daily ruminal pH were depressed (P rumen epithelium is compromised during grain feeding and is associated with the differential expression of genes involved in epithelial growth and structure.

  14. Rumen acidosis: Possibilities of prevention using of mineral mix with buffering effect

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    Šamanc Horea

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumen acidosis is a very important pathophysiological disorder in intensive productive dairy cows, it is mostly a problem in early lactation when highly concentrated feeds are used in nutrition. The use of mineral salt mix based on bentonite, zeolite, magnesium oxide and sodium bicarbonate stabilizes and maintains pH of ruminal fluid in physiological values (6,79 to 6,92 and prevents the occurrence of rumen acidosis. In cows in the control group, the pH of ruminal fluid was at a low physiological level (6.01 to 6.25 and in some animals even lower. By adding this mixture of mineral salts to the concentrated part of feed (1% optimal conditions are provided for activity and adequate numerous distribution of all species of infusoria in the rumen. The daily amount of milk produced and milk fat as well was 10 percent bigger in the experimental compared to the control group of cows.

  15. Effect of Grape Pomace Powder, Mangosteen Peel Powder and Monensin on Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, Nitrogen Balance and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Dairy Steers

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    S. Foiklang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of grape pomace powder (GPP, mangosteen peel powder (MPP and monensin on feed intake, nutrients digestibility, microorganisms, rumen fermentation characteristic, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance in dairy steers. Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial body weight (BW of 220±15 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four treatments. The treatments were as follows: T1 = control, T2 = supplementation with monensin at 33 mg/kg diet, T3 = supplementation with GPP at 2% of dry matter intake, and T4 = supplementation with MPP at 30 g/kg diet. The steers were offered the concentrate diet at 0.2% BW and 3% urea treated rice straw (UTRS was fed ad libitum. It was found that GPP supplemented group had higher UTRS intake and nutrient digestibility in terms of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber than those in control group (p<0.05. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and blood urea-nitrogen concentration were higher in monensin, GPP and MPP supplemented groups (p<0.05. Total volatile fatty acids and propionate in the GPP group were higher than those in the control group (p<0.05 while acetate concentration, and acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (p<0.01 when steers were supplemented with GPP, monensin, and MPP, respectively. Moreover, protozoal populations in GPP, MPP, and monensin supplementation were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05, while cellulolytic bacterial population was significantly higher in the control group (p<0.05. Nitrogen retention, microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis were found significantly higher in steers that received GPP (p<0.05. Based on this study it could be concluded that the GPP has potential as an alternative feed supplement in concentrate diets which can result in improved rumen fermentation efficiency, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis

  16. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

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    Michaela Weissgram

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL. The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB.

  17. Enhancing the Resolution of Rumen Microbial Classification from Metatranscriptomic Data Using Kraken and Mothur

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    Andre L. A. Neves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics tools have greatly advanced our knowledge about the phylogenetic diversity and ecological role of microbes inhabiting the mammalian gut. However, there is a lack of information on the evaluation of these computational tools in the context of the rumen microbiome as these programs have mostly been benchmarked on real or simulated datasets generated from human studies. In this study, we compared the outcomes of two methods, Kraken (mRNA based and a pipeline developed in-house based on Mothur (16S rRNA based, to assess the taxonomic profiles (bacteria and archaea of rumen microbial communities using total RNA sequencing of rumen fluid collected from 12 cattle with differing feed conversion ratios (FCR. Both approaches revealed a similar phyla distribution of the most abundant taxa, with Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria accounting for approximately 80% of total bacterial abundance. For bacterial taxa, although 69 genera were commonly detected by both methods, an additional 159 genera were exclusively identified by Kraken. Kraken detected 423 species, while Mothur was not able to assign bacterial sequences to the species level. For archaea, both methods generated similar results only for the abundance of Methanomassiliicoccaceae (previously referred as RCC, which comprised more than 65% of the total archaeal families. Taxon R4-41B was exclusively identified by Mothur in the rumen of feed efficient bulls, whereas Kraken uniquely identified Methanococcaceae in inefficient bulls. Although Kraken enhanced the microbial classification at the species level, identification of bacteria or archaea in the rumen is limited due to a lack of reference genomes for the rumen microbiome. The findings from this study suggest that the development of the combined pipelines using Mothur and Kraken is needed for a more inclusive and representative classification of microbiomes.

  18. Microbial and chemical composition of liquid-associated bacteria in goats' rumen and fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, L; Soto, E C; Ramos-Morales, E; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between chemical composition and microbial profile of rumen liquid-associated bacteria (LAB) in vivo (Murciano-Granadina goats) and in a rumen simulation system (single-flow continuous-culture fermenters). To achieve this aim, analyses of purine bases along with some molecular techniques (quantitative PCR to assess abundance and DGGE to identify biodiversity and bacterial profile) were carried out. A control diet (AHC) based on alfalfa hay (AH) and concentrate (C) in a 1:1 ratio and two experimental diets (AHCBI and AHCBII), in which concentrate was partially replaced with multinutrient blocks, were used. Diets AHCBI and AHCBII included multinutrient blocks differing in the relative amount of two-stage olive cake and the source of protein (sunflower meal vs. fava beans). We aimed to investigate the effect of these blocks on rumen microbiota to evaluate their potential as safe substitutes of cereal-based concentrates. Similar patterns of response to diet were found for chemical composition, microbial abundances and diversity in LAB isolated from goat's rumen and fermenters. Whereas bacterial density (log10 gene copies/g FM: 11.6 and 9.4 for bacteria and methanogens, respectively, in rumen) and diversity indexes (Shannon index: 3.6) were not affected by diet, DGGE analyses showed that bacterial community profile was affected. The cluster analysis suggested differences in bacterial profile between LAB pellets isolated from the rumen of goat and fermenters. A relationship between chemical composition and bacterial community composition in LAB pellets seems to exist. Changes in the former were reflected in the bacterial community profile. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between chemical and microbial composition of ruminal bacterial pellets with diets of different quality. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Protein-energy supplementation for lambs: feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility

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    Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of dietary protein-energy supplementation on feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility in lambs. Four castrated lambs with 31.9 kg mean body weight and fistulated rumen were tested. distributed into latin square design (4x4, four treatments were tested over four periods of time: no supplementation (control or with supplementation at 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 body weight. The supplement (soybean meal, soybean hulls, ground corn and minerals was provided with roughage (Tifton Bermudagrass, Cynodon spp., hay, which was offered ad libitum once a day, at 8h00. In treatments receiving 0 (control, 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 supplementation, dry matter intake was 685.26, 742.86, 842.51 and 1013.33 g day-1, crude protein intake was 80.18, 95.98, 118.64, 150.14 g day-1 and metabolizable energy intake 1.55, 1.91, 2.31 and 2.98 g day-1, respectively. Treatments receiving the highest supplementation levels spent less time with rumination and feeding and rested for longer (P < 0.05. Protein-energy supplementation level did not affect rumen parameters. Average rumen pH was 6.3 and rumen ammonia nitrogen 165 mg dL-1; both were affected by sampling time. Supplementation levels until 24 g kg-1 BW improves feed intake and nutrient digestibility linearly and changes ingestive behavior, lowering rumination time without affecting rumen parameters.

  20. PENGARUH SUBSTITUSI SILASE ISI RUMEN SAPI PADA PAKAN BASAL RUMPUT DAN KONSENTRAT TERHADAP KINERJA SAPI POTONG

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    Engkus Ainul Yakin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian silase isi rumen sapi sebagai pakan pengganti rumput terhadap kinerja sapi potong. Sapi persilangan Simmental-Peranakan Ongole (SimPO jantan sebanyak 12 ekor, umur 1,5-2 tahun, digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Penelitian dilakukan selama 8 minggu (2 bulan dengan pemberian pakan sebesar 3% dari bobot badan berdasarkan bahan kering dan air minum diberikan secara ad libitum. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola searah dilanjutkan Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Perlakuan yang diberikan yaitu mengganti sebagian rumput dengan silase isi rumen sapi, yaitu P0 = pemberian pakan 100% rumput , P1= pemberian pakan 25% silase isi rumen sapi dan 75% rumput, dan P2 = pemberian pakan 50% silase isi rumen sapi dan 50% rumput. Imbangan pakan antara rumput dan konsentrat adalah 20% : 80%. Variabel yang diamati adalah konsumsi pakan, pertambahan bobot badan harian (PBBH, dan konversi pakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap konsumsi bahan kering (BK (13,23±0,63 kg/ekor/hari, konsumsi bahan organik (BO (10,41±0,50 kg/ekor/hari, konsumsi total digestible nutrients (TDN (7,38±0,37 kg/ekor/hari, PBBH (0,95±0,04 kg/ekor/hari, dan konversi pakan (7,38±0,37. Perlakuan berpengaruh (P<0,05 terhadap konsumsi protein kasar (PK (P0 = 0,94±0,03, P1 = 1,00±0,06 dan P2 = 0,98±0,01, dan serat kasar (SK (P0 = 3,26±0,10, P1 = 3,44±0,22 dan P2 = 3,27±0,04. Disimpulkan bahwa penggantian sebagian rumput dengan silase isi rumen sampai 50% tidak mempengaruhi kinerja sapi potong. (Kata kunci: Isi rumen sapi, Sapi potong, Silase

  1. Esubacute acidosis in rumen of high-yield dairy cows: Prevalence and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Branko T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigations presented in this paper was to establish the frequency of the incidence of subacute acidosis in the rumen of cows (SARA in the first three months of lactation and the possibilities for its prevention using a mineral mix based on bentonite, zeolite, magnesium oxide, and sodium bicarbonate (Mix plus. The values obtained for the rumen pH content show that subacute rumen acidosis occurs in in 20 percent of the examined cows in the early stage of lactation. For these investigations, cows in early stages of lactation were chosen and divided into 2 groups. Cows of the experimental group were administered a fodder mix which contained the mineral mix for a buffer effect (Mix plus. The average values of the rumen pH content in the control and the experimental group of cows at the beginning and on the 30th day of the experiment were approximately the same and did not differ significantly (p>0.05. On the 60th day of the experiment, the values for the electrochemical reaction of the rumen content for the control group amounted to an average of 6.219±0.18, and for the experimental group of cows it was 6.772±0.23. The obtained difference was statistically very significant (p<0.001. At the end of the experiment, on the 90th day, the average pH value of the rumen content of cows of the control group was 6.308±0.16, while this value in the experimental group of cows was significantly higher and amounted to 6.676±0.29 (p<0.01.

  2. Next generation sequencing to define prokaryotic and fungal diversity in the bovine rumen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick E Fouts

    Full Text Available A combination of Sanger and 454 sequences of small subunit rRNA loci were used to interrogate microbial diversity in the bovine rumen of 12 cows consuming a forage diet. Observed bacterial species richness, based on the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, was between 1,903 to 2,432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs when 5,520 reads were sampled per animal. Eighty percent of species-level OTUs were dominated by members of the order Clostridiales, Bacteroidales, Erysipelotrichales and unclassified TM7. Abundance of Prevotella species varied widely among the 12 animals. Archaeal species richness, also based on 16S rRNA, was between 8 and 13 OTUs, representing 5 genera. The majority of archaeal OTUs (84% found in this study were previously observed in public databases with only two new OTUs discovered. Observed rumen fungal species richness, based on the 18S rRNA gene, was between 21 and 40 OTUs with 98.4-99.9% of OTUs represented by more than one read, using Good's coverage. Examination of the fungal community identified numerous novel groups. Prevotella and Tannerella were overrepresented in the liquid fraction of the rumen while Butyrivibrio and Blautia were significantly overrepresented in the solid fraction of the rumen. No statistical difference was observed between the liquid and solid fractions in biodiversity of archaea and fungi. The survey of microbial communities and analysis of cross-domain correlations suggested there is a far greater extent of microbial diversity in the bovine rumen than previously appreciated, and that next generation sequencing technologies promise to reveal novel species, interactions and pathways that can be studied further in order to better understand how rumen microbial community structure and function affects ruminant feed efficiency, biofuel production, and environmental impact.

  3. Ruminal fermentation response and nitrogen retention from sheep fed rumen undegradable protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisri Puastuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of rumen undegradable protein, could increase supply of amino acids in small intestine to meet host protein requirement. To increase the utilization of feed protein, feed protein source which is highly degradable should be protected from degradation in the rumen. The objective of the study was to increase nitrogen retention through substitution of fish meal protein with soy bean meal protected by banana stem juice observed from rumen fermentation activities. The study used 18 late pregnant Sumatera Composite breed ewes. Rations consisted of fresh chopped elephant grass, supplemented with a commercial concentrate and mineral block in the form of Comin plus and different types of protein supplement as treatment diets. The type of protein supplements were: soya bean meal (RK, soy bean meal protected with banana stem juice (RKT and fish meal (RTI. Treatment diets were offered during late pregnancy (from two months before to two months after partus, two weeks adaptation period was carried out before data recording. Design of the study used randomized complete block design. Results of the study show that rumen ammonia concentration in sheep fed on RKT was not significantly different either from RTI or from RK, however, the nitrogen retention was significantly (P 0.05, however, proportion of C2 and nC4 was significantly different between diet treatment. Methane emission was higher (70.3 mM or 37.2% higher from total energy VFA in diet RKT which is indicated that fermentation system was not efficient. It can be concluded the higher rumen ammonia concentration and lower nitrogen retention in protected soy bean meal supplement indicated that soy bean meal protected by banana stem juice in the ration was not able to substitute fish meal protein which is resistance from degradation in the rumen.

  4. Subacute rumen acidosis in lactating cows: an investigation in intensive Italian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgante, M; Stelletta, C; Berzaghi, P; Gianesella, M; Andrighetto, I

    2007-06-01

    Subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) represents one of the most important metabolic disorders in intensive dairy farms that affects rumen fermentations, animal welfare, productivity and farm profitability. The aim of the present study was to study the occurrence of SARA in intensive Italian dairy herds and to determine the relationship between diet composition, ruminal pH and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration. Ten commercial dairy herds were investigated; twelve cows in each herd were selected randomly among animal without clinical signs of disease, with good body condition and between 5 and 60 day-in-milk (DIM), to perform rumenocentesis and obtain rumen fluid. Ruminal pH was determined immediately after sampling and concentration of SCFA in ruminal fluid was determined on samples after storage. An other objective of this research was to study in detail the effects of rumenocentesis on animal health: this study could confirm the extreme validity of this technique as ruminal sampling. Results were subject to anova and correlation analysis using SIGMA STAT 2.03. The results indicated the presence of SARA in three herds (more than 33% cows with rumen pH rumen pH rumen pH condition in two herds. In particular, dairy herds show on average SCFA concentration of 150, 145, 123 mmol/l for low pH, critical pH and normal pH herds respectively. There were not significant differences among diet composition even if herds with SARA showed a light discordance between initially chemistry composition and residual feed. In the affected herds it was not possible to understand the exact causes of SARA. Animal management seems to be one of the most important factors in developing SARA including total mixed ration preparation.

  5. Evaluation of incubated defatted rubber seed meal with sheep rumen liquor for Pangasius diet

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    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The research evaluated the use of rubber seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis; RBS incubated with sheep rumen liquor as a subtitution of soybean meal in catfish Pangasionodon sp. diet. The fish was cultured for 40 days and fed with the experimental diet containing RBS at five different diet compositions regarding to soybean meal substitution level, i.e. 0% (control, 12%, 23%, 34%, and 44%. Feeding was done three times a day to satiation. No significant different was found on fish-protein retention and survival rate in all treatments. Based on the study result, the use of rubber-seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis; RBS incubated with sheep rumen liquor could substitute soybean meal in catfish Pangasionodon sp. diet. Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, Pangasionodon sp., catfish, sheep rumen liquor, rubber seed meal  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mengevaluasi penggunaan tepung bungkil biji karet (Hevea brasiliensis; TBBK yang diinkubasi dengan cairan rumen domba sebagai pengganti tepung bungkil kedelai pada pakan ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan selama 40 hari dengan pemberian lima komposisi pakan berbeda sesuai tingkat substitusi tepung bungkil kedelai oleh tepung bungkil karet. TBBK yang ditambahkan untuk mengganti bungkil kedelai adalah sebesar 0%, 12%, 23%, 34% dan 44%. Pemberian pakan dilakukan selama tiga kali sehari secara at satiation. Tidak ditemukan perbedaan signifikan (P>0,05 pada nilai retensi protein dalam tubuh dan kelangsungan hidup ikan uji pada semua perlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa tepung bungkil biji karet yang diinkubasi dengan cairan rumen domba dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti bungkil kedelai pada pakan ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Kata kunci: Hevea brasiliensis, Pangasionodon sp., patin, rumen domba, tepung biji karet 

  6. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  7. KECERNAAN IN SACCO HIJAUAN LEGUMINOSA DAN HIJAUAN NON- LEGUMINOSA DALAM RUMEN SAPI PERANAKAN ONGOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendi Fathoni Hadi

    2012-06-01

    values of ADF: GL 61.27%; SW 43.95%; TP 56.53%; BR 40.11%; KL 21.08%; NG 44.66%; and CO 69.15%. There were significant differences (P<0.05 on the degradation of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF. It is concluded that not all of legume has higher DT values of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF fraction than non-legume. There is a tendency that the longer retention time in the rumen, the higher degradation rate. (Keywords: Legume, Non-legume, In sacco rumen

  8. Methylotrophic methanogenic Thermoplasmata implicated in reduced methane emissions from bovine rumen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Schwab, Clarissa; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2013-01-01

    Rumen methanogens are major sources of anthropogenic methane emissions, and these archaea are targets in strategies aimed at reducing methane emissions. Here we show that the poorly characterised Thermoplasmata archaea in bovine rumen are methylotrophic methanogens and that they are reduced upon...... potential as target in future strategies to mitigate methane emissions from ruminant livestock. Our findings and the findings of others also indicate a wider distribution of methanogens than previously anticipated....... transcripts, indicating that these Thermoplasmata degrade methylamines. Their methylotrophic methanogenic lifestyle was corroborated by in vitro incubations, showing enhanced growth of these organisms upon methylamine supplementation paralleled by elevated methane production. The Thermoplasmata have a high...

  9. Histamine Induces Bovine Rumen Epithelial Cell Inflammatory Response via NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xudong; Yuan, Xue; Chen, Liang; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Guoquan; Li, Xiaobing; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen

    2017-01-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a common disease in high-producing lactating cows. Rumenitis is the initial insult of SARA and is associated with the high concentrations of histamine produced in the rumen of dairy cows during SARA. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to investigate whether histamine induces inflammation of rumen epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism of this process. Bovine rumen epithelial cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of histamine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor) cultured in different pH medium (pH 7.2 or 5.5). qRT-PCR, Western-blotting, ELISA and immunocytofluorescence were used to evaluate whether histamine activated the NF-κB pathway and inflammatory cytokines. The results showed that histamine significantly increased the activity of IKK β and the phosphorylation levels of IκB α, as well as upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB p65 in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in neutral (pH=7.2) and acidic (pH=5.5) medium. Furthermore, histamine treatment also significantly increased the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65. High expression and transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 significantly increased the mRNA expressions and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), thereby inducing the inflammatory response in bovine rumen epithelial cells. However, inhibition of NF-κB p65 by PDTC significantly decreased the expressions and concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines induced by histamine in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in the neutral and acidic medium. The present data indicate that histamine induces the inflammatory response of bovine rumen epithelial cells through the NF-κB pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Associations between body condition, rumen fill, diarrhoea and lameness and ruminal acidosis in Australian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, E; Costa, N D; Fulkerson, W J; Lean, I J

    2013-11-01

    To investigate associations between ruminal acidosis and body condition score (BCS), prevalence of poor rumen fill, diarrhoea and lameness in dairy cows in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 100 dairy herds in five regions of Australia. Feeding practices, diets and management practices of herds were assessed. Lactating cows within herds were sampled for rumen biochemistry (n = 8 per herd) and scored for body condition, rumen fill and locomotion (n = 15 per herd). The consistency of faecal pats (n = 20 per herd) from the lactating herd was also scored. A perineal faecal staining score was given to each herd. Herds were classified as subclinically acidotic (ACID), suboptimal (SO) and non-acidotic (Normal) when ≥3/8 cows per herd were allocated to previously defined categories based on rumen biochemical measures. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the prevalence of conditions within a herd and explanatory variables. Median BCS and perineal staining score were not associated with herd category (p >0.05). In the multivariate models, herds with a high prevalence of low rumen fill scores (≤2/5) were more likely to be categorised Normal than SO with an associated increased risk of 69% (p = 0.05). Herds that had a greater prevalence of lame cows (locomotion scores ≥3/5), had 103% higher risk of being categorised as ACID than SO (p = 0.034). In a multivariate logistic regression model, with herd modelled as a random effect, an increase of 1% of pasture in the diet was associated with a 5.5% increase in risk of high faecal scores (≥4/5) indicating diarrhoea (p = 0.001). This study confirmed that herd categories based on rumen function are associated with biological outcomes consistent with acidosis. Herds that had a higher risk of lameness also had a much higher risk of being categorised ACID than SO. Herds with a high prevalence of low rumen scores were more likely to

  11. Rumen acidosis: Possibilities of prevention using of mineral mix with buffering effect

    OpenAIRE

    Šamanc Horea; Stojić Velibor; Adamović Milan; Vujanac Ivan; Petrujkić Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Rumen acidosis is a very important pathophysiological disorder in intensive productive dairy cows, it is mostly a problem in early lactation when highly concentrated feeds are used in nutrition. The use of mineral salt mix based on bentonite, zeolite, magnesium oxide and sodium bicarbonate stabilizes and maintains pH of ruminal fluid in physiological values (6,79 to 6,92) and prevents the occurrence of rumen acidosis. In cows in the control group, the pH of ruminal fluid was at a low physiolo...

  12. Rumen degradation and availability of various amounts of liquid methionine hydroxy analog in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Rode, L M; Knight, C D; Vázquez-Añón, M

    2002-04-01

    Ruminal escape of various amounts of methionine hydroxy analog [D,L-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB)] was measured in an experiment designed as a 4 x 4 Latin square using four lactating dairy cows with cannula in the rumen and duodenum. The cows were fed a diet composed of corn silage, alfalfa haylage, rolled barley grain, canola meal, and blood meal, three times per day. The cows were fed the liquid analog each day for 1 wk before the experiment was started. On the day of the experiment, each cow received an intraruminal bolus dose of 0, 25, or 50 g of the liquid analog (Alimet feed supplement, 88% HMB) or 51.2 g of a dry calcium salt of the analog (86% HMB; MHA) mixed with 0.5 kg of ground barley grain. A liquid phase marker (Co-EDTA) was administered as a bolus dose into the rumen at the time of administration of the methionine hydroxy analogs. Rumen and duodenal contents, and blood serum were collected at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h relative to the time of dosing. Rumen and duodenal samples were analyzed for Co and HMB, and serum was analyzed for free methionine. Fractional rate constants for the passage of the liquid marker (k(p)) and the decline of HMB concentration in the rumen (k(rHMB)) were determined by nonlinear regression. Liquid passage from the rumen was similar among the four analog treatments (0.136 +/- 0.012/h; mean +/- SEM). Ruminal escape of HMB as a percentage of the dose (100% x k(p)/k(rHMB)) did not differ between cows receiving 25, 50, and 51.2 g of the methionine analogs (42.5, 41.0, and 34.9 +/- 9.0%, respectively) and averaged 39.5%. Duodenal appearance of HMB as a percentage also did not differ between cows receiving 25, 50, and 51.2 g of the methionine analogs (16.2, 26.8, and 22.7%, respectively) and averaged 22%. Omasal absorption of HMB was variable ranging from 12.3 to 26.3% and averaged 17.6%. Serum methionine concentration peaked at 3 and 6 h after dosing and increased in proportion to the amount of the analog

  13. Rumen-protected choline: A significance effect on dairy cattle nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jayaprakash

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumenprotected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters. This review summarizes the effectiveness of RPC on animal production, health, and reproduction.

  14. Microorganisms' mediated reduction of β-ketoesters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... While in aqueous medium the S isomer was obtained, in organic ... system in microorganisms mediated reductions, it is of great importance to ... the two components. Measured ..... g/l in a two-phase biotransformation medium.

  15. Defensive properties of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the selection factors that drive chemical diversification of secondary metabolites of constitutive defence systems in plants, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), is still incomplete. Historically, plants always have been confronted with microorganisms. Long before herbivores

  16. Collection and preservation of frozen microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Rosamaria; De Paoli, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The storage of the different microorganisms over long periods is necessary to ensure reproducible results and continuity in research and in biomedical processes and also for commercial purposes. Effective storage means that a microorganism is maintained in a viable state free of contamination or genetic drift and must be easily restored without genotypic or phenotypic alterations to its original characteristics and properties. To this end, different techniques have been described and advances in cryopreservation technology have led to methods that allow low-temperature maintenance of a variety of cell types, minimizing the risks of genetic change and are now recommended for long-term storage of most microorganisms.This chapter summarizes the most important steps and components in the process of low- and -ultra-low temperatures freezing of bacteria, parasites, yeasts and fungi, viruses, and recombinant microorganisms.

  17. Evaluation of microorganisms transmissible through handshake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms transmissible through handshake were experimentally isolated from samples collected from primary and secondary school students as well as undergraduates and staff of the Federal University of Technology, Akure. Bacteria isolated include Staphylococcus aureus, S. epididimis, Bacillus subtilis, ...

  18. Tapping uncultured microorganisms through metagenomics for drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tapping uncultured microorganisms through metagenomics for drug discovery. Abdelnasser Salah Shebl Ibrahim, Ali Abdullah Al-Salamah, Ashraf A Hatamleh, Mohammed S El-Shiekh, Shebl Salah S Ibrahim ...

  19. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  20. Associations of rumen parameters with feed efficiency and sampling routine in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S; Munro, J C; Zhou, M; Guan, L L; Schenkel, F S; Steele, M A; Miller, S P; Montanholi, Y R

    2017-11-10

    Characterizing ruminal parameters in the context of sampling routine and feed efficiency is fundamental to understand the efficiency of feed utilization in the bovine. Therefore, we evaluated microbial and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, rumen papillae epithelial and stratum corneum thickness and rumen pH (RpH) and temperature (RT) in feedlot cattle. In all, 48 cattle (32 steers plus 16 bulls), fed a high moisture corn and haylage-based ration, underwent a productive performance test to determine residual feed intake (RFI) using feed intake, growth, BW and composition traits. Rumen fluid was collected, then RpH and RT logger were inserted 5.5±1 days before slaughter. At slaughter, the logger was recovered and rumen fluid and rumen tissue were sampled. The relative daily time spent in specific RpH and RT ranges were determined. Polynomial regression analysis was used to characterize RpH and RT circadian patterns. Animals were divided into efficient and inefficient groups based on RFI to compare productive performance and ruminal parameters. Efficient animals consumed 1.8 kg/day less dry matter than inefficient cattle (P⩽0.05) while achieving the same productive performance (P⩾0.10). Ruminal bacteria population was higher (P⩽0.05) (7.6×1011 v. 4.3×1011 copy number of 16S rRNA gene/ml rumen fluid) and methanogen population was lower (P⩽0.05) (2.3×109 v. 4.9×109 copy number of 16S rRNA gene/ml rumen fluid) in efficient compared with inefficient cattle at slaughter with no differences (P⩾0.10) between samples collected on-farm. No differences (P⩾0.10) in rumen fluid VFA were also observed between feed efficiency groups either on-farm or at slaughter. However, increased (P⩽0.05) acetate, and decreased (P⩽0.05) propionate, butyrate, valerate and caproate concentrations were observed at slaughter compared with on-farm. Efficient had increased (P⩽0.05) rumen epithelium thickness (136 v. 126 µm) compared with inefficient cattle. Efficient animals

  1. Characteristics of dairy cows with a greater or lower risk of subacute ruminal acidosis: Volatile fatty acid absorption, rumen digestion, and expression of genes in rumen epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether lactating dairy cows with a greater or lower risk of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) have differences in volatile fatty acid (VFA) absorption rate, expression of genes involved in VFA metabolism and intracellular pH regulation in rumen epithelial cells, and in situ carbohydrate digestibility in the rumen. We fed 14 ruminally cannulated mid-lactating dairy cows (119±47.2d in milk; body weight 640±47.9kg) a high-grain diet consisting of 30% forage ad libitum, with an 18-d diet adaptation and a 7-d sample and data collection period. Eight cows with the lowest acidosis index [area below pH 5.8 normalized for dry matter intake (DMI); 0.10±0.16 pH × min/kg of DMI] and 5 with the highest acidosis index (3.72±0.19 pH × min/kg of DMI) were classified as animals with lower risk (LS) and higher risk (HS) of SARA, respectively. Minimum (5.75 vs. 5.33) and mean rumen pH (6.33 vs. 5.98) were higher for LS than for HS cows. In addition, the duration and area of rumen pH below 5.8 was lower in LS cows (24.9 vs. 481min/d; 2.94 vs. 102 pH × min/d). Although DMI, milk yield, and milk component yields did not differ, milk fat concentration tended to be higher for LS cows than for HS cows (3.36 vs. 2.93%). However, we observed no difference in VFA absorption rate between LS and HS cows. In situ starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were not different between LS and HS cows, but the relative mRNA abundance of lanosterol synthase (LSS) was higher for LS cows than for HS cows. In addition, the mRNA abundance of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 (HMGCS1) tended to be higher for LS cows than for HS cows. These results suggested that VFA absorption rate might not explain the difference in rumen pH between LS and HS cows in the current study, even though expression of some genes related to VFA metabolism in rumen epithelium may be associated with variation in the risk of SARA among lactating cows. This variation in

  2. Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by bacterial probiotic supplementation during induced lactic and subacute acidosis in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ruminal disbiosis induced by feeding is the cause of ruminal acidosis, a digestive disorder prevalent in high-producing ruminants. Because probiotic microorganisms can modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota, propionibacteria- and lactobacilli-based probiotics were tested for their effectiveness in preventing different forms of acidosis. Results Lactic acidosis, butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) were induced by feed chalenges in three groups of four wethers intraruminally dosed with wheat, corn or beet pulp. In each group, wethers were either not supplemented (C) or supplemented with Propionibacterium P63 alone (P) or combined with L. plantarum (Lp + P) or L. rhamnosus (Lr + P). Compared with C, all the probiotics stimulated lactobacilli proliferation, which reached up to 25% of total bacteria during wheat-induced lactic acidosis. This induced a large increase in lactate concentration, which decreased ruminal pH. During the corn-induced butyric SARA, Lp + P decreased Prevotella spp. proportion with a concomitant decrease in microbial amylase activity and total volatile fatty acids concentration, and an increase in xylanase activity and pH. Relative to the beet pulp-induced propionic SARA, P and Lr + P improved ruminal pH without affecting the microbial or fermentation characteristics. Regardless of acidosis type, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that probiotic supplementations modified the bacterial community structure. Conclusion This work showed that the effectiveness of the bacterial probiotics tested depended on the acidosis type. Although these probiotics were ineffective in lactic acidosis because of a deeply disturbed rumen microbiota, some of the probiotics tested may be useful to minimize the occurrence of butyric and propionic SARA in sheep. However, their modes of action need to be further investigated. PMID:22812531

  3. Abundance and diversity of dockerin-containing proteins in the fiber-degrading rumen bacterium, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco T Rincon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cellulosome is a multi-enzyme machine, which plays a key role in the breakdown of plant cell walls in many anaerobic cellulose-degrading microorganisms. Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1, a major fiber-degrading bacterium present in the gut of herbivores, has the most intricate cellulosomal organization thus far described. Cellulosome complexes are assembled through high-affinity cohesin-dockerin interactions. More than two-hundred dockerin-containing proteins have been identified in the R. flavefaciens genome, yet the reason for the expansion of these crucial cellulosomal components is yet unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have explored the full spectrum of 222 dockerin-containing proteins potentially involved in the assembly of cellulosome-like complexes of R. flavefaciens. Bioinformatic analysis of the various dockerin modules showed distinctive conservation patterns within their two Ca(2+-binding repeats and their flanking regions. Thus, we established the conceptual framework for six major groups of dockerin types, according to their unique sequence features. Within this framework, the modular architecture of the parent proteins, some of which are multi-functional proteins, was evaluated together with their gene expression levels. Specific dockerin types were found to be associated with selected groups of functional components, such as carbohydrate-binding modules, numerous peptidases, and/or carbohydrate-active enzymes. In addition, members of other dockerin groups were linked to structural proteins, e.g., cohesin-containing proteins, belonging to the scaffoldins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This report profiles the abundance and sequence diversity of the R. flavefaciens FD-1 dockerins, and provides the molecular basis for future understanding of the potential for a wide array of cohesin-dockerin specificities. Conserved differences between dockerins may be reflected in their stability, function or expression within

  4. Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by bacterial probiotic supplementation during induced lactic and subacute acidosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettat, Abderzak; Nozière, Pierre; Silberberg, Mathieu; Morgavi, Diego P; Berger, Claudette; Martin, Cécile

    2012-07-19

    Ruminal disbiosis induced by feeding is the cause of ruminal acidosis, a digestive disorder prevalent in high-producing ruminants. Because probiotic microorganisms can modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota, propionibacteria- and lactobacilli-based probiotics were tested for their effectiveness in preventing different forms of acidosis. Lactic acidosis, butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) were induced by feed chalenges in three groups of four wethers intraruminally dosed with wheat, corn or beet pulp. In each group, wethers were either not supplemented (C) or supplemented with Propionibacterium P63 alone (P) or combined with L. plantarum (Lp + P) or L. rhamnosus (Lr + P). Compared with C, all the probiotics stimulated lactobacilli proliferation, which reached up to 25% of total bacteria during wheat-induced lactic acidosis. This induced a large increase in lactate concentration, which decreased ruminal pH. During the corn-induced butyric SARA, Lp + P decreased Prevotella spp. proportion with a concomitant decrease in microbial amylase activity and total volatile fatty acids concentration, and an increase in xylanase activity and pH. Relative to the beet pulp-induced propionic SARA, P and Lr + P improved ruminal pH without affecting the microbial or fermentation characteristics. Regardless of acidosis type, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that probiotic supplementations modified the bacterial community structure. This work showed that the effectiveness of the bacterial probiotics tested depended on the acidosis type. Although these probiotics were ineffective in lactic acidosis because of a deeply disturbed rumen microbiota, some of the probiotics tested may be useful to minimize the occurrence of butyric and propionic SARA in sheep. However, their modes of action need to be further investigated.

  5. Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by bacterial probiotic supplementation during induced lactic and subacute acidosis in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lettat Abderzak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ruminal disbiosis induced by feeding is the cause of ruminal acidosis, a digestive disorder prevalent in high-producing ruminants. Because probiotic microorganisms can modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota, propionibacteria- and lactobacilli-based probiotics were tested for their effectiveness in preventing different forms of acidosis. Results Lactic acidosis, butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA were induced by feed chalenges in three groups of four wethers intraruminally dosed with wheat, corn or beet pulp. In each group, wethers were either not supplemented (C or supplemented with Propionibacterium P63 alone (P or combined with L. plantarum (Lp + P or L. rhamnosus (Lr + P. Compared with C, all the probiotics stimulated lactobacilli proliferation, which reached up to 25% of total bacteria during wheat-induced lactic acidosis. This induced a large increase in lactate concentration, which decreased ruminal pH. During the corn-induced butyric SARA, Lp + P decreased Prevotella spp. proportion with a concomitant decrease in microbial amylase activity and total volatile fatty acids concentration, and an increase in xylanase activity and pH. Relative to the beet pulp-induced propionic SARA, P and Lr + P improved ruminal pH without affecting the microbial or fermentation characteristics. Regardless of acidosis type, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that probiotic supplementations modified the bacterial community structure. Conclusion This work showed that the effectiveness of the bacterial probiotics tested depended on the acidosis type. Although these probiotics were ineffective in lactic acidosis because of a deeply disturbed rumen microbiota, some of the probiotics tested may be useful to minimize the occurrence of butyric and propionic SARA in sheep. However, their modes of action need to be further investigated.

  6. The use of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction to quantify some rumen bacterial strains in an in vitro rumen system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Onime

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to quantify four rumen bacterial strains (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Ruminococcus albus, Streptococcus bovis, Megasphaera elsdenii in an in vitro batch rumen fermentative system by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. The experiment was a 2×2 factorial arrangement with two types of liquid rumen, collected from dairy cows (DC and fattening bulls (FB and two types of fermentation substrate (forage:concentrate ratios, 75:25 and 25:75 and was replicated in two fermentation runs. Fermentation fluids from FB compared to those from DC had lower pH, higher total VFA concentrations (averages of 0 and 24 h samplings, 6.70 vs 7.04 and 72.6 vs 42.7 mmol/l P<0.001 and contained less acetic (P=0.014 and more propionic (P<0.01 and butyric (P=0.029 acids. The two types of substrates incubated produced very small differences in the end fermentation products. B. fibrosolvens concentrations were higher (P<0.001 in the DC fermentation fluids compared to that from bulls (averages of 0 and 24 h sampling times, 3.47 vs 1.38 x109 copies /mL, while M. elsdenii was detected only in FB fermentation fluids. R. albus and S. bovis concentrations were not different between the two types of rumen liquid. With the only exception for B. fibrosolvens, bacteria strains considered in this study increased their concentrations in the fermentation fluid during the 24 h of in vitro incubation.

  7. The effect of dietary supplementation with rumen-protected methionine alone or in combination with rumen-protected choline and betaine on sheep milk and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, E; Mavrommatis, A; Kalogeropoulos, T; Chatzikonstantinou, M; Koutsouli, P; Sotirakoglou, K; Labrou, N; Zervas, G

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary inclusion of rumen-protected methionine alone or in combination with rumen-protected choline and betaine on: (i) milk yield, chemical composition and fatty acids (FA) profile and (ii) blood plasma glutathione transferase (GST) activity of periparturient ewes. Furthermore, the oxidative stress indicators for measuring total antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity [ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays] were also determined in plasma and milk of ewes. Thus, 45 ewes were divided into three equal groups. Each animal of the control group fed daily with a basal diet. The same diet was offered also in each animal of the other two groups. However, the concentrate fed to M group was supplemented with 2.5 g/kg rumen-protected methionine, while the concentrate fed to MCB group with 5 g/kg of a commercial product which contained a combination of methionine, choline and betaine, all three in rumen-protected form. The results showed that the M diet, compared with the control, increased significantly the ewe's milk fat and the total solids content. Likewise, a tendency for higher milk fat and total solids content in ewes fed the MCB diet was also observed. Both M and MCB diets had not noticeable impact on ewes milk FA profile. Significantly higher FRAP values in the blood plasma of ewes fed the MCB and in the milk of ewes fed with the M diet compared with the control were found. Additionally, significantly higher GST activity in the blood plasma of ewes fed the M diet, compared with the control, was observed. Moreover, a significant increase (by 20%) and a tendency for increase (by 16.72%) in the growth rate of lambs nursing ewes fed with M and MCB diets, respectively, compared to controls, were found. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. The Effect of Feed to Inoculums Ratio on Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid and tap water resulting five different feed to inoculum (F/I ratios (i.e. 17.64, 23.51, 35.27, and 70.54. The operating temperatures were varied at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. At four F/Is tested, after 80 days digestion, the biogas yield were 191, 162, 144 and 112 mL/g VS, respectively. About 80% of the biogas production was obtained during the first 40 days of digestion. The best performance of biogas production will be obtained if F/I ratio is in the range of 17.64 to 35.27 (correspond to 25 – 50 % of rumen fluid. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system

  9. Randomised prospective study compares efficacy of five different stomach tubes for rumen fluid sampling in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, S; Neidl, A; Linhart, N; Tichy, A; Gasteiner, J; Gallob, K; Baumgartner, W; Wittek, T

    2015-01-10

    The objective of the study was to compare the performance of five types of stomach tubes for rumen fluid sampling. Rumen fluid was sampled in rumen fistulated cows assigned to a 5×5 Latin square study design. The pH values of samples taken by stomach tubes and via fistulas were measured; the results were compared with indwelling sensor measurements. The practicability of the stomach tubes for regular use was tested in the field. Rumen fluid samples were obtained rapidly. Volumes for transfaunation could be obtained. The pH-values of samples taken with the four out of the five tubes (Dirksen, Geishauser, tube 4 and a simple water hose used with a gag) did not show significant differences to samples taken via rumen fistulas. Mean differences ranged between -0.02 and +0.09. Samples taken with tube 4 and the water hose showed also no significant differences to pH-sensor measurements. This study demonstrates that stomach tubes are suitable for rumen fluid sampling. Tube 4 seems to be the best probe for work in the field. It was well tolerated by the animals, saliva contamination is negligible. We, therefore, conclude that the evaluation of rumen acid base status in the field is possible. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Perlindungan Protein Menggunakan Tanin dan Saponin Terhadap Daya Fermentasi Rumen dan Sintesis Protein Mikrob (PROTECTION OFPROTEINUSINGTANNINS AND SAPONINS OF RUMEN DIGESTIBILITYAND MICROBESSYNTHESISPROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Shofi Ani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to examine protection of protein using tannins and saponins toimprove rumen digestibility and microb-mediated protein synthesis in vitro. Rumen fluids used as inoculumwas collected from a composite of two female adult fistulatedongole cattle weighed of ±300 kg with theage of five years old. The experimental design used in this study was a completely randomized design withsix treatments and three replication of each treatment. The six treatments consisted of T0: Proteinconcentrates without protection, T1: protein concentrates protected with 1.2% saponin, T2: proteinconcentrates protected with 0.5% tannin and 0.9% saponin , T3: protein concentrates protected with 1.0%tannin and 0.6% saponin, T4: protein concentrates protected with 1.5 % tannin and 0.3% saponin and T5:protein concentrates protected with 2.0% tannins. The result showed that treatment with tannin, saponinand their combination had a significantly affect (P<0,05 on the level of ammonia (NH3, the total volatilefatty acids (VFA, and total protein. Protection of proteins with combination of 1,0% tannin and 0.6%saponin resulted in best effect on feed protein as shown by its NH3 concentration, total VFA and totalprotein. This indicates the level of protection of feed protein can improve rumen digestibility and microbesmediatedprotein synthesis, as showed in the concentration of N-NH3, total VFA and total protein.

  11. Employment specialist competencies for supported employment programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbière, M.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Lanctôt, N.; van Weeghel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Supported employment (SE) programs are evidence-based programs offered to people with severe mental illness to facilitate obtaining and keeping competitive work. However, significant variations in individuals’ vocational success may be partly explained by differences in their employment

  12. Effect of DNA Extraction Methods and Sampling Techniques on the Apparent Structure of Cow and Sheep Rumen Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Kittelmann, Sandra; Miri, Vahideh Heidarian; Zethof, Michael; Noel, Samantha J.; Waghorn, Garry C.; Janssen, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However, comparison of data

  13. Effects of ginger extract on smooth muscle activity of sheep reticulum and rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mamaghani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reticulorumen hypomotility leads to the impaired physiologic functions of the digestive tract. Prokinetic action of ginger has been demonstrated in the laboratory animals and human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger on contraction and motility of reticulum and rumen of ruminants. Collected samples of reticulum and rumen from eight sheep were investigated in vitro. The extract at the concentration of 0.1 and 1.0 mg L-1 had no effect on any preparations. Contraction of reticulum and rumen preparations was occurred at 10.0 and 100 mg L-1 concentrations (p < 0.05. Concentration of 1000 mg L-1 caused a relaxation in preparations contracted with 10.0 and 100 mg L-1. Likewise, the concentration of 1000 mg L-1 significantly (p < 0.05 inhibited ACh-induced contraction in both tissues. Six sheep were involved in electromyographic study. Administration of 40 mg kg-1 of the extract increased the overall frequency of contractions of the reticulum and rumen at the subsequent three days with the prominent increase at the second day (p < 0.05. Results of in vitro study indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of ginger contained spasmogenic and spasmolytic constituents. The results in vivo study represented evidences that the extract may have stimulant effect on reticulorumen motility in 40 mg kg-1 concentration.

  14. Diversity of condensed tannin structures affects rumen in vitro methane production in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) accessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Hayot Carbonero, C.; Stringano, E.; Sales, L.F.; Smith, L.M.J.; Mueller-Harvey, I.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Sainfoin is a non-bloating temperate forage legume with a moderate-to-high condensed tannin (CT) content. This study investigated whether the diversity of sainfoin accessions in terms of CT structures and contents could be related to rumen in vitro gas and methane (CH4) production and fermentation

  15. Effects of capric acid on rumen methanogenesis and biohydrogenation of linoleic and [alpha]-linolenic acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G Goel; K Arvidsson; B Vlaeminck; G Bruggeman; K Deschepper; V Fievez

    2009-01-01

      Capric acid (C10:0), a medium chain fatty acid, was evaluated for its anti-methanogenic activity and its potential to modify the rumen biohydrogenation of linoleic (C18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acids (C18:3n-3...

  16. Notes on rumen contents of Cape Buffalo Syncerus Caffer in the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de Graaf

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The oesophagus and rumen contents of 18 Capebuffalo that died during the 1969/70 drought in the Addo Elephant National Park near Port Elizabeth were analysedand are discussed as regards a description, based on quantitativedata, of the main vegetation types in the Park. Notes on plantspecies that were observed being utilised by buffalo are also given.

  17. Frozen rumen fluid as microbial inoculum in the two-stage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    İbrahim CANPOLAT

    first experiment six roughages (barley straw, wheat straw, lentil straw, wheat silage, maize silage and lucerne hay) and six .... The rumen fluid was transported to the laboratory without delay in pre-warmed plastic .... found to be insufficient for low quality roughages such as straws (Barnes, 1967; Grant et al., 1974; Jones.

  18. Lipids in herbage : their fate in the rumen of dairy cows and implications for milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgersma, A.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes the fatty-acid profile of lipids in milk and herbage normally included in dairy diets. The next section deals with the possible effects of forage management on lipid intake in dairy cows. Then a detailed account is given of the fate of fatty acids in the rumen, showing that

  19. The effect of dietary rumen degradable protein content on veal calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric, and differed in undegradable dietary protein content. In Experiment 1 calves were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments containing low (LD), medium (MD) or high (HD) levels of rumen degradable protein. In Experiment 2 calves received a starter ...

  20. Effect of feeding rumen protected rice bran on calcium homeostasis of non-lactating multiparous cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Tereso, J.; Puijenbroek, van R.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Laar, van H.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Milk fever in dairy cows can be prevented by activating Ca homeostasis before calving. Homeostatic adaptation can be achieved by reducing dietary Ca availability. Formaldehyde-treated rice bran was studied to supply rumen protected phytic acid to reduce Ca availability. Twelve multiparous dry cows

  1. Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan K; Saxena, Jyotisna

    2011-01-15

    Tannins (hydrolysable and condensed tannin) are polyphenolic polymers of relatively high molecular weight with the capacity to form complexes mainly with proteins due to the presence of a large number of phenolic hydroxyl groups. They are widely distributed in nutritionally important forage trees, shrubs and legumes, cereals and grains, which are considered as anti-nutritional compounds due to their adverse effects on intake and animal performance. However, tannins have been recognised to modulate rumen fermentation favourably such as reducing protein degradation in the rumen, prevention of bloat, inhibition of methanogenesis and increasing conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in ruminant-derived foods. The inclusion of tannins in diets has been shown to improve body weight and wool growth, milk yields and reproductive performance. However, the beneficial effects on rumen modulation and animal performance have not been consistently observed. This review discusses the effects of tannins on nitrogen metabolism in the rumen and intestine, and microbial populations (bacteria, protozoa, fungi and archaea), metabolism of tannins, microbial tolerance mechanisms to tannins, inhibition of methanogenesis, ruminal biohydrogenation processes and performance of animals. The discrepancies of responses of tannins among different studies are attributed to the different chemical structures (degree of polymerisation, procyanidins to propdelphinidins, stereochemistry and C-C bonding) and concentrations of tannins, and type of diets. An establishment of structure-activity relationship would be required to explain differences among studies and obtain consistent beneficial tannin effects. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Rumen protozoa and methanogenesis: not a simple cause-effect relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgavi, Diego P; Martin, Cécile; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Ranilla, Maria José

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the interactions between hydrogen producers and consumers in the rumen ecosystem is important for ruminant production and methane mitigation. The present study explored the relationships between rumen protozoa, methanogens and fermentation characteristics. A total of six donor sheep harbouring (F, faunated) or not (D, defaunated) protozoa in their rumens (D animals were kept without protozoa for a period of a few months (D - ) or for more than 2 years (D+)) were used in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro the absence of protozoa decreased NH3 and butyrate production and had no effect on methane. In contrast, the liquid-associated bacterial and methanogens fraction of D+ inocula produced more methane than D -  and F inoculum (P methane emitters, while D -  were the lowest ( - 35 %). The concentration of dissolved dihydrogen measured after feeding followed the opposite trend. Methane emissions did not correlate with the relative abundance of methanogens in the rumen measured by quantitative PCR, but there was a trend for higher methanogens concentration in the solid-associated population of D+ animals compared with D -  animals. In contrast, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of methanogens' methyl coenzyme-M reductase A gene showed a clear clustering in liquid-associated fractions for all three groups of donors but fewer differences in solid-associated fractions. These results show that the absence of protozoa may affect differently the methanogen community and methane emissions in wethers.

  3. A modified version of the Molly rumen model to quantify methane emissions from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetharaniam, I; Vibart, R E; Hanigan, M D; Janssen, P H; Tavendale, M H; Pacheco, D

    2015-07-01

    We modified the rumen submodel of the Molly dairy cow model to simulate the rumen of a sheep and predict its methane emissions. We introduced a rumen hydrogen (H2) pool as a dynamic variable, which (together with the microbial pool in Molly) was used to predict methane production, to facilitate future consideration of thermodynamic control of methanogenesis. The new model corrected a misspecification of the equation of microbial H2 utilization in Molly95, which could potentially give rise to unrealistic predictions under conditions of low intake rates. The new model included a function to correct biases in the estimation of net H2 production based on the default stoichiometric relationships in Molly95, with this function specified in terms of level of intake. Model parameters for H2 and methane production were fitted to experimental data that included fresh temperate forages offered to sheep at a wide range of intake levels and then tested against independent data. The new model provided reasonable estimates relative to the calibration data set, but a different parameterization was needed to improve its predicted ability relative to the validation data set. Our results indicate that, although feedback inhibition on H2 production and methanogen activity increased with feeding level, other feedback effects that vary with diet composition need to be considered in future work on modeling rumen digestion in Molly.

  4. Methanogen community structure in the rumens of farmed sheep, cattle and red deer fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanathan, Jeyamalar; Kirs, Marek; Ronimus, Ron S; Hoskin, Simone O; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-05-01

    Development of inhibitors and vaccines that mitigate rumen-derived methane by targeting methanogens relies on knowledge of the methanogens present. We investigated the composition of archaeal communities in the rumens of farmed sheep (Ovis aries), cattle (Bos taurus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to generate fingerprints of archaeal 16S rRNA genes. The total archaeal communities were relatively constant across species and diets, and were less variable and less diverse than bacterial communities. There were diet- and ruminant-species-based differences in archaeal community structure, but the same dominant archaea were present in all rumens. These were members of three coherent clades: species related to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Methanobrevibacter olleyae; species related to Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii, Methanobrevibacter thaueri and Methanobrevibacter millerae; and species of the genus Methanosphaera. Members of an archaeal group of unknown physiology, designated rumen cluster C (RCC), were also present. RCC-specific DGGE, clone library analysis and quantitative real-time PCR showed that their 16S rRNA gene sequences were very diverse and made up an average of 26.5% of the total archaea. RCC sequences were not readily detected in the DGGE patterns of total archaeal 16S rRNA genes because no single sequence type was abundant enough to form dominant bands. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of starch fermentation in the rumen on voluntary intake of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of starch fermentation in the rumen on the kinetics of roughage digestion, was studied using 12 sheep fed three roughages, viz. lucerne hay, .... was infused over either a 12- or a 24-h period for the sheep fed on each diet. ... tary feed intake could be detected and that in vivo methane production, which is very ...

  6. Functional Characterization Reveals Novel Putative Coding Sequences in Prevotella ruminicola Genome Extracted from Rumen Metagenomic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Neelam M; Kothari, Ramesh K; Patel, Amrutlal K; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-01-01

    To reassemble Prevotella ruminicola genome from rumen metagenomic data of cattle and buffalo and compare with the published reference genome. Rumen microbial communities from Mehsani buffaloes (n = 8) and Kankrej cattle (n = 8), each adapted to different proportions of a dry or green roughage diet, were subjected to metagenomic sequencing by Ion Torrent PGM, and subsequent reads were analyzed by MG-RAST. Using reference-guided assembly of the sequences against the published P. ruminicola strain 23, draft genomes of 2.56 and 2.46 Mb were reconstructed from Mehsani buffalo and Kankrej cows, respectively. The genomes were annotated using the RAST Server and carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) analysis. Taxonomic analysis by MG-RAST revealed P. ruminicola to be the most abundant species present among the rumen microflora. Functional annotation of reconstructed genomes using the RAST Server depicted the maximum assignment of coding sequences involved in the subsystems amino acid and derivatives and carbohydrate metabolism. CAZyme profiling revealed the glycoside hydrolases (GH) family to be the most abundant. GH family subclassification revealed that the extracted genomes had more sequence hits for GH2, GH3, GH92 and GH97 as compared to the reference. The results reflect the metabolic significance of rumen-adapted P. ruminicola in utilizing a coarse diet for animals based on acquisition of novel genetic elements. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Microbiology of feed samples incubated in nylon bags in the rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiology of feed samples incubated in nylon bags in the rumen of sheep. J.H.F. Meyer*. National Chemical Research Laborotary,. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,. P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, Republic of South Africa. R.l. Mackie. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute,. Private BagX2,Irene 1675, ...

  8. Effect of carbohydrate source and rumen pH on enteric methane from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to measure the enteric methane emissions in dairy cows fed diets rich in starch or sugar with and without manipulation of rumen pH. The rations were based on grass-clover silage supplemented with either wheat (W), NaOH treated wheat (WNaOH), sugar beet molasses (M...

  9. Modeling anaerobic digestion of aquatic plants by rumen cultures: cattail as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bai-Hang; Yue, Zheng-Bo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing; Harada, Hideki

    2009-04-01

    Despite of the significance of the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic materials, only a limited number of studies have been carried out to evaluate the lignocellulosic digestion kinetics, and information about the modeling of this process is limited. In this work, a mathematical model, based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 (ADM1), was developed to describe the anaerobic conversion of lignocellulose-rich aquatic plants, with cattail as an example, by rumen microbes. Cattail was fractionated into slowly hydrolysable fraction (SHF), readily hydrolysable fraction (RHF) and inert fraction in the model. The SHF was hydrolyzed by rumen microbes and resulted in the production of RHF. The SHF and RHF had different hydrolysis rates but both with surface-limiting kinetics. The rumen microbial population diversity, including the cattail-, butyrate-, acetate- and H(2)-degraders, was all incorporated in the model structure. Experiments were carried out to identify the parameters and to calibrate and validate this model. The simulation results match the experimental data, implying that the fractionation of cattail into two biodegradation parts, i.e., SHF and RHF, and modeling their hydrolysis rate with a surface-limiting kinetics were appropriate. The model was capable of simulating the anaerobic biodegradation of cattail by the rumen cultures.

  10. The rumen ciliates of greater kudu Trage/aphus strepsiceros (pallas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the alimentary tract of merino sheep in South Africa. VI. The role of infusoria in ruminal digestion with some remarks on ruminal bacteria. Onderstepoor/ J. Vet. Sci. 17: 61 - 88. VAN HOVEN, W. 1975. Rumen ciliates of the tsessebe (Dama/iscus. /unatus /unatus) in South Africa. J. Protozoo/. 22: 457 - 462. R eprod.

  11. Prevalence and Sequence-Based Identity of Rumen Fluke in Cattle and Deer in New Caledonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cauquil

    Full Text Available An abattoir survey was performed in the French Melanesian archipelago of New Caledonia to determine the prevalence of paramphistomes in cattle and deer and to generate material for molecular typing at species and subspecies level. Prevalence in adult cattle was high at animal level (70% of 387 adult cattle and batch level (81%. Prevalence was lower in calves at both levels (33% of 484 calves, 51% at batch level. Animals from 2 of 7 deer farms were positive for rumen fluke, with animal-level prevalence of 41.4% (29/70 and 47.1% (33/70, respectively. Using ITS-2 sequencing, 3 species of paramphistomes were identified, i.e. Calicophoron calicophorum, Fischoederius elongatus and Orthocoelium streptocoelium. All three species were detected in cattle as well as deer, suggesting the possibility of rumen fluke transmission between the two host species. Based on heterogeneity in ITS-2 sequences, the C. calicophorum population comprises two clades, both of which occur in cattle as well as deer. The results suggest two distinct routes of rumen fluke introduction into this area. This approach has wider applicability for investigations of the origin of rumen fluke infections and for the possibility of parasite transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface.

  12. Kualitas Nutrisi Silase Berbahan Baku Singkong yang Diberi Enzim Cairan Rumen Sapi dan Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sandi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the nutrient quality of cassava-based materials silage with cattle rumen liquor enzymes and Leuconostoc mesenteroides as poultry feed. The cassava material was hydrolyzed with cattle rumen liquor enzyme and incubated for 24 hours. The hydrolyzed product was added L. mesenteroides and ensiled in mini silo for 30 days. The experiment was designed in completely randomized design with 15 treatments and 3 replications. The result showed that temperature of cassava-based silage ranged from 26 to 30 oC. The flavor was sour and fresh fragrant and changed in color. Addition of cattle rumen liquor enzyme and L. mesenteroides bacteria significantly affected (P<0.05 pH (3.73-4.86, dry matter(30.14%-43.28%, cyanide (86.71%-96.50% and crude fiber content (0.78%-5.05%, but gave a fluctuate effect on protein content (-1.92%-2.39%. However, the treatment didnot affect dry matter losses (1.20%-2.66%. It is concluded that nutrient quality of cassava-based silage improved when it was added with cattle rumen liquor enzymes and L. mesenteroides by decreasing crude fiber and cyanide content. The best silage quality was obtained on tuber substrate and it increased protein KDUO (peel+leaves+tuber+tapioca waste silage.

  13. Sun-Dried Bovine Rumen Content (SDRC) as an ingredient of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to increasing price of conventional feeds, alternative locally available nonconventional feed ingredient is required for layers' production. Rumen contents are abundantly available as slaughterhouse by-product and mainly considered as waste material creating environmental pollution. Therefore, a study was conducted ...

  14. A dynamic mechanistic model of lactic acid metabolism in the rumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, J.A.N.; Crompton, L.A.; Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Hook, S.E.; Benchaar, C.; France, J.

    2014-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for ruminants are too imprecise to describe diets in terms of their acidosis risk. The dynamic mechanistic model described herein arises from the integration of a lactic acid (La) metabolism module into an extant model of whole-rumen function. The model was evaluated

  15. Effects of Supplementing Concentrates Differing in Carbohydrate Composition in Veal Calf Diets: II. Rumen Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Stockhofe, N.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the rumen development of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 male Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred calves were used in a complete randomized block design with a 5 x 2

  16. Impact of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) adaptation on rumen microbiota in dairy cattle using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, S Y; Zhang, R Y; Wang, D S; Zhu, W Y

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in bacterial populations in the rumen of dairy cattle following adaptation to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Rumen contents were collected from four cattle adapted to either a 40% (control diet, COD) or 70% (SARA induction diet, SAID) concentrate feeds. DNA was extracted from each of the samples. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes of ruminal DNA extracts were PCR amplified with 2 bar coded primer sets and sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. At a high taxonomic level, the percentage of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were reduced by SAID feeding, whereas Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were more abundant in the SAID than in the COD group. At the genus level, as compared with the COD group, the abundances of Prevotella, Treponema, Anaeroplasma, Papillibacter, Acinetobacter and unclassified populations including unclassified Lentisphaerae, and unclassified bacteria were lower (P rumen microbial community. Taken together, our findings provide a comprehensive picture of current knowledge of the community structure of the rumen bacterial ecosystem during SARA, and enhance our understanding about the ruminal microbial ecology that may be useful in the prevention of ruminal acidosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates to rumen degradable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    ) to rumen degradable protein (RDP) on lactation responses, digestion and dry matter intake (DMI), nine multiparous mid-lactation. Holstein cows, averaging 171 ± 17 days in milk and 24.1 ± 3.3 kg of milk/d were assigned to a 3 þ 3 Latin.

  18. Effects of ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates to rumen degradable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the effect of different ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC) to rumen degradable protein (RDP) on lactation responses, digestion and dry matter intake (DMI), nine multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows, averaging 171 +-17 days in milk and 24.1+-3.3 kg of milk/d were assigned to a 3 x 3 Latin square design.

  19. Application of washed rumen technique for rapid determination of fasting heat production in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a washed rumen technique as an alternative approach for determining fasting HP in cattle. In Exp. 1, 8 Holstein steers (322±30 kg) were adapted to a cubed alfalfa-based diet (1.5xNEm) for 10 d. After which steers were placed into individual hea...

  20. Effect of method of delivery of sodium butyrate on rumen development in newborn calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation in milk replacer (MR) or in starter mixture (SM) or in both MR and SM on performance, selected blood parameters, and rumen development in newborn calves was determined. Twenty-eight male calves with a mean age of 5 (±1) d were randomly allocated...

  1. Quantitative and differential analysis of ciliate protozoa in rumen content samples filtered before and after fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fonseca Rossi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess whether the straining of rumen content samples influences the estimation of protozoal density. Ninety rumen samples were obtained from 30 cattle (three samples per animal. The samples were subjected to one of three treatments at the moment of collection: 1 fixation informalin without straining(control treatment, 2 straining before fixation informalin, or 3straining after fixation informalin.To test the hypothesis of the variation in the protozoa composition in the samples, multivariate analyses with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS were carried out. The diversity and density of rumen protozoa were negatively affected by straining before fixation.In the pre-filtered sample, the number of ciliates from the genus Entodinium was reduced, and no individuals from the Diploplastron, Elytroplastron and Eudiplodinium genera were detected; these effects were not observed in the other two treatments. Straining after fixation did not interfere with the diversity of the ruminal community, but the abundance of protozoa was greater thanin the control treatment and significantly greater than in the samples filtered before fixation. These factors suggest that post-fixation straining is the recommended technique to analyze rumen protozoa.

  2. Effect of herbal choline and rumen-protected methionine on lamb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth A Mendoza B MD

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... Effect of herbal choline and rumen-protected methionine on lamb performance and blood metabolites. V. Rodríguez-Guerrero1, A. C. Lizarazo2#, S. Ferraro1, N. Suárez3, L. A. Miranda4 & G. D.. Mendoza1. 1 Doctorado en Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Xochimilco, México.

  3. Effects of forage maize type and maturity stage on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Schooten, van H.A.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment with forage maize plants representing early and late-ripening types of Dry Down and Stay Green cultivar types was conducted to study the effects of cultivar and maturity stage on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and to investigate the validity of the generally supposed

  4. Effects of chop length and ensiling period of forage maize on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Schooten, van H.A.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of chop length and ensiling period on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of forage maize was studied in two experiments. In the first experiment, maize plants of eight cultivars representing different combinations of Dry Down, Stay Green, early ripening, late ripening, starch and

  5. Effect of herbal choline and rumen-protected methionine on lamb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatments consisted of oral doses of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) (0 and 1.5 g/day) and herbal choline (biocholine) (0 and 4 g/day) in a completely random block design with factorial arrangement of treatments, where lambs were blocked by sex. The experiment was conducted for 60 days, and measurements of live ...

  6. Ruminal fatty acid metabolism : altering rumen biohydrolgenation to improve milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional guidelines promote a reduced intake of saturated fatty acids (FA) and increased intake of unsaturated FA by humans. Milk and dairy products contain a high proportion of saturated FA caused by extensive alterations of dietary lipids in the rumen through the processes of lipolysis and

  7. Potential role of the bovine rumen microbiome in modulating milk composition and feed efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Jami

    Full Text Available Ruminants are completely dependent on their microbiota for feed digestion and consequently, their viability. It is therefore tempting to hypothesize a connection between the composition and abundance of resident rumen bacterial taxa and the physiological parameters of the host. Using a pyrosequencing approach, we characterized the rumen bacterial community composition in 15 dairy cows and their physiological parameters. We analyzed the degree of divergence between the different animals and found that some physiological parameters, such as milk yield and composition, are highly correlated with the abundance of various bacterial members of the rumen microbiome. One apparent finding was a strong correlation between the ratio of the phyla Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and milk-fat yield. These findings paralleled human studies showing similar trends of increased adiposity with an increase in Bacteroidetes. This correlation remained evident at the genus level, where several genera showed correlations with the animals' physiological parameters. This suggests that the bacterial community has a role in shaping host physiological parameters. A deeper understanding of this process may allow us to modulate the rumen microbiome for better agricultural yield through bacterial community design.

  8. Variation between individual cows in in situ rumen degradation characteristics of maize and grass silages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Cone, J. W.; van Duinkerken, G.; Klop, A.; Blok, M. C.; Bruinenberg, M.; Khan, N. A.; Hendriks, W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Different numbers of animals have been used in different studies to cover the variation between individual animals in in situ rumen degradation characteristics of maize and grass silages. The objective of this study was to determine whether three cows are sufficient or not to cover the variation

  9. A novel measurement method of microorganism growth by tunable diode laser-absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jindong; Shao, Jie; Ying, Chaofu; Wang, Liming; Guo, Jie

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this work was to attain essential parameters by using a Gompertz model that employed a new approach of wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) to describe the microorganism growth. The measurement method of WMS introduces noninvasive technique instead of complicated invasive microorganism operation analysis and quickly obtains the accurate real-time measurement results. By using the WMS measurement, the specific growth curve of microorganism growth clearly displayed every three minute, which has characteristics of high sensitivity, high spectral resolution, fast time response and overcomes the randomness and error operation of traditional analysis methods. The measurement value of BF and AF in the range of 1.008 to 1.043 and the lower MSE showed that Gompertz model can fit the data well and be capable of describing bacteria growth rate and lag time. The results of experiment data suggested that the specific growth rate of microorganism depends on the temperature. With the increase of temperature ranging from 25 °C to 42 °C , the lag time of bacteria growth has been shortened. And the suitable temperature of bacteria growth is about 37 °C . Judging from the growth rate of microorganisms, we can identify the microbial species, not only to improve the precision and efficiency, but also to provides a rapidly sensitive way for microbial detection. The lag time of microorganism growth also provides a great application prospect for shelf life of the food safety.

  10. Supersaturation of Dissolved Hydrogen and Methane in Rumen of Tibetan Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Ungerfeld, Emilio M; Wang, Rong; Zhou, Chuan She; Basang, Zhu Zha; Ao, Si Man; Tan, Zhi Liang

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is an essential substrate for methanogens to produce methane (CH4), and also influences pathways of volatile fatty acids (VFA) production in the rumen. Dissolved H2 (H2 (aq)) is the form of H2 available to microbes, and dissolved CH4 (CH4 (aq)) is important for indicating methanogens activity. Rumen H2 (aq) concentration has been estimated by assuming equilibrium with headspace gaseous H2 (H2 (g)) concentration using Henry's law, and has also been directly measured in the liquid phase in some in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this in vivo study, H2 (aq) and CH4 (aq) concentration measured directly in rumen fluid and their corresponding concentrations estimated from their gaseous phase concentrations, were compared to investigate the existence of equilibrium between the gas and liquid phases. Twenty-four Tibetan sheep were randomly assigned to two mixed diets containing the same concentrate mixed with oat grass (OG diet) or barley straw (BS diet). Rumen gaseous phase and contents were sampled using rumenocentesis and oral stomach tubing, respectively. Rumen H2 (aq) and CH4 (aq) concentration and VFA profile differed between sheep fed OG and BS diets. Measured H2 (aq) and CH4 (aq) concentration were greater than H2 (aq) and CH4 (aq) concentrations estimated using gas concentrations, indicating lack of equilibrium between gas and liquid phase and supersaturation of H2 and CH4 in rumen fluid. As a consequence, Gibbs energy changes (ΔG) estimated for various metabolic pathways were different when calculated using dissolved gases concentrations directly measured and when using dissolved gases concentrations assuming equilibrium with the gaseous phase. Dissolved CH4, but not CH4 (g), was positively correlated with H2 (aq). Both H2 (aq) and H2 (g) concentrations were positively correlated with the molar percentage of butyrate and negatively correlated with the molar percentage of acetate. In summary, rumen fluid was supersaturated with both H2 and CH4

  11. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amraoui, B; El Amraoui, M; Cohen, N; Fassouane, A

    2014-03-01

    In order to explore marine microorganisms with pharmaceutical potential, marine bacteria, collected from different coastal areas of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean, were previously isolated from seawater, sediment, marine invertebrates and seaweeds. The antimicrobial activities of these microorganisms were investigated against the pathogens involved in human pathologies. Whole cultures of 34 marine microorganisms were screened for antimicrobial activities using the method of agar diffusion against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, and against yeast. The results showed that among the 34 isolates studied, 28 (82%) strains have antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogen studied, 11 (32%) strains have antifungal activity and 24 (76%) strains are active against Gram-positive bacteria, while 21 (62%) strains are active against Gram-negative bacteria. Among isolates having antimicrobial activity, 14 were identified and were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Chromobacterium, Enterococcus, Pantoea and Pseudomonas. Due to a competitive role for space and nutrient, the marine microorganisms can produce antibiotic substance; therefore, these marine microorganisms were expected to be potential resources of natural antibiotic products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of thermotolerant microorganisms for biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Shu; Lin, Yann-Shying; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2007-12-01

    Intensive agriculture is practised in Taiwan, and compost application is very popular as a means of improving the soil physical properties and supplying plant nutrition. We tested the potential of inoculation with thermotolerant microorganisms to shorten the maturity and improve the quality of biofertilizer prepared by composting. Thermotolerant microorganisms were isolated from compost and reinoculated for the preparation of biofertilizer. The physical, chemical and biological properties of the biofertilizer were determined during composting. The effects of biofertilizer application on the growth and yield of rape were also studied. Among 3823 colonies of thermotolerant microorganisms, Streptomyces thermonitrificans NTU-88, Streptococcus sp. NTU-130 and Aspergillus fumigatus NTU-132 exhibited high growth rates and cellulolytic and proteolytic activities. When a mixture of rice straw and swine manure were inoculated with these isolates and composted for 61 days, substrate temperature increased initially and then decreased gradually during composting. Substrate pH increased from 7.3 to 8.5. Microbial inoculation enhanced the rate of maturity, and increased the content of ash and total and immobilized nitrogen, improved the germination rate of alfalfa seed, and decreased the content of total organic carbon and the carbon/nitrogen ratio. Biofertilizer application increased the growth and yield of rape. Inoculation of thermotolerant and thermophilic microorganisms to agricultural waste for biofertilizer preparation enhances the rate of maturity and improves the quality of the resulting biofertilizer. Inoculation of appropriate microorganisms in biofertilizer preparation might be usefully applied to agricultural situations.

  13. Production of fats and oils by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Osamu

    1987-10-20

    This paper describes the production of fats and oils by microorganisms. Various fat-productive bacteria have been found to produce the fats and oils by microorganisms which are roughly classified into enzyme and filiform fungus. The cells do not proliferate under the conditions adequate for producing the cells with the high content of lipid. A cell with high content of fat belonging to Mortierella filamentas fungi has been recently obtained at high density in the high concentration culture medium. The productivity of the fat similar to cocoa butter seems to be also high. A lot of microorganisms producing various functional fatty acids have been found. The microorganismic production methods of esters of longer-chain dicarboxylic acids and alcohols than C/sub 11/ hardly produced in nature form n-alkane also have been recently developed. Squalene has been able to produce by a cell from the other raw materials than the shark oil. Various sterols exist in microorganisms. The high-productivity manufacturing method of the fats containing gamma-linoleic acid by Mortierella filiform fungi has been developed and commercialized as the first production process of the fat by the microorganism. (5 figs, 7 tabs, 128 refs

  14. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods.

  15. Improvement of cocoa-pod husk using sheep rumen liquor for tilapia diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Jusadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of sheep rumen liquor enzyme addition on the reduction of cocoa-pod husk meal (CPHM fiber content, and the digestibility of hydrolyzed CPHM for tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In the first trial, sheep rumen liquor enzyme was added with various concentration, i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 mL/kg CPHM with three different incubation periods, namely 0, 12, and 24 hours. In the second trial, digestibility was determined by the addition of Cr2O3 as the indicator in both reference and experimental diets, i.e. feed with hydrolyzed CPHM and unhydrolyzed CPHM. Tilapia with an average body weight of 3.86±0.44 g were stocked at a density of 15 fish/aquarium and were maintained for 15 days. In the first trial, CPHM hydrolyzed with 150 mL/kg and incubated for 12 and 24 hour showed the lowest crude fiber content (21.38% and 21.67%. Apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed CPHM was 33.95%, which was higher than unhydrolyzed CPHM (10.97%. As conclusions sheep rumen liquor enzyme addition was effective to decrease crude fiber content of CPHM and improve the apparent digestibility coefficient of CPHM for tilapia diet. Keywords: sheep rumen liquor enzyme, cocoa-pod husk meal, digestibility, tilapia  ABSTRAK Dua tahap penelitian dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi penambahan enzim cairan rumen domba dalam menurunkan kandungan serat kasar kulit buah kakao (KBK dan mengevaluasi ketercernaan KBK yang telah dihidrolisis dengan enzim cairan rumen domba dalam pakan ikan nila Oreochromis niloticus. Pada penelitian tahap satu, enzim cairan rumen domba ditambahkan dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda yaitu 0, 50, 100, dan 150 mL/kg KBK dengan lama inkubasi yang berbeda yaitu 0, 12, dan 24 jam. Pada penelitian tahap dua, nilai ketercernaan ditentukan dengan menggunakan indikator Cr2O3 yang ditambahkan ke dalam pakan acuan dan pakan perlakuan, yaitu pakan dengan penambahan KBK yang telah dihidrolisis dengan dosis

  16. Technical note: Changes in rumen mucosa thickness measured by transabdominal ultrasound as a noninvasive method to diagnose subacute rumen acidosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, V; Humer, E; Kröger, I; Meißl, A; Reisinger, N; Zebeli, Q

    2017-12-20

    Feeding high-grain diets leads to the release and accumulation of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen. The subsequent prolonged decline in ruminal pH can lead to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Accumulation of short-chain fatty acids can cause proliferation of rumen papillae to increase absorption surface, subsequently leading to a thickening of the rumen mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of continuous measurements of the rumen mucosa thickness (RMT) as a diagnostic tool for SARA in dairy cows compared with continuous measurements of ruminal pH. The study used 6 lactating Simmental cows switched from a moderate-grain (MG) diet with 40% concentrate (dry matter basis) for 1 wk to a high-grain (HG) diet with 60% concentrate (dry matter basis) for 4 wk. Reticuloruminal pH was recorded with indwelling sensors throughout the trial. Rumen mucosa thickness was measured by transabdominal ultrasound at 4 d during the MG diet and 23 d during the HG diet. Mean RMT increased from 4.7 ± 0.19 mm in the MG diet to 5.3 ± 0.17 mm in the HG diet, whereas daily mean reticular pH decreased from 6.8 ± 0.01 in the MG diet to 6.5 ± 0.01 in the HG diet. Older cows (>3 lactations) had increased RMT, associated with higher reticular pH throughout the experiment. The higher RMT and pH level in older cows underlines their lesser susceptibility to SARA during high-grain feeding. In conclusion, RMT can successfully be measured using linear ultrasound probes, commonly used by veterinary practitioners as rectal probes. By combining noninvasive RMT measurements with the lactation number of the individual cows in a herd, this study suggests that RMT is a viable option for diagnosing SARA. Further research, using a larger number of cows with different lactations numbers, is needed to establish a cut-off RMT indicating the risk of SARA. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PRESENCE OF MICROORGANISMS AT VARIOUS STAGES OF POULTRY WASTES MANAGEMENT. PART I. KERATINOLYTIC MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Wrońska

    2016-11-01

    Based on the study, the presence of keratinolytic microorganisms was found in all materials. The slime was the most numerously inhabited waste, while proper compost the least. Predominant group of microorganisms, regardless of the tested material type, was composed of bacteria.

  18. Transcriptome profiling of the rumen epithelium of beef cattle differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Rebecca S G; Liang, Guanxiang; Chen, Yanhong; Stothard, Paul; Guan, Le Luo

    2016-08-09

    Feed efficient cattle consume less feed and produce less environmental waste than inefficient cattle. Many factors are known to contribute to differences in feed efficiency, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Our study aimed to understand how host gene expression in the rumen epithelium contributes to differences in residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, using a transcriptome profiling based approach. The rumen epithelial transcriptome from highly efficient (low (L-) RFI, n = 9) and inefficient (high (H-) RFI, n = 9) Hereford x Angus steers was obtained using RNA-sequencing. There were 122 genes differentially expressed between the rumen epithelial tissues of L- and H- RFI steers (p energy generating pathways such as glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Further qPCR analysis of steers with different RFI (L-RFI, n = 35; M-RFI, n = 34; H-RFI, n = 35) revealed that the relative mitochondrial genome copy number per cell of the epithelium was positively correlated with RFI (r = 0.21, p = 0.03). Our results suggest that the rumen epithelium of L-RFI (efficient) steers may have increased tissue morphogenesis that possibly increases paracellular permeability for the absorption of nutrients and increased energy production to support the energetic demands of increased tissue morphogenesis compared to those of H-RFI (inefficient) animals. Greater expression of mitochondrial genes and lower relative mitochondrial genome copy numbers suggest a greater rate of transcription in the rumen epithelial mitochondria of L-RFI steers. Understanding how host gene expression profiles are associated with RFI could potentially lead to identification of mechanisms behind this trait, which are vital to develop strategies for the improvement of cattle feed efficiency.

  19. Screening of Essential Oil Active Compounds for Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Joch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 11 active compounds of essential oils (ACEO on rumen fermentation characteristics and methane production. Two trials were conducted. In trial 1, ACEO (eugenol, carvacrol, citral, limonene, 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, linalool, bornyl acetate, α-pinene, and β-pinene at a dose of 1,000 μL/L were incubated for 24 h in diluted rumen fluid with a 70:30 forage:concentrate substrate (16.2% crude protein; 36.6% neutral detergent fiber. Three fistulated Holstein cows were used as donors of rumen fluid. The reduction in methane production was observed with nine ACEO (up to 86% reduction compared with the control (p<0.05. Among these, only limonene, 1,4-cineole, bornyl acetate, and α-pinene did not inhibit volatile fatty acid (VFA production, and only bornyl acetate produced less methane per mol of VFA compared with the control (p<0.05. In a subsequent trial, the effects on rumen fermentation and methane production of two concentrations (500 and 2,000 μL/L of bornyl acetate, the most promising ACEO from the first trial, were evaluated using the same in vitro incubation method that was used in the first trial. In trial 2, monensin was used as a positive control. Both doses of bornyl acetate decreased (p<0.05 methane production and did not inhibit VFA production. Positive effects of bornyl acetate on methane and VFA production were more pronounced than the effects of monensin. These results confirm the ability of bornyl acetate to decrease methane production, which may help to improve the efficiency of energy use in the rumen.

  20. Methaphylactic effect of tulathromycin treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Enrico; Armato, Leonardo; Morgante, Massimo; Muraro, Michele; Boso, Matteo; Gianesella, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tulathromycin as a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) metaphylactic treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot cattle in an intensive livestock production farm. One hundred beef cattle, immediately after housing, were divided in 2 equal groups: 50 animals with metaphylactic treatment against BRD (treated group; tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW) and 50 animals with placebo treatment (control group). Rumen fluid samples were collected from each animal by rumenocentesis in 3 periods: 1 d (T1), 8 d (T8), and 15 d (T15) after treatment. Rumen pH was determined by ruminal fluid using portable pH meter. Total volatile fatty acids (total VFA) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All animals were singularly weighed at T1 and T15. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine significant effects of treatment (treated group versus control group) and period (T1, T8, and T15) on rumen fluid parameters and body weight. No clinical signs of BRD or other related diseases were recorded during the periods of study from any animal. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between treated group and control group for mean values of ruminal pH (6.02 versus 5.89) and total VFA (5.84 versus 5.13) at 8 d after treatment. The weight gain (Δ) showed an average increase of 8.6 kg in treated group (P < 0.05). The trends of ruminal pH and VFA values suggest an effect of tulathromycin as BRD metaphylactic treatment on the modulation of rumen fermentation, particularly 8 d after administration.

  1. Failure of cellulolysis in the rumen of reindeer fed timothy silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica A. Olsen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Three male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves were brought from mountain pastures in April and fed regrowth timothy (Phleum pratense silage with 76% leaves and 24.0% dry matter (DM ad libitum. The silage contained (on DM basis 25.4% cellulose, 12.0% crude protein and 19-6% water soluble carbohydrates. After an initial period of 11 days the daily silage intake rose to almost similar values for all animals, but independently of food intake, body mass (BM increased by as much as 13.3 kg for animal R3 during the first 21 days, compared to 4.4 kg and 2.8 kg for Rl and R2, respectively. At slaughter the wet weight of the rumen contents of animal R3 constituted 30.2% of the total BM, compared to 18.5% and 19.1% in animals Rl and R2, respectively. A reduced ability of the rumen micro-biota to ferment pure cellulose in vitro was observed in R3. The ruminal pH was 7.07 and the concentration of volatile fatty acids was only 50.0 mM in R3, indicating a low rate of fermentation. The initial rates of in vitro dry matter digestibility of timothy silage and standard hay were also affected by the rumen fermentation failure in animal R3. Depressed rumen cellulolysis, which may be related to natural periods of starvation prior to the feeding experiment, could have caused the low rate of fermentation and the large rumen size observed in this animal.

  2. Rumen Microbiome Composition Determined Using Two Nutritional Models of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafipour, Ehsan; Li, Shucong; Plaizier, Jan C.; Krause, Denis O.

    2009-01-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a metabolic disease in dairy cattle that occurs during early and mid-lactation and has traditionally been characterized by low rumen pH, but lactic acid does not accumulate as in acute lactic acid acidosis. It is hypothesized that factors such as increased gut permeability, bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and inflammatory responses may have a role in the etiology of SARA. However, little is known about the nature of the rumen microbiome during SARA. In this study, we analyzed the microbiome of 64 rumen samples taken from eight lactating Holstein dairy cattle using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (TRFLP) of 16S rRNA genes and real-time PCR. We used rumen samples from two published experiments in which SARA had been induced with either grain or alfalfa pellets. The results of TRFLP analysis indicated that the most predominant shift during SARA was a decline in gram-negative Bacteroidetes organisms. However, the proportion of Bacteroidetes organisms was greater in alfalfa pellet-induced SARA than in mild or severe grain-induced SARA (35.4% versus 26.0% and 16.6%, respectively). This shift was also evident from the real-time PCR data for Prevotella albensis, Prevotella brevis, and Prevotella ruminicola, which are members of the Bacteroidetes. The real-time PCR data also indicated that severe grain-induced SARA was dominated by Streptococcus bovis and Escherichia coli, whereas mild grain-induced SARA was dominated by Megasphaera elsdenii and alfalfa pellet-induced SARA was dominated by P. albensis. Using discriminant analysis, the severity of SARA and degree of inflammation were highly correlated with the abundance of E. coli and not with lipopolysaccharide in the rumen. We thus suspect that E. coli may be a contributing factor in disease onset. PMID:19783747

  3. Rumen microbiome composition determined using two nutritional models of subacute ruminal acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafipour, Ehsan; Li, Shucong; Plaizier, Jan C; Krause, Denis O

    2009-11-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a metabolic disease in dairy cattle that occurs during early and mid-lactation and has traditionally been characterized by low rumen pH, but lactic acid does not accumulate as in acute lactic acid acidosis. It is hypothesized that factors such as increased gut permeability, bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and inflammatory responses may have a role in the etiology of SARA. However, little is known about the nature of the rumen microbiome during SARA. In this study, we analyzed the microbiome of 64 rumen samples taken from eight lactating Holstein dairy cattle using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (TRFLP) of 16S rRNA genes and real-time PCR. We used rumen samples from two published experiments in which SARA had been induced with either grain or alfalfa pellets. The results of TRFLP analysis indicated that the most predominant shift during SARA was a decline in gram-negative Bacteroidetes organisms. However, the proportion of Bacteroidetes organisms was greater in alfalfa pellet-induced SARA than in mild or severe grain-induced SARA (35.4% versus 26.0% and 16.6%, respectively). This shift was also evident from the real-time PCR data for Prevotella albensis, Prevotella brevis, and Prevotella ruminicola, which are members of the Bacteroidetes. The real-time PCR data also indicated that severe grain-induced SARA was dominated by Streptococcus bovis and Escherichia coli, whereas mild grain-induced SARA was dominated by Megasphaera elsdenii and alfalfa pellet-induced SARA was dominated by P. albensis. Using discriminant analysis, the severity of SARA and degree of inflammation were highly correlated with the abundance of E. coli and not with lipopolysaccharide in the rumen. We thus suspect that E. coli may be a contributing factor in disease onset.

  4. Rumen fermentation and liveweight gain in beef cattle treated with monensin and grazing lush forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, E L; Clayton, E H; Cusack, P M V

    2011-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) in beef cattle grazing lush pasture and the effect of monensin on reducing SARA and improving animal performance. Commercial Angus and Murray Grey steers received a monensin slow-release capsule (n = 19) or remained untreated (n = 19). Cattle grazed an oats crop or tetraploid ryegrass pasture for a total of 91 days. Rumen fluid pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactic acid concentrations and body weight data were collected prior to treatment and again 28, 56 and 91 days after treatment. Changes in measures over time were analysed using mixed model repeated measures analysis. Differences in average daily gain between treatment groups were determined. The prevalence of SARA was low during the study, with only one animal satisfying criteria for SARA at one time point. Cattle treated with monensin capsules were 11.9 kg heavier at the completion of the study compared with untreated controls (414.5 ± 3.88 kg vs 402.6 ± 4.03 kg, P = 0.04). Rumen VFA and L- and D-lactate levels did not differ between cattle treated with monensin and untreated cattle. However, the ratio of propionate to acetate plus two times butyrate was higher (P rumen acidosis was not consistently detected under the conditions of the study. The higher body weight of cattle treated with monensin may have been due to improved energy utilisation of the pasture, indicated by increased propionate proportions in the rumen, rather than prevention of SARA. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy dodecane (Empicol. After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0. On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3 was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining

  6. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele; Morford, Megan; Khodadad, Christina; Spencer, Lashelle; Richards, Jeffrey; Strayer, Richard; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Wheeler, Ray

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms.

  7. Complete nitrification by a single microorganism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kessel, Maartje A. H. J.; Speth, Daan R.; Albertsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Nitrification is a two-step process where ammonia is first oxidized to nitrite by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and/or archaea, and subsequently to nitrate by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Already described by Winogradsky in 18901, this division of labour between the two functional groups is a general...... and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. Furthermore, the discovery of the long-sought-after comammox process will change our perception of the nitrogen cycle....... but higher growth yields than canonical ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms3. Still, organisms catalysing this process have not yet been discovered. Here we report the enrichment and initial characterization of two Nitrospira species that encode all the enzymes necessary for ammonia oxidation via nitrite...... to nitrate in their genomes, and indeed completely oxidize ammonium to nitrate to conserve energy. Their ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) enzymes are phylogenetically distinct from currently identified AMOs, rendering recent acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from known ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms...

  8. Novel Industrial Enzymes from Uncultured Arctic Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede

    Many industrial and biotechnological processes make use of cold-active enzymes or could benefit from the use, as the reduced temperature can be beneficial in multiple ways. Such processes may save energy and production costs, improve hygiene, maintain taste and other organoleptic properties......% of the microorganisms in an environmental sample can be cultured in the laboratory with standard techniques, which is also the case for the ikaite columns. Thus, there is an enormous potential in the uncultured microorganisms, which cannot be accessed through cultivation based methods. This PhD thesis presents studies...... on the diversity of microorganisms from the ikaite columns as well as bioprospecting for enzyme activities using both culture dependent and independent methods. Two cold-active β-galactosidases and one extremely cold-active α-amylase, all related to Clostridia, were characterized in more details....

  9. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  10. Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. L.; Wilcks, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    the industry, national administration and research institutions were gathered to discuss which elements should be considered in a risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms used as food or food ingredients. The existing EU and national regulations were presented, together with the experiences......The rapid development of recombinant DNA techniques for food organisms urges for an ongoing discussion on the risk assessment of both new as traditional use of microorganisms in food production. This report, supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers, is the result of a workshop where people from...

  11. A comparison of rumen microbial profiles in dairy cows as retrieved by 454 Roche and Ion Torrent (PGM sequencing platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju Indugu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS technology is a widely accepted tool used by microbial ecologists to explore complex microbial communities in different ecosystems. As new NGS platforms continue to become available, it becomes imperative to compare data obtained from different platforms and analyze their effect on microbial community structure. In the present study, we compared sequencing data from both the 454 and Ion Torrent (PGM platforms on the same DNA samples obtained from the rumen of dairy cows during their transition period. Despite the substantial difference in the number of reads, error rate and length of reads among both platforms, we identified similar community composition between the two data sets. Procrustes analysis revealed similar correlations (M2 = 0.319; P = 0.001 in the microbial community composition between the two platforms. Both platforms revealed the abundance of the same bacterial phyla which were Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes; however, PGM recovered an additional four phyla. Comparisons made at the genus level by each platforms revealed differences in only a few genera such as Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Succiniclasticum and Treponema (p < 0.05; chi square test. Collectively, we conclude that the output generated from PGM and 454 yielded concurrent results, provided stringent bioinformatics pipelines are employed.

  12. A comparison of rumen microbial profiles in dairy cows as retrieved by 454 Roche and Ion Torrent (PGM) sequencing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indugu, Nagaraju; Bittinger, Kyle; Kumar, Sanjay; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Pitta, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology is a widely accepted tool used by microbial ecologists to explore complex microbial communities in different ecosystems. As new NGS platforms continue to become available, it becomes imperative to compare data obtained from different platforms and analyze their effect on microbial community structure. In the present study, we compared sequencing data from both the 454 and Ion Torrent (PGM) platforms on the same DNA samples obtained from the rumen of dairy cows during their transition period. Despite the substantial difference in the number of reads, error rate and length of reads among both platforms, we identified similar community composition between the two data sets. Procrustes analysis revealed similar correlations (M (2) = 0.319; P = 0.001) in the microbial community composition between the two platforms. Both platforms revealed the abundance of the same bacterial phyla which were Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes; however, PGM recovered an additional four phyla. Comparisons made at the genus level by each platforms revealed differences in only a few genera such as Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Succiniclasticum and Treponema (p < 0.05; chi square test). Collectively, we conclude that the output generated from PGM and 454 yielded concurrent results, provided stringent bioinformatics pipelines are employed.

  13. [Inactivation mechanism of microorganisms by the synergy of silver and light irradiation, and the application in household electrical appliances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinshan; Moriya, Yoshifumi; Oketa, Takemi; Sasabe, Shigeru; Nishida, Hirofumi; Chen, Lesheng; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Di; Omori, Hideki; Cao, Guangyi

    2008-06-01

    The inactivation efficiencies of microorganisms were found to be enhanced by using silver solution together with ultraviolet light (UV-A, 395 nm) irradiation. The inactivation efficiencies were improved remarkably especially in eukaryotic microorganism. To make clear the inactivation mechanism of microorganisms by the combination effect of silver and ultraviolet light irradiation, the resultant solution was characterized by ESR (Electron spin resonance, ESR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the methnd for measuring enzyme activity of mitochondria for eukarvotic cells were used to conjecture the mechanism, by analysis of the morphological and physiologic changes in eukaryotic cells. It is proposed that silver oxide (Ag20) can be activated by ultraviolet light irradiation and react with water molecules to produce hydroxyl radical (.OH). Hydroxyl radical could damage cell wall of eukaryotic microorganisms, and inactivate the enzyme activity of mitochondria of eukaryotic microorganism cells. Accordingly, eukaryotic microorganism cells would die. In the experiment, Staphylococcus aureus was employed as the representative of prokaryotic microorganisms, and Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes as the representative of eukaryotic microorganisms, respectively. Moreover, the results of the technology applied to washing machine were presented and discussed.

  14. Enhanced Characterization of Microorganisms in the Spacecraft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Patricia; Stetzenbach, Linda D.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the space shuttles are enclosed environments where crewmembers may spend long periods of time. Currently, crewmembers spend approximately a period of 6 months in the ISS. It is known that these prolonged stays in space may result in weakening of the immune system. Therefore, exposure to opportunistic pathogens or high concentrations of environmental microorganisms may compromise the health of the crew. The detection of biocontaminants in spacecraft environments utilizes culture-based methodology, omitting greater than 90% of all microorganisms including pathogens such as Legionella and Cryptosporidium. Culturable bacteria and fungi have been the only allergens studied; the more potent allergens, such as those from dust mites, have never been tested for in spacecraft environments. In addition, no attempts have been made to monitor microbial toxins in spacecrafts. The present study utilized quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) as a novel approach for monitoring microorganisms in the spacecraft environment. QPCR is a molecular biology technique that does not rely on the physiological state of the organisms for identification, thereby enabling detection of both culturable and non-culturable organisms. In this project, specific molecular primers and probes were utilized for the detection and quantitation of two fungi of concern in indoor environments, Aspergillus fumigatus and Stachybotrys chartarum. These organisms were selected because of the availability of PCR primers and probes, and to establish the sample processing and analysis methodology that may be employed with additional organisms. Purification methods and QPCR assays were optimized for the detection of these organisms in air, surface, and water; and sample processing and analysis protocols were developed. Preliminary validation of these protocols was conducted in the laboratory with air, surface, and water samples seeded with known

  15. Beef quality of young Angus×Nellore cattle supplemented with rumen-protected lipids during rearing and fatting periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E N; Polizel Neto, A; Roça, R O; Faria, M H; Resende, F D; Siqueira, G R; Pinheiro, R S B

    2014-12-01

    This work evaluated the beef quality parameters of 108 bulls randomly administered to three treatments during rearing in pastures and two treatments during fatting in feedlots, including mineral and rumen-protected lipids. Meat and fat color, cooking yield, shear force, sensorial traits and chemical and fatty acid compositions were evaluated. Generally, the beef quality parameters were not affected by the rumen protected lipids; however, supplementation with rumen-protected lipids during the rearing period yielded darker beef and brighter fat and increased beef tenderness in meat aged for 28days compared to the meat from animals that received only mineral supplementation. In addition, the percent of meat polyunsaturated fatty acids was negatively affected by the inclusion of protected lipids, yielding 5.58 and 3.72% in animals fed with and without rumen-protected lipids, respectively, during the fatting period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Oxidized Soybean Oil against Pomegranate Seed as Antioxidant on the in vitro Rumen Fermentation Parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sayed Ehsan Ghiasi; Reza Valizadeh; Abasali Naserian

    2016-01-01

    .... Although ROS could be a source of adverse effect on fiber degradation in the gut of ruminant by reducing microbial population counts and diversity, because rumen bacterial, protozoal and fungal...

  17. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olijhoek, Dana; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Brask, Maike

    2016-01-01

    , but did not constitute a threat for animal health and human food safety. Microbial crude protein synthesis and efficiency were unaffected. Total volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, and propionate were unaffected, whereas molar proportions of formate increased....... Milk yield, milk composition, DMI and digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber in rumen, small intestine, hindgut, and total tract were unaffected by addition of nitrate. In conclusion, nitrate lowered methane production linearly with minor effects on rumen......Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility...

  18. Few highly abundant operational taxonomic units dominate within rumen methanogenic archaeal species in New Zealand sheep and cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seedorf, Henning; Kittelmann, Sandra; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing and analyses of 16S rRNA gene amplicons were performed to estimate the composition of the rumen methanogen community in 252 samples from eight cohorts of sheep and cattle, separated into 16...

  19. In vitro degradation of melamine by ruminal microorganisms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanja&Jana

    2015-05-17

    May 17, 2015 ... hydrolysis in the rumen was insufficient to promote maximum ruminal protein synthesis and concluded that melamine was not an ... ADF and NDF. Heat-stable alpha-amylase and sodium sulphite were used in the assay. The .... A comparison between nitrogen retention from urea, biuret, triuret and cyanuric ...

  20. The relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and microbial nucleic acid bases in rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyuan Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to identify the relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen, and to establish a model to accurately predict microbial protein flow by using OBCFA. Methods To develop the regression equations, data on the rumen contents of individual cows were obtained from 2 feeding experiments. In the first experiment, 3 rumen-fistulated dry dairy cows arranged in a 3×3 Latin square were fed diets of differing forage to concentration ratios (F:C. The second experiment consisted of 9 lactating Holstein dairy cows of similar body weights at the same stage of pregnancy. For each lactation stage, 3 cows with similar milk production were selected. The rumen contents were sampled at 4 time points of every two hours after morning feeding 6 h, and then to analyse the concentrations of OBCFA and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen samples. Results The ruminal bacteria nucleic acid bases were significantly influenced by feeding diets of differing forge to concentration ratios and lactation stages of dairy cows (p<0.05. The concentrations of OBCFAs, especially odd-chain fatty acids and C15:0 isomers, strongly correlated with the microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen (p<0.05. The equations of ruminal microbial nucleic acid bases established by ruminal OBCFAs contents showed a good predictive capacity, as indicated by reasonably low standard errors and high R-squared values. Conclusion This finding suggests that the rumen OBCFA composition could be used as an internal marker of rumen microbial matter.

  1. The influence of selected nanomaterials on microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brandeburová, P.; Birošová, L.; Vojs, M.; Kromka, Alexander; Gál, M.; Tichý, J.; Híveš, J.; Mackul´ak, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 3 (2017), s. 525-530 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01687S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanomaterials * nanotechnologies * microorganisms * toxicity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  2. Food fermentations: Microorganisms with technological beneficial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdichon, François; Casaregola, Serge; Farrokh, Choreh

    2012-01-01

    cultures in practical use. However, as the focus mainly was on commercially available dairy cultures, there was an unmet need for a list with a wider scope. We present an updated inventory of microorganisms used in food fermentations covering a wide range of food matrices (dairy, meat, fish, vegetables...

  3. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  4. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  5. Airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies and suitability of samplers for airborne microorganisms and dust, which could be used in practical livestock houses. Two studies were performed: 1) Testing impaction and cyclone pre-separators for dust sampling in livestock houses; 2)

  6. Host Defense against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    identity by block numbor) burn polymorphonuclear leukocyte septicemia trauma imnunoglobulins microorganisms injury opsonin infection complement...titers to Streptococcus faecalis which were increased in the patients’ sera in comparison to the normal sera. These results indicate that the multiple...results also indicate that heat- stable immune IgG antibodies are not produced during septicemia which facilitate opsonization of the infecting

  7. Prevalence And Public Health Importance Of Microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (76%), Candida albicans (51.2%), and species of Samonella (43.2%), Enterobacter (12.4%), Pseudomonas (10%), Proteus (8.8%), Mucor (33.6%), and Rhizopus (2%). These microorganisms can initiate infections in animals under stress conditions, and only Eimeria spp. is non-zoonotic. Human infection with this organism ...

  8. Engineered microorganisms having resistance to ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Thomas Lawrence; Thelen, Michael P.

    2016-03-22

    The present invention provides for a method of genetically modifying microorganisms to enhance resistance to ionic liquids, host cells genetically modified in accordance with the methods, and methods of using the host cells in a reaction comprising biomass that has been pretreated with ionic liquids.

  9. Arylamine n-acetyltransferases in eukaryotic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microorganisms can survive highly toxic environments through numerous xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, including arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs). NAT genes are present in bacteria, archaea, protists and fungi. In lower taxa of fungi, NAT genes are found in chytridiomycetes. In Dikarya, NAT gen...

  10. Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. N.; Winding, A.; Binnerup, S.

    Microorganisms are an essential part of living soil and of outmost importance for soil health. As such they can be used as indicators of soil health. This report reviews the current and potential future use of microbial indicators of soil health and recommends specific microbial indicators for soil...... indicators into soil monitoring programmes as they become applicable....

  11. The isolation and characterization of endophytic microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation and characterization of endophytic microorganisms from Hyptis marrubioides Epling roots. ... The present study was aimed at isolating and characterizing endophytic strains from the root system of Hyptis marrubioides. Coarse and fine root fragments were ... Keywords: Bacteria, fungus, Lamiaceae, root system ...

  12. Novel genome alteration system for microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daran, J.G.; Geertman, J.M.; Bolat, I.

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a set of targeting constructs, comprising a first construct comprising a recognition site for an endonuclease, a first region of homology with a target gene of a microorganism, and a first part of a selection marker, and a second construct comprising a second part of the

  13. Microorganisms' mediated reduction of β-ketoesters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several microorganism strains of genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Hansenula, Aspergillus and Lactobacillus were screened for their ability to perform the reduction of g-chloro-β-ketobutyric acid ethyl ester to g-chloro-β-hydroxybutyric acid ethyl ester. The optimal conditions for both stages of the bioprocess were ...

  14. Opportunities for renewable bioenergy using microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, Bruce E

    2008-06-01

    Global warming can be slowed, and perhaps reversed, only when society replaces fossil fuels with renewable, carbon-neutral alternatives. The best option is bioenergy: the sun's energy is captured in biomass and converted to energy forms useful to modern society. To make a dent in global warming, bioenergy must be generated at a very high rate, since the world today uses approximately 10 TW of fossil-fuel energy. And, it must do so without inflicting serious damage on the environment or disrupting our food supply. While most bioenergy options fail on both counts, several microorganism-based options have the potential to produce large amounts of renewable energy without disruptions. In one approach, microbial communities convert the energy value of various biomass residuals to socially useful energy. Biomass residuals come from agricultural, animal, and a variety of industrial operations, as well as from human wastes. Microorganisms can convert almost all of the energy in these wastes to methane, hydrogen, and electricity. In a second approach, photosynthetic microorganisms convert sunlight into biodiesel. Certain algae (eukaryotes) or cyanobacteria (prokaryotes) have high lipid contents. Under proper conditions, these photosynthetic microorganisms can produce lipids for biodiesel with yields per unit area 100 times or more than possible with any plant system. In addition, the non-lipid biomass can be converted to methane, hydrogen, or electricity. Photosynthetic microorganisms do not require arable land, an advantage because our arable land must be used to produce food. Algae or cyanobacteria may be the best option to produce bioenergy at rates high enough to replace a substantial fraction of our society's use of fossil fuels.

  15. Utilization of complete rumen modifier on sheep fed high fibrous forages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlius Thalib

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A research to improve livestock productivity and lower enteric methane production on ruminant was conducted by manipulation approach on rumen system using a complete rumen modifier (CRM. An in vivo experiment was carried out using twenty four sheep ( mean weight 18 kg which were distributed into 3 treatment groups of feed additive: I. control ( without treatment: K; II: K + CRM-LG; III: K + CRM-EL. Diet given consisted of fermented rice straw (ad libitum + concentrate containing 16 % protein (400 g/head/day, and drinking water was given ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks based on completely randomized design. By the end of the experiment, animals were placed in the metabolism cages for 2 weeks (ie. 1 week for adaptation and 1 week for data collection. Rumen liquid of each treated animal was taken for the measurement of rumen characteristics. Parameter measuremed were: total gas production; gas composition of CO2 and CH4; in vitro DMD; NH3 and VFA contents; pH; bacterial and protozoal counts; consumption/ DMI; in vivo DMD; ADG and FCR. The results showed that productivity of sheep was improved by CRM treatments followed by lowered enteric methane production. The ADG values of CRM treatments (71.4 to 73.5 g were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than that of control (50 g. The improvement of average daily gain was followed by a better feed conversion (P < 0.05 (ie. 10.6 vs. 12.8. The CRM treatments lowered the percentage of CH4 by 24% compared to Control (P < 0.05. The total and composition of VFA of CRM-treated rumen liquor were significantly different (P<0.05 compared to that of rumen liquor of Control (ie. the total VFA: 85.3 vs 73.5 mM and the percentage of acetic acid: 67.8 vs 60.3%. It is concluded that CRM treatment resulted in positive effects on growth of ruminant fed high fibrous forages such as rice straw and could lower enteric methane production.

  16. Influence of weaning method on health status and rumen development in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B A; Keil, N M; Gygax, L; Hillmann, E

    2009-02-01

    In the artificial rearing of dairy calves, the same feeding plan is applied to all animals during the milk-feeding period, with individual differences attributable to development or health status rarely considered. The aim of this study was 1) to analyze whether the parameters of feeding behavior automatically recorded by a feeding computer and weight gain are suitable for predicting the health status and rumen development of male dairy calves, and 2) to compare a conventional weaning method (end of milk provision at 12 wk of age, n = 23 calves) with a concentrate-dependent weaning method (with reduction in the milk amount depending on the consumption of concentrate, n = 24). The health status of each animal was evaluated daily by a scoring list (health score), and body temperature was measured automatically during each milk intake. In addition, the number of veterinary treatments per calf was recorded. Rumen development was assessed by measuring rumen papillae in 8 rumen areas after slaughter (n = 24, half of each treatment group). During the milk-feeding period, body temperature was elevated (>/=39.5 degrees C) on 40.8 and 43.2% of all days for calves on the concentrate-dependent weaning method and the conventional weaning method, respectively. Hay and concentrate intake (but not milk intake) and weight gain were clearly affected by health status. In addition, health score and the probability of being treated by a veterinarian were significantly related to decreases in concentrate consumption. During the milk-feeding period, increased body temperature, an increased number of veterinary treatments, and decreases in milk consumption were all associated with reduced weight gain. Calves on the concentrate-dependent weaning method were weaned at an average age of 76 d, which was significantly shorter than the age at the end of milk provision for conventionally fed calves (84 d). Weight gain and health status did not differ between treatment groups. Weight gain was

  17. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2017-05-01

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Sodium Butyrate Ameliorates High-Concentrate Diet-Induced Inflammation in the Rumen Epithelium of Dairy Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongyu; Liu, Xinxin; Yan, Jinyu; Aabdin, Zain Ul; Bilal, Muhammad Shahid; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2017-01-25

    To investigate the effect of sodium butyrate on high-concentrate diet-induced local inflammation of the rumen epithelium, 18 midlactating dairy goats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a low-concentrate diet group as the control (concentrate:forage = 4:6), a high-concentrate (HC) diet group (concentrate:forage = 6:4), and a sodium butyrate (SB) group (concentrate:forage = 6:4, with 1% SB by weight). The results showed that, with the addition of sodium butyrate, the concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rumen fluid (2.62 × 104 ± 2.90 × 103 EU/mL) was significantly lower than that in the HC group (4.03 × 104 ± 2.77 × 103 EU/mL). The protein abundance of pp65, gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2,9 in the rumen epithelium were significantly down-regulated by SB compared with those in the HC group. With sodium butyrate administration, the concentration of NH3-N (19.2 ± 0.890 mM) in the rumen fluid was significantly higher than that for the HC group (12.7 ± 1.38 mM). Severe disruption of the rumen epithelium induced by HC was also ameliorated by dietary SB. Therefore, local inflammation and disruption of the rumen epithelium induced by HC were alleviated with SB administration.

  19. Employers' Views on Youth Literacy and Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This report looks at whether employers think schools are equipping young people with the literacy skills required for the workplace. It is primarily based on secondary literature sources and introductory conversations with a small sample of key employers and agencies. A complementary report presents evidence on young people's views on literacy and…

  20. Employing Discourse: Universities and Graduate "Employability"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Rebecca; Nedeva, Maria

    2010-01-01

    What constitutes graduate employability is discursively framed. In this paper we argue that whilst universities in the UK have long had an involvement in producing useful and productive citizens, the ongoing neoliberalisation of higher education has engendered a discursive shift in definitions of employability. Traditionally, universities regarded…

  1. Methods for the isolation of cellulose-degrading microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James E; Rooks, David J; McCarthy, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    The biodegradation of lignocellulose, the most abundant organic material in the biosphere, is a feature of many aerobic, facultatively anaerobic and obligately anaerobic bacteria and fungi. Despite widely recognized difficulties in the isolation and cultivation of individual microbial species from complex microbial populations and environments, significant progress has been made in recovering cellulolytic taxa from a range of ecological niches including the human, herbivore, and termite gut, and terrestrial, aquatic, and managed environments. Knowledge of cellulose-degrading microbial taxa is of significant importance with respect to nutrition, biodegradation, biotechnology, and the carbon-cycle, providing insights into the metabolism, physiology, and functional enzyme systems of the cellulolytic bacteria and fungi that are responsible for the largest flow of carbon in the biosphere. In this chapter, several strategies employed for the isolation and cultivation of cellulolytic microorganisms from oxic and anoxic environments are described. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by acarbose addition during two nutritional types of simulated severe subacute ruminal acidosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Liu, Junhua; Yin, Yuyang; Zhu, Weiyun; Mao, Shengyong

    2017-10-01

    Little information is available on whether or not the effect of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor on the prevention of ruminal acidosis is influenced by the type of diet during ruminant feeding. This study was conducted to explore the effect of acarbose addition on the prevention of severe subacute ruminal acidosis induced by either cracked wheat or beet pulp in vitro. Cracked wheat and beet pulp were fermented in vitro by rumen microorganisms obtained from three dairy cows. When cracked wheat was used as the substrate and fermented for 24 h, compared with the control, acarbose addition decreased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total volatile fatty acids, and lactate (P  0.05) on the fermentation parameters and the Chao 1 value, the Shannon index, and the proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. In general, these findings indicate that acarbose had more effects on ruminal fermentation when wheat was used as the substrate, whereas it exhibited little effect on ruminal fermentation when beet pulp was used as the substrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion systems from the rumen microbiome are correlated with methane yield in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Kamke, Janine; Soni, Priya; Li, Yang; Ganesh, Siva; Kelly, William J.; Leahy, Sinead C.; Shi, Weibing; Froula, Jeff; Rubin, Edward M.; Attwood, Graeme T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Ruminants are important contributors to global methane emissions via microbial fermentation in their reticulo-rumens. This study is part of a larger program, characterising the rumen microbiomes of sheep which vary naturally in methane yield (g CH4/kg DM/day) and aims to define differences in microbial communities, and in gene and transcript abundances that can explain the animal methane phenotype. Methods Rumen microbiome metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were analysed by Ge...

  4. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  5. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jian [East Lansing, MI; Kleff, Susanne [East Lansing, MI; Guettler, Michael V [Holt, MI

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  6. Bacterial community composition and fermentation in the rumen of Xinjiang brown cattle (Bos taurus), Tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis), and Karakul sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wenxi; Li, ZhiPeng; Ao, Weiping; Zhao, Guangyong; Li, Guangyu; Wu, JianPing

    2017-05-01

    The rumen microbiota plays a major role in the metabolism and absorption of indigestible food sources. Xinjiang brown cattle (Bos taurus), Tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis), and Karakul sheep (Ovis aries) are important ruminant species for animal husbandry in the Tarim Basin. However, the microbiota and rumen fermentation of these animals are poorly understood. Here, we apply high-throughput sequencing to examine the bacterial community in the rumen of cattle, red deer, and sheep and measured rumen fermentation products. Overall, 548 218 high-quality sequences were obtained and then classified into 6034 operational taxonomic units. Prevotella spp., Succiniclasticum spp., and unclassified bacteria within the families Succinivibrionaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Veillonellaceae were the dominant bacteria in the rumen across the 3 hosts. Principal coordinate analysis identified significant differences in the bacterial communities across the 3 hosts. Pseudobutyrivibrio spp., Oscillospira spp., and Prevotella spp. were more prevalent in the rumen of the cattle, red deer, and sheep, respectively. Among the 3 hosts, the red deer rumen had the greatest amounts of acetate and butyrate and the lowest pH value. These results showed that Prevotella spp. are the dominant bacteria in the rumen of the cattle, red deer, and sheep, providing new insight into the rumen fermentation of ruminants distributed in the Tarim Basin.

  7. Evaluating in vitro dose-response effects of Lavandula officinalis essential oil on rumen fermentation characteristics, methane production and ruminal acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadeghari, Shahin; Malecky, Mostafa; Dehghan Banadaky, Mehdi; Navidshad, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Four in vitro experiments (Exp.) were conducted to evaluate lavender essential oil (LEO) effects at 0 (control), 250 (low dose), 500 (medium dose), 750 and 1000 µL per L (high doses) of incubation medium on rumen gas production kinetics (Exp.1), ruminal digestibility and fermentation (Exp.2), methane production (Exp.3) and rumen acidosis (Exp.4). The asymptote of gas production (A) increased quadratically (p rumen acidosis. These results revealed a dose-dependent selective effect (stimulatory at low and medium, and inhibitory at high doses) of LEO on rumen fermentation.

  8. Minimized Bolus-Type Wireless Sensor Node with a Built-In Three-Axis Acceleration Meter for Monitoring a Cow’s Rumen Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Nogami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring rumen conditions in cows is important because a dysfunctional rumen system may cause death. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA is a typical disease in cows, and is characterized by repeated periods of low ruminal pH. SARA is regarded as a trigger for rumen atony, rumenitis, and abomasal displacement, which may cause death. In previous studies, rumen conditions were evaluated by wireless sensor nodes with pH measurement capability. The primary advantage of the pH sensor is its ability to continuously measure ruminal pH. However, these sensor nodes have short lifetimes since they are limited by the finite volume of the internal liquid of the reference electrode. Mimicking rumen atony, we attempt to evaluate the rumen condition using wireless sensor nodes with three-axis accelerometers. The theoretical life span of such sensor nodes depends mainly on the transmission frequency of acceleration data and the size of the battery, and the proposed sensor nodes are 30.0 mm in diameter and 70.0 mm in length and have a life span of over 600 days. Using the sensor nodes, we compare the rumen motility of the force transducer measurement with the three-axis accelerometer data. As a result, we can detect discriminative movement of rumen atony.

  9. Steam drying compared to drum drying markedly increases early phase rumen fermentability of sugar beet pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Larsen, Kasper; Jensen, Arne Sloth

    2017-01-01

    Freshly pressed and dried sugar beet pulp was sampled from 2 different factories located within a distance of 30 km and on 4 different dates. One factory was equipped with a steam dryer and the other with a drum dryer. A recognized in vitro technique was used to establish, how the drying process...... affected rumen fermentability of the pulp, since fibrous feeds (such as sugar beet pulp) rely on microbial fermentation in the rumen to be digestible to the cow. Steam dried pulp had a remarkable >60% higher fermentability compared to drum dried pulp during the first 12(-15) hours of fermentation...... (such as pectin) and small particles as low as 6.7-13.3 hours. Future feeding trials are needed to establish exactly how much the feeding value is increased in steam dried sugar beet pulp....

  10. Morphological and histological identification of Paramphistomum cervi (Trematoda: Paramiphistoma in the rumen of infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayata Chaoudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to identify Paramphistomum cervi on the basis of its morphology and histology to be the common cause of paramphistomosis in infected sheep and its differentiation from other similar Paramphistomes in Gujarat. Materials and Methods: Adult rumen flukes were recovered from the rumen of naturally infected sheep slaughtered in various abattoirs in Gujarat. Some adult flukes were flattened and stained in Borax carmine, and some were sectioned in the median sagittal plane and histological slides of the flukes were prepared for detailed morphological and histological studies. Result: Microscopic pictures of the parasite used in identification define the similarity in the morphology and histology of the anterior sucker, pharynx, esophagus, genital atrium, posterior sucker (acetabulum and testes to the P. cervi. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the most common species found in sheep infected with Paramphistomosis is P. cervi on the basis of its histo-morphological appearance in Gujarat.

  11. Rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms contaminating cosmetic products based on DNA sequence homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Y; Shibayama, H; Suzuki, Y; Karita, S; Takamatsu, S

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop rapid and accurate procedures to identify microorganisms contaminating cosmetic products, based on the identity of the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA coding DNA (rDNA). Five types of microorganisms were isolated from the inner portion of lotion bottle caps, skin care lotions, and cleansing gels. The rDNA ITS region of microorganisms was amplified through the use of colony-direct PCR or ordinal PCR using DNA extracts as templates. The nucleotide sequences of the amplified DNA were determined and subjected to homology search of a publicly available DNA database. Thereby, we obtained DNA sequences possessing high similarity with the query sequences from the databases of all the five organisms analyzed. The traditional identification procedure requires expert skills, and a time period of approximately 1 month to identify the microorganisms. On the contrary, 3-7 days were sufficient to complete all the procedures employed in the current method, including isolation and cultivation of organisms, DNA sequencing, and the database homology search. Moreover, it was possible to develop the skills necessary to perform the molecular techniques required for the identification procedures within 1 week. Consequently, the current method is useful for rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms, contaminating cosmetics.

  12. Formulation of enzyme blends to maximize the hydrolysis of alkaline peroxide pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw by rumen enzymes and commercial cellulases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhan, Ajay; Wang, Yuxi; Gruninger, Robert; Patton, Donald; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; McAllister, Tim

    2014-04-26

    Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires the synergistic action of multiple enzymes; consequently enzyme mixtures must be properly formulated for effective hydrolysis. The nature of an optimal enzyme blends depends on the type of pretreatment employed as well the characteristics of the substrate. In this study, statistical experimental design was used to develop mixtures of recombinant glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic and anaerobic fungi that enhanced the digestion of alkaline peroxide treated alfalfa hay and barley straw by mixed rumen enzymes as well as commercial cellulases (Accelerase 1500, A1500; Accelerase XC, AXC). Combinations of feruloyl and acetyl xylan esterases (FAE1a; AXE16A_ASPNG), endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and polygalacturonase (PGA28A_ASPNG) with rumen enzymes improved straw digestion. Inclusion of pectinase (PGA28A_ASPNG), endoxylanase (XYN11A_THITE), feruloyl esterase (FAE1a) and β-glucosidase (E-BGLUC) with A1500 or endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and β-xylosidase (E-BXSRB) with AXC increased glucose release from alfalfa hay. Glucose yield from straw was improved when FAE1a and endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) were added to A1500, while FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG enhanced the activity of AXC on straw. Xylose release from alfalfa hay was augmented by supplementing A1500 with E-BGLUC, or AXC with EGL7A_THITE and XYN11A_THITE. Adding arabinofuranosidase (ABF54B_ASPNG) and esterases (AXE16A_ASPNG; AXE16B_ASPNG) to A1500, or FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG to AXC enhanced xylose release from barley straw, a response confirmed in a scaled up assay. The efficacy of commercial enzyme mixtures as well as mixed enzymes from the rumen was improved through formulation with synergetic recombinant enzymes. This approach reliably identified supplemental enzymes that enhanced sugar release from alkaline pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw.

  13. Changes in Microbiota in Rumen Digesta and Feces Due to a Grain-Based Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaizier, Jan C; Li, Shucong; Danscher, Anne Mette; Derakshani, Hooman; Andersen, Pia H; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2017-08-01

    The effects of a grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge on bacteria in the rumen and feces of lactating dairy cows were determined. Six lactating, rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows were used in a cross-over study with two periods. Periods included two cows on a control diet and two cows on a SARA challenge. The control diet was a total mixed ration containing 45.5% dry matter (DM), 43.8% DM neutral detergent fiber, and 19.6% DM starch. The SARA challenge was conducted by gradually substituting the control diet with pellets containing 50% wheat and 50% barley over 3 days to reach a diet containing 55.6% DM, 31.3% DM neutral detergent fiber, and 31.8% DM starch, which was fed for four more days. Rumen fluid samples were collected at day 7 and 10 of experimental periods. Feces samples were collected on days 8 and 10 of these periods. Extracted DNA from the rumen and feces samples was analyzed to assess their bacterial communities using MiSeq Illumina sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The induction of SARA reduced the richness, diversity, and stability of bacterial communities and resulted in distinctly different microbiota in the rumen and feces. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla and, combined, they represented 76.9 and 94.4% of the bacterial community in the rumen fluid and the feces, respectively. Only the relative abundance of Firmicutes in the rumen was increased by the SARA challenge. In rumen fluid and feces, the abundances of nine out of the 90 and 25 out of the 89 taxa, respectively, were affected by the challenge. Hence, SARA challenge altered the composition of the bacterial community at the lower taxonomical level in the feces and therefore also likely in the hindgut, as well as in the rumen. However, only reductions in the bacterial richness and diversity in the rumen fluid and feces were in agreement with those of other studies and had a biological basis. Although the composition of the

  14. Metagenomic analysis reveals the influences of milk containing antibiotics on the rumen microbes of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Han, Yunsheng; Yuan, Xue; Wang, Guan; Wang, Zhibo; Pan, Qiqi; Gao, Yan; Qu, Yongli

    2017-04-01

    Milk containing antibiotics is used as cost-effective feed for calves, which may lead to antibiotic residues-associated food safety problems. This study aims to investigate the influence of antibiotics on rumen microbes. Through metagenomic sequencing, the rumen microbial communities of calves fed with pasteurized milk containing antibiotics (B1), milk containing antibiotics (B2) and fresh milk (B3) were explored. Each milk group included calves in 2 (T1), 3 (T2) and 6 (T3) months of age. Using FastQC software and SOAPdenovo 2, the filtered data, respectively, were performed with quality control and sequence splicing. Following KEGG annotation was conducted for the uploaded sequences using KAAS software. Using R software, both species abundance analysis and differential abundance analysis were performed. In the B1 samples, the species abundance of Bacteroidetes gradually decreased along with the extension of feeding time, while that of Fibrobacteres gradually increased. The species abundances of Proteobacteria (p value = 0.01) and Spirochaetes (p value = 0.03) had significant differences among T1, T2 and T3 samples. Meanwhile, only the species abundance of Spirochaetes (p value = 0.04) had significant difference among B1, B2 and B3 samples. Cell cycle involving GSK3β, CDK2 and CDK7 was significantly enriched for the differentially expressed genes in the T1 versus T2 and T1 versus T3 comparison groups. Milk containing antibiotics might have a great influence on these rumen microbes and lead to antibiotic residues-associated food safety problems. Furthermore, GSK3β, CDK2 and CDK7 in rumen bacteria might affect milk fat metabolism in early growth stages of calves.

  15. Inactivation of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Rumen Content- or Feces-Contaminated Drinking Water for Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; West, Joe W.; Bernard, John K.; Cross, Heath G.; Doyle, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Cattle drinking water is a source of on-farm Escherichia coli O157:H7 transmission. The antimicrobial activities of disinfectants to control E. coli O157:H7 in on-farm drinking water are frequently neutralized by the presence of rumen content and manure that generally contaminate the drinking water. Different chemical treatments, including lactic acid, acidic calcium sulfate, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, caprylic acid, ozone, butyric acid, sodium benzoate, and competing E. c...

  16. Effects of rumen digesta on the physico-chemical properties of soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg soils). Physical and chemical properties of the soil were determined pre- and post-experiment. The results obtained reveal that rumen digesta significantly (p = 0.05) increased the mean weight diameter (0.49 to 1.75 mm), aggregate stability (54.7 to 75.3%), soil pH (3.8 to 7.8), total nitrogen (0.01 to ...

  17. Effects of rumen digesta on the physico-chemical properties of soil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0, 50, 100, and 150 gkg-1 soils). Physical and chemical properties of the soil were determined pre and post-experiment. The results obtained revealed that rumen digesta significantly (p = 0.05) increased the mean weight diameter (0.49 to 1.75 mm), aggregate stability (54.7% to 75.3%), soil pH (3.8 to 7.8), total nitrogen ...

  18. Effect of bioaugmentation by cellulolytic bacteria enriched from sheep rumen on methane production from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayram, E Gozde; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of bioaugmentation with cellulolytic rumen microbiota to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. An anaerobic cellulolytic culture was enriched from sheep rumen fluid using wheat straw as substrate under mesophilic conditions. To investigate the effects of bioaugmentation on methane production from straw, the enrichment culture was added to batch reactors in proportions of 2% (Set-1) and 4% (Set-2) of the microbial cell number of the standard inoculum slurry. The methane production in the bioaugmented reactors was higher than in the control reactors. After 30 days of batch incubation, the average methane yield was 154 mL N CH 4 g VS -1 in the control reactors. Addition of 2% enrichment culture did not enhance methane production, whereas in Set-2 the methane yield was increased by 27%. The bacterial communities were examined by 454 amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, while terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of mcrA genes was applied to analyze the methanogenic communities. The results highlighted that relative abundances of Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae increased during the enrichment. However, Cloacamonaceae, which were abundant in the standard inoculum, dominated the bacterial communities of all batch reactors. T-RFLP profiles revealed that Methanobacteriales were predominant in the rumen fluid, whereas the enrichment culture was dominated by Methanosarcinales. In the batch rectors, the most abundant methanogens were affiliated to Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales. Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with sheep rumen enrichment cultures can enhance the performance of digesters treating lignocellulosic feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of some naturally occurring and synthetic sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soluble sugars are thought to play an important role in the fermentation processes of the rumen but their actual fermentation rate has not been fully assessed. Some sugars are also used as markers to assess gut permeability in monogastrics but their use in ruminants can be compromised by the hydrolytic activity of rumen microflora. This study aimed to evaluate the fermentability of some naturally occurring and synthetic soluble sugars. The synthetic soluble sugars were included to verify their possible use as markers for studies of gut permeability in ruminants. In vitro gas and volatile fatty acid (VFA production from glucose, fructose, xylose, galactose, sucrose, lactose, arabinose mannitol, lactulose and sucralose were measured in a 24 h-incubation trial using ruminal fluid from heifers adapted or not-adapted to additional sugars in the diet, and with caecal content as inocula. Gas production from the same sugars was further evaluated in a 72 h-incubation trial with not-adapted rumen fluid only. Gas and VFA production were not affected by feeding additional sugars, but significant effects of inocula (ruminal vs caecal, sugars and their interaction were observed. Caecal inoculum produced less gas but higher VFA than ruminal inocula. Fructose and glucose had the highest rates of gas production (10.57% h-1 and 10.42% h-1, respectively, and lactulose and mannitol the lowest (3.47% h-1 and 4.63% h-1, respectively when fermented with ruminal fluid. Sucralose seemed to have a negative effect on microbial fermentations. Our results indicate that lactulose and mannitol might largely escape rumen fermentation, suggesting their possible use as markers to test gut permeability also in ruminants. This needs to be verified in vivo. 

  20. Population structure of rumen Escherichia coli associated with subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafipour, E; Plaizier, J C; Aikman, P C; Krause, D O

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that only subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), induced by feeding a high-grain diet, is associated with an inflammatory response and increased abundance of Escherichia coli in the rumen. We hypothesized that ruminal E. coli in grain pellet-induced SARA carried virulence factors that potentially contribute to the immune activation during SARA. One hundred twenty-nine E. coli isolates were cultured from the rumens of 8 cows (4 animals per treatment) in which SARA had been nutritionally induced by feeding a high-grain diet (GPI-SARA) or a diet containing alfalfa pellets (API-SARA). The population structure of the E. coli was evaluated with the ABD genotyping system and repetitive sequence-based (rep)-PCR fingerprinting. Twenty-five virulence factors were evaluated with PCR. Escherichia coli numbers were higher in the GPI-SARA treatment than in the API-SARA treatment. The genetic structure of the E. coli was significantly different between SARA challenge models. Isolates from GPI-control (46%), API-control (70%), and API-SARA (53%) were closely related and fell into one cluster, whereas isolates from GPI-SARA (54%) grouped separately. The ABD typing indicated a shift from an A-type E. coli population to a B1-type population only due to GPI-SARA. Of the 25 virulence factors tested, curli fiber genes were highly associated with GPI. Curli fibers were first identified in E. coli mastitis isolates and are potent virulence factors that induce a range of immune responses. Results suggest that under low rumen pH conditions induced by a grain diet, there is a burst in the number of E. coli with virulence genes that can take advantage of these rumen conditions to trigger an inflammatory response. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Feeding Complete Feed Containing Different Acidogenic Value and Effective Fiber Affect Rumen Acidosis Depression

    OpenAIRE

    B Rustomo

    2008-01-01

    Tujuan dari penelitian adalah untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pemberian ransum komplit (complete feed, CF) dengan kandungan acidogenic value (AV) dan physically effective Neutral Detergent Fiber (peNDF) berbeda, terhadap tingkat depresi rumen acidosis pada sapi perah. Empat ransum komplit (CF) iso-energi dan iso-protein yang diformulasi dari bahan konsentrat dengan kandungan AV berbeda (AV rendah; LA = 9 mg Ca g-1 DM atau AV tinggi; HA = 6,5 mg Ca g-1 DM), dicampur dengan silase jagung dan alfal...

  2. Effects of different vegetable oils on rumen fermentation and conjugated linoleic acid concentration in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Roy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different vegetable oils on rumen fermentation and concentrations of beneficial cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and trans-11 C18:1 fatty acid (FA in the rumen fluid in an in vitro condition. Materials and Methods: Six vegetable oils including sunflower, soybean, sesame, rice bran, groundnut, and mustard oils were used at three dose levels (0%, 3% and 4% of substrate dry matter [DM] basis in three replicates for each treatment in a completely randomized design using 6 × 3 factorial arrangement. Rumen fluid for microbial culture was collected from four goats fed on a diet of concentrate mixture and berseem hay at a ratio of 60:40 on DM basis. The in vitro fermentation was performed in 100 ml conical flakes containing 50 ml of culture media and 0.5 g of substrates containing 0%, 3% and 4% vegetable oils. Results: Oils supplementation did not affect (p>0.05 in vitro DM digestibility, and concentrations of total volatile FAs and ammonia-N. Sunflower oil and soybean oil decreased (p0.05 on protozoal numbers. Both trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations were increased (p0.05 increase the trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations as compared to the control. The concentrations of stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were not altered (p>0.05 due to the addition of any vegetable oils. Conclusion: Supplementation of sunflower and soybean oils enhanced beneficial trans-11 C18:1 FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations in rumen fluid, while sesame, rice bran, groundnut, and mustard oils were ineffective in this study.

  3. Occurrence of the Rumen Ciliate Oligoisotricha bubali in Domestic Cattle (Bos taurus) †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehority, B. A.; Damron, W. S.; McLaren, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    Oligoisotricha bubali, previously observed twice in water buffalo, was detected in rumen contents of domestic cattle (Bos taurus) in two different areas of Tennessee. Concentrations ranged from <1 to 35% of the total protozoa in unweaned calves and up to 72% in older animals in feedlot. In contrast to the other genera of holotrichs, both total numbers and percent composition of O. bubali increased when animals were fed a corn silage-concentrate diet. Images PMID:16346277

  4. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H. [Research and Development Centre for Oil and Gas Technology LEMIGAS, Jakarta Selatan (Indonesia)

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  5. Local climatic adaptation in a widespread microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Charron, Guillaume; Samani, Pedram; Dubé, Alexandre K; Sylvester, Kayla; James, Brielle; Almeida, Pedro; Sampaio, José Paulo; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Bell, Graham; Landry, Christian R

    2014-02-22

    Exploring the ability of organisms to locally adapt is critical for determining the outcome of rapid climate changes, yet few studies have addressed this question in microorganisms. We investigated the role of a heterogeneous climate on adaptation of North American populations of the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. We found abundant among-strain variation for fitness components across a range of temperatures, but this variation was only partially explained by climatic variation in the distribution area. Most of fitness variation was explained by the divergence of genetically distinct groups, distributed along a north-south cline, suggesting that these groups have adapted to distinct climatic conditions. Within-group fitness components were correlated with climatic conditions, illustrating that even ubiquitous microorganisms locally adapt and harbour standing genetic variation for climate-related traits. Our results suggest that global climatic changes could lead to adaptation to new conditions within groups, or changes in their geographical distributions.

  6. Identification of Microorganisms by Modern Analytical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszewski, Bogusław; Rogowska, Agnieszka; Pomastowski, Paweł; Złoch, Michał; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica

    2017-11-01

    Rapid detection and identification of microorganisms is a challenging and important aspect in a wide range of fields, from medical to industrial, affecting human lives. Unfortunately, classical methods of microorganism identification are based on time-consuming and labor-intensive approaches. Screening techniques require the rapid and cheap grouping of bacterial isolates; however, modern bioanalytics demand comprehensive bacterial studies at a molecular level. Modern approaches for the rapid identification of bacteria use molecular techniques, such as 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing based on polymerase chain reaction or electromigration, especially capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing. However, there are still several challenges with the analysis of microbial complexes using electromigration technology, such as uncontrolled aggregation and/or adhesion to the capillary surface. Thus, an approach using capillary electrophoresis of microbial aggregates with UV and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS detection is presented.

  7. "Employability-miles" and worker employability awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Gerards, R.; de Grip, A.; Witlox, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the use and impact of a firm-sponsored training ("Employability-miles") voucher scheme that aims to stimulate employees to develop a more active attitude toward their own employability. Using data from two surveys of the firm's workforce, we find that voucher use is related to various personality traits and personal characteristics. In particular, a worker's ambition, goal setting, and education level are positively related to voucher use. In addition, women and those wit...

  8. Critical evaluation of essential oils as rumen modifiers in ruminant nutrition: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobellis, Gabriella, E-mail: cobellis.gabriella@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Trabalza-Marinucci, Massimo [Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Yu, Zhongtang [Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Ruminant livestock systems contribute significantly to emission of methane, a potent greenhouse gas as they waste a portion of the ingested energy (2–15%) as methane and a large proportion (75–95%) of the ingested nitrogen as ammonia. Recently, numerous researches have been conducted to evaluate plant secondary metabolites, including essential oils (EO), as natural feed additives in ruminant nutrition and to exploit their potential to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. Essential oils appeared to be very promising compounds as they selectively reduced methane production and protein breakdown in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, in some studies, the use of EO as feed additives was accompanied with decreased feed degradability and lowered volatile fatty acid. These adverse effects could be attributed to their broad and often non-specific antimicrobial activities within the rumen. Future research should be directed to identification of the active and useful EO compounds, optimization of EO doses, and use of a whole-farm approach with a focus on animal welfare, performance and economic benefits. - Highlights: • Ruminants contributes 16–25% to the global greenhouse gases emissions. • Decrease methane emission and nitrogen excretion from ruminant livestock industry is urgently needed. • Essential oils have been shown to be promising feed additives in mitigating methane and ammonia emissions. • Essential oils have showed inconsistent results about feed degradability and VFA production. • The mode of action and activities of essential oils on rumen microbiome remain poorly understood.

  9. Effect of Different Levels of Oregano Essential Oil on Some Rumen Parameters in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin ÜNAL BARUH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of oregano (Origanum vulgare essential oil (OEO on ruminal fermentation in lambs. Thirty-six weaned male Kivircik lambs were used as trial materials. Lambs were divided into one control and two treatment groups. For the two treatment groups, OEO was added into grower feed at a level of 250 and 500 ppm, respectively. Treatment period lasted for 9 weeks, including adaptation period. Feed and water was supplied ad libitum during the trial. Rumen fluid samples were collected from 9 lambs of each group, before the morning feeding and 3 and 6 hours after the feeding. From the ruminal fluid, pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFA, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations were determined. There were no effects of OEO on ruminal pH and concentrations of ammonia. In some of the rumen parameters (pH and total VFA, the results were statistically different periodically between groups and it was established that the time of measurement had an important role on the results of the rumen parameters. Furthermore, the quantitative increase of the total volatile fatty acid concentrations in the treatment groups according to the control was directly proportional to the increase of the oregano levels, in the periods except for the beginning. This situation makes us think that the oregano essential oil could have positive effects on digestion in lambs.

  10. The effects of saponin from Sapindus rarak fruit on rumen microbes and performance of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlius Thalib

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen local sheep weighing approximately 15 kg were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups . All animals received a mixture of elephant and native grasses (50 :50 ad libitum + concentrate (0.5% of liveweight . The treatments given were : (1 no additive, (II addition of placebo and (III addition of methanol-extracted Sapindus rarak fruit (MES at level of 0.07% of liveweight. Placebo and MES were given orally every 3 days . Feeding treatments were conducted for 14 weeks . Rumen liquor of all animals were collected in the third week "and observed for rumen ecosystem and ruminal digestibility . Bodyweight gain and feed consumption were measured . The results showed that MES eliminates the protozoal population by 57% and sequently increases bacterial population by 69% when compared to control (1. Lowered protozoa population has no effect on lactic acid and total volatile fatty acids productions, and a consequence, does not change pH (Pa0.05 . However, lowered protozoa population decreased NH3-N content (P<0 .05 . Cumulative gas production resulting from substrate (rice straw fermented by rumen liquor from sheep fed MES-added diet (III increased by 13% when compared to control (1. Compared to control (I, average daily gain of sheep fed MES-added diet (111 is increased by 44% with an improved efficiency by 28%.

  11. Isolation and identification of acetogenic bacteria obtained from deer rumen and their potential for methanogenesis inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlius Thalib

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenesis can be inhibited by various chemicals through different mechanism reaktion. The use of acetogenic bacteria as H2 sink is assumed to be a promising approach. Isolation and identification of acetogenic bacteria obtained from deer rumen had been conducted. Two types of media used for isolation were hydrogen-carbondioxide utilizing acetogens and carbonmonoxide utilizing acetogens. Identification of species of acetogens isolates was based on descriptions of morphology, Gram type, motility, bioreaction results, and oksygen requirement. The compositions of methane and volatile fatty acids (VFA were determined on minimal media or added with sheep rumen liquid innoculated with pure isolates. The identification results showed that the isolate cultured on media of hydrogen-carbondioxide utilizing acetogens was Acetoanaerobium noterae and the ones cultured on media of carbonmonoxide utilizing acetogens was Acetobacterium woodii. Inoculumn of A. noterae and A. woodii could decreased the composition of methane resulted from substrate fermented by fresh rumen liquid of sheep (CRDF, that is culture of A. noterae added FPM and defaunator decreased methane production by 28.8% (P CH3COOH + 2H2O by which reduction of CO2 with H2 producing CH4 can be inhibited or decreased. Their function as methanogenesis inhibitor would be more significant when they are combined with microbial growth factors and defaunator.

  12. Role of Age-Related Shifts in Rumen Bacteria and Methanogens in Methane Production in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rumen microbiota are essential for maintaining digestive and metabolic functions, producing methane as a byproduct. Dairy heifers produce large amounts of methane based on fermentation of digested organic matter, with adverse consequences for feed efficiency and the environment. It is therefore important to understand the influence of host age on the relationship between microbiota and methane production. This study explored the age effect on the relationship between microbial communities and enteric methane production in dairy cows and heifers using high-throughput sequencing. Methane production and volatile fatty acid concentrations were age-related. Heifers (9–10 months had lower methane production but higher methane production per dry matter intake (DMI. The acetate:propionate ratio decreased significantly with increasing age. Age-related microbiota changes in the rumen were reflected by a significant shift in bacterial taxa, but relatively stable archaeal taxa. Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Flavonifractor, Succinivibrio, and Methanobrevibacter were affected by age. This study revealed different associations between predominant bacterial phylotypes and Methanobrevibacter with increasing age. Prevotella was strongly correlated with Methanobrevibacter in heifers; howerver, in older cows (96–120 months this association was replaced by a correlation between Succinivibrio and Methanobrevibacter. This shift may account for the age-related difference in rumen fermentation and methane production per DMI.

  13. Role of Age-Related Shifts in Rumen Bacteria and Methanogens in Methane Production in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Meng, Qinghui; Chen, Yongxing; Xu, Mengsi; Shen, Min; Gao, Rui; Gan, Shangquan

    2017-01-01

    Rumen microbiota are essential for maintaining digestive and metabolic functions, producing methane as a byproduct. Dairy heifers produce large amounts of methane based on fermentation of digested organic matter, with adverse consequences for feed efficiency and the environment. It is therefore important to understand the influence of host age on the relationship between microbiota and methane production. This study explored the age effect on the relationship between microbial communities and enteric methane production in dairy cows and heifers using high-throughput sequencing. Methane production and volatile fatty acid concentrations were age-related. Heifers (9–10 months) had lower methane production but higher methane production per dry matter intake (DMI). The acetate:propionate ratio decreased significantly with increasing age. Age-related microbiota changes in the rumen were reflected by a significant shift in bacterial taxa, but relatively stable archaeal taxa. Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Flavonifractor, Succinivibrio, and Methanobrevibacter were affected by age. This study revealed different associations between predominant bacterial phylotypes and Methanobrevibacter with increasing age. Prevotella was strongly correlated with Methanobrevibacter in heifers; howerver, in older cows (96–120 months) this association was replaced by a correlation between Succinivibrio and Methanobrevibacter. This shift may account for the age-related difference in rumen fermentation and methane production per DMI. PMID:28855896

  14. Microbial biodiversity of the liquid fraction of rumen content from lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, M; Manfrin, C; Pallavicini, A; Stefanon, B

    2014-04-01

    Host and dietary interactions with the rumen microbiome can affect the efficacy of supplements, and their effect on the composition of the bacterial population is still unknown. A 16S rRNA metagenomic approach and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology were used to investigate the bacterial microbiome composition in the liquid fraction of the rumen content collected via stomach tubing. To investigate biodiversity, samples were taken from three groups of four lactating dairy cows given a supplement of either 50 g of potato protein (Ctrl group), or 50 g of lyophilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LY group) or 50 g of dried S. cerevisiae (DY group) in a potato protein support. Rumen samples were collected after 15 days of dietary treatments and milk production was similar between the three groups. Taxonomic distribution analysis revealed a prevalence of the Firmicutes phylum in all cows (79.76%) and a significantly (P<0.05) higher presence of the genus Bacillus in the DY group. Volatile fatty-acid concentration was not significantly different between groups, possibly because of relatively high inter-animal variability or limited effect of the treatments or both, and the correlation analysis with bacterial taxa showed significant associations, in particular between many Firmicutes genera and butyrate. Limited differences were observed between dietary treatments, but the lack of microbiome data before yeast administration does not allow to draw firm conclusions on the effect of dietary treatments.

  15. Effects of Flavonoids on Rumen Fermentation Activity, Methane Production, and Microbial Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Oskoueian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of flavone, myricetin, naringin, catechin, rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis on the rumen microbial activity in vitro. Mixture of guinea grass and concentrate (60 : 40 was used as the substrate. The results showed that all the flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly ( decreased the dry matter degradability. The gas production significantly ( decreased by flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol, whereas naringin, rutin, and quercetin significantly ( increased the gas production. The flavonoids suppressed methane production significantly (. The total VFA concentration significantly ( decreased in the presence of flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol. All flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly ( reduced the carboxymethyl cellulase, filter paperase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase activities, purine content, and the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. Flavone, myricetin, catechin, rutin, and kaempferol significantly ( reduced the population of rumen microbes. Total populations of protozoa and methanogens were significantly ( suppressed by naringin and quercetin. The results of this research demonstrated that naringin and quercetin at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis were potential metabolites to suppress methane production without any negative effects on rumen microbial fermentation.

  16. Degradation of terpenes and terpenoids from Mediterranean rangelands by mixed rumen bacteria in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecky, M; Albarello, H; Broudiscou, L P

    2012-04-01

    This in vitro study aimed at estimating the disappearance rates of 14 terpenes and terpenoids after 24-h incubation with mixed bacteria from caprine rumens. These compounds comprised nine monoterpene hydrocarbons (δ-3-carene, p-cymene, β-myrcene, (E)- and (Z)-β-ocimene, α-phellandrene, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene and α-terpinolene), four oxygenated monoterpenes ((E)- and (Z)-linalool oxide, 4-terpinenol, α + γ terpineol) and one sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (β-cedrene). They were individually exposed to goat rumen microflora for 24 h in 70 ml culture tubes at an input level of 0.5 ml/l. Terpenoids were the least degraded, 100% of (E)-linalool oxide, 95% of (Z)-linalool oxide, 91% of 4-terpinenol and 75% of terpineol remained intact after 24-h incubation. In contrast, α-terpinolene concentration in fermentation broth extracts was below quantification limit, thus indicating an extensive, if not complete, degradation by rumen bacteria. Only 2% of the initial amounts of α-phellandrene were recovered. The other monoterpenes and β-cedrene were partly degraded, with losses ranging from 67% for δ-3-carene to 90% for (E)-β-ocimene. The corresponding rates of disappearance were between 2.67 and 4.08 μmol/ml inoculum per day.

  17. The influence of the silage with high acidity on the rumen fermentation of cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty dairy cows were used in an experiment at which the influence of silages with different content of acids on the rumen fermentation was studied. Animals were divided into experimental and control group, each of them about 10 individuals. Feeding ratio consisted of maize silage (26 kg, alfalfa silage (13 kg, meadow hay (1 kg and corn mixture (8.5 kg. The experimental group was fed an inoculated maize silage, with higher contents of fermentation acids. Intake of total acids per 1 kg live weigh was higher in the experimental group than control group (1.98 g/kg; 1.48 g/kg live weight, respectively. The rumen fluid was taken per orally 2-3 hours after feeding. Mean value of pH of rumen fluid was significantly (PThe most significant increase (P0.05 lower in experimental group. A protozoa (infusoria content was significantly (P<0.01 lower in the experimental group (175.76 ± 12.54 thousand/ml as compared with the control group (288.1 ± 13.73 thousand/ml.

  18. Exploring the Goat Rumen Microbiome from Seven Days to Two Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Wang

    Full Text Available Rumen microbial communities play important roles in feed conversion and the physiological development of the ruminants. Despite its significance, little is known about the rumen microbial communities at different life stages after birth. In this study, we characterized the rumen bacterial and the archaeal communities in 11 different age groups (7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 360, 540 and 720 days old of a crossbred F1 goats (n = 5 for each group by using an Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that the bacterial communities were mainly composed of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria across all age groups. The relative abundance of Firmicutes was stable across all age groups. While changes in relative abundance were observed in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, these two phyla reached a stable stage after weaning (day 90. Euryarchaeota (82% and Thaumarchaeota (15% were the dominant phyla of Archaea. Crenarchaeota was also observed, although at a very low relative abundance (0.68% at most. A clear age-related pattern was observed in the diversity of bacterial community with 59 OTUs associated with age. In contrast, no age-related OTU was observed in archaea. In conclusion, our results suggested that from 7 days to 2 years, the ruminal microbial community of our experimental goats underwent significant changes in response to the shift in age and diet.

  19. The amino acid composition of rumen-undegradable protein: a comparison between forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, B; Südekum, K-H; Bennett, R; Schröder, A; Spiekers, H; Schwarz, F J

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to improve knowledge regarding the amino acid profile of the insoluble portion of ingested forage escaping rumen degradation. Six forage categories were analyzed. Categories varied in botanical composition and each contained 2 samples. Samples within categories were derived from the same parent material but differed in harvest, maturity, or conservation type. The rumen-undegradable protein of all forages was measured by incubation for 16h in the rumen of 3 nonlactating cows. All residues were corrected for microbial colonization. The AA profile of the residue was different to the original profile. Degradation trends of individual AA, in terms of increase or decrease relative to the original concentration, were similar between all forages. The AA profiles of forage residues, both within and between categories, were more similar to each other than to their respective original profile. This information may aid in improving the accuracy of estimating postruminal AA supply from forages while decreasing the number of samples required to be analyzed. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Deep sequence analysis reveals the ovine rumen as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitch, Thomas C A; Thomas, Ben J; Friedersdorff, Jessica C A; Ougham, Helen; Creevey, Christopher J

    2018-01-11

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasingly important environmental pollutant with direct consequences for human health. Identification of environmental sources of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) makes it possible to follow their evolution and prevent their entry into the clinical setting. ARGs have been found in environmental sources exogenous to the original source and previous studies have shown that these genes are capable of being transferred from livestock to humans. Due to the nature of farming and the slaughter of ruminants for food, humans interact with these animals in close proximity, and for this reason it is important to consider the risks to human health. In this study, we characterised the ARG populations in the ovine rumen, termed the resistome. This was done using the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD) to identify the presence of genes conferring resistance to antibiotics within the rumen. Genes were successfully mapped to those that confer resistance to a total of 30 different antibiotics. Daptomycin was identified as the most common antibiotic for which resistance is present, suggesting that ruminants may be a source of daptomycin ARGs. Colistin resistance, conferred by the gene pmrE, was also found to be present within all samples, with an average abundance of 800 counts. Due to the high abundance of some ARGs (against daptomycin) and the presence of rare ARGs (against colistin), we suggest further study and monitoring of the rumen resistome as a possible source of clinically relevant ARGs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of amino acid neurotransmitters on spontaneous muscular activity of the rumen amphistome, Gastrothylax crumenifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, P K; Kumar, D; Tandan, S K

    2009-12-01

    Amino acid neurotransmitters play an important role in regulating neuromuscular activity of helminth parasites. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different amino acid neurotransmitters [L-glutamate, glycine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)] on spontaneous muscular activity of isometrically mounted Gastrothylax crumenifer. L-Glutamate caused a significant increase in the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions of rumen fluke at 10(-7)-10(-4) m and at 10(-5)-10(-4) m concentrations, respectively. Glycine application (10(-7)-10(-3) m) produced a significant decrease in the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous muscular contractions in a concentration-dependent manner, as compared to control amplitude (0.53 +/- 0.02 g) and frequency (51 +/- 4.65/5 min). Similarly, GABA produced a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in amplitude, baseline tension and frequency of spontaneous muscular contractions of G. crumenifer. To further substantiate the GABA effect, GABAA receptor antagonists, picrotoxin and bicuculline were applied. Picrotoxin (10(-5)-10(-3) m) caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in amplitude, baseline tension and frequency of the rumen fluke as compared to control; whereas bicuculline did not elicit any observable effect in these attributes in isometrically mounted rumen flukes. These observations suggested that L-glutamate has an excitatory, whereas GABA and glycine have an inhibitory, effect on the spontaneous muscular activity of G. crumenifer.

  2. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Mccoy, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Caro, Janicce L.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products.

  3. [Luminescent cytochemical methods of detecting microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovskaia, N P; Osin, N S; Khramov, E N; Zlobin, V N

    1999-01-01

    The paper shows that the luminescence cytochemical technique can be used for identification of microorganisms and microbiological synthesis products. The method is based on the interaction of specific fluorescence probes (ANS, terbium ions, and beta-diketonate complexes of europium, as well as metal-containing porphyrines) with major microbial intracellular components and toxins. Unlike classical microbiological, immunochemical or biochemical methods of detection, the proposed method has a reasonable versatility, specificity, sensitivity, rapid action, and possible automation.

  4. Pathogenic and beneficial microorganisms in soilless cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Vallance, Jessica; Déniel, F.; Le Floch, G.; Guérin-Dubrana, Lucia; Blancard, Dominique; Rey, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Soilless cultures were originally developed to control soilborne diseases. Soilless cultures provide several advantages for growers such as greater production of crops, reduced energy consumption, better control of growth and independence of soil quality. However, diseases specific to hydroponics have been reported. For instance, zoospore-producing microorganisms such as Pythium and Phytophthora spp. are particularly well adapted to aquatic environments. Their growth in soilless substrates is...

  5. Consolidated bioprocessing method using thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

    2016-02-02

    The present invention is directed to a method of converting biomass to biofuel, and particularly to a consolidated bioprocessing method using a co-culture of thermophilic and extremely thermophilic microorganisms which collectively can ferment the hexose and pentose sugars produced by degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses at high substrate conversion rates. A culture medium therefor is also provided as well as use of the methods to produce and recover cellulosic ethanol.

  6. Biology Students’ Initial Mental Model about Microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdiyati, Y.; Sudargo, F.; Redjeki, S.; Fitriani, A.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify biology students’ initial mental model about microorganism. This research used descriptive method with 32 sixth semester biology students at Biology Education Departement-Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia as its respondents. Data was taken at the beginning of the 6th semester before respondents endure microbiology course. Instrument used to assess mental model was drawing-writing test in which it contains concepts such as structure of bacteria, archaea, virus, and fungi. Students were asked to describe their imagination about the structure of microorganisms and subsequently asked to explain the structure of microorganisms in writing through open-ended questions. Students’ response was then compared to scientists or experts’ mental models as the targeted mental model. Student mental models were categorized into five levels (levels 1-5), namely “there is no drawing/writing,” “wrong or irrelevant drawing/writing of question,” “partially correct drawing/writing,” “the drawing/writing that has some deficiencies,” and “completely correct and complete drawing/writing.” Results showed that the level of mental models through drawing or writing about the four concepts were varied. The highest level of mental models through drawing (D5) was found in the concept of bacteria, while the highest level of mental models through writing (W3) was found in the concept of bacteria, virus, and fungi. Mental model levels most commonly found in each concept through drawing-writing tests (D/W) were bacteria (D2/W2), Archaea (D1/W1 and D2/W2), virus (D3/W3), and fungi (D2/W1). From these results it is advisable to improve lectures and assessment strategy to enhance or complement students’ mental models about microorganisms.

  7. Biomining: metal recovery from ores with microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Axel; Hedrich, Sabrina; Vasters, Jürgen; Drobe, Malte; Sand, Wolfgang; Willscher, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Biomining is an increasingly applied biotechnological procedure for processing of ores in the mining industry (biohydrometallurgy). Nowadays the production of copper from low-grade ores is the most important industrial application and a significant part of world copper production already originates from heap or dump/stockpile bioleaching. Conceptual differences exist between the industrial processes of bioleaching and biooxidation. Bioleaching is a conversion of an insoluble valuable metal into a soluble form by means of microorganisms. In biooxidation, on the other hand, gold is predominantly unlocked from refractory ores in large-scale stirred-tank biooxidation arrangements for further processing steps. In addition to copper and gold production, biomining is also used to produce cobalt, nickel, zinc, and uranium. Up to now, biomining has merely been used as a procedure in the processing of sulfide ores and uranium ore, but laboratory and pilot procedures already exist for the processing of silicate and oxide ores (e.g., laterites), for leaching of processing residues or mine waste dumps (mine tailings), as well as for the extraction of metals from industrial residues and waste (recycling). This chapter estimates the world production of copper, gold, and other metals by means of biomining and chemical leaching (bio-/hydrometallurgy) compared with metal production by pyrometallurgical procedures, and describes new developments in biomining. In addition, an overview is given about metal sulfide oxidizing microorganisms, fundamentals of biomining including bioleaching mechanisms and interface processes, as well as anaerobic bioleaching and bioleaching with heterotrophic microorganisms.

  8. Stress-tolerant P-solubilizing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, N; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Vassileva, M

    2012-08-01

    Drought, high/low temperature, and salinity are abiotic stress factors accepted as the main reason for crop yield losses in a world with growing population and food price increases. Additional problems create nutrient limitations and particularly low P soil status. The problem of phosphate fertilizers, P plant nutrition, and existing phosphate bearing resources can also be related to the scarcity of rock phosphate. The modern agricultural systems are highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using plant beneficial, including P-solubilizing, microorganisms. This short review paper summarizes the current and future trends in isolation, development, and application of P-solubilizing microorganisms in stress environmental conditions bearing also in mind the imbalanced cycling and unsustainable management of P. Special attention is devoted to the efforts on development of biotechnological strategies for formulation of P-solubilizing microorganisms in order to increase their protection against adverse abiotic factors.

  9. Protein languages differ depending on microorganism lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Grzymski

    Full Text Available Few quantitative measures of genome architecture or organization exist to support assumptions of differences between microorganisms that are broadly defined as being free-living or pathogenic. General principles about complete proteomes exist for codon usage, amino acid biases and essential or core genes. Genome-wide shifts in amino acid usage between free-living and pathogenic microorganisms result in fundamental differences in the complexity of their respective proteomes that are size and gene content independent. These differences are evident across broad phylogenetic groups-a result of environmental factors and population genetic forces rather than phylogenetic distance. A novel comparative analysis of amino acid usage-utilizing linguistic analyses of word frequency in language and text-identified a global pattern of higher peptide word repetition in 376 free-living versus 421 pathogen genomes across broad ranges of genome size, G+C content and phylogenetic ancestry. This imprint of repetitive word usage indicates free-living microorganisms have a bias for repetitive sequence usage compared to pathogens. These findings quantify fundamental differences in microbial genomes relative to life-history function.

  10. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  11. Airborne Microorganism Disinfection by Photocatalytic HEPA Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotruedee Chotigawin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the efficacy of photocatalytic HEPA filters on microorganism disinfection in a closed-loop chamber and later applied it in an air purifier and tested its efficacy in an 8-m3 chamber and in a hospital. The photocatalytic filters were made by dip-coating a HEPA filter in a TiO2 slurry. In order to disinfect the microorganisms retained on the filter, UV-A light was irradiated onto the filter to create strong oxidative radicals which can destroy microorganisms. The findings showed that disinfection efficiency of the photocatalytic filters with high TiO2 loading was insignificantly higher than with lower loading. S. epidermidis was completely eliminated within 2 hours, while 86.8% of B. subtilis, 77.1% of A. niger, and 82.7% of P. citrinum were destroyed within 10 hours. When applying the photocatalytic filters into an air purifier in a 8-m3 chamber, it was found that as soon as the air purifier was turned on, 83.4% of S. epidermidis, 81.4% of B. subtilis, 88.5% of A. niger, and 75.8% of P. citrinum were removed from the air. In a hospital environment, the PCO air purifier efficacy was lower than that in the chamber. Besides, relative humidity, distances from the air purifier and room size were suspected to affect the efficacy of the photocatalytic filters.

  12. Prokaryotic silicon utilizing microorganisms in the biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    Although a little study has been done to determine the silicon utilizing prokaryotes, our previous experiments indicated that almost all Gram-positive bacteria are silicon utilizing; one of them, Streptococci survived exposure on the lunar surface for a long period in experiment done by others. Our initial experiments with these Gram positive microorganisms showed that there were limited growths of these microorganisms on carbon free silicate medium probably with the help of some carry over carbon and nitrogen during cultivation procedures. However, increase in growth rate after repeated subcultures could not be explained at present. The main groups of prokaryotes which were found silicon utilizing microorganisms were Mycobacterium, Bacillus, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium. In a another previous study by us when silicon level was studied in such grown up cells on carbon "free" silicate medium by electron prove microanalyser, it was found that silicon in cells grown on carbon "free" silicate medium was much higher (24.9%) than those grown on conventional carbon based medium (0.84%). However, these initial findings are encouraging for our future application of this group of organisms on extraterrestrial surfaces for artificial micro-ecosystem formation. It was found that when electropositive elements are less in extraterrestrial situation, then polymerization of silicon-oxygen profusion may occur easily, particularly in carbon and nitrogen paucity in the rocky worlds of the Universe.

  13. The roles of polyamines in microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevrekci, Aslıhan Örs

    2017-10-27

    Polyamines are small polycations that are well conserved in all the living organisms except Archae, Methanobacteriales and Halobacteriales. The most common polyamines are putrescine, spermidine and spermine, which exist in varying concentrations in different organisms. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as gene expression, cell growth, survival, stress response and proliferation. Therefore, diverse regulatory pathways are evolved to ensure strict regulation of polyamine concentration in the cells. Polyamine levels are kept under strict control by biosynthetic pathways as well as cellular uptake driven by specific transporters. Reverse genetic studies in microorganisms showed that deletion of the genes in polyamine metabolic pathways or depletion of polyamines have negative effects on cell survival and proliferation. The protein products of these genes are also used as drug targets against pathogenic protozoa. These altogether confirm the significant roles of polyamines in the cells. This mini-review focuses on the differential concentrations of polyamines and their cellular functions in different microorganisms. This will provide an insight about the diverse evolution of polyamine metabolism and function based on the physiology and the ecological context of the microorganisms.

  14. Effects of nitrate adaptation by rumen inocula donors and substrate fiber proportion on in vitro nitrate disappearance, methanogenesis, and rumen fermentation acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M; Schaefer, D M; Zhao, G Q; Meng, Q X

    2013-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the main effects of dietary nitrate adaptation by cattle and alfalfa cell wall to starch ratio in in vitro substrates on nitrate disappearance and nitrite and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, as well as hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) accumulations. Rumen fluid from steers fed diets containing urea or nitrate was added into in vitro incubations containing sodium nitrate as the sole nitrogen source and 20 cell wall : 80 starch or 80 cell wall : 20 starch as the carbohydrate source. The results showed that during 24 h incubation, rumen fluid inoculums from steers adapted to dietary nitrate resulted in more rapid nitrate disappearance by 6 h of incubation (P nitrate disappearance, CH4 accumulation and total VFA concentration. The higher cell wall ratio had the lower total gas production and H2 concentration (P nitrate feeding (P Nitrate adaptation did not alter total VFA concentration, but increased acetate, and decreased propionate and butyrate molar proportions (P < 0.01).

  15. Investigation to identify paint coatings resistive to microorganism growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. W.; Kemp, H. T.

    1971-01-01

    All selected coatings contain nutrients that support microbial growth and survival. Incorporation of microbiocidal agents into coatings more susceptible to attack is recommended for improved inhibition of microorganism growth and for increased protection against deterioration of coatings by microorganisms.

  16. Dietary n-6:n-3 Fatty Acid Ratios Alter Rumen Fermentation Parameters and Microbial Populations in Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Jafari, Saeid; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Meng, Goh Yong; Ghaffari, Morteza Hosseini

    2017-02-01

    Revealing the ruminal fermentation patterns and microbial populations as affected by dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio would be useful for further clarifying the role of the rumen in the lipid metabolism of ruminants. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios on fermentation characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profiles, and microbial populations in the rumen of goats. A total of twenty-one goats were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments with different n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 2.27:1 (low ratio, LR), 5.01:1 (medium ratio, MR), and 10.38:1 (high ratio, HR). After 100 days of feeding, all goats were slaughtered. Dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios had no effect (P > 0.05) on rumen pH and NH3N concentration. Goats fed HR diet had lower (P goats compared with the MR and LR goats. Lowering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios enhanced (P goats. The populations of R. albus and R. flavefaciens decreased (P 0.05) on the ruminal populations of F. succinogenes, total bacteria, methanogens, total protozoa, Entiodinium, and Holotrich. The population of B. fibrisolvens was lower (P goats compared with the MR and HR goats. It was concluded that HR would increase the concentration of cis-9 trans-11 CLA and C18:1 trans-11 in the rumen. However, LR whould decrease the B. fibrisolvens population, which is involved in the BH process in the rumen. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential role and contribution of rumen microbiome in the metabolism of FA in the rumen.

  17. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Fatty Acid Profiles Added with Calcium Soap of Canola/Flaxseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suharti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to assess the effect of adding canola oil and flaxseed oil which were protected with calcium soap (Ca-soap on the fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population, and the profile of fatty acids in the rumen during 4 and 8 hours in the in vitro fermentation. The research design used in this study was a completely randomized block design with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of control ration (Napier grass and concentrate at the ratio of 60 : 40, control + 6% of Ca-soap of canola oil, and control + 6% of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil. Variables observed were pH value, NH3 concentration, volatile fatty acid (VFA, dry matter and organic matter digestibility, and fatty acid profile.  The results showed that the addition of Ca-soap of canola or flaxseed oil did not affect the pH value, NH3 concentration, dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, total population of bacteria and protozoa in the rumen. However, the total production of ruminal VFA was increased (P<0.05 with the addition of Ca soap of canola oil/flaxseed oil. The use of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil increased (P<0.05 the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen at 4 h incubation. The addition of Ca-soap of flaxseed oil resulted the lowest (P<0.05 level of unsaturated fatty acids biohydrogenation compared to the other treatments at 4 h incubation. In conclusion, the addition of Ca soap of canola/flaxseed oil could improve VFA total production. Vegetable oils protected using calcium soap could inhibit unsaturated fatty acid biohidrogenation by rumen microbes. Ca-soap of flaxseed oil could survive from rumen biohydrogenation in the rumen better than Ca-soap of canola oil.

  18. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm fronds (OPF, normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. frond pellets. The treatments were: CON (100% concentrate, MOPF (75% concentrate + 25% OPF, w/w and HOPF (50% concentrate + 50% OPF, w/w. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric. The pH of rumen fluid was in the order of HOPF (5.90>MOPF (5.74>CON (5.62. Both HOPF (17.75x104/mL and MOPF (17.13x104/mL had significantly (P<0.05 higher population of Entodinium sp. than CON (14.88x104/mL. Although populations of Holotrichs and total protozoa among the three groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05, populations were in the numerical order of HOPF>MOPF>CON. The molar proportions of acetate were significantly higher (P<0.05 in HOPF animals compared to MOPF and CON. The altered status in the rumen environment due to supplementation of OPF in the diets resulted in the highest (P<0.05 amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA in the rumen of animals receiving HOPF and MOPF diet. These results were suggestive of a decreased biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in higher levels of UFA available for hindgut absorption, and hence their increased incorporation in the plasma and edible tissues of the HOPF animals.

  19. Nutritional Qualities of Cocoa Pod Husk Treated with Bioconversion and or Provision of Nitrogen Sources in the Rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrir Syahrir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of bioconversion using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus and or inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaves and urea in the rumen on cocoa pod husk digestibility and fermentation in the rumen. There were 4 treatments tested: (1 100% untreated cocoa pod husk (UCPH, (2 55% UCPH + 43.7% M. oleifera + 1.30% urea (UCPHMU, (3 100% bioconverted cocoa pod husk (BCPH, and (4 55% BCPH + 44.5 M. oleifera + 0.5% urea (BCPHMU. Each of the treatments was replicated three times. Variables observed were dry matter and organic matter digestibilities and degradabilities, rumen VFA and ammonia concentrations, gas production, and calculated microbial biomass yields. Results indicated that the treatment increased dry matter (P<0.001 and organic matter (P<0.01 digestibility, with the highest for the BCPHMU and the lowest for the UCPH. The treatments also increased dry matter and organic matter degradability in the rumen (P<0.001, with the highest for the BCPHMU, followed by the UCPHMU, and then by the BCPH and the lowest was UCPH. The treatment affected rumen ammonia concentration (P=0.01, the highest value was found for the BCPHMU followed with UCPHMU and BCPH. Microbial biomass synthesis was affected (P<0.001 by the treatment and it was always higher when nitrogen was provided (UCPHMU and BCPHMU. Total VFA concentration or total gas production was higher for BCPHMU compared to other treatments. It can be concluded that nutritional quality of cocoa pod husk can be improved by either bioconversion with P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus or inclusion of M. oleifera and urea in the rumen, but the best improvement can be obtained by the combination of bioconversion and provision of the nitrogen sources in the rumen.

  20. Effects of quebracho tannin extract on rumen fermentation and yield and composition of microbial mass in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhoefer, U; Ahnert, S; Susenbeth, A

    2016-04-01

    To determine the effects of incremental quebracho tannin extract (QTE) infusions on rumen fermentation and yield and composition of microbial mass, a study was conducted that consisted of 1 control period (Control I) without QTE dosing; 4 periods when all animals received 1, 2, 4, or 6% QTE of the diet (DM basis); and a second control period (Control II). Each period consisted of 9 d of adaptation, 6 d of urine collection, and 1 d of rumen sampling. Three rumen-fistulated heifers (495 kg BW [SE 14]) were offered 2.6 kg/d grass hay, 2.6 kg/d concentrates, and 60 g/d mineral-vitamin premix (as fed) in 2 equal meals. Half the daily QTE dosage was intraruminally administered at every meal. Urine and rumen fluids were analyzed for purine derivatives and short-chain fatty acids, respectively. Nitrogen and purine base (PB) concentrations were determined in liquid-associated microbes in rumen fluid (LAMF), liquid-associated microbes in the solid phase (LAMS), and particle-associated microbes (PAM). Increasing QTE dosages linearly increased propionate and butyrate proportions in rumen fluid ( = 0.37, = 0.004 and = 0.51, < 0.001, respectively). Instead, proportions of acetate ( = 0.75, < 0.001), isobutyrate ( = 0.66, < 0.001), and isovalerate ( = 0.49, < 0.001) and urinary purine derivatives excretions ( = 0.66, < 0.001) linearly decreased with increasing QTE infusions. Inconsistent differences were observed for LAMF, but concentrations of PB in LAMS ( ≤ 0.018) and of N in PAM ( < 0.001) were greater at 6% QTE than at Control I, II, and 1% QTE. Hence, low to moderate QTE dosages hamper rumen fermentation and microbial biomass yields. Alongside the nutritional consequences for the host, the methodological implications of these effects should be considered in studies evaluating the targeted use of tannins in ruminant feeding.