WorldWideScience

Sample records for employing information theoretic

  1. Theoretical and practical references regarding the applicability of the employer's obligation to inform the employee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Ștefan Pătru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The obligation to inform the employee is one of the most important obligations of employers in labor relations. Regulated by art. 17-19 of The Labor Code, the employee's obligation to inform the employee is the subject of controversy in doctrine and practice. In this study we will analyze the applicability of the information obligation and make proposals for lege ferenda on the basis of the arguments presented.

  2. Information theoretic preattentive saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Employing an information theoretic operational definition of bottom-up attention from the field of computational visual perception a very general expression for saliency is provided. As opposed to many of the current approaches to determining a saliency map there is no need for an explicit data...... of which features, image information is described. We illustrate our result by determining a few specific saliency maps based on particular choices of features. One of them makes the link with the mapping underlying well-known Harris interest points, which is a result recently obtained in isolation...

  3. Information Theoretic Subspace Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ran; Wang, Liang; Sun, Zhenan; Zhang, Yingya; Li, Bo

    2016-12-01

    This paper addresses the problem of grouping the data points sampled from a union of multiple subspaces in the presence of outliers. Information theoretic objective functions are proposed to combine structured low-rank representations (LRRs) to capture the global structure of data and information theoretic measures to handle outliers. In theoretical part, we point out that group sparsity-induced measures ( l 2,1 -norm, l α -norm, and correntropy) can be justified from the viewpoint of half-quadratic (HQ) optimization, which facilitates both convergence study and algorithmic development. In particular, a general formulation is accordingly proposed to unify HQ-based group sparsity methods into a common framework. In algorithmic part, we develop information theoretic subspace clustering methods via correntropy. With the help of Parzen window estimation, correntropy is used to handle either outliers under any distributions or sample-specific errors in data. Pairwise link constraints are further treated as a prior structure of LRRs. Based on the HQ framework, iterative algorithms are developed to solve the nonconvex information theoretic loss functions. Experimental results on three benchmark databases show that our methods can further improve the robustness of LRR subspace clustering and outperform other state-of-the-art subspace clustering methods.

  4. Information Theoretic Shape Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanbelliu, Erion; Giraldo, Luis Sanchez; Príncipe, José C

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we describe two related algorithms that provide both rigid and non-rigid point set registration with different computational complexity and accuracy. The first algorithm utilizes a nonlinear similarity measure known as correntropy. The measure combines second and high order moments in its decision statistic showing improvements especially in the presence of impulsive noise. The algorithm assumes that the correspondence between the point sets is known, which is determined with the surprise metric. The second algorithm mitigates the need to establish a correspondence by representing the point sets as probability density functions (PDF). The registration problem is then treated as a distribution alignment. The method utilizes the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence to measure the similarity/distance between the point sets and recover the spatial transformation function needed to register them. Both algorithms utilize information theoretic descriptors; however, correntropy works at the realizations level, whereas Cauchy-Schwarz divergence works at the PDF level. This allows correntropy to be less computationally expensive, and for correct correspondence, more accurate. The two algorithms are robust against noise and outliers and perform well under varying levels of distortion. They outperform several well-known and state-of-the-art methods for point set registration.

  5. Theoretical information reuse and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Information Reuse and Integration addresses the efficient extension and creation of knowledge through the exploitation of Kolmogorov complexity in the extraction and application of domain symmetry. Knowledge, which seems to be novel, can more often than not be recast as the image of a sequence of transformations, which yield symmetric knowledge. When the size of those transformations and/or the length of that sequence of transforms exceeds the size of the image, then that image is said to be novel or random. It may also be that the new knowledge is random in that no such sequence of transforms, which produces it exists, or is at least known. The nine chapters comprising this volume incorporate symmetry, reuse, and integration as overt operational procedures or as operations built into the formal representations of data and operators employed. Either way, the aforementioned theoretical underpinnings of information reuse and integration are supported.

  6. Information theoretic description of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Hollunder, Jens

    2007-11-01

    We present a new information theoretic approach for network characterizations. It is developed to describe the general type of networks with n nodes and L directed and weighted links, i.e., it also works for the simpler undirected and unweighted networks. The new information theoretic measures for network characterizations are based on a transmitter-receiver analogy of effluxes and influxes. Based on these measures, we classify networks as either complex or non-complex and as either democracy or dictatorship networks. Directed networks, in particular, are furthermore classified as either information spreading and information collecting networks. The complexity classification is based on the information theoretic network complexity measure medium articulation (MA). It is proven that special networks with a medium number of links ( L∼n1.5) show the theoretical maximum complexity MA=(log n)2/2. A network is complex if its MA is larger than the average MA of appropriately randomized networks: MA>MAr. A network is of the democracy type if its redundancy Rdictatorship network. In democracy networks all nodes are, on average, of similar importance, whereas in dictatorship networks some nodes play distinguished roles in network functioning. In other words, democracy networks are characterized by cycling of information (or mass, or energy), while in dictatorship networks there is a straight through-flow from sources to sinks. The classification of directed networks into information spreading and information collecting networks is based on the conditional entropies of the considered networks ( H(A/B)=uncertainty of sender node if receiver node is known, H(B/A)=uncertainty of receiver node if sender node is known): if H(A/B)>H(B/A), it is an information collecting network, otherwise an information spreading network. Finally, different real networks (directed and undirected, weighted and unweighted) are classified according to our general scheme.

  7. Hash functions and information theoretic security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Nasoor; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Naderi, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Information theoretic security is an important security notion in cryptography as it provides a true lower bound for attack complexities. However, in practice attacks often have a higher cost than the information theoretic bound. In this paper we study the relationship between information theoretic...... attack costs and real costs. We show that in the information theoretic model, many well-known and commonly used hash functions such as MD5 and SHA-256 fail to be preimage resistant....

  8. The information-theoretic turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blevins James P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, information theory has been applied to the analysis of a successively broader range of morphological phenomena. Interestingly, this tradition has arisen independently of the linguistic applications of information theory dating from the 1950’s. Instead, the point of origin for current work lies in a series of studies of morphological processing in which Kostić and associates develop a statistical notion of ‘morphological information’ based on ‘uncertainty’ and ‘uncertainty reduction’. From these initial studies, analyses based on statistical notions of information have been applied to general problems of morphological description and typological classification, leading to a formal rehabilitation of the complex system perspective of traditional WP models.

  9. Robust recognition via information theoretic learning

    CERN Document Server

    He, Ran; Yuan, Xiaotong; Wang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief represents a comprehensive review of information theoretic methods for robust recognition. A variety of information theoretic methods have been proffered in the past decade, in a large variety of computer vision applications; this work brings them together, attempts to impart the theory, optimization and usage of information entropy.The?authors?resort to a new information theoretic concept, correntropy, as a robust measure and apply it to solve robust face recognition and object recognition problems. For computational efficiency,?the brief?introduces the additive and multip

  10. Developing a theoretical evaluative framework for information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of information literacy as a fundamental element in the process of social and economic development and lifelong learning in the 21st century has been widely acknowledged. Most information literacy programmes, however, lack a robust theoretical framework on which the intervention is based. The reported ...

  11. System identification with information theoretic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Stoorvogel; J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAttention is focused in this paper on the approximation problem of system identification with information theoretic criteria. For a class of problems it is shown that the criterion of mutual information rate is identical to the criterion of exponential-of-quadratic cost and to

  12. Optimal Information-Theoretic Wireless Location Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Shihao; Malaney, Robert; Nevat, Ido; Peters, Gareth W.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a new Location Verification System (LVS) focussed on network-based Intelligent Transport Systems and vehicular ad hoc networks. The algorithm we develop is based on an information-theoretic framework which uses the received signal strength (RSS) from a network of base-stations and the claimed position. Based on this information we derive the optimal decision regarding the verification of the user's location. Our algorithm is optimal in the sense of maximizing the mutual information...

  13. Information and Announcements Refresher Course in Theoretical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 5. Refresher Course in Theoretical Physics. Information and Announcements Volume 10 Issue 5 May 2005 pp 99-99. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/05/0099-0099. Resonance ...

  14. An information-theoretic framework for visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Jänicke, Heike

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine whether or not information theory can be one of the theoretic frameworks for visualization. We formulate concepts and measurements for qualifying visual information. We illustrate these concepts with examples that manifest the intrinsic and implicit use of information theory in many existing visualization techniques. We outline the broad correlation between visualization and the major applications of information theory, while pointing out the difference in emphasis and some technical gaps. Our study provides compelling evidence that information theory can explain a significant number of phenomena or events in visualization, while no example has been found which is fundamentally in conflict with information theory. We also notice that the emphasis of some traditional applications of information theory, such as data compression or data communication, may not always suit visualization, as the former typically focuses on the efficient throughput of a communication channel, whilst the latter focuses on the effectiveness in aiding the perceptual and cognitive process for data understanding and knowledge discovery. These findings suggest that further theoretic developments are necessary for adopting and adapting information theory for visualization.

  15. Information-theoretic measures of hyperspherical harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehesa, J. S.; Lopez-Rosa, S.; Yanez, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    The multidimensional spreading of the hyperspherical harmonics can be measured in a different and complementary manner by means of the following information-theoretic quantities: the Fisher information, the average density or first-order entropic moment, and the Shannon entropy. They give measures of the volume anisotropy of the eigenfunctions of any central potential in the hyperspace. Contrary to the Fisher information, which is a local measure because of its gradient-functional form, the other two quantities have a global character because they are powerlike (average density) and logarithmic (Shannon's entropy) functionals of the hyperspherical harmonics. In this paper we obtain the explicit expression of the first two measures and a lower bound to the Shannon entropy in terms of the labeling indices of the hyperspherical harmonics

  16. Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A; Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P, E-mail: agmartinez@ugr.e, E-mail: pablos@ugr.e, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.e [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-30

    The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P{sup ({alpha}, {beta})}{sub n}(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters ({alpha}, {beta}). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.

  17. Information-Theoretic Inference of Common Ancestors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Steudel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A directed acyclic graph (DAG partially represents the conditional independence structure among observations of a system if the local Markov condition holds, that is if every variable is independent of its non-descendants given its parents. In general, there is a whole class of DAGs that represents a given set of conditional independence relations. We are interested in properties of this class that can be derived from observations of a subsystem only. To this end, we prove an information-theoretic inequality that allows for the inference of common ancestors of observed parts in any DAG representing some unknown larger system. More explicitly, we show that a large amount of dependence in terms of mutual information among the observations implies the existence of a common ancestor that distributes this information. Within the causal interpretation of DAGs, our result can be seen as a quantitative extension of Reichenbach’s principle of common cause to more than two variables. Our conclusions are valid also for non-probabilistic observations, such as binary strings, since we state the proof for an axiomatized notion of “mutual information” that includes the stochastic as well as the algorithmic version.

  18. Information-Theoretic Perspectives on Geophysical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Grey

    2016-04-01

    practice of science (except by Gong et al., 2013, whose fundamental insight is the basis for this talk), and here I offer two examples of practical methods that scientists might use to approximately measure ontological information. I place this practical discussion in the context of several recent and high-profile experiments that have found that simple out-of-sample statistical models typically (vastly) outperform our most sophisticated terrestrial hydrology models. I offer some perspective on several open questions about how to use these findings to improve our models and understanding of these systems. Cartwright, N. (1983) How the Laws of Physics Lie. New York, NY: Cambridge Univ Press. Clark, M. P., Kavetski, D. and Fenicia, F. (2011) 'Pursuing the method of multiple working hypotheses for hydrological modeling', Water Resources Research, 47(9). Cover, T. M. and Thomas, J. A. (1991) Elements of Information Theory. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience. Cox, R. T. (1946) 'Probability, frequency and reasonable expectation', American Journal of Physics, 14, pp. 1-13. Csiszár, I. (1972) 'A Class of Measures of Informativity of Observation Channels', Periodica Mathematica Hungarica, 2(1), pp. 191-213. Davies, P. C. W. (1990) 'Why is the physical world so comprehensible', Complexity, entropy and the physics of information, pp. 61-70. Gong, W., Gupta, H. V., Yang, D., Sricharan, K. and Hero, A. O. (2013) 'Estimating Epistemic & Aleatory Uncertainties During Hydrologic Modeling: An Information Theoretic Approach', Water Resources Research, 49(4), pp. 2253-2273. Jaynes, E. T. (2003) Probability Theory: The Logic of Science. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Nearing, G. S. and Gupta, H. V. (2015) 'The quantity and quality of information in hydrologic models', Water Resources Research, 51(1), pp. 524-538. Popper, K. R. (2002) The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Routledge. Van Horn, K. S. (2003) 'Constructing a logic of plausible inference: a guide to cox's theorem

  19. Inclusive Information Societies: Creating Growth and Employment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment for youth and women. The project has two components. The first focuses on outsourcing service sector work (micro-work and rural impact sourcing) in India, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines. This sector can play a vital role in creating employment, particularly for youth and women in semi-urban and rural areas.

  20. Information and Announcements Refresher Course in Theoretical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2002-06-30

    Jun 30, 2002 ... The broad aim of the Refresher Course is to help motivated teachers to improve and refresh their understanding of some basic courses in theoretical physics. The level of all the proposed sessions in this course will be more or less at the level at which Physics is taught in senior under-graduate and first year.

  1. Inclusive Information Societies: Creating Growth and Employment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Two emerging trends have great promise for employment and economic growth: micro-work and rural impact sourcing. Micro-work is a series of small tasks completed by many people over the Internet, such as translating or transcribing audio clips and pictures. Rural impact sourcing brings outsourced jobs, such as call ...

  2. Systems information management: graph theoretical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temel, T.

    2006-01-01

    This study proposes a new method for characterising the underlying information structure of a multi-sector system. A complete characterisation is accomplished by identifying information gaps and cause-effect information pathways in the system, and formulating critical testable hypotheses.

  3. Inclusive Information Societies: Creating Growth and Employment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    How can information and technology increase economic opportunities in the developing world? Research has shown that integrating knowledge into production processes and connecting small producers to global supply chains is essential. This project investigates how information and technology connects service sector ...

  4. A group theoretic approach to quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is the first one addressing quantum information from the viewpoint of group symmetry. Quantum systems have a group symmetrical structure. This structure enables to handle systematically quantum information processing. However, there is no other textbook focusing on group symmetry for quantum information although there exist many textbooks for group representation. After the mathematical preparation of quantum information, this book discusses quantum entanglement and its quantification by using group symmetry. Group symmetry drastically simplifies the calculation of several entanglement measures although their calculations are usually very difficult to handle. This book treats optimal information processes including quantum state estimation, quantum state cloning, estimation of group action and quantum channel etc. Usually it is very difficult to derive the optimal quantum information processes without asymptotic setting of these topics. However, group symmetry allows to derive these optimal solu...

  5. Employers' views on desirable theoretical knowledge qualities of newly qualified social workers: A qualitative exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bommel, Marijke; Kwakman, Kitty; Boshuizen, Els

    2018-01-01

    This study is a qualitative exploration of Dutch social work employers' views on desirable theoretical knowledge qualities of recently qualified bachelors of social work and how these qualities are weighed in hiring decisions. Participants (n =18) from sixteen social work organisations were

  6. Partially reversible quantum operations and their information-theoretical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Ban, M

    2003-01-01

    Partial reversibility of quantum operations (or quantum channels) is considered from the information-theoretical point of view. The necessary and sufficient condition for quantum operations to be partially reversible is shown. The condition can be expressed in terms of information-theoretical quantities (von Neumann entropy and PSI-information). The quantum information-theoretical meanings of the condition are discussed. The results are compared with those obtained for completely reversible quantum operations. The PSI-information is calculated for the quantum depolarizing channel of a qubit and the linear dissipative channel of a single-mode bosonic system.

  7. Information-Theoretic Methods for Identifying Relationships amon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Information-theoretic quantities, such as entropy, are used to quantify the amount of information a given variable provides. Entropies can be used together to...

  8. An information theoretic approach to geometric clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, Dj; Schwab, David

    Clustering is a basic task in data analysis for both understanding and pre-processing data. Classic clustering methods, such as k-means or EM fitting of a gaussian mixture model, are based on geometry. These geometric clustering methods group data points together based on their Euclidean distance from one another; roughly speaking, points within a cluster have smaller distances to one another than to points in other clusters. More recently, however, distributional clustering methods, such as the information bottleneck (IB) and deterministic information bottleneck (DIB), have been introduced that group data points based upon their conditional distributions over a target variable. Here, points within a cluster provide similar information about the target variable. Are distributional and geometric clustering related, and if so, how? Can we blend these two approaches? Here we first describe a method to incorporate geometric information into the (D)IB clustering algorithm, where the target variable our clustering should be informative about is the spatial location of the contained data points. This enables us to derive a novel set of geometric clustering algorithms, which we then compare to the classic methods mentioned above. Finally, we compare both approaches on data.

  9. Vector-Quantization using Information Theoretic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Hegde, Anant; Erdogmus, Deniz

    2005-01-01

    The process of representing a large data set with a smaller number of vectors in the best possible way, also known as vector quantization, has been intensively studied in the recent years. Very efficient algorithms like the Kohonen Self Organizing Map (SOM) and the Linde Buzo Gray (LBG) algorithm...... interpretation and relies on minimization of a well defined cost-function. It is also shown how the potential field approach can be linked to information theory by use of the Parzen density estimator. In the light of information theory it becomes clear that minimizing the free energy of the system is in fact...

  10. Wireless Information-Theoretic Security in an Outdoor Topology with Obstacles: Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagiuklas Tasos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Wireless Information-Theoretic Security (WITS scheme, which has been recently introduced as a robust physical layer-based security solution, especially for infrastructureless networks. An autonomic network of moving users was implemented via 802.11n nodes of an ad hoc network for an outdoor topology with obstacles. Obstructed-Line-of-Sight (OLOS and Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS propagation scenarios were examined. Low-speed user movement was considered, so that Doppler spread could be discarded. A transmitter and a legitimate receiver exchanged information in the presence of a moving eavesdropper. Average Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR values were acquired for both the main and the wiretap channel, and the Probability of Nonzero Secrecy Capacity was calculated based on theoretical formula. Experimental results validate theoretical findings stressing the importance of user location and mobility schemes on the robustness of Wireless Information-Theoretic Security and call for further theoretical analysis.

  11. Information theoretic learning Renyi's entropy and Kernel perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, Jose C

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the first cohesive treatment of Information Theoretic Learning (ITL) algorithms to adapt linear or nonlinear learning machines both in supervised or unsupervised paradigms. ITL is a framework where the conventional concepts of second order statistics (covariance, L2 distances, correlation functions) are substituted by scalars and functions with information theoretic underpinnings, respectively entropy, mutual information and correntropy. ITL quantifies the stochastic structure of the data beyond second order statistics for improved performance without using full-blown Bayesi

  12. Employer Perceptions of Critical Information Literacy Skills and Digital Badges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raish, Victoria; Rimland, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Digital badges are an educational innovation used to measure learning of specific skills, such as information literacy. However, few studies have quantitatively surveyed employers for their perceptions about information literacy skills or digital badges. An online survey was developed and sent to employers to gauge perceptions of information…

  13. Information-theoretic approach to uncertainty importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.K.; Bari, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for importance analysis in probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) for which the results of interest are characterized by full uncertainty distributions and not just point estimates. The method is based on information theory in which entropy is a measure of uncertainty of a probability density function. We define the relative uncertainty importance between two events as the ratio of the two exponents of the entropies. For the log-normal and log-uniform distributions the importance measure is comprised of the median (central tendency) and of the logarithm of the error factor (uncertainty). Thus, if accident sequences are ranked this way, and the error factors are not all equal, then a different rank order would result than if the sequences were ranked by the central tendency measure alone. As an illustration, the relative importance of internal events and in-plant fires was computed on the basis of existing PRA results

  14. Information theoretic resources in quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meznaric, Sebastian

    Resource identification and quantification is an essential element of both classical and quantum information theory. Entanglement is one of these resources, arising when quantum communication and nonlocal operations are expensive to perform. In the first part of this thesis we quantify the effective entanglement when operations are additionally restricted to account for both fundamental restrictions on operations, such as those arising from superselection rules, as well as experimental errors arising from the imperfections in the apparatus. For an important class of errors we find a linear relationship between the usual and effective higher dimensional generalization of concurrence, a measure of entanglement. Following the treatment of effective entanglement, we focus on a related concept of nonlocality in the presence of superselection rules (SSR). Here we propose a scheme that may be used to activate nongenuinely multipartite nonlocality, in that a single copy of a state is not multipartite nonlocal, while two or more copies exhibit nongenuinely multipartite nonlocality. The states used exhibit the more powerful genuinely multipartite nonlocality when SSR are not enforced, but not when they are, raising the question of what is needed for genuinely multipartite nonlocality. We show that whenever the number of particles is insufficient, the degrading of genuinely multipartite to nongenuinely multipartite nonlocality is necessary. While in the first few chapters we focus our attention on understanding the resources present in quantum states, in the final part we turn the picture around and instead treat operations themselves as a resource. We provide our observers with free access to classical operations - ie. those that cannot detect or generate quantum coherence. We show that the operation of interest can then be used to either generate or detect quantum coherence if and only if it violates a particular commutation relation. Using the relative entropy, the

  15. Informal employment in South Africa: Still missing pieces in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    research. Key words: Informal economy; informal employment; informal sector; day labouring; waste picking; casualised ... 1In South Africa, the informal economy constitutes an important component of the larger economy ...... 8The challenge now lies in conducting the research and sharing the results in a constructive way.

  16. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF INFORMATIONAL SERVICES REGIONAL MARKET EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Korabejnikov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities and priorities of the informational services regional market formation as a part of network model of the economic development are described in this article. The authors present the classification of the factors which have an influence on the effectiveness of the informational services regional market development. Theoretical aspects of the informational services regional market effective development are shown.

  17. Informality and employment vulnerability: application in sellers with subsistence work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Duque, María Osley; Cardona-Arango, María Doris; Rodríguez-Ospina, Fabio León; Segura-Cardona, Angela María

    2017-10-05

    To describe the origin, evolution, and application of the concept of employment vulnerability in workers who subsist on street sales. We have carried out an analysis of the literature in database in Spanish, Portuguese, and English, without restriction by country. This is a review of the gray literature of government reports, articles, and documents from Latin America and the Caribbean. We have analyzed information on the informal economy, social-employment vulnerability, and subsistence workers. The concept of informal economy is dispersed and suggested as synonymous with employment vulnerability. As a polysemic term, it generates confusion and difficulty in identifying defined profiles of employment vulnerability in informal subsistence workers, who sell their products on the streets and sidewalks of cities. The lack of a clear concept and profile of employment vulnerability for this type of workers generates a restriction on defined actions to reduce employment vulnerability. The profiles could facilitate access to the acquisition of assets that support their structure of opportunities, facilitating and mediating in the passage from vulnerability to social mobility with opportunities. We propose as a concept of employment vulnerability for subsistence workers in the informal sector, the condition of those who must work by day to eat at night, who have little or no ownership of assets, and who have a minimum structure of opportunities to prevent, face, and resist the critical situations that occur daily, putting at risk their subsistence and that of the persons who are their responsibility, thus making the connection between social and employment vulnerability.

  18. Health information technology knowledge and skills needed by HIT employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, S H; Gongora-Ferraez, M J; Joost, E

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the health information technology (HIT) workforce knowledge and skills needed by HIT employers. Statewide face-to-face and online focus groups of identified HIT employer groups in Austin, Brownsville, College Station, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, Lubbock, San Antonio, and webinars for rural health and nursing informatics. HIT employers reported needing an HIT workforce with diverse knowledge and skills ranging from basic to advanced, while covering information technology, privacy and security, clinical practice, needs assessment, contract negotiation, and many other areas. Consistent themes were that employees needed to be able to learn on the job and must possess the ability to think critically and problem solve. Many employers wanted persons with technical skills, yet also the knowledge and understanding of healthcare operations. The HIT employer focus groups provided valuable insight into employee skills needed in this fast-growing field. Additionally, this information will be utilized to develop a statewide HIT workforce needs assessment survey.

  19. Identifying Employer Needs from Accounting Information Systems Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Thomas W.; Kruck, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    As the need for new hires with accounting and information technology knowledge increases, a new major in accounting information systems (AIS) has emerged. This new AIS degree is a hybrid of accounting concepts and common business subjects combined with key information technology issues. Employers were presented with 56 core content areas found in…

  20. Consultancy As Employment Options for Library And Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If pursued independently it can actually function as an 'employer of labour and developed further to provide services both within and outside the immediate library environment. This paper examines the nature and prospects of consultancy as a suitable employment option for graduates of library and information science.

  1. The Theoretical Principles of the Organization of Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, Juliusz Lech

    A survey of the theoretical problems connected with the organization and design of systems for processing and transmitting information is presented in this article. It gives a definition of Information Systems (IS) and classifies them from various points of view. It discusses briefly the most important aspects of the organization of IS, such as…

  2. Information Ergonomics A theoretical approach and practical experience in transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Sandl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The variety and increasing availability of hypermedia information systems, which are used in stationary applications like operators’ consoles as well as mobile systems, e.g. driver information and navigation systems in automobiles form a foundation for the mediatization of the society. From the human engineering point of view this development and the ensuing increased importance of information systems for economic and private needs require careful deliberation of the derivation and application of ergonomics methods particularly in the field of information systems. This book consists of two closely intertwined parts. The first, theoretical part defines the concept of an information system, followed by an explanation of action regulation as well as cognitive theories to describe man information system interaction. A comprehensive description of information ergonomics concludes the theoretical approach. In the second, practically oriented part of this book authors from industry as well as from academic institu...

  3. Transformation of employment conditions in information-network economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Viktorovich Kozlov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of information and network economy influence on the nature of employment are being analyzed. With the development of the fifth technological mode, mechanical movement of the labour forces from one industry to another one is impossible. This is prevented by a broad restructuring of the occupational structure of employment, the disappearance of many "old" professions and the emergence of the ones, which require special educational training. There is a growing share of employment mainly in mental labour and decrease of the proportion of persons employed in manual labour, which includes workers of all skill levels. The reduction of productive employment, partly related to labour productivity growth, is offset by its growth in non-manufacturing "computer" occupations - among various administrative support staff servicing computers, creators of peripheral equipment and programmers, operators of local networks etc. New information technologies make it possible to extend flexible forms of employment that do not require steady jobs. In this process, the information economy can provide a number of issues in employment related to the erosion of traditional social and labour relations, weakening of the legal protection of employees in the information business that requires adequate response of the society and the state.

  4. Theoretical analysis of laser-locked spectroscopy employing a confocal Fabry-Perot cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Lei; Li, Linfeng; Ma, Weiguang; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of laser-locked enhanced absorption spectroscopy employing a confocal Fary-Perot cavity (CFPC) is presented. The signal-to-noise ratio and the minimum detectable absorbance, which are limited by either the shot noise or the amplitude noise due to the loose laser lock loop, are also discussed in detail. The results show that the effective absorption path length of a CFPC configuration is the same as that of the conventional nonconfocal Fary-Perot cavity configuration, with the CFPC configuration being more convenient to align without deliberate mode matching. Thus, the CFPC configuration should greatly simplify the complications of conventional laser-locked spectroscopy.

  5. 78 FR 34175 - Proposed Information Collection (Request for Employment Information in Connection With Claim for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Request for Employment Information in... (Request for Employment Information in Connection With Claim for Disability Benefits) Activity: Comment...: Extension of a currently approved collection. Abstract: VA Form 21-4192 is used to request employment...

  6. Informal Employment, Poverty and Growth in India and China | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India has a long history of research, activism and policy intervention in the field of informal employment. In contrast, China is only beginning to examine the nature of informality and its implications for ... Institution. Institute of Rural Management Anand Society. Pays d' institution. India. Site internet. http://www.irma.ac.in ...

  7. Information-theoretical noninvasive damage detection in bridge structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudu Ambegedara, Amila; Sun, Jie; Janoyan, Kerop; Bollt, Erik

    2016-11-01

    Damage detection of mechanical structures such as bridges is an important research problem in civil engineering. Using spatially distributed sensor time series data collected from a recent experiment on a local bridge in Upper State New York, we study noninvasive damage detection using information-theoretical methods. Several findings are in order. First, the time series data, which represent accelerations measured at the sensors, more closely follow Laplace distribution than normal distribution, allowing us to develop parameter estimators for various information-theoretic measures such as entropy and mutual information. Second, as damage is introduced by the removal of bolts of the first diaphragm connection, the interaction between spatially nearby sensors as measured by mutual information becomes weaker, suggesting that the bridge is "loosened." Finally, using a proposed optimal mutual information interaction procedure to prune away indirect interactions, we found that the primary direction of interaction or influence aligns with the traffic direction on the bridge even after damaging the bridge.

  8. Information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality and quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikoshi, Fumiaki

    2006-01-01

    An information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality is formulated to contrast classical and quantum computations. Any classical algorithm satisfies the inequality, while quantum ones can violate it. Therefore, the violation of the inequality is an immediate consequence of the quantumness in the computation. Furthermore, this approach suggests a notion of temporal nonlocality in quantum computation

  9. Information-Theoretic Princple Entails Orthomodularity of a Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinbaum, Alexei

    2005-11-01

    Quantum logical axiomatic systems for quantum theory usually include a postulate that a lattice under consideration is orthomodular. We propose a derivation of orthomodularity from an information-theoretic axiom. This provides conceptual clarity and removes a long-standing puzzle about the meaning of orthomodularity.

  10. Information-Theoretic Analysis of Memoryless Deterministic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard C. Geiger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The information loss in deterministic, memoryless systems is investigated by evaluating the conditional entropy of the input random variable given the output random variable. It is shown that for a large class of systems the information loss is finite, even if the input has a continuous distribution. For systems with infinite information loss, a relative measure is defined and shown to be related to Rényi information dimension. As deterministic signal processing can only destroy information, it is important to know how this information loss affects the solution of inverse problems. Hence, we connect the probability of perfectly reconstructing the input to the information lost in the system via Fano-type bounds. The theoretical results are illustrated by example systems commonly used in discrete-time, nonlinear signal processing and communications.

  11. Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jizba, Petr; Dunningham, Jacob A.; Joo, Jaewoo

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed

  12. Information-Theoretic Inference of Large Transcriptional Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents MRNET, an original method for inferring genetic networks from microarray data. The method is based on maximum relevance/minimum redundancy (MRMR, an effective information-theoretic technique for feature selection in supervised learning. The MRMR principle consists in selecting among the least redundant variables the ones that have the highest mutual information with the target. MRNET extends this feature selection principle to networks in order to infer gene-dependence relationships from microarray data. The paper assesses MRNET by benchmarking it against RELNET, CLR, and ARACNE, three state-of-the-art information-theoretic methods for large (up to several thousands of genes network inference. Experimental results on thirty synthetically generated microarray datasets show that MRNET is competitive with these methods.

  13. Information-Theoretic Inference of Large Transcriptional Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick E. Meyer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents MRNET, an original method for inferring genetic networks from microarray data. The method is based on maximum relevance/minimum redundancy (MRMR, an effective information-theoretic technique for feature selection in supervised learning. The MRMR principle consists in selecting among the least redundant variables the ones that have the highest mutual information with the target. MRNET extends this feature selection principle to networks in order to infer gene-dependence relationships from microarray data. The paper assesses MRNET by benchmarking it against RELNET, CLR, and ARACNE, three state-of-the-art information-theoretic methods for large (up to several thousands of genes network inference. Experimental results on thirty synthetically generated microarray datasets show that MRNET is competitive with these methods.

  14. Determinants of Informal Employment: A Case of Tanzania's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policies suggested that can enhance creation of decent employment are; improving financial services through risk mitigation, credit information dissemination and outreach to MSEs; enhancing and rationalizing earnings in the economy; and improving the quantity and quality of education as an enabling instrument.

  15. Mainstreaming Informal Employment and Gender in Poverty Reduction

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of the grassroots organizations in the network. Liberally scattered with practical examples, it provides a convincing case for an increased emphasis on informal employment and gender in poverty-reduction strategies, and sets out a strategic framework that offers guidelines for policymakers seeking to follow this approach.

  16. Carving the Information Literacy Niche within Graduate Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towlson, Kaye; Rush, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    A teacher fellow project at De Montfort University explored the context and practicalities of developing a Graduate Skills Licence (Information Literacy) in answer to the current higher education drive for graduate employability. Research revealed the hidden complexities behind the development of an originally simple notion. It provided scope to…

  17. Informal Employment, Poverty and Growth in India and China | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will support such a study, to be carried out jointly by research teams in China (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences - CASS) and India (Gujarat Institute of Development Research - GIDR). The aim of the research is to understand the relationship between informal employment, economic growth and poverty ...

  18. Theoretical development of information science: A brief history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of information science (IS) as viewed by the author. The term ‘information science’ goes back to 1955 and evolved in the aftermath of Claude Shannon’s ‘information theory’ (1948), which also inspired research into problems in fields of library science and docum......This paper presents a brief history of information science (IS) as viewed by the author. The term ‘information science’ goes back to 1955 and evolved in the aftermath of Claude Shannon’s ‘information theory’ (1948), which also inspired research into problems in fields of library science...... the strongest “paradigms” in the field is a tradition derived from the Cranfield experiments in the 1960s and the bibliometric research following the publication of Science Citation Index from 1963 and forward. Among the competing theoretical frameworks, ‘the cognitive view’ became influential from the 1970s...

  19. Theoretical information measurement in nonrelativistic time-dependent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafizade, S. A.; Hassanabadi, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2018-02-01

    The information-theoretic measures of time-dependent Schrödinger equation are investigated via the Shannon information entropy, variance and local Fisher quantities. In our calculations, we consider the two first states n = 0,1 and obtain the position Sx (t) and momentum Sp (t) Shannon entropies as well as Fisher information Ix (t) in position and momentum Ip (t) spaces. Using the Fourier transformed wave function, we obtain the results in momentum space. Some interesting features of the information entropy densities ρs (x,t) and γs (p,t), as well as the probability densities ρ (x,t) and γ (p,t) for time-dependent states are demonstrated. We establish a general relation between variance and Fisher's information. The Bialynicki-Birula-Mycielski inequality is tested and verified for the states n = 0,1.

  20. Information-theoretic limitations on approximate quantum cloning and broadcasting

    OpenAIRE

    Lemm, Marius; Wilde, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    We prove quantitative limitations on any approximate simultaneous cloning or broadcasting of mixed states. The results are based on information-theoretic (entropic) considerations and generalize the well-known no-cloning and no-broadcasting theorems. We also observe and exploit the fact that the universal cloning machine on the symmetric subspace of n qudits and symmetrized partial trace channels are dual to each other. This duality manifests itself both in the algebraic sense of adjointness ...

  1. Information Theoretic Studies and Assessment of Space Object Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-24

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0119 INFORMATION THEORETIC STUDIES AND ASSESMENTS OF SPACE-OBJECT IDENTIFICATION Sudhakar Prasad UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO Final...5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  2. Information-Theoretic Bounded Rationality and ε-Optimality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Braun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bounded rationality concerns the study of decision makers with limited information processing resources. Previously, the free energy difference functional has been suggested to model bounded rational decision making, as it provides a natural trade-off between an energy or utility function that is to be optimized and information processing costs that are measured by entropic search costs. The main question of this article is how the information-theoretic free energy model relates to simple ε-optimality models of bounded rational decision making, where the decision maker is satisfied with any action in an ε-neighborhood of the optimal utility. We find that the stochastic policies that optimize the free energy trade-off comply with the notion of ε-optimality. Moreover, this optimality criterion even holds when the environment is adversarial. We conclude that the study of bounded rationality based on ε-optimality criteria that abstract away from the particulars of the information processing constraints is compatible with the information-theoretic free energy model of bounded rationality.

  3. Employing U.S. Information Operations Against Hybrid Warfare Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code ) USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Employing U.S. Information Operations Against...hostile computer code through internet infrastructure in multiple countries en route to the target) have enormous legal ramifications. Even within the...59 145 William J. Nemeth , Future War And Chechnya: A Case For Hybrid Warfare, (Monterey CA: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2002), 74. 146 U.S

  4. Reverse Engineering Cellular Networks with Information Theoretic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio R. Banga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Building mathematical models of cellular networks lies at the core of systems biology. It involves, among other tasks, the reconstruction of the structure of interactions between molecular components, which is known as network inference or reverse engineering. Information theory can help in the goal of extracting as much information as possible from the available data. A large number of methods founded on these concepts have been proposed in the literature, not only in biology journals, but in a wide range of areas. Their critical comparison is difficult due to the different focuses and the adoption of different terminologies. Here we attempt to review some of the existing information theoretic methodologies for network inference, and clarify their differences. While some of these methods have achieved notable success, many challenges remain, among which we can mention dealing with incomplete measurements, noisy data, counterintuitive behaviour emerging from nonlinear relations or feedback loops, and computational burden of dealing with large data sets.

  5. Information Theoretic Tools for Parameter Fitting in Coarse Grained Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kalligiannaki, Evangelia

    2015-01-07

    We study the application of information theoretic tools for model reduction in the case of systems driven by stochastic dynamics out of equilibrium. The model/dimension reduction is considered by proposing parametrized coarse grained dynamics and finding the optimal parameter set for which the relative entropy rate with respect to the atomistic dynamics is minimized. The minimization problem leads to a generalization of the force matching methods to non equilibrium systems. A multiplicative noise example reveals the importance of the diffusion coefficient in the optimization problem.

  6. Unemployment, informal work, precarious employment, child labor, slavery, and health inequalities: pathways and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Vanroelen, Christophe; Martínez, José Miguel; Vergara, Montserrat; Santana, Vilma; Castedo, Antía; Kim, Il-Ho; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The study explores the pathways and mechanisms of the relation between employment conditions and health inequalities. A significant amount of published research has proved that workers in several risky types of labor--precarious employment, unemployment, informal labor, child and bonded labor--are exposed to behavioral, psychosocial, and physio-pathological pathways leading to physical and mental health problems. Other pathways, linking employment to health inequalities, are closely connected to hazardous working conditions (material and social deprivation, lack of social protection, and job insecurity), excessive demands, and unattainable work effort, with little power and few rewards (in salaries, fringe benefits, or job stability). Differences across countries in the social contexts and types of jobs result in varying pathways, but the general conceptual model suggests that formal and informal power relations between employees and employers can determine health conditions. In addition, welfare state regimes (unionization and employment protection) can increase or decrease the risk of mortality, morbidity, and occupational injury. In a multilevel context, however, these micro- and macro-level pathways have yet to be fully studied, especially in middle- and low-income countries. The authors recommend some future areas of study on the pathways leading to employment-related health inequalities, using worldwide standard definitions of the different forms of labor, authentic data, and a theoretical framework.

  7. Optimal information transfer in enzymatic networks: A field theoretic formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Himadri S.; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.

    2017-07-01

    Signaling in enzymatic networks is typically triggered by environmental fluctuations, resulting in a series of stochastic chemical reactions, leading to corruption of the signal by noise. For example, information flow is initiated by binding of extracellular ligands to receptors, which is transmitted through a cascade involving kinase-phosphatase stochastic chemical reactions. For a class of such networks, we develop a general field-theoretic approach to calculate the error in signal transmission as a function of an appropriate control variable. Application of the theory to a simple push-pull network, a module in the kinase-phosphatase cascade, recovers the exact results for error in signal transmission previously obtained using umbral calculus [Hinczewski and Thirumalai, Phys. Rev. X 4, 041017 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.041017]. We illustrate the generality of the theory by studying the minimal errors in noise reduction in a reaction cascade with two connected push-pull modules. Such a cascade behaves as an effective three-species network with a pseudointermediate. In this case, optimal information transfer, resulting in the smallest square of the error between the input and output, occurs with a time delay, which is given by the inverse of the decay rate of the pseudointermediate. Surprisingly, in these examples the minimum error computed using simulations that take nonlinearities and discrete nature of molecules into account coincides with the predictions of a linear theory. In contrast, there are substantial deviations between simulations and predictions of the linear theory in error in signal propagation in an enzymatic push-pull network for a certain range of parameters. Inclusion of second-order perturbative corrections shows that differences between simulations and theoretical predictions are minimized. Our study establishes that a field theoretic formulation of stochastic biological signaling offers a systematic way to understand error propagation in

  8. An information-theoretic framework for flow visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijie; Lee, Teng-Yok; Shen, Han-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The process of visualization can be seen as a visual communication channel where the input to the channel is the raw data, and the output is the result of a visualization algorithm. From this point of view, we can evaluate the effectiveness of visualization by measuring how much information in the original data is being communicated through the visual communication channel. In this paper, we present an information-theoretic framework for flow visualization with a special focus on streamline generation. In our framework, a vector field is modeled as a distribution of directions from which Shannon's entropy is used to measure the information content in the field. The effectiveness of the streamlines displayed in visualization can be measured by first constructing a new distribution of vectors derived from the existing streamlines, and then comparing this distribution with that of the original data set using the conditional entropy. The conditional entropy between these two distributions indicates how much information in the original data remains hidden after the selected streamlines are displayed. The quality of the visualization can be improved by progressively introducing new streamlines until the conditional entropy converges to a small value. We describe the key components of our framework with detailed analysis, and show that the framework can effectively visualize 2D and 3D flow data.

  9. Informing Physics: Jacob Bekenstein and the Informational Turn in Theoretical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, Israel

    2014-03-01

    In his PhD dissertation in the early 1970s, the Mexican-Israeli theoretical physicist Jacob Bekenstein developed the thermodynamics of black holes using a generalized version of the second law of thermodynamics. This work made it possible for physicists to describe and analyze black holes using information-theoretical concepts. It also helped to transform information theory into a fundamental and foundational concept in theoretical physics. The story of Bekenstein's work—which was initially opposed by many scientists, including Stephen Hawking—highlights the transformation within physics towards an information-oriented scientific mode of theorizing. This "informational turn" amounted to a mild-mannered revolution within physics, revolutionary without being rebellious.

  10. Physics Without Physics. The Power of Information-theoretical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2017-01-01

    David Finkelstein was very fond of the new information-theoretic paradigm of physics advocated by John Archibald Wheeler and Richard Feynman. Only recently, however, the paradigm has concretely shown its full power, with the derivation of quantum theory (Chiribella et al., Phys. Rev. A 84:012311, 2011; D'Ariano et al., 2017) and of free quantum field theory (D'Ariano and Perinotti, Phys. Rev. A 90:062106, 2014; Bisio et al., Phys. Rev. A 88:032301, 2013; Bisio et al., Ann. Phys. 354:244, 2015; Bisio et al., Ann. Phys. 368:177, 2016) from informational principles. The paradigm has opened for the first time the possibility of avoiding physical primitives in the axioms of the physical theory, allowing a re-foundation of the whole physics over logically solid grounds. In addition to such methodological value, the new information-theoretic derivation of quantum field theory is particularly interesting for establishing a theoretical framework for quantum gravity, with the idea of obtaining gravity itself as emergent from the quantum information processing, as also suggested by the role played by information in the holographic principle (Susskind, J. Math. Phys. 36:6377, 1995; Bousso, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74:825, 2002). In this paper I review how free quantum field theory is derived without using mechanical primitives, including space-time, special relativity, Hamiltonians, and quantization rules. The theory is simply provided by the simplest quantum algorithm encompassing a countable set of quantum systems whose network of interactions satisfies the three following simple principles: homogeneity, locality, and isotropy. The inherent discrete nature of the informational derivation leads to an extension of quantum field theory in terms of a quantum cellular automata and quantum walks. A simple heuristic argument sets the scale to the Planck one, and the currently observed regime where discreteness is not visible is the so-called "relativistic regime" of small wavevectors, which

  11. Information-theoretic limitations on approximate quantum cloning and broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemm, Marius; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-07-01

    We prove quantitative limitations on any approximate simultaneous cloning or broadcasting of mixed states. The results are based on information-theoretic (entropic) considerations and generalize the well-known no-cloning and no-broadcasting theorems. We also observe and exploit the fact that the universal cloning machine on the symmetric subspace of n qudits and symmetrized partial trace channels are dual to each other. This duality manifests itself both in the algebraic sense of adjointness of quantum channels and in the operational sense that a universal cloning machine can be used as an approximate recovery channel for a symmetrized partial trace channel and vice versa. The duality extends to give control of the performance of generalized universal quantum cloning machines (UQCMs) on subspaces more general than the symmetric subspace. This gives a way to quantify the usefulness of a priori information in the context of cloning. For example, we can control the performance of an antisymmetric analog of the UQCM in recovering from the loss of n -k fermionic particles.

  12. Methodological proposal for theoretical analysis professional skills and its impact on employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Almanza Jiménez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the level of employability of Engineers in Business Management Institute of Technology graduates Lazaro Cardenas in terms of their Professional competencies based on the initial hypothesis. The professional competencies have a direct positive relationship in which employability through the application of the survey method in Likert applied to both clusters, analysis of findings which show the impact of skills on employability, the existence of a positive correlation of both direct and opportunity was conducted to develop creativity and innovation through entrepreneurship.

  13. Informality as a stepping stone: A search-theoretical assessment of informal sector and government policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Tümen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a model of sequential job search to understand the factors determining the effect of tax and enforcement policies on the size (i.e., employment share of informal sector. The focus is on the role of informal sector as a stepping stone to formal jobs. I argue that the stepping-stone role of informal jobs is an important concept determining how strongly government policies affect the size of informal sector. I measure the extent of the stepping-stone role with the intensity of skill accumulation in the informal sector. If informal jobs help workers acquire skills, gain expertise, and build professional networks for boosting the chances to switch to a formal job, then the size of informal sector is less sensitive to government policy. In this case, the option value of a job in informal sector will be high and a worker with an informal job will not rush to switch to a formal job when a policy encouraging formal employment is in effect. If, on the other hand, informal sector does not provide satisfactory training opportunities, then the size of informal sector becomes more sensitive to government policy. Calibrating the model to the Brazilian data, I perform numerical exercises confirming that the effect of government policy on the size of informal sector is a decreasing function of the intensity of skill acquisition in the informal sector.

  14. Universality in an information-theoretic motivated nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parwani, R; Tabia, G

    2007-01-01

    Using perturbative methods, we analyse a nonlinear generalization of Schrodinger's equation that had previously been obtained through information-theoretic arguments. We obtain analytical expressions for the leading correction, in terms of the nonlinearity scale, to the energy eigenvalues of the linear Schrodinger equation in the presence of an external potential and observe some generic features. In one space dimension these are (i) for nodeless ground states, the energy shifts are subleading in the nonlinearity parameter compared to the shifts for the excited states; (ii) the shifts for the excited states are due predominantly to contribution from the nodes of the unperturbed wavefunctions, and (iii) the energy shifts for excited states are positive for small values of a regulating parameter and negative at large values, vanishing at a universal critical value that is not manifest in the equation. Some of these features hold true for higher dimensional problems. We also study two exactly solved nonlinear Schrodinger equations so as to contrast our observations. Finally, we comment on the possible significance of our results if the nonlinearity is physically realized

  15. Information and statistics: a new paradigm in theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarewicz, J; Chen, Wei-Chia; Fattoyev, F J

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical predictions of physical observables often involve extrapolations to regions that are poorly constrained by laboratory experiments and astrophysical observations. Without properly quantified theoretical errors, such model predictions are of very limited utility. In this contribution we use maximum-likelihood estimation to compute theoretical errors and assess correlations between physical observables. We illustrate the power and elegance of these methods using examples of both pedagogical and realistic interest. In particular, we implement a Gaussian approximation to the likelihood function to develop a new relativistic effective interaction constrained by ground-state properties of finite nuclei, their monopole response, and masses of neutron stars. (paper)

  16. Theoretische Neufundierung der Mädchenarbeit Theoretical Refoundation of Girls’ Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Faulstich-Wieland

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Zumindest rhetorisch wird der Mädchenarbeit mittlerweile bestätigt, ein unabdingbarer Bestandteil von Kinder- und Jugendarbeit zu sein. Zugleich ist sie von verschiedenen Seiten in die Kritik geraten, gilt als überholt und wird nur noch bedingt von den Adressatinnen angenommen. Tanja Brinkmann ist davon überzeugt, dass eine Auseinandersetzung mit den neuen Geschlechtertheorien dazu beitragen kann, auch für die Mädchenarbeit neue Perspektiven zu eröffnen. Ihr Band bietet dafür die Grundlagen sowohl hinsichtlich der Darstellung der Theorien als auch ihrer Umsetzung und Anwendung in der Kinder- und Jugendarbeit.The work of girls has been proven these days to be, at least rhetorically, an indispensable part of child and youth employment. At the same time, it has fallen under critique from various sides, is considered out-dated, and is only limitedly accepted by those addressed. Tanja Brinkmann is convinced that an examination of new gender theories could contribute to opening up new perspectives on girls’ employment. Her volume offers the basis for this new perspective in terms of her presentation of theories and their application to children and youth employment.

  17. 78 FR 24468 - Proposed Information Collection (Inquiry Concerning Applicant for Employment) Activity; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... (Inquiry Concerning Applicant for Employment) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Human Resources... the information needed to determine an applicant's suitability and qualification for employment. DATES... of automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title...

  18. An information theoretic approach to use high-fidelity codes to calibrate low-fidelity codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Allison, E-mail: lewis.allison10@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Smith, Ralph [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Figueroa, Victor [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    For many simulation models, it can be prohibitively expensive or physically infeasible to obtain a complete set of experimental data to calibrate model parameters. In such cases, one can alternatively employ validated higher-fidelity codes to generate simulated data, which can be used to calibrate the lower-fidelity code. In this paper, we employ an information-theoretic framework to determine the reduction in parameter uncertainty that is obtained by evaluating the high-fidelity code at a specific set of design conditions. These conditions are chosen sequentially, based on the amount of information that they contribute to the low-fidelity model parameters. The goal is to employ Bayesian experimental design techniques to minimize the number of high-fidelity code evaluations required to accurately calibrate the low-fidelity model. We illustrate the performance of this framework using heat and diffusion examples, a 1-D kinetic neutron diffusion equation, and a particle transport model, and include initial results from the integration of the high-fidelity thermal-hydraulics code Hydra-TH with a low-fidelity exponential model for the friction correlation factor.

  19. Phenomenological description of a three-center insertion reaction: an information-theoretic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Rodolfo O; Flores-Gallegos, Nelson; Dehesa, Jesús S; Angulo, Juan Carlos; Antolín, Juan; López-Rosa, Sheila; Sen, K D

    2010-02-04

    Information-theoretic measures are employed to describe the course of a three-center chemical reaction in terms of detecting the transition state and the stationary points unfolding the bond-forming and bond-breaking regions which are not revealed in the energy profile. The information entropy profiles for the selected reactions are generated by following the intrinsic-reaction-coordinate (IRC) path calculated at the MP2 level of theory from which Shannon entropies in position and momentum spaces at the QCISD(T)/6-311++G(3df,2p) level are determined. Several complementary reactivity descriptors are also determined, such as the dipole moment, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) obtained through a multipole expansion (DMA), the atomic charges and electric potentials fitted to the MEP, the hardness and softness DFT descriptors, and several geometrical parameters which support the information-theoretic analysis. New density-based structures related to the bond-forming and bond-breaking regions are proposed. Our results support the concept of a continuum of transient of Zewail and Polanyi for the transition state rather than a single state, which is also in agreement with reaction-force analyses.

  20. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE DEFINITION OF THE "INFORMATION RESOURCE"

    OpenAIRE

    I. Netreba

    2014-01-01

    Existing approaches to determining the nature of the category "information resource" are detailed and systematized. The relationships between the categories "information resource", "information technology", "information management system" are revealed. Determined the importance of information resources for the production process at the enterprise.

  1. Information and Communication Technology Workforce Employability in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Mohammed Adam; Hasan, Muhammad; Hussin, Husnayati; Shah, Asadullah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of the study are to understand ICT workforce employability in Malaysia, to identify the causes that influence the growth of skill gaps in the ICT workforce, and to determine ways to reduce these gaps. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology of the study comprised project reports and a literature review. Findings: The…

  2. Formal and Informal Employment Growth in Manufacturing (India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agent(e) responsable du CRDI. Rodriguez, Mr. Edgard. Financement total. CAD$ 257,300. Pays. Asie du sud, Asie centrale, Extrême-Orient, Bangladesh, Inde. Chargé(e) de projet. Dr. Sandip Sarkar. Institution. Institute for Human Development. Pays d' institution. India. Extrants. Documents. Employment problem in India ...

  3. Predominant information quality scheme for the essential amino acids: an information-theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Rodolfo O; Molina-Espíritu, Moyocoyani; López-Rosa, Sheila; Soriano-Correa, Catalina; Barrientos-Salcedo, Carolina; Kohout, Miroslav; Dehesa, Jesús S

    2015-08-24

    In this work we undertake a pioneer information-theoretical analysis of 18 selected amino acids extracted from a natural protein, bacteriorhodopsin (1C3W). The conformational structures of each amino acid are analyzed by use of various quantum chemistry methodologies at high levels of theory: HF, M062X and CISD(Full). The Shannon entropy, Fisher information and disequilibrium are determined to grasp the spatial spreading features of delocalizability, order and uniformity of the optimized structures. These three entropic measures uniquely characterize all amino acids through a predominant information-theoretic quality scheme (PIQS), which gathers all chemical families by means of three major spreading features: delocalization, narrowness and uniformity. This scheme recognizes four major chemical families: aliphatic (delocalized), aromatic (delocalized), electro-attractive (narrowed) and tiny (uniform). All chemical families recognized by the existing energy-based classifications are embraced by this entropic scheme. Finally, novel chemical patterns are shown in the information planes associated with the PIQS entropic measures. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Information density converges in dialogue: Towards an information-theoretic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Reitter, David

    2018-01-01

    The principle of entropy rate constancy (ERC) states that language users distribute information such that words tend to be equally predictable given previous contexts. We examine the applicability of this principle to spoken dialogue, as previous findings primarily rest on written text. The study takes into account the joint-activity nature of dialogue and the topic shift mechanisms that are different from monologue. It examines how the information contributions from the two dialogue partners interactively evolve as the discourse develops. The increase of local sentence-level information density (predicted by ERC) is shown to apply to dialogue overall. However, when the different roles of interlocutors in introducing new topics are identified, their contribution in information content displays a new converging pattern. We draw explanations to this pattern from multiple perspectives: Casting dialogue as an information exchange system would mean that the pattern is the result of two interlocutors maintaining their own context rather than sharing one. Second, we present some empirical evidence that a model of Interactive Alignment may include information density to explain the effect. Third, we argue that building common ground is a process analogous to information convergence. Thus, we put forward an information-theoretic view of dialogue, under which some existing theories of human dialogue may eventually be unified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Theoretical Approach to Information Needs Across Different Healthcare Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitoharju, Reetta; Aarnio, Eeva

    Increased access to medical information can lead to information overload among both the employees in the healthcare sector as well as among healthcare consumers. Moreover, medical information can be hard to understand for consumers who have no prerequisites for interpreting and understanding it. Information systems (e.g. electronic patient records) are normally designed to meet the demands of one professional group, for instance those of physicians. Therefore, the same information in the same form is presented to all the users of the systems regardless of the actual need or prerequisites. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the differences in information needs across different stakeholders in healthcare. A literature review was conducted to collect examples of these different information needs. Based on the findings the role of more user specific information systems is discussed.

  6. Informal employment in South Africa: Still missing pieces in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article contextualises the need to study the vulnerabilities of informal workers in South Africa, both in the current literature and the general discourse, and to identify those issues that must head a refocused research agenda on the broader informal sector in South Africa. Prominent agenda items ought to include: the ...

  7. ON THE THEORETICAL BASIS OF INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE GROLIER, ERIC

    THIS REPORT IS A SURVEY OF AND COMMENTARY ON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIELDS OF INFORMATION RETRIEVAL AND LINGUISTICS AND THE APPLICABILITY OF RESULTS TO THE FORMULATION OF INFORMATION RETRIEVAL LANGUAGES AND MACHINE TRANSLATION. COMMENTARY IS WEIGHTED TOWARD IMPARTING AN AWARENESS OF MANY OF THE SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF A REASONABLY…

  8. Molecular acidity: An accurate description with information-theoretic approach in density functional reactivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaofang; Rong, Chunying; Zhong, Aiguo; Lu, Tian; Liu, Shubin

    2018-01-15

    Molecular acidity is one of the important physiochemical properties of a molecular system, yet its accurate calculation and prediction are still an unresolved problem in the literature. In this work, we propose to make use of the quantities from the information-theoretic (IT) approach in density functional reactivity theory and provide an accurate description of molecular acidity from a completely new perspective. To illustrate our point, five different categories of acidic series, singly and doubly substituted benzoic acids, singly substituted benzenesulfinic acids, benzeneseleninic acids, phenols, and alkyl carboxylic acids, have been thoroughly examined. We show that using IT quantities such as Shannon entropy, Fisher information, Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy, information gain, Onicescu information energy, and relative Rényi entropy, one is able to simultaneously predict experimental pKa values of these different categories of compounds. Because of the universality of the quantities employed in this work, which are all density dependent, our approach should be general and be applicable to other systems as well. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Theoretical Model of Development of Information Competence among Students Enrolled in Elective Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumasheva, Anara; Zhumabaeva, Zaida; Sakenov, Janat; Vedilina, Yelena; Zhaxylykova, Nuriya; Sekenova, Balkumis

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the research topic of creating a theoretical model of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses. In order to examine specific features of the theoretical model of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses, we performed an analysis of…

  10. Information-theoretic treatment of tripartite systems and quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, Patrick J.; Yu Li; Gheorghiu, Vlad; Griffiths, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    A Holevo measure is used to discuss how much information about a given positive operator valued measure (POVM) on system a is present in another system b, and how this influences the presence or absence of information about a different POVM on a in a third system c. The main goal is to extend information theorems for mutually unbiased bases or general bases to arbitrary POVMs, and especially to generalize ''all-or-nothing'' theorems about information located in tripartite systems to the case of partial information, in the form of quantitative inequalities. Some of the inequalities can be viewed as entropic uncertainty relations that apply in the presence of quantum side information, as in recent work by Berta et al. [Nature Physics 6, 659 (2010)]. All of the results also apply to quantum channels: For example, if E accurately transmits certain POVMs, the complementary channel F will necessarily be noisy for certain other POVMs. While the inequalities are valid for mixed states of tripartite systems, restricting to pure states leads to the basis invariance of the difference between the information about a contained in b and c.

  11. Sentence Comprehension as Mental Simulation: An Information-Theoretic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Vigliocco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that the mental representation resulting from sentence comprehension is not (just an abstract symbolic structure but a “mental simulation” of the state-of-affairs described by the sentence. We present a particular formalization of this theory and show how it gives rise to quantifications of the amount of syntactic and semantic information conveyed by each word in a sentence. These information measures predict simulated word-processing times in a dynamic connectionist model of sentence comprehension as mental simulation. A quantitatively similar relation between information content and reading time is known to be present in human reading-time data.

  12. Information-theoretic methods for estimating of complicated probability distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zong, Zhi

    2006-01-01

    Mixing up various disciplines frequently produces something that are profound and far-reaching. Cybernetics is such an often-quoted example. Mix of information theory, statistics and computing technology proves to be very useful, which leads to the recent development of information-theory based methods for estimating complicated probability distributions. Estimating probability distribution of a random variable is the fundamental task for quite some fields besides statistics, such as reliability, probabilistic risk analysis (PSA), machine learning, pattern recognization, image processing, neur

  13. Information Theoretic Approach to Discovering Causalities in the Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Simon; Johnson, Jay R.; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2018-02-01

    The causal parameters and response lag times of the solar cycle dynamics are investigated with transfer entropy, which can determine the amount of information transfer from one variable to another. The causal dependency of the solar cycle parameters is bidirectional. The transfer of information from the solar polar field to the sunspot number (SSN) peaks at lag time (τ) ∼ 30–40 months, but thereafter it remains at a persistently low level for at least 400 months (∼3 solar cycles) for the period 1906–2014. The latter may lend support to the idea that the polar fields from the last three or more solar cycles can affect the production of the SSN of the subsequent cycle. There is also a similarly long-term information transfer from the SSN to the polar field. Both the meridional flow speed and flux emergence (proxied by the SSN) transfer information to the polar field, but one transfers more information than the other, depending on the lag times. The meridional flow speed transfers more information than the SSN to the polar field at τ ∼ 28–30 months and at τ ∼ 90–110 months, which may be consistent with some flux transfer dynamo models and some surface flux transport models. However, the flux emergence transfers more information than the meridional flow to the polar field at τ ∼ 60–80 months, which may be consistent with a recently developed surface flux transport model. The transfer of information from the meridional flow to the SSN peaks at τ ∼ 110–120 months (∼1 solar cycle).

  14. Determinants of Informal Employment: A Case of Tanzania's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of CASP (Series), CASP Erasmus University, Rotterdam. BROMLEY, R. AND C. GERRY, (1979), “Who are the Casual Poor?”, in Casual Work and. Poverty in Third World Cities, Ray Bromley and Chris Gerry (eds.), New York, Wiley. CHEN, A. M., (2007), “Rethinking the Informal Economy: Linkage with the Formal. Economy ...

  15. Summary Information on Employment, Characteristics, Supply, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-05-01

    earnings were lower than in industry, ranging from $6,225 for beginners to $10,825 for engineers with 36 years or more experience. In the Federal...2307— Econometrics 2308—Game theory 2310—Information and communica- tion theory 2311—Logistics, inventory 2312—Operations research 2313

  16. Formal and Informal Employment Growth in Manufacturing (India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research project focuses on the informal and formal manufacturing labour forces of India and Bangladesh, which comprise most of the poor in South Asia. ... IDRC is investing in local solutions to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.

  17. Integrated information in discrete dynamical systems: motivation and theoretical framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Balduzzi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a time- and state-dependent measure of integrated information, phi, which captures the repertoire of causal states available to a system as a whole. Specifically, phi quantifies how much information is generated (uncertainty is reduced when a system enters a particular state through causal interactions among its elements, above and beyond the information generated independently by its parts. Such mathematical characterization is motivated by the observation that integrated information captures two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: (i there is a large repertoire of conscious experiences so that, when one particular experience occurs, it generates a large amount of information by ruling out all the others; and (ii this information is integrated, in that each experience appears as a whole that cannot be decomposed into independent parts. This paper extends previous work on stationary systems and applies integrated information to discrete networks as a function of their dynamics and causal architecture. An analysis of basic examples indicates the following: (i phi varies depending on the state entered by a network, being higher if active and inactive elements are balanced and lower if the network is inactive or hyperactive. (ii phi varies for systems with identical or similar surface dynamics depending on the underlying causal architecture, being low for systems that merely copy or replay activity states. (iii phi varies as a function of network architecture. High phi values can be obtained by architectures that conjoin functional specialization with functional integration. Strictly modular and homogeneous systems cannot generate high phi because the former lack integration, whereas the latter lack information. Feedforward and lattice architectures are capable of generating high phi but are inefficient. (iv In Hopfield networks, phi is low for attractor states and neutral states, but increases if the networks

  18. Information theoretical quantification of cooperativity in signalling complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenaerts, Tom; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Schymkowitz, Joost

    2009-01-01

    the cooperativity inherent to the assembly of macromolecular complexes. We show how protein complexes can be considered as particular instances of noisy communication channels. Further we show, using a portion of the p27 regulatory pathway, how classical equilibrium thermodynamic quantities such as binding......, for which a particular system acts most effectively, i.e. exchanges the most information. As such this framework opens the possibility of grasping biological qualities such as system sensitivity, robustness or plasticity directly in terms of their effect on information exchange. Although these parameters...

  19. 78 FR 18425 - Proposed Information Collection VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist); Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: VA Police Officer Pre-Employment... Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist); Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Operations... approved collection. Abstract: VA personnel complete VA Form 0120 to document pre- employment history and...

  20. Theoretical foundations of information security investment security companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Berlyak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methodological problems related to the lack of guidance in the provisions (standards of accounting on the reflection in the accounting and financial reporting of the research object. In this connection, it is proposed to amend the provisions (standards of accounting. This will allow to come to the consistency of accounting methods of operations with elements of investment activity. Based on analysis of the information needs of users suggested indicators identikativnye blocks (block corporate finance unit assess the relationship with financial institutions, block the fulfillment of obligations according to the calculations, the investment unit, a science and innovation, investment security and developed forms of internal accounting controls and improvements to existing forms financial statements for the investment activities of the enterprise. Using enterprise data reporting forms provide timely and reliable information on the identity and structure of investment security and enable the company to effectively plan and develop personnel policies for enterprise management.

  1. Visual words assignment via information-theoretic manifold embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yue; Li, Yipeng; Qian, Yanjun; Ji, Xiangyang; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-10-01

    Codebook-based learning provides a flexible way to extract the contents of an image in a data-driven manner for visual recognition. One central task in such frameworks is codeword assignment, which allocates local image descriptors to the most similar codewords in the dictionary to generate histogram for categorization. Nevertheless, existing assignment approaches, e.g., nearest neighbors strategy (hard assignment) and Gaussian similarity (soft assignment), suffer from two problems: 1) too strong Euclidean assumption and 2) neglecting the label information of the local descriptors. To address the aforementioned two challenges, we propose a graph assignment method with maximal mutual information (GAMI) regularization. GAMI takes the power of manifold structure to better reveal the relationship of massive number of local features by nonlinear graph metric. Meanwhile, the mutual information of descriptor-label pairs is ultimately optimized in the embedding space for the sake of enhancing the discriminant property of the selected codewords. According to such objective, two optimization models, i.e., inexact-GAMI and exact-GAMI, are respectively proposed in this paper. The inexact model can be efficiently solved with a closed-from solution. The stricter exact-GAMI nonparametrically estimates the entropy of descriptor-label pairs in the embedding space and thus leads to a relatively complicated but still trackable optimization. The effectiveness of GAMI models are verified on both the public and our own datasets.

  2. Information-theoretic characterization of dynamic energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevis, Troy Lawson

    sources are compounded by the dynamics of the grid itself. Loads are constantly changing, as well as the sources; this can sometimes lead to a quick change in system states. There is a need for a metric to be able to take into consideration all of the factors detailed above; it needs to be able to take into consideration the amount of information that is available in the system and the rate that the information is losing its value. In a dynamic system, the information is only valid for a length of time, and the controller must be able to take into account the decay of currently held information. This thesis will present the information theory metrics in a way that is useful for application to dynamic energy systems. A test case involving synchronization of several generators is presented for analysis and application of the theory. The objective is to synchronize all the generators and connect them to a common bus. As the phase shift of each generator is a random process, the effects of latency and information decay can be directly observed. The results of the experiments clearly show that the expected outcomes are observed and that entropy and information theory is a valid metric for timing requirement extraction.

  3. Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains…

  4. 77 FR 2349 - Proposed Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans... VBA's Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (VR&E) Program. DATES: Written comments and... collection of information, VBA invites comments on: (1) Whether the proposed collection of information is...

  5. THE WIND EMPLOYMENT IN SPAIN (1995-2010: A THEORETICAL APPROXIMATION APPLIED TO THE REGION OF GALICIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Regueiro Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the renewable energies, and especially of the wind power, in the last decades has stayed out of any discussion. The advantages associated with the energy of the odd wind have considered in occasions authentic information that they them should corroborate. For example, about the streghness of creating jobs, there do not exist official statistics that gather the dimension of the created employment, without forgetting that the field of the energy stands out for being intensive in the capital. In this paper, there is realized an analysis of the different bibliographical sources relative to the generation of employment in the wind sector in Spain, establishing a few margins of the creation of the same one for categories for the region of Galicia, in the period (1995-2010.

  6. Information theoretic methods for image processing algorithm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokushkin, Sergey F.; Galil, Erez

    2015-01-01

    Modern image processing pipelines (e.g., those used in digital cameras) are full of advanced, highly adaptive filters that often have a large number of tunable parameters (sometimes > 100). This makes the calibration procedure for these filters very complex, and the optimal results barely achievable in the manual calibration; thus an automated approach is a must. We will discuss an information theory based metric for evaluation of algorithm adaptive characteristics ("adaptivity criterion") using noise reduction algorithms as an example. The method allows finding an "orthogonal decomposition" of the filter parameter space into the "filter adaptivity" and "filter strength" directions. This metric can be used as a cost function in automatic filter optimization. Since it is a measure of a physical "information restoration" rather than perceived image quality, it helps to reduce the set of the filter parameters to a smaller subset that is easier for a human operator to tune and achieve a better subjective image quality. With appropriate adjustments, the criterion can be used for assessment of the whole imaging system (sensor plus post-processing).

  7. 75 FR 39621 - Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Income-Net Worth and Employment...

  8. 77 FR 20888 - Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Income, Net Worth, and Employment...

  9. Multi-way Communications: An Information Theoretic Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2015-09-15

    Multi-way communication is a means to significantly improve the spectral efficiency of wireless networks. For instance, in a bi-directional (or two-way) communication channel, two users can simultaneously use the transmission medium to exchange information, thus achieving up to twice the rate that would be achieved had each user transmitted separately. Multi-way communications provides an overview on the developments in this research area since it has been initiated by Shannon. The basic two-way communication channel is considered first, followed by the two-way relay channel obtained by the deployment of an additional cooperative relay node to improve the overall communication performance. This basic setup is then extended to multi-user systems. For all these setups, fundamental limits on the achievable rates are reviewed, thereby making use of a linear high-SNR deterministic channel model to provide valuable insights which are helpful when discussing the coding schemes for Gaussian channel models in detail. Several tools and communication strategies are used in the process, including (but not limited to) computation, signal-space alignment, and nested-lattice codes. Finally, extensions of multi-way communication channels to multiple antenna settings are discussed. © 2015 A. Chaaban and A. Sezgin.

  10. State-of-the-Art: Research Theoretical Framework of Information Systems Implementation Research in the Health Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetteh, Godwin Kofi

    2014-01-01

    This study is about the state-of-the-art of reference theories and theoretical framework of information systems implementation research in the health industry in the Sub-Saharan countries from a process perspective. A process – variance framework, Poole et al, (2000), Markus & Robey, (1988......) and Shaw & Jarvenpaa, (1997) is employed to examine reference theories employed in research conducted on information systems implementation in the health sector in the Sub-Saharan region and published between 2003 and 2013. Using a number of key words and searching on a number of databases, EBSCO, CSA...... the process theoretical framework to enhance our insight into successful information systems implementation in the region. It is our optimism that the process based theoretical framework will be useful for, information system practitioners and organisational managers and researchers in the health sector...

  11. Information theoretical approach to discovering solar wind drivers of the outer radiation belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Wing (Simon); J.R. Johnson (Jay); E. Camporeale (Enrico); G.D. Reeves (Geoffrey)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe solar wind-magnetosphere system is nonlinear. The solar wind drivers of geosynchronous electrons with energy range of 1.8–3.5 MeV are investigated using mutual information, conditional mutual information (CMI), and transfer entropy (TE). These information theoretical tools can

  12. Returns to Qualification in Informal Employment: A Study of Urban Youth in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Informal employment is a reality for roughly two-thirds of economically active youth in urban Egypt, and it has been argued to be correlated with poverty, poor working conditions, and few opportunities for advancement. This essay analyzes whether informal employment rewards job qualification measures, using survey data from 2006 and a Blinder-Oaxaca wage decomposition. After creating a taxonomy of formal, para-formal, and informal modes of qualification, it is shown that formal public and for...

  13. 75 FR 45173 - Proposed Collection; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...) Form, Demographic Information on Applicants, OMB No. 3046-0046 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... add an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) form, Demographic Information on Applicants, OMB... with other demographic information, as part of their organizational self-analyses to determine whether...

  14. 77 FR 4577 - Information Collection Activities: Assessment Tools for Park-Based Youth Education and Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... programs that provide continuous education and employment experience opportunities for diverse students in... Youth Education and Employment Experience Programs. Type of Request: This is a new collection. Affected... National Park Service Information Collection Activities: Assessment Tools for Park- Based Youth Education...

  15. 12 CFR 268.205 - Employment of aliens; Access to sensitive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment of aliens; Access to sensitive... Complaints § 268.205 Employment of aliens; Access to sensitive information. (a) Definitions. The definitions...— (i) A citizen or National of the United States, (ii) An alien who: (A) Meets the conditions set forth...

  16. 76 FR 42131 - Agency Information Collection Activities: DHS Individual Complaint of Employment Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... of Employment Discrimination AGENCY: Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 30-Day Notice and... for all persons, to prohibit discrimination in employment because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, protected genetic information, sexual orientation, or status as a parent...

  17. 78 FR 60303 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Online Survey of Web Services Employers; New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... of Web Services Employers; New Information Collection ACTION: 30-Day Notice. SUMMARY: The Department... collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Online Survey of Web Services Employers. (3) Agency form number... USCIS obtains data on the E-Verify Program Web Services. Gaining an understanding of the Web Services...

  18. Information Management Graduates' Accounts of Their Employability: A Case Study from the University of Sheffield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Andrew M.; Al Daoud, Mohammad; Rudd, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring that graduates are employable is an important priority for universities. It is challenging for fields such as Information Management (IM), that are not fully understood by employers and where there is no very clearly defined entry level job market. This paper takes a graduate identity perspective to explore how IM graduates from the…

  19. Public policy, reporting and disclosure of employment and labour information by multinational enterprises (MNEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Urminsky, Michael D

    2005-01-01

    Analyses the role of information in gaining a better understanding of the labour and employment effects of foreign direct investment (FDI). Outlines features of voluntary corporate reporting and of national reporting requirements in Belgium, France, and the United States.

  20. 78 FR 38452 - Agency Information Collection (VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist) Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of Policy, Planning and Preparedness, Department of Veterans Affairs...

  1. Experimental and theoretical study on spray behaviors of modified bio-ethanol fuel employing direct injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahremani Amirreza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key solutions to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines is direct injection of bio-fuels. A new modified bio-ethanol is produced to be substituted by fossil fuels in gasoline direct injection engines. The key advantages of modified bio-ethanol fuel as an alternative fuel are higher octane number and oxygen content, a long-chain hydro-carbon fuel, and lower emissions compared to fossil fuels. In the present study spray properties of a modified bio-ethanol and its atomization behaviors have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Based on atomization physics of droplets dimensional analysis has been performed to develop a new non-dimensional number namely atomization index. This number determines the atomization level of the spray. Applying quasi-steady jet theory, air entrainment and fuel-air mixing studies have been performed. The spray atomization behaviors such as atomization index number, Ohnesorge number, and Sauter mean diameter have been investigated employing atomization model. The influences of injection and ambient conditions on spray properties of different blends of modified bio-ethanol and gasoline fuels have been investigated performing high-speed visualization technique. Results indicate that decreasing the difference of injection and ambient pressures increases spray cone angle and projected area, and decreases spray tip penetration length. As expected, increasing injection pressure improves atomization behaviors of the spray. Increasing percentage of modified bio-ethanol in the blend, increases spray tip penetration and decreases the projected area as well.

  2. Theoretical framework for government information service delivery to deep rural communities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, PS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study to determine the information requirements of communities in deep rural areas on government services and how this information can be made available to them. The study then proposes an e-government theoretical framework...

  3. Bounded rationality, abstraction and hierarchical decision-making: an information-theoretic optimality principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eGenewein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and hierarchical information-processing are hallmarks of human and animal intelligence underlying the unrivaled flexibility of behavior in biological systems. Achieving such a flexibility in artificial systems is challenging, even with more and more computational power. Here we investigate the hypothesis that abstraction and hierarchical information-processing might in fact be the consequence of limitations in information-processing power. In particular, we study an information-theoretic framework of bounded rational decision-making that trades off utility maximization against information-processing costs. We apply the basic principle of this framework to perception-action systems with multiple information-processing nodes and derive bounded optimal solutions. We show how the formation of abstractions and decision-making hierarchies depends on information-processing costs. We illustrate the theoretical ideas with example simulations and conclude by formalizing a mathematically unifying optimization principle that could potentially be extended to more complex systems.

  4. Why informally employed Chinese women do not go to the doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyan; Bryson, Stephanie A

    2017-06-01

    Informal employment, in which workers have no security of employment and receive few or no health insurance benefits, has risen sharply in urban China in the last decade. The percentage of women in informal employment in China is higher than in the formal employment sector; 'feminization' has thus become a key feature of informal employment in China. A feminized informal labor sector has far-reaching effects on the status of women's health and on women's health-seeking behavior. To better understand this behavior, especially barriers to health seeking, we conducted 34 interviews informally employed women in Guangzhou, China. For comparative purposes, we also interviewed 22 men in the informal labor sector. Findings reveal that compared with men, women have more serious health problems but report seeking medical attention less frequently. Financial constraints, distrust of doctors and medical expenses, unfriendly treatment environments and traditional attitudes about health and illness among women were the main barriers to health seeking. Implications for health promotion are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Locating sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material smuggling: a spatial information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Jay; Taylor, Jeffrey; Zhou, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM) smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  6. Locating Sensors for Detecting Source-to-Target Patterns of Special Nuclear Material Smuggling: A Spatial Information Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  7. JIDT: An information-theoretic toolkit for studying the dynamics of complex systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Troy Lizier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems are increasingly being viewed as distributed information processing systems, particularly in the domains of computational neuroscience, bioinformatics and Artificial Life. This trend has resulted in a strong uptake in the use of (Shannon information-theoretic measures to analyse the dynamics of complex systems in these fields. We introduce the Java Information Dynamics Toolkit (JIDT: a Google code project which provides a standalone, (GNU GPL v3 licensed open-source code implementation for empirical estimation of information-theoretic measures from time-series data. While the toolkit provides classic information-theoretic measures (e.g. entropy, mutual information, conditional mutual information, it ultimately focusses on implementing higher-level measures for information dynamics. That is, JIDT focusses on quantifying information storage, transfer and modification, and the dynamics of these operations in space and time. For this purpose, it includes implementations of the transfer entropy and active information storage, their multivariate extensions and local or pointwise variants. JIDT provides implementations for both discrete and continuous-valued data for each measure, including various types of estimator for continuous data (e.g. Gaussian, box-kernel and Kraskov-Stoegbauer-Grassberger which can be swapped at run-time due to Java's object-oriented polymorphism. Furthermore, while written in Java, the toolkit can be used directly in MATLAB, GNU Octave, Python and other environments. We present the principles behind the code design, and provide several examples to guide users.

  8. Employment and Work Motivation in the Information Economy: Transformation and Interrelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmuk Nadiya A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study and systematize the trends in the transformation of employment and work motivation in the information economy. As a result of the study, the main trends in the transformation of employment in the information economy are identified. The interrelation between the transformation of employment and work motivation is substantiated. A comparative analysis of the main elements of the motivational model in the traditional and information economy is carried out. A new form of interaction between remote digital workers in distributed teams is explored. A new element of the digital labor market – artificial intelligence – is characterized and its role and place in it is defined. Attention is focused on changing the role of artificial intelligence from the labor market object to its subject. There proposed the author’s definition of the concept “employment in the information economy”, which is based on the change in the essential characteristics of employment under the influence of the development of digital technologies. The interrelation between the transformation of employment and work motivation is substantiated. A comparative analysis of the main elements of the motivational model in the traditional and information economy is carried out. A new form of interaction between remote digital workers in distributed teams is explored.

  9. 77 FR 18 - General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment; Approval of Information Collection Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1915 RIN 1218-AB50 General Working Conditions in Shipyard Employment; Approval of Information Collection Requirements AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health... information requirements contained in the General Working Conditions Standard under the Paperwork Reduction...

  10. 78 FR 22912 - Proposed Extension of the Employment Information Form Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial... Information Form Information Collection AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice... with an opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing collections of information in accordance...

  11. Employers' Statutory Vicarious Liability in Terms of the Protection of Personal Information Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleen Millard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A person whose privacy has been infringed upon through the unlawful, culpable processing of his or her personal information can sue the infringer's employer based on vicarious liability or institute action based on the Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 (POPI. Section 99(1 of POPI provides a person (a "data subject" whose privacy has been infringed upon with the right to institute a civil action against the responsible party. POPI defines the responsible party as the person who determines the purpose of and means for the processing of the personal information of data subjects. Although POPI does not equate a responsible party to an employer, the term "responsible party" is undoubtedly a synonym for "employer" in this context. By holding an employer accountable for its employees' unlawful processing of a data subject's personal information, POPI creates a form of statutory vicarious liability. Since the defences available to an employer at common law and developed by case law differ from the statutory defences available to an employer in terms of POPI, it is necessary to compare the impact this new statute has on employers. From a risk perspective, employers must be aware of the serious implications of POPI. The question that arises is whether the Act perhaps takes matters too far. This article takes a critical look at the statutory defences available to an employer in vindication of a vicarious liability action brought by a data subject in terms of section 99(1 of POPI. It compares the defences found in section 99(2 of POPI and the common-law defences available to an employer fending off a delictual claim founded on the doctrine of vicarious liability. To support the argument that the statutory vicarious liability created by POPI is too harsh, the defences contained in section 99(2 of POPI are further analogised with those available to an employer in terms of section 60(4 of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA and other

  12. Information Theoretic Source Seeking Strategies for Multiagent Plume Tracking in Turbulent Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hajieghrary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present information theoretic search strategies for single and multi-robot teams to localize the source of biochemical contaminants in turbulent flows. The robots synthesize the information provided by sporadic and intermittent sensor readings to optimize their exploration strategy. By leveraging the spatio-temporal sensing capabilities of a mobile sensing network, our strategies result in control actions that maximize the information gained by the team while minimizing the time spent localizing the biochemical source. By leveraging the team’s ability to obtain simultaneous measurements at different locations, we show how a multi-robot team is able to speed up the search process resulting in a collaborative information theoretic search strategy. We validate our proposed strategies in both simulations and experiments.

  13. Phenomenological description of selected elementary chemical reaction mechanisms: An information-theoretic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, R.O., E-mail: esquivel@xanum.uam.m [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Flores-Gallegos, N.; Iuga, C.; Carrera, E.M. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Angulo, J.C. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Antolin, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, EUITIZ, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain)

    2010-02-01

    The information-theoretic description of the course of two elementary chemical reactions allows a phenomenological description of the chemical course of the hydrogenic abstraction and the S{sub N}2 identity reactions by use of Shannon entropic measures in position and momentum spaces. The analyses reveal their synchronous/asynchronous mechanistic behavior.

  14. An Everyday and Theoretical Reading of "Perezhivanie" for Informing Research in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The concept of "perezhivanie" has received increasing attention in recent years. However, a clear understanding of this term has not yet been established. Mostly what is highlighted is the need for more informed theoretical discussion. In this paper, discussions centre on what "perezhivanie" means for research in early…

  15. Phenomenological description of selected elementary chemical reaction mechanisms: An information-theoretic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, R.O.; Flores-Gallegos, N.; Iuga, C.; Carrera, E.M.; Angulo, J.C.; Antolin, J.

    2010-01-01

    The information-theoretic description of the course of two elementary chemical reactions allows a phenomenological description of the chemical course of the hydrogenic abstraction and the S N 2 identity reactions by use of Shannon entropic measures in position and momentum spaces. The analyses reveal their synchronous/asynchronous mechanistic behavior.

  16. On the information-theoretic approach to G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    D'Abramo, Germano

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review and analyze three published proofs of Chaitin's theorem, the celebrated information-theoretic version of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem. Then, we discuss our main perplexity concerning a key step common to all these demonstrations.

  17. Employers' Perceptions of Information Technology Competency Requirements for Management Accounting Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraakman, Gary; O'Grady, Winifred; Askarany, Davood; Akroyd, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Management accountants work in a computerized workplace with information technology (IT) for producing financial ledgers and for reporting. Thus, the role of the management accountant has shifted from capturing and recording transactions to analyzing business issues. The research question is: what IT knowledge and skills do employers require of…

  18. 78 FR 54996 - Information Reporting by Applicable Large Employers on Health Insurance Coverage Offered Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ...) minimizing cost and administrative tasks for the reporting entities and individuals, and (3) providing the... providing the section 6056 reporting is the common law employer. Disregarded entities are treated for... for which the information is reported; (7) if an appropriately designated entity is reporting on...

  19. 77 FR 71634 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Employment and Training Administration Financial Report ACTION... Training Administration Financial Report,'' (Forms ETA-9130, ETA-9130-A, and ETA-9130-B) to the Office of...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations 29 CFR 95.52 and 97.41 codify ETA requirements for certain financial...

  20. 77 FR 31641 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Employment and Training Administration Financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Collection for Employment and Training Administration Financial Report Form ETA-9130, This is an Extension... approved by OMB are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients. The U.S. DOL ETA Financial Report is consistent with OMB efforts to streamline Federal financial reporting pursuant to Public...

  1. Improving employability through research Informed Learning: enhancing student engagement on a vocational outdoor degree

    OpenAIRE

    Hickman, M.; Gray, P.; Inkster, Allison; Passenger, N.; Stokes, Peter; Beard, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Hickman, M., Gray, P., Inkster, A., Passenger, N., Stokes P., and Beard, C. (2015) ‘Improving employability through research Informed Learning: enhancing student engagement on a vocational outdoor degree’, Inspire: Sharing great practice in Social Science teaching and learning Annual Social Sciences Conference2015, Higher Education Academy, The Studio, Manchester, 3-4 December.

  2. Implications of Information Technology for Employment, Skills, and Wages: A Review of Recent Research. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of the research literature on the effects of information technology (IT) on employment levels, job skill requirements, and wages. The first sections provide historical background on earlier waves of concern regarding automation, contemporary public opinion regarding new workplace technology, and trends in…

  3. 75 FR 53724 - Proposed Collection; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT OFFICE Proposed Collection; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information on Applicants, OMB 3046-0046; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The published document in the Federal Register of August 2...

  4. Information-Theoretic Properties of Auditory Sequences Dynamically Influence Expectation and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agres, Kat; Abdallah, Samer; Pearce, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    A basic function of cognition is to detect regularities in sensory input to facilitate the prediction and recognition of future events. It has been proposed that these implicit expectations arise from an internal predictive coding model, based on knowledge acquired through processes such as statistical learning, but it is unclear how different types of statistical information affect listeners' memory for auditory stimuli. We used a combination of behavioral and computational methods to investigate memory for non-linguistic auditory sequences. Participants repeatedly heard tone sequences varying systematically in their information-theoretic properties. Expectedness ratings of tones were collected during three listening sessions, and a recognition memory test was given after each session. Information-theoretic measures of sequential predictability significantly influenced listeners' expectedness ratings, and variations in these properties had a significant impact on memory performance. Predictable sequences yielded increasingly better memory performance with increasing exposure. Computational simulations using a probabilistic model of auditory expectation suggest that listeners dynamically formed a new, and increasingly accurate, implicit cognitive model of the information-theoretic structure of the sequences throughout the experimental session. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. The equivalence of information-theoretic and likelihood-based methods for neural dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ross S; Sahani, Maneesh; Pillow, Jonathan W

    2015-04-01

    Stimulus dimensionality-reduction methods in neuroscience seek to identify a low-dimensional space of stimulus features that affect a neuron's probability of spiking. One popular method, known as maximally informative dimensions (MID), uses an information-theoretic quantity known as "single-spike information" to identify this space. Here we examine MID from a model-based perspective. We show that MID is a maximum-likelihood estimator for the parameters of a linear-nonlinear-Poisson (LNP) model, and that the empirical single-spike information corresponds to the normalized log-likelihood under a Poisson model. This equivalence implies that MID does not necessarily find maximally informative stimulus dimensions when spiking is not well described as Poisson. We provide several examples to illustrate this shortcoming, and derive a lower bound on the information lost when spiking is Bernoulli in discrete time bins. To overcome this limitation, we introduce model-based dimensionality reduction methods for neurons with non-Poisson firing statistics, and show that they can be framed equivalently in likelihood-based or information-theoretic terms. Finally, we show how to overcome practical limitations on the number of stimulus dimensions that MID can estimate by constraining the form of the non-parametric nonlinearity in an LNP model. We illustrate these methods with simulations and data from primate visual cortex.

  6. The equivalence of information-theoretic and likelihood-based methods for neural dimensionality reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross S Williamson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus dimensionality-reduction methods in neuroscience seek to identify a low-dimensional space of stimulus features that affect a neuron's probability of spiking. One popular method, known as maximally informative dimensions (MID, uses an information-theoretic quantity known as "single-spike information" to identify this space. Here we examine MID from a model-based perspective. We show that MID is a maximum-likelihood estimator for the parameters of a linear-nonlinear-Poisson (LNP model, and that the empirical single-spike information corresponds to the normalized log-likelihood under a Poisson model. This equivalence implies that MID does not necessarily find maximally informative stimulus dimensions when spiking is not well described as Poisson. We provide several examples to illustrate this shortcoming, and derive a lower bound on the information lost when spiking is Bernoulli in discrete time bins. To overcome this limitation, we introduce model-based dimensionality reduction methods for neurons with non-Poisson firing statistics, and show that they can be framed equivalently in likelihood-based or information-theoretic terms. Finally, we show how to overcome practical limitations on the number of stimulus dimensions that MID can estimate by constraining the form of the non-parametric nonlinearity in an LNP model. We illustrate these methods with simulations and data from primate visual cortex.

  7. Managing disclosure of personal information: An opportunity to enhance supported employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielscher, Emily; Waghorn, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    To first provide an overview of studies that explore mental health disclosure in the workplace; including factors that influence the decision to disclose, and differing approaches to disclosure (binary, multidimensional, and evolving and ongoing). Second, to provide a critical overview of existing tools designed to help clients manage their mental health disclosure decisions. Electronic searches of PubMed, PsycINFO and ScienceDirect were undertaken, excluding all articles published prior to 1990. The following search terms were used: mental health disclosure, employment, severe and persistent mental illness, psychosis, schizophrenia, supported employment, individual placement and support (IPS). We found that mental health disclosure involves a complex decision-making process, and yet clients of IPS supported employment are currently provided with little structured guidance on how to manage their personal information in the workplace. More extensive investigations are required of existing mental health disclosure tools before they can be developed into a standardized intervention for practitioners. However, preliminary evidence suggests that facilitating better disclosure decisions and management of personal information is a promising area of future research. This line of investigation is likely to find ways to enhance competitive employment outcomes in supported employment for people with severe and persistent mental illness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. 77 FR 24225 - Information Collection Approval; Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Information Collection Approval; Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States AGENCY: Employment and Training... the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States; Final Rule. See 77 FR...

  9. An information-theoretic approach to the modeling and analysis of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Garrett; Abante, Jordi; Feinberg, Andrew P; Goutsias, John

    2018-03-07

    DNA methylation is a stable form of epigenetic memory used by cells to control gene expression. Whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) has emerged as a gold-standard experimental technique for studying DNA methylation by producing high resolution genome-wide methylation profiles. Statistical modeling and analysis is employed to computationally extract and quantify information from these profiles in an effort to identify regions of the genome that demonstrate crucial or aberrant epigenetic behavior. However, the performance of most currently available methods for methylation analysis is hampered by their inability to directly account for statistical dependencies between neighboring methylation sites, thus ignoring significant information available in WGBS reads. We present a powerful information-theoretic approach for genome-wide modeling and analysis of WGBS data based on the 1D Ising model of statistical physics. This approach takes into account correlations in methylation by utilizing a joint probability model that encapsulates all information available in WGBS methylation reads and produces accurate results even when applied on single WGBS samples with low coverage. Using the Shannon entropy, our approach provides a rigorous quantification of methylation stochasticity in individual WGBS samples genome-wide. Furthermore, it utilizes the Jensen-Shannon distance to evaluate differences in methylation distributions between a test and a reference sample. Differential performance assessment using simulated and real human lung normal/cancer data demonstrate a clear superiority of our approach over DSS, a recently proposed method for WGBS data analysis. Critically, these results demonstrate that marginal methods become statistically invalid when correlations are present in the data. This contribution demonstrates clear benefits and the necessity of modeling joint probability distributions of methylation using the 1D Ising model of statistical physics and of

  10. Employment Pattern, Skills and Training Issues among Informal Sector Workers in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An informal sector in any economy provides different kinds of employment opportunities to people. In Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the female are more involved in regular jobs as compare to the causal and self-employed workers. The secondary and college studied male and female are found more in regular jobs. The high school studied male and illiterate female are working on causal jobs. The causal jobs do not require more education and skills. In self-employed category, the secondary school studied male and high school studied female are found more. The monthly income of workers involved in regular jobs is much higher than the causal and self-employed workers. The moderate malnourished females are found more as compare to the male in causal and self-employed category. The multi nominal logit regression model shows that the causal workers have positive correlation with illiterate male but it is negatively co-related with high school studied male, illiterate and secondary studied female. The monthly income, source of water, refrigerator and condom use is negatively co-related with causal workers as compare to regular workers. The self-employed workers have negative co-relation with monthly wage, source of water and watch cinema regularly as compare to the regular workers. Therefore government must provide infrastructural facilities in all slums of region. The infrastructural facilities such as water supply, electricity, sewage and solid waste collection must be provided in all slums of region. Causal workers must be provided the vocational training to start their own business. Commercial and co-operative banks must provide loans to poor people of slums. Females must be encouraged to take loan and start small business. Government must provide low cost housing to causal and self-employed workers in region. Such policies will certainly improve standard of living of informal sector workers in region.

  11. Political attitudes and opinions of the informally employed in Latina America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín TEMKIN YEDWAB

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although labor informality has been identified for years as a central issue for Latin American countries’ public policy, there is still scant information about the characteristics of informal employment in different spheres. The main objective of this study is to identify the views and political attitudes of informal workers in Latin America, and compare them to those held by their formal counterparts. Through a ‹‹proxy›› variable used to identify informal participants in the labor force in two opinion polls that apply to a broad set of countries in the region, it was possible to show that Latin American informals constitute a social group with political opinions and attitudes significantly contrasting with formal participants in the workforce.

  12. Expectancy-Violation and Information-Theoretic Models of Melodic Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Eerola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study assesses two types of models for melodic complexity: one based on expectancy violations and the other one related to an information-theoretic account of redundancy in music. Seven different datasets spanning artificial sequences, folk and pop songs were used to refine and assess the models. The refinement eliminated unnecessary components from both types of models. The final analysis pitted three variants of the two model types against each other and could explain from 46-74% of the variance in the ratings across the datasets. The most parsimonious models were identified with an information-theoretic criterion. This suggested that the simplified expectancy-violation models were the most efficient for these sets of data. However, the differences between all optimized models were subtle in terms both of performance and simplicity.

  13. An integrated organisation-wide data quality management and information governance framework: theoretical underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Pearce, Christopher; Liyanage, Harshana; Liaw, Gladys S S; de Lusignan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Increasing investment in eHealth aims to improve cost effectiveness and safety of care. Data extraction and aggregation can create new data products to improve professional practice and provide feedback to improve the quality of source data. A previous systematic review concluded that locally relevant clinical indicators and use of clinical record systems could support clinical governance. We aimed to extend and update the review with a theoretical framework. We searched PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ABI Inform (Proquest) and Business Source Premier (EBSCO) using the terms curation, information ecosystem, data quality management (DQM), data governance, information governance (IG) and data stewardship. We focused on and analysed the scope of DQM and IG processes, theoretical frameworks, and determinants of the processing, quality assurance, presentation and sharing of data across the enterprise. There are good theoretical reasons for integrated governance, but there is variable alignment of DQM, IG and health system objectives across the health enterprise. Ethical constraints exist that require health information ecosystems to process data in ways that are aligned with improving health and system efficiency and ensuring patient safety. Despite an increasingly 'big-data' environment, DQM and IG in health services are still fragmented across the data production cycle. We extend current work on DQM and IG with a theoretical framework for integrated IG across the data cycle. The dimensions of this theory-based framework would require testing with qualitative and quantitative studies to examine the applicability and utility, along with an evaluation of its impact on data quality across the health enterprise.

  14. An integrated organisation-wide data quality management and information governance framework: theoretical underpinnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaw-Teng Liaw

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Increasing investment in eHealth aims to improve cost effectiveness and safety of care. Data extraction and aggregation can create new data products to improve professional practice and provide feedback to improve the quality of source data. A previous systematic review concluded that locally relevant clinical indicators and use of clinical record systems could support clinical governance. We aimed to extend and update the review with a theoretical framework.Methods We searched PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ABI Inform (Proquest and Business Source Premier (EBSCO using the terms curation, information ecosystem, data quality management (DQM, data governance, information governance (IG and data stewardship. We focused on and analysed the scope of DQM and IG processes, theoretical frameworks, and determinants of the processing, quality assurance, presentation and sharing of data across the enterprise.Findings There are good theoretical reasons for integrated governance, but there is variable alignment of DQM, IG and health system objectives across the health enterprise. Ethical constraints exist that require health information ecosystems to process data in ways that are aligned with improving health and system efficiency and ensuring patient safety. Despite an increasingly ‘big-data’ environment, DQM and IG in health services are still fragmented across the data production cycle. We extend current work on DQM and IG with a theoretical framework for integrated IG across the data cycle.Conclusions The dimensions of this theory-based framework would require testing with qualitative and quantitative studies to examine the applicability and utility, along with an evaluation of its impact on data quality across the health enterprise.

  15. Information-Theoretic Conditions for Two-Party Secure Function Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffner, Christian; Crépeau, Claude; Savvides, George

    2006-01-01

    The standard security definition of unconditional secure function evaluation, which is based on the ideal/real model paradigm, has the disadvantage of being overly complicated to work with in practice. On the other hand, simpler ad-hoc definitions tailored to special scenarios have often been...... flawed. Motivated by this unsatisfactory situation, we give an information-theoretic security definition of secure function evaluation which is very simple yet provably equivalent to the standard, simulation-based definitions....

  16. Monotonic Convergence in an Information-Theoretic Law of Small Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yaming

    2008-01-01

    An "entropy increasing to the maximum" result analogous to the entropic central limit theorem (Barron 1986; Artstein et al. 2004) is obtained in the discrete setting. This involves the thinning operation and a Poisson limit. Monotonic convergence in relative entropy is established for general discrete distributions, while monotonic increase of Shannon entropy is proved for the special class of ultra-log-concave distributions. Overall we extend the parallel between the information-theoretic ce...

  17. Information sharing among health care employers: using technology to create an advantageous culture of sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer; Cantiello, John; Cortelyou-Ward, Kendall; Noblin, Alice M

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the theory of interagency information sharing as a lens to determine the benefits, risks, and past experiences of those involved in information sharing. The authors analyze the current existent literature related to sharing of information between health care employers. A theory that could be useful in the creation of a policy and management framework that would facilitate information sharing is also thoroughly explored. Commentary and analysis result in strategies for health care employers to utilize when facing the challenging issues involved with hiring employees. The paper details how human resource professionals can utilize technology and existing theory to properly implement information sharing techniques into their organization. The information technology changes that are taking place within health care organizations and systems across the country create the opportunity for these organizations and systems to proactively implement strategies that will positively affect organizational performance. By investing in information sharing techniques while utilizing the theories outlined in this paper, organizations and systems may avoid many of the issues associated with hiring problem employees.

  18. Relativistic Klein-Gordon charge effects by information-theoretic measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano, D; Yanez, R J; Dehesa, J S [Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: manzano@ugr.es, E-mail: ryanez@ugr.es, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.es

    2010-02-15

    The charge spreading of the ground and excited states of Klein-Gordon particles moving in a Coulomb potential is quantitatively analysed by means of ordinary moments and the Heisenberg measure as well as by using the most relevant information-theoretic measures of global (Shannon entropic power) and local (Fisher information) types. The dependence of these complementary quantities on the nuclear charge Z and the quantum numbers characterizing the physical states is carefully discussed. The comparison of relativistic Klein-Gordon and non-relativistic Schroedinger values is made. Non-relativistic limits at large principal quantum number n and for small values of Z are also reached.

  19. Information-theoretic measures of hydrogen-like ions in weakly coupled Debye plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Li Rong; Jiao, Li Guang; Ma, Jia; Ho, Yew Kam

    2017-12-01

    Recent development of information theory provides researchers an alternative and useful tool to quantitatively investigate the variation of the electronic structure when atoms interact with the external environment. In this work, we make systematic studies on the information-theoretic measures for hydrogen-like ions immersed in weakly coupled plasmas modeled by Debye-Hückel potential. Shannon entropy, Fisher information, and Fisher-Shannon complexity in both position and momentum spaces are quantified in high accuracy for the hydrogen atom in a large number of stationary states. The plasma screening effect on embedded atoms can significantly affect the electronic density distributions, in both conjugate spaces, and it is quantified by the variation of information quantities. It is shown that the composite quantities (the Shannon entropy sum and the Fisher information product in combined spaces and Fisher-Shannon complexity in individual space) give a more comprehensive description of the atomic structure information than single ones. The nodes of wave functions play a significant role in the changes of composite information quantities caused by plasmas. With the continuously increasing screening strength, all composite quantities in circular states increase monotonously, while in higher-lying excited states where nodal structures exist, they first decrease to a minimum and then increase rapidly before the bound state approaches the continuum limit. The minimum represents the most reduction of uncertainty properties of the atom in plasmas. The lower bounds for the uncertainty product of the system based on composite information quantities are discussed. Our research presents a comprehensive survey in the investigation of information-theoretic measures for simple atoms embedded in Debye model plasmas.

  20. Information-theoretic security proof of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution protocol based on complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Akihiro; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Kato, Go; Takeuchi, Yuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    We prove the information-theoretic security of the differential-phase-shift (DPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol in the asymptotic regime based on the complementarity approach (arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)). Our security proof provides a slightly better key generation rate compared to the one derived in the previous security proof in (arXiv:1208.1995 (2012)) that is based on the Shor-Preskill approach (Shor and Preskill 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 441). This improvement is obtained because the complementarity approach can employ more detailed information on Alice’s sending state in estimating the leaked information to an eavesdropper. Moreover, we remove the necessity of the numerical calculation that was needed in the previous analysis to estimate the leaked information. This leads to an advantage that our security proof enables us to evaluate the security of the DPS protocol with any block size. This paper highlights one of the fundamental differences between the Shor-Preskill and the complementarity approaches.

  1. INFORMATION TECHONOLOGY AND LIFELONG EDUCATION – IMPLICATIONS ON THE EU EMPLOYED POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality and the skills of human resources are important factors in the success of every organization wherever it act. Moreover this is really true in a very competitive market such as European Union. In the European Union the number of persons who are taking part in high education studies after the age of 25 years has seen an upward trend in recent years, increasing thus the share of employed graduates of tertiary education in total employment over 25 years. This increase is generated by the access to education forms adapted in terms of time and location of training. The appearance and development of these forms can be explained by the use of information technology (Internet access. Statistics show that in the EU, household access to the Internet and its frequency of use was also increasing, approximately 80% of all persons aged 16 to 74 years have ever used this information and communication tool.

  2. Perspectives on Cybersecurity Information Sharing among Multiple Stakeholders Using a Decision-Theoretic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meilin; Devine, Laura; Zhuang, Jun

    2018-02-01

    The government, private sectors, and others users of the Internet are increasingly faced with the risk of cyber incidents. Damage to computer systems and theft of sensitive data caused by cyber attacks have the potential to result in lasting harm to entities under attack, or to society as a whole. The effects of cyber attacks are not always obvious, and detecting them is not a simple proposition. As the U.S. federal government believes that information sharing on cybersecurity issues among organizations is essential to safety, security, and resilience, the importance of trusted information exchange has been emphasized to support public and private decision making by encouraging the creation of the Information Sharing and Analysis Center (ISAC). Through a decision-theoretic approach, this article provides new perspectives on ISAC, and the advent of the new Information Sharing and Analysis Organizations (ISAOs), which are intended to provide similar benefits to organizations that cannot fit easily into the ISAC structure. To help understand the processes of information sharing against cyber threats, this article illustrates 15 representative information sharing structures between ISAC, government, and other participating entities, and provide discussions on the strategic interactions between different stakeholders. This article also identifies the costs of information sharing and information security borne by different parties in this public-private partnership both before and after cyber attacks, as well as the two main benefits. This article provides perspectives on the mechanism of information sharing and some detailed cost-benefit analysis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. An Information-Theoretic Perspective on Coarse-Graining, Including the Transition from Micro to Macro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Lindgren

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An information-theoretic perspective on coarse-graining is presented. It starts with an information characterization of configurations at the micro-level using a local information quantity that has a spatial average equal to a microscopic entropy. With a reversible micro dynamics, this entropy is conserved. In the micro-macro transition, it is shown how this local information quantity is transformed into a macroscopic entropy, as the local states are aggregated into macroscopic concentration variables. The information loss in this transition is identified, and the connection to the irreversibility of the macro dynamics and the second law of thermodynamics is discussed. This is then connected to a process of further coarse-graining towards higher characteristic length scales in the context of chemical reaction-diffusion dynamics capable of pattern formation. On these higher levels of coarse-graining, information flows across length scales and across space are defined. These flows obey a continuity equation for information, and they are connected to the thermodynamic constraints of the system, via an outflow of information from macroscopic to microscopic levels in the form of entropy production, as well as an inflow of information, from an external free energy source, if a spatial chemical pattern is to be maintained.

  4. Theoretical methodological analysis of indexes of preparedness of children of сhernobyl to health employments swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babalich V.A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Verification of readiness of children is carried out to health employments on swimming. An evaluation reeved for 10 ball scale. The health role of swimming is rotined as compared to other types of physical exercises. Morphofunctional and bodily condition of children is found out. The level of formed of knowledges is considered about facilities of improvement of own health. An accent is done on the necessity of expansion of range of possible ways of making healthy of children. Needs sound study questions of the individual making healthy of children by facilities of swimming.

  5. The informal recycling in the international and local context: theoretical Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepes P, Dora Luz

    2002-01-01

    This article is a synthesis of the theoretical aspects related with the urban problem of the informal recycling in our means, and it is framed inside the denominated investigation project alternatives for their invigoration of the informal recycling in Medellin, which is a thesis of the grade that looks for to strengthen the informal recycling through the study of the factors associated to the labor productivity of the informal recycle. Specifically, the study will identify options of improvement of its work y points to propose alternatives to dignify the labor of these people integrally by the light of environmental precepts, technicians, normative, institutional social and of sustainability. This document describe the theoretical elements in which this investigation will be based, showing the informal recycling inside of an international context, and their situation in a national and local environment. As a result of the bibliographical revision carried out, can be said, that it glimpses a low interest in to improve the conditions of work a International level of the informal recycle, unless the strategies that it outlines the international labor organization, with regard to the strengthening of the informal economy; in Latin America, it has not been possible to go further of the official rhetoric and the pro motion of the groups environmentalists, but in the issue of the recovery policies, reuse, and the recycling of solid wastes, if there. Has been a sustained advance; at national level clear strategies to improve the informal work of the recycle are being identified, however, lacks many efforts to develop the committed actions with these strategies, in spite of the fact that has been advancing the creation of recycle organizations little by little

  6. A short course in quantum information theory. An approach from theoretical physics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    This short and concise primer takes the vantage point of theoretical physics and the unity of physics. It sets out to strip the burgeoning field of quantum information science to its basics by linking it to universal concepts in physics. An extensive lecture rather than a comprehensive textbook, this volume is based on courses delivered over several years to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, but essentially it addresses anyone with a working knowledge of basic quantum physics. Readers will find these lectures a most adequate entry point for theoretical studies in this field. For the second edition, the authors has succeeded in adding many new topics while sticking to the conciseness of the overall approach. A new chapter on qubit thermodynamics has been added, while new sections and subsections have been incorporated in various chapter to deal with weak and time-continuous measurements, period-finding quantum algorithms and quantum error corrections. From the reviews of the first edition: ''The best things about this book are its brevity and clarity. In around 100 pages it provides a tutorial introduction to quantum information theory, including problems and solutions.. it's worth a look if you want to quickly get up to speed with the language and central concepts of quantum information theory, including the background classical information theory.'' (Craig Savage, Australian Physics, Vol. 44 (2), 2007). (orig.)

  7. The Waterfilling Game-Theoretical Framework for Distributed Wireless Network Information Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cottatellucci Laura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a general game-theoretical framework for power allocation in the downlink of distributed wireless small-cell networks, where multiple access points (APs or small base stations send independent coded network information to multiple mobile terminals (MTs through orthogonal channels. In such a game-theoretical study, a central question is whether a Nash equilibrium (NE exists, and if so, whether the network operates efficiently at the NE. For independent continuous fading channels, we prove that the probability of a unique NE existing in the game is equal to 1. Furthermore, we show that this power allocation problem can be studied as a potential game, and hence efficiently solved. In order to reach the NE, we propose a distributed waterfilling-based algorithm requiring very limited feedback. The convergence behavior of the proposed algorithm is discussed. Finally, numerical results are provided to investigate the price of anarchy or inefficiency of the NE.

  8. A short course in quantum information theory an approach from theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Diosi, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    This short and concise primer takes the vantage point of theoretical physics and the unity of physics. It sets out to strip the burgeoning field of quantum information science to its basics by linking it to universal concepts in physics. An extensive lecture rather than a comprehensive textbook, this volume is based on courses delivered over several years to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, but essentially it addresses anyone with a working knowledge of basic quantum physics. Readers will find these lectures a most adequate entry point for theoretical studies in this field. For the second edition, the authors has succeeded in adding many new topics while sticking to the conciseness of the overall approach. A new chapter on qubit thermodynamics has been added, while new sections and subsections have been incorporated in various chapter to deal with weak and time-continuous measurements, period-finding quantum algorithms and quantum error corrections. From the reviews of the first edition...

  9. Rural Men's Health, Health Information Seeking, and Gender Identities: A Conceptual Theoretical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Bradley; Leipert, Beverly; Regan, Sandra; Burkell, Jacquelyn

    2016-05-11

    Beginning as early as 2009, recent shifts in Canadian health care delivery indicate that access to health information is essential to promote and maintain a healthy population. It is important to understand how and where various populations, such as underresourced rural populations, access health information so that public health agencies can develop and deliver appropriate information with, for, and in these contexts. There is a paucity of research that specifically examines how rural Canadian men seek health information; therefore, this review aimed to conceptualize this process based on three dynamic key constructs: health patterns of rural Canadians, health information-seeking behaviors, and rural gender identities. This conceptual theoretical literature review included 91 articles at the intersection of these three constructs. Discussion focuses on how residing in a rural region influences men's health and health care access. Health information-seeking behaviors are discussed in terms of social networks and framed with a rural context. Connell's theory of masculinity provides a useful approach to dissecting how rural men's gender identities influence their health attitudes, and how such attitudes are embedded in rural social and cultural norms. Each major construct-health in rural Canada, health information seeking, and rural gender identities-is discussed to highlight how specific embodiments of masculinity may promote and inhibit men's health information-seeking and positive health behaviors. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. An Information-Theoretic-Cluster Visualization for Self-Organizing Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito da Silva, Leonardo Enzo; Wunsch, Donald C

    2017-05-17

    Improved data visualization will be a significant tool to enhance cluster analysis. In this paper, an information-theoretic-based method for cluster visualization using self-organizing maps (SOMs) is presented. The information-theoretic visualization (IT-vis) has the same structure as the unified distance matrix, but instead of depicting Euclidean distances between adjacent neurons, it displays the similarity between the distributions associated with adjacent neurons. Each SOM neuron has an associated subset of the data set whose cardinality controls the granularity of the IT-vis and with which the first- and second-order statistics are computed and used to estimate their probability density functions. These are used to calculate the similarity measure, based on Renyi's quadratic cross entropy and cross information potential (CIP). The introduced visualizations combine the low computational cost and kernel estimation properties of the representative CIP and the data structure representation of a single-linkage-based grouping algorithm to generate an enhanced SOM-based visualization. The visual quality of the IT-vis is assessed by comparing it with other visualization methods for several real-world and synthetic benchmark data sets. Thus, this paper also contains a significant literature survey. The experiments demonstrate the IT-vis cluster revealing capabilities, in which cluster boundaries are sharply captured. Additionally, the information-theoretic visualizations are used to perform clustering of the SOM. Compared with other methods, IT-vis of large SOMs yielded the best results in this paper, for which the quality of the final partitions was evaluated using external validity indices.

  11. Information-theoretic model selection for optimal prediction of stochastic dynamical systems from data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, David

    2018-03-01

    In the absence of mechanistic or phenomenological models of real-world systems, data-driven models become necessary. The discovery of various embedding theorems in the 1980s and 1990s motivated a powerful set of tools for analyzing deterministic dynamical systems via delay-coordinate embeddings of observations of their component states. However, in many branches of science, the condition of operational determinism is not satisfied, and stochastic models must be brought to bear. For such stochastic models, the tool set developed for delay-coordinate embedding is no longer appropriate, and a new toolkit must be developed. We present an information-theoretic criterion, the negative log-predictive likelihood, for selecting the embedding dimension for a predictively optimal data-driven model of a stochastic dynamical system. We develop a nonparametric estimator for the negative log-predictive likelihood and compare its performance to a recently proposed criterion based on active information storage. Finally, we show how the output of the model selection procedure can be used to compare candidate predictors for a stochastic system to an information-theoretic lower bound.

  12. Dimensionality reduction and information-theoretic divergence between sets of LADAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David M.; Príncipe, José C.

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of information-theoretic divergence between sets of LADAR image data. This study has been motivated by the hypothesis that despite the huge dimensionality of raw image space, related images actually lie on embedded manifolds within this set of all possible images and can be represented in much lowerdimensional sub-spaces. If these low-dimensional representations can be found, information theoretic properties of the images can be exploited while circumventing many of the problems associated with the so-called "curse of dimensionality." In this study, PCA techniques are used to find a low-dimensional sub-space representation of LADAR image sets. A real LADAR image data set was collected using the AFSTAR sensor and a synthetic image data set was created using the Irma LADAR image modeling program. One unique aspect of this study is the use of an entirely synthetic data set to find a sub-space representation that is reasonably valid for both the synthetic data set and the real data set. After the sub-space representation is found, an information-theoretic density divergence measure (Cauchy- Schwarz divergence) is computed using Parzen window estimation methods to find the divergence between and among the sets of synthetic and real target classes. These divergence measures can then be used to make target classification decisions for sets of images. In practice, this technique could be used to make classification decisions on multiple images collected from a moving sensor platform or from a geographically distributed set of cooperating sensor platforms operating in a target region.

  13. An information theoretic approach to assessing Gene-Ontology-driven similarity and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Azuaje, Francisco; Zheng, Huiru

    2014-01-01

    Using information-theoretic approaches, this paper presents a cross-platform system to support the integration of Gene Ontology (GO)-driven similarity knowledge into functional genomics. Three GO-driven similarity measures (Resnik's, Lin's and Jiang's metrics) have been implemented to measure between-term similarity within each of the GO hierarchies. Two approaches (simple and highest average similarity) which are based on the aggregation of between-term similarities, are used to estimate the similarity between gene products. The system has been successfully applied to a number of applications including assessing gene expression correlation patterns and the relationships between GO-driven similarity and other functional properties.

  14. Exploring super-gaussianity towards robust information-theoretical time delay estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodoros; Talantzis, Fotios; Boukis, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Time delay estimation (TDE) is a fundamental component of speaker localization and tracking algorithms. Most of the existing systems are based on the generalized cross-correlation method assuming gaussianity of the source. It has been shown that the distribution of speech, captured with far...... the effect upon TDE when modeling the source signal with different speech-based distributions. An information theoretical TDE method indirectly encapsulating higher order statistics (HOS) formed the basis of this work. The underlying assumption of Gaussian distributed source has been replaced...

  15. E-loyalty towards a cancer information website: applying a theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, Rik; Beekers, Nienke; van Eenbergen, Mies; Becker, Monique; Jongen, Lilian; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2014-06-01

    To provide more insight into user perceptions related to e-loyalty towards a cancer information website. This is needed to assure adequate provision of high quality information during the full process of cancer treatment-from diagnosis to after care-and an important first step towards optimizing cancer information websites in order to promote e-loyalty. Participants were cancer patients (n = 63) and informal caregivers (n = 202) that visited a website providing regional information about cancer care for all types of cancer. Subsequently, they filled out a questionnaire assessing e-loyalty towards the website and user perceptions (efficiency, effectiveness, active trust and enjoyment) based on a theoretical framework derived from the field of e-commerce. A structural equation model was constructed to test the relationships between user perceptions and e-loyalty. Participants in general could find the information they were looking for (efficiency), thought it was relevant (effectiveness) and that they could act upon it (active trust) and thought the visit itself was pleasant (enjoyment). Effectiveness and enjoyment were both positively related with e-loyalty, but this was mediated by active trust. Efficiency was positively related with e-loyalty. The explained variance of e-loyalty was high (R(2)  = 0.70). This study demonstrates that the importance of user perceptions is not limited to fields such as e-commerce but is also present within the context of cancer information websites. The high information need among participants might explain the positive relationship between efficiency and e-loyalty. Therefore, cancer information websites need to foster easy search and access of information provided. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Information Theoretic Approaches to Rapid Discovery of Relationships in Large Climate Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Rossow, William B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Mutual information as the asymptotic Bayesian measure of independence is an excellent starting point for investigating the existence of possible relationships among climate-relevant variables in large data sets, As mutual information is a nonlinear function of of its arguments, it is not beholden to the assumption of a linear relationship between the variables in question and can reveal features missed in linear correlation analyses. However, as mutual information is symmetric in its arguments, it only has the ability to reveal the probability that two variables are related. it provides no information as to how they are related; specifically, causal interactions or a relation based on a common cause cannot be detected. For this reason we also investigate the utility of a related quantity called the transfer entropy. The transfer entropy can be written as a difference between mutual informations and has the capability to reveal whether and how the variables are causally related. The application of these information theoretic measures is rested on some familiar examples using data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) to identify relation between global cloud cover and other variables, including equatorial pacific sea surface temperature (SST), over seasonal and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles.

  17. Information-Theoretic Approaches for Evaluating Complex Adaptive Social Simulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Jiao, Yu [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose information-theoretic approaches for comparing and evaluating complex agent-based models. In information theoretic terms, entropy and mutual information are two measures of system complexity. We used entropy as a measure of the regularity of the number of agents in a social class; and mutual information as a measure of information shared by two social classes. Using our approaches, we compared two analogous agent-based (AB) models developed for regional-scale social-simulation system. The first AB model, called ABM-1, is a complex AB built with 10,000 agents on a desktop environment and used aggregate data; the second AB model, ABM-2, was built with 31 million agents on a highperformance computing framework located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and fine-resolution data from the LandScan Global Population Database. The initializations were slightly different, with ABM-1 using samples from a probability distribution and ABM-2 using polling data from Gallop for a deterministic initialization. The geographical and temporal domain was present-day Afghanistan, and the end result was the number of agents with one of three behavioral modes (proinsurgent, neutral, and pro-government) corresponding to the population mindshare. The theories embedded in each model were identical, and the test simulations focused on a test of three leadership theories - legitimacy, coercion, and representative, and two social mobilization theories - social influence and repression. The theories are tied together using the Cobb-Douglas utility function. Based on our results, the hypothesis that performance measures can be developed to compare and contrast AB models appears to be supported. Furthermore, we observed significant bias in the two models. Even so, further tests and investigations are required not only with a wider class of theories and AB models, but also with additional observed or simulated data and more comprehensive performance measures.

  18. Informal care, employment and quality of life: Barriers and facilitators to combining informal care and work participation for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitink, Eveline; Heerkens, Yvonne; Engels, Josephine

    2017-01-01

    In The Netherlands, one out of six Dutch employees has informal care tasks; in the hospital and healthcare sector, this ratio is one out of four workers. Informal carers experience problems with the combination of work and informal care. In particular, they have problems with the burden of responsibility, a lack of independence and their health. These problems can reveal themselves in a variety of mental and physical symptoms that can result in absenteeism, reduction or loss of (work) participation, reduction of income, and even social isolation. The aim of the study was to describe the factors that informal carers who are employed in healthcare organizations identify as affecting their quality of life, labour participation and health. We conducted an exploratory study in 2013-2014 that included desk research and a qualitative study. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with healthcare employees who combine work and informal care. Data were analyzed with Atlas-TI. We identified five themes: 1. Fear and responsibility; 2. Sense that one's own needs are not being met; 3. Work as an escape from home; 4. Health: a lack of balance; and 5. The role of colleagues and managers: giving support and understanding. Respondents combine work and informal care because they have no other solution. The top three reasons for working are: income, escape from home and satisfaction. The biggest problems informal carers experience are a lack of time and energy. They are all tired and are often or always exhausted at the end of the day. They give up activities for themselves, their social networks become smaller and they have less interest in social activities. Their managers are usually aware of the situation, but informal care is not a topic of informal conversation or in performance appraisals. Respondents solve their problems with colleagues and expect little from the organization.

  19. Information-Theoretic Measures Predict the Human Judgment of Rhythm Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fleurian, Remi; Blackwell, Tim; Ben-Tal, Oded; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    To formalize the human judgment of rhythm complexity, we used five measures from information theory and algorithmic complexity to measure the complexity of 48 artificially generated rhythmic sequences. We compared these measurements to human prediction accuracy and easiness judgments obtained from a listening experiment, in which 32 participants guessed the last beat of each sequence. We also investigated the modulating effects of musical expertise and general pattern identification ability. Entropy rate and Kolmogorov complexity were correlated with prediction accuracy, and highly correlated with easiness judgments. A logistic regression showed main effects of musical training, entropy rate, and Kolmogorov complexity, and an interaction between musical training and both entropy rate and Kolmogorov complexity. These results indicate that information-theoretic concepts capture some salient features of the human judgment of rhythm complexity, and they confirm the influence of musical expertise on complexity judgments. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Experimental Verification of a Jarzynski-Related Information-Theoretic Equality by a Single Trapped Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, T. P.; Yan, L. L.; Zhou, F.; Rehan, K.; Liang, D. F.; Chen, L.; Yang, W. L.; Ma, Z. H.; Feng, M.; Vedral, V.

    2018-01-01

    Most nonequilibrium processes in thermodynamics are quantified only by inequalities; however, the Jarzynski relation presents a remarkably simple and general equality relating nonequilibrium quantities with the equilibrium free energy, and this equality holds in both the classical and quantum regimes. We report a single-spin test and confirmation of the Jarzynski relation in the quantum regime using a single ultracold Ca40 + ion trapped in a harmonic potential, based on a general information-theoretic equality for a temporal evolution of the system sandwiched between two projective measurements. By considering both initially pure and mixed states, respectively, we verify, in an exact and fundamental fashion, the nonequilibrium quantum thermodynamics relevant to the mutual information and Jarzynski equality.

  1. A Scheme to Share Information via Employing Discrete Algorithm to Quantum States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Guodong; Fang Maofa

    2011-01-01

    We propose a protocol for information sharing between two legitimate parties (Bob and Alice) via public-key cryptography. In particular, we specialize the protocol by employing discrete algorithm under mod that maps integers to quantum states via photon rotations. Based on this algorithm, we find that the protocol is secure under various classes of attacks. Specially, owe to the algorithm, the security of the classical privacy contained in the quantum public-key and the corresponding cipher text is guaranteed. And the protocol is robust against the impersonation attack and the active wiretapping attack by designing particular checking processing, thus the protocol is valid. (general)

  2. A secure approach for encrypting and compressing biometric information employing orthogonal code and steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad F.; Islam, Mohammed N.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a novel approach for encryption and compression of biometric information utilizing orthogonal coding and steganography techniques. Multiple biometric signatures are encrypted individually using orthogonal codes and then multiplexed together to form a single image, which is then embedded in a cover image using the proposed steganography technique. The proposed technique employs three least significant bits for this purpose and a secret key is developed to choose one from among these bits to be replaced by the corresponding bit of the biometric image. The proposed technique offers secure transmission of multiple biometric signatures in an identification document which will be protected from unauthorized steganalysis attempt.

  3. An Information-Theoretic Approach for Indirect Train Traffic Monitoring Using Building Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an indirect train traffic monitoring method to detect and infer real-time train events based on the vibration response of a nearby building. Monitoring and characterizing traffic events are important for cities to improve the efficiency of transportation systems (e.g., train passing, heavy trucks, and traffic. Most prior work falls into two categories: (1 methods that require intensive labor to manually record events or (2 systems that require deployment of dedicated sensors. These approaches are difficult and costly to execute and maintain. In addition, most prior work uses dedicated sensors designed for a single purpose, resulting in deployment of multiple sensor systems. This further increases costs. Meanwhile, with the increasing demands of structural health monitoring, many vibration sensors are being deployed in commercial buildings. Traffic events create ground vibration that propagates to nearby building structures inducing noisy vibration responses. We present an information-theoretic method for train event monitoring using commonly existing vibration sensors deployed for building health monitoring. The key idea is to represent the wave propagation in a building induced by train traffic as information conveyed in noisy measurement signals. Our technique first uses wavelet analysis to detect train events. Then, by analyzing information exchange patterns of building vibration signals, we infer the category of the events (i.e., southbound or northbound train. Our algorithm is evaluated with an 11-story building where trains pass by frequently. The results show that the method can robustly achieve a train event detection accuracy of up to a 93% true positive rate and an 80% true negative rate. For direction categorization, compared with the traditional signal processing method, our information-theoretic approach reduces categorization error from 32.1 to 12.1%, which is a 2.5× improvement.

  4. Investigating nurse practitioners in the private sector: a theoretically informed research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Margaret; Gardner, Glenn; Yates, Patsy

    2017-06-01

    To report a study protocol and the theoretical framework normalisation process theory that informs this protocol for a case study investigation of private sector nurse practitioners. Most research evaluating nurse practitioner service is focused on public, mainly acute care environments where nurse practitioner service is well established with strong structures for governance and sustainability. Conversely, there is lack of clarity in governance for emerging models in the private sector. In a climate of healthcare reform, nurse practitioner service is extending beyond the familiar public health sector. Further research is required to inform knowledge of the practice, operational framework and governance of new nurse practitioner models. The proposed research will use a multiple exploratory case study design to examine private sector nurse practitioner service. Data collection includes interviews, surveys and audits. A sequential mixed method approach to analysis of each case will be conducted. Findings from within-case analysis will lead to a meta-synthesis across all four cases to gain a holistic understanding of the cases under study, private sector nurse practitioner service. Normalisation process theory will be used to guide the research process, specifically coding and analysis of data using theory constructs and the relevant components associated with those constructs. This article provides a blueprint for the research and describes a theoretical framework, normalisation process theory in terms of its flexibility as an analytical framework. Consistent with the goals of best research practice, this study protocol will inform the research community in the field of primary health care about emerging research in this field. Publishing a study protocol ensures researcher fidelity to the analysis plan and supports research collaboration across teams. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A large scale analysis of information-theoretic network complexity measures using chemical structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dehmer

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate information-theoretic network complexity measures which have already been intensely used in mathematical- and medicinal chemistry including drug design. Numerous such measures have been developed so far but many of them lack a meaningful interpretation, e.g., we want to examine which kind of structural information they detect. Therefore, our main contribution is to shed light on the relatedness between some selected information measures for graphs by performing a large scale analysis using chemical networks. Starting from several sets containing real and synthetic chemical structures represented by graphs, we study the relatedness between a classical (partition-based complexity measure called the topological information content of a graph and some others inferred by a different paradigm leading to partition-independent measures. Moreover, we evaluate the uniqueness of network complexity measures numerically. Generally, a high uniqueness is an important and desirable property when designing novel topological descriptors having the potential to be applied to large chemical databases.

  6. Evaluating the theoretical content of online physical activity information for people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazipour, Celina H; Baillie, Colin P T; Galaviz, Karla; Jarvis, Jocelyn W; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity can aid people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in managing symptoms and maintaining functional abilities. The Internet is a preferred source of physical activity information for people with MS and, therefore, a method for the dissemination of behavior change techniques. The purpose of this study was to examine the coverage and quality of physical activity behavior change techniques delivered on the Internet for adults with MS using Abraham and Michie's taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Using the taxonomy, 20 websites were coded for quality (ie, accuracy of information) and coverage (ie, completeness of information) of theoretical behavior change techniques. RESULTS indicated that most websites covered a mean of 8.05 (SD 3.86, range 3-16) techniques out of a possible 20. Only one of the techniques, provide information on behavior-health link and consequences, was delivered on all websites. The websites demonstrated low mean coverage and quality across all behavior change techniques, with means of 0.64 (SD 0.67) and 0.62 (SD 0.37) on a scale of 0 to 2, respectively. However, coverage and quality improved when websites were examined solely for the techniques that they covered, as opposed to all 20 techniques. This study, which examined quality and coverage of physical activity behavior change techniques described online for people with MS, illustrated that the dissemination of these techniques requires improvement.

  7. Information-theoretic metric learning: 2-D linear projections of neural data for visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeier, Austin J; Sanchez Giraldo, Luis G; Emigh, Matthew S; Bae, Jihye; Choi, John S; Francis, Joseph T; Principe, Jose C

    2013-01-01

    Intracortical neural recordings are typically high-dimensional due to many electrodes, channels, or units and high sampling rates, making it very difficult to visually inspect differences among responses to various conditions. By representing the neural response in a low-dimensional space, a researcher can visually evaluate the amount of information the response carries about the conditions. We consider a linear projection to 2-D space that also parametrizes a metric between neural responses. The projection, and corresponding metric, should preserve class-relevant information pertaining to different behavior or stimuli. We find the projection as a solution to the information-theoretic optimization problem of maximizing the information between the projected data and the class labels. The method is applied to two datasets using different types of neural responses: motor cortex neuronal firing rates of a macaque during a center-out reaching task, and local field potentials in the somatosensory cortex of a rat during tactile stimulation of the forepaw. In both cases, projected data points preserve the natural topology of targets or peripheral touch sites. Using the learned metric on the neural responses increases the nearest-neighbor classification rate versus the original data; thus, the metric is tuned to distinguish among the conditions.

  8. Some Observations on the Concepts of Information-Theoretic Entropy and Randomness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D.H. Smith

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Certain aspects of the history, derivation, and physical application of the information-theoretic entropy concept are discussed. Pre-dating Shannon, the concept is traced back to Pauli. A derivation from first principles is given, without use of approximations. The concept depends on the underlying degree of randomness. In physical applications, this translates to dependence on the experimental apparatus available. An example illustrates how this dependence affects Prigogine's proposal for the use of the Second Law of Thermodynamics as a selection principle for the breaking of time symmetry. The dependence also serves to yield a resolution of the so-called ``Gibbs Paradox.'' Extension of the concept from the discrete to the continuous case is discussed. The usual extension is shown to be dimensionally incorrect. Correction introduces a reference density, leading to the concept of Kullback entropy. Practical relativistic considerations suggest a possible proper reference density.

  9. A Theoretical Framework for Soft-Information-Based Synchronization in Iterative (Turbo Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lottici Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution considers turbo synchronization, that is to say, the use of soft data information to estimate parameters like carrier phase, frequency, or timing offsets of a modulated signal within an iterative data demodulator. In turbo synchronization, the receiver exploits the soft decisions computed at each turbo decoding iteration to provide a reliable estimate of some signal parameters. The aim of our paper is to show that such "turbo-estimation" approach can be regarded as a special case of the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm. This leads to a general theoretical framework for turbo synchronization that allows to derive parameter estimation procedures for carrier phase and frequency offset, as well as for timing offset and signal amplitude. The proposed mathematical framework is illustrated by simulation results reported for the particular case of carrier phase and frequency offsets estimation of a turbo-coded 16-QAM signal.

  10. A Novel Information-Theoretic Approach for Variable Clustering and Predictive Modeling Using Dirichlet Process Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yang, Hui

    2016-12-01

    In the era of big data, there are increasing interests on clustering variables for the minimization of data redundancy and the maximization of variable relevancy. Existing clustering methods, however, depend on nontrivial assumptions about the data structure. Note that nonlinear interdependence among variables poses significant challenges on the traditional framework of predictive modeling. In the present work, we reformulate the problem of variable clustering from an information theoretic perspective that does not require the assumption of data structure for the identification of nonlinear interdependence among variables. Specifically, we propose the use of mutual information to characterize and measure nonlinear correlation structures among variables. Further, we develop Dirichlet process (DP) models to cluster variables based on the mutual-information measures among variables. Finally, orthonormalized variables in each cluster are integrated with group elastic-net model to improve the performance of predictive modeling. Both simulation and real-world case studies showed that the proposed methodology not only effectively reveals the nonlinear interdependence structures among variables but also outperforms traditional variable clustering algorithms such as hierarchical clustering.

  11. 76 FR 56506 - Agency Information Collection (Complaint of Employment Discrimination) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... (Complaint of Employment Discrimination) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of Human Resources and...: Title: Complaint of Employment Discrimination, VA Form 4939. OMB Control Number: 2900-0716. Type of... applicants for employment who believe they were denied employment based on race, color, religion, gender...

  12. OVERVIEW OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND A THEORETICAL MODEL IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT FOR LOCAL SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kherbach OUALID

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most literature on supply chain management (SCM focuses on large organizations with global operations employing high-level information technology. This creates a gap in the knowledge of how SMEs use and practice (SCM moreover (SCM is an area of increasing importance among enterprises and of growing academic interest. It is based on the concept of firms as part of multiple organizations oriented to the provision of goods and services for the final customer. the survival of Small to Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs will be determined by their ability to produce more, at a lower cost, in less time, and with few defects. The use of information technology (IT is considered a prerequisite for the effective control of today’s complex supply chains. In our research report we first provide a broad over of (SCM in general for SMEs. We further discuss the evolution of the information technology (IT in SCM and the performance parameters of the supply chain processes. In this research, the aim is to introduce a special (SCMtheoretical model in general SCM models which is appropriate for SMEs’ structure due to their operation capacity, numerical condition and other features. In accordance with this aim, taking the conditions of this sector into consideration, a two-stage model which is appropriate for structure of SMEs in Romania is proposed. The first stage of the model consists of “supply and production centers” and second stage consists of “product and customer center”

  13. Dimensional Information-Theoretic Measurement of Facial Emotion Expressions in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihun Hamm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered facial expressions of emotions are characteristic impairments in schizophrenia. Ratings of affect have traditionally been limited to clinical rating scales and facial muscle movement analysis, which require extensive training and have limitations based on methodology and ecological validity. To improve reliable assessment of dynamic facial expression changes, we have developed automated measurements of facial emotion expressions based on information-theoretic measures of expressivity of ambiguity and distinctiveness of facial expressions. These measures were examined in matched groups of persons with schizophrenia (n=28 and healthy controls (n=26 who underwent video acquisition to assess expressivity of basic emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust in evoked conditions. Persons with schizophrenia scored higher on ambiguity, the measure of conditional entropy within the expression of a single emotion, and they scored lower on distinctiveness, the measure of mutual information across expressions of different emotions. The automated measures compared favorably with observer-based ratings. This method can be applied for delineating dynamic emotional expressivity in healthy and clinical populations.

  14. Relational representation for improved decisions with an information-theoretic CADe system: initial experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2009-02-01

    Our previously presented information-theoretic computer-aided detection (IT-CADe) system for distinguishing masses and normal parenchyma in mammograms is an example of a case-based system. IT-CAD makes decisions by evaluating the querys average similarity with known mass and normal examples stored in the systems case base. Pairwise case similarity is measured in terms of their normalized mutual information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether incorporating a new machine learning concept of relational representation to IT-CAD is a more effective strategy than the decision algorithm that is currently in place. A trainable relational representation classifier builds a decision rule using the relational representation of cases. Instead of describing a case by a vector of intrinsic features, the case is described by its NMI-based similarity to a set of known examples. For this study, we first applied random mutation hill climbing algorithm to select the concise set of knowledge cases and then we applied a support vector machine to derive a decision rule using the relational representation of cases. We performed the study with a database of 600 mammographic regions of interest (300 with masses and 300 with normal parenchyma). Our experiments indicate that incorporating the concept of relational representation with a trainable classifier to IT-CAD provides an improvement in performance as compared with the original decision rule. Therefore, relational representation is a promising strategy for IT-CADe.

  15. Information-theoretic CAD system in mammography: improved mass detection by incorporating a Gaussian saliency map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourassi, Georgia D.; Harrawood, Brian P.

    2009-02-01

    We are presenting continuing development of an information-theoretic (IT) CADe system for location-specific interrogation of screening mammograms to detect masses. IT-CADe relies on a knowledge library of mammographic cases with known ground truth and an evidence-based approach to make a decision regarding a query case. If the query is more similar to abnormal cases stored in the library, then the query is deemed also abnormal. Case similarity is measured using mutual information (MI). MI takes into account only the probabilities of the underlying image pixels but not their relative significance in the image. To address this limitation, we investigated a novel modification of the MI similarity measure by incorporating the saliency of image pixels. Specifically, a Gaussian saliency map was applied where central image pixels were given a higher weight and pixels' importance degraded progressively towards the image periphery. This map makes intuitively sense. If a mass is suspected at a particular location, then image pixels surrounding this location should be given higher importance in the MI calculation than pixels further away from this specific location. The new MI measure was tested with a leave-one-out scheme on a database of 1,820 mammographic regions (901 with masses and 919 normal). Further validation was performed on additional datasets of mammographic regions deemed as suspicious by a computer algorithm and by expert mammographers. Incorporation of the Gaussian saliency map resulted in consistent and often significant improvement of IT-CADe performance across all but one datasets.

  16. Information-Theoretic Neuro-Correlates Boost Evolution of Cognitive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jory Schossau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algorithms (GA are a powerful set of tools for search and optimization that mimic the process of natural selection, and have been used successfully in a wide variety of problems, including evolving neural networks to solve cognitive tasks. Despite their success, GAs sometimes fail to locate the highest peaks of the fitness landscape, in particular if the landscape is rugged and contains multiple peaks. Reaching distant and higher peaks is difficult because valleys need to be crossed, in a process that (at least temporarily runs against the fitness maximization objective. Here we propose and test a number of information-theoretic (as well as network-based measures that can be used in conjunction with a fitness maximization objective (so-called “neuro-correlates” to evolve neural controllers for two widely different tasks: a behavioral task that requires information integration, and a cognitive task that requires memory and logic. We find that judiciously chosen neuro-correlates can significantly aid GAs to find the highest peaks.

  17. Parametric sensitivity analysis for stochastic molecular systems using information theoretic metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsourtis, Anastasios, E-mail: tsourtis@uoc.gr [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Crete, Crete (Greece); Pantazis, Yannis, E-mail: pantazis@math.umass.edu; Katsoulakis, Markos A., E-mail: markos@math.umass.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Harmandaris, Vagelis, E-mail: harman@uoc.gr [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Crete, and Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics (IACM), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), GR-70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2015-07-07

    In this paper, we present a parametric sensitivity analysis (SA) methodology for continuous time and continuous space Markov processes represented by stochastic differential equations. Particularly, we focus on stochastic molecular dynamics as described by the Langevin equation. The utilized SA method is based on the computation of the information-theoretic (and thermodynamic) quantity of relative entropy rate (RER) and the associated Fisher information matrix (FIM) between path distributions, and it is an extension of the work proposed by Y. Pantazis and M. A. Katsoulakis [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 054115 (2013)]. A major advantage of the pathwise SA method is that both RER and pathwise FIM depend only on averages of the force field; therefore, they are tractable and computable as ergodic averages from a single run of the molecular dynamics simulation both in equilibrium and in non-equilibrium steady state regimes. We validate the performance of the extended SA method to two different molecular stochastic systems, a standard Lennard-Jones fluid and an all-atom methane liquid, and compare the obtained parameter sensitivities with parameter sensitivities on three popular and well-studied observable functions, namely, the radial distribution function, the mean squared displacement, and the pressure. Results show that the RER-based sensitivities are highly correlated with the observable-based sensitivities.

  18. Information-theoretic approach for automated white matter fiber tracts reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Ferran; Boada, Imma; Feixas, Miquel; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Blasco, Gerard; Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salvador

    2012-07-01

    Fiber tracking is the most popular technique for creating white matter connectivity maps from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This approach requires a seeding process which is challenging because it is not clear how and where the seeds have to be placed. On the other hand, to enhance the interpretation of fiber maps, segmentation and clustering techniques are applied to organize fibers into anatomical structures. In this paper, we propose a new approach to automatically obtain bundles of fibers grouped into anatomical regions. This method applies an information-theoretic split-and-merge algorithm that considers fractional anisotropy and fiber orientation information to automatically segment white matter into volumes of interest (VOIs) of similar FA and eigenvector orientation. For each VOI, a number of planes and seeds is automatically placed in order to create the fiber bundles. The proposed approach avoids the need for the user to define seeding or selection regions. The whole process requires less than a minute and minimal user interaction. The agreement between the automated and manual approaches has been measured for 10 tracts in a DTI brain atlas and found to be almost perfect (kappa > 0.8) and substantial (kappa > 0.6). This method has also been evaluated on real DTI data considering 5 tracts. Agreement was substantial (kappa > 0.6) in most of the cases.

  19. Information-Theoretic Data Discarding for Dynamic Trees on Data Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoforos Anagnostopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous automated data collection at an unprecedented scale is making available streaming, real-time information flows in a wide variety of settings, transforming both science and industry. Learning algorithms deployed in such contexts often rely on single-pass inference, where the data history is never revisited. Learning may also need to be temporally adaptive to remain up-to-date against unforeseen changes in the data generating mechanism. Online Bayesian inference remains challenged by such transient, evolving data streams. Nonparametric modeling techniques can prove particularly ill-suited, as the complexity of the model is allowed to increase with the sample size. In this work, we take steps to overcome these challenges by porting information theoretic heuristics, such as exponential forgetting and active learning, into a fully Bayesian framework. We showcase our methods by augmenting a modern non-parametric modeling framework, dynamic trees, and illustrate its performance on a number of practical examples. The end product is a powerful streaming regression and classification tool, whose performance compares favorably to the state-of-the-art.

  20. Information-theoretic semi-supervised metric learning via entropy regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Dai, Bo; Yamada, Makoto; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2014-08-01

    We propose a general information-theoretic approach to semi-supervised metric learning called SERAPH (SEmi-supervised metRic leArning Paradigm with Hypersparsity) that does not rely on the manifold assumption. Given the probability parameterized by a Mahalanobis distance, we maximize its entropy on labeled data and minimize its entropy on unlabeled data following entropy regularization. For metric learning, entropy regularization improves manifold regularization by considering the dissimilarity information of unlabeled data in the unsupervised part, and hence it allows the supervised and unsupervised parts to be integrated in a natural and meaningful way. Moreover, we regularize SERAPH by trace-norm regularization to encourage low-dimensional projections associated with the distance metric. The nonconvex optimization problem of SERAPH could be solved efficiently and stably by either a gradient projection algorithm or an EM-like iterative algorithm whose M-step is convex. Experiments demonstrate that SERAPH compares favorably with many well-known metric learning methods, and the learned Mahalanobis distance possesses high discriminability even under noisy environments.

  1. 49 CFR 40.215 - What information about the DER do employers have to provide to BATs and STTs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to provide to BATs and STTs? 40.215 Section 40.215 Transportation Office of the Secretary of... Personnel § 40.215 What information about the DER do employers have to provide to BATs and STTs? As an employer, you must provide to the STTs and BATs the name and telephone number of the appropriate DER (and C...

  2. Consumers’ Acceptance and Use of Information and Communications Technology: A UTAUT and Flow Based Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alwahaishi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The world has changed a lot in the past years. The rapid advances in technology and the changing of the communication channels have changed the way people work and, for many, where do they work from. The Internet and mobile technology, the two most dynamic technological forces in modern information and communications technology (ICT are converging into one ubiquitous mobile Internet service, which will change our way of both doing business and dealing with our daily routine activities. As the use of ICT expands globally, there is need for further research into cultural aspects and implications of ICT. The acceptance of Information Technology (IT has become a fundamental part of the research plan for most organizations (Igbaria 1993. In IT research, numerous theories are used to understand users’ adoption of new technologies. Various models were developed including the Technology Acceptance Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, and recently, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Each of these models has sought to identify the factors which influence a citizen’s intention or actual use of information technology. Drawing on the UTAUT model and Flow Theory, this research composes a new hybrid theoretical framework to identify the factors affecting the acceptance and use of Mobile Internet -as an ICT application- in a consumer context. The proposed model incorporates eight constructs: Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Facilitating Conditions, Social Influences, Perceived Value, Perceived Playfulness, Attention Focus, and Behavioral intention. Data collected online from 238 respondents in Saudi Arabia were tested against the research model, using the structural equation modeling approach. The proposed model was mostly supported by the empirical data. The findings of this study provide several crucial implications for ICT and, in particular, mobile Internet service practitioners and researchers

  3. 76 FR 38743 - Proposed Information Collection (Complaint of Employment Discrimination) Activity: Comment Request

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    2011-07-01

    ... (Complaint of Employment Discrimination) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Human Resources and Administration... a complaint of employment discrimination. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the... respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of...

  4. Theoretically informed Monte Carlo simulation of liquid crystals by sampling of alignment-tensor fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas-Pérez, Julio C.; Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Guzmán, Orlando [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, DF 09340, México (Mexico); Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P. [Departamento de Materiales y Minerales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Pablo, Juan J. de, E-mail: depablo@uchicago.edu [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    A theoretically informed coarse-grained Monte Carlo method is proposed for studying liquid crystals. The free energy functional of the system is described in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. The alignment field and its gradients are approximated by finite differences, and the free energy is minimized through a stochastic sampling technique. The validity of the proposed method is established by comparing the results of the proposed approach to those of traditional free energy minimization techniques. Its usefulness is illustrated in the context of three systems, namely, a nematic liquid crystal confined in a slit channel, a nematic liquid crystal droplet, and a chiral liquid crystal in the bulk. It is found that for systems that exhibit multiple metastable morphologies, the proposed Monte Carlo method is generally able to identify lower free energy states that are often missed by traditional approaches. Importantly, the Monte Carlo method identifies such states from random initial configurations, thereby obviating the need for educated initial guesses that can be difficult to formulate.

  5. Theoretically informed Monte Carlo simulation of liquid crystals by sampling of alignment-tensor fields.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas-Perez, Julio C.; Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro; Guzman, Orlando; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan P.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-07-27

    A theoretically informed coarse-grained Monte Carlo method is proposed for studying liquid crystals. The free energy functional of the system is described in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. The alignment field and its gradients are approximated by finite differences, and the free energy is minimized through a stochastic sampling technique. The validity of the proposed method is established by comparing the results of the proposed approach to those of traditional free energy minimization techniques. Its usefulness is illustrated in the context of three systems, namely, a nematic liquid crystal confined in a slit channel, a nematic liquid crystal droplet, and a chiral liquid crystal in the bulk. It is found that for systems that exhibit multiple metastable morphologies, the proposed Monte Carlo method is generally able to identify lower free energy states that are often missed by traditional approaches. Importantly, the Monte Carlo method identifies such states from random initial configurations, thereby obviating the need for educated initial guesses that can be difficult to formulate.

  6. Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel

  7. An Information-Theoretic Approach for Energy-Efficient Collaborative Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arienzo Loredana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of collaborative tracking of mobile nodes in wireless sensor networks is addressed. By using a novel metric derived from the energy model in LEACH (W.B. Heinzelman, A.P. Chandrakasan and H. Balakrishnan, Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks, in: Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS '00, 2000 and aiming at an efficient resource solution, the approach adopts a strategy of combining target tracking with node selection procedures in order to select informative sensors to minimize the energy consumption of the tracking task. We layout a cluster-based architecture to address the limitations in computational power, battery capacity and communication capacities of the sensor devices. The computation of the posterior Cramer-Rao bound (PCRB based on received signal strength measurements has been considered. To track mobile nodes two particle filters are used: the bootstrap particle filter and the unscented particle filter, both in the centralized and in the distributed manner. Their performances are compared with the theoretical lower bound PCRB. To save energy, a node selection procedure based on greedy algorithms is proposed. The node selection problem is formulated as a cross-layer optimization problem and it is solved using greedy algorithms.

  8. Fuel cycle covariance of plutonium and americium separations to repository capacity using information theoretic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopatz, Anthony; Schneider, Erich; Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung

    2011-01-01

    A light water reactor, fast reactor symbiotic fuel cycle scenario was modeled and parameterized based on thirty independent inputs. Simultaneously and stochastically choosing different values for each of these inputs and performing the associated fuel cycle mass-balance calculation, the fuel cycle itself underwent Monte Carlo simulation. A novel information theoretic metric is postulated as a measure of system-wide covariance. This metric is the coefficient of variation of the set of uncertainty coefficients generated from 2D slices of a 3D contingency table. It is then applied to the fuel cycle, taking fast reactor used fuel plutonium and americium separations as independent variables and the capacity of a fully-loaded tuff repository as the response. This set of parameters is known from prior studies to have a strong covariance. When measured with all 435 other input parameters possible, the fast reactor plutonium and americium separations pair was found to be ranked the second most covariant. This verifies that the coefficient of variation metric captures the desired sensitivity of sensitivity effects in the nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  9. An information-theoretic approach to motor action decoding with a reconfigurable parallel architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Stefan; Brockmeier, Austin J; George, Alan D; Lam, Herman; Príncipe, José C

    2011-01-01

    Methods for decoding movements from neural spike counts using adaptive filters often rely on minimizing the mean-squared error. However, for non-Gaussian distribution of errors, this approach is not optimal for performance. Therefore, rather than using probabilistic modeling, we propose an alternate non-parametric approach. In order to extract more structure from the input signal (neuronal spike counts) we propose using minimum error entropy (MEE), an information-theoretic approach that minimizes the error entropy as part of an iterative cost function. However, the disadvantage of using MEE as the cost function for adaptive filters is the increase in computational complexity. In this paper we present a comparison between the decoding performance of the analytic Wiener filter and a linear filter trained with MEE, which is then mapped to a parallel architecture in reconfigurable hardware tailored to the computational needs of the MEE filter. We observe considerable speedup from the hardware design. The adaptation of filter weights for the multiple-input, multiple-output linear filters, necessary in motor decoding, is a highly parallelizable algorithm. It can be decomposed into many independent computational blocks with a parallel architecture readily mapped to a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and scales to large numbers of neurons. By pipelining and parallelizing independent computations in the algorithm, the proposed parallel architecture has sublinear increases in execution time with respect to both window size and filter order.

  10. Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara

    2005-07-01

    We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel.

  11. Pathways from Trauma to Psychotic Experiences: A Theoretically Informed Model of Posttraumatic Stress in Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hardy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, empirical data and theoretical accounts relating to the relationship between childhood victimization and psychotic experiences have accumulated. Much of this work has focused on co-occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder or putative causal mechanisms in isolation from each other. The complexity of posttraumatic stress reactions experienced in psychosis remains poorly understood. This paper therefore attempts to synthesize the current evidence base into a theoretically informed, multifactorial model of posttraumatic stress in psychosis. Three trauma-related vulnerability factors are proposed to give rise to intrusions and to affect how people appraise and cope with them. First, understandable attempts to survive trauma become habitual ways of regulating emotion, manifesting in cognitive-affective, behavioral and interpersonal responses. Second, event memories, consisting of perceptual and episodic representations, are impacted by emotion experienced during trauma. Third, personal semantic memory, specifically appraisals of the self and others, are shaped by event memories. It is proposed these vulnerability factors have the potential to lead to two types of intrusions. The first type is anomalous experiences arising from emotion regulation and/or the generation of novel images derived from trauma memory. The second type is trauma memory intrusions reflecting, to varying degrees, the retrieval of perceptual, episodic and personal semantic representations. It is speculated trauma memory intrusions may be experienced on a continuum from contextualized to fragmented, depending on memory encoding and retrieval. Personal semantic memory will then impact on how intrusions are appraised, with habitual emotion regulation strategies influencing people’s coping responses to these. Three vignettes are outlined to illustrate how the model accounts for different pathways between victimization and psychosis, and implications for therapy are

  12. Transactive System: Part I: Theoretical Underpinnings of Payoff Functions, Control Decisions, Information Privacy, and Solution Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-01-17

    new transactive energy system design with demonstrable guarantees on stability and performance. Specifically, the goals are to (1) establish a theoretical basis for evaluating the performance of different transactive systems, (2) devise tools to address canonical problems that exemplify challenges and scenarios of transactive systems, and (3) provide guidelines for design of future transactive systems. This report, Part 1 of a two part series, advances the above-listed research objectives by reviewing existing transactive systems and identifying a theoretical foundation that integrates payoff functions, control decisions, information privacy, and mathematical solution concepts.

  13. An algorithmic and information-theoretic approach to multimetric index construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Grace, James B.; Schweiger, E. William; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Mitchell, Brian R.; Miller, Kathryn M.; Little, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multimetric indices (MMIs), such as the widely used index of biological integrity (IBI), to measure, track, summarize and infer the overall impact of human disturbance on biological communities has been steadily growing in recent years. Initially, MMIs were developed for aquatic communities using pre-selected biological metrics as indicators of system integrity. As interest in these bioassessment tools has grown, so have the types of biological systems to which they are applied. For many ecosystem types the appropriate biological metrics to use as measures of biological integrity are not known a priori. As a result, a variety of ad hoc protocols for selecting metrics empirically has developed. However, the assumptions made by proposed protocols have not be explicitly described or justified, causing many investigators to call for a clear, repeatable methodology for developing empirically derived metrics and indices that can be applied to any biological system. An issue of particular importance that has not been sufficiently addressed is the way that individual metrics combine to produce an MMI that is a sensitive composite indicator of human disturbance. In this paper, we present and demonstrate an algorithm for constructing MMIs given a set of candidate metrics and a measure of human disturbance. The algorithm uses each metric to inform a candidate MMI, and then uses information-theoretic principles to select MMIs that capture the information in the multidimensional system response from among possible MMIs. Such an approach can be used to create purely empirical (data-based) MMIs or can, optionally, be influenced by expert opinion or biological theory through the use of a weighting vector to create value-weighted MMIs. We demonstrate the algorithm with simulated data to demonstrate the predictive capacity of the final MMIs and with real data from wetlands from Acadia and Rocky Mountain National Parks. For the Acadia wetland data, the algorithm identified

  14. The Employer's Obligation to Inform the Successful Candidate, Namely the Employee, on the Essential Terms of the Individual Employment Contract. National and European Normative Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Constantina Nenu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a labor market with normative dimensions in constant evolution, the employee status is quite difficult. In consistence with the principle of protecting employee rights, labor law has imposed new measures that counterbalance the employer‟s position of authority within the employment relationship, both at European and national levels. These include the obligation to inform the employee about the essential elements of his working relationship, obligation established at European level by Council Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991, and at national level by the Labor Code.

  15. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 40 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. F Appendix F to Part 40—Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers 1. If you...

  16. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0002.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and...

  17. 75 FR 56662 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0002.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and...

  18. Recommended Skill Requirements of Recent Management Information Systems Graduates for Employment: A Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Michael A., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Modified Delphi study was to achieve a consensus and forecast a prediction from expert IT hiring managers on what skills are required of MIS graduates for employment. In doing so, guidance could be provided to academic leaders who design curricula for MIS students on the required skills for employment. This study was conducted…

  19. Family Structure and Industrial Employment: The Role of Information and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Reexamines Parsonian orthodoxy on the narrowing and weakening of kin definitions, investigating in particular the working-class family in its employment context. Argues that the family can, and does, maintain itself within the general context of industrial society and in particular within the employment context. (Author)

  20. Theoretical frameworks informing family-based child and adolescent obesity interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alulis, Sarah; Grabowski, Dan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity trends are rising throughout the world, revealing treatment difficulties and a lack of consensus about treatment. The family system is broadly viewed as a potential setting for facilitation of behaviour change. Therefore, family-based interventions have come...... into focus. However, the use of theoretical frameworks to strengthen these interventions is rare and very uneven. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To conduct a qualitative meta-synthesis of family-based interventions for child and adolescent obesity to identify the theoretical frameworks applied, thus understanding how...

  1. Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom (DIKW: A Semiotic Theoretical and Empirical Exploration of the Hierarchy and its Quality Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Baskarada

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly is the difference between data and information? What is the difference between data quality and information quality; is there any difference between the two? And, what are knowledge and wisdom? Are there such things as knowledge quality and wisdom quality? As these primitives are the most basic axioms of information systems research, it is somewhat surprising that consensus on exact definitions seems to be lacking. This paper presents a theoretical and empirical exploration of the sometimes directly quoted, and often implied Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom (DIKW hierarchy and its quality dimension. We first review relevant literature from a range of perspectives and develop and contextualise a theoretical DIKW framework through semiotics. The literature review identifies definitional commonalities and divergences from a scholarly perspective; the theoretical discussion contextualises the terms and their relationships within a semiotic framework and proposes relevant definitions grounded in that framework. Next, rooted in Wittgenstein’s ordinary language philosophy, we analyse 20 online news articles for their uses of the terms and present the results of an online focus group discussion comprising 16 information systems experts. The empirical exploration identifies a range of definitional ambiguities from a practical perspective.

  2. The theoretical preconditions for problem situation realization while studying information technology at school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Александровна Прусакова

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of modern pedagogy and educational practice there have been worked out and realized various theoretical conceptions, theories, educational approaches including humanistic, personality-oriented, activity-oriented, competence-oriented. One of such approaches to education and personality development is the problem-solving approach.

  3. Employability enhancement through formal and informal learning: An empirical study among Dutch non-academic university staff members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

    2009-01-01

    Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the

  4. Employability Enhancement Through Formal and Informal Learning. An Empirical study among Dutch Non-academic University Staff Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heijden, Beate; Boon, Jo; Van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

    2009-01-01

    Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Boon, J., Van der Klink, M., & Meijs, E. (2009). Employability enhancement through formal and informal learning. An empirical study among Dutch non-academic university staff members. International Journal of Training & Development, 13(1), 19-37.

  5. 76 FR 81521 - Information Collection for Native Employment Training Grant (NET Grant) Program; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Training (NET Grant) program, including the number of tribal members trained, the identities and locations... transportation assistance, provision of clothing, and fulfillment of job-start-up needs such as obtaining a... graduates; the identities and locations of those expected to employ them; the number of Native Americans who...

  6. The informal economy employment impacts of trade liberalization & increased competition in export markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morocco and United States. The overall logic of such measures was that liberalization and privatization would stimulate trade, support the requested modernization of the production systems and infrastructures, and enhance public administrations and services as well. Positive impacts on income, employments...

  7. Experiential Education Employment Opportunities in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria: Options and Informational Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William

    1995-01-01

    Discusses educational employment (EE) opportunities for students in German-speaking countries, and the implementation of EE programs by American colleges and universities. Also lists internship and EE opportunities administered by colleges, universities, and other organizations in the United States, Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. (six…

  8. Developing Employability Skills in Information System Graduates: Traditional vs. Innovative Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmani, Mohamad; Hindi, Nitham M.; Weerakkody, Vishanth

    2018-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that traditional teaching methods such as lectures, textbooks and case study techniques on their own are not adequate to improving the most in-demand employability skills for graduates. The aim of this article is to explore the potential impact that novel learning and teaching methods can have on improving the…

  9. The Political Economy of Information Management : A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of Decision Making regarding Interorganizational Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M.F. Homburg (Vincent)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDesigning and using interorganizational information systems requires cooperation and coordination among organizations that are, to a certain degree, competitors. This thesis analyzes the design and use of interorganizational information systems from the points of view of political

  10. Comparison of information-theoretic to statistical methods for gene-gene interactions in the presence of genetic heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucheston Lara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multifactorial diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases are caused by the complex interplay between genes and environment. The detection of these interactions remains challenging due to computational limitations. Information theoretic approaches use computationally efficient directed search strategies and thus provide a feasible solution to this problem. However, the power of information theoretic methods for interaction analysis has not been systematically evaluated. In this work, we compare power and Type I error of an information-theoretic approach to existing interaction analysis methods. Methods The k-way interaction information (KWII metric for identifying variable combinations involved in gene-gene interactions (GGI was assessed using several simulated data sets under models of genetic heterogeneity driven by susceptibility increasing loci with varying allele frequency, penetrance values and heritability. The power and proportion of false positives of the KWII was compared to multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR, restricted partitioning method (RPM and logistic regression. Results The power of the KWII was considerably greater than MDR on all six simulation models examined. For a given disease prevalence at high values of heritability, the power of both RPM and KWII was greater than 95%. For models with low heritability and/or genetic heterogeneity, the power of the KWII was consistently greater than RPM; the improvements in power for the KWII over RPM ranged from 4.7% to 14.2% at for α = 0.001 in the three models at the lowest heritability values examined. KWII performed similar to logistic regression. Conclusions Information theoretic models are flexible and have excellent power to detect GGI under a variety of conditions that characterize complex diseases.

  11. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: examining information processing among young women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. The purpose of this article is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semistructured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by 5 dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women's information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care.

  12. Intelligent Information Retrieval: Diagnosing Information Need. Part I. The Theoretical Framework for Developing an Intelligent IR Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the principles underlying the procedure used by doctors to diagnose a patient's disease are useful in the design of intelligent information-retrieval systems because the task of the doctor is conceptually similar to the computer or human intermediary's task in information retrieval: to draw out the user's query/information need.…

  13. Improving Decision Making with Information Systems Technology – A theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mihane Berisha- Namani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, information systems were used to support operational functions and to reduce costs by automating many of business operations. As business has become more aware of the importance of information systems, the role of information systems has changed. From its conventional function of supporting business operations, today information systems are used to reduce business risks and to ensure that correct information is made available, so managers can make better decisions. The purpose of this paper is to give an understanding how businesses are using information systems to achieve their goals. It specifically addresses more closely the impact that information systems have in improving the decision making. Althought limited this paper sets out to explore the importance of information systems in decision making and concludes that more attention should be paid to information systems usage for decision making purposes. Finally, suggestions for further research are made.

  14. A novel game theoretic approach for modeling competitive information diffusion in social networks with heterogeneous nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha Mohammad Ali Kermani, Mehrdad; Fatemi Ardestani, Seyed Farshad; Aliahmadi, Alireza; Barzinpour, Farnaz

    2017-01-01

    Influence maximization deals with identification of the most influential nodes in a social network given an influence model. In this paper, a game theoretic framework is developed that models a competitive influence maximization problem. A novel competitive influence model is additionally proposed that incorporates user heterogeneity, message content, and network structure. The proposed game-theoretic model is solved using Nash Equilibrium in a real-world dataset. It is shown that none of the well-known strategies are stable and at least one player has the incentive to deviate from the proposed strategy. Moreover, violation of Nash equilibrium strategy by each player leads to their reduced payoff. Contrary to previous works, our results demonstrate that graph topology, as well as the nodes' sociability and initial tendency measures have an effect on the determination of the influential node in the network.

  15. The More You Know, the More You Can Grow: An Information Theoretic Approach to Growth in the Information Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hilbert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In our information age, information alone has become a driver of social growth. Information is the fuel of “big data” companies, and the decision-making compass of policy makers. Can we quantify how much information leads to how much social growth potential? Information theory is used to show that information (in bits is effectively a quantifiable ingredient of growth. The article presents a single equation that allows both to describe hands-off natural selection of evolving populations and to optimize population fitness in uncertain environments through intervention. The setup analyzes the communication channel between the growing population and its uncertain environment. The role of information in population growth can be thought of as the optimization of information flow over this (more or less noisy channel. Optimized growth implies that the population absorbs all communicated environmental structure during evolutionary updating (measured by their mutual information. This is achieved by endogenously adjusting the population structure to the exogenous environmental pattern (through bet-hedging/portfolio management. The setup can be applied to decompose the growth of any discrete population in stationary, stochastic environments (economic, cultural, or biological. Two empirical examples from the information economy reveal inherent trade-offs among the involved information quantities during growth optimization.

  16. The role of information systems in management decision making-an theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD. Associate Professor Department of Management & Informatics Mihane Berisha-Namani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of globalisation and development of information technology, information processing activities have come to be seen as essential to successful of businesses and organizations. Information has become essential to make decisions and crucial asset in organisations, whereas information systems is technology required for information processing. The application of information systems technology in business and organisations has opened up new possibilities for running and managing organisations, as well as has improved management decision making. The purpose of this paper is to give an understanding of the role that information systems have in management decision making and to discuss the possibilities how managers of organisations can make best use of information systems. The paper starts with identifying the functions of management and managerial roles and continue with information systems usage in three levels of decision making. It specifically addresses the way how information systems can help managers reduce uncertainty in decision making and includes some important implications of information systems usage for managers. Thus, this study provide a framework of effective use of information systems generally and offers an alternative approach to investigate the impact that information systems technology have in management decision making specifically

  17. An Information Theoretic Investigation Of Complex Adaptive Supply Networks With Organizational Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    and business analytics in networks adapting to their environment. This dissertation also presents analysis of information transfer and information...statistical significance of the process relationships being studied. A null hypothesis testing approach has been taken in the Java Information Dynamics...this could spawn new approaches to business analytics or network management as a network adapts to its environment. Materials and Methods The

  18. 49 CFR 40.26 - What form must an employer use to report Management Information System (MIS) data to a DOT agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What form must an employer use to report Management Information System (MIS) data to a DOT agency? 40.26 Section 40.26 Transportation Office of the... Employer Responsibilities § 40.26 What form must an employer use to report Management Information System...

  19. Contractual Protection of Confidential Business Information: In Norwegian Employment- and Business Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Coates, Sarah Lea

    2013-01-01

    Confidential information can be one of the most valuable assets in a business. By avoiding the disclosure of such information, companies are able to maintain their competitive advantage. The main purpose of this thesis is to establish how and to what extent companies can protect confidential business information by contractual regulations according to Norwegian law. This thesis was written with a scholarship from the research project "Nordic Restatement of Contract Law".

  20. Reference group theory with implications for information studies: a theoretical essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Murell Dawson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role and implications of reference group theory in relation to the field of library and information science. Reference group theory is based upon the principle that people take the standards of significant others as a basis for making self-appraisals, comparisons, and choices regarding need and use of information. Research that applies concepts of reference group theory to various sectors of library and information studies can provide data useful in enhancing areas such as information-seeking research, special populations, and uses of information. Implications are promising that knowledge gained from like research can be beneficial in helping information professionals better understand the role theory plays in examining ways in which people manage their information and social worlds.

  1. 77 FR 50710 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Employment Eligibility Verification, Form I-9, OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information...), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information... sponsoring the collection: Form I-9. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (4) Affected public who will...

  2. Recruiter Perceptions of Information that Employment References Should Provide to Assist in Making Selection Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evuleocha, Stevina U.; Ugbah, Steve D.; Law, Sweety

    2009-01-01

    Authors investigated perceptions of campus recruiters (N = 168) in the San Francisco Bay Area regarding the importance of 15 types of information they solicit from job applicants' references in making selection decisions. Results suggest campus recruiters should consider 10 types of information to assist them in making selection decisions. Results…

  3. A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.

  4. An Information Theoretic Model of Information Processing in the Drosophila Olfactory System: the Role of Inhibitory Neurons for System Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz eFaghihi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster rely on their olfactory system to process environmental information. This information has to be transmitted without system-relevant loss by the olfactory system to deeper brain areas for learning. Here we study the role of several parameters of the fly's olfactory system and the environment and how they influence olfactory information transmission. We have designed an abstract model of the antennal lobe, the mushroom body and the inhibitory circuitry. Mutual information between the olfactory environment, simulated in terms of different odor concentrations, and a sub-population of intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells was calculated to quantify the efficiency of information transmission. With this method we study, on the one hand, the effect of different connectivity rates between olfactory projection neurons and firing thresholds of Kenyon cells. On the other hand, we analyze the influence of inhibition on mutual information between environment and mushroom body. Our simulations show an expected linear relation between the connectivity rate between the antennal lobe and the mushroom body and firing threshold of the Kenyon cells to obtain maximum mutual information for both low and high odor concentrations. However, contradicting all-day experiences, high odor concentrations cause a drastic, and unrealistic, decrease in mutual information for all connectivity rates compared to low concentration. But when inhibition on the mushroom body is included, mutual information remains at high levels independent of other system parameters. This finding points to a pivotal role of inhibition in fly information processing without which the system's efficiency will be substantially reduced.

  5. Aromaticity and antiaromaticity of substituted fulvene derivatives: perspectives from the information-theoretic approach in density functional reactivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Donghai; Rong, Chunying; Lu, Tian; Chattaraj, Pratim K; De Proft, Frank; Liu, Shubin

    2017-07-19

    Even though the concept of aromaticity and antiaromaticity is extremely important and widely used, there still exist lots of controversies in the literature, which are believed to be originated from the fact that there are so many aromatic types discovered and at the same time there are many aromaticity indexes proposed. In this work, using seven series of substituted fulvene derivatives as an example and with the information-theoretic approach in density functional reactivity theory, we examine these concepts from a different perspective. We investigate the changing patterns of Shannon entropy, Fisher information, Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy, information gain, Onicescu information energy, and relative Renyi entropy on the ring carbon atoms of these systems. Meanwhile, we also consider variation trends of four representative kinds of aromaticity indexes such as FLU, HOMA, ASE and NICS. Statistical analyses among these quantities show that with the same ring structure of the derivatives, both information-theoretic quantities and aromaticity indexes obey the same changing pattern, which are valid across all seven systems studied. However, cross correlations between these two sets of quantities yield two completely opposite patterns. These ring-structure dependent correlations are in good agreement with Hückel's 4n + 2 rule of aromaticity and 4n rule of antiaromaticity. Our results should provide a novel and complementary viewpoint on how aromaticity and antiaromaticity should be appreciated and categorized. More studies are in progress to further our understanding about the matter.

  6. Effect of informal employment on the relationship between psychosocial work risk factors and musculoskeletal pain in Central American workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David; Rojas Garbanzo, Marianela; Aragón, Aurora; Carmenate-Milián, Lino; Benavides, Fernando G

    2017-09-01

    The constant increase on the psychosocial demands experienced at work seems to contribute to the increase in health problems such as musculoskeletal pain (MSP). This association may be especially important in low-income and middle-income countries, where there is a large proportion of informal workers among whom there is little research. We analysed the association between psychosocial work risk factors and MSP among formal and informal workers using the First Central American Survey of Working Conditions and Health. This is a representative sample (n=12 024) of the economically active population of the six Spanish-speaking countries of Central America. Prevalence ratios (PR) and corresponding 95% CIs from Poisson regression models were used to estimate the association between psychosocial work risk factors and the MSP. Compared with formal workers, informal workers reported higher prevalence of MPS in the body regions analysed (ie, cervicodorsal, lumbosacral, upper extremities) and higher exposure to psychosocial work risk factors. However, on the whole, the associations between the exposure to psychosocial work risk factors and the prevalence of MSP were similar for both formal and informal workers. Only the association between exposure to high demands and MSP in the upper extremities was higher (p=0.012) among formal (PR=1.69, 95% CI 1.46 to 1.96) than among informal workers (PR=1.40; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.51). Exposure to adverse levels of psychosocial work risk factors is associated with higher prevalence of MPS among both formal and informal workers. However, the role of employment informality in this association is complex and requires further examination. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. A theoretically informed education program designed specifically for acute surgical nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Beverley

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing the Respiratory Skills Update (ReSKU) education program using integrated teaching and learning strategies, in the context of organisational utility, on improving surgical nurses' practice in the area of respiratory assessment. Technological advances and changes in healthcare delivery have necessitated that nurse educators adopt innovative teaching and learning strategies to better prepare acute care nurses for their increasingly complex roles. This 2007 study used a robust overarching theoretical framework to develop and evaluate an educational model using the ReSKU program as a basis for the content. The study was conducted in a 400 bed regional referral public hospital, in Australia. The research was guided by the work of Forneris (2004) to operationalise a critical thinking process incorporating the complexities of the clinical context. The theoretical framework used multi-modal, interactive educational strategies that were learner-centred and participatory. These strategies aimed to engage the clinician in dynamic thinking processes in clinical practice situations guided by coaches and educators. The construct of critical thinking in practice combined with clinical reasoning and purposeful and collective reflection is a powerful educational strategy to enhance competency and capability in clinicians. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 17670 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Right of First Refusal of Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Michael O. Jackson, Procurement Analyst, Office of Governmentwide Acquisition Policy GSA, at (202) 208- 4949 or via email at michaelo.jackson@gsa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  9. 76 FR 11514 - Comment Request for information Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 361...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... dimensions that enable it to be summed into an independent recount of what the state has already reported..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology...

  10. 77 FR 41452 - Comment Request for Information Collection on Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 361...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... dimensions that enable it to be summed into an independent recount of what the state has already reported..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g...

  11. Spectroscopic information from different theoretical descriptions of (un)polarized (e,e sup ' p) reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Radici, M; Dickhoff, W H

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the unpolarized and polarized electron-induced proton knockout reactions on sup 1 sup 6 O in different kinematical settings using two theoretical approaches. The first one is based on a relativistic mean-field distorted-wave description of the bound and scattering states of the proton, including a fully relativistic electromagnetic current operator. The second approach adopts the same current operator, but describes the proton properties on the basis of microscopic calculations of the self-energy in sup 1 sup 6 O below the Fermi energy and final-state damping in nuclear matter above the Fermi energy, using the same realistic short-range and tensor correlations. Good agreement with all unpolarized data is obtained at low and high Q sup 2 by using the same spectroscopic factors fixed by the low-Q sup 2 analysis. A reasonable agreement is achieved for polarization observables. (orig.)

  12. The success or failure of management information systems: A theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Tonn, B.T.

    1987-03-01

    Work has been done by various disciplines to address the reasons why modern, computerized management information systems either succeed or fail. However, the studies are not based on a well-defined conceptual framework and the focus has been narrow. This report presents a comprehensive conceptual framework of how an information system is used within an organization. This framework not only suggests how the use of an information system may translate into productivity improvements for the implementing organization but also helps to identify why a system may succeed or fail. A major aspect of the model is its distinction between the objectives of the organization in its decision to implement an information system and the objectives of the individual employees who are to use the system. A divergence between these objectives can lead to system underutilization or misuse at the expense of the organization's overall productivity.

  13. Employer Perceptions of Associate Degrees in Local Labor Markets: A Case Study of the Employment of Information Technology Technicians in Detroit and Seattle. CCRC Working Paper No. 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noy, Michelle; Jacobs, James

    2012-01-01

    While promoting postsecondary credential completion is a national priority intended to help graduates secure good jobs, the value of credentials in the labor market from the perspective of employers is not well understood. Specifically, more attention is needed to understand how credentials align with employer needs. Through in-depth interviews…

  14. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) for Youth in MENA : Policies to Promote Employment Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Cava, Gloria La; Rossotto, Carlo Maria; Paradi-Guilford, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    On January 18, 2011, the Arab Development Summit Youth Forum met in Sharm-el-Sheikh, Egypt, aiming to provide young Arab leaders and Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) entrepreneurs with the opportunity for dialogue with Arab decision makers, providing recommendations on how to empower youth in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) through ICT. Tunisia's Jasmine revolution and...

  15. Sticky IT Workers: Discovering Why Information Technology Professionals Retain Their Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Phillip Mike

    2013-01-01

    In the current business climate and social technologies expansion era, Information Technology (IT) workers are important organization contributors that connect organizations into today's data-driven, highly social, and always-on global economy. Thus, organizations need IT workers. Unfortunately, as a class, IT workers have developed a reputation…

  16. 78 FR 42537 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Online Survey of Web Services Employers; New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... meet the goals of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, the... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services [OMB Control Number 1615.... Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information collection request...

  17. 76 FR 45507 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Public Employment & Payroll Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... government officials to collect the data from their dependent agencies and report to us as a central... and 620 school systems. The agreements reduce burden by greatly reducing the number of people who have... techniques or other forms of information technology. Comments submitted in response to this notice will be...

  18. The individualization of the employment relations on-line: the benefits and limitations of information technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; van Riemsdijk, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    One of the latest tendencies in the organisational change theory and practice is implementing e- ideas: e-business, e-commerce, e-library, e-learning, and since not long ago – e-HRM. Software engineers design information technologies (IT) to support HR processes, marketing specialists insist that

  19. 76 FR 24503 - Agency Information Collection Activities: DHS Individual Complaint of Employment Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... is willing to participate in mediation or other available types of alternative dispute resolution..., national origin, age, disability, protected genetic information, sexual orientation, or status as a parent... Act (Title VII) (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.) (race, color, religion, sex, national origin), the Age...

  20. Review of Trends in Employing Library and Information Science Graduates in Slovenia for the Period from 2000 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Božič

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: The purpose of this paper is to show the trends in employing LIS graduates in Slovenia in the period from 2000 to 2012.Methodology/Approach: We collected, presented and analysed the publicly available data on the number and fluctuation of LIS graduates registered as job seekers at the national employment service. The paper also presents the fluctuation in the number of related job advertisements, and the number of employees in Slovenian libraries.Results: According to the Employment Service of Slovenia, the number of job seekers has been rising but it does not exceed the number of tendered study positions or the number of ads for job vacancies. Until 2012, only a third of job seekers were first time job seekers under 26 years of age. In recent years, the ratio of advertisements for the fixed-term employment has been increasing compared to those for the permanent employment. The majority of the ads offer employment in the central region of Slovenia, usually in the capital city which is the economic, political and university centre where the majority of all the libraries are concentrated. In addition, there is an increase in the number of ads during the summer months. The number of employees in Slovenian libraries has been rising year by year, in parallel to the increased proportion of library and information science graduates.Limitations of the research: We cannot make any conclusions about graduates of the Bologna study programmes, on one hand the first degree graduates are not very numerous on the job market and on the other hand many of them enrol the second degree Bologna study programme.Originality/practical implications of the research: For the first time in Slovenia, the research provides quantitative data on the number of the unemployed LIS graduates and on the number of job vacancy ads for LIS graduates.

  1. Computational Study of Chemical Reactivity Using Information-Theoretic Quantities from Density Functional Reactivity Theory for Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjie; Wu, Zemin; Rong, Chunying; Lu, Tian; Huang, Ying; Liu, Shubin

    2015-07-23

    The electrophilic aromatic substitution for nitration, halogenation, sulfonation, and acylation is a vastly important category of chemical transformation. Its reactivity and regioselectivity is predominantly determined by nucleophilicity of carbon atoms on the aromatic ring, which in return is immensely influenced by the group that is attached to the aromatic ring a priori. In this work, taking advantage of recent developments in quantifying nucleophilicity (electrophilicity) with descriptors from the information-theoretic approach in density functional reactivity theory, we examine the reactivity properties of this reaction system from three perspectives. These include scaling patterns of information-theoretic quantities such as Shannon entropy, Fisher information, Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy and information gain at both molecular and atomic levels, quantitative predictions of the barrier height with both Hirshfeld charge and information gain, and energetic decomposition analyses of the barrier height for the reactions. To that end, we focused in this work on the identity reaction of the monosubstituted-benzene molecule reacting with hydrogen fluoride using boron trifluoride as the catalyst in the gas phase. We also considered 19 substituting groups, 9 of which are ortho/para directing and the other 9 meta directing, besides the case of R = -H. Similar scaling patterns for these information-theoretic quantities found for stable species elsewhere were disclosed for these reactions systems. We also unveiled novel scaling patterns for information gain at the atomic level. The barrier height of the reactions can reliably be predicted by using both the Hirshfeld charge and information gain at the regioselective carbon atom. The energy decomposition analysis ensued yields an unambiguous picture about the origin of the barrier height, where we showed that it is the electrostatic interaction that plays the dominant role, while the roles played by exchange-correlation and

  2. Motivation and stimulation of employment specialists in the sphere of information technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bazhenov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "Information and communication technologies." The characteristic of the labor specialists in the sphere of information technologies, namely the characteristics of the object, means and product of their labor. The author of the article deals with the specifics of specialists of the topic. We study the needs and motivations of IT professionals. A method for evaluating the effectiveness of labor specialists in the sphere of information technologies and offered rates for calculating the efficiency of workers, including factors: timeliness; the number of completed tasks; detected errors; the cost of bug fixes. Purpose of the article – to reveal the specifics of working IT professionals, and especially to justify the incentives and motivation of specialists in this field. The objectives of the article: to characterize the concept of "Information and communications technologies"; identify the main needs and motivations of IT professionals; develop a method for evaluating the effectiveness of specialists in this field.Methodology. In conducting this study the main sources of raw data served as the information contained in scientific, reference, periodical literature on the subject in question, including the sources of information and telecommunications network "Internet". The basis of methodological developments put the comparative methods of analysis and synthesis of existing data.Results. The characteristic of the concept of "Information and communication technologies." It is proved that the work of specialists in the sphere of information technologies is intellectual work, and that the subject, the means and the product of this kind of work – are special types of information in digital form. Emphasize that as part of the system of social production, work in the field of software development (software performs a task and a number of specific functions: creative, integration, stimulating, consumer

  3. Mathematical Evidence-theoretic Framework for Information Fusion of Disaster Scene Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The remote sensing community and geospatial industries are embracing the paradigm of 'big data'. This trend is in one hand due to the fact that heterogeneous remote sensors are producing tremendous amounts of earth observation (EO) data every day; on the other hand it is aspired by the promise that big data computing may be the fourth paradigm for scientific discovery. Many traditional techniques have been developed and will continue to be useful to deal with earth-observation big data, for examples, pansharpening, fusion of data with different electromagnetic nature (e.g. color images and SAR images), and use of multi-sensor data for improved land-cover classification. However, two limitations are recognized for these techniques, which include: (1) first, these methods are tightly dependent on a two-dimensional grid scale; and (2) second, temporal, spatial and causal relations are not intelligently treated. These limitations render them insufficient when used to attack the emerging Disaster Scene Big Data (DSBD). DSBD emerges as a geological or climatic hazard unfolds into a disaster. In the example of an earthquake, disaster data starts accruing as the ground shaking is being monitored. Along the time scale, heterogeneous multi-sensor data arise: EO data with various electromagnetic nature, oblique images, airborne/terrestrial active (Lidar) data, and the recently emerged crowdsourcing data. Neither theoretical models nor effective methods exist to date that can sufficiently fuse these data towards revealing the 'ground-truth' of the disaster effects, for example, damage to built objects. This presentation will present an augmented evidence-theoretic framework based on the classical Dempster-Shafer theory. With a focus on reasoning the ground-truth of build-object damage, causal, correlational and relational evidences will be defined considering their temporal and spatial scales. The newly developed graph-based learning approach will be explored for estimating

  4. Relationship Between Epistemology and Information Services in the Transformation of Theoretical Knowledge to Social Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Külcü

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Generally epistemology is the branch of philosophy that’s studies knowledge. It attempts to answer the basic question about knowledge and its creation, source, use, borders etc. Library and information science is working about knowledge, too. Relationship between library and information science and epistemology comes from not only concept of knowledge but also as a social source, each area try to maxsimize social use of knowledge. In our study we try to explain relationship between library and information science, and epistemology with different ways. In addition to bring forward what is the theory of knowledge we studied knowledge as a economical, social and cultural fact.

  5. Statistical Mechanics and Information-Theoretic Perspectives on Complexity in the Earth System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Eftaxias

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a summary of methods originated in (non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and information theory, which have recently found successful applications to quantitatively studying complexity in various components of the complex system Earth. Specifically, we discuss two classes of methods: (i entropies of different kinds (e.g., on the one hand classical Shannon and R´enyi entropies, as well as non-extensive Tsallis entropy based on symbolic dynamics techniques and, on the other hand, approximate entropy, sample entropy and fuzzy entropy; and (ii measures of statistical interdependence and causality (e.g., mutual information and generalizations thereof, transfer entropy, momentary information transfer. We review a number of applications and case studies utilizing the above-mentioned methodological approaches for studying contemporary problems in some exemplary fields of the Earth sciences, highlighting the potentials of different techniques.

  6. The human resource information system: a rapid appraisal of Pakistan's capacity to employ the tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Ahmed, Jamil; Khan, Zulfiqar; Mursalin, Sayed; Memon, Mahmood Iqbal; Zareen, Shagufta

    2013-09-10

    Human resources are an important building block of the health system. During the last decade, enormous investment has gone into the information systems to manage human resources, but due to the lack of a clear vision, policy, and strategy, the results of these efforts have not been very visible. No reliable information portal captures the actual state of human resources in Pakistan's health sector. The World Health Organization (WHO) has provided technical support for the assessment of the existing system and development of a comprehensive Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in Pakistan. The questions in the WHO-HRIS Assessment tool were distributed into five thematic groups. Purposively selected (n=65) representatives from the government, private sector, and development partners participated in this cross sectional study, based on their programmatic affiliations. Fifty-five percent of organizations and departments have an independent Human Resources (HR) section managed by an establishment branch and are fully equipped with functional computers. Forty-five organizations (70%) had HR rules, regulations and coordination mechanisms, yet these are not implemented. Data reporting is mainly in paper form, on prescribed forms (51%), registers (3%) or even plain papers (20%). Data analysis does not give inputs to the decision making process and dissemination of information is quite erratic. Most of the organizations had no feedback mechanism for cross checking the HR data, rendering it unreliable. Pakistan is lacking appropriate HRIS management. The current HRIS indeed has a multitude of problems. In the wake of 2011 reforms within the health sector, provinces are even in a greater need for planning their respective health department services and must work on the deficiencies and inefficiencies of their HRIS so that the gaps and HR needs are better aligned for reaching the 2015 UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) targets.

  7. Information-Theoretic Analysis of a Family of Improper Discrete Constellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Santamaria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-circular or improper Gaussian signaling has proven beneficial in several interference-limited wireless networks. However, all implementable coding schemes are based on finite discrete constellations rather than Gaussian signals. In this paper, we propose a new family of improper constellations generated by widely linear processing of a square M-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation signal. This family of discrete constellations is parameterized by κ , the circularity coefficient and a phase ϕ . For uncoded communication systems, this phase should be optimized as ϕ * ( κ to maximize the minimum Euclidean distance between points of the improper constellation, therefore minimizing the bit error rate (BER. For the more relevant case of coded communications, where the coded symbols are constrained to be in this family of improper constellations using ϕ * ( κ , it is shown theoretically and further corroborated by simulations that, except for a shaping loss of 1.53 dB encountered at a high signal-to-noise ratio (snr, there is no rate loss with respect to the improper Gaussian capacity. In this sense, the proposed family of constellations can be viewed as the improper counterpart of the standard proper M-QAM constellations widely used in coded communication systems.

  8. Theoretical analysis of three research apparatuses about media and information literacy in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Kerneis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we compare three projects about mapping digital-, media- and information literacy in France. For this study, we first used the concept of “apparatus” in Foucauldian (1977 and Agambenian sense (2009. After this analysis, we called on Bachelard (1932 and his distinction between phénoménotechnique and phénoménographie. The first project began in 2006 around a professional association (Fadben: http://www.fadben.asso.fr/, with the main goal being to distinguish 64 main concepts in information literacy. This work is now completed, and we can observe it quietly through publications. The second project emanates from a research group (GRCDI: http://culturedel.info/grcdi/ that is still active. In 2011, GRCDI produced a status report, including future perspectives, which introduced the idea of transliteracy (media and information culture.The third project (Limin-R: http://www.iscc.cnrs.fr/spip.php?article1115 is an open group (media, information, computer science with support from CNRS. We aim at mapping the web around these concepts, and in all three projects wiki tools have been used, which has been important for the success and limits of the collective action. This paper presents highlights and lessons learned, as well as ideas for further development.

  9. Quantitative assessment of drivers of recent global temperature variability: an information theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Ankush; Ramesh, Durbha Sai; Vichare, Geeta; Koganti, Triven; Gurubaran, S.

    2017-12-01

    Identification and quantification of possible drivers of recent global temperature variability remains a challenging task. This important issue is addressed adopting a non-parametric information theory technique, the Transfer Entropy and its normalized variant. It distinctly quantifies actual information exchanged along with the directional flow of information between any two variables with no bearing on their common history or inputs, unlike correlation, mutual information etc. Measurements of greenhouse gases: CO2, CH4 and N2O; volcanic aerosols; solar activity: UV radiation, total solar irradiance ( TSI) and cosmic ray flux ( CR); El Niño Southern Oscillation ( ENSO) and Global Mean Temperature Anomaly ( GMTA) made during 1984-2005 are utilized to distinguish driving and responding signals of global temperature variability. Estimates of their relative contributions reveal that CO2 ({˜ } 24 %), CH4 ({˜ } 19 %) and volcanic aerosols ({˜ }23 %) are the primary contributors to the observed variations in GMTA. While, UV ({˜ } 9 %) and ENSO ({˜ } 12 %) act as secondary drivers of variations in the GMTA, the remaining play a marginal role in the observed recent global temperature variability. Interestingly, ENSO and GMTA mutually drive each other at varied time lags. This study assists future modelling efforts in climate science.

  10. The theoretical foundations of value-informed pricing in the service-dominant logic of marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – In the mainstream normative pricing literature, value assessment is virtually non-existent. Although the resource-based literature recognizes that pricing is a competence, value-informed pricing practices are still weakly grounded in theory. The purpose of this paper is to strengthen the

  11. Population dynamics of mottled sculpin (PISCES) in a variable environment: information theoretic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary D. Grossman; Robert E Ratajczak; J. Todd Petty; Mark D. Hunter; James T. Peterson; Gael Grenouillet

    2006-01-01

    We used strong inference with Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to assess the processes capable of explaining long-term (1984-1995) variation in the per capita rate of change of mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) populations in the Coweeta Creek drainage (USA). We sampled two fourth- and one fifth-order sites (BCA [uppermost], BCB, and CC [lowermost])...

  12. An Informational-Theoretical Formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a formulation of the second law of thermodynamics couched in terms of Shannon's measure of information. This formulation has an advantage over other formulations of the second law. First, it shows explicitly what is the thing that changes in a spontaneous process in an isolated system, which is traditionally referred to as the…

  13. Managing the risks of reputational disasters in Japan. Theoretical basis and need for information volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses how and why a disaster caused by a bad reputation (Fu-Hyo) occurs in Japan. We survey several cases of reputational disasters and develop a simple model of the process of how a reputational disaster occurs, lasts, and vanishes. We also show the necessity of third parties or information volunteers to reduce the damage of a reputational disaster. (author)

  14. On the amount of information resulting from empirical and theoretical knowledge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vajda, Igor; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2005), s. 275-283 ISSN 1139-1138 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B107; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : ontology * knowledge area * empirical knowledge * amount of information Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  15. A geo-information theoretical approach to inductive erosion modelling based on terrain mapping units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suryana, N.

    1997-01-01

    Three main aspects of the research, namely the concept of object orientation, the development of an Inductive Erosion Model (IEM) and the development of a framework for handling uncertainty in the data or information resulting from a GIS are interwoven in this thesis. The first and the second aspect

  16. Theoretical and methodological significance of Information and Communication Technology in educational practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    In September 1998 the Research Network ‘ICT in Education and Training’ was initiated at the conference of the European Educational Research Association (EERA). The new network reflected the recognition and growing importance of information and communication technology (ICT) with respect to education

  17. Comparing Data from the Poisons Information Centre with Employers' Accident Reports Reveal Under-Recognized Hazards at the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Linda; Öberg, Mattias

    2018-02-28

    Records of injuries and incidents provide an important basis for injury prevention related to hazardous substances at the workplace. The present study aimed to review available data on injuries and incidents involving hazardous substances and investigate how data from the Poisons Information Centre could complement the records of the Swedish Work Environment Authority. We found two major obstacles for using injury/incident data based on employers' mandatory reporting. First, it was not possible to quickly and reliably identify injuries caused by hazardous substances, and second, data identifying substances or products are not systematically included. For two out of five investigated injuries with lost working days likely due to chemical injuries, we could not identify substances and/or products involved. The records based on calls to the Poisons Information Centre allow better understanding of chemical hazards and products. Besides the large share of unidentified chemical hazards in the injury statistics, the most striking difference was found for cleaning agents. Cleaning agents were implicated in one-third of the occupational cases that the consulting Poisons Information Centre expert judged to pose a major risk and in need of immediate healthcare. Only one in 10 injuries with lost days reported by employers was related to this type of product. The identification of exposures and symptoms by the Poisons Information Centre allow recognition of chemicals with problematic occupational uses. Hence, these records may serve as an important complement to official injury statistics related to incidents with hazardous substances at work.

  18. Employing Predictive Spatial Models to Inform Conservation Planning for Seabirds in the Labrador Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Fifield

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds are vulnerable to incidental harm from human activities in the ocean, and knowledge of their seasonal distribution is required to assess risk and effectively inform marine conservation planning. Significant hydrocarbon discoveries and exploration licenses in the Labrador Sea underscore the need for quantitative information on seabird seasonal distribution and abundance, as this region is known to provide important habitat for seabirds year-round. We explore the utility of density surface modeling (DSM to improve seabird information available for regional conservation and management decision making. We, (1 develop seasonal density surface models for seabirds in the Labrador Sea using data from vessel-based surveys (2006–2014; 13,783 linear km of surveys, (2 present measures of uncertainty in model predictions, (3 discuss how density surface models can inform conservation and management decision making, and 4 explore challenges and potential pitfalls associated with using these modeling procedures. Models predicted large areas of high seabird density in fall over continental shelf waters (max. ~80 birds·km−2 driven largely by the southward migration of murres (Uria spp. and dovekies (Alle alle from Arctic breeding colonies. The continental shelf break was also highlighted as an important habitat feature, with predictions of high seabird densities particularly during summer (max. ~70 birds·km−2. Notable concentrations of seabirds overlapped with several significant hydrocarbon discoveries on the continental shelf and large areas in the vicinity of the southern shelf break, which are in the early stages of exploration. Some, but not all, areas of high seabird density were within current Ecologically and Biologically Significant Area (EBSA boundaries. Building predictive spatial models required knowledge of Distance Sampling and GAMs, and significant investments of time and computational power—resource needs that are becoming more

  19. A Theoretical Framework for Turnover Intention of Air Force Enlisted Information Systems Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-25

    Burnout Measure,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 71: 331-351 (1998). 33. Festinger , Leon . “Informal Social Communication...group” (p. 482; italics in original). Bollen and Hoyle choose to view perceived cohesion from a Festinger -like viewpoint (1950:274) as an...Bollen and Hoyle choose to view perceived cohesion from a Festinger -like viewpoint (1950:274) as an independent construct, i.e., as the resultant of

  20. An information-theoretical analysis of budget-constrained nonpoint source pollution control

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Howitt, Richard E.; Farzin, Y. Hossein

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses budget-constrained, nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control with costly information acquisition and learning. To overcome the inherent ill-posed statistical problem in NPS pollution data the sequential entropy filter is applied to the sediment load management program for Redwood Creek, which flows through Redwood National Park in northwestern California. We simulate the dynamic budget-constrained management model with informationacquisition and learning, and compare the re...

  1. A Systematic Review of Current Understandings of Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stella; Dodd, Lorna J.; Steele, Catherine; Randall, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical framework is essential for the effective evaluation of employability. However, there are a wide range of definitions of employability coexisting in current literature. A review into existing ways in which employability has been conceptualised is needed to inform a better understanding of the nature of contributions made by various…

  2. Lateral Information Processing by Spiking Neurons: A Theoretical Model of the Neural Correlate of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Marc; Hameroff, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive brain functions, for example, sensory perception, motor control and learning, are understood as computation by axonal-dendritic chemical synapses in networks of integrate-and-fire neurons. Cognitive brain functions may occur either consciously or nonconsciously (on “autopilot”). Conscious cognition is marked by gamma synchrony EEG, mediated largely by dendritic-dendritic gap junctions, sideways connections in input/integration layers. Gap-junction-connected neurons define a sub-network within a larger neural network. A theoretical model (the “conscious pilot”) suggests that as gap junctions open and close, a gamma-synchronized subnetwork, or zone moves through the brain as an executive agent, converting nonconscious “auto-pilot” cognition to consciousness, and enhancing computation by coherent processing and collective integration. In this study we implemented sideways “gap junctions” in a single-layer artificial neural network to perform figure/ground separation. The set of neurons connected through gap junctions form a reconfigurable resistive grid or sub-network zone. In the model, outgoing spikes are temporally integrated and spatially averaged using the fixed resistive grid set up by neurons of similar function which are connected through gap-junctions. This spatial average, essentially a feedback signal from the neuron's output, determines whether particular gap junctions between neurons will open or close. Neurons connected through open gap junctions synchronize their output spikes. We have tested our gap-junction-defined sub-network in a one-layer neural network on artificial retinal inputs using real-world images. Our system is able to perform figure/ground separation where the laterally connected sub-network of neurons represents a perceived object. Even though we only show results for visual stimuli, our approach should generalize to other modalities. The system demonstrates a moving sub-network zone of synchrony, within which

  3. Lateral Information Processing by Spiking Neurons: A Theoretical Model of the Neural Correlate of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ebner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive brain functions, for example, sensory perception, motor control and learning, are understood as computation by axonal-dendritic chemical synapses in networks of integrate-and-fire neurons. Cognitive brain functions may occur either consciously or nonconsciously (on “autopilot”. Conscious cognition is marked by gamma synchrony EEG, mediated largely by dendritic-dendritic gap junctions, sideways connections in input/integration layers. Gap-junction-connected neurons define a sub-network within a larger neural network. A theoretical model (the “conscious pilot” suggests that as gap junctions open and close, a gamma-synchronized subnetwork, or zone moves through the brain as an executive agent, converting nonconscious “auto-pilot” cognition to consciousness, and enhancing computation by coherent processing and collective integration. In this study we implemented sideways “gap junctions” in a single-layer artificial neural network to perform figure/ground separation. The set of neurons connected through gap junctions form a reconfigurable resistive grid or sub-network zone. In the model, outgoing spikes are temporally integrated and spatially averaged using the fixed resistive grid set up by neurons of similar function which are connected through gap-junctions. This spatial average, essentially a feedback signal from the neuron's output, determines whether particular gap junctions between neurons will open or close. Neurons connected through open gap junctions synchronize their output spikes. We have tested our gap-junction-defined sub-network in a one-layer neural network on artificial retinal inputs using real-world images. Our system is able to perform figure/ground separation where the laterally connected sub-network of neurons represents a perceived object. Even though we only show results for visual stimuli, our approach should generalize to other modalities. The system demonstrates a moving sub-network zone of

  4. Informed consent for cord blood donation. A theoretical and empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo; Farisco, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectives Umbilical cord blood (CB) banking and therapeutic use raise several ethical issues: medical indications, legal framework, public versus private biobanks, autologous versus allogeneic use, ownership, commercialisation, quality assurance and many others. Surrogate informed consent is one of the most notable controversial ethical issues. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare informed consent forms for CB collection, storage and use in the 18 accredited biobanks of the Italian Network. Material and methods The first part of the article gives a brief overview of the scientific framework, the comparison of allogeneic and autologous use and Italian regulations. In the second part the contents of the consent forms from the 18 Italian biobanks are compared with the “NetCord-FACT International Standards for Cord Blood Collection, Banking, and Release for Administration”. Results Most of the Italian consent forms differ significantly from the NetCord-FACT Standards, with regards both to formal and substantial aspects. Conclusion Italian forms for CB collection, storage and use need standardisation to meet international criteria. PMID:21251456

  5. The quantization of the attention function under a Bayes information theoretic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynn, H.P.; Sebastiani, P.

    2001-01-01

    Bayes experimental design using entropy, or equivalently negative information, as a criterion is fairly well developed. The present work applies this model but at a primitive level in statistical sampling. It is assumed that the observer/experimentor is allowed to place a window over the support of a sampling distribution and only 'pay for' observations that fall in this window. The window can be modeled with an 'attention function', simply the indicator function of the window. The understanding is that the cost of the experiment is only the number of paid for observations: n. For fixed n and under the information model it turns out that for standard problems the optimal structure for the window, in the limit amongst all types of window including disjoint regions, is discrete. That is to say it is optimal to observe the world (in this sense) through discrete slits. It also shows that in this case Bayesians with different priors will receive different samples because typically the optimal attention windows will be disjoint. This property we refer to as the quantization of the attention function

  6. An information-theoretic machine learning approach to expression QTL analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    Full Text Available Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL analysis is a powerful tool to study the biological mechanisms linking the genotype with gene expression. Such analyses can identify genomic locations where genotypic variants influence the expression of genes, both in close proximity to the variant (cis-eQTL, and on other chromosomes (trans-eQTL. Many traditional eQTL methods are based on a linear regression model. In this study, we propose a novel method by which to identify eQTL associations with information theory and machine learning approaches. Mutual Information (MI is used to describe the association between genetic marker and gene expression. MI can detect both linear and non-linear associations. What's more, it can capture the heterogeneity of the population. Advanced feature selection methods, Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy (mRMR and Incremental Feature Selection (IFS, were applied to optimize the selection of the affected genes by the genetic marker. When we applied our method to a study of apoE-deficient mice, it was found that the cis-acting eQTLs are stronger than trans-acting eQTLs but there are more trans-acting eQTLs than cis-acting eQTLs. We compared our results (mRMR.eQTL with R/qtl, and MatrixEQTL (modelLINEAR and modelANOVA. In female mice, 67.9% of mRMR.eQTL results can be confirmed by at least two other methods while only 14.4% of R/qtl result can be confirmed by at least two other methods. In male mice, 74.1% of mRMR.eQTL results can be confirmed by at least two other methods while only 18.2% of R/qtl result can be confirmed by at least two other methods. Our methods provide a new way to identify the association between genetic markers and gene expression. Our software is available from supporting information.

  7. Information-theoretic identification of predictive SNPs and supervised visualization of genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasi, Kavitha; Zhang, Li; Brazeau, Daniel; Zhang, Aidong; Ramanathan, Murali

    2006-01-01

    The size, dimensionality and the limited range of the data values makes visualization of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) datasets challenging. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of 3D VizStruct, a novel multi-dimensional data visualization technique for SNP datasets capable of identifying informative SNPs in genome-wide association studies. VizStruct is an interactive visualization technique that reduces multi-dimensional data to three dimensions using a combination of the discrete Fourier transform and the Kullback–Leibler divergence. The performance of 3D VizStruct was challenged with several diverse, biologically relevant published datasets including the human lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene locus, the human Y-chromosome in several populations and a multi-locus genotype dataset of coral samples from four populations. In every case, the SNPs and or polymorphic markers identified by the 3D VizStruct mapping were predictive of the underlying biology. PMID:16899448

  8. An Information-Theoretic Perspective on the Quantum Bit Commitment Impossibility Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Nagy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a different approach to pinpoint the causes for which an unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment protocol cannot be realized, beyond the technical details on which the proof of Mayers’ no-go theorem is constructed. We have adopted the tools of quantum entropy analysis to investigate the conditions under which the security properties of quantum bit commitment can be circumvented. Our study has revealed that cheating the binding property requires the quantum system acting as the safe to harbor the same amount of uncertainty with respect to both observers (Alice and Bob as well as the use of entanglement. Our analysis also suggests that the ability to cheat one of the two fundamental properties of bit commitment by any of the two participants depends on how much information is leaked from one side of the system to the other and how much remains hidden from the other participant.

  9. Information-Theoretic Analysis of Underwater Acoustic OFDM Systems in Highly Dispersive Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Xavier Socheleau

    2012-01-01

    established by the ISI/ICI and are based on lower bounds on mutual information that assume independent and identically distributed input data symbols. In agreement with recent statistical analyses of experimental shallow-water data, the channel is modeled as a multivariate Rician fading process with a slowly time-varying mean and with potentially correlated scatterers, which is more general than the common wide-sense stationary uncorrelated scattering model. Numerical assessments on real UA channels with spread factors around 10−1 show that reliable OFDM transmissions at 2 to 4 bits/sec/Hz are achievable provided an average signal-to-noise ratio of 15 to 20 dB.

  10. AN INFORMATION-THEORETIC APPROACH TO OPTIMIZE JWST OBSERVATIONS AND RETRIEVALS OF TRANSITING EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Alex R.; Burrows, Adam [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: arhowe@umich.edu, E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: ddeming@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    We provide an example of an analysis to explore the optimization of observations of transiting hot Jupiters with the James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ) to characterize their atmospheres based on a simple three-parameter forward model. We construct expansive forward model sets for 11 hot Jupiters, 10 of which are relatively well characterized, exploring a range of parameters such as equilibrium temperature and metallicity, as well as considering host stars over a wide range in brightness. We compute posterior distributions of our model parameters for each planet with all of the available JWST spectroscopic modes and several programs of combined observations and compute their effectiveness using the metric of estimated mutual information per degree of freedom. From these simulations, clear trends emerge that provide guidelines for designing a JWST observing program. We demonstrate that these guidelines apply over a wide range of planet parameters and target brightnesses for our simple forward model.

  11. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION. A THEORETICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Rodríguez Quijada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we tour the treatment of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in the field of physical education by the professed and the students. For this purpose we review the existing lines of research on the topic and how the most remarkable works of different authors, with special attention to the situation in the autonomous community of Galicia. Finally the main problems related to the use of these technologies in classrooms are analyzed. All this in order t to shed light on a very topical issue regarding the education of our youth. Studies show that ICTs are increasingly present in the field of physical education, but much remains to be done to make an effective use of them in education. 

  12. Subgraph Covers: An Information-Theoretic Approach to Motif Analysis in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatol E. Wegner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many real-world networks contain a statistically surprising number of certain subgraphs, called network motifs. In the prevalent approach to motif analysis, network motifs are detected by comparing subgraph frequencies in the original network with a statistical null model. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach to motif analysis where network motifs are defined to be connectivity patterns that occur in a subgraph cover that represents the network using minimal total information. A subgraph cover is defined to be a set of subgraphs such that every edge of the graph is contained in at least one of the subgraphs in the cover. Some recently introduced random graph models that can incorporate significant densities of motifs have natural formulations in terms of subgraph covers, and the presented approach can be used to match networks with such models. To prove the practical value of our approach, we also present a heuristic for the resulting NP hard optimization problem and give results for several real-world networks.

  13. Information Theoretic Approach Based on Entropy for Classification of Bioacoustics Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ng Chee; Muniandy, Sithi V.; Dayou, Jedol; Mun, Ho Chong; Ahmad, Abdul Hamid; Dalimin, Mohd. Noh

    2010-07-01

    A new hybrid method for automated frog sound identification by incorporating entropy and spectral centroid concept is proposed. Entropy has important physical implications as the amount of "disorder" of a system. This study explores the use of various definitions of entropies such as the Shannon entropy, Kolmogorov-Rényi entropy and Tsallis entropy as measure of information contents or complexity for the purpose of the pattern recognition of bioacoustics signal. Each of these definitions of entropies characterizes different aspects of the signal. The entropies are combined with other standard pattern recognition tools such as the Fourier spectral analysis to form a hybrid spectral-entropic classification scheme. The efficiency of the system is tested using a database of sound syllables are obtained from a number of species of Microhylidae frogs. Nonparametric k-NN classifier is used to recognize the frog species based on the spectral-entropic features. The result showed that the k-NN classifier based on the selected features is able to identify the species of the frogs with relativity good accuracy compared to features relying on spectral contents alone. The robustness of the developed system is also tested for different noise levels.

  14. Evolutionary dynamics on rugged fitness landscapes: exact dynamics and information theoretical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B; Fontanari, José F

    2009-10-01

    The parallel mutation-selection evolutionary dynamics, in which mutation and replication are independent events, is solved exactly in the case that the Malthusian fitnesses associated to the genomes are described by the random energy model (REM) and by a ferromagnetic version of the REM. The solution method uses the mapping of the evolutionary dynamics into a quantum Ising chain in a transverse field and the Suzuki-Trotter formalism to calculate the transition probabilities between configurations at different times. We find that in the case of the REM landscape the dynamics can exhibit three distinct regimes: pure diffusion or stasis for short times, depending on the fitness of the initial configuration, and a spin-glass regime for large times. The dynamic transition between these dynamical regimes is marked by discontinuities in the mean-fitness as well as in the overlap with the initial reference sequence. The relaxation to equilibrium is described by an inverse time decay. In the ferromagnetic REM, we find in addition to these three regimes, a ferromagnetic regime where the overlap and the mean-fitness are frozen. In this case, the system relaxes to equilibrium in a finite time. The relevance of our results to information processing aspects of evolution is discussed.

  15. Defining Building Information Modeling implementation activities based on capability maturity evaluation: a theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Morlhon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Building Information Modeling (BIM has become a widely accepted tool to overcome the many hurdles that currently face the Architecture, Engineering and Construction industries. However, implementing such a system is always complex and the recent introduction of BIM does not allow organizations to build their experience on acknowledged standards and procedures. Moreover, data on implementation projects is still disseminated and fragmentary. The objective of this study is to develop an assistance model for BIM implementation. Solutions that are proposed will help develop BIM that is better integrated and better used, and take into account the different maturity levels of each organization. Indeed, based on Critical Success Factors, concrete activities that help in implementation are identified and can be undertaken according to the previous maturity evaluation of an organization. The result of this research consists of a structured model linking maturity, success factors and actions, which operates on the following principle: once an organization has assessed its BIM maturity, it can identify various weaknesses and find relevant answers in the success factors and the associated actions.

  16. Anatomy of a Spin: The Information-Theoretic Structure of Classical Spin Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram S. Vijayaraghavan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Collective organization in matter plays a significant role in its expressed physical properties. Typically, it is detected via an order parameter, appropriately defined for each given system’s observed emergent patterns. Recent developments in information theory, however, suggest quantifying collective organization in a system- and phenomenon-agnostic way: decomposing the system’s thermodynamic entropy density into a localized entropy, that is solely contained in the dynamics at a single location, and a bound entropy, that is stored in space as domains, clusters, excitations, or other emergent structures. As a concrete demonstration, we compute this decomposition and related quantities explicitly for the nearest-neighbor Ising model on the 1D chain, on the Bethe lattice with coordination number k = 3 , and on the 2D square lattice, illustrating its generality and the functional insights it gives near and away from phase transitions. In particular, we consider the roles that different spin motifs play (in cluster bulk, cluster edges, and the like and how these affect the dependencies between spins.

  17. Parenting around child snacking: development of a theoretically-guided, empirically informed conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten K; Blake, Christine E; Blaine, Rachel E; Younginer, Nicholas A; Orloski, Alexandria; Hamtil, Heather A; Ganter, Claudia; Bruton, Yasmeen P; Vaughn, Amber E; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2015-09-17

    Snacking contributes to excessive energy intakes in children. Yet factors shaping child snacking are virtually unstudied. This study examines food parenting practices specific to child snacking among low-income caregivers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in English or Spanish with 60 low-income caregivers of preschool-aged children (18 non-Hispanic white, 22 African American/Black, 20 Hispanic; 92% mothers). A structured interview guide was used to solicit caregivers' definitions of snacking and strategies they use to decide what, when and how much snack their child eats. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an iterative theory-based and grounded approach. A conceptual model of food parenting specific to child snacking was developed to summarize the findings and inform future research. Caregivers' descriptions of food parenting practices specific to child snacking were consistent with previous models of food parenting developed based on expert opinion [1, 2]. A few noteworthy differences however emerged. More than half of participants mentioned permissive feeding approaches (e.g., my child is the boss when it comes to snacks). As a result, permissive feeding was included as a higher order feeding dimension in the resulting model. In addition, a number of novel feeding approaches specific to child snacking emerged including child-centered provision of snacks (i.e., responding to a child's hunger cues when making decisions about snacks), parent unilateral decision making (i.e., making decisions about a child's snacks without any input from the child), and excessive monitoring of snacks (i.e., monitoring all snacks provided to and consumed by the child). The resulting conceptual model includes four higher order feeding dimensions including autonomy support, coercive control, structure and permissiveness and 20 sub-dimensions. This study formulates a language around food parenting practices specific to child snacking

  18. Blind information-theoretic multiuser detection algorithms for DS-CDMA and WCDMA downlink systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Khuram; Salem, Fathi M

    2005-07-01

    Code division multiple access (CDMA) is based on the spread-spectrum technology and is a dominant air interface for 2.5G, 3G, and future wireless networks. For the CDMA downlink, the transmitted CDMA signals from the base station (BS) propagate through a noisy multipath fading communication channel before arriving at the receiver of the user equipment/mobile station (UE/MS). Classical CDMA single-user detection (SUD) algorithms implemented in the UE/MS receiver do not provide the required performance for modern high data-rate applications. In contrast, multi-user detection (MUD) approaches require a lot of a priori information not available to the UE/MS. In this paper, three promising adaptive Riemannian contra-variant (or natural) gradient based user detection approaches, capable of handling the highly dynamic wireless environments, are proposed. The first approach, blind multiuser detection (BMUD), is the process of simultaneously estimating multiple symbol sequences associated with all the users in the downlink of a CDMA communication system using only the received wireless data and without any knowledge of the user spreading codes. This approach is applicable to CDMA systems with relatively short spreading codes but becomes impractical for systems using long spreading codes. We also propose two other adaptive approaches, namely, RAKE -blind source recovery (RAKE-BSR) and RAKE-principal component analysis (RAKE-PCA) that fuse an adaptive stage into a standard RAKE receiver. This adaptation results in robust user detection algorithms with performance exceeding the linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE) detectors for both Direct Sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) and wide-band CDMA (WCDMA) systems under conditions of congestion, imprecise channel estimation and unmodeled multiple access interference (MAI).

  19. Assessment of Geographic Information System (GIS Skills Employed by Graduates from Three Forestry Programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Merry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluates the current use of geographic information systems (GIS by forestry program graduates employed in the United States who graduated from university in the past five years. The purpose was to understand what geospatial processes and databases are typically used by field foresters. A survey was designed and sent to recent forestry graduates from Mississippi State University, Oregon State University, and the University of Georgia, with 30% of those surveyed choosing to participate. The majority of forestry graduates surveyed use GIS at least once a week, and the most frequently employed tasks included editing tabular data, adjusting polygon boundaries, buffering and splitting polygons, and querying for spatial and tabular information. Very few overlay or advance spatial analysis tools were noted as used in regular work efforts. Most respondents use digital aerial photographs as reference, along with satellite images. LiDAR is increasingly being used by these foresters, but to a lesser extent. ArcMap and Google Earth were noted as the most commonly used software packages. Most foresters rely on an organization’s technical support staff for assistance. The study results can be used as a guide for academic programs in their efforts to provide timely and effective knowledge on geospatial topics to forestry undergraduate students.

  20. How do small groups make decisions? : A theoretical framework to inform the implementation and study of clinical competency committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, Saad; Cristancho, Sayra; Padgett, Jessica; Lingard, Lorelei

    2017-06-01

    In the competency-based medical education (CBME) approach, clinical competency committees are responsible for making decisions about trainees' competence. However, we currently lack a theoretical model for group decision-making to inform this emerging assessment phenomenon. This paper proposes an organizing framework to study and guide the decision-making processes of clinical competency committees.This is an explanatory, non-exhaustive review, tailored to identify relevant theoretical and evidence-based papers related to small group decision-making. The search was conducted using Google Scholar, Web of Science, MEDLINE, ERIC, and PsycINFO for relevant literature. Using a thematic analysis, two researchers (SC & JP) met four times between April-June 2016 to consolidate the literature included in this review.Three theoretical orientations towards group decision-making emerged from the review: schema, constructivist, and social influence. Schema orientations focus on how groups use algorithms for decision-making. Constructivist orientations focus on how groups construct their shared understanding. Social influence orientations focus on how individual members influence the group's perspective on a decision. Moderators of decision-making relevant to all orientations include: guidelines, stressors, authority, and leadership.Clinical competency committees are the mechanisms by which groups of clinicians will be in charge of interpreting multiple assessment data points and coming to a shared decision about trainee competence. The way in which these committees make decisions can have huge implications for trainee progression and, ultimately, patient care. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build the science of how such group decision-making works in practice. This synthesis suggests a preliminary organizing framework that can be used in the implementation and study of clinical competency committees.

  1. Information-theoretic analysis of rotational distributions from quantal and quasiclassical computations of reactive and nonreactive scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    An information-theoretic approach to the analysis of rotational excitation cross sections was developed by Levine, Bernstein, Johnson, Procaccia, and coworkers and applied to state-to-state cross sections available from numerical computations of reactive and nonreactive scattering (for example, by Wyatt and Kuppermann and their coworkers and by Pack and Pattengill and others). The rotational surprisals are approximately linear in the energy transferred, thereby accounting for the so-called ''exponential gap law'' for rotational relaxation discovered experimentally by Polanyi, Woodall, and Ding. For the ''linear surprisal'' case the unique relation between the surprisal parameter theta/sub R/ and the first moment of the rotational energy distribution provides a link between the pattern of the rotational state distribution and those features of the potential surface which govern the average energy transfer

  2. Dimensionality reduction in neural models: an information-theoretic generalization of spike-triggered average and covariance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, Jonathan W; Simoncelli, Eero P

    2006-04-28

    We describe an information-theoretic framework for fitting neural spike responses with a Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson cascade model. This framework unifies the spike-triggered average (STA) and spike-triggered covariance (STC) approaches to neural characterization and recovers a set of linear filters that maximize mean and variance-dependent information between stimuli and spike responses. The resulting approach has several useful properties, namely, (1) it recovers a set of linear filters sorted according to their informativeness about the neural response; (2) it is both computationally efficient and robust, allowing recovery of multiple linear filters from a data set of relatively modest size; (3) it provides an explicit "default" model of the nonlinear stage mapping the filter responses to spike rate, in the form of a ratio of Gaussians; (4) it is equivalent to maximum likelihood estimation of this default model but also converges to the correct filter estimates whenever the conditions for the consistency of STA or STC analysis are met; and (5) it can be augmented with additional constraints on the filters, such as space-time separability. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by applying it to simulated responses of a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron and the recorded extracellular responses of macaque retinal ganglion cells and V1 cells.

  3. A Theoretical Model of Resource-Oriented Music Therapy with Informal Hospice Caregivers during Pre-Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Noah; Bradt, Joke; Ghetti, Claire

    2018-03-09

    Over the past decade, caregiver pre-bereavement has received increased scholarly and clinical attention across multiple healthcare fields. Pre-bereavement represents a nascent area for music therapy to develop best practices in and an opportunity to establish clinical relevancy in the interdisciplinary team. This study was an exploratory inquiry into the role of music therapy with pre-bereaved informal hospice caregivers. This study intended to articulate (a) what pre-bereavement needs are present for informal hospice caregivers, (b) which of those needs were addressed in music, and (c) the process by which music therapy addressed those needs. A constructivist grounded theory methodology using situational analysis was used. We interviewed 14 currently bereaved informal hospice caregivers who had participated in music therapy with the care recipient. Analysis resulted in a theoretical model of resource-oriented music therapy promoting caregiver resilience. The resource, caregivers' stable caring relationships with care recipients through their pre-illness identities (i.e., spouse, parent, or child), is amplified through music therapy. Engagement with this resource mediates the risk of increased care burden and results in resilience fostering purposefulness and value in caregiving. Resource-oriented music therapy provides a unique clinical avenue for supporting caregivers through pre-bereavement, and was acknowledged by caregivers as a unique and integral hospice service. Within this model, caregivers are better positioned to develop meaning from the experience of providing care through the death of a loved one.

  4. Information theoretic analysis of dynamical encoding by four identified primary sensory interneurons in the cricket cercal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, F; Roddey, J C; Stufflebeam, S; Clague, H; Miller, J P

    1996-04-01

    . The mean latency between a stimulus component and the corresponding elicited spike was 17 ms. All four interneurons also had identical integration times. The integration time, measured by the duration of stimulus, which could affect the probability of spiking, was approximately 50 ms. 5. The accuracy of the encoding can be expressed as a signal-to-noise ratio, where the noise is a scaled difference between the original signal and the best estimate of the signal. Peak signal-to-noise ratios of approximately 1 were obtained for the cells across all stimulus power levels, using only the linear expansion term. Analysis of the data indicated that the consideration of second-order nonlinear transformations of the stimulus would not have increased the calculated encoding accuracy. 6. The encoding accuracy also can be expressed in the information theoretic units of bits/second, which characterizes the information transmission rate of the cell. Bits/second values varied between 10 and 80 for the 22 different cells in our experimental set. The information rate values were highly correlated with the mean spike rates of the interneurons, but were not correlated with the stimulus power levels. However, normalizing the absolute information rates by the mean spike rate in each case yielded a measure of bits/spike that was remarkably invariant across all experiments. The measured bits/spike rate was approximately 1 for all experiments. This result is discussed in the context of recent theoretical studies on optimal encoding. 7. Although the dynamic sensitivities of the four interneurons were identical, their directional sensitivities are known to be orthogonal. Thus the cells are complementary to one another from a functional standpoint: whereas a particular cell will be insensitive to air currents from some directions, one or more of the other three cells will be sensitive to stimuli from those directions...

  5. MapReduce Algorithms for Inferring Gene Regulatory Networks from Time-Series Microarray Data Using an Information-Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Abduallah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulation is a series of processes that control gene expression and its extent. The connections among genes and their regulatory molecules, usually transcription factors, and a descriptive model of such connections are known as gene regulatory networks (GRNs. Elucidating GRNs is crucial to understand the inner workings of the cell and the complexity of gene interactions. To date, numerous algorithms have been developed to infer gene regulatory networks. However, as the number of identified genes increases and the complexity of their interactions is uncovered, networks and their regulatory mechanisms become cumbersome to test. Furthermore, prodding through experimental results requires an enormous amount of computation, resulting in slow data processing. Therefore, new approaches are needed to expeditiously analyze copious amounts of experimental data resulting from cellular GRNs. To meet this need, cloud computing is promising as reported in the literature. Here, we propose new MapReduce algorithms for inferring gene regulatory networks on a Hadoop cluster in a cloud environment. These algorithms employ an information-theoretic approach to infer GRNs using time-series microarray data. Experimental results show that our MapReduce program is much faster than an existing tool while achieving slightly better prediction accuracy than the existing tool.

  6. Classification of Hyperspectral Images by SVM Using a Composite Kernel by Employing Spectral, Spatial and Hierarchical Structure Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a novel classification framework for hyperspectral images (HSIs by jointly employing spectral, spatial, and hierarchical structure information. In this framework, the three types of information are integrated into the SVM classifier in a way of multiple kernels. Specifically, the spectral kernel is constructed through each pixel’s vector value in the original HSI, and the spatial kernel is modeled by using the extended morphological profile method due to its simplicity and effectiveness. To accurately characterize hierarchical structure features, the techniques of Fish-Markov selector (FMS, marker-based hierarchical segmentation (MHSEG and algebraic multigrid (AMG are combined. First, the FMS algorithm is used on the original HSI for feature selection to produce its spectral subset. Then, the multigrid structure of this subset is constructed using the AMG method. Subsequently, the MHSEG algorithm is exploited to obtain a hierarchy consist of a series of segmentation maps. Finally, the hierarchical structure information is represented by using these segmentation maps. The main contributions of this work is to present an effective composite kernel for HSI classification by utilizing spatial structure information in multiple scales. Experiments were conducted on two hyperspectral remote sensing images to validate that the proposed framework can achieve better classification results than several popular kernel-based classification methods in terms of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Specifically, the proposed classification framework can achieve 13.46–15.61% in average higher than the standard SVM classifier under different training sets in the terms of overall accuracy.

  7. Double-duty caregivers: healthcare professionals juggling employment and informal caregiving. A survey on personal health and work experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Nicolle P G; Dorant, Elisabeth

    2014-07-01

    This study compared the work-related experiences and personal health status of double-duty caregivers with those of caregivers who do not provide informal care to a family member or close friend in need. The interest in providing informal care alongside employment is growing. However, little attention has been paid to the dual role of the healthcare professional who also has caregiving responsibilities for a needy person in his/her private situation. It is important to study the negative and positive consequences of this combination of professional and family care giving. A cross-sectional study. In 2011, we distributed a digital questionnaire to employees with a professional care function working at a healthcare organization in the Netherlands. Descriptive statistics, analyses of covariance and tests of linearity were performed. Analyses of variance demonstrated that as professional healthcare workers provide more hours of informal care in their private lives, their mental and physical health significantly worsens, while their need for recovery increases. Also, statistical significant increases were seen for emotional exhaustion, presenteeism and negative experiences with Work-Home and Home-Work Interferences. Remarkably, positive Home-Work Interference increased significantly with increasing hours of informal care. Double-duty caregivers appeared to be equally motivated and satisfied with their work as their co-workers. No differences were seen with respect to absenteeism. Double-duty caregivers prove to be employees who are at risk of developing symptoms of overload. This finding calls for special attention, with long-term solutions at both legislative and organizational level. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A diagnostic of the strategy employed for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities around uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari Dias, Fabiana; Tirollo Taddei, Maria H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a diagnostic of the strategy used by the Brazilian uranium mining industry to communicate nuclear related information to communities around a mining area. The uranium mining industry in Brazil, which is run by the government, has been concerned with communication issues for quite some time. The need to communicate became more apparent after new mining operations started in the Northern region of Brazil. The fact that the government does not have a clear communication guideline made the operators of the uranium mining industry aware of the increasing demand for establishment of a good relationship with several types of Stake holders as well as employment of personnel with experience in dealing with them. A diagnostic of the current communication situation in Brazil and an analysis of the approaches over the past years was done through interviews with employees of the mining industry and review of institutional communication materials. The results were discussed during a Consultant's Meeting organized by the IAEA 's Seibersdorf Laboratory in October 2007. The output of the meeting included an overview of modern communication strategies used by different countries and a suggestion for new uranium mining operations in developing or under developed countries. The strategy for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities varied according to the influence of different Stake holder groups. One initiative worth mentioning was the creation of a Mobile Nuclear Information Thematic Room, which was installed in several locations. This project was seen as one of the main tools to relate to community. Many Stake holders were identified during the diagnostic phase in preparation for the IAEA 's meeting on communication strategy: children, NGOs (Non Government Organizations), local churches, media and internal Stake holders, among others. An initial evaluation showed that the perception of a neighbouring community regarding an uranium

  9. An Exploration of Employer Perceptions of Graduate Student Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhinzer, Nita; Russo, Anna Maria

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore employer perceptions of graduate student employability. This study is novel since existing research focused on employability is largely theoretic, remains focused on defining employability of undergraduates and largely fails to determine employer perceptions of factors that increase or decrease…

  10. The views of health care professionals about selective decontamination of the digestive tract: an international, theoretically informed interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Eilidh M; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Prior, Maria E; Marshall, Andrea P; Wells, Elisabeth C; Todd, Laura E; Bolsover, Denise; Newlands, Rumana S; Webster, Fiona; Rose, Louise; Campbell, Marion K; Bellingan, Geoff; Seppelt, Ian M; Francis, Jill J

    2014-08-01

    Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) as a prophylactic intervention improves hospital-acquired infection and survival rates. Uptake of SDD is low and remains controversial. This study applied the theoretical domains framework to assess intensive care unit clinicians' views about SDD in regions with limited or no adoption of SDD. Participants were health professionals with "decisional authority" for the adoption of SDD. Semistructured interviews were conducted as the first round of a Delphi study. Views about SDD adoption, delivery, and further SDD research were explored. Directed content analysis of interview data identified subthemes, which informed item development for subsequent Delphi rounds. Linguistic features of interview data were also explored. One hundred forty-one participants provided interview data. Fifty-six subthemes were identified; 46 were common across regions. Beliefs about consequences were the most widely elaborated theme. Linguistic features of how participants discussed SDD included caution expressed when discussing the risks and benefits and words such as "worry," "anxiety," and "fear" when discussing potential antibiotic resistance associated with SDD. We identified salient beliefs, barriers, and facilitators to SDD adoption and delivery. What participants said about SDD and the way in which they said it demonstrated the degree of clinical caution, uncertainty, and concern that SDD evokes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Creating an experimental testbed for information-theoretic analysis of architectures for x-ray anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccarelli, David; Greenberg, Joel A.; Mandava, Sagar; Gong, Qian; Huang, Liang-Chih; Ashok, Amit; Gehm, Michael E.

    2017-05-01

    Anomaly detection requires a system that can reliably convert measurements of an object into knowledge about that object. Previously, we have shown that an information-theoretic approach to the design and analysis of such systems provides insight into system performance as it pertains to architectural variations in source fluence, view number/angle, spectral resolution, and spatial resolution.1 However, this work was based on simulated measurements which, in turn, relied on assumptions made in our simulation models and virtual objects. In this work, we describe our experimental testbed capable of making transmission x-ray measurements. The spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution is sufficient to validate aspects of the simulation-based framework, including the forward models, bag packing techniques, and performance analysis. In our experimental CT system, designed baggage is placed on a rotation stage located between a tungsten-anode source and a spectroscopic detector array. The setup is able to measure a full 360° rotation with 18,000 views, each of which defines a 10 ms exposure of 1,536 detector elements, each with 64 spectral channels. Measurements were made of 1,000 bags that comprise 100 clutter instantiations each with 10 different target materials. Moreover, we develop a systematic way to generate bags representative of our desired clutter and target distributions. This gives the dataset a statistical significance valuable in future investigations.

  12. An Information Theoretical Analysis of Human Insulin-Glucose System Toward the Internet of Bio-Nano Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naveed A; Akan, Ozgur B

    2017-12-01

    Molecular communication is an important tool to understand biological communications with many promising applications in Internet of Bio-Nano Things (IoBNT). The insulin-glucose system is of key significance among the major intra-body nanonetworks, since it fulfills metabolic requirements of the body. The study of biological networks from information and communication theoretical (ICT) perspective is necessary for their introduction in the IoBNT framework. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide and analyze for the first time in the literature, a simple molecular communication model of the human insulin-glucose system from ICT perspective. The data rate, channel capacity, and the group propagation delay are analyzed for a two-cell network between a pancreatic beta cell and a muscle cell that are connected through a capillary. The results point out a correlation between an increase in insulin resistance and a decrease in the data rate and channel capacity, an increase in the insulin transmission rate, and an increase in the propagation delay. We also propose applications for the introduction of the system in the IoBNT framework. Multi-cell insulin glucose system models may be based on this simple model to help in the investigation, diagnosis, and treatment of insulin resistance by means of novel IoBNT applications.

  13. Automated segmentation of MS lesions in FLAIR, DIR and T2-w MR images via an information theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason E.; Matlock, Kevin; Pal, Ranadip; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a vital tool in the diagnosis and characterization of multiple sclerosis (MS). MS lesions can be imaged with relatively high contrast using either Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) or Double Inversion Recovery (DIR). Automated segmentation and accurate tracking of MS lesions from MRI remains a challenging problem. Here, an information theoretic approach to cluster the voxels in pseudo-colorized multispectral MR data (FLAIR, DIR, T2-weighted) is utilized to automatically segment MS lesions of various sizes and noise levels. The Improved Jump Method (IJM) clustering, assisted by edge suppression, is applied to the segmentation of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and MS lesions, if present, into a subset of slices determined to be the best MS lesion candidates via Otsu's method. From this preliminary clustering, the modal data values for the tissues can be determined. A Euclidean distance is then used to estimate the fuzzy memberships of each brain voxel for all tissue types and their 50/50 partial volumes. From these estimates, binary discrete and fuzzy MS lesion masks are constructed. Validation is provided by using three synthetic MS lesions brains (mild, moderate and severe) with labeled ground truths. The MS lesions of mild, moderate and severe designations were detected with a sensitivity of 83.2%, and 88.5%, and 94.5%, and with the corresponding Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.7098, 0.8739, and 0.8266, respectively. The effect of MRI noise is also examined by simulated noise and the application of a bilateral filter in preprocessing.

  14. Why Public Employment Services Always Fail. Double-sided Asymmetric Information and the Replacement of Low-skill Workers in six European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Vesan, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    It has been a general finding across Europe that very few job matches are facilitated by public employment services (PES).The article explains this failure by highlighting the existence of a double-sided asymmetric information problem on the labour market. It is argued that although a PES...... potentially reduces search costs, both employers and employees have strong incentives not to use PES. The reason is that employers try to avoid the ‘worst’ employees, and employees try to avoid the ‘worst’ employers. Therefore these services get caught in a low-end equilibrium that is almost impossible...... to escape. The mechanisms leading to this low-end equilibrium are illustrated by means of qualitative interviews with 40 private employers in six European countries....

  15. Innovation in Information Technology: Theoretical and Empirical Study in SMQR Section of Export Import in Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edi Nugroho Soebandrija, Khristian; Pratama, Yogi

    2014-03-01

    This paper has the objective to provide the innovation in information technology in both theoretical and empirical study. Precisely, both aspects relate to the Shortage Mispacking Quality Report (SMQR) Claims in Export and Import in Automotive Industry. This paper discusses the major aspects of Innovation, Information Technology, Performance and Competitive Advantage. Furthermore, In the empirical study of PT. Astra Honda Motor (AHM) refers to SMQR Claims, Communication Systems, Analysis and Design Systems. Briefly both aspects of the major aspects and its empirical study are discussed in the Introduction Session. Furthermore, the more detail discussion is conducted in the related aspects in other sessions of this paper, in particular in Literature Review in term classical and updated reference of current research. The increases of SMQR claim and communication problem at PT. Astra Daihatsu Motor (PT. ADM) which still using the email cause the time of claim settlement become longer and finally it causes the rejected of SMQR claim by supplier. With presence of this problem then performed to design the integrated communication system to manage the communication process of SMQR claim between PT. ADM with supplier. The systems was analyzed and designed is expected to facilitate the claim communication process so that can be run in accordance with the procedure and fulfill the target of claim settlement time and also eliminate the difficulties and problems on the previous manual communication system with the email. The design process of the system using the approach of system development life cycle method by Kendall & Kendall (2006)which design process covers the SMQR problem communication process, judgment process by the supplier, claim process, claim payment process and claim monitoring process. After getting the appropriate system designs for managing the SMQR claim, furthermore performed the system implementation and can be seen the improvement in claim communication

  16. 77 FR 43412 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS 7655, Iraqi Citizens and Nationals Employed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ..., Refugees, and Migration, Department of State. [FR Doc. 2012-18040 Filed 7-23-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4710... collected and used to verify employment for the processing and adjudication of refugee, asylum, special...

  17. An empirical comparison of information-theoretic criteria in estimating the number of independent components of fMRI data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqi Hui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Independent Component Analysis (ICA has been widely applied to the analysis of fMRI data. Accurate estimation of the number of independent components of fMRI data is critical to reduce over/under fitting. Although various methods based on Information Theoretic Criteria (ITC have been used to estimate the intrinsic dimension of fMRI data, the relative performance of different ITC in the context of the ICA model hasn't been fully investigated, especially considering the properties of fMRI data. The present study explores and evaluates the performance of various ITC for the fMRI data with varied white noise levels, colored noise levels, temporal data sizes and spatial smoothness degrees. METHODOLOGY: Both simulated data and real fMRI data with varied Gaussian white noise levels, first-order auto-regressive (AR(1 noise levels, temporal data sizes and spatial smoothness degrees were carried out to deeply explore and evaluate the performance of different traditional ITC. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results indicate that the performance of ITCs depends on the noise level, temporal data size and spatial smoothness of fMRI data. 1 High white noise levels may lead to underestimation of all criteria and MDL/BIC has the severest underestimation at the higher Gaussian white noise level. 2 Colored noise may result in overestimation that can be intensified by the increase of AR(1 coefficient rather than the SD of AR(1 noise and MDL/BIC shows the least overestimation. 3 Larger temporal data size will be better for estimation for the model of white noise but tends to cause severer overestimation for the model of AR(1 noise. 4 Spatial smoothing will result in overestimation in both noise models. CONCLUSIONS: 1 None of ITC is perfect for all fMRI data due to its complicated noise structure. 2 If there is only white noise in data, AIC is preferred when the noise level is high and otherwise, Laplace approximation is a better choice. 3 When colored noise exists

  18. Investigation of the Ethical Concepts that Inform the Laws Limiting Genetic Screening in Employment Decisions: Privacy, Human Dignity, Equality, Autonomy, Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquerella, Lynn; Rothstein, Lawrence E.

    2003-01-16

    The broad question addressed in our research is : What is the influence of ethical concepts on legislative outcomes? The research focuses on the important ethical concerns that surround the use of genetic information in employment matters and in American state legislatures. By analyzing the contents of hearings, interviews and advocacy documents involved in the legislative process, the research seeks to answer the question: How might the dominance of a particular ethical concept informing the discussion of a bill influence the legislative outcome?

  19. Defining the Future or Reliving the Past? Unions, Employers, and the Challenge of Workplace Learning. Information Series No. 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Howard

    This document examines the current state of workplace learning within the context of the changing workplace of the late 20th century. The document begins with an overview of the evolution of employer-dominated training from Taylorism to the rise of human resource development during the late 1970s and 1980s. The development of the concepts of…

  20. 49 CFR 40.287 - What information is an employer required to provide concerning SAP services to an employee who...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process... provide concerning SAP services to an employee who has a DOT drug and alcohol regulation violation? 40.287... has a DOT drug and alcohol regulation violation? As an employer, you must provide to each employee...

  1. An Elderly Employment Model For The Thai Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornrat Sadangharn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at studying an elderly employment model for the Thai automotive industry. Mixed methods with a sequential exploratory strategy were utilized. Grounded theory was employed by using in-depth interviews to investigate the characteristics of elderly employment in the Thai automotive industry. For this stage of the research, theoretical and purposive sampling was used to select 32 key informants from four groups of stakeholders: (1 elderly workers, (2 employers or human resource managers, (3 government officers, and (4 academics. The findings were then validated using a quantitative approach with structural equation modelling (SEM. A total of 308 elderly workers and human resource managers were surveyed regarding their opinion about elderly employment. Based on the survey, the elderly employment model in the Thai automotive industry, which is comprised of the approach to elderly employment, elderly employment preparation, and key success factors for elderly employment, was revealed to be a good fit. 

  2. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON SOCIAL CONNECTIONS AMONG YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Alexandrovna Zverkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The urgency is due to the virtualization of communication in modern society, especially among young people, affecting social relations and social support services. Stressed the need for a more in-depth study of network virtualization of social relations of society, due to the ambiguous consequences of this phenomenon among the youth.Purpose. Analyze classic and contemporary theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of social ties and social support in terms of technological progress.Results. The article presents a sociological analysis of theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of problems of interaction and social support among youth through strong and weak social ties in cyberspace and in the real world.Practical implications. The analysis gives the opportunity for a wide range of examining social relations in various fields of sociology, such as sociology of youth, sociology of communications.

  3. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simon D; Green, Sally E; O'Connor, Denise A; McKenzie, Joanne E; Francis, Jill J; Michie, Susan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Schattner, Peter; Spike, Neil; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2012-04-24

    There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to advance the science of implementation research. The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be maintained as the primary framework to guide researchers through a

  4. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE IMPORTANCE OF INVESTMENT IN TECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATION IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUSESCU IONUT

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to capture based on new theories of economic growth in the knowledge, based economic development, the importance of investing in information are as a new factor of production, we propose a different treatment of essential identifiable knowledge structures: technologies and information .. Meanwhile, the article aims to capture the role that information plays in this highly complex process of economic growth. I realized through this expose, a representation of specific investments in information behavior and reasoning phenomena sustainable development concepts.

  5. Information-Theoretic Approach May Shed a Light to a Better Understanding and Sustaining the Integrity of Ecological-Societal Systems under Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Considering high levels of uncertainty, epistemological conflicts over facts and values, and a sense of urgency, normal paradigm-driven science will be insufficient to mobilize people and nation toward sustainability. The conceptual framework to bridge the societal system dynamics with that of natural ecosystems in which humanity operates remains deficient. The key to understanding their coevolution is to understand `self-organization.' Information-theoretic approach may shed a light to provide a potential framework which enables not only to bridge human and nature but also to generate useful knowledge for understanding and sustaining the integrity of ecological-societal systems. How can information theory help understand the interface between ecological systems and social systems? How to delineate self-organizing processes and ensure them to fulfil sustainability? How to evaluate the flow of information from data through models to decision-makers? These are the core questions posed by sustainability science in which visioneering (i.e., the engineering of vision) is an essential framework. Yet, visioneering has neither quantitative measure nor information theoretic framework to work with and teach. This presentation is an attempt to accommodate the framework of self-organizing hierarchical open systems with visioneering into a common information-theoretic framework. A case study is presented with the UN/FAO's communal vision of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) which pursues a trilemma of efficiency, mitigation, and resilience. Challenges of delineating and facilitating self-organizing systems are discussed using transdisciplinary toold such as complex systems thinking, dynamic process network analysis and multi-agent systems modeling. Acknowledgments: This study was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMA-2012-0001-A (WISE project).

  6. Social innovation in employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Torre, W. van der; Santoclides, M.E

    2017-01-01

    This policy brief on Social Innovation of Employment informs on an inventory of challenges and policy recommendations based on the Case Study Report of Employment and on the Second Policy Foresight Workshop of Employment. A ‘paradigm shift’ is needed in the mind-set of policymakers. ‘Traditional’

  7. An Information Theoretic Framework and Self-organizing Agent- based Sensor Network Architecture for Power Plant Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loparo, Kenneth; Kolacinski, Richard; Threeanaew, Wanchat; Agharazi, Hanieh

    2017-01-30

    A central goal of the work was to enable both the extraction of all relevant information from sensor data, and the application of information gained from appropriate processing and fusion at the system level to operational control and decision-making at various levels of the control hierarchy through: 1. Exploiting the deep connection between information theory and the thermodynamic formalism, 2. Deployment using distributed intelligent agents with testing and validation in a hardware-in-the loop simulation environment. Enterprise architectures are the organizing logic for key business processes and IT infrastructure and, while the generality of current definitions provides sufficient flexibility, the current architecture frameworks do not inherently provide the appropriate structure. Of particular concern is that existing architecture frameworks often do not make a distinction between ``data'' and ``information.'' This work defines an enterprise architecture for health and condition monitoring of power plant equipment and further provides the appropriate foundation for addressing shortcomings in current architecture definition frameworks through the discovery of the information connectivity between the elements of a power generation plant. That is, to identify the correlative structure between available observations streams using informational measures. The principle focus here is on the implementation and testing of an emergent, agent-based, algorithm based on the foraging behavior of ants for eliciting this structure and on measures for characterizing differences between communication topologies. The elicitation algorithms are applied to data streams produced by a detailed numerical simulation of Alstom’s 1000 MW ultra-super-critical boiler and steam plant. The elicitation algorithm and topology characterization can be based on different informational metrics for detecting connectivity, e.g. mutual information and linear correlation.

  8. Advancing the Direction of Health Information Management in Greek Public Hospitals: Theoretical Directions and Methodological Implications for Sharing Information in order to Obtain Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evagelia Lappa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although consultants have long placed the use of research information at the centre of their activity, the extent that physicians use this information tends to vary widely. Despite this study and its recommendations, there is still a gap between the functions of a manager and the use of the associated information, while the decision-making procedures vary according to the organization in which they work. The cost of IT remains the largest barrier, while some current IT solutions are not user friendly and out-of-date, particularly for public hospitals in Greece. The knowledge management is concerned not only with the facts and figures of production, but also with the know-how of staff. The information needs protocol should not be referred only to those who comply with formal computer-based information systems, but also to those who take into account other informal information and its flow within the organization. In a field such as medicine, where out-of-date information may be positively dangerous, doctors make heavy use of journals and several texts from the web. The decision-making process is a complex approach, particularly in human diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Therefore, it is very important to set priorities in the sector of health information management and promote education and training on information and communication technology (ICT.

  9. Information-seeking Behavior During Residency Is Associated With Quality of Theoretical Learning, Academic Career Achievements, and Evidence-based Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3–6; range, 1–10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33–4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09–4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01–3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46–11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the

  10. Information-seeking behavior during residency is associated with quality of theoretical learning, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice: a strobe-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3-6; range, 1-10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77-17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33-4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09-4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01-3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46-11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the specialty (OR, 3.33; 95

  11. 78 FR 48199 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Employers Survey of the Short-Time Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... under the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (Pub. L. 97- 248). The STC Program became permanent.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In February 2012, the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of... Unemployment Tax Act, STC benefits may be paid from monies available in the Unemployment Trust Fund. Each State...

  12. The human resource information system: a rapid appraisal of Pakistan’s capacity to employ the tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human resources are an important building block of the health system. During the last decade, enormous investment has gone into the information systems to manage human resources, but due to the lack of a clear vision, policy, and strategy, the results of these efforts have not been very visible. No reliable information portal captures the actual state of human resources in Pakistan’s health sector. The World Health Organization (WHO) has provided technical support for the assessment of the existing system and development of a comprehensive Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in Pakistan. Methods The questions in the WHO-HRIS Assessment tool were distributed into five thematic groups. Purposively selected (n=65) representatives from the government, private sector, and development partners participated in this cross sectional study, based on their programmatic affiliations. Results Fifty-five percent of organizations and departments have an independent Human Resources (HR) section managed by an establishment branch and are fully equipped with functional computers. Forty-five organizations (70%) had HR rules, regulations and coordination mechanisms, yet these are not implemented. Data reporting is mainly in paper form, on prescribed forms (51%), registers (3%) or even plain papers (20%). Data analysis does not give inputs to the decision making process and dissemination of information is quite erratic. Most of the organizations had no feedback mechanism for cross checking the HR data, rendering it unreliable. Conclusion Pakistan is lacking appropriate HRIS management. The current HRIS indeed has a multitude of problems. In the wake of 2011 reforms within the health sector, provinces are even in a greater need for planning their respective health department services and must work on the deficiencies and inefficiencies of their HRIS so that the gaps and HR needs are better aligned for reaching the 2015 UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) targets

  13. Employment impacts of EU biofuels policy. Combining bottom-up technology information and sectoral market simulations in an input-output framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuwahl, Frederik; Mongelli, Ignazio; Delgado, Luis [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Edificio Expo, c/Inca Garcilaso s/n, 41072 Seville (Spain); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), L7,1, 68161 Mannheim (Germany)

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyses the employment consequences of policies aimed to support biofuels in the European Union. The promotion of biofuel use has been advocated as a means to promote the sustainable use of natural resources and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions originating from transport activities on the one hand, and to reduce dependence on imported oil and thereby increase security of the European energy supply on the other hand. The employment impacts of increasing biofuels shares are calculated by taking into account a set of elements comprising the demand for capital goods required to produce biofuels, the additional demand for agricultural feedstock, higher fuel prices or reduced household budget in the case of price subsidisation, price effects ensuing from a hypothetical world oil price reduction linked to substitution in the EU market, and price impacts on agro-food commodities. The calculations refer to scenarios for the year 2020 targets as set out by the recent Renewable Energy Roadmap. Employment effects are assessed in an input-output framework taking into account bottom-up technology information to specify biofuels activities and linked to partial equilibrium models for the agricultural and energy sectors. The simulations suggest that biofuels targets on the order of 10-15% could be achieved without adverse net employment effects. (author)

  14. Analysis of the Theoretical Relationships Between Work Exhaustion, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention of Air Force Information Systems Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    family’s social support system, and can be subject to the “ grass is greener on the other side” syndrome, only to experience later disappointment...Inflation may also influence turnover but that relationship is beyond the scope of this research. The ongoing change in the composition of the... Napier , A.H., and Wetherbe, J.C. “Occupational Stress, Attitudes, and Health Problems in the Information Systems Professional,” Communications of the

  15. Detecting Couplings between Interacting Oscillators with Time-Varying Basic Frequencies: Instantaneous Wavelet Bispectrum and Information Theoretic Approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jamšek, J.; Paluš, Milan; Stefanovska, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 3 (2010), 036207:1-036207:10 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E08027 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 200728 - BRAINSYNC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interacting oscilators * wavelet bispectrum * coupling directionality * causality * information theory Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.352, year: 2010

  16. Social Informatics: Natural Tools for Students' Information Training in The Conditions of Embodied and Mental Approaches Being Employed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Barkhatova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the problem under study is due to the society's requirements for the quality information training of a personality which is oriented to forming the solid fundamental knowledge as well as to developing the cognitive capacities that are needed for solving mental tasks. With regard to this, the paper is aimed at finding out the opportunities of applying the natural tools in information training of students from the standpoints of embodied and mental approaches. The main idea of these is integrated studying of an object, beginning with learning it in an "embodied" way and finishing with abstract models formed in the human memory. The leading approach to the research is the integrated one taking into account the psychological and pedagogical, didactic and methodological constituents. It allows identifying the psychological and pedagogical conditions of application of natural tools as well as the possible ways of their use. The authors describe models of natural tools of computer science training in individual sections of the school course as the main results. The materials of the paper are of practical value in methods of teaching computer science to students at various stages of education.

  17. [Lack of access to information on oral health problems among adults: an approach based on the theoretical model for literacy in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Luana Leal; Noronha, Daniele Durães; Souza, Taiane Oliveira; Miranda, Ellen Janayne Primo; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista De; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Haikal, Desirée Sant'ana

    2018-03-01

    This study sought to investigate factors associated with the lack of access to information on oral health among adults. It is a cross-sectional study, carried out among 831 adults (35-44 years of age). The dependent variable was access to information on how to avoid oral problems, and the independent variables were gathered into subgroups according to the theoretical model for literacy in health. Binary logistic regression was carried out, and results were corrected by the design effect. It was observed that 37.5% had no access to information about dental problems. The lack of access was higher among adults who had lower per capita income, were dissatisfied with the dental services provided, did not use dental floss, had unsatisfactory physical control of the quality of life, and self-perceived their oral health as fair/poor/very poor. The likelihood of not having access to information about dental problems among those dissatisfied with the dental services used was 3.28 times higher than for those satisfied with the dental services used. Thus, decreased access to information was related to unfavorable conditions among adults. Health services should ensure appropriate information to their users in order to increase health literacy levels and improve satisfaction and equity.

  18. Employing Metadata Standards in Electronic Records and Document Management a Path before Archives and Documentation and Information Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Saadat

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Archives and special documentations and information centers within government offices, companies and organizations house a collection of paper documents within themselves. The rising number of these documents and storage space limitation on one hand, and current organizational trend towards e-government on the other, had caused these documents to be increasingly converted into electronic format with concomitant change in management and preservation strategy. Electronic Document and Records Management or EDRM is one such management strategy. The most important management issues are consistency, authority, interface, description and retrieval.  These issues emphasize the role of metadata given their unique capabilities in this respect. The present paper, while introducing the international standards in Electronic Record Management, would discuss the common metadata standards drafted such as e-GMS, AGLS, GILS, DC.

  19. Employer branding

    OpenAIRE

    Mičková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...

  20. Species delimitation using a combined coalescent and information-theoretic approach: an example from North American Myotis bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Bryan C; Dewey, Tanya A

    2010-07-01

    Coalescent model-based methods for phylogeny estimation force systematists to confront issues related to the identification of species boundaries. Unlike conventional phylogenetic analysis, where species membership can be assessed qualitatively after the phylogeny is estimated, the phylogenies that are estimated under a coalescent model treat aggregates of individuals as the operational taxonomic units and thus require a priori definition of these sets because the models assume that the alleles in a given lineage are sampled from a single panmictic population. Fortunately, the use of coalescent model-based approaches allows systematists to conduct probabilistic tests of species limits by calculating the probability of competing models of lineage composition. Here, we conduct the first exploration of the issues related to applying such tests to a complex empirical system. Sequence data from multiple loci were used to assess species limits and phylogeny in a clade of North American Myotis bats. After estimating gene trees at each locus, the likelihood of models representing all hierarchical permutations of lineage composition was calculated and Akaike information criterion scores were computed. Metrics borrowed from information theory suggest that there is strong support for several models that include multiple evolutionary lineages within the currently described species Myotis lucifugus and M. evotis. Although these results are preliminary, they illustrate the practical importance of coupled species delimitation and phylogeny estimation.

  1. Theoretical aspects and modelling of cellular decision making, cell killing and information-processing in photodynamic therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkigkitzis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide a mathematical model of the mechanism for making binary fate decisions about cell death or survival, during and after Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) treatment, and to supply the logical design for this decision mechanism as an application of rate distortion theory to the biochemical processing of information by the physical system of a cell. Based on system biology models of the molecular interactions involved in the PDT processes previously established, and regarding a cellular decision-making system as a noisy communication channel, we use rate distortion theory to design a time dependent Blahut-Arimoto algorithm where the input is a stimulus vector composed of the time dependent concentrations of three PDT related cell death signaling molecules and the output is a cell fate decision. The molecular concentrations are determined by a group of rate equations. The basic steps are: initialize the probability of the cell fate decision, compute the conditional probability distribution that minimizes the mutual information between input and output, compute the cell probability of cell fate decision that minimizes the mutual information and repeat the last two steps until the probabilities converge. Advance to the next discrete time point and repeat the process. Based on the model from communication theory described in this work, and assuming that the activation of the death signal processing occurs when any of the molecular stimulants increases higher than a predefined threshold (50% of the maximum concentrations), for 1800s of treatment, the cell undergoes necrosis within the first 30 minutes with probability range 90.0%-99.99% and in the case of repair/survival, it goes through apoptosis within 3-4 hours with probability range 90.00%-99.00%. Although, there is no experimental validation of the model at this moment, it reproduces some patterns of survival ratios of predicted experimental data. Analytical modeling based on cell death

  2. Theoretical aspects and modelling of cellular decision making, cell killing and information-processing in photodynamic therapy of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this report is to provide a mathematical model of the mechanism for making binary fate decisions about cell death or survival, during and after Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) treatment, and to supply the logical design for this decision mechanism as an application of rate distortion theory to the biochemical processing of information by the physical system of a cell. Methods Based on system biology models of the molecular interactions involved in the PDT processes previously established, and regarding a cellular decision-making system as a noisy communication channel, we use rate distortion theory to design a time dependent Blahut-Arimoto algorithm where the input is a stimulus vector composed of the time dependent concentrations of three PDT related cell death signaling molecules and the output is a cell fate decision. The molecular concentrations are determined by a group of rate equations. The basic steps are: initialize the probability of the cell fate decision, compute the conditional probability distribution that minimizes the mutual information between input and output, compute the cell probability of cell fate decision that minimizes the mutual information and repeat the last two steps until the probabilities converge. Advance to the next discrete time point and repeat the process. Results Based on the model from communication theory described in this work, and assuming that the activation of the death signal processing occurs when any of the molecular stimulants increases higher than a predefined threshold (50% of the maximum concentrations), for 1800s of treatment, the cell undergoes necrosis within the first 30 minutes with probability range 90.0%-99.99% and in the case of repair/survival, it goes through apoptosis within 3-4 hours with probability range 90.00%-99.00%. Although, there is no experimental validation of the model at this moment, it reproduces some patterns of survival ratios of predicted experimental data. Conclusions

  3. Predicting the potential distribution of invasive exotic species using GIS and information-theoretic approaches: A case of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) distribution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chen; LiJun, Chen; Albright, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive exotic species pose a growing threat to the economy, public health, and ecological integrity of nations worldwide. Explaining and predicting the spatial distribution of invasive exotic species is of great importance to prevention and early warning efforts. We are investigating the potential distribution of invasive exotic species, the environmental factors that influence these distributions, and the ability to predict them using statistical and information-theoretic approaches. For some species, detailed presence/absence occurrence data are available, allowing the use of a variety of standard statistical techniques. However, for most species, absence data are not available. Presented with the challenge of developing a model based on presence-only information, we developed an improved logistic regression approach using Information Theory and Frequency Statistics to produce a relative suitability map. This paper generated a variety of distributions of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) from logistic regression models applied to herbarium specimen location data and a suite of GIS layers including climatic, topographic, and land cover information. Our logistic regression model was based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) from a suite of ecologically reasonable predictor variables. Based on the results we provided a new Frequency Statistical method to compartmentalize habitat-suitability in the native range. Finally, we used the model and the compartmentalized criterion developed in native ranges to "project" a potential distribution onto the exotic ranges to build habitat-suitability maps. ?? Science in China Press 2007.

  4. Guaranteed Bounds on Information-Theoretic Measures of Univariate Mixtures Using Piecewise Log-Sum-Exp Inequalities

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank

    2016-12-09

    Information-theoreticmeasures, such as the entropy, the cross-entropy and the Kullback-Leibler divergence between two mixture models, are core primitives in many signal processing tasks. Since the Kullback-Leibler divergence of mixtures provably does not admit a closed-form formula, it is in practice either estimated using costly Monte Carlo stochastic integration, approximated or bounded using various techniques. We present a fast and generic method that builds algorithmically closed-form lower and upper bounds on the entropy, the cross-entropy, the Kullback-Leibler and the α-divergences of mixtures. We illustrate the versatile method by reporting our experiments for approximating the Kullback-Leibler and the α-divergences between univariate exponential mixtures, Gaussian mixtures, Rayleigh mixtures and Gamma mixtures.

  5. Exploring Factors Influencing Self-Efficacy in Information Security an Empirical Analysis by Integrating Multiple Theoretical Perspectives in the Context of Using Protective Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Dinesh Sampangirama

    2017-01-01

    Cybersecurity threats confront the United States on a daily basis, making them one of the major national security challenges. One approach to meeting these challenges is to improve user cybersecurity behavior. End user security behavior hinges on end user acceptance and use of the protective information technologies such as anti-virus and…

  6. Information retrieval for children based on the aggregated search paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Torres, Sergio

    This report presents research to develop information services for children by expanding and adapting current Information retrieval technologies according to the search characteristics and needs of children. Concretely, we will employ the aggregated search paradigm as theoretical framework. The

  7. Industry Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  8. VIA Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2017-01-01

    The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it......’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased...... personal approach is proposed in the agenda of employability. And ensure a wide range of offers, that appeal to multiple and differentiated personal and professional approaches to employability....

  9. Designing theoretically-informed implementation interventions: Fine in theory, but evidence of effectiveness in practice is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Scott

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Improved Clinical Effectiveness through Behavioural Research Group (ICEBeRG authors assert that a key weakness in implementation research is the unknown applicability of a given intervention outside its original site and problem, and suggest that use of explicit theory offers an effective solution. This assertion is problematic for three primary reasons. First, the presence of an underlying theory does not necessarily ease the task of judging the applicability of a piece of empirical evidence. Second, it is not clear how to translate theory reliably into intervention design, which undoubtedly involves the diluting effect of "common sense." Thirdly, there are many theories, formal and informal, and it is not clear why any one should be given primacy. To determine whether explicitly theory-based interventions are, on average, more effective than those based on implicit theories, pragmatic trials are needed. Until empirical evidence is available showing the superiority of theory-based interventions, the use of theory should not be used as a basis for assessing the value of implementation studies by research funders, ethics committees, editors or policy decision makers.

  10. Investigation into the computerized data bases of the Employment and Training Administration. Regional Management Information System Project (RMIS) report on second-year activities, 1975--1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postle, W.; Heckman, B.

    1977-01-01

    The research and development project discussed was aimed at creating the necessary computer system for the rapid retrieval, analysis, and display of information to meet the individual and nonroutine needs of the Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration and the general public. The major objective was to demonstrate that it was both feasible and practical to organize data that are currently available and to provide planning and management information in a much more usable and timely fashion than previously possible. Fast access to data with a system which is easy to use was an important project goal. Programs were written to analyze and display data by means of bar, pie, and line charts, etc. Although prototypical interactive retrieval, analysis, and report formation tools have been developed, further research and development of interactive tools is required. (RWR)

  11. Actitudes y opiniones políticas de los informales en América Latina Political attitudes and opinions of the informally employed in Latina America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín TEMKIN YEDWAB

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que la informalidad laboral ha sido identificada desde hace años como un asunto central para la política pública de todos los países de América Latina, es aún muy escasa la información sobre las características del empleo informal en diferentes esferas. El objetivo central de este trabajo es identificar las opiniones y actitudes políticas de los trabajadores informales en América Latina y compararlas con las de sus contrapartes formales. A través de una variable ‹‹proxi›› para identificar a los participantes informales en la fuerza de trabajo, en dos encuestas de opinión que se aplican a un conjunto amplio de países en la región, fue posible comprobar que los informales latinoamericanos constituyen un grupo social con opiniones y actitudes políticas significativamente contrastantes con las de los participantes formales en la fuerza de trabajo.Although labor informality has been identified for years as a central issue for Latin American countries’ public policy, there is still scant information about the characteristics of informal employment in different spheres. The main objective of this study is to identify the views and political attitudes of informal workers in Latin America, and compare them to those held by their formal counterparts. Through a ‹‹proxy›› variable used to identify informal participants in the labor force in two opinion polls that apply to a broad set of countries in the region, it was possible to show that Latin American informals constitute a social group with political opinions and attitudes significantly contrasting with formal participants in the workforce.

  12. Summer School organized by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, and the Institute for Information Sciences, University of Tübingen

    CERN Document Server

    Güttinger, Werner; Cin, Mario

    1974-01-01

    This volume is the record and product of the Summer School on the Physics and Mathematics of the Nervous System, held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste from August 21-31, 1973, and jointly organized by the Institute for Information Sciences, University of Tlibingen and by the Centre. The school served to bring biologists, physicists and mathemati­ cians together to exchange ideas about the nervous system and brain, and also to introduce young scientists to the field. The program, attended by more than a hundred scientists, was interdisciplinary both in character and participation. The primary support for the school was provided by the Volkswagen Foundation of West Germany. We are particularly indebted to Drs. G. Gambke, M. -L Zarnitz, and H. Penschuck of the Foundation for their in­ terest in and help with the project. The school also received major support from the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste and its sponsoring agencies, including the use of its exce...

  13. Do pseudo-absence selection strategies influence species distribution models and their predictions? An information-theoretic approach based on simulated data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisan Antoine

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple logistic regression is precluded from many practical applications in ecology that aim to predict the geographic distributions of species because it requires absence data, which are rarely available or are unreliable. In order to use multiple logistic regression, many studies have simulated "pseudo-absences" through a number of strategies, but it is unknown how the choice of strategy influences models and their geographic predictions of species. In this paper we evaluate the effect of several prevailing pseudo-absence strategies on the predictions of the geographic distribution of a virtual species whose "true" distribution and relationship to three environmental predictors was predefined. We evaluated the effect of using a real absences b pseudo-absences selected randomly from the background and c two-step approaches: pseudo-absences selected from low suitability areas predicted by either Ecological Niche Factor Analysis: (ENFA or BIOCLIM. We compared how the choice of pseudo-absence strategy affected model fit, predictive power, and information-theoretic model selection results. Results Models built with true absences had the best predictive power, best discriminatory power, and the "true" model (the one that contained the correct predictors was supported by the data according to AIC, as expected. Models based on random pseudo-absences had among the lowest fit, but yielded the second highest AUC value (0.97, and the "true" model was also supported by the data. Models based on two-step approaches had intermediate fit, the lowest predictive power, and the "true" model was not supported by the data. Conclusion If ecologists wish to build parsimonious GLM models that will allow them to make robust predictions, a reasonable approach is to use a large number of randomly selected pseudo-absences, and perform model selection based on an information theoretic approach. However, the resulting models can be expected to have

  14. A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Information Seeking in Open-Ended Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janette R.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a theoretically and empirically based framework for how users formulate and employ information-seeking strategies in open-ended information systems (OEISs). Discusses challenges related to OEISs. Describes OEIS theoretical and users' perspectives. Presents an example based on a recent study to illustrate use of the OEIS…

  15. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  16. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Experimental and theoretical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arfooui Youssef

    , Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université Tunis El Manar, 2092, El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia. b Laboratoire Physicochimie de Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, Technopole ...

  17. How Full is Full Employment? : How Tools and Not Theory Explained Full Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, P.

    2016-01-01

    The post-war debate on full employment policy was blurred and unclear since the concept of full employment itself was theoretically unclear and un-operational. Unable to theoretically determine the unemployment level of full employment, economists tried to find more empirically based ways to

  18. Computer-assisted diagnosis of mammographic masses using an information-theoretic image retrieval scheme with BIRADs-based relevance feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourassi, Georgia D.; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) approach for computer-assisted diagnosis of masses detected in screening mammograms. The system follows an information theoretic retrieval scheme with a BIRADS-based relevance feedback (RF) algorithm. Initially, a knowledge databank of 365 mammographic regions of interest (ROIs) was created. They were all 512x512 pixel ROIs extracted from DDSM mammograms digitized using the Lumisys digitizer. The ROIs were extracted around the known locations of the annotated masses. Specifically, there were 177 ROIs depicting a biopsy-proven malignant mass and 188 ROIs with a benign mass. Subsequently, the CBIR algorithm was implemented using mutual information (MI) as the similarity metric for image retrieval. The CBIR algorithm formed the basis of a knowledge-based CAD system. Given a databank of mammographic masses with known pathology, a query mass was evaluated. Based on their information content, all similar masses in the databank were retrieved. A relevance feedback algorithm based on BIRADS findings was implemented to determine the relevance factor of the retrieved masses. Finally, a decision index was calculated using the query's k best matches. The decision index effectively combined the similarity metric of the retrieved cases and their relevance factor into a prediction regarding the malignancy status of the mass depicted in the query ROI. ROC analysis was to evaluate diagnostic performance. Performance improved dramatically with the incorporation of the relevance feedback algorithm. Overall, the CAD system achieved ROC area index AZ= 0.86+/-0.02 for the diagnosis of masses in screening mammograms.

  19. Theoretical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Work in theoretical chemistry was organized under the following topics: scattering theory and dynamics (elastic scattering of the rare gas hydrides, inelastic scattering in Li + H 2 , statistical theory for bimolecular collisions, model study of dissociative scattering, comparative study of elastic scattering computational methods), studies of atmospheric diatomic and triatomic species, structure and spectra of diatomic molecules, the evaluation of van der Waals forces, potential energy surfaces and structure and dynamics, calculation of molecular polarizabilities, and development of theoretical techniques and computing systems. Spectroscopic parameters are tabulated for NO 2 , N 2 O, H 2 O + , VH, and NH. Self-consistent-field wave functions were computed for He 2 in two-center and three-center bases. Rare gas hydride intermolecular potentials are shown. (9 figures, 14 tables) (U.S.)

  20. Student employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality, acco...... decrease as students progress through higher education. While we find evidence for this hypothesis, we also show in multivariate models that the reduction of inequality in the student labour market is explained by prior differences between social origin groups.......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  1. Illegal employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mervartová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007 Labour Code contains the definition of dependent work, which can be carried out only in labour-law relations. The Amendment to Labour Code from 2012 makes the definition more precise, when it stipulates essential elements of dependent work and designates the others as conditions, under which dependent work should be carried out. The Amendment to Employment Act changes the definition of illegal work. Illegal work is a performance of dependent work by natural person except for labour-law relation, or if natural person – foreigner carries out work in conflict with issued permission to employment or without this permission. Since 2012 sanctions for illegal work were increased. Labour inspection is entitled to impose sanctions, in case of foreigners it is Customs Office. For control purposes employer is obliged to have copies of documents at the workplace proving the existence of labour-law relation. Goal of controls and high fines is to limit illegal employment of citizens of Czech Republic and foreigners as well. Illegal work has unfavourable economic impact on state budget. It comes to extensive tax evasions and also to evasions within health insurance and social security. If a concluded commercial-law relation meets the attributes of dependent work, then it stands for a concealed legal relationship. Tax Office can subsequently assess an income tax to businessman. Labour-law relationship enjoys a higher legal protection than commercial-law relationship; nonetheless it is not suitable to limit liberty of contract in cases when it is not unambiguously a dependent activity.

  2. Employability and the UseMyAbility Online Tool: Raising Sports Students' Awareness to Inform the Development of Their Skills and Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Nick; Barber, Lerverne; Chapman, Val; Beaman-Evans, Charlotte; Beeching, Kelvin

    2016-01-01

    The collaborative project UseMyAbility (UMA) sought to reduce discrimination and enhance disabled graduates' employability through equipping them with the skills to match employability skills and attributes. An outcome from the project, completed in 2011, was a web-based tool which gave students advice on how to improve their employability.…

  3. A Two-Stage Information-Theoretic Approach to Modeling Landscape-Level Attributes and Maximum Recruitment of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    2000-11-01

    Many anadromous salmonid stocks in the Pacific Northwest are at their lowest recorded levels, which has raised questions regarding their long-term persistence under current conditions. There are a number of factors, such as freshwater spawning and rearing habitat, that could potentially influence their numbers. Therefore, we used the latest advances in information-theoretic methods in a two-stage modeling process to investigate relationships between landscape-level habitat attributes and maximum recruitment of 25 index stocks of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin. Our first-stage model selection results indicated that the Ricker-type, stock recruitment model with a constant Ricker a (i.e., recruits-per-spawner at low numbers of fish) across stocks was the only plausible one given these data, which contrasted with previous unpublished findings. Our second-stage results revealed that maximum recruitment of chinook salmon had a strongly negative relationship with percentage of surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and private moderate-high impact managed forest. That is, our model predicted that average maximum recruitment of chinook salmon would decrease by at least 247 fish for every increase of 33% in surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and privately managed forest. Conversely, mean annual air temperature had a positive relationship with salmon maximum recruitment, with an average increase of at least 179 fish for every increase in 2 C mean annual air temperature.

  4. Promoting physical therapists' of research evidence to inform clinical practice: part 1--theoretical foundation, evidence, and description of the PEAK program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilson, Julie K; Mickan, Sharon

    2014-06-25

    There is a need for theoretically grounded and evidence-based interventions that enhance the use of research evidence in physical therapist practice. This paper and its companion paper introduce the Physical therapist-driven Education for Actionable Knowledge translation (PEAK) program, an educational program designed to promote physical therapists' integration of research evidence into clinical decision-making. The pedagogical foundations for the PEAK educational program include Albert Bandura's social cognitive theory and Malcolm Knowles's adult learning theory. Additionally, two complementary frameworks of knowledge translation, the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) and Knowledge to Action (KTA) Cycle, were used to inform the organizational elements of the program. Finally, the program design was influenced by evidence from previous attempts to facilitate the use of research in practice at the individual and organizational levels. The 6-month PEAK program consisted of four consecutive and interdependent components. First, leadership support was secured and electronic resources were acquired and distributed to participants. Next, a two-day training workshop consisting of didactic and small group activities was conducted that addressed the five steps of evidence based practice. For five months following the workshop, participants worked in small groups to review and synthesize literature around a group-selected area of common clinical interest. Each group contributed to the generation of a "Best Practices List" - a list of locally generated, evidence-based, actionable behaviors relevant to the groups' clinical practice. Ultimately, participants agreed to implement the Best Practices List in their clinical practice. This, first of two companion papers, describes the underlying pedagogical theories, knowledge translation frameworks, and research evidence used to derive the PEAK program - an educational program designed to

  5. Theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Joos, Georg

    1986-01-01

    Among the finest, most comprehensive treatments of theoretical physics ever written, this classic volume comprises a superb introduction to the main branches of the discipline and offers solid grounding for further research in a variety of fields. Students will find no better one-volume coverage of so many essential topics; moreover, since its first publication, the book has been substantially revised and updated with additional material on Bessel functions, spherical harmonics, superconductivity, elastomers, and other subjects.The first four chapters review mathematical topics needed by theo

  6. A rhetorical investigation of energy-related environmental issues and a proposed modeling of variables influencing the employment of domestic solar water heaters with a focus on mobilizing information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Lilla Gayle

    A rhetorical investigation of energy-related environmental issues identifies significant contextual features and variables that should be considered in designing effective messages and information campaigns for energy consumers. This analysis reveals five components that should be examined and addressed in the construction of such messages and campaigns: (1) exigencies associated with energy-related environmental issues, (2) socio-political contextual features that influence public dialogue and the availability of energy-related environmental information, (3) competing paradigm structures that directly affect the forming of environmental publics, policy, and cultural norms, (4) theoretical concepts and models that can provide frameworks and guidelines for effective construction and promulgation of energy-related environmental messages, and (5) specific variables and factors that comprise and influence energy-related environmental beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. The variables that comprise and influence energy-related environmental beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors are placed within Fishbein's Model of Reasoning so that the relationships among them can be illustrated and examined. This modeling of variables also provides a framework for testing and operationalizing particular variables with message content. Research findings identify four variables that constitute energy-related environmental beliefs: knowledge of the issue (i.e. perception of scarcity, know ledge of energy processes, personal contribution and con sequences, and general solution strategies), knowledge of action strategies and skills, prototypes and referents, and paradigm perspectives. These four beliefs variables, then, influence five variables that constitute energy-related environmental attitudes: personal evaluations of the issue, perception of personal responsibility, locus of control, personal evaluations of normative beliefs, and sensitivity. In order to illustrate

  7. Employment as a Price or a Prize of Equality: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Barth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To put Scandinavian employment in perspective, we ask whether wage compression hampers employment rates, or not. We answer by reviewing the most important theoretical arguments and the most informative regularities across countries with different wage distributions. The pattern seems to be that countries with compressed wage distributions tend to have higher employment, and countries with higher wage inequality tend to have lower employment. This also holds when we consider the rate of labor force participation. In line with the theoretical arguments, coordination in wage bargaining seems to contribute to both employment expansion and wage compression. There is a clear positive correlation between coordination and employment even when we control for inequality, country, and year-specific effects.

  8. Overview. Department of Theoretical Physics. Section 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiecinski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Research activity of the Department of the Theoretical Physics spans a wide variety of problems in theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of the nuclear matter, quark gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics, as well as general physics. Theoretical research in high energy and elementary particle physics is concentrated on the theory of deep inelastic lepton scattering in the region of low x and its phenomenological implication for the ep collider HERA at DESY, on the theory of nonleptonic decays of hadrons, and on low energy {pi}{pi} and K-anti-K interactions and scalar meson spectroscopy. The activity in the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is focused on the study of quark condensate fluctuations, on the analysis of critical scattering near the chiral phase transition, and on Bose-Einstein correlation in heavy-ion collisions. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics and in theory of nuclear matter concern analysis of models, with dynamical symmetry based on group S{sub p}(6,R) for the description of collective modes of atomic nuclei, analysis of the Goldstone bosons in nuclear matter and analysis of saturation properties of nuclear matter. Research in theoretical astrophysics is mainly devoted to the analysis of magnetic properties of hadronic matter in neutron stars with proton admixture. Studies in general physics concern problem related to the Galilean covariance of classical and quantum mechanics. The detailed results obtained in various fields are summarised in presented abstracts as well as information about employed personnel, publications, contribution to conferences, reports, workshops and seminars.

  9. Using Akaike's information theoretic criterion in mixed-effects modeling of pharmacokinetic data: a simulation study [version 3; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Olofsen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Akaike's information theoretic criterion for model discrimination (AIC is often stated to "overfit", i.e., it selects models with a higher dimension than the dimension of the model that generated the data. However, with experimental pharmacokinetic data it may not be possible to identify the correct model, because of the complexity of the processes governing drug disposition. Instead of trying to find the correct model, a more useful objective might be to minimize the prediction error of drug concentrations in subjects with unknown disposition characteristics. In that case, the AIC might be the selection criterion of choice. We performed Monte Carlo simulations using a model of pharmacokinetic data (a power function of time with the property that fits with common multi-exponential models can never be perfect - thus resembling the situation with real data. Prespecified models were fitted to simulated data sets, and AIC and AICc (the criterion with a correction for small sample sizes values were calculated and averaged. The average predictive performances of the models, quantified using simulated validation sets, were compared to the means of the AICs. The data for fits and validation consisted of 11 concentration measurements each obtained in 5 individuals, with three degrees of interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetic volume of distribution. Mean AICc corresponded very well, and better than mean AIC, with mean predictive performance. With increasing interindividual variability, there was a trend towards larger optimal models, but with respect to both lowest AICc and best predictive performance. Furthermore, it was observed that the mean square prediction error itself became less suitable as a validation criterion, and that a predictive performance measure should incorporate interindividual variability. This simulation study showed that, at least in a relatively simple mixed-effects modelling context with a set of prespecified models

  10. Theoretical geodesy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a summary of research activities concerning theoretical geodesy performed in Poland in the period of 2011-2014. It contains the results of research on new methods of the parameter estimation, a study on robustness properties of the M-estimation, control network and deformation analysis, and geodetic time series analysis. The main achievements in the geodetic parameter estimation involve a new model of the M-estimation with probabilistic models of geodetic observations, a new Shift-Msplit estimation, which allows to estimate a vector of parameter differences and the Shift-Msplit(+ that is a generalisation of Shift-Msplit estimation if the design matrix A of a functional model has not a full column rank. The new algorithms of the coordinates conversion between the Cartesian and geodetic coordinates, both on the rotational and triaxial ellipsoid can be mentioned as a highlights of the research of the last four years. New parameter estimation models developed have been adopted and successfully applied to the control network and deformation analysis.

  11. Building Employer Capacity to Support Meaningful Employment for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Study of Employment Support Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Marghalara; Hodgetts, Sandra; Nicholas, David

    2017-11-01

    To explore strategies to build employer capacity to support people with DD in meaningful employment from perspective of employment support workers. A grounded theory study was conducted with 34 employment support individuals. A theoretical sampling approach was used to identify and recruit participants from multiple sites in Ontario and Alberta. Three main themes, with seven sub-themes, emerged: (1) experiences of supporting employment finding for people with DD, (2) institutional influences on employee experiences, and (3) attitudes, assumptions and stigma. Several recommendations related to building employer capacity were offered. Our findings provide insight on specific elements and strategies that can support building employer capacity for persons with DD.

  12. Engaging migrants and other stakeholders to improve communication in cross-cultural consultation in primary care: a theoretically informed participatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionis, Christos; Papadakaki, Maria; Saridaki, Aristoula; Dowrick, Christopher; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mair, Frances S; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Burns, Nicola; de Brún, Tomas; O'Reilly de Brún, Mary; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Spiegel, Wolfgang; MacFarlane, Anne

    2016-07-22

    Guidelines and training initiatives (G/TIs) are available to support communication in cross-cultural consultations but are rarely implemented in routine practice in primary care. As part of the European Union RESTORE project, our objective was to explore whether the available G/TIs make sense to migrants and other key stakeholders and whether they could collectively choose G/TIs and engage in their implementation in primary care settings. As part of a comparative analysis of 5 linked qualitative case studies, we used purposeful and snowball sampling to recruit migrants and other key stakeholders in primary care settings in Austria, England, Greece, Ireland and the Netherlands. A total of 78 stakeholders participated in the study (Austria 15, England 9, Ireland 11, Greece 16, Netherlands 27), covering a range of groups (migrants, general practitioners, nurses, administrative staff, interpreters, health service planners). We combined Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) and Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) research to conduct a series of PLA style focus groups. Using a standardised protocol, stakeholders' discussions about a set of G/TIs were recorded on PLA commentary charts and their selection process was recorded through a PLA direct-ranking technique. We performed inductive and deductive thematic analysis to investigate sensemaking and engagement with the G/TIs. The need for new ways of working was strongly endorsed by most stakeholders. Stakeholders considered that they were the right people to drive the work forward and were keen to enrol others to support the implementation work. This was evidenced by the democratic selection by stakeholders in each setting of one G/TI as a local implementation project. This theoretically informed participatory approach used across 5 countries with diverse healthcare systems could be used in other settings to establish positive conditions for the start of implementation journeys for G/TIs to improve healthcare for

  13. Theoretical Mechanics Theoretical Physics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Dreizler, Reiner M

    2011-01-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. - A collection of 74 problems with detailed step-by-step guidance towards the solutions. - A col...

  14. Employment certificates on HRT

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    As part of the ongoing drive to simplify and streamline administrative procedures and processes, the IT and HR Departments have made employment certificates available on a self-service basis on the HRT application, in the main menu under "My self services". All members of the personnel can thus obtain a certificate of employment or association, in French or in English, for the present or past contractual period. The HR Department’s Records Office remains responsible for issuing any special certificates that might be required. IT-AIS (Administrative Information Services) HR-SPS (Services, Procedures & Social) Records Office – Tel. 73700

  15. Contingent and Continuing Employment: Comparative National and Historical Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marens, Richard; Tackney, Charles T.

    This symposium focuses on the comparative impact of social institutions and labor laws on both contingent and continuing employment. Presenters will apply a wide range of analytical concepts to the history and culture of five individual nations. These concepts include a diverse set of theoretical...... approaches aimed at understanding the web of rules governing comparative industrial and employment relations around the world. The approaches include path dependence, institutional theory, historical materialism, and post-modernism. The central strength of this symposium is its comprehensive and inclusive...... wide-ranging coverage of the organizational meaning of contingent or continued employment for both formal and informal employment across a diverse group of nations, a group that includes Peru, Colombia, Japan, United Kingdom, and the United States. Following the presentations, the presenters...

  16. PROMOTION OF ACTIVE MEASURES AND EMPLOYMENT STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ELISABETA POPP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches in the field of the labour market has allowed the identification of certain specific mechanisms for employment promotion; at present, on the Romanian labour market we find passive policies, concretised in financial aids paid to the unemployed, along with active policies, constituting the most efficient social protection activity addressed to the unemployed (they aim at counterbalancing the inefficiencies determined by the granting of financial allowances, help population to find a job by actions of information, professional training and contributing to the encouragement of the labour force mobility. The paper refers to some theoretical considerations related to the influence factors of employment stimulation, as well as to the unemployment – correlated adequate measures synapse. The applied research comprises the analysis of statistic documents; the method used is the case study, i.e. the activity of employment stimulation carried on by the County Agency for Employment Caraş-Severin, in the period 2004-2012. The conclusions highlight the impact of the activity of the institutions involved in the system of social protection and security within the labour market.

  17. Developing a targeted, theory-informed implementation intervention using two theoretical frameworks to address health professional and organisational factors: a case study to improve the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavender, Emma J; Bosch, Marije; Gruen, Russell L; Green, Sally E; Michie, Susan; Brennan, Sue E; Francis, Jill J; Ponsford, Jennie L; Knott, Jonathan C; Meares, Sue; Smyth, Tracy; O'Connor, Denise A

    2015-05-25

    Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department (ED), variations in practice exist. Interventions designed to implement recommended behaviours can reduce this variation. Using theory to inform intervention development is advocated; however, there is no consensus on how to select or apply theory. Integrative theoretical frameworks, based on syntheses of theories and theoretical constructs relevant to implementation, have the potential to assist in the intervention development process. This paper describes the process of applying two theoretical frameworks to investigate the factors influencing recommended behaviours and the choice of behaviour change techniques and modes of delivery for an implementation intervention. A stepped approach was followed: (i) identification of locally applicable and actionable evidence-based recommendations as targets for change, (ii) selection and use of two theoretical frameworks for identifying barriers to and enablers of change (Theoretical Domains Framework and Model of Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organisations) and (iii) identification and operationalisation of intervention components (behaviour change techniques and modes of delivery) to address the barriers and enhance the enablers, informed by theory, evidence and feasibility/acceptability considerations. We illustrate this process in relation to one recommendation, prospective assessment of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) by ED staff using a validated tool. Four recommendations for managing mild traumatic brain injury were targeted with the intervention. The intervention targeting the PTA recommendation consisted of 14 behaviour change techniques and addressed 6 theoretical domains and 5 organisational domains. The mode of delivery was informed by six Cochrane reviews. It was delivered via five intervention components : (i) local stakeholder meetings, (ii) identification of local opinion

  18. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Theoretical Structural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 8. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Theoretical Structural Geology, Crystallography, Mineralogy, Thermodynamics, Experimental Petrology and Theoretical Geophysics. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 8 August 2017 ...

  19. Business/Employers Influenza Toolkit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-06

    This podcast promotes the "Make It Your Business To Fight The Flu" toolkit for Businesses and Employers. The toolkit provides information and recommended strategies to help businesses and employers promote the seasonal flu vaccine. Additionally, employers will find flyers, posters, and other materials to post and distribute in the workplace.  Created: 9/6/2011 by Office of Infectious Diseases, Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 9/7/2011.

  20. Caseworker Behavior and Clients' Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; Markwardt, Kristoffer

    empirically looked at the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ employability. A very rich survey dataset on caseworker behavior combined with informative panel data on the caseworker’s client—the unemployed—makes it possible to study the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ job possibilities....... Results show that there is a relationship between caseworker behavior and employment among the unemployed. Especially the employability among the insured unemployed is related to the concepts of coping, and professional distance....

  1. Employers' Guide to the Employment Equity Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley-Anne Katz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Employers' Guide to the Employment Equity Act is aimed, according to the author, at assisting those in the labour arena (employers, managers, labour relations practitioners, union officials, and students to develop a practical understanding of the Employment Equity Act (hereafter, the Act.

  2. NANOSAT Employment: A Theoretical Conops for Space Object Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Pod. SMDC−ONE’s mission equipment included a custom VHF/UHF transceiver and eight antennas, four VHF and four UHF, placed on either side of the...Accessed January 19, 2012. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc / csat /2020/papers/app-k.pdf. ———. “Space Traffic Control: The Culmination of Improved...Space Operations.” Air University. Accessed January 19, 2012. http://wwwau.af.mil/au/awc/ csat /2020/papers/app-d.pdf. Hurley, M. “‘Tactical

  3. Using a Theoretical Framework to Investigate Whether the HIV/AIDS Information Needs of the AfroAIDSinfo Web Portal Members Are Met: A South African eHealth Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Van Zyl

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available eHealth has been identified as a useful approach to disseminate HIV/AIDS information. Together with Consumer Health Informatics (CHI, the Web-to-Public Knowledge Transfer Model (WPKTM has been applied as a theoretical framework to identify consumer needs for AfroAIDSinfo, a South African Web portal. As part of the CHI practice, regular eSurveys are conducted to determine whether these needs are changing and are continually being met. eSurveys show high rates of satisfaction with the content as well as the modes of delivery. The nature of information is thought of as reliable to reuse; both for education and for referencing of information. Using CHI and the WPKTM as a theoretical framework, it ensures that needs of consumers are being met and that they find the tailored methods of presenting the information agreeable. Combining ICTs and theories in eHealth interventions, this approach can be expanded to deliver information in other sectors of public health.

  4. Setor e emprego informal no Brasil: análise dos resultados da nova série do sistema de contas nacionais - 2000/07 The informal sector and informal employment in Brazil: an analysis of the results of the new series from the national account system (2000/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Hallak Neto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo central deste texto é retratar o setor informal brasileiro à luz das novas possibilidades de análise que se constituíram a partir da revisão da série do Sistema de Contas Nacionais (SCN, realizada em 2007. São apresentados os resultados referentes à geração de valor adicionado e ao número de ocupações por setor produtivo e tipo de emprego para o Brasil no período recente, considerando a metodologia revista do novo manual internacional de contas nacionais. A base de dados utilizada foi a nova série do SCN, cujo ano de referência é 2000 e os dados disponíveis compreendem os anos 2000 a 2007. Em 2007, o setor informal, que empregava 27,7% dos postos de trabalho do país, teve uma contribuição de 9,9% na geração do valor adicionado. O emprego informal como um todo, por sua vez, alcançou 56,4% das ocupações totais.The central objective of this paper is to present the informal sector in Brazil in face of new possibilities resulting from the revision of the Brazilian SNA series in 2007. The results concerning the generation of value added and the number of occupations by sector of production and type of employment for Brazil in a recent period, are presented in the study. The SNA new series database was used, where the reference year is 2000 and the available data cover the years 2000 to 2007. In the last year of the series, the informal sector, which accounts for 27.2% of jobs in the country, displayed a contribution of 9.9% in the generation of value added. In turn, informal employment as a whole reached 56.4% of total employment.

  5. Theoretical Framework. The Bartlesville System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Tommy L.; And Others

    The theoretical framework underlying the Total Guidance Information Support System is discussed under the following topics: (1) Review of Literature, (2) A Brief History of Guidance and Counseling, (3) Philosophies of Guidance, (4) Decision-Making in Relation to Guidance, (5) The Origins of Information Theory, (6) Various Uses of Information…

  6. The measurement of employment benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.

    1994-01-01

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income

  7. Employment specialist competencies for supported employment programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbière, M.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Lanctôt, N.; van Weeghel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Supported employment (SE) programs are evidence-based programs offered to people with severe mental illness to facilitate obtaining and keeping competitive work. However, significant variations in individuals’ vocational success may be partly explained by differences in their employment

  8. LABOR RELATIONS. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION GLODEANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of labor and employment relations in industrial environments is very complex. Moreover, it is the subject of transforming complex processes. From this perspective, the study aims to present some theoretical and methodological aspects of research and analysis of enterprise as social space of labor, of relationships between employees and employers, superiors and subordinates, labor groups, employer organizations and trade unions. It also suggests possible research methods and techniques of this field defining labor market

  9. What factors influence uptake of retinal screening among young adults with type 2 diabetes? A qualitative study informed by the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Amelia J; Browne, Jessica L; Rees, Gwyneth; Speight, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Young adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D, 18-39years) face increased risk of vision loss from diabetic retinopathy (DR). Retinal screening is essential to detect DR, yet screening rates for this group are low and little is known about the underlying factors influencing this important behavior. Using the theoretical domains framework (TDF) to guide data collection and analysis, we explored screening barriers and facilitator, contrasting them with a comparator group of older adults with T2D (40+ years). Thirty semi-structured telephone interviews (10 younger, 20 older adults) were conducted. Data were coded into TDF domains with salience identified by "frequency" of reference. Screening facilitators and barriers were systematically compared between groups. Although many screening facilitators and barriers were shared by younger and older adults, additional factors highly relevant to the former included: social comparison with others ('social influences'); concern for the impact on the family unit, unrealistic optimism and perceived invulnerability ('beliefs about consequences'); lack of time and financial resources ('environmental context and resources'), and DR misconceptions ('knowledge'). This study demonstrated that young adult retinal screening behavior was influenced by additional social cognitive factors compared to older adults, providing a first-step evidence base for clinicians and other health professionals, and potential targets for future eye health and retinal screening interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment and evaluation of the employment of the Midshipman Information System (MIDS) as a performance measurement tool by Company Officers at the United States Naval Academy

    OpenAIRE

    Luckett, Michael D.; Oden, David M.

    2001-01-01

    This research first examines the use of the Midshipmen Information System (MIDS) by faculty, staff and midshipmen as a performance measurement tool at the United States Naval Academy. Specifically, this project examines how Company Officers use MIDS to measure the performance and development of the midshipmen over time, what metrics they believe are important to midshipmen development, how current MIDS functionality meets the needs of end users and recommendations for improvement of the overa...

  11. Employment and Efficiency Effects of Social Security (SS) and Social Protection (SP) Systems in the Context of an Informal Sector and Market Imperfections: A Conceptual Review

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Most developing countries suffer serious “imperfections “in their labour, capital and product markets; a high level of informality (lack of connection with the state, e.g. non-registration, non-compliance with tax and labour regulations, etc.); and attempts to improve the welfare of specified groups through social security (SS) systems in the formal sector and (increasingly in recent years) through social protection systems (SP) designed to achieve greater overall coverage, e.g. to reach info...

  12. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Situated Action and Planned Action Models of Behavior in Information Retrieval Contexts: Contributions from Phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kwong Bor

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of human-computer interaction and planned action focuses on the belief that it is impossible to consider an action without an a priori plan, even according to the phenomenological position taken for granted by the situated action theory. Reports results of a quasi-experiment that focused on plan deviation within an information seeking…

  13. 76 FR 5212 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information...): Extension With Revisions AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Department of Labor. ACTION... Training Administration is soliciting comments concerning the Office of Unemployment Insurance's collection...

  14. How to employ B̄{sub d}{sup 0}→J/ψ(πη,K̄K) decays to extract information on πη scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaladejo, M. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia,Institutos de Investigación de Paterna,Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Daub, J.T. [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) andBethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn,53115 Bonn (Germany); Hanhart, C. [Institut für Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics,Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Kubis, B. [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) andBethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn,53115 Bonn (Germany); Moussallam, B. [Groupe de Physique Théorique IPN (UMR8608), Université Paris-Sud 11,91406 Orsay (France)

    2017-04-04

    We demonstrate that dispersion theory allows one to deduce crucial information on πη scattering from the final-state interactions of the light mesons visible in the spectral distributions of the decays B̄{sub d}{sup 0}→J/ψ(π{sup 0}η,K{sup +}K{sup −},K{sup 0}K̄{sup 0}). Thus high-quality measurements of these differential observables are highly desired. The corresponding rates are predicted to be of the same order of magnitude as those for B̄{sub d}{sup 0}→J/ψπ{sup +}π{sup −} measured recently at LHCb, letting the corresponding measurement appear feasible.

  15. Perceived employability trajectories: A Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos Née Kirves, Kaisa; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Leineweber, Constanze

    2017-07-27

    This study identified perceived employability trajectories and their associations with sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms over time. The sample was part of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey on Health from 2008 to 2014 (n=4,583). Two stable trajectories (high and low perceived employability over time) and three trajectories with changes (increasing, decreasing, and V-shaped perceived employability over time) were identified. Workers with stable low perceived employability reported more sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms than those who perceived high or increasing employability. Perceived employability is a rather stable personal resource, which is associated with well-being over time. However, changes in perceived employability do not seem to be echoed in well-being, at least not as immediately as theoretically expected.

  16. Joint Degree Program: the Perspective of Employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Bilevičienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — the purpose of this article is to extend discussion towards the need and importance of joint degree programs in modern universities, introducing the perspective of the employers toward this question. Design/methodology/approach — the research was conducted to analyze the demand of joint degree programs from the perspective of employers, identify weak and strong aspects, opinion and demand for graduates of such programs. To achieve this purpose, a combination of theoretical and empirical methods was chosen: document analysis (previous studies, statistics was conducted and an online qualitative survey was organized. Findings — The analysis of articles, studies and statistics points out the challenges and threats faced by universities nowadays, forcing higher education institutions to find new ways to raise the quality of studies and raise the interest of employers to choose graduates from MRU, as well as the satisfaction of employers with their choice of employees. Theoretical analysis pointed out these challenges and requirements for the modern employee, summarised the challenges in preparation of IT field specialists. The conducted research results showed that the diploma of joint degree programs would not be treated as an advantage of possible employee from the perspective of employers in case some important aspects will not be taken into consideration by program creators. On the other hand, undeniably there are strong sides, such as knowledge in the fields of foreign language, international experience, innovativeness and creativeness of employees that would be treated as an advantage in the process of selection for positions of any technical support related positions. Research limitations/implications — employers, whose business activities are closely related to information technology, have been invited as experts. In addition, these experts have a good understanding of the specifics of joint degree programs. The received

  17. Refresher Course in Theoretical Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Refresher Course in Theoretical Physics. Information and Announcements Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 99-99. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/07/0099-0099. Resonance ...

  18. Wide-scope screening of pesticides in fruits and vegetables using information-dependent acquisition employing UHPLC-QTOF-MS and automated MS/MS library searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibin; Cao, Yanzhong; Ge, Na; Liu, Xiaomao; Chang, Qiaoying; Fan, Chunlin; Pang, Guo-Fang

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an application of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) for simultaneous screening and identification of 427 pesticides in fresh fruit and vegetable samples. Both full MS scan mode for quantification, and an artificial-intelligence-based product ion scan mode information-dependent acquisition (IDA) providing automatic MS to MS/MS switching of product ion spectra for identification, were conducted by one injection. A home-in collision-induced-dissociation all product ions accurate mass spectra library containing more than 1700 spectra was developed prior to actual application. Both qualitative and quantitative validations of the method were carried out. The result showed that 97.4 % of the pesticides had the screening detection limit (SDL) less than 50 μg kg -1 and more than 86.7 % could be confirmed by accurate MS/MS spectra embodied in the home-made library. Meanwhile, calibration curves covering two orders of magnitude were performed, and they were linear over the concentration range studied for the selected matrices (from 5 to 500 μg kg -1 for most of the pesticides). Recoveries between 80 and 110 % in four matrices (apple, orange, tomato, and spinach) at two spiked levels, 10 and 100 μg kg -1 , was 88.7 or 86.8 %. Furthermore, the overall relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 12) for 94.3 % of the pesticides in 10 μg kg -1 and 98.1 % of the pesticides in 100 μg kg -1 spiked levels was less than 20 %. In order to validate the suitability for routine analysis, the method was applied to 448 fruit and vegetable samples purchased in different local markets. The results show 83.3 % of the analyzed samples have positive findings (higher than the limits of identification and quantification), and 412 commodity-pesticide combinations are identified in our scope. The approach proved to be a cost-effective, time-saving and powerful strategy for routine large

  19. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  20. Becoming Self-Employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grant; Cochran, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Explored how persons become self-employed. In critical incident interviews with five self-employed persons the critical events that assisted or hindered progress toward self-employment were listed in chronological order. In general, becoming self-employed involved establishing conditions of action that enhanced a sense of agency, thus enabling…

  1. Employment of Handicapped People in Leisure Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, David M.; Vinton, Dennis A.

    In response to the need for up-to-date information on employment opportunities for handicapped people in the leisure occupations, a national survey was conducted to determine both existing levels of employment and employer practices. The survey was sent to 500 agencies and businesses representing four leisure occupational subclusters: travel,…

  2. Studying place practices and consumption through volunteer-employed photography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene; Møller, Karina Torp

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that taking a practice theoretical approach is useful for obtaining a nuanced understanding of transnationally mobile persons’ development of place affiliation through their adoption or rejection of locally available consumption practices. In this way, we engage in the ongoing...... discussion about practice theory and in how to understand the co-constellation of things, bodies and mental activities in relation to consumption. Focusing on newcomers to a particular geographic setting highlights possibilities and constraints for practice retention and adaptation, as well as reflection...... upon such choices. Additionally, we argue that the employed data collection techniques, involving a combination of volunteer-employed photography with participants’ comments on their own photos and information about their socio-demographic profile, constitute a particularly apt approach for shedding...

  3. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  4. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  5. A game theoretic investigation of deception in network security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Grosu, Daniel

    2010-12-03

    We perform a game theoretic investigation of the effects of deception on the interactions between an attacker and a defender of a computer network. The defender can employ camouflage by either disguising a normal system as a honeypot or by disguising a honeypot as a normal system. We model the interactions between defender and attacker using a signaling game, a non-cooperative two player dynamic game of incomplete information. For this model, we determine which strategies admit perfect Bayesian equilibria. These equilibria are refined Nash equilibria in which neither the defender nor the attacker will unilaterally choose to deviate from their strategies. Finally, we discuss the benefits of employing deceptive equilibrium strategies in the defense of a computer network.

  6. An employer brand predictive model for talent attraction and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelize Botha

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In an ever shrinking global talent pool organisations use employer brand to attract and retain talent, however, in the absence of theoretical pointers, many organisations are losing out on a powerful business tool by not developing or maintaining their employer brand correctly. Research purpose: This study explores the current state of knowledge about employer brand and identifies the various employer brand building blocks which are conceptually integrated in a predictive model. Motivation for the study: The need for scientific progress though the accurate representation of a set of employer brand phenomena and propositions, which can be empirically tested, motivated this study. Research design, approach and method: This study was nonempirical in approach and searched for linkages between theoretical concepts by making use of relevant contextual data. Theoretical propositions which explain the identified linkages were developed for purpose of further empirical research. Main findings: Key findings suggested that employer brand is influenced by target group needs, a differentiated Employer Value Proposition (EVP, the people strategy, brand consistency, communication of the employer brand and measurement of Human Resources (HR employer branding efforts. Practical/managerial implications: The predictive model provides corporate leaders and their human resource functionaries a theoretical pointer relative to employer brand which could guide more effective talent attraction and retention decisions. Contribution/value add: This study adds to the small base of research available on employer brand and contributes to both scientific progress as well as an improved practical understanding of factors which influence employer brand.

  7. Perspectives of employability skills

    OpenAIRE

    ANNE LOUISE NEWTON

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the different perspectives held by young people, employers and policy makers around Employability Skills and it examined how young people learnt these skills. This study draws young peoples’ perspectives into the research around Employability Skills and highlights the way in which social and cultural capital mediate their development. The research points to a model to re-vision employability skills which recognises the many ways in which they are learnt, over time a...

  8. Youth employment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa

    2001-01-01

    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  9. Information-theoretic equilibrium and observable thermalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzà, F; Vedral, V

    2017-03-07

    A crucial point in statistical mechanics is the definition of the notion of thermal equilibrium, which can be given as the state that maximises the von Neumann entropy, under the validity of some constraints. Arguing that such a notion can never be experimentally probed, in this paper we propose a new notion of thermal equilibrium, focused on observables rather than on the full state of the quantum system. We characterise such notion of thermal equilibrium for an arbitrary observable via the maximisation of its Shannon entropy and we bring to light the thermal properties that it heralds. The relation with Gibbs ensembles is studied and understood. We apply such a notion of equilibrium to a closed quantum system and show that there is always a class of observables which exhibits thermal equilibrium properties and we give a recipe to explicitly construct them. Eventually, an intimate connection with the Eigenstate Thermalisation Hypothesis is brought to light.

  10. Theoretical Implications for Inform and Influence Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Century, 4th ed. (New York: Routledge, 2010), 99. 161Icek Ajzen , "TPB Diagram," UMASS Amherst (2013), http://people.umass.edu/aizen/tpb.html (accessed 04...Boyd’s OODA loop (figure 7). Figure 6. Theory of planned behavior diagram.162 Figure 7. John Boyd’s OODA loop.163 162Adapted from Ajzen , http...people.umass.edu/aizen/tpb.html (accessed 04 March 2013). Copyright © Icek Ajzen , 2006; open permission for non-commercial use. 163Osinga, 231

  11. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  12. Nonstandard Employment Relations and Implications for Decent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conceptualizing nonstandard work within the context of casual, contract and outsourced work, the paper contends that this form of employment relations has been exacerbated by the growing incidence of youth unemployment in Nigeria. Using neoliberalism as a theoretical framework, the paper further contended that most ...

  13. Employment Growth and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke; Warzynski, Frederic; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    In this paper, we use a detailed dataset containing information about all international trade transactions of the population of Danish ?rms over more than a decade to analyze the relationship between export and import decisions and employment growth. We further distinguish between imports of ?nal...... goods and imports of intermedi­ate products. We ?nd that both imports and exports decisions are positively related to employment growth. Interestingly, both ?nished goods and intermediate goods imports have a positive link. We also control for the re-exporting process, i.e. ?rms importing ?nal goods...

  14. Theoretical value of psychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David

    2012-01-01

    Apart from their diagnostic value, psychological tests, especially the Rorschach test, have an important theoretical value for understanding psychopathology. They present a picture of a living person, in contrast to a picture of forces and agencies within the person. This rests on 2 advantages of tests over the usual psychiatric and psychoanalytic interviews: Tests are ahistorical and they present information primarily of a formal kind.

  15. What is neuroethics? Empirical and theoretical neuroethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2009-11-01

    Neuroethics is a recently emerging field that deals with predominantly empirical and practical issues of ethics in neuroscience. In contrast, theoretical and methodological considerations have rather been neglected and thus what may be called theoretical neuroethics. The review focuses on informed consent and moral judgment as examples of empirical neuroethics and norm-fact circularity and method-based neuroethics as issues of a theoretical neuroethics. It is argued that we need to consider theoretical and methodological issues in order to develop neuroethics as a distinct discipline, which as such can be distinguished from both philosophy/ethics and neuroscience.

  16. Integrated Management of Migration, Employment, Fiscal Policy and Public Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Vytautas Rutkauskas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of the paper states that national migration indicators are closely related with employment opportunities in that country. In addition, the management quality of migration and employment processes is an indicator of the national socio-economic policy competency, while management of these processes is the main purpose of intelligent adjustment of the national fiscal policy and government debt management. The author of the paper selected the formation of the system of quantitative indicators as the main objective of the paper. The system should allow employing government debt possibilities for the selection of proper fiscal policy in order to prevent the transformation of unemployment into the key reason of uncontrolled national inflation. This would be done by revealing the possibilities of fiscal policy to impact on the level and structure of unemployment. Recent globalisation processes and integration possibilities bring a lot of uncertainty to predetermined viability of theoretical assumptions as well as the adequacy of the applied quantitative methods. The paper uses the possibilities of stochastic optimisation and stochastically informed expertise pursuing the possibilities of integrated management of employment, migration processes, fiscal policy and government debt provisions.

  17. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a survey of the studies done in the Theoretical Physics Division of the Nuclear Physics Institute; the subjects studied in theoretical nuclear physics were the few-nucleon problem, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, weak interactions, intermediate energy and high energy physics. In this last field, the subjects studied were field theory, group theory, symmetry and strong interactions [fr

  18. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.

  19. General Outside Employment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all outside employment requests held by employees of Montgomery County (excluding uniformed police officer) approved by the Ethics Commission...

  20. Theoretical nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blatt, John M

    1979-01-01

    A classic work by two leading physicists and scientific educators endures as an uncommonly clear and cogent investigation and correlation of key aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. It is probably the most widely adopted book on the subject. The authors approach the subject as ""the theoretical concepts, methods, and considerations which have been devised in order to interpret the experimental material and to advance our ability to predict and control nuclear phenomena.""The present volume does not pretend to cover all aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. Its coverage is restricted to

  1. Youth-Education-Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Willard; And Others

    The document presents the proceedings of an international symposium analyzing the relationship among youth, education, and employment, with emphasis on youth employment trends and the need to find solutions for unemployment problems. The objectives are to evaluate the existing relationship in the light of changing values and expectations of young…

  2. Homosexual Discrimination in Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Gary R.

    1976-01-01

    Recent developments in homosexual activism regarding employment problems in both the public and private sector are analyzed. Focus is on the law governing private employment, where homosexuals are afforded the least legal protection against discrimination. Available from: the University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California 95053. (LBH)

  3. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  4. Employment Challenges in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    Key Words: Employment Challenge, Employment Policy, Kenya. 1.0 Context ... Fiscal Measures. √. ×. √. Source: own elaboration based on government documents. Key: √- policy measure present; ×- policy measure not present ..... are Republic of Korea (1960–2001); Malaysia (1967–1997); Malta (1963–1994); Oman.

  5. Dimensions of Adolescent Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.; Morath, Ray A.; McLellan, Jeffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines positive and negative correlates of adolescent work as a function of work dimensions. Results indicate that concurrent costs and benefits of adolescent employment may depend on dimensions of work as well as adolescent characteristics. Adolescent employment was generally related to subsequent work motivation and nonacademic performance.…

  6. Employee to employer communication skills: balancing cancer treatment and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard F; Owens, Myra; Bradley, Cathy

    2013-02-01

    Cancer patients face difficulties in accessing legally mandated benefits and accommodations when they return to the workplace. Poor employer-employee communication inflates these difficulties. Although proven methods to facilitate physician-patient communication exist, these have not been applied to the workplace. Thus, we aimed to assess the feasibility and utility of applying these methods to educate patients about their workplace rights and provide them with communication skills training to aid their conversations with their employers. A DVD was produced to educate patients and facilitate workplace communication. Participants consisted of 28 solid tumor cancer patients (14 women and 14 men) who completed primary cancer treatment in the past 12 months and were employed at the time of diagnosis. Participants watched a communication skills training DVD and completed a telephone interview. The interview elicited information about workplace experiences and evaluation of the DVD training program. The physician-patient communication skills training model utilized was successfully translated to the employer-employee setting. All but one participant found the DVD useful and easy to understand and indicated a high degree of confidence in using the communication skills to help them ask for workplace accommodations. All participants agreed that it would help newly diagnosed patients in discussions with their employers. Our data provides promising preliminary evidence that patient communication skills training can be applied to the workplace setting and is a welcomed aid to newly diagnosed cancer patients in their discussions with employers regarding the impact of treatment on their work performance and needs for accommodations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Theoretical clarity is not “Manicheanism”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2011-01-01

    It is argued that in order to establish a new theoretical approach to information science it is necessary to express disagreement with some established views. The “social turn” in information science is not just exemplified in relation to the works of Marcia Bates but in relation to many different...... researchers in the field. Therefore it should not be taken personally, and the debate should focus on the substance. Marcia Bates has contributed considerably to information science. In spite of this some of her theoretical points of departure may be challenged. It is important to seek theoretical clarity...... and this may involve a degree of schematic confrontation that should not be confused with theoretical one-sidedness, “Manicheanism” or lack of respect....

  8. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Research activities of the theoretical physics division for 1979 are described. Short summaries are given of specific research work in the following fields: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics, elementary particles [fr

  9. Theoretical Computer Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The proceedings contains 8 papers from the Conference on Theoretical Computer Science. Topics discussed include: query by committee, linear separation and random walks; hardness results for neural network approximation problems; a geometric approach to leveraging weak learners; mind change...

  10. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The studies in 1977 are reviewed. In theoretical nuclear physics: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics; in elementary particle physics: field theory, strong interactions dynamics, nucleon-nucleon interactions, new particles, current algebra, symmetries and quarks are studied [fr

  11. Theoretical physics and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Vitalii Lazarevich

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present, on the one hand various topics in theoretical physics in depth - especially topics related to electrodynamics - and on the other hand to show how these topics find applications in various aspects of astrophysics. The first text on theoretical physics and astrophysical applications, it covers many recent advances including those in X-ray, &ggr;-ray and radio-astronomy, with comprehensive coverage of the literature

  12. Employment services and substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherba, R Thomas; Coxe, Kathryn A; Gersper, Beth E; Linley, Jessica V

    2018-04-01

    This qualitative study of over 800 participants focused on the employment experiences of consumers of substance abuse treatment programs to provide a better understanding of what employment services are offered and what needs treatment agencies have in the area of employment services, examining barriers and facilitators from both the consumer and provider perspectives. Data were collected via a mixed research methodology of focus groups and surveys from July 2015 through June 2016 in a large Midwestern U.S. state. Employment is a challenge for persons with substance use disorders. Only a quarter of this study's large sample of substance abuse treatment consumers reported being cur-rently employed; and of those consumers who reported no current employment, greater than half reported that their current unemployment was due to their substance use. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment face many challenges in obtaining and maintaining employment. Treatment providers identified several barriers to implementation of employment services. They named an array of resources as needed, including increased funding for supportive employment programs and staff appropriate to the delivery of employment services. Some providers believed employment services to fall outside of their scope of practice. Data generated through this study may inform policy to invest resources in employment services within substance abuse treatment settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Employer`s contributions to the training of professional statisticians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustagi, J.S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Statistics Dept.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section]|[Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Statistical science provides important techniques for decision making in a large variety of fields of human endeavor mainly through statistical practice. According to Deming (1965), ``Statistical practice is mostly a collaborative venture between (professional) statisticians and experts in subject-matter (area).`` The professional statistician must be properly trained in areas of statistical science most suited to the discipline in which the applications are made. Due to a large variety of applications. The education of a professional statistician by universities can only be very general. Higher education provides the theoretical basis of statistical science whereas the specific expertise needed by the professional statistician is given by the application areas. In this paper, the authors review the approach of academic programs which are geared towards applications and discuss some of the innovative strategies for preparing statisticians as consultants in industry and business. A survey (census) of statisticians at the national laboratories of the US Department of Energy was made to assess their training by universities and to get a broad view of additional training which has brought them to their present professional status. A particular interest is the extent to which employers have contributed to the training of statisticians. A few recommendations are made which may serve to improve the future training of statisticians for applied collaborative work by universities and employers.

  14. Financial Literacy and Self-Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Cumurovic, Aida; Hyll, Walter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between financial literacy and self-employment. We use established financial knowledge-based questions to measure financial literacy levels. The analysis shows a highly significant correlation between self-employment and financial literacy scores. To investigate the impact of financial literacy on being self-employed, we apply instrumental variable techniques based on information on economic education before entering the labour market and education of ...

  15. Music Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress in Adults: A Theoretical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis-Shack, Nora; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2017-01-01

    Music therapy has been employed as a therapeutic intervention to facilitate healing across a variety of clinical populations. There is theoretical and empirical evidence to suggest that individuals with trauma exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a condition characterized by enduring symptoms of distressing memory intrusions, avoidance, emotional disturbance, and hyperarousal, may derive benefits from music therapy. The current narrative review describes the practice of music therapy and presents a theoretically-informed assessment and model of music therapy as a tool for addressing symptoms of PTSD. The review also presents key empirical studies that support the theoretical assessment. Social, cognitive, and neurobiological mechanisms (e.g., community building, emotion regulation, increased pleasure, anxiety reduction) that promote music therapy’s efficacy as an adjunctive treatment for individuals with posttraumatic stress are discussed. It is concluded that music therapy may be a useful therapeutic tool to reduce symptoms and improve functioning among individuals with trauma exposure and PTSD, though more rigorous empirical study is required. In addition, music therapy may help foster resilience and engage individuals who struggle with stigma associated with seeking professional help. Practical recommendations for incorporating music therapy into clinical practice are offered along with several suggestions for future research. PMID:29290641

  16. Music Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress in Adults: A Theoretical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis-Shack, Nora; Heinz, Adrienne J; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2017-01-01

    Music therapy has been employed as a therapeutic intervention to facilitate healing across a variety of clinical populations. There is theoretical and empirical evidence to suggest that individuals with trauma exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a condition characterized by enduring symptoms of distressing memory intrusions, avoidance, emotional disturbance, and hyperarousal, may derive benefits from music therapy. The current narrative review describes the practice of music therapy and presents a theoretically-informed assessment and model of music therapy as a tool for addressing symptoms of PTSD. The review also presents key empirical studies that support the theoretical assessment. Social, cognitive, and neurobiological mechanisms (e.g., community building, emotion regulation, increased pleasure, anxiety reduction) that promote music therapy's efficacy as an adjunctive treatment for individuals with posttraumatic stress are discussed. It is concluded that music therapy may be a useful therapeutic tool to reduce symptoms and improve functioning among individuals with trauma exposure and PTSD, though more rigorous empirical study is required. In addition, music therapy may help foster resilience and engage individuals who struggle with stigma associated with seeking professional help. Practical recommendations for incorporating music therapy into clinical practice are offered along with several suggestions for future research.

  17. Employment Opportunities in Agribusiness. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Richard E.

    This report, which was written during a project to develop a better understanding of which occupations may relate to agribusiness and to identify employment opportunities in agribusiness, is designed to assist state occupational information coordinating committees and state employment security agencies in developing special reports/lists of…

  18. 45 CFR 1706.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1706.140 Section 1706.140 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND... CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE § 1706.140 Employment. No qualified...

  19. 5 CFR 6901.103 - Outside employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION § 6901.103 Outside... employer and will disqualify from future participation in matters that could directly affect the outside employer. (2) Locally prepared forms providing for collection of the information required by paragraph (f...

  20. Employability Skills: The Demands of the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Janice A.; Lafleur, Susan

    1995-01-01

    The Employability Skills Profile, critical work abilities identified by Canadian employers, was rated by 24 secondary teachers in Ontario. Personal management skills were rated most important, followed by academic and teamwork skills. Teaching of these skills was informal--absorbed through classroom policies and management practices. (SK)

  1. Possibilities of employment disabled persons in the region

    OpenAIRE

    CHLUMECKÁ, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the bachelor thesis is to get acquainted with the issue of handicapped people, their education, professional preparation and the process of gaining employment. The aim was achieved by studying professional literature and other sources and also by performing qualitative research. The thesis is divided into the theoretical part and practical part. The theoretical part is based on an analysis of professional literature and verified internet resources. The theoretical part is divided i...

  2. Institutionalized Employer Collective Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that employer associations continue to exist in new ways despite internationalisation of the economy, liberalisation of markets and the decline of trade unions. This paradox raises two questions regarding EOs in today’s labour markets: Which employers join employer associations...... and what kind of services do EOs offer employers? This article explores these questions using two comprehensive surveys on EOs in Denmark – a prominent case of coordinated market economies. The main finding of the analyses is that collective activities vis-à-vis trade unions and government are still...... important but that individual and selective goods are just as important for recruitment and retention of members. The most important predictor of EO-membership is the existence of a collective agreement. Local union power and representation is not significant which supports the idea that EOs...

  3. Youth Employment and Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Observer, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Discusses youth employment and unemployment in Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, and the United States; the trends, causes, consequences, policy goals, and specific measures needed to resolve problems. (SL)

  4. Income, employment and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalist, David E; Molinari, Noelle-Angelique M; Siahaan, Freddy

    2007-12-01

    Little is known about the labor market outcomes of people who have attempted suicide or thought about suicide. We used micro-level data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions 2001-2002 to examine the effects of suicidal behavior on income and employment. The data provide a representative sample of the U.S. population, with its primary purpose to provide information on alcohol use disorders for the civilian non-institutionalized population aged 18 and over. The data include employment, income, and other socioeconomic and demographic information on respondents. Since the survey included 43,093 people, the data include a large number of respondents who attempted suicide or thought about committing suicide. We estimated earnings regressions and logit and ordered logit employment regressions. We used methods of IV estimation as well as two stage linear probability models to address potential endogeneity of suicidal behavior while estimating regressions separately by sex, since there are significant differences in suicide rates, suicide attempts, and suicidal ideation between men and women. We find that suicide attempts and suicidal ideation are negatively related to personal income and the probability of employment. The effects differ by sex. Men and women who attempted suicide had mean earnings lower by 16 and 13 percent, respectively. This amount reflects the combined effect of suicidal behavior and mental illness. With instrumental variable regression, the magnitude of the effects becomes larger-for example, as much as 50 percent decrease in the income of males who attempted suicide. Thoughts of suicide negatively affect income but to a smaller extent. Logit and ordered logit regressions indicate that attempted suicide reduces the probability of fulltime employment by over 20 percentage points for men and approximately 17 percentage points for women. People who engaged in suicidal behavior reported significantly

  5. Employers meet employees

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    "Leaping into the future of labor economics: the research potential of linking employer and employee data" is the title of a paper by Daniel S Hammermesh published in Labour Economics in 1999. I quote it here, since it captures much of my motivation for the work included in this thesis. Considering applied micro econometrics and labor economics my main elds of interest, the development of linked employer-employee data that took place in Denmark around the time of the new mille...

  6. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  7. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lebert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.

  8. Theoretical Characterizaiton of Visual Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashinski, D. O.; Chase, G. M.; di Nallo, O. E.; Scales, A. N.; Vanderley, D. L.; Byrd, E. F. C.

    2015-05-01

    We are investigating the accuracy of theoretical models used to predict the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared spectra, as well as other properties, of product materials ejected from the muzzle of currently fielded systems. Recent advances in solid propellants has made the management of muzzle signature (flash) a principle issue in weapons development across the calibers. A priori prediction of the electromagnetic spectra of formulations will allow researchers to tailor blends that yield desired signatures and determine spectrographic detection ranges. Quantum chemistry methods at various levels of sophistication have been employed to optimize molecular geometries, compute unscaled vibrational frequencies, and determine the optical spectra of specific gas-phase species. Electronic excitations are being computed using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT). A full statistical analysis and reliability assessment of computational results is currently underway. A comparison of theoretical results to experimental values found in the literature is used to assess any affects of functional choice and basis set on calculation accuracy. The status of this work will be presented at the conference. Work supported by the ARL, DoD HPCMP, and USMA.

  9. Theoretical study of diaquamalonatozinc (II) single crystal for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of the present paper is to employ theoretical methods to investigate the zero field splitting (ZFS) parameter and to investigate the position of the dopant in the host. These theoretical calculations have been compared with the empirical results. The superposition model (SPM)with themicroscopic spin-Hamiltonian ...

  10. Informing Educational Psychology Training with Students' Community Engagement Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersohn, Liesel; Bender, C. J. Gerda; Carvalho-Malekane, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe students' experiences of community engagement in an Educational Psychology practicum in order to inform relevant educational psychology training literature with experiences of students' community engagement. Experiential learning served as our theoretical framework and we employed an instrumental case…

  11. Consensus of Multiagent Systems with Sampled Information and Noisy Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Jun Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider consensus problems of first-order multiagent systems with sampled information and noisy measurements. A distributed stochastic approximation type algorithm is employed to attenuate the measurement noises. We provide conditions under which almost sure strong consensus is guaranteed for fixed and switching directed network topologies. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  12. DESIGNERLY WAYS TO THEORETICAL INSIGHT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise; Gelting, Anne Katrine Gøtzsche; Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille

    2014-01-01

    ’ learning process for a number of reasons, which will be discussed in the paper. The main findings indicate that visualising theory is beneficial because it applies a type of practice that the students are familiar with, and supports the construction of new knowledge, by allowing the students to express......This paper set out to investigate how design students learn from visualising theory in design education. The exploration rests on the assumption that the application of tools and techniques from design practice supports design students with an entrance to the theoretical part of the field...... information and concepts in ways that are personally meaningful to them....

  13. Factors Influencing Employment and Employability for Persons with Disability: Insights from a City in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Srikrishna S; Murthy, G V S; Shamanna, B R; Allagh, Komal P; Pant, Hira B; John, Neena

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence on barriers faced by persons with disability in accessing employment opportunities in India. This study was undertaken to ascertain both employee and employer perceptions on barriers existing among Information Technology (IT) and IT-enabled sectors to employ persons with disabilities. Two hundred participants from six IT/IT-enabled sector organizations were included in the study; study was conducted at Hyderabad, India. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the participants. Physical access to and within the worksite was highlighted as a concern by 95% of respondents. Majority perceived that communication, attitude of people, discrimination, harassment at work place, and information were critical barriers. Only 3.8% of employers were aware that their company had a written policy on employing persons with disabilities. Employers stated that commitment and perseverance were important facilitators among persons with disabilities. Evidence from this study will help in planning need-based employment for persons with disabilities.

  14. Employment of people with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andrlová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with adult people with Autism Spectrum Disorders, especially Asperger's Syndrome and High Functioning Autism, in connection with their employment in the Czech Republic. The goal of this thesis is to find out the labour opportunities and the support for these people. The thesis consists of a theoretical part and a case study. Introductory chapter describes Autism in general and defines all of Autism Spectrum Disorders. The second chapter is already focused on adults a...

  15. Topics in Theoretical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Andrew [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Schmaltz, Martin [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Katz, Emmanuel [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Rebbi, Claudio [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Glashow, Sheldon [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Brower, Richard [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Pi, So-Young [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This award supported a broadly based research effort in theoretical particle physics, including research aimed at uncovering the laws of nature at short (subatomic) and long (cosmological) distances. These theoretical developments apply to experiments in laboratories such as CERN, the facility that operates the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva, as well as to cosmological investigations done using telescopes and satellites. The results reported here apply to physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of particle physics; physics of high energy collisions such as those observed at the Large Hadron Collider; theoretical and mathematical tools and frameworks for describing the laws of nature at short distances; cosmology and astrophysics; and analytic and computational methods to solve theories of short distance physics. Some specific research accomplishments include + Theories of the electroweak interactions, the forces that give rise to many forms of radioactive decay; + Physics of the recently discovered Higgs boson. + Models and phenomenology of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe, that has so far been detected only by its gravitational effects. + High energy particles in astrophysics and cosmology. + Algorithmic research and Computational methods for physics of and beyond the Standard Model. + Theory and applications of relativity and its possible limitations. + Topological effects in field theory and cosmology. + Conformally invariant systems and AdS/CFT. This award also supported significant training of students and postdoctoral fellows to lead the research effort in particle theory for the coming decades. These students and fellows worked closely with other members of the group as well as theoretical and experimental colleagues throughout the physics community. Many of the research projects funded by this grant arose in response to recently obtained experimental results in the areas of particle physics and cosmology. We describe a few of

  16. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    . But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger...... disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately...

  17. Profitability, investment and employment - a survey of recent developments in medium-term growth theory

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Frank G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent theoretical literature on the relationship between profitability, investment and employment in an attempt to clarify the roles of demand-management, supply-management and incomes policies in stimulating employment and growth.

  18. Theoretical Chemistry Symposium 2006

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    This special issue of the Journal of Chemical Sciences contains 29 original papers presented at the Theoretical Chemistry Symposium (TCS 2006) held at Bharathi- dasan University during December 11–13, 2006. Earlier meetings on this theme were organized in various parts of the country viz. Chandigarh (1986), IIT ...

  19. Theoretical Computer Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The proceedings contains 8 papers from the Conference on Theoretical Computer Science. Topics discussed include: query by committee, linear separation and random walks; hardness results for neural network approximation problems; a geometric approach to leveraging weak learners; mind change...... complexity of learning logic programs and avoiding coding tricks by hyperrobust learning....

  20. Riemann and Theoretical Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 11. Riemann and Theoretical Physics. Joseph Samuel. General Article Volume 11 Issue 11 November 2006 pp 56-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/11/0056-0060. Keywords.

  1. Policies for full employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Koning, Jaap; Layard, Richard; Nickel, Stephen

    European unemployment is too high, and employment is too low. Over 7½ per cent of Europe's workforce is unemployed, and only two thirds of people aged 15-64 are in work. At the Lisbon summit two years ago the heads of government set the target that by 2010 the employment rate should rise from 64 ......, the Netherlands and Sweden). And seven of the 15 countries in the E.U already have lower unemployment than the United States (the previous four plus Austria, Ireland and Luxembourg)....

  2. Youth, family and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J F

    1987-01-01

    Some of the functions and dysfunctions of youth employment in contemporary society are discussed. The focus then shifts to a third variable: family dynamics. The research indicates that youth unemployment prolongs residence with parents. The younger the youth, the more tolerant are the parents of the unemployment. It was also found that a daughter's lack of employment in the summer months is more acceptable than a son's; that debts are part of the lifestyle of youth after age 18; that males incur more debts than do females; and that parents are the major source of financial loans.

  3. Implementing the employability agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Donna; Snaith, Holly Grace; Foster, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on research commissioned by the Higher Education Academy (HEA) and conducted during 2013. It interrogates the ways in which the employability agenda has been fed through to the level of individual politics departments. The project was particularly concerned with establishing...... whether, and how, colleagues in politics and international relations (IR) had taken ownership of student employability at the level of the curriculum. In the article, the key findings of the research are summarised. There is also discussion of the (sometimes troubling) professional implications...... of infusing concern for graduate outcomes within a pedagogic framework that emphasises critical engagement with the underpinning political structures of the labour market....

  4. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  5. Radiation protection - the employer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.

    1983-01-01

    A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned the employers' viewpoint on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. It was concluded that there was already a very good standard of radiological protection in the UK and that any improvements could therefore only be fringe improvements, although the cost to the employer of introducing and implementing the new proposed Regulations was bound to be high. (U.K.)

  6. A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study for Silver Electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anmin; Ren, Xuefeng; An, Maozhong; Zhang, Jinqiu; Yang, Peixia; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Yongming; Wang, Chong

    2014-01-01

    A novel method combined theoretical and experimental study for environmental friendly silver electroplating was introduced. Quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were employed for predicting the behaviour and function of the complexing agents. Electronic properties, orbital information, and single point energies of the 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH), nicotinic acid (NA), as well as their silver(I)-complexes were provided by quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Adsorption behaviors of the agents on copper and silver surfaces were investigated using MD simulations. Basing on the data of quantum chemical calculations and MD simulations, we believed that DMH and NA could be the promising complexing agents for silver electroplating. The experimental results, including of electrochemical measurement and silver electroplating, further confirmed the above prediction. This efficient and versatile method thus opens a new window to study or design complexing agents for generalized metal electroplating and will vigorously promote the level of this research region.

  7. A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    of it application on a social media maturity data-set. Specifically, we employ Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) to identify maturity stage boundaries as necessary conditions and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to arrive at multiple configurations that can be equally effective in progressing to higher......Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models...... characterized by equifinality, multiple conjunctural causation, and case diversity. We prescribe methodological guidelines consisting of a six-step procedure to systematically apply set theoretic methods to conceptualize, develop, and empirically derive maturity models and provide a demonstration...

  8. Basic theoretical physics a concise overview

    CERN Document Server

    Krey, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    This concise treatment embraces, in four parts, all the main aspects of theoretical physics (I . Mechanics and Basic Relativity, II. Electrodynamics and Aspects of Optics, III. Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics, IV. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics). It summarizes the material that every graduate student, physicist working in industry, or physics teacher should master during his or her degree course. It thus serves both as an excellent revision and preparation tool, and as a convenient reference source, covering the whole of theoretical physics. It may also be successfully employed to deepen its readers' insight and add new dimensions to their understanding of these fundamental concepts. Recent topics such as holography and quantum cryptography are included, thus making this a unique contribution to the learning material for theoretical physics.

  9. Declining Black Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Richard; Gallaway, Lowell

    1993-01-01

    Explores income inequality during declining African-American employment, examines current welfare systems, and suggests ways to improve the economic disadvantages of minority groups. Letting markets work can improve the economic status of African Americans. The present dual African-American economy, a market economy and an entitlement economy, is…

  10. Views of the employers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, J.

    2003-01-01

    The employer shall establish and maintain a safety management system, which is a part of the overall management system that facilitates the management of the occupational health and safety risks associated with the business of the organization. In addition to meeting its legal responsibilities, the employer should aim to improve its occupational health and safety performance, and its safety management system, effectively and efficiently, to meet changing business and regulatory needs. Occupational radiation protection is also a part of its activities. The concept of 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) presumes that any increment of radiation dose may produce a proportionate incremental risk, and that all radiation doses shall be kept ALARA, taking into account social and economic factors. Up to now, by implementing various activities in accordance with the principle of ALARA, employers have been minimizing the exposure dose of plant workers. Owing to improvements in hardware and administrative control, the exposure dose of workers has followed a remarkable downward trend, and now the number of workers exceeding 20 mSv/a is nearly zero. By implementing more thorough radiation protection and safety programmes, as well as by promoting safety consciousness among individual workers, the employers are continuing their efforts, respecting ALARA, to prevent workers from being exposed to radiation unnecessarily. As a consequence, the average individual dose of workers has dropped to 1 mSv/a or so. There may no longer be a discernible decrease in doses received at most of nuclear facilities

  11. Employment without Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    Employment is a central argument for economic growth in the Western world. But environmental problems like global warming points towards limits to growth. The presentation outlines the history of what has lead to this dilemma. Fortunately citizens attitudes now points towards a preference for less...

  12. Should Universities Promote Employability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Employability is becoming increasingly central to the mission and functioning of universities, spurred on by national and supranational agencies, and the demands of marketisation. This article provides a response to the normative dimensions of the question, progressing through four stages: first, there is a brief consideration of the meaning and…

  13. Employment Relations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Due, Jesper Jørgen; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Jørgen Steen Madsen, Jesper Due og Søren Kaj Andersen har skrevet et kapitel om udviklingen i dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering til bogen International and Comparative Employment Relations, redigeret af Greg Bamber, Russell Lansbury og Nick Wailes. Bogen indeholder bidrag, der præsenterer og...

  14. Shifting employment revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.; Gramuglia, A.

    2014-01-01

    The CLR-network examined in 2006 the phenomenon of undeclared labour, with specific regard to the construction sector. The resulting study, Shifting Employment: undeclared labour in construction, gave evidence that this is an area particularly affected by undeclared activities with one of the

  15. Shifting employment revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Gramuglia, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    The CLR-network examined in 2006 the phenomenon of undeclared labour, with specific regard to the construction sector. The resulting study, Shifting Employment: undeclared labour in construction (Shifting-study hereafter), gave evidence that this is an area particularly affected by undeclared

  16. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teng

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  17. The Employment Mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Employers value a four-year college degree, many of them more than ever. Yet half of those surveyed recently by "The Chronicle" and American Public Media's "Marketplace" said they had trouble finding recent graduates qualified to fill positions at their company or organization. Nearly a third gave colleges just fair to poor marks for producing…

  18. Position, Possession or Process? Understanding Objective and Subjective Employability during University-to-Work Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay-Somerville, Belgin; Scholarios, Dora

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to understand predictors of objective (i.e. job offers, employment status and employment quality) and subjective (i.e. perceived) graduate employability during university-to-work transitions. Using survey data from two cohorts of graduates in the UK (N = 293), it contrasts three competing theoretical approaches to employability:…

  19. Theoretical atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2017-01-01

    This expanded and updated well-established textbook contains an advanced presentation of quantum mechanics adapted to the requirements of modern atomic physics. It includes topics of current interest such as semiclassical theory, chaos, atom optics and Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic gases. In order to facilitate the consolidation of the material covered, various problems are included, together with complete solutions. The emphasis on theory enables the reader to appreciate the fundamental assumptions underlying standard theoretical constructs and to embark on independent research projects. The fourth edition of Theoretical Atomic Physics contains an updated treatment of the sections involving scattering theory and near-threshold phenomena manifest in the behaviour of cold atoms (and molecules). Special attention is given to the quantization of weakly bound states just below the continuum threshold and to low-energy scattering and quantum reflection just above. Particular emphasis is laid on the fundamen...

  20. Concluding theoretical remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1986-01-01

    My task in this talk is to review the happenings of this workshop from a theoretical perspective, and to emphasize lines for possible future research. My remarks are organized into a theoretical overview of the what, why, (mainly the hierarchy problem) how, (supersymmetry must be broken: softly or spontaneously, and if the latter, by means of a new U tilde(1) gauge group or through the chiral superfields) when (how heavy are supersymmetric partner particles in different types of theories) and where (can one find evidence for) supersymmetry. In the last part are discussed various ongoing and future searches for photinos γ tilde, gravitinos G tilde, the U vector boson, shiggses H tilde, squarks q tilde and sleptons l tilde, gluinos g tilde, winos W tilde and other gauginos, as well as hunts for indirect effects of supersymmetry, such as for example in baryon decay. Finally there is a little message of encouragement to our experimental colleagues, based on historical precedent. (orig.)

  1. Compendium of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Armin

    2006-01-01

    Mechanics, Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, and Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics comprise the canonical undergraduate curriculum of theoretical physics. In Compendium of Theoretical Physics, Armin Wachter and Henning Hoeber offer a concise, rigorous and structured overview that will be invaluable for students preparing for their qualifying examinations, readers needing a supplement to standard textbooks, and research or industrial physicists seeking a bridge between extensive textbooks and formula books. The authors take an axiomatic-deductive approach to each topic, starting the discussion of each theory with its fundamental equations. By subsequently deriving the various physical relationships and laws in logical rather than chronological order, and by using a consistent presentation and notation throughout, they emphasize the connections between the individual theories. The reader’s understanding is then reinforced with exercises, solutions and topic summaries. Unique Features: Every topic is ...

  2. MARKETING MIX THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-01-01

    Aim of article is to analyze marketing mix theoretical aspects. The article discusses that marketing mix is one of the main objectives of the marketing mix elements for setting objectives and marketing budget measures. The importance of each element depends not only on the company and its activities, but also on the competition and time. All marketing elements are interrelated and should be seen in the whole of their actions. Some items may have greater importance than others; it depends main...

  3. Silicene: Recent theoretical advances

    KAUST Repository

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.

    2016-04-14

    Silicene is a two-dimensional allotrope of silicon with a puckered hexagonal structure closely related to the structure of graphene and that has been predicted to be stable. To date, it has been successfully grown in solution (functionalized) and on substrates. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of recent theoretical advances in the properties of both free-standing silicene as well as in interaction with molecules and substrates, and of proposed device applications.

  4. 3. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the period September 1980 - Aug 1981, the studies in theoretical physics divisions have been compiled under the following headings: in nuclear physics, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions and intermediate energies; in particle physics, NN and NantiN interactions, dual topological unitarization, quark model and quantum chromodynamics, classical and quantum field theories, non linear integrable equations and topological preons and Grand unified theories. A list of publications, lectures and meetings is included [fr

  5. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1990-05-01

    This report discusses progress on theoretical high energy physics at Columbia University in New York City. Some of the topics covered are: Chern-Simons gauge field theories; dynamical fermion QCD calculations; lattice gauge theory; the standard model of weak and electromagnetic interactions; Boson-fermion model of cuprate superconductors; S-channel theory of superconductivity and axial anomaly and its relation to spin in the parton model

  6. Theoretical developments in SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shifman, M. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2009-01-15

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry. (orig.)

  7. Theoretical Developments in SUSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifman, M.

    2009-01-01

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I will review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry.

  8. Energy levy and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mooij, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The employment in the Netherlands seems to be relatively vulnerable for an energy levy compared to other European countries. Therefore, implementation of an energy levy because of the environment demands a supporting policy for the employment. This can be realized by using the yield of the levy totally for the decrease of the tax burden on labour. An unbalanced distribution of incomes between the working population and the unemployed population must be taken for granted. Based on the general equilibrium model ENTAX (ENvironmental TAXation) for a small economy a number of factors, which can impact the cost effectiveness of a regulating energy levy, are discussed. Six countries (Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France and the United Kingdom) are compared regarding these factors. 4 tabs., 15 refs

  9. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern...... hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  10. Entrepreneurship and Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2017-01-01

    are identified and empirically explored: (i) job matching, (ii) labour market value, and (iii) personal commitment. Entrepreneurs appear to be more productive and thus better matched compared to wageworkers. However, they also appear to be locked in entrepreneurship because of their anticipated lower value......This paper challenges the conventional belief that entrepreneurship is an unstable career path. Using longitudinal matched employer–employee data from Denmark, the analysis reveals that a transition to entrepreneurship decreases individual's employment turnover tendency. Three explanations...... in the labour market and because of their personal attachment to the venture. The counter-intuitive finding – entrepreneurship yields greater employment stability – only holds with respect to subsequent transitions to wagework and not for new venture founding. The results have implications for our understanding...

  11. Liability in Employment Law

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Roman

    2006-01-01

    97 Liability in labour law Summary This diploma paper analyzes liability in labour law with focus on liability for damage. At first the diploma paper introduces conception of liability in general and idea of liability in labour law considering different position of employee and employer in labour relations. The diploma paper then enumerates the types of labour-law liability. The next chapter concentrates on liability for damage. This chapter describes characteristic features of liability for ...

  12. Work and Employment

    OpenAIRE

    De Poorter, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    The social and solidarity economy (SSE) and its ties to the questions of employment and work are discussed here from the perspective of enterprises and organisations of the SSE and their efforts to create decent work, as defined by the International Labour Organisation. Enterprises and organisations of the SSE are analysed under the four dimensions that define decent work, namely: The guarantee of labour rights, and the promotion of the application and respect for the (fundamental) working st...

  13. Soldiers’ employment attitude and employability: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on the employment of soldiers, and analyses the influence that employment attitude can play on employability. At last, this paper develops statistical method to find the relationship between soldiers’ employment attitude and employability.Findings: The empirical analysis shows that soldiers’ employment attitude has the positive linkage with employability, which makes the employment attitude a measurable variable for the employability rather than an absolute standard.Research limitations/implications: According to the research purpose, more variables should be considered in the model, consequently, there are only three indicators to describe solders’ employment attitude and four indicators to describe solders’ employability.Originality/value: This paper takes research on soldiers’ employability in a new perspective. The soldiers’ employment attitude is served as the entry point, showing the influence that soldiers’ employment attitude has on employability.

  14. Environment, employment and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    It is generally recognised that the question of sustainable development is a global problem, emphasizing the increasingly interdependent nature of relationships among nations. Solutions to the problem are as much political as they are economic and technological. Notwithstanding the deepening and widening of the debate on sustainable development, its implications for employment - a major concern of the ILO under its World Employment Programme - have remained largely unexplored. This volume, therefore, has a very modest objective, namely to place the employment question on the policy agenda in the context of the current debate on environment and development. The design of environmental policies should allow for the differences that exist between countries with a high level of development and technological dynamism and those with a low level of development and low technological capability. One must also recognize the costs imposed by adjustment and the consequent distributional impact. In the long term, technology choice plays a crucial role in promoting sustainable development in both industrialized and developing countries. It is not only environment-friendly technologies that need to be developed and diffused; in the case of the least developed countries, technological transformation needs to be accelerated in order to minimise their dependence on natural resources for economic growth. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Energy investments and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs

  16. INFANTILISM: THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT AND OPERATIONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena V. Sabelnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented research is to define and operationalize theoretically the concept of infantilism and its construct. The content of theoretical construct «infantilism» is analyzed. Methods. The methods of theoretical research involve analysis and synthesis. The age and content criteria are analysed in the context of childhood and adulthood. The traits which can be interpreted as adult infantile traits are described. Results. The characteristics of adult infantilism in modern world taking into account the increasing of information flows and socio-economic changes are defined. The definition of the concept «infantilism» including its main features is given. Infantilism is defined as the personal organization including features and models of the previous age period not adequate for the real age stage with emphasis on immaturity of the emotional and volitional sphere. Scientific novelty. The main psychological characteristics of adulthood are described as the reflection, requirement to work and professional activity, existence of professional self-determination, possession of labor skills, need for selfrealization, maturity of the emotional and volitional sphere. As objective adulthood characteristics are considered the following: transition to economic and territorial independence of a parental family, and also development of new social roles, such as a worker, spouse, and parent. Two options of a possible operationalization of concept are allocated: objective (existence / absence in real human life of objective criteria of adulthood and subjective (the self-report on subjective feeling of existence / lack of psychological characteristics of adulthood. Practical significance consists in a construct operationalization of «infantilism» which at the moment has so many interpretations. That operationalization is necessary for the further analysis and carrying out various researches. 

  17. Employment opportunities for the disabled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    Policy makers in the OECD Member States have developed quite different programmes and institutional arrangements to create and promote employment opportunities for the disabled. These policy approaches include legal interventions, employment support services, financial support of open employment and

  18. Do Wage Subsidies Reduce Ordinary Employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Rasmussen, Martin

    Applying administrative register data information for Danish firms in 1999, 2000, and 2001, this paper investigate how the employment of wage subsidized labour affects ordinary employment at the firm level. Descriptive statistics as well as econometric estimations are presented. Descriptive...... analysis shows that ordinary and subsidized employment is positively correlated, i.e. employment of subsidized labour does not reduce ordinary employment. But an underlying similar movement in production levels might cause the correlation. Simple inclusion of a production level proxy in OLS estimations...... does not sufficiently control for the underlying correlation, but additional control for the size of the change of production indicates that subsidized labour to some extent substitutes non-subsidized labour. But the substitution depends on the applied econometric specification, i.e. a cumulative logit...

  19. Institute for Theoretical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, S.B.; Ooguri, H.; Peet, A.W.; Schwarz, J.H.

    1998-06-01

    String theory is the only serious candidate for a unified description of all known fundamental particles and interactions, including gravity, in a single theoretical framework. Over the past two years, activity in this subject has grown rapidly, thanks to dramatic advances in understanding the dynamics of supersymmetric field theories and string theories. The cornerstone of these new developments is the discovery of duality which relates apparently different string theories and transforms difficult strongly coupled problems of one theory into weakly coupled problems of another theory.

  20. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i