WorldWideScience

Sample records for employing information theoretic

  1. Information theoretic preattentive saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Employing an information theoretic operational definition of bottom-up attention from the field of computational visual perception a very general expression for saliency is provided. As opposed to many of the current approaches to determining a saliency map there is no need for an explicit data...... of which features, image information is described. We illustrate our result by determining a few specific saliency maps based on particular choices of features. One of them makes the link with the mapping underlying well-known Harris interest points, which is a result recently obtained in isolation...

  2. Information Literacy and Employability

    OpenAIRE

    O'Keeffe, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Information Literacy (IL) and its relationship to third level graduates’ employability has gained more attention in recent years. This article examines how IL has evolved from skills initially associated with academic libraries into a key workplace skill set of the knowledge economy. It outlines the challenges interviewees encounter when selling IL to employers, how IL can be utilised when preparing for upcoming interviews and suggests a distinction between workplace IL and employability IL. ...

  3. Theoretical information reuse and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Information Reuse and Integration addresses the efficient extension and creation of knowledge through the exploitation of Kolmogorov complexity in the extraction and application of domain symmetry. Knowledge, which seems to be novel, can more often than not be recast as the image of a sequence of transformations, which yield symmetric knowledge. When the size of those transformations and/or the length of that sequence of transforms exceeds the size of the image, then that image is said to be novel or random. It may also be that the new knowledge is random in that no such sequence of transforms, which produces it exists, or is at least known. The nine chapters comprising this volume incorporate symmetry, reuse, and integration as overt operational procedures or as operations built into the formal representations of data and operators employed. Either way, the aforementioned theoretical underpinnings of information reuse and integration are supported.

  4. Information theoretic description of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Hollunder, Jens

    2007-11-01

    We present a new information theoretic approach for network characterizations. It is developed to describe the general type of networks with n nodes and L directed and weighted links, i.e., it also works for the simpler undirected and unweighted networks. The new information theoretic measures for network characterizations are based on a transmitter-receiver analogy of effluxes and influxes. Based on these measures, we classify networks as either complex or non-complex and as either democracy or dictatorship networks. Directed networks, in particular, are furthermore classified as either information spreading and information collecting networks. The complexity classification is based on the information theoretic network complexity measure medium articulation (MA). It is proven that special networks with a medium number of links ( L∼n1.5) show the theoretical maximum complexity MA=(log n)2/2. A network is complex if its MA is larger than the average MA of appropriately randomized networks: MA>MAr. A network is of the democracy type if its redundancy Rdictatorship network. In democracy networks all nodes are, on average, of similar importance, whereas in dictatorship networks some nodes play distinguished roles in network functioning. In other words, democracy networks are characterized by cycling of information (or mass, or energy), while in dictatorship networks there is a straight through-flow from sources to sinks. The classification of directed networks into information spreading and information collecting networks is based on the conditional entropies of the considered networks ( H(A/B)=uncertainty of sender node if receiver node is known, H(B/A)=uncertainty of receiver node if sender node is known): if H(A/B)>H(B/A), it is an information collecting network, otherwise an information spreading network. Finally, different real networks (directed and undirected, weighted and unweighted) are classified according to our general scheme.

  5. Hash functions and information theoretic security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Nasoor; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Naderi, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Information theoretic security is an important security notion in cryptography as it provides a true lower bound for attack complexities. However, in practice attacks often have a higher cost than the information theoretic bound. In this paper we study the relationship between information theoretic...

  6. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Spink

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Science is beginning to develop a theoretical framework for the modeling of users’ interactions with information retrieval (IR technologies within the more holistic context of human information behavior (Spink, 1998b. This paper addresses the following questions: (1 What is the nature of Information Science? and (2 What theoretical framework and model is most appropriate for Information Science? This paper proposes a theoretical framework for Information Science based on an explication of the processes of human information coordinating behavior and information feedback that facilitate the relationship between human information behavior and human interaction with information retrieval (IR technologies (Web, digital libraries, etc..

  7. Employing the Mathcad program within the course of Theoretical Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurilin Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author shares his experience in using the «Mathcad» software for conducting classes on «Theoretical Mechanics» in the University course. The program «Mathcad» combines a simple user interface and powerful mathematical tools which can be employed for different mechanical problems. It gives invaluable help in evaluating analytically and numerically many difficult integrals, in solving differential equations, in picturing graphics and can also simulate different mechanical phenomena with the computer. This allows significantly to expand the range of topics that can be considered in the standard University course of «Theoretical Mechanics» and gives students an opportunity to concentrate on practical problems, avoiding unnecessary routine of mathematical calculations. As an example the author considers one famous problem of the Lagrange analytical mechanics associated with the body motion in the field of gravity in the presence of stationary holonomic constraints.

  8. Robust recognition via information theoretic learning

    CERN Document Server

    He, Ran; Yuan, Xiaotong; Wang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief represents a comprehensive review of information theoretic methods for robust recognition. A variety of information theoretic methods have been proffered in the past decade, in a large variety of computer vision applications; this work brings them together, attempts to impart the theory, optimization and usage of information entropy.The?authors?resort to a new information theoretic concept, correntropy, as a robust measure and apply it to solve robust face recognition and object recognition problems. For computational efficiency,?the brief?introduces the additive and multip

  9. System identification with information theoretic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Stoorvogel; J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAttention is focused in this paper on the approximation problem of system identification with information theoretic criteria. For a class of problems it is shown that the criterion of mutual information rate is identical to the criterion of exponential-of-quadratic cost and to

  10. Information theoretic quantification of diagnostic uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, M Brandon; Eiseman, Nathaniel A; Cash, Sydney S; Bianchi, Matt T

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic test interpretation remains a challenge in clinical practice. Most physicians receive training in the use of Bayes' rule, which specifies how the sensitivity and specificity of a test for a given disease combine with the pre-test probability to quantify the change in disease probability incurred by a new test result. However, multiple studies demonstrate physicians' deficiencies in probabilistic reasoning, especially with unexpected test results. Information theory, a branch of probability theory dealing explicitly with the quantification of uncertainty, has been proposed as an alternative framework for diagnostic test interpretation, but is even less familiar to physicians. We have previously addressed one key challenge in the practical application of Bayes theorem: the handling of uncertainty in the critical first step of estimating the pre-test probability of disease. This essay aims to present the essential concepts of information theory to physicians in an accessible manner, and to extend previous work regarding uncertainty in pre-test probability estimation by placing this type of uncertainty within a principled information theoretic framework. We address several obstacles hindering physicians' application of information theoretic concepts to diagnostic test interpretation. These include issues of terminology (mathematical meanings of certain information theoretic terms differ from clinical or common parlance) as well as the underlying mathematical assumptions. Finally, we illustrate how, in information theoretic terms, one can understand the effect on diagnostic uncertainty of considering ranges instead of simple point estimates of pre-test probability.

  11. Inform: Efficient Information-Theoretic Analysis of Collective Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Moore

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of collective behavior has traditionally relied on a variety of different methodological tools ranging from more theoretical methods such as population or game-theoretic models to empirical ones like Monte Carlo or multi-agent simulations. An approach that is increasingly being explored is the use of information theory as a methodological framework to study the flow of information and the statistical properties of collectives of interacting agents. While a few general purpose toolkits exist, most of the existing software for information theoretic analysis of collective systems is limited in scope. We introduce Inform, an open-source framework for efficient information theoretic analysis that exploits the computational power of a C library while simplifying its use through a variety of wrappers for common higher-level scripting languages. We focus on two such wrappers here: PyInform (Python and rinform (R. Inform and its wrappers are cross-platform and general-purpose. They include classical information-theoretic measures, measures of information dynamics and information-based methods to study the statistical behavior of collective systems, and expose a lower-level API that allow users to construct measures of their own. We describe the architecture of the Inform framework, study its computational efficiency and use it to analyze three different case studies of collective behavior: biochemical information storage in regenerating planaria, nest-site selection in the ant Temnothorax rugatulus, and collective decision making in multi-agent simulations.

  12. Information Theoretic-Learning Auto-Encoder

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Eder; Emigh, Matthew; Principe, Jose C

    2016-01-01

    We propose Information Theoretic-Learning (ITL) divergence measures for variational regularization of neural networks. We also explore ITL-regularized autoencoders as an alternative to variational autoencoding bayes, adversarial autoencoders and generative adversarial networks for randomly generating sample data without explicitly defining a partition function. This paper also formalizes, generative moment matching networks under the ITL framework.

  13. Employer's information and promotion-seeking activities

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model in which promotion of employees within the internal firm hierarchy is determined by the individuals' allocation of time between promotion/rent-seeking and productive activity. We consider the effect of an increase in the employer's knowledge (information) regarding the employees' productivity levels on the total time spent by the workers in non-productive promotion-seeking activities.

  14. Does Formal Employment Reduce Informal Caregiving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daifeng; McHenry, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine the impact of formal employment on informal caregiving. We instrument for individual work hours with state unemployment rates. We find that, among women of prime caregiving ages (40-64 years), working 10% more hours per week reduces the probability of providing informal care by about 2 percentage points. The effects are stronger for more time-intensive caregiving and if care recipients are household members. Our results imply that work-promoting policies have the unintended consequence of reducing informal caregiving in an aging society. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Information-theoretic metamodel of organizational evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Alfredo

    2011-12-01

    Social organizations are abstractly modeled by holarchies---self-similar connected networks---and intelligent complex adaptive multiagent systems---large networks of autonomous reasoning agents interacting via scaled processes. However, little is known of how information shapes evolution in such organizations, a gap that can lead to misleading analytics. The research problem addressed in this study was the ineffective manner in which classical model-predict-control methods used in business analytics attempt to define organization evolution. The purpose of the study was to construct an effective metamodel for organization evolution based on a proposed complex adaptive structure---the info-holarchy. Theoretical foundations of this study were holarchies, complex adaptive systems, evolutionary theory, and quantum mechanics, among other recently developed physical and information theories. Research questions addressed how information evolution patterns gleamed from the study's inductive metamodel more aptly explained volatility in organization. In this study, a hybrid grounded theory based on abstract inductive extensions of information theories was utilized as the research methodology. An overarching heuristic metamodel was framed from the theoretical analysis of the properties of these extension theories and applied to business, neural, and computational entities. This metamodel resulted in the synthesis of a metaphor for, and generalization of organization evolution, serving as the recommended and appropriate analytical tool to view business dynamics for future applications. This study may manifest positive social change through a fundamental understanding of complexity in business from general information theories, resulting in more effective management.

  16. Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A; Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P, E-mail: agmartinez@ugr.e, E-mail: pablos@ugr.e, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.e [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-30

    The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P{sup ({alpha}, {beta})}{sub n}(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters ({alpha}, {beta}). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.

  17. Information-Theoretic Inference of Common Ancestors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Steudel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A directed acyclic graph (DAG partially represents the conditional independence structure among observations of a system if the local Markov condition holds, that is if every variable is independent of its non-descendants given its parents. In general, there is a whole class of DAGs that represents a given set of conditional independence relations. We are interested in properties of this class that can be derived from observations of a subsystem only. To this end, we prove an information-theoretic inequality that allows for the inference of common ancestors of observed parts in any DAG representing some unknown larger system. More explicitly, we show that a large amount of dependence in terms of mutual information among the observations implies the existence of a common ancestor that distributes this information. Within the causal interpretation of DAGs, our result can be seen as a quantitative extension of Reichenbach’s principle of common cause to more than two variables. Our conclusions are valid also for non-probabilistic observations, such as binary strings, since we state the proof for an axiomatized notion of “mutual information” that includes the stochastic as well as the algorithmic version.

  18. Information-Theoretic Perspectives on Geophysical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Grey

    2016-04-01

    practice of science (except by Gong et al., 2013, whose fundamental insight is the basis for this talk), and here I offer two examples of practical methods that scientists might use to approximately measure ontological information. I place this practical discussion in the context of several recent and high-profile experiments that have found that simple out-of-sample statistical models typically (vastly) outperform our most sophisticated terrestrial hydrology models. I offer some perspective on several open questions about how to use these findings to improve our models and understanding of these systems. Cartwright, N. (1983) How the Laws of Physics Lie. New York, NY: Cambridge Univ Press. Clark, M. P., Kavetski, D. and Fenicia, F. (2011) 'Pursuing the method of multiple working hypotheses for hydrological modeling', Water Resources Research, 47(9). Cover, T. M. and Thomas, J. A. (1991) Elements of Information Theory. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience. Cox, R. T. (1946) 'Probability, frequency and reasonable expectation', American Journal of Physics, 14, pp. 1-13. Csiszár, I. (1972) 'A Class of Measures of Informativity of Observation Channels', Periodica Mathematica Hungarica, 2(1), pp. 191-213. Davies, P. C. W. (1990) 'Why is the physical world so comprehensible', Complexity, entropy and the physics of information, pp. 61-70. Gong, W., Gupta, H. V., Yang, D., Sricharan, K. and Hero, A. O. (2013) 'Estimating Epistemic & Aleatory Uncertainties During Hydrologic Modeling: An Information Theoretic Approach', Water Resources Research, 49(4), pp. 2253-2273. Jaynes, E. T. (2003) Probability Theory: The Logic of Science. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Nearing, G. S. and Gupta, H. V. (2015) 'The quantity and quality of information in hydrologic models', Water Resources Research, 51(1), pp. 524-538. Popper, K. R. (2002) The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Routledge. Van Horn, K. S. (2003) 'Constructing a logic of plausible inference: a guide to cox's theorem

  19. Inclusive Information Societies: Creating Growth and Employment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment for youth and women. The project has two components. The first focuses on outsourcing service sector work (micro-work and rural impact sourcing) in India, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines. This sector can play a vital role in creating employment, particularly for youth and women in semi-urban and rural areas.

  20. Inclusive Information Societies: Creating Growth and Employment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    How can information and technology increase economic opportunities in the ... and technology connects service sector employees and farmers to supply chains. ... information on fertilizer, seeds, or prices to increase productivity and income.

  1. Systems information management: graph theoretical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temel, T.

    2006-01-01

    This study proposes a new method for characterising the underlying information structure of a multi-sector system. A complete characterisation is accomplished by identifying information gaps and cause-effect information pathways in the system, and formulating critical testable hypotheses.

  2. A group theoretic approach to quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is the first one addressing quantum information from the viewpoint of group symmetry. Quantum systems have a group symmetrical structure. This structure enables to handle systematically quantum information processing. However, there is no other textbook focusing on group symmetry for quantum information although there exist many textbooks for group representation. After the mathematical preparation of quantum information, this book discusses quantum entanglement and its quantification by using group symmetry. Group symmetry drastically simplifies the calculation of several entanglement measures although their calculations are usually very difficult to handle. This book treats optimal information processes including quantum state estimation, quantum state cloning, estimation of group action and quantum channel etc. Usually it is very difficult to derive the optimal quantum information processes without asymptotic setting of these topics. However, group symmetry allows to derive these optimal solu...

  3. An Information Theoretic Characterisation of Auditory Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overath, Tobias; Cusack, Rhodri; Kumar, Sukhbinder; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Warren, Jason D; Grube, Manon; Carlyon, Robert P; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2007-01-01

    The entropy metric derived from information theory provides a means to quantify the amount of information transmitted in acoustic streams like speech or music. By systematically varying the entropy of pitch sequences, we sought brain areas where neural activity and energetic demands increase as a function of entropy. Such a relationship is predicted to occur in an efficient encoding mechanism that uses less computational resource when less information is present in the signal: we specifically tested the hypothesis that such a relationship is present in the planum temporale (PT). In two convergent functional MRI studies, we demonstrated this relationship in PT for encoding, while furthermore showing that a distributed fronto-parietal network for retrieval of acoustic information is independent of entropy. The results establish PT as an efficient neural engine that demands less computational resource to encode redundant signals than those with high information content. PMID:17958472

  4. Wireless Information-Theoretic Security in an Outdoor Topology with Obstacles: Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagiuklas Tasos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Wireless Information-Theoretic Security (WITS scheme, which has been recently introduced as a robust physical layer-based security solution, especially for infrastructureless networks. An autonomic network of moving users was implemented via 802.11n nodes of an ad hoc network for an outdoor topology with obstacles. Obstructed-Line-of-Sight (OLOS and Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS propagation scenarios were examined. Low-speed user movement was considered, so that Doppler spread could be discarded. A transmitter and a legitimate receiver exchanged information in the presence of a moving eavesdropper. Average Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR values were acquired for both the main and the wiretap channel, and the Probability of Nonzero Secrecy Capacity was calculated based on theoretical formula. Experimental results validate theoretical findings stressing the importance of user location and mobility schemes on the robustness of Wireless Information-Theoretic Security and call for further theoretical analysis.

  5. Vector-Quantization using Information Theoretic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Hegde, Anant; Erdogmus, Deniz

    2005-01-01

    interpretation and relies on minimization of a well defined cost-function. It is also shown how the potential field approach can be linked to information theory by use of the Parzen density estimator. In the light of information theory it becomes clear that minimizing the free energy of the system is in fact......The process of representing a large data set with a smaller number of vectors in the best possible way, also known as vector quantization, has been intensively studied in the recent years. Very efficient algorithms like the Kohonen Self Organizing Map (SOM) and the Linde Buzo Gray (LBG) algorithm...... have been devised. In this paper a physical approach to the problem is taken, and it is shown that by considering the processing elements as points moving in a potential field an algorithm equally efficient as the before mentioned can be derived. Unlike SOM and LBG this algorithm has a clear physical...

  6. Information theoretic learning Renyi's entropy and Kernel perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, Jose C

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the first cohesive treatment of Information Theoretic Learning (ITL) algorithms to adapt linear or nonlinear learning machines both in supervised or unsupervised paradigms. ITL is a framework where the conventional concepts of second order statistics (covariance, L2 distances, correlation functions) are substituted by scalars and functions with information theoretic underpinnings, respectively entropy, mutual information and correntropy. ITL quantifies the stochastic structure of the data beyond second order statistics for improved performance without using full-blown Bayesi

  7. Information-theoretic approach to uncertainty importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.K.; Bari, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for importance analysis in probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) for which the results of interest are characterized by full uncertainty distributions and not just point estimates. The method is based on information theory in which entropy is a measure of uncertainty of a probability density function. We define the relative uncertainty importance between two events as the ratio of the two exponents of the entropies. For the log-normal and log-uniform distributions the importance measure is comprised of the median (central tendency) and of the logarithm of the error factor (uncertainty). Thus, if accident sequences are ranked this way, and the error factors are not all equal, then a different rank order would result than if the sequences were ranked by the central tendency measure alone. As an illustration, the relative importance of internal events and in-plant fires was computed on the basis of existing PRA results

  8. Employer Perceptions of Critical Information Literacy Skills and Digital Badges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raish, Victoria; Rimland, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Digital badges are an educational innovation used to measure learning of specific skills, such as information literacy. However, few studies have quantitatively surveyed employers for their perceptions about information literacy skills or digital badges. An online survey was developed and sent to employers to gauge perceptions of information…

  9. Information theoretic resources in quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meznaric, Sebastian

    Resource identification and quantification is an essential element of both classical and quantum information theory. Entanglement is one of these resources, arising when quantum communication and nonlocal operations are expensive to perform. In the first part of this thesis we quantify the effective entanglement when operations are additionally restricted to account for both fundamental restrictions on operations, such as those arising from superselection rules, as well as experimental errors arising from the imperfections in the apparatus. For an important class of errors we find a linear relationship between the usual and effective higher dimensional generalization of concurrence, a measure of entanglement. Following the treatment of effective entanglement, we focus on a related concept of nonlocality in the presence of superselection rules (SSR). Here we propose a scheme that may be used to activate nongenuinely multipartite nonlocality, in that a single copy of a state is not multipartite nonlocal, while two or more copies exhibit nongenuinely multipartite nonlocality. The states used exhibit the more powerful genuinely multipartite nonlocality when SSR are not enforced, but not when they are, raising the question of what is needed for genuinely multipartite nonlocality. We show that whenever the number of particles is insufficient, the degrading of genuinely multipartite to nongenuinely multipartite nonlocality is necessary. While in the first few chapters we focus our attention on understanding the resources present in quantum states, in the final part we turn the picture around and instead treat operations themselves as a resource. We provide our observers with free access to classical operations - ie. those that cannot detect or generate quantum coherence. We show that the operation of interest can then be used to either generate or detect quantum coherence if and only if it violates a particular commutation relation. Using the relative entropy, the

  10. From 'precarious informal employment' to 'protected employment': The 'positive transitioning effect' of trade unions

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Melisa R.; Xhafa, Edlira

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the discussions on the challenge of transitioning from precarious informal employment to more protected employment. This paper looks into a rather under-researched area - the role of trade unions in facilitating this process of 'transitioning' as well as in containing the spread of this type of employment. We refer to this process, along with its outcomes, as the 'positive transitioning effect' of trade unions. Through 10 case studies from nine countries (Br...

  11. One-dimensional barcode reading: an information theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houni, Karim; Sawaya, Wadih; Delignon, Yves

    2008-03-01

    In the convergence context of identification technology and information-data transmission, the barcode found its place as the simplest and the most pervasive solution for new uses, especially within mobile commerce, bringing youth to this long-lived technology. From a communication theory point of view, a barcode is a singular coding based on a graphical representation of the information to be transmitted. We present an information theoretic approach for 1D image-based barcode reading analysis. With a barcode facing the camera, distortions and acquisition are modeled as a communication channel. The performance of the system is evaluated by means of the average mutual information quantity. On the basis of this theoretical criterion for a reliable transmission, we introduce two new measures: the theoretical depth of field and the theoretical resolution. Simulations illustrate the gain of this approach.

  12. Information Theoretic Tools for Parameter Fitting in Coarse Grained Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kalligiannaki, Evangelia; Harmandaris, Vagelis; Katsoulakis, Markos A.; Plechac, Petr

    2015-01-01

    We study the application of information theoretic tools for model reduction in the case of systems driven by stochastic dynamics out of equilibrium. The model/dimension reduction is considered by proposing parametrized coarse grained dynamics

  13. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF INFORMATIONAL SERVICES REGIONAL MARKET EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Korabejnikov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities and priorities of the informational services regional market formation as a part of network model of the economic development are described in this article. The authors present the classification of the factors which have an influence on the effectiveness of the informational services regional market development. Theoretical aspects of the informational services regional market effective development are shown.

  14. Informality and employment vulnerability: application in sellers with subsistence work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Duque, María Osley; Cardona-Arango, María Doris; Rodríguez-Ospina, Fabio León; Segura-Cardona, Angela María

    2017-10-05

    To describe the origin, evolution, and application of the concept of employment vulnerability in workers who subsist on street sales. We have carried out an analysis of the literature in database in Spanish, Portuguese, and English, without restriction by country. This is a review of the gray literature of government reports, articles, and documents from Latin America and the Caribbean. We have analyzed information on the informal economy, social-employment vulnerability, and subsistence workers. The concept of informal economy is dispersed and suggested as synonymous with employment vulnerability. As a polysemic term, it generates confusion and difficulty in identifying defined profiles of employment vulnerability in informal subsistence workers, who sell their products on the streets and sidewalks of cities. The lack of a clear concept and profile of employment vulnerability for this type of workers generates a restriction on defined actions to reduce employment vulnerability. The profiles could facilitate access to the acquisition of assets that support their structure of opportunities, facilitating and mediating in the passage from vulnerability to social mobility with opportunities. We propose as a concept of employment vulnerability for subsistence workers in the informal sector, the condition of those who must work by day to eat at night, who have little or no ownership of assets, and who have a minimum structure of opportunities to prevent, face, and resist the critical situations that occur daily, putting at risk their subsistence and that of the persons who are their responsibility, thus making the connection between social and employment vulnerability.

  15. Health information technology knowledge and skills needed by HIT employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, S H; Gongora-Ferraez, M J; Joost, E

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the health information technology (HIT) workforce knowledge and skills needed by HIT employers. Statewide face-to-face and online focus groups of identified HIT employer groups in Austin, Brownsville, College Station, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, Lubbock, San Antonio, and webinars for rural health and nursing informatics. HIT employers reported needing an HIT workforce with diverse knowledge and skills ranging from basic to advanced, while covering information technology, privacy and security, clinical practice, needs assessment, contract negotiation, and many other areas. Consistent themes were that employees needed to be able to learn on the job and must possess the ability to think critically and problem solve. Many employers wanted persons with technical skills, yet also the knowledge and understanding of healthcare operations. The HIT employer focus groups provided valuable insight into employee skills needed in this fast-growing field. Additionally, this information will be utilized to develop a statewide HIT workforce needs assessment survey.

  16. Identifying Employer Needs from Accounting Information Systems Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Thomas W.; Kruck, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    As the need for new hires with accounting and information technology knowledge increases, a new major in accounting information systems (AIS) has emerged. This new AIS degree is a hybrid of accounting concepts and common business subjects combined with key information technology issues. Employers were presented with 56 core content areas found in…

  17. Consultancy As Employment Options for Library And Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If pursued independently it can actually function as an 'employer of labour and developed further to provide services both within and outside the immediate library environment. This paper examines the nature and prospects of consultancy as a suitable employment option for graduates of library and information science.

  18. Mainstreaming Informal Employment and Gender in Poverty Reduction

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Mainstreaming Informal Employment and Gender in Poverty Reduction: ... of the global population that survives on less than $1 a day by the year 2015. ... Joann Vanek is a sociologies who specializes in social and gender statistics ...

  19. Informal Employment, Poverty and Growth in India and China | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Informal Employment, Poverty and Growth in India and China. The vast majority of workers in India, and an increasing share of the labour force in China, work ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  20. Determinants of Informal Employment: A Case of Tanzania's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    industry. A Logit regression model is employed in estimating factors that influence the choice ... International Labour Organization (ILO) (2013), the informal economy ... This study uses primary data which was collected in six most vibrant urban.

  1. Information Ergonomics A theoretical approach and practical experience in transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Sandl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The variety and increasing availability of hypermedia information systems, which are used in stationary applications like operators’ consoles as well as mobile systems, e.g. driver information and navigation systems in automobiles form a foundation for the mediatization of the society. From the human engineering point of view this development and the ensuing increased importance of information systems for economic and private needs require careful deliberation of the derivation and application of ergonomics methods particularly in the field of information systems. This book consists of two closely intertwined parts. The first, theoretical part defines the concept of an information system, followed by an explanation of action regulation as well as cognitive theories to describe man information system interaction. A comprehensive description of information ergonomics concludes the theoretical approach. In the second, practically oriented part of this book authors from industry as well as from academic institu...

  2. The Theoretical Principles of the Organization of Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, Juliusz Lech

    A survey of the theoretical problems connected with the organization and design of systems for processing and transmitting information is presented in this article. It gives a definition of Information Systems (IS) and classifies them from various points of view. It discusses briefly the most important aspects of the organization of IS, such as…

  3. 78 FR 34175 - Proposed Information Collection (Request for Employment Information in Connection With Claim for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Request for Employment Information in... (Request for Employment Information in Connection With Claim for Disability Benefits) Activity: Comment...: Extension of a currently approved collection. Abstract: VA Form 21-4192 is used to request employment...

  4. Model selection and inference a practical information-theoretic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Burnham, Kenneth P

    1998-01-01

    This book is unique in that it covers the philosophy of model-based data analysis and an omnibus strategy for the analysis of empirical data The book introduces information theoretic approaches and focuses critical attention on a priori modeling and the selection of a good approximating model that best represents the inference supported by the data Kullback-Leibler information represents a fundamental quantity in science and is Hirotugu Akaike's basis for model selection The maximized log-likelihood function can be bias-corrected to provide an estimate of expected, relative Kullback-Leibler information This leads to Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and various extensions and these are relatively simple and easy to use in practice, but little taught in statistics classes and far less understood in the applied sciences than should be the case The information theoretic approaches provide a unified and rigorous theory, an extension of likelihood theory, an important application of information theory, and are ...

  5. Theoretical development of information science: A brief history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    the strongest “paradigms” in the field is a tradition derived from the Cranfield experiments in the 1960s and the bibliometric research following the publication of Science Citation Index from 1963 and forward. Among the competing theoretical frameworks, ‘the cognitive view’ became influential from the 1970s......This paper presents a brief history of information science (IS) as viewed by the author. The term ‘information science’ goes back to 1955 and evolved in the aftermath of Claude Shannon’s ‘information theory’ (1948), which also inspired research into problems in fields of library science...... and documentation. These subjects were a main focus of what became established as ‘information science’, which from 1964 onwards was often termed ‘library and information science’ (LIS). However, the usefulness of Shannon’s information theory as the theoretical foundation of the field was been challenged. Among...

  6. Informality and employment vulnerability: application in sellers with subsistence work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Duque, María Osley; Cardona-Arango, María Doris; Rodríguez-Ospina, Fabio León; Segura-Cardona, Angela María

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the origin, evolution, and application of the concept of employment vulnerability in workers who subsist on street sales. METHODS We have carried out an analysis of the literature in database in Spanish, Portuguese, and English, without restriction by country. This is a review of the gray literature of government reports, articles, and documents from Latin America and the Caribbean. We have analyzed information on the informal economy, social-employment vulnerability, and subsistence workers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The concept of informal economy is dispersed and suggested as synonymous with employment vulnerability. As a polysemic term, it generates confusion and difficulty in identifying defined profiles of employment vulnerability in informal subsistence workers, who sell their products on the streets and sidewalks of cities. The lack of a clear concept and profile of employment vulnerability for this type of workers generates a restriction on defined actions to reduce employment vulnerability. The profiles could facilitate access to the acquisition of assets that support their structure of opportunities, facilitating and mediating in the passage from vulnerability to social mobility with opportunities. We propose as a concept of employment vulnerability for subsistence workers in the informal sector, the condition of those who must work by day to eat at night, who have little or no ownership of assets, and who have a minimum structure of opportunities to prevent, face, and resist the critical situations that occur daily, putting at risk their subsistence and that of the persons who are their responsibility, thus making the connection between social and employment vulnerability. PMID:29020122

  7. Informality and employment vulnerability: application in sellers with subsistence work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Osley Garzón-Duque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the origin, evolution, and application of the concept of employment vulnerability in workers who subsist on street sales. METHODS We have carried out an analysis of the literature in database in Spanish, Portuguese, and English, without restriction by country. This is a review of the gray literature of government reports, articles, and documents from Latin America and the Caribbean. We have analyzed information on the informal economy, social-employment vulnerability, and subsistence workers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The concept of informal economy is dispersed and suggested as synonymous with employment vulnerability. As a polysemic term, it generates confusion and difficulty in identifying defined profiles of employment vulnerability in informal subsistence workers, who sell their products on the streets and sidewalks of cities. The lack of a clear concept and profile of employment vulnerability for this type of workers generates a restriction on defined actions to reduce employment vulnerability. The profiles could facilitate access to the acquisition of assets that support their structure of opportunities, facilitating and mediating in the passage from vulnerability to social mobility with opportunities. We propose as a concept of employment vulnerability for subsistence workers in the informal sector, the condition of those who must work by day to eat at night, who have little or no ownership of assets, and who have a minimum structure of opportunities to prevent, face, and resist the critical situations that occur daily, putting at risk their subsistence and that of the persons who are their responsibility, thus making the connection between social and employment vulnerability.

  8. Information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality and quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikoshi, Fumiaki

    2006-01-01

    An information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality is formulated to contrast classical and quantum computations. Any classical algorithm satisfies the inequality, while quantum ones can violate it. Therefore, the violation of the inequality is an immediate consequence of the quantumness in the computation. Furthermore, this approach suggests a notion of temporal nonlocality in quantum computation

  9. Biometric security from an information-theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.; Willems, F.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, biometric systems are studied from an information theoretical point of view. In the first part biometric authentication systems are studied. The objective of these systems is, observing correlated enrollment and authentication biometric sequences, to generate or convey as large as

  10. Information-Theoretic Inference of Large Transcriptional Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents MRNET, an original method for inferring genetic networks from microarray data. The method is based on maximum relevance/minimum redundancy (MRMR, an effective information-theoretic technique for feature selection in supervised learning. The MRMR principle consists in selecting among the least redundant variables the ones that have the highest mutual information with the target. MRNET extends this feature selection principle to networks in order to infer gene-dependence relationships from microarray data. The paper assesses MRNET by benchmarking it against RELNET, CLR, and ARACNE, three state-of-the-art information-theoretic methods for large (up to several thousands of genes network inference. Experimental results on thirty synthetically generated microarray datasets show that MRNET is competitive with these methods.

  11. Information-Theoretic Inference of Large Transcriptional Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick E. Meyer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents MRNET, an original method for inferring genetic networks from microarray data. The method is based on maximum relevance/minimum redundancy (MRMR, an effective information-theoretic technique for feature selection in supervised learning. The MRMR principle consists in selecting among the least redundant variables the ones that have the highest mutual information with the target. MRNET extends this feature selection principle to networks in order to infer gene-dependence relationships from microarray data. The paper assesses MRNET by benchmarking it against RELNET, CLR, and ARACNE, three state-of-the-art information-theoretic methods for large (up to several thousands of genes network inference. Experimental results on thirty synthetically generated microarray datasets show that MRNET is competitive with these methods.

  12. Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jizba, Petr, E-mail: p.jizba@fjfi.cvut.cz [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); ITP, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Dunningham, Jacob A., E-mail: J.Dunningham@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Joo, Jaewoo, E-mail: j.joo@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed.

  13. Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jizba, Petr; Dunningham, Jacob A.; Joo, Jaewoo

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed

  14. Informal employment in South Africa: Still missing pieces in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    those issues that must head a refocused research agenda on the broader ... Prof P.F. Blaauw is in the School of Economics, North West University (Potchefstroom Campus). ..... thoroughly the informal employment trajectories of day labourers and street waste .... Even teachers and nurses were part of this wave of migrants.

  15. Carving the Information Literacy Niche within Graduate Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towlson, Kaye; Rush, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    A teacher fellow project at De Montfort University explored the context and practicalities of developing a Graduate Skills Licence (Information Literacy) in answer to the current higher education drive for graduate employability. Research revealed the hidden complexities behind the development of an originally simple notion. It provided scope to…

  16. Information theoretic bounds for compressed sensing in SAR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jingxiong, Zhang; Ke, Yang; Jianzhong, Guo

    2014-01-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is a new framework for sampling and reconstructing sparse signals from measurements significantly fewer than those prescribed by Nyquist rate in the Shannon sampling theorem. This new strategy, applied in various application areas including synthetic aperture radar (SAR), relies on two principles: sparsity, which is related to the signals of interest, and incoherence, which refers to the sensing modality. An important question in CS-based SAR system design concerns sampling rate necessary and sufficient for exact or approximate recovery of sparse signals. In the literature, bounds of measurements (or sampling rate) in CS have been proposed from the perspective of information theory. However, these information-theoretic bounds need to be reviewed and, if necessary, validated for CS-based SAR imaging, as there are various assumptions made in the derivations of lower and upper bounds on sub-Nyquist sampling rates, which may not hold true in CS-based SAR imaging. In this paper, information-theoretic bounds of sampling rate will be analyzed. For this, the SAR measurement system is modeled as an information channel, with channel capacity and rate-distortion characteristics evaluated to enable the determination of sampling rates required for recovery of sparse scenes. Experiments based on simulated data will be undertaken to test the theoretic bounds against empirical results about sampling rates required to achieve certain detection error probabilities

  17. Theoretical information measurement in nonrelativistic time-dependent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafizade, S. A.; Hassanabadi, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2018-02-01

    The information-theoretic measures of time-dependent Schrödinger equation are investigated via the Shannon information entropy, variance and local Fisher quantities. In our calculations, we consider the two first states n = 0,1 and obtain the position Sx (t) and momentum Sp (t) Shannon entropies as well as Fisher information Ix (t) in position and momentum Ip (t) spaces. Using the Fourier transformed wave function, we obtain the results in momentum space. Some interesting features of the information entropy densities ρs (x,t) and γs (p,t), as well as the probability densities ρ (x,t) and γ (p,t) for time-dependent states are demonstrated. We establish a general relation between variance and Fisher's information. The Bialynicki-Birula-Mycielski inequality is tested and verified for the states n = 0,1.

  18. Information theoretic analysis of canny edge detection in visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2011-06-01

    In general edge detection evaluation, the edge detectors are examined, analyzed, and compared either visually or with a metric for specific an application. This analysis is usually independent of the characteristics of the image-gathering, transmission and display processes that do impact the quality of the acquired image and thus, the resulting edge image. We propose a new information theoretic analysis of edge detection that unites the different components of the visual communication channel and assesses edge detection algorithms in an integrated manner based on Shannon's information theory. The edge detection algorithm here is considered to achieve high performance only if the information rate from the scene to the edge approaches the maximum possible. Thus, by setting initial conditions of the visual communication system as constant, different edge detection algorithms could be evaluated. This analysis is normally limited to linear shift-invariant filters so in order to examine the Canny edge operator in our proposed system, we need to estimate its "power spectral density" (PSD). Since the Canny operator is non-linear and shift variant, we perform the estimation for a set of different system environment conditions using simulations. In our paper we will first introduce the PSD of the Canny operator for a range of system parameters. Then, using the estimated PSD, we will assess the Canny operator using information theoretic analysis. The information-theoretic metric is also used to compare the performance of the Canny operator with other edge-detection operators. This also provides a simple tool for selecting appropriate edgedetection algorithms based on system parameters, and for adjusting their parameters to maximize information throughput.

  19. Information-theoretic signatures of biodiversity in the barcoding gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Valmir C

    2018-08-14

    Analyzing the information content of DNA, though holding the promise to help quantify how the processes of evolution have led to information gain throughout the ages, has remained an elusive goal. Paradoxically, one of the main reasons for this has been precisely the great diversity of life on the planet: if on the one hand this diversity is a rich source of data for information-content analysis, on the other hand there is so much variation as to make the task unmanageable. During the past decade or so, however, succinct fragments of the COI mitochondrial gene, which is present in all animal phyla and in a few others, have been shown to be useful for species identification through DNA barcoding. A few million such fragments are now publicly available through the BOLD systems initiative, thus providing an unprecedented opportunity for relatively comprehensive information-theoretic analyses of DNA to be attempted. Here we show how a generalized form of total correlation can yield distinctive information-theoretic descriptors of the phyla represented in those fragments. In order to illustrate the potential of this analysis to provide new insight into the evolution of species, we performed principal component analysis on standardized versions of the said descriptors for 23 phyla. Surprisingly, we found that, though based solely on the species represented in the data, the first principal component correlates strongly with the natural logarithm of the number of all known living species for those phyla. The new descriptors thus constitute clear information-theoretic signatures of the processes whereby evolution has given rise to current biodiversity, which suggests their potential usefulness in further related studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Information-theoretic decomposition of embodied and situated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rold, Federico

    2018-07-01

    The embodied and situated view of cognition stresses the importance of real-time and nonlinear bodily interaction with the environment for developing concepts and structuring knowledge. In this article, populations of robots controlled by an artificial neural network learn a wall-following task through artificial evolution. At the end of the evolutionary process, time series are recorded from perceptual and motor neurons of selected robots. Information-theoretic measures are estimated on pairings of variables to unveil nonlinear interactions that structure the agent-environment system. Specifically, the mutual information is utilized to quantify the degree of dependence and the transfer entropy to detect the direction of the information flow. Furthermore, the system is analyzed with the local form of such measures, thus capturing the underlying dynamics of information. Results show that different measures are interdependent and complementary in uncovering aspects of the robots' interaction with the environment, as well as characteristics of the functional neural structure. Therefore, the set of information-theoretic measures provides a decomposition of the system, capturing the intricacy of nonlinear relationships that characterize robots' behavior and neural dynamics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Information-Theoretic Bounded Rationality and ε-Optimality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Braun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bounded rationality concerns the study of decision makers with limited information processing resources. Previously, the free energy difference functional has been suggested to model bounded rational decision making, as it provides a natural trade-off between an energy or utility function that is to be optimized and information processing costs that are measured by entropic search costs. The main question of this article is how the information-theoretic free energy model relates to simple ε-optimality models of bounded rational decision making, where the decision maker is satisfied with any action in an ε-neighborhood of the optimal utility. We find that the stochastic policies that optimize the free energy trade-off comply with the notion of ε-optimality. Moreover, this optimality criterion even holds when the environment is adversarial. We conclude that the study of bounded rationality based on ε-optimality criteria that abstract away from the particulars of the information processing constraints is compatible with the information-theoretic free energy model of bounded rationality.

  2. A comparison of SAR ATR performance with information theoretic predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacknell, David

    2003-09-01

    Performance assessment of automatic target detection and recognition algorithms for SAR systems (or indeed any other sensors) is essential if the military utility of the system / algorithm mix is to be quantified. This is a relatively straightforward task if extensive trials data from an existing system is used. However, a crucial requirement is to assess the potential performance of novel systems as a guide to procurement decisions. This task is no longer straightforward since a hypothetical system cannot provide experimental trials data. QinetiQ has previously developed a theoretical technique for classification algorithm performance assessment based on information theory. The purpose of the study presented here has been to validate this approach. To this end, experimental SAR imagery of targets has been collected using the QinetiQ Enhanced Surveillance Radar to allow algorithm performance assessments as a number of parameters are varied. In particular, performance comparisons can be made for (i) resolutions up to 0.1m, (ii) single channel versus polarimetric (iii) targets in the open versus targets in scrubland and (iv) use versus non-use of camouflage. The change in performance as these parameters are varied has been quantified from the experimental imagery whilst the information theoretic approach has been used to predict the expected variation of performance with parameter value. A comparison of these measured and predicted assessments has revealed the strengths and weaknesses of the theoretical technique as will be discussed in the paper.

  3. Information theoretic analysis of edge detection in visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2010-08-01

    Generally, the designs of digital image processing algorithms and image gathering devices remain separate. Consequently, the performance of digital image processing algorithms is evaluated without taking into account the artifacts introduced into the process by the image gathering process. However, experiments show that the image gathering process profoundly impacts the performance of digital image processing and the quality of the resulting images. Huck et al. proposed one definitive theoretic analysis of visual communication channels, where the different parts, such as image gathering, processing, and display, are assessed in an integrated manner using Shannon's information theory. In this paper, we perform an end-to-end information theory based system analysis to assess edge detection methods. We evaluate the performance of the different algorithms as a function of the characteristics of the scene, and the parameters, such as sampling, additive noise etc., that define the image gathering system. The edge detection algorithm is regarded to have high performance only if the information rate from the scene to the edge approaches the maximum possible. This goal can be achieved only by jointly optimizing all processes. People generally use subjective judgment to compare different edge detection methods. There is not a common tool that can be used to evaluate the performance of the different algorithms, and to give people a guide for selecting the best algorithm for a given system or scene. Our information-theoretic assessment becomes this new tool to which allows us to compare the different edge detection operators in a common environment.

  4. Information-Theoretical Analysis of EEG Microstate Sequences in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic von Wegner

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an open-source Python package to compute information-theoretical quantities for electroencephalographic data. Electroencephalography (EEG measures the electrical potential generated by the cerebral cortex and the set of spatial patterns projected by the brain's electrical potential on the scalp surface can be clustered into a set of representative maps called EEG microstates. Microstate time series are obtained by competitively fitting the microstate maps back into the EEG data set, i.e., by substituting the EEG data at a given time with the label of the microstate that has the highest similarity with the actual EEG topography. As microstate sequences consist of non-metric random variables, e.g., the letters A–D, we recently introduced information-theoretical measures to quantify these time series. In wakeful resting state EEG recordings, we found new characteristics of microstate sequences such as periodicities related to EEG frequency bands. The algorithms used are here provided as an open-source package and their use is explained in a tutorial style. The package is self-contained and the programming style is procedural, focusing on code intelligibility and easy portability. Using a sample EEG file, we demonstrate how to perform EEG microstate segmentation using the modified K-means approach, and how to compute and visualize the recently introduced information-theoretical tests and quantities. The time-lagged mutual information function is derived as a discrete symbolic alternative to the autocorrelation function for metric time series and confidence intervals are computed from Markov chain surrogate data. The software package provides an open-source extension to the existing implementations of the microstate transform and is specifically designed to analyze resting state EEG recordings.

  5. Information Theoretic Tools for Parameter Fitting in Coarse Grained Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kalligiannaki, Evangelia

    2015-01-07

    We study the application of information theoretic tools for model reduction in the case of systems driven by stochastic dynamics out of equilibrium. The model/dimension reduction is considered by proposing parametrized coarse grained dynamics and finding the optimal parameter set for which the relative entropy rate with respect to the atomistic dynamics is minimized. The minimization problem leads to a generalization of the force matching methods to non equilibrium systems. A multiplicative noise example reveals the importance of the diffusion coefficient in the optimization problem.

  6. Unemployment, informal work, precarious employment, child labor, slavery, and health inequalities: pathways and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Vanroelen, Christophe; Martínez, José Miguel; Vergara, Montserrat; Santana, Vilma; Castedo, Antía; Kim, Il-Ho; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The study explores the pathways and mechanisms of the relation between employment conditions and health inequalities. A significant amount of published research has proved that workers in several risky types of labor--precarious employment, unemployment, informal labor, child and bonded labor--are exposed to behavioral, psychosocial, and physio-pathological pathways leading to physical and mental health problems. Other pathways, linking employment to health inequalities, are closely connected to hazardous working conditions (material and social deprivation, lack of social protection, and job insecurity), excessive demands, and unattainable work effort, with little power and few rewards (in salaries, fringe benefits, or job stability). Differences across countries in the social contexts and types of jobs result in varying pathways, but the general conceptual model suggests that formal and informal power relations between employees and employers can determine health conditions. In addition, welfare state regimes (unionization and employment protection) can increase or decrease the risk of mortality, morbidity, and occupational injury. In a multilevel context, however, these micro- and macro-level pathways have yet to be fully studied, especially in middle- and low-income countries. The authors recommend some future areas of study on the pathways leading to employment-related health inequalities, using worldwide standard definitions of the different forms of labor, authentic data, and a theoretical framework.

  7. Optimal information transfer in enzymatic networks: A field theoretic formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Himadri S.; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.

    2017-07-01

    Signaling in enzymatic networks is typically triggered by environmental fluctuations, resulting in a series of stochastic chemical reactions, leading to corruption of the signal by noise. For example, information flow is initiated by binding of extracellular ligands to receptors, which is transmitted through a cascade involving kinase-phosphatase stochastic chemical reactions. For a class of such networks, we develop a general field-theoretic approach to calculate the error in signal transmission as a function of an appropriate control variable. Application of the theory to a simple push-pull network, a module in the kinase-phosphatase cascade, recovers the exact results for error in signal transmission previously obtained using umbral calculus [Hinczewski and Thirumalai, Phys. Rev. X 4, 041017 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.041017]. We illustrate the generality of the theory by studying the minimal errors in noise reduction in a reaction cascade with two connected push-pull modules. Such a cascade behaves as an effective three-species network with a pseudointermediate. In this case, optimal information transfer, resulting in the smallest square of the error between the input and output, occurs with a time delay, which is given by the inverse of the decay rate of the pseudointermediate. Surprisingly, in these examples the minimum error computed using simulations that take nonlinearities and discrete nature of molecules into account coincides with the predictions of a linear theory. In contrast, there are substantial deviations between simulations and predictions of the linear theory in error in signal propagation in an enzymatic push-pull network for a certain range of parameters. Inclusion of second-order perturbative corrections shows that differences between simulations and theoretical predictions are minimized. Our study establishes that a field theoretic formulation of stochastic biological signaling offers a systematic way to understand error propagation in

  8. Joining the Dots: Theoretically Connecting the Vona du Toit Model of Creative Ability (VdTMoCA) with Supported Employment

    OpenAIRE

    de Bruyn, Marna; Wright, Jon

    2017-01-01

    The Vona du Toit Model of Creative Ability (VdTMoCA) presents a framework for understanding client motivation and action in occupational therapy, emphasising the relationship between motivation and action. Similarly, motivation to work is regarded as the primary and in some instances, the only eligibility criterion for inclusion in supported employment services. This commentary explores the potential theoretical link between the VdTMoCA and supported employment, primarily applied to the South...

  9. Information theoretical assessment of visual communication with wavelet coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zia-ur

    1995-06-01

    A visual communication channel can be characterized by the efficiency with which it conveys information, and the quality of the images restored from the transmitted data. Efficient data representation requires the use of constraints of the visual communication channel. Our information theoretic analysis combines the design of the wavelet compression algorithm with the design of the visual communication channel. Shannon's communication theory, Wiener's restoration filter, and the critical design factors of image gathering and display are combined to provide metrics for measuring the efficiency of data transmission, and for quantitatively assessing the visual quality of the restored image. These metrics are: a) the mutual information (Eta) between the radiance the radiance field and the restored image, and b) the efficiency of the channel which can be roughly measured by as the ratio (Eta) /H, where H is the average number of bits being used to transmit the data. Huck, et al. (Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1993) have shown that channels desinged to maximize (Eta) , also maximize. Our assessment provides a framework for designing channels which provide the highest possible visual quality for a given amount of data under the critical design limitations of the image gathering and display devices. Results show that a trade-off exists between the maximum realizable information of the channel and its efficiency: an increase in one leads to a decrease in the other. The final selection of which of these quantities to maximize is, of course, application dependent.

  10. Characterising Information Systems in Australia: A Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Ridley

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this volume aims to investigate the state of the Information Systems academic discipline in Australia from a historical and current perspective, collecting evidence across a range of dimensions. To maximise the strategic potential of the study, the results need to be capable of integration, so that the relationships within and across the dimensions and geographical units are understood. A meaningful theoretical framework will help relate the results of the different dimensions of the study to characterise the discipline in the region, and assist in empowering the Australian IS research community. This paper reviewed literature on the development of disciplines, before deriving a theoretical framework for the broader study reported in this volume. The framework considered the current and past state of IS in Australian universities from the perspective of the development of a discipline. The components of the framework were derived and validated through a thematic analysis of both the IS and non-IS literature. This paper also presents brief vignettes of the development of two other related disciplines. The framework developed in this paper, which has been partly guided by Whitley’s Theory of Scientific Change, has been used to analyse data collated from the Australian states and the Australian Capital Territory. The degree of variation in Australian IS as an indication of its “professionalisation”, the nature of its body of knowledge and its mechanisms of control, will be used to frame the analysis. Research reported in several of the papers that follow in this volume has drawn upon the theoretical framework presented below.

  11. Informing Physics: Jacob Bekenstein and the Informational Turn in Theoretical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, Israel

    2014-03-01

    In his PhD dissertation in the early 1970s, the Mexican-Israeli theoretical physicist Jacob Bekenstein developed the thermodynamics of black holes using a generalized version of the second law of thermodynamics. This work made it possible for physicists to describe and analyze black holes using information-theoretical concepts. It also helped to transform information theory into a fundamental and foundational concept in theoretical physics. The story of Bekenstein's work—which was initially opposed by many scientists, including Stephen Hawking—highlights the transformation within physics towards an information-oriented scientific mode of theorizing. This "informational turn" amounted to a mild-mannered revolution within physics, revolutionary without being rebellious.

  12. Physics Without Physics. The Power of Information-theoretical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2017-01-01

    David Finkelstein was very fond of the new information-theoretic paradigm of physics advocated by John Archibald Wheeler and Richard Feynman. Only recently, however, the paradigm has concretely shown its full power, with the derivation of quantum theory (Chiribella et al., Phys. Rev. A 84:012311, 2011; D'Ariano et al., 2017) and of free quantum field theory (D'Ariano and Perinotti, Phys. Rev. A 90:062106, 2014; Bisio et al., Phys. Rev. A 88:032301, 2013; Bisio et al., Ann. Phys. 354:244, 2015; Bisio et al., Ann. Phys. 368:177, 2016) from informational principles. The paradigm has opened for the first time the possibility of avoiding physical primitives in the axioms of the physical theory, allowing a re-foundation of the whole physics over logically solid grounds. In addition to such methodological value, the new information-theoretic derivation of quantum field theory is particularly interesting for establishing a theoretical framework for quantum gravity, with the idea of obtaining gravity itself as emergent from the quantum information processing, as also suggested by the role played by information in the holographic principle (Susskind, J. Math. Phys. 36:6377, 1995; Bousso, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74:825, 2002). In this paper I review how free quantum field theory is derived without using mechanical primitives, including space-time, special relativity, Hamiltonians, and quantization rules. The theory is simply provided by the simplest quantum algorithm encompassing a countable set of quantum systems whose network of interactions satisfies the three following simple principles: homogeneity, locality, and isotropy. The inherent discrete nature of the informational derivation leads to an extension of quantum field theory in terms of a quantum cellular automata and quantum walks. A simple heuristic argument sets the scale to the Planck one, and the currently observed regime where discreteness is not visible is the so-called "relativistic regime" of small wavevectors, which

  13. Information-theoretic limitations on approximate quantum cloning and broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemm, Marius; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-07-01

    We prove quantitative limitations on any approximate simultaneous cloning or broadcasting of mixed states. The results are based on information-theoretic (entropic) considerations and generalize the well-known no-cloning and no-broadcasting theorems. We also observe and exploit the fact that the universal cloning machine on the symmetric subspace of n qudits and symmetrized partial trace channels are dual to each other. This duality manifests itself both in the algebraic sense of adjointness of quantum channels and in the operational sense that a universal cloning machine can be used as an approximate recovery channel for a symmetrized partial trace channel and vice versa. The duality extends to give control of the performance of generalized universal quantum cloning machines (UQCMs) on subspaces more general than the symmetric subspace. This gives a way to quantify the usefulness of a priori information in the context of cloning. For example, we can control the performance of an antisymmetric analog of the UQCM in recovering from the loss of n -k fermionic particles.

  14. Information Theoretic Characterization of Physical Theories with Projective State Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaopo, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Probabilistic theories are a natural framework to investigate the foundations of quantum theory and possible alternative or deeper theories. In a generic probabilistic theory, states of a physical system are represented as vectors of outcomes probabilities and state spaces are convex cones. In this picture the physics of a given theory is related to the geometric shape of the cone of states. In quantum theory, for instance, the shape of the cone of states corresponds to a projective space over complex numbers. In this paper we investigate geometric constraints on the state space of a generic theory imposed by the following information theoretic requirements: every non completely mixed state of a system is perfectly distinguishable from some other state in a single shot measurement; information capacity of physical systems is conserved under making mixtures of states. These assumptions guarantee that a generic physical system satisfies a natural principle asserting that the more a state of the system is mixed the less information can be stored in the system using that state as logical value. We show that all theories satisfying the above assumptions are such that the shape of their cones of states is that of a projective space over a generic field of numbers. Remarkably, these theories constitute generalizations of quantum theory where superposition principle holds with coefficients pertaining to a generic field of numbers in place of complex numbers. If the field of numbers is trivial and contains only one element we obtain classical theory. This result tells that superposition principle is quite common among probabilistic theories while its absence gives evidence of either classical theory or an implausible theory.

  15. Methodological proposal for theoretical analysis professional skills and its impact on employability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Almanza Jiménez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the level of employability of Engineers in Business Management Institute of Technology graduates Lazaro Cardenas in terms of their Professional competencies based on the initial hypothesis. The professional competencies have a direct positive relationship in which employability through the application of the survey method in Likert applied to both clusters, analysis of findings which show the impact of skills on employability, the existence of a positive correlation of both direct and opportunity was conducted to develop creativity and innovation through entrepreneurship.

  16. LPI Optimization Framework for Target Tracking in Radar Network Architectures Using Information-Theoretic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Widely distributed radar network architectures can provide significant performance improvement for target detection and localization. For a fixed radar network, the achievable target detection performance may go beyond a predetermined threshold with full transmitted power allocation, which is extremely vulnerable in modern electronic warfare. In this paper, we study the problem of low probability of intercept (LPI design for radar network and propose two novel LPI optimization schemes based on information-theoretic criteria. For a predefined threshold of target detection, Schleher intercept factor is minimized by optimizing transmission power allocation among netted radars in the network. Due to the lack of analytical closed-form expression for receiver operation characteristics (ROC, we employ two information-theoretic criteria, namely, Bhattacharyya distance and J-divergence as the metrics for target detection performance. The resulting nonconvex and nonlinear LPI optimization problems associated with different information-theoretic criteria are cast under a unified framework, and the nonlinear programming based genetic algorithm (NPGA is used to tackle the optimization problems in the framework. Numerical simulations demonstrate that our proposed LPI strategies are effective in enhancing the LPI performance for radar network.

  17. Towards integrating control and information theories from information-theoretic measures to control performance limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Song; Ishii, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates the performance limitation issues in networked feedback systems. The fact that networked feedback systems consist of control and communication devices and systems calls for the integration of control theory and information theory. The primary contributions of this book lie in two aspects: the newly-proposed information-theoretic measures and the newly-discovered control performance limitations. We first propose a number of information notions to facilitate the analysis. Using those notions, classes of performance limitations of networked feedback systems, as well as state estimation systems, are then investigated. In general, the book presents a unique, cohesive treatment of performance limitation issues of networked feedback systems via an information-theoretic approach. This book is believed to be the first to treat the aforementioned subjects systematically and in a unified manner, offering a unique perspective differing from existing books.

  18. Informality as a stepping stone: A search-theoretical assessment of informal sector and government policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Tümen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a model of sequential job search to understand the factors determining the effect of tax and enforcement policies on the size (i.e., employment share of informal sector. The focus is on the role of informal sector as a stepping stone to formal jobs. I argue that the stepping-stone role of informal jobs is an important concept determining how strongly government policies affect the size of informal sector. I measure the extent of the stepping-stone role with the intensity of skill accumulation in the informal sector. If informal jobs help workers acquire skills, gain expertise, and build professional networks for boosting the chances to switch to a formal job, then the size of informal sector is less sensitive to government policy. In this case, the option value of a job in informal sector will be high and a worker with an informal job will not rush to switch to a formal job when a policy encouraging formal employment is in effect. If, on the other hand, informal sector does not provide satisfactory training opportunities, then the size of informal sector becomes more sensitive to government policy. Calibrating the model to the Brazilian data, I perform numerical exercises confirming that the effect of government policy on the size of informal sector is a decreasing function of the intensity of skill acquisition in the informal sector.

  19. Universality in an information-theoretic motivated nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parwani, R; Tabia, G

    2007-01-01

    Using perturbative methods, we analyse a nonlinear generalization of Schrodinger's equation that had previously been obtained through information-theoretic arguments. We obtain analytical expressions for the leading correction, in terms of the nonlinearity scale, to the energy eigenvalues of the linear Schrodinger equation in the presence of an external potential and observe some generic features. In one space dimension these are (i) for nodeless ground states, the energy shifts are subleading in the nonlinearity parameter compared to the shifts for the excited states; (ii) the shifts for the excited states are due predominantly to contribution from the nodes of the unperturbed wavefunctions, and (iii) the energy shifts for excited states are positive for small values of a regulating parameter and negative at large values, vanishing at a universal critical value that is not manifest in the equation. Some of these features hold true for higher dimensional problems. We also study two exactly solved nonlinear Schrodinger equations so as to contrast our observations. Finally, we comment on the possible significance of our results if the nonlinearity is physically realized

  20. Nonlocal correlations as an information-theoretic resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Jonathan; Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Roberts, David

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that measurements performed on spatially separated entangled quantum systems can give rise to correlations that are nonlocal, in the sense that a Bell inequality is violated. They cannot, however, be used for superluminal signaling. It is also known that it is possible to write down sets of 'superquantum' correlations that are more nonlocal than is allowed by quantum mechanics, yet are still nonsignaling. Viewed as an information-theoretic resource, superquantum correlations are very powerful at reducing the amount of communication needed for distributed computational tasks. An intriguing question is why quantum mechanics does not allow these more powerful correlations. We aim to shed light on the range of quantum possibilities by placing them within a wider context. With this in mind, we investigate the set of correlations that are constrained only by the no-signaling principle. These correlations form a polytope, which contains the quantum correlations as a (proper) subset. We determine the vertices of the no-signaling polytope in the case that two observers each choose from two possible measurements with d outcomes. We then consider how interconversions between different sorts of correlations may be achieved. Finally, we consider some multipartite examples

  1. Theoretical Investigation of Subwavelength Gratings and Vertical Cavity Lasers Employing Grating Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza

    This thesis deals with theoretical investigations of a newly proposed grating structure, referred to as hybrid grating (HG) as well as vertical cavity lasers based on the grating reflectors. The HG consists of a near-subwavelength grating layer and an unpatterned high-refractive-index cap layer...... directions, which is analogous to electronic quantum wells in conduction or valence bands. Several interesting configurations of heterostructures have been investigated and their potential in fundamental physics study and applications are discussed. For numerical and theoretical studies, a three...... feasibility than the HCG-based ones. Furthermore, the concept of cavity dispersion in vertical cavities is introduced and its importance in the modal properties is numerically investigated. The dispersion curvature of a cavity mode is interpreted as the effective photon mass of the cavity mode. In a vertical...

  2. Distinguishing prognostic and predictive biomarkers: An information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechidis, Konstantinos; Papangelou, Konstantinos; Metcalfe, Paul D; Svensson, David; Weatherall, James; Brown, Gavin

    2018-05-02

    The identification of biomarkers to support decision-making is central to personalised medicine, in both clinical and research scenarios. The challenge can be seen in two halves: identifying predictive markers, which guide the development/use of tailored therapies; and identifying prognostic markers, which guide other aspects of care and clinical trial planning, i.e. prognostic markers can be considered as covariates for stratification. Mistakenly assuming a biomarker to be predictive, when it is in fact largely prognostic (and vice-versa) is highly undesirable, and can result in financial, ethical and personal consequences. We present a framework for data-driven ranking of biomarkers on their prognostic/predictive strength, using a novel information theoretic method. This approach provides a natural algebra to discuss and quantify the individual predictive and prognostic strength, in a self-consistent mathematical framework. Our contribution is a novel procedure, INFO+, which naturally distinguishes the prognostic vs predictive role of each biomarker and handles higher order interactions. In a comprehensive empirical evaluation INFO+ outperforms more complex methods, most notably when noise factors dominate, and biomarkers are likely to be falsely identified as predictive, when in fact they are just strongly prognostic. Furthermore, we show that our methods can be 1-3 orders of magnitude faster than competitors, making it useful for biomarker discovery in 'big data' scenarios. Finally, we apply our methods to identify predictive biomarkers on two real clinical trials, and introduce a new graphical representation that provides greater insight into the prognostic and predictive strength of each biomarker. R implementations of the suggested methods are available at https://github.com/sechidis. konstantinos.sechidis@manchester.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Job Sharing: General Information. A Handbook for Employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Barney

    Arranging work time in new and flexible ways has been a topic of growing interest for the past ten years. This handbook for employers explains one way in which jobs can be made more flexible--job sharing. It discusses ways that work hours can be shared with potential benefits for employer and employees. Topics discussed include definition of job…

  4. Employer Perceptions of Student Informational Interviewing Skills and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Claudia; Sherony, Bruce; Steinhaus, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Employers continue to report that soft skills are critically important in obtaining employment and achieving long-term career success. Given the challenging job market for college graduates, business school faculty need to provide practical opportunities for students to develop their soft skills in professional settings. A longitudinal study was…

  5. 78 FR 24468 - Proposed Information Collection (Inquiry Concerning Applicant for Employment) Activity; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... (Inquiry Concerning Applicant for Employment) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Human Resources... the information needed to determine an applicant's suitability and qualification for employment. DATES... of automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title...

  6. An information theoretic approach to use high-fidelity codes to calibrate low-fidelity codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Allison, E-mail: lewis.allison10@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Smith, Ralph [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Figueroa, Victor [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    For many simulation models, it can be prohibitively expensive or physically infeasible to obtain a complete set of experimental data to calibrate model parameters. In such cases, one can alternatively employ validated higher-fidelity codes to generate simulated data, which can be used to calibrate the lower-fidelity code. In this paper, we employ an information-theoretic framework to determine the reduction in parameter uncertainty that is obtained by evaluating the high-fidelity code at a specific set of design conditions. These conditions are chosen sequentially, based on the amount of information that they contribute to the low-fidelity model parameters. The goal is to employ Bayesian experimental design techniques to minimize the number of high-fidelity code evaluations required to accurately calibrate the low-fidelity model. We illustrate the performance of this framework using heat and diffusion examples, a 1-D kinetic neutron diffusion equation, and a particle transport model, and include initial results from the integration of the high-fidelity thermal-hydraulics code Hydra-TH with a low-fidelity exponential model for the friction correlation factor.

  7. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE DEFINITION OF THE "INFORMATION RESOURCE"

    OpenAIRE

    I. Netreba

    2014-01-01

    Existing approaches to determining the nature of the category "information resource" are detailed and systematized. The relationships between the categories "information resource", "information technology", "information management system" are revealed. Determined the importance of information resources for the production process at the enterprise.

  8. Information-theoretical analysis of private content identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voloshynovskiy, S.; Koval, O.; Beekhof, F.; Farhadzadeh, F.; Holotyak, T.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, content identification based on digital fingerprinting attracts a lot of attention in different emerging applications. At the same time, the theoretical analysis of digital fingerprinting systems for finite length case remains an open issue. Additionally, privacy leaks caused by

  9. Information and Communication Technology Workforce Employability in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Mohammed Adam; Hasan, Muhammad; Hussin, Husnayati; Shah, Asadullah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of the study are to understand ICT workforce employability in Malaysia, to identify the causes that influence the growth of skill gaps in the ICT workforce, and to determine ways to reduce these gaps. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology of the study comprised project reports and a literature review. Findings: The…

  10. Formal and Informal Employment Growth in Manufacturing (India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agent(e) responsable du CRDI. Rodriguez, Mr. Edgard. Financement total. CAD$ 257,300. Pays. Asie du sud, Asie centrale, Extrême-Orient, Bangladesh, Inde. Chargé(e) de projet. Dr. Sandip Sarkar. Institution. Institute for Human Development. Pays d' institution. India. Extrants. Documents. Employment problem in India ...

  11. Information density converges in dialogue: Towards an information-theoretic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Reitter, David

    2018-01-01

    The principle of entropy rate constancy (ERC) states that language users distribute information such that words tend to be equally predictable given previous contexts. We examine the applicability of this principle to spoken dialogue, as previous findings primarily rest on written text. The study takes into account the joint-activity nature of dialogue and the topic shift mechanisms that are different from monologue. It examines how the information contributions from the two dialogue partners interactively evolve as the discourse develops. The increase of local sentence-level information density (predicted by ERC) is shown to apply to dialogue overall. However, when the different roles of interlocutors in introducing new topics are identified, their contribution in information content displays a new converging pattern. We draw explanations to this pattern from multiple perspectives: Casting dialogue as an information exchange system would mean that the pattern is the result of two interlocutors maintaining their own context rather than sharing one. Second, we present some empirical evidence that a model of Interactive Alignment may include information density to explain the effect. Third, we argue that building common ground is a process analogous to information convergence. Thus, we put forward an information-theoretic view of dialogue, under which some existing theories of human dialogue may eventually be unified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Theoretical Approach to Information Needs Across Different Healthcare Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitoharju, Reetta; Aarnio, Eeva

    Increased access to medical information can lead to information overload among both the employees in the healthcare sector as well as among healthcare consumers. Moreover, medical information can be hard to understand for consumers who have no prerequisites for interpreting and understanding it. Information systems (e.g. electronic patient records) are normally designed to meet the demands of one professional group, for instance those of physicians. Therefore, the same information in the same form is presented to all the users of the systems regardless of the actual need or prerequisites. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the differences in information needs across different stakeholders in healthcare. A literature review was conducted to collect examples of these different information needs. Based on the findings the role of more user specific information systems is discussed.

  13. 49 CFR 40.331 - To what additional parties must employers and service agents release information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... service agents release information? 40.331 Section 40.331 Transportation Office of the Secretary of... Release of Information § 40.331 To what additional parties must employers and service agents release information? As an employer or service agent you must release information under the following circumstances...

  14. 49 CFR 40.17 - Is an employer responsible for obtaining information from its service agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is an employer responsible for obtaining... Responsibilities § 40.17 Is an employer responsible for obtaining information from its service agents? Yes, as an employer, you are responsible for obtaining information required by this part from your service agents...

  15. Gender, Poverty and Employment in the Context of the Informal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the Arab world, gender inequality in the labour market persists through ... wage gaps, higher unemployment rates, over-representation in the informal economy, ... The overall aim is to promote decent work for women and men in the informal ...

  16. 75 FR 59294 - Comment Request for Information Collection for The Data Validation Requirement for Employment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... and reliable information on program activities and outcomes is available. Data validation is intended... handbooks provide detailed information on software installation, building and importing a validation file... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information...

  17. Mainstreaming Informal Employment and Gender in Poverty Reduction

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    b) respect for fundamental principles and rights at work; (c) social protection; and (d) ...... in formal or informal firms, who are avoiding registration and taxation. ...... For example, in Malaysia, the proportion of women workers in EPZs fell from 75 ...

  18. Gender, Poverty and Employment in the Context of the Informal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the Arab world, gender inequality in the labour market persists through occupational ... wage gaps, higher unemployment rates, over-representation in the informal ... how women access resources and opportunities in the public and private ...

  19. Molecular acidity: An accurate description with information-theoretic approach in density functional reactivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaofang; Rong, Chunying; Zhong, Aiguo; Lu, Tian; Liu, Shubin

    2018-01-15

    Molecular acidity is one of the important physiochemical properties of a molecular system, yet its accurate calculation and prediction are still an unresolved problem in the literature. In this work, we propose to make use of the quantities from the information-theoretic (IT) approach in density functional reactivity theory and provide an accurate description of molecular acidity from a completely new perspective. To illustrate our point, five different categories of acidic series, singly and doubly substituted benzoic acids, singly substituted benzenesulfinic acids, benzeneseleninic acids, phenols, and alkyl carboxylic acids, have been thoroughly examined. We show that using IT quantities such as Shannon entropy, Fisher information, Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy, information gain, Onicescu information energy, and relative Rényi entropy, one is able to simultaneously predict experimental pKa values of these different categories of compounds. Because of the universality of the quantities employed in this work, which are all density dependent, our approach should be general and be applicable to other systems as well. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Information-theoretic treatment of tripartite systems and quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, Patrick J.; Yu Li; Gheorghiu, Vlad; Griffiths, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    A Holevo measure is used to discuss how much information about a given positive operator valued measure (POVM) on system a is present in another system b, and how this influences the presence or absence of information about a different POVM on a in a third system c. The main goal is to extend information theorems for mutually unbiased bases or general bases to arbitrary POVMs, and especially to generalize ''all-or-nothing'' theorems about information located in tripartite systems to the case of partial information, in the form of quantitative inequalities. Some of the inequalities can be viewed as entropic uncertainty relations that apply in the presence of quantum side information, as in recent work by Berta et al. [Nature Physics 6, 659 (2010)]. All of the results also apply to quantum channels: For example, if E accurately transmits certain POVMs, the complementary channel F will necessarily be noisy for certain other POVMs. While the inequalities are valid for mixed states of tripartite systems, restricting to pure states leads to the basis invariance of the difference between the information about a contained in b and c.

  1. Sentence Comprehension as Mental Simulation: An Information-Theoretic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Vigliocco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that the mental representation resulting from sentence comprehension is not (just an abstract symbolic structure but a “mental simulation” of the state-of-affairs described by the sentence. We present a particular formalization of this theory and show how it gives rise to quantifications of the amount of syntactic and semantic information conveyed by each word in a sentence. These information measures predict simulated word-processing times in a dynamic connectionist model of sentence comprehension as mental simulation. A quantitatively similar relation between information content and reading time is known to be present in human reading-time data.

  2. Theoretical Model of Development of Information Competence among Students Enrolled in Elective Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumasheva, Anara; Zhumabaeva, Zaida; Sakenov, Janat; Vedilina, Yelena; Zhaxylykova, Nuriya; Sekenova, Balkumis

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the research topic of creating a theoretical model of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses. In order to examine specific features of the theoretical model of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses, we performed an analysis of…

  3. Information-theoretic methods for estimating of complicated probability distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zong, Zhi

    2006-01-01

    Mixing up various disciplines frequently produces something that are profound and far-reaching. Cybernetics is such an often-quoted example. Mix of information theory, statistics and computing technology proves to be very useful, which leads to the recent development of information-theory based methods for estimating complicated probability distributions. Estimating probability distribution of a random variable is the fundamental task for quite some fields besides statistics, such as reliability, probabilistic risk analysis (PSA), machine learning, pattern recognization, image processing, neur

  4. Information theoretic approach to tactile encoding and discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Saal, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    The human sense of touch integrates feedback from a multitude of touch receptors, but how this information is represented in the neural responses such that it can be extracted quickly and reliably is still largely an open question. At the same time, dexterous robots equipped with touch sensors are becoming more common, necessitating better methods for representing sequentially updated information and new control strategies that aid in extracting relevant features for object man...

  5. The gender pay gap in informal employment in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Rokicka, Magdalena; Ruzik, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the gender pay gap in the formal and informal labour markets in Poland. The authors verify the hypothesis of the existence of a gender pay gap in informal work and compare this gap with the one observed in the formal (registered) labour market. Various analyses of available data show that size and characteristics of gender pay gap differ depending on the level of earnings. The inequality of earnings among unregistered women and men is more pronounced at the b...

  6. Employment and Work Motivation in the Information Economy: Transformation and Interrelation

    OpenAIRE

    Azmuk Nadiya A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to study and systematize the trends in the transformation of employment and work motivation in the information economy. As a result of the study, the main trends in the transformation of employment in the information economy are identified. The interrelation between the transformation of employment and work motivation is substantiated. A comparative analysis of the main elements of the motivational model in the traditional and information economy is carried out. A ne...

  7. Integrated information in discrete dynamical systems: motivation and theoretical framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Balduzzi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a time- and state-dependent measure of integrated information, phi, which captures the repertoire of causal states available to a system as a whole. Specifically, phi quantifies how much information is generated (uncertainty is reduced when a system enters a particular state through causal interactions among its elements, above and beyond the information generated independently by its parts. Such mathematical characterization is motivated by the observation that integrated information captures two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: (i there is a large repertoire of conscious experiences so that, when one particular experience occurs, it generates a large amount of information by ruling out all the others; and (ii this information is integrated, in that each experience appears as a whole that cannot be decomposed into independent parts. This paper extends previous work on stationary systems and applies integrated information to discrete networks as a function of their dynamics and causal architecture. An analysis of basic examples indicates the following: (i phi varies depending on the state entered by a network, being higher if active and inactive elements are balanced and lower if the network is inactive or hyperactive. (ii phi varies for systems with identical or similar surface dynamics depending on the underlying causal architecture, being low for systems that merely copy or replay activity states. (iii phi varies as a function of network architecture. High phi values can be obtained by architectures that conjoin functional specialization with functional integration. Strictly modular and homogeneous systems cannot generate high phi because the former lack integration, whereas the latter lack information. Feedforward and lattice architectures are capable of generating high phi but are inefficient. (iv In Hopfield networks, phi is low for attractor states and neutral states, but increases if the networks

  8. Integrated information in discrete dynamical systems: motivation and theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduzzi, David; Tononi, Giulio

    2008-06-13

    This paper introduces a time- and state-dependent measure of integrated information, phi, which captures the repertoire of causal states available to a system as a whole. Specifically, phi quantifies how much information is generated (uncertainty is reduced) when a system enters a particular state through causal interactions among its elements, above and beyond the information generated independently by its parts. Such mathematical characterization is motivated by the observation that integrated information captures two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: (i) there is a large repertoire of conscious experiences so that, when one particular experience occurs, it generates a large amount of information by ruling out all the others; and (ii) this information is integrated, in that each experience appears as a whole that cannot be decomposed into independent parts. This paper extends previous work on stationary systems and applies integrated information to discrete networks as a function of their dynamics and causal architecture. An analysis of basic examples indicates the following: (i) phi varies depending on the state entered by a network, being higher if active and inactive elements are balanced and lower if the network is inactive or hyperactive. (ii) phi varies for systems with identical or similar surface dynamics depending on the underlying causal architecture, being low for systems that merely copy or replay activity states. (iii) phi varies as a function of network architecture. High phi values can be obtained by architectures that conjoin functional specialization with functional integration. Strictly modular and homogeneous systems cannot generate high phi because the former lack integration, whereas the latter lack information. Feedforward and lattice architectures are capable of generating high phi but are inefficient. (iv) In Hopfield networks, phi is low for attractor states and neutral states, but increases if the networks are optimized

  9. Towards an Information Theoretic Analysis of Searchable Encryption (Extended Version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedghi, S.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Searchable encryption is a technique that allows a client to store data in encrypted form on a curious server, such that data can be retrieved while leaking a minimal amount of information to the server. Many searchable encryption schemes have been proposed and proved secure in their own

  10. Towards an Information Theoretic Analysis of Searchable Encryption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedghi, S.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Searchable encryption is a technique that allows a client to store data in encrypted form on a curious server, such that data can be retrieved while leaking a minimal amount of information to the server. Many searchable encryption schemes have been proposed and proved secure in their own

  11. Theoretical foundations of information security investment security companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Berlyak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methodological problems related to the lack of guidance in the provisions (standards of accounting on the reflection in the accounting and financial reporting of the research object. In this connection, it is proposed to amend the provisions (standards of accounting. This will allow to come to the consistency of accounting methods of operations with elements of investment activity. Based on analysis of the information needs of users suggested indicators identikativnye blocks (block corporate finance unit assess the relationship with financial institutions, block the fulfillment of obligations according to the calculations, the investment unit, a science and innovation, investment security and developed forms of internal accounting controls and improvements to existing forms financial statements for the investment activities of the enterprise. Using enterprise data reporting forms provide timely and reliable information on the identity and structure of investment security and enable the company to effectively plan and develop personnel policies for enterprise management.

  12. 78 FR 18425 - Proposed Information Collection VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist); Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: VA Police Officer Pre-Employment... Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist); Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Operations... approved collection. Abstract: VA personnel complete VA Form 0120 to document pre- employment history and...

  13. 76 FR 45507 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Public Employment & Payroll Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Employment & Payroll Forms AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce... employment and payroll program which consists of an annual collection of information and a quinquennial... Public Employment & Payroll. Under Title 13, Section 161 & 182, of the United States Code, the Secretary...

  14. 78 FR 54996 - Information Reporting by Applicable Large Employers on Health Insurance Coverage Offered Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Information Reporting by Applicable Large Employers on Health Insurance Coverage Offered Under Employer... credit to help individuals and families afford health insurance coverage purchased through an Affordable... or group health insurance coverage offered by an employer to the employee that is (1) a governmental...

  15. Visual words assignment via information-theoretic manifold embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yue; Li, Yipeng; Qian, Yanjun; Ji, Xiangyang; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-10-01

    Codebook-based learning provides a flexible way to extract the contents of an image in a data-driven manner for visual recognition. One central task in such frameworks is codeword assignment, which allocates local image descriptors to the most similar codewords in the dictionary to generate histogram for categorization. Nevertheless, existing assignment approaches, e.g., nearest neighbors strategy (hard assignment) and Gaussian similarity (soft assignment), suffer from two problems: 1) too strong Euclidean assumption and 2) neglecting the label information of the local descriptors. To address the aforementioned two challenges, we propose a graph assignment method with maximal mutual information (GAMI) regularization. GAMI takes the power of manifold structure to better reveal the relationship of massive number of local features by nonlinear graph metric. Meanwhile, the mutual information of descriptor-label pairs is ultimately optimized in the embedding space for the sake of enhancing the discriminant property of the selected codewords. According to such objective, two optimization models, i.e., inexact-GAMI and exact-GAMI, are respectively proposed in this paper. The inexact model can be efficiently solved with a closed-from solution. The stricter exact-GAMI nonparametrically estimates the entropy of descriptor-label pairs in the embedding space and thus leads to a relatively complicated but still trackable optimization. The effectiveness of GAMI models are verified on both the public and our own datasets.

  16. Information-theoretic characterization of dynamic energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevis, Troy Lawson

    sources are compounded by the dynamics of the grid itself. Loads are constantly changing, as well as the sources; this can sometimes lead to a quick change in system states. There is a need for a metric to be able to take into consideration all of the factors detailed above; it needs to be able to take into consideration the amount of information that is available in the system and the rate that the information is losing its value. In a dynamic system, the information is only valid for a length of time, and the controller must be able to take into account the decay of currently held information. This thesis will present the information theory metrics in a way that is useful for application to dynamic energy systems. A test case involving synchronization of several generators is presented for analysis and application of the theory. The objective is to synchronize all the generators and connect them to a common bus. As the phase shift of each generator is a random process, the effects of latency and information decay can be directly observed. The results of the experiments clearly show that the expected outcomes are observed and that entropy and information theory is a valid metric for timing requirement extraction.

  17. Employment-related information for clients receiving mental health services and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joanne; Cleary, Catherine; Harris, Meredith G; Lloyd, Chris; Waghorn, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Clients receiving public mental health services and clinicians require information to facilitate client access to suitable employment services. However, little is known about the specific employment-related information needs of these groups. This study aimed to identify employment-related information needs among clients, clinicians and employment specialists, with a view to developing a new vocational information resource. Employment-related information needs were identified via a series of focus group consultations with clients, clinicians, and employment specialists (n=23). Focus group discussions were guided by a common semi-structured interview schedule. Several categories of information need were identified: countering incorrect beliefs about work; benefits of work; disclosure and managing personal information; impact of earnings on welfare entitlements; employment service pathways; job preparation, planning and selection; and managing illness once working. Clear preferences were expressed about effective means of communicating the key messages in written material. This investigation confirmed the need for information tailored to clients and clinicians in order to activate clients' employment journey and to help them make informed decisions about vocational assistance.

  18. An Information-Theoretic Approach to PMU Placement in Electric Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qiao; Cui, Tao; Weng, Yang; Negi, Rohit; Franchetti, Franz; Ilic, Marija D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an information-theoretic approach to address the phasor measurement unit (PMU) placement problem in electric power systems. Different from the conventional 'topological observability' based approaches, this paper advocates a much more refined, information-theoretic criterion, namely the mutual information (MI) between the PMU measurements and the power system states. The proposed MI criterion can not only include the full system observability as a special case, but also ca...

  19. Information theoretic methods for image processing algorithm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokushkin, Sergey F.; Galil, Erez

    2015-01-01

    Modern image processing pipelines (e.g., those used in digital cameras) are full of advanced, highly adaptive filters that often have a large number of tunable parameters (sometimes > 100). This makes the calibration procedure for these filters very complex, and the optimal results barely achievable in the manual calibration; thus an automated approach is a must. We will discuss an information theory based metric for evaluation of algorithm adaptive characteristics ("adaptivity criterion") using noise reduction algorithms as an example. The method allows finding an "orthogonal decomposition" of the filter parameter space into the "filter adaptivity" and "filter strength" directions. This metric can be used as a cost function in automatic filter optimization. Since it is a measure of a physical "information restoration" rather than perceived image quality, it helps to reduce the set of the filter parameters to a smaller subset that is easier for a human operator to tune and achieve a better subjective image quality. With appropriate adjustments, the criterion can be used for assessment of the whole imaging system (sensor plus post-processing).

  20. Signal correlations in biomass combustion. An information theoretic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruusunen, M.

    2013-09-01

    Increasing environmental and economic awareness are driving the development of combustion technologies to efficient biomass use and clean burning. To accomplish these goals, quantitative information about combustion variables is needed. However, for small-scale combustion units the existing monitoring methods are often expensive or complex. This study aimed to quantify correlations between flue gas temperatures and combustion variables, namely typical emission components, heat output, and efficiency. For this, data acquired from four small-scale combustion units and a large circulating fluidised bed boiler was studied. The fuel range varied from wood logs, wood chips, and wood pellets to biomass residue. Original signals and a defined set of their mathematical transformations were applied to data analysis. In order to evaluate the strength of the correlations, a multivariate distance measure based on information theory was derived. The analysis further assessed time-varying signal correlations and relative time delays. Ranking of the analysis results was based on the distance measure. The uniformity of the correlations in the different data sets was studied by comparing the 10-quantiles of the measured signal. The method was validated with two benchmark data sets. The flue gas temperatures and the combustion variables measured carried similar information. The strongest correlations were mainly linear with the transformed signal combinations and explicable by the combustion theory. Remarkably, the results showed uniformity of the correlations across the data sets with several signal transformations. This was also indicated by simulations using a linear model with constant structure to monitor carbon dioxide in flue gas. Acceptable performance was observed according to three validation criteria used to quantify modelling error in each data set. In general, the findings demonstrate that the presented signal transformations enable real-time approximation of the studied

  1. THE WIND EMPLOYMENT IN SPAIN (1995-2010: A THEORETICAL APPROXIMATION APPLIED TO THE REGION OF GALICIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Regueiro Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the renewable energies, and especially of the wind power, in the last decades has stayed out of any discussion. The advantages associated with the energy of the odd wind have considered in occasions authentic information that they them should corroborate. For example, about the streghness of creating jobs, there do not exist official statistics that gather the dimension of the created employment, without forgetting that the field of the energy stands out for being intensive in the capital. In this paper, there is realized an analysis of the different bibliographical sources relative to the generation of employment in the wind sector in Spain, establishing a few margins of the creation of the same one for categories for the region of Galicia, in the period (1995-2010.

  2. 78 FR 60303 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Online Survey of Web Services Employers; New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ...-NEW] Agency Information Collection Activities: Online Survey of Web Services Employers; New... information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Online Survey of Web Services Employers. (3) Agency... USCIS obtains data on the E-Verify Program Web Services. Gaining an understanding of the Web Services...

  3. 75 FR 39621 - Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Income-Net Worth and Employment...

  4. 77 FR 20888 - Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Income, Net Worth, and Employment...

  5. An information-theoretic approach to assess practical identifiability of parametric dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Sanjay; Lombardi, Damiano

    2015-10-01

    A new approach for assessing parameter identifiability of dynamical systems in a Bayesian setting is presented. The concept of Shannon entropy is employed to measure the inherent uncertainty in the parameters. The expected reduction in this uncertainty is seen as the amount of information one expects to gain about the parameters due to the availability of noisy measurements of the dynamical system. Such expected information gain is interpreted in terms of the variance of a hypothetical measurement device that can measure the parameters directly, and is related to practical identifiability of the parameters. If the individual parameters are unidentifiable, correlation between parameter combinations is assessed through conditional mutual information to determine which sets of parameters can be identified together. The information theoretic quantities of entropy and information are evaluated numerically through a combination of Monte Carlo and k-nearest neighbour methods in a non-parametric fashion. Unlike many methods to evaluate identifiability proposed in the literature, the proposed approach takes the measurement-noise into account and is not restricted to any particular noise-structure. Whilst computationally intensive for large dynamical systems, it is easily parallelisable and is non-intrusive as it does not necessitate re-writing of the numerical solvers of the dynamical system. The application of such an approach is presented for a variety of dynamical systems--ranging from systems governed by ordinary differential equations to partial differential equations--and, where possible, validated against results previously published in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multi-way Communications: An Information Theoretic Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2015-09-15

    Multi-way communication is a means to significantly improve the spectral efficiency of wireless networks. For instance, in a bi-directional (or two-way) communication channel, two users can simultaneously use the transmission medium to exchange information, thus achieving up to twice the rate that would be achieved had each user transmitted separately. Multi-way communications provides an overview on the developments in this research area since it has been initiated by Shannon. The basic two-way communication channel is considered first, followed by the two-way relay channel obtained by the deployment of an additional cooperative relay node to improve the overall communication performance. This basic setup is then extended to multi-user systems. For all these setups, fundamental limits on the achievable rates are reviewed, thereby making use of a linear high-SNR deterministic channel model to provide valuable insights which are helpful when discussing the coding schemes for Gaussian channel models in detail. Several tools and communication strategies are used in the process, including (but not limited to) computation, signal-space alignment, and nested-lattice codes. Finally, extensions of multi-way communication channels to multiple antenna settings are discussed. © 2015 A. Chaaban and A. Sezgin.

  7. Information theoretical assessment of visual communication with subband coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Fales, Carl L.; Huck, Friedrich O.

    1994-09-01

    A well-designed visual communication channel is one which transmits the most information about a radiance field with the fewest artifacts. The role of image processing, encoding and restoration is to improve the quality of visual communication channels by minimizing the error in the transmitted data. Conventionally this role has been analyzed strictly in the digital domain neglecting the effects of image-gathering and image-display devices on the quality of the image. This results in the design of a visual communication channel which is `suboptimal.' We propose an end-to-end assessment of the imaging process which incorporates the influences of these devices in the design of the encoder and the restoration process. This assessment combines Shannon's communication theory with Wiener's restoration filter and with the critical design factors of the image gathering and display devices, thus providing the metrics needed to quantify and optimize the end-to-end performance of the visual communication channel. Results show that the design of the image-gathering device plays a significant role in determining the quality of the visual communication channel and in designing the analysis filters for subband encoding.

  8. Human papillomavirus (HPV) information needs: a theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane; Waller, Jo; Grant, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Background With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination in the UK, health professionals will start to receive questions about the virus from their patients. This study aimed to identify the key questions about HPV that British women will ask when considering having an HPV test or vaccination. Methods Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 21 women to discover what they wanted to know about HPV. A thematic framework approach was used to analyse the data and identify key themes in women's HPV knowledge requirements. Results Women's questions about HPV fell into six areas: identity (e.g. What are the symptoms?), cause (e.g. How do you get HPV?), timeline (e.g. How long does it last?), consequences (e.g. Does it always cause cervical cancer?) and control-cure (e.g. Can you prevent infection?). In addition, they asked procedural questions about testing and vaccination (e.g. Where do I get an HPV test?). These mapped well onto the dimensions identified in Leventhal's description of lay models of illness, called the 'Common Sense Model' (CSM). Discussion and conclusions These results indicated that the majority of the questions women asked about HPV fitted well into the CSM, which therefore provides a structure for women's information needs. The findings could help health professionals understand what questions they may be expected to answer. Framing educational materials using the CSM themes may also help health educators achieve a good fit with what the public want to know. PMID:19126314

  9. State-of-the-Art: Research Theoretical Framework of Information Systems Implementation Research in the Health Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetteh, Godwin Kofi

    2014-01-01

    This study is about the state-of-the-art of reference theories and theoretical framework of information systems implementation research in the health industry in the Sub-Saharan countries from a process perspective. A process – variance framework, Poole et al, (2000), Markus & Robey, (1988......) and Shaw & Jarvenpaa, (1997) is employed to examine reference theories employed in research conducted on information systems implementation in the health sector in the Sub-Saharan region and published between 2003 and 2013. Using a number of key words and searching on a number of databases, EBSCO, CSA...... the process theoretical framework to enhance our insight into successful information systems implementation in the region. It is our optimism that the process based theoretical framework will be useful for, information system practitioners and organisational managers and researchers in the health sector...

  10. Boosting healthy heart employer-sponsored health dissemination efforts: identification and information-sharing intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Keri K; Pastorek, Angie; Crook, Brittani; Mackert, Michael; Donovan, Erin E; Shalev, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Health information dissemination options have expanded to include workplaces and employer-sponsored efforts. This study focuses on a core relational concept found in workplaces, organizational identification-the feeling of belongingness-and the impact of partnering with employers and health clinics in health information dissemination. We use social-identity theory and multiple identification to test our predictions from a sample of working adults representing more than 100 different employers. We found that when people strongly identify with their employer, they have increased health behavioral intentions and they intend to talk about the health information with coworkers. The significant models explain more than 50% and 30% of the variance in these two outcomes. The experimental results examining single and multiple organizational sources revealed no differences on any outcomes. These findings offer a contribution to health information dissemination research by articulating how identification with an employer functions to affect behavioral intentions.

  11. Returns to Qualification in Informal Employment: A Study of Urban Youth in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Informal employment is a reality for roughly two-thirds of economically active youth in urban Egypt, and it has been argued to be correlated with poverty, poor working conditions, and few opportunities for advancement. This essay analyzes whether informal employment rewards job qualification measures, using survey data from 2006 and a Blinder-Oaxaca wage decomposition. After creating a taxonomy of formal, para-formal, and informal modes of qualification, it is shown that formal public and for...

  12. [Can informal employment be compared in South America? Analysis of its definition, measurement and classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marisol E; Tarafa Orpinell, Gemma; Jódar Martínez, Pere; Benach, Joan

    2015-01-01

    To characterize and analyze the situation of informal employment with regard to its definition, measurement and classification in South American countries. A literature review was conducted from four databases and grey literature through a scoping review, which included reports from international organizations and from the 12 countries in South America. The data were analyzed by evaluating content and establishing similarities among countries. The data reviewed showed a disparity in the definitions used, although many countries define informal employment as workers with no contract. Most countries measured informal employment through household surveys, but due to the differences in classifications, the information found was heterogeneous, with little standardization among registries. Therefore, the data could not be compared at a regional level. The definition of the International Labour Organization was not useful to study informal employment in the countries studied. The definition should include protected and unprotected workers. An appropriate and specific definition of informal employment would allow nuances to be studied within the concept, revealing the loopholes faced by most of the population working informally. The key to meaningful comparisons within the study region is to incorporate common indicators among local registration systems (measurement) in order to determine the public health impact in the informally employed population. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. TRENDS OF EMPLOYMENT IN INFORMAL SECTOR IN ROMANIA DURING CRISIS;ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisica Silvia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes the size and trend of employment in the informal sector as affected during the recent years by the crisis and by showing the relation with informal economy. The paper is structured on three parts. The first part focuses on the concepts and methodology popular and recommended by the international organizations together with the ones applied for the estimations presented in the paper. It brings information on the conceptual framework endorsed by International Labour Office (ILO on the 15-th International Conference of Labour Statisticians (15th ICLS - on informal sector (which was subsequently included in the revised international System of National Accounts, SNA 1993 and employment in informal sector - and on 17th ICLS, on informal employment. Methods used for obtaining the estimates for Romania figures on informal economy and employment are treated. For the informal economy the method used by National Statistical Institute of Romania (INS for estimating the underground economy and own calculations were used. For estimating the employment in informal sector a method developed by the authors was applied which consists, on short, on reconciliation between demand and supply available from statistical sources. Second part is dedicated to the analysis on the estimates produced, with observations on the trends induced by the crisis on informal economy and employment. The second also deals with several characteristics and dimensions of the employment in informal sector by gender and economic activities as well as the relation with several macroeconomic and social indicators. Finally, the third and last part proposes the direction of action and policies aimed to combat and reduce the informal sector and to transfer it into the light, visible side, i.e. the formal sector.

  14. 75 FR 45173 - Proposed Collection; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...) Form, Demographic Information on Applicants, OMB No. 3046-0046 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... add an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) form, Demographic Information on Applicants, OMB... with other demographic information, as part of their organizational self-analyses to determine whether...

  15. 76 FR 42131 - Agency Information Collection Activities: DHS Individual Complaint of Employment Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (29 U.S.C. 621 et seq.) (age), the Equal Pay Act (29 U.S.C. 206(d)) (sex... Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). DHS previously published this information...: It is the policy of the Government of the United States to provide equal opportunity in employment...

  16. Information Management Graduates' Accounts of Their Employability: A Case Study from the University of Sheffield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Andrew M.; Al Daoud, Mohammad; Rudd, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring that graduates are employable is an important priority for universities. It is challenging for fields such as Information Management (IM), that are not fully understood by employers and where there is no very clearly defined entry level job market. This paper takes a graduate identity perspective to explore how IM graduates from the…

  17. 12 CFR 268.205 - Employment of aliens; Access to sensitive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment of aliens; Access to sensitive... Complaints § 268.205 Employment of aliens; Access to sensitive information. (a) Definitions. The definitions...— (i) A citizen or National of the United States, (ii) An alien who: (A) Meets the conditions set forth...

  18. Exploring the contribution of formal and informal learning to academic staff member employability: A Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, Marcel; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van Rooij, Shahron Williams

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Little attention has been paid to the employability of academic staff and the extent to which continuous learning contributes to academic career success. The purpose of this paper is to explore the contribution of formal and informal learning to employability. Design/methodology/approach –

  19. Experimental and theoretical study on spray behaviors of modified bio-ethanol fuel employing direct injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahremani Amirreza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key solutions to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines is direct injection of bio-fuels. A new modified bio-ethanol is produced to be substituted by fossil fuels in gasoline direct injection engines. The key advantages of modified bio-ethanol fuel as an alternative fuel are higher octane number and oxygen content, a long-chain hydro-carbon fuel, and lower emissions compared to fossil fuels. In the present study spray properties of a modified bio-ethanol and its atomization behaviors have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Based on atomization physics of droplets dimensional analysis has been performed to develop a new non-dimensional number namely atomization index. This number determines the atomization level of the spray. Applying quasi-steady jet theory, air entrainment and fuel-air mixing studies have been performed. The spray atomization behaviors such as atomization index number, Ohnesorge number, and Sauter mean diameter have been investigated employing atomization model. The influences of injection and ambient conditions on spray properties of different blends of modified bio-ethanol and gasoline fuels have been investigated performing high-speed visualization technique. Results indicate that decreasing the difference of injection and ambient pressures increases spray cone angle and projected area, and decreases spray tip penetration length. As expected, increasing injection pressure improves atomization behaviors of the spray. Increasing percentage of modified bio-ethanol in the blend, increases spray tip penetration and decreases the projected area as well.

  20. Theoretical framework for government information service delivery to deep rural communities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, PS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study to determine the information requirements of communities in deep rural areas on government services and how this information can be made available to them. The study then proposes an e-government theoretical framework...

  1. Locating sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material smuggling: a spatial information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Jay; Taylor, Jeffrey; Zhou, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM) smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  2. Locating Sensors for Detecting Source-to-Target Patterns of Special Nuclear Material Smuggling: A Spatial Information Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  3. Employment and Work Motivation in the Information Economy: Transformation and Interrelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmuk Nadiya A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study and systematize the trends in the transformation of employment and work motivation in the information economy. As a result of the study, the main trends in the transformation of employment in the information economy are identified. The interrelation between the transformation of employment and work motivation is substantiated. A comparative analysis of the main elements of the motivational model in the traditional and information economy is carried out. A new form of interaction between remote digital workers in distributed teams is explored. A new element of the digital labor market – artificial intelligence – is characterized and its role and place in it is defined. Attention is focused on changing the role of artificial intelligence from the labor market object to its subject. There proposed the author’s definition of the concept “employment in the information economy”, which is based on the change in the essential characteristics of employment under the influence of the development of digital technologies. The interrelation between the transformation of employment and work motivation is substantiated. A comparative analysis of the main elements of the motivational model in the traditional and information economy is carried out. A new form of interaction between remote digital workers in distributed teams is explored.

  4. Understanding Employee Awareness of Health Care Quality Information: How Can Employers Benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jean; Feldman, Roger; Carlin, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    Objective To analyze the factors associated with employee awareness of employer-disseminated quality information on providers. Data Sources Primary data were collected in 2002 on a stratified, random sample of 1,365 employees in 16 firms that are members of the Buyers Health Care Action Group (BHCAG) located in the Minneapolis–St. Paul region. An employer survey was also conducted to assess how employers communicated the quality information to employees. Study Design In 2001, BHCAG sponsored two programs for reporting provider quality. We specify employee awareness of the quality information to depend on factors that influence the benefits and costs of search. Factors influencing the benefits include age, sex, provider satisfaction, health status, job tenure, and Twin Cities tenure. Factors influencing search costs include employee income, education, and employer communication strategies. We estimate the model using bivariate probit analysis. Data Collection Employee data were collected by phone survey. Principal Findings Overall, the level of quality information awareness is low. However, employer communication strategies such as distributing booklets to all employees or making them available on request have a large effect on the probability of quality information awareness. Employee education and utilization of providers' services are also positively related to awareness. Conclusions This study is one of the first to investigate employee awareness of provider quality information. Given the direct implications for medical outcomes, one might anticipate higher rates of awareness regarding provider quality, relative to plan quality. However, we do not find empirical evidence to support this assertion. PMID:15533188

  5. Informal Employment and Quality of Life in Rural Areas of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chreneková Marcela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Informal economy is rather difficult to define and demarcate in the methodological context. International Conference of Labour Statisticians in 2003 adopted a set of guidelines regarding definition of statistical categories of informal employment. These include for example employed unregistered own-account workers, contributing family workers, persons who work based on oral agreement, etc. Informal economy is a contentious topic in many developing countries as it brings about many elements that from several aspects adversely affect the development. The most commonly stressed are the fiscal implications (associated with tax revenue loss and some social concerns. However, in some parts of the world informal sector went from being considered as a negative occurrence to be tolerated as a partial solution to some of the challenges that hinder development of rural regions and communities. The aim of the paper is to determine the relationship between informal economy and level of development and quality of life in Ukrainian regions. The paper examines the role of informal economy in regional structure of Ukraine, while confronting the findings with regional divergence in relevant indicators of development and quality of life. There are statistically significant differences in the size of the informal employment among different types of Ukrainian regions (by rural-urban typology. With increasing share of informal employment in the regions, the income level of households decreases significantly even when we take into consideration the level of unemployment.

  6. Information-theoretic discrepancy based iterative reconstructions (IDIR) for polychromatic x-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Kwang Eun; Lee, Jongha; Sung, Younghun; Lee, SeongDeok

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray photons generated from a typical x-ray source for clinical applications exhibit a broad range of wavelengths, and the interactions between individual particles and biological substances depend on particles' energy levels. Most existing reconstruction methods for transmission tomography, however, neglect this polychromatic nature of measurements and rely on the monochromatic approximation. In this study, we developed a new family of iterative methods that incorporates the exact polychromatic model into tomographic image recovery, which improves the accuracy and quality of reconstruction.Methods: The generalized information-theoretic discrepancy (GID) was employed as a new metric for quantifying the distance between the measured and synthetic data. By using special features of the GID, the objective function for polychromatic reconstruction which contains a double integral over the wavelength and the trajectory of incident x-rays was simplified to a paraboloidal form without using the monochromatic approximation. More specifically, the original GID was replaced with a surrogate function with two auxiliary, energy-dependent variables. Subsequently, the alternating minimization technique was applied to solve the double minimization problem. Based on the optimization transfer principle, the objective function was further simplified to the paraboloidal equation, which leads to a closed-form update formula. Numerical experiments on the beam-hardening correction and material-selective reconstruction were conducted to compare and assess the performance of conventional methods and the proposed algorithms.Results: The authors found that the GID determines the distance between its two arguments in a flexible manner. In this study, three groups of GIDs with distinct data representations were considered. The authors demonstrated that one type of GIDs that comprises “raw” data can be viewed as an extension of existing statistical reconstructions; under a

  7. Employers' Statutory Vicarious Liability in Terms of the Protection of Personal Information Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleen Millard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A person whose privacy has been infringed upon through the unlawful, culpable processing of his or her personal information can sue the infringer's employer based on vicarious liability or institute action based on the Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 (POPI. Section 99(1 of POPI provides a person (a "data subject" whose privacy has been infringed upon with the right to institute a civil action against the responsible party. POPI defines the responsible party as the person who determines the purpose of and means for the processing of the personal information of data subjects. Although POPI does not equate a responsible party to an employer, the term "responsible party" is undoubtedly a synonym for "employer" in this context. By holding an employer accountable for its employees' unlawful processing of a data subject's personal information, POPI creates a form of statutory vicarious liability. Since the defences available to an employer at common law and developed by case law differ from the statutory defences available to an employer in terms of POPI, it is necessary to compare the impact this new statute has on employers. From a risk perspective, employers must be aware of the serious implications of POPI. The question that arises is whether the Act perhaps takes matters too far. This article takes a critical look at the statutory defences available to an employer in vindication of a vicarious liability action brought by a data subject in terms of section 99(1 of POPI. It compares the defences found in section 99(2 of POPI and the common-law defences available to an employer fending off a delictual claim founded on the doctrine of vicarious liability. To support the argument that the statutory vicarious liability created by POPI is too harsh, the defences contained in section 99(2 of POPI are further analogised with those available to an employer in terms of section 60(4 of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA and other

  8. Quantum information theoretical analysis of various constructions for quantum secret sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, K.P.T.; Schoenmakers, B.; Tuyls, P.T.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, an information theoretical model for quantum secret sharing (QSS) schemes was introduced. By using this model, we prove that pure state quantum threshold schemes (QTS) can be constructed from quantum MDS codes and vice versa. In particular, we consider stabilizer codes and give a

  9. An Everyday and Theoretical Reading of "Perezhivanie" for Informing Research in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The concept of "perezhivanie" has received increasing attention in recent years. However, a clear understanding of this term has not yet been established. Mostly what is highlighted is the need for more informed theoretical discussion. In this paper, discussions centre on what "perezhivanie" means for research in early…

  10. Exploring super-gaussianity towards robust information-theoretical time delay estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodoros; Talantzis, Fotios; Boukis, Christos

    2013-01-01

    the effect upon TDE when modeling the source signal with different speech-based distributions. An information theoretical TDE method indirectly encapsulating higher order statistics (HOS) formed the basis of this work. The underlying assumption of Gaussian distributed source has been replaced...

  11. Phenomenological description of selected elementary chemical reaction mechanisms: An information-theoretic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, R.O.; Flores-Gallegos, N.; Iuga, C.; Carrera, E.M.; Angulo, J.C.; Antolin, J.

    2010-01-01

    The information-theoretic description of the course of two elementary chemical reactions allows a phenomenological description of the chemical course of the hydrogenic abstraction and the S N 2 identity reactions by use of Shannon entropic measures in position and momentum spaces. The analyses reveal their synchronous/asynchronous mechanistic behavior.

  12. On the information-theoretic approach to G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    D'Abramo, Germano

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review and analyze three published proofs of Chaitin's theorem, the celebrated information-theoretic version of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem. Then, we discuss our main perplexity concerning a key step common to all these demonstrations.

  13. Adaptive information-theoretic bounded rational decision-making with parametric priors

    OpenAIRE

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Braun, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Deviations from rational decision-making due to limited computational resources have been studied in the field of bounded rationality, originally proposed by Herbert Simon. There have been a number of different approaches to model bounded rationality ranging from optimality principles to heuristics. Here we take an information-theoretic approach to bounded rationality, where information-processing costs are measured by the relative entropy between a posterior decision strategy and a given fix...

  14. A short course in quantum information theory. An approach from theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, L.

    2007-01-01

    This short and concise primer takes the vantage point of theoretical physics and the unity of physics. It sets out to strip the burgeoning field of quantum information science to its basics by linking it to universal concepts in physics. An extensive lecture rather than a comprehensive textbook, this volume is based on courses delivered over several years to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, but essentially it addresses anyone with a working knowledge of basic quantum physics. Readers will find these lectures a most adequate entry point for theoretical studies in this field. (orig.)

  15. Employers' Perceptions of Information Technology Competency Requirements for Management Accounting Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraakman, Gary; O'Grady, Winifred; Askarany, Davood; Akroyd, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Management accountants work in a computerized workplace with information technology (IT) for producing financial ledgers and for reporting. Thus, the role of the management accountant has shifted from capturing and recording transactions to analyzing business issues. The research question is: what IT knowledge and skills do employers require of…

  16. Making the Ineffable Explicit: Estimating the Information Employed for Face Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangini, Michael C.; Biederman, Irving

    2004-01-01

    When we look at a face, we readily perceive that person's gender, expression, identity, age, and attractiveness. Perceivers as well as scientists have hitherto had little success in articulating just what information we are employing to achieve these subjectively immediate and effortless classifications. We describe here a method that estimates…

  17. 77 FR 7242 - Agency Information Collection (Contract for Training and Employment): Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC 20503 (202... for Training and Employment): Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0677.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Contract for Training...

  18. 78 FR 42537 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Online Survey of Web Services Employers; New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...-NEW] Agency Information Collection Activities: Online Survey of Web Services Employers; New... sector. It is necessary that USCIS obtains data on the E-Verify Program Web Services. Gaining an understanding of the Web Services process should enable USCIS to identify programmatic improvements to better...

  19. 77 FR 71634 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Employment and Training Administration Financial Report ACTION... Training Administration Financial Report,'' (Forms ETA-9130, ETA-9130-A, and ETA-9130-B) to the Office of...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations 29 CFR 95.52 and 97.41 codify ETA requirements for certain financial...

  20. 77 FR 31641 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Employment and Training Administration Financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Collection for Employment and Training Administration Financial Report Form ETA-9130, This is an Extension... approved by OMB are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients. The U.S. DOL ETA Financial Report is consistent with OMB efforts to streamline Federal financial reporting pursuant to Public...

  1. On the Determinants of Employment-Related Organised Education and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Staffan; Rubenson, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the distribution of employment-related organised education and informal learning in the Canadian workforce. The paper draws on a large-scale survey, the Changing Nature of Work and Lifelong Learning (WALL), which was based on structured and standardised telephone interviews with a representative sample of 5783 Canadian members…

  2. 75 FR 53724 - Proposed Collection; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT OFFICE Proposed Collection; Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Form, Demographic Information on Applicants, OMB 3046-0046; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The published document in the Federal Register of August 2...

  3. Open source tools for the information theoretic analysis of neural data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin A. A Ince

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent and rapid development of open-source software tools for the analysis of neurophysiological datasets consisting of multiple simultaneous recordings of spikes, field potentials and other neural signals holds the promise for a significant advance in the standardization, transparency, quality, reproducibility and variety of techniques used to analyze neurophysiological data and integrate the information obtained at different spatial and temporal scales. In this Review we focus on recent advances in open source toolboxes for the information theoretic analysis of neural responses. We also present examples of their use to investigate the role of spike timing precision, correlations across neurons and field potential fluctuations in the encoding of sensory information. These information toolboxes, available both in Matlab and Python programming environments, hold the potential to enlarge the domain of application of information theory to neuroscience and to lead to new discoveries about how neurons encode and transmit information.

  4. Open source tools for the information theoretic analysis of neural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Robin A A; Mazzoni, Alberto; Petersen, Rasmus S; Panzeri, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The recent and rapid development of open source software tools for the analysis of neurophysiological datasets consisting of simultaneous multiple recordings of spikes, field potentials and other neural signals holds the promise for a significant advance in the standardization, transparency, quality, reproducibility and variety of techniques used to analyze neurophysiological data and for the integration of information obtained at different spatial and temporal scales. In this review we focus on recent advances in open source toolboxes for the information theoretic analysis of neural responses. We also present examples of their use to investigate the role of spike timing precision, correlations across neurons, and field potential fluctuations in the encoding of sensory information. These information toolboxes, available both in MATLAB and Python programming environments, hold the potential to enlarge the domain of application of information theory to neuroscience and to lead to new discoveries about how neurons encode and transmit information.

  5. Information-Theoretic Properties of Auditory Sequences Dynamically Influence Expectation and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agres, Kat; Abdallah, Samer; Pearce, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    A basic function of cognition is to detect regularities in sensory input to facilitate the prediction and recognition of future events. It has been proposed that these implicit expectations arise from an internal predictive coding model, based on knowledge acquired through processes such as statistical learning, but it is unclear how different types of statistical information affect listeners' memory for auditory stimuli. We used a combination of behavioral and computational methods to investigate memory for non-linguistic auditory sequences. Participants repeatedly heard tone sequences varying systematically in their information-theoretic properties. Expectedness ratings of tones were collected during three listening sessions, and a recognition memory test was given after each session. Information-theoretic measures of sequential predictability significantly influenced listeners' expectedness ratings, and variations in these properties had a significant impact on memory performance. Predictable sequences yielded increasingly better memory performance with increasing exposure. Computational simulations using a probabilistic model of auditory expectation suggest that listeners dynamically formed a new, and increasingly accurate, implicit cognitive model of the information-theoretic structure of the sequences throughout the experimental session. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. The equivalence of information-theoretic and likelihood-based methods for neural dimensionality reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross S Williamson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus dimensionality-reduction methods in neuroscience seek to identify a low-dimensional space of stimulus features that affect a neuron's probability of spiking. One popular method, known as maximally informative dimensions (MID, uses an information-theoretic quantity known as "single-spike information" to identify this space. Here we examine MID from a model-based perspective. We show that MID is a maximum-likelihood estimator for the parameters of a linear-nonlinear-Poisson (LNP model, and that the empirical single-spike information corresponds to the normalized log-likelihood under a Poisson model. This equivalence implies that MID does not necessarily find maximally informative stimulus dimensions when spiking is not well described as Poisson. We provide several examples to illustrate this shortcoming, and derive a lower bound on the information lost when spiking is Bernoulli in discrete time bins. To overcome this limitation, we introduce model-based dimensionality reduction methods for neurons with non-Poisson firing statistics, and show that they can be framed equivalently in likelihood-based or information-theoretic terms. Finally, we show how to overcome practical limitations on the number of stimulus dimensions that MID can estimate by constraining the form of the non-parametric nonlinearity in an LNP model. We illustrate these methods with simulations and data from primate visual cortex.

  7. 78 FR 22912 - Proposed Extension of the Employment Information Form Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... with an opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing collections of information in accordance...)); Family and Medical Leave Act (29 U.S.C. 2616(a)); Immigration and Nationality Act H-2A program (8 U.S.C. 1188(g)); the Immigration and Nationality Act H-2B program (8 U.S.C. 1184(c)(14(B) and the Immigration...

  8. An information-theoretic approach to the modeling and analysis of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Garrett; Abante, Jordi; Feinberg, Andrew P; Goutsias, John

    2018-03-07

    DNA methylation is a stable form of epigenetic memory used by cells to control gene expression. Whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) has emerged as a gold-standard experimental technique for studying DNA methylation by producing high resolution genome-wide methylation profiles. Statistical modeling and analysis is employed to computationally extract and quantify information from these profiles in an effort to identify regions of the genome that demonstrate crucial or aberrant epigenetic behavior. However, the performance of most currently available methods for methylation analysis is hampered by their inability to directly account for statistical dependencies between neighboring methylation sites, thus ignoring significant information available in WGBS reads. We present a powerful information-theoretic approach for genome-wide modeling and analysis of WGBS data based on the 1D Ising model of statistical physics. This approach takes into account correlations in methylation by utilizing a joint probability model that encapsulates all information available in WGBS methylation reads and produces accurate results even when applied on single WGBS samples with low coverage. Using the Shannon entropy, our approach provides a rigorous quantification of methylation stochasticity in individual WGBS samples genome-wide. Furthermore, it utilizes the Jensen-Shannon distance to evaluate differences in methylation distributions between a test and a reference sample. Differential performance assessment using simulated and real human lung normal/cancer data demonstrate a clear superiority of our approach over DSS, a recently proposed method for WGBS data analysis. Critically, these results demonstrate that marginal methods become statistically invalid when correlations are present in the data. This contribution demonstrates clear benefits and the necessity of modeling joint probability distributions of methylation using the 1D Ising model of statistical physics and of

  9. 77 FR 24225 - Information Collection Approval; Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Information Collection Approval; Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States AGENCY: Employment and Training... the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States; Final Rule. See 77 FR...

  10. Employment Pattern, Skills and Training Issues among Informal Sector Workers in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An informal sector in any economy provides different kinds of employment opportunities to people. In Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the female are more involved in regular jobs as compare to the causal and self-employed workers. The secondary and college studied male and female are found more in regular jobs. The high school studied male and illiterate female are working on causal jobs. The causal jobs do not require more education and skills. In self-employed category, the secondary school studied male and high school studied female are found more. The monthly income of workers involved in regular jobs is much higher than the causal and self-employed workers. The moderate malnourished females are found more as compare to the male in causal and self-employed category. The multi nominal logit regression model shows that the causal workers have positive correlation with illiterate male but it is negatively co-related with high school studied male, illiterate and secondary studied female. The monthly income, source of water, refrigerator and condom use is negatively co-related with causal workers as compare to regular workers. The self-employed workers have negative co-relation with monthly wage, source of water and watch cinema regularly as compare to the regular workers. Therefore government must provide infrastructural facilities in all slums of region. The infrastructural facilities such as water supply, electricity, sewage and solid waste collection must be provided in all slums of region. Causal workers must be provided the vocational training to start their own business. Commercial and co-operative banks must provide loans to poor people of slums. Females must be encouraged to take loan and start small business. Government must provide low cost housing to causal and self-employed workers in region. Such policies will certainly improve standard of living of informal sector workers in region.

  11. Using assistive technology outcomes research to inform policy related to the employment of individuals with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Steven; Edyburn, Dave L; Rust, Kathy L; Schwanke, Todd D; Smith, Roger O

    2008-01-01

    We know that work is recognized as a central component of life for individuals with and without disabilities. It yields many physical and psychological benefits to the individual while simultaneously contributing numerous benefits to society. Lawmakers have enacted a plethora of laws designed to prevent discrimination, provide incentives for employers to hire individuals with disabilities, and facilitate job training/career preparation. Assistive technology figures prominently in disability employment law as a critical strategy for gaining access and supporting employment and upward mobility in the workplace. However, little systematic effort has been devoted to examining assistive technology use and outcomes as they relate to the employment of individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to articulate a series of issues that permeate assistive technology outcome measurement in employment settings and subsequently affect the use of research knowledge for federal and state policy makers. For each issue, the authors pose three questions for critical analysis: Does the law compel the provision of assistive technology? Does outcome data play any part in the operation of the law? When it does, what kind of data would be useful to collect and where could it be found? Finally, the authors provide a brief glimpse of the current and future research efforts concerning the RSA-911 database. The recent database summaries exemplify the importance of such a national data collection system for informing federal policy, particularly concerning the contributions of assistive technology device use and services on improving the employment of individuals with disabilities.

  12. Expectancy-Violation and Information-Theoretic Models of Melodic Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Eerola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study assesses two types of models for melodic complexity: one based on expectancy violations and the other one related to an information-theoretic account of redundancy in music. Seven different datasets spanning artificial sequences, folk and pop songs were used to refine and assess the models. The refinement eliminated unnecessary components from both types of models. The final analysis pitted three variants of the two model types against each other and could explain from 46-74% of the variance in the ratings across the datasets. The most parsimonious models were identified with an information-theoretic criterion. This suggested that the simplified expectancy-violation models were the most efficient for these sets of data. However, the differences between all optimized models were subtle in terms both of performance and simplicity.

  13. Theoretical aspects of cellular decision-making and information-processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Kamimura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic biological processes have extraordinary complexity and variety at the sub-cellular, intra-cellular, and multi-cellular levels. In dealing with such complex phenomena, conceptual and theoretical frameworks are crucial, which enable us to understand seemingly different intra- and inter-cellular phenomena from unified viewpoints. Decision-making is one such concept that has attracted much attention recently. Since a number of cellular behavior can be regarded as processes to make specific actions in response to external stimuli, decision-making can cover and has been used to explain a broad range of different cellular phenomena [Balázsi et al. (Cell 144(6):910, 2011), Zeng et al. (Cell 141(4):682, 2010)]. Decision-making is also closely related to cellular information-processing because appropriate decisions cannot be made without exploiting the information that the external stimuli contain. Efficiency of information transduction and processing by intra-cellular networks determines the amount of information obtained, which in turn limits the efficiency of subsequent decision-making. Furthermore, information-processing itself can serve as another concept that is crucial for understanding of other biological processes than decision-making. In this work, we review recent theoretical developments on cellular decision-making and information-processing by focusing on the relation between these two concepts.

  14. An integrated organisation-wide data quality management and information governance framework: theoretical underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Pearce, Christopher; Liyanage, Harshana; Liaw, Gladys S S; de Lusignan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Increasing investment in eHealth aims to improve cost effectiveness and safety of care. Data extraction and aggregation can create new data products to improve professional practice and provide feedback to improve the quality of source data. A previous systematic review concluded that locally relevant clinical indicators and use of clinical record systems could support clinical governance. We aimed to extend and update the review with a theoretical framework. We searched PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ABI Inform (Proquest) and Business Source Premier (EBSCO) using the terms curation, information ecosystem, data quality management (DQM), data governance, information governance (IG) and data stewardship. We focused on and analysed the scope of DQM and IG processes, theoretical frameworks, and determinants of the processing, quality assurance, presentation and sharing of data across the enterprise. There are good theoretical reasons for integrated governance, but there is variable alignment of DQM, IG and health system objectives across the health enterprise. Ethical constraints exist that require health information ecosystems to process data in ways that are aligned with improving health and system efficiency and ensuring patient safety. Despite an increasingly 'big-data' environment, DQM and IG in health services are still fragmented across the data production cycle. We extend current work on DQM and IG with a theoretical framework for integrated IG across the data cycle. The dimensions of this theory-based framework would require testing with qualitative and quantitative studies to examine the applicability and utility, along with an evaluation of its impact on data quality across the health enterprise.

  15. An integrated organisation-wide data quality management and information governance framework: theoretical underpinnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaw-Teng Liaw

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Increasing investment in eHealth aims to improve cost effectiveness and safety of care. Data extraction and aggregation can create new data products to improve professional practice and provide feedback to improve the quality of source data. A previous systematic review concluded that locally relevant clinical indicators and use of clinical record systems could support clinical governance. We aimed to extend and update the review with a theoretical framework.Methods We searched PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ABI Inform (Proquest and Business Source Premier (EBSCO using the terms curation, information ecosystem, data quality management (DQM, data governance, information governance (IG and data stewardship. We focused on and analysed the scope of DQM and IG processes, theoretical frameworks, and determinants of the processing, quality assurance, presentation and sharing of data across the enterprise.Findings There are good theoretical reasons for integrated governance, but there is variable alignment of DQM, IG and health system objectives across the health enterprise. Ethical constraints exist that require health information ecosystems to process data in ways that are aligned with improving health and system efficiency and ensuring patient safety. Despite an increasingly ‘big-data’ environment, DQM and IG in health services are still fragmented across the data production cycle. We extend current work on DQM and IG with a theoretical framework for integrated IG across the data cycle.Conclusions The dimensions of this theory-based framework would require testing with qualitative and quantitative studies to examine the applicability and utility, along with an evaluation of its impact on data quality across the health enterprise.

  16. Perspectives on Cybersecurity Information Sharing among Multiple Stakeholders Using a Decision-Theoretic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meilin; Devine, Laura; Zhuang, Jun

    2018-02-01

    The government, private sectors, and others users of the Internet are increasingly faced with the risk of cyber incidents. Damage to computer systems and theft of sensitive data caused by cyber attacks have the potential to result in lasting harm to entities under attack, or to society as a whole. The effects of cyber attacks are not always obvious, and detecting them is not a simple proposition. As the U.S. federal government believes that information sharing on cybersecurity issues among organizations is essential to safety, security, and resilience, the importance of trusted information exchange has been emphasized to support public and private decision making by encouraging the creation of the Information Sharing and Analysis Center (ISAC). Through a decision-theoretic approach, this article provides new perspectives on ISAC, and the advent of the new Information Sharing and Analysis Organizations (ISAOs), which are intended to provide similar benefits to organizations that cannot fit easily into the ISAC structure. To help understand the processes of information sharing against cyber threats, this article illustrates 15 representative information sharing structures between ISAC, government, and other participating entities, and provide discussions on the strategic interactions between different stakeholders. This article also identifies the costs of information sharing and information security borne by different parties in this public-private partnership both before and after cyber attacks, as well as the two main benefits. This article provides perspectives on the mechanism of information sharing and some detailed cost-benefit analysis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. The informal recycling in the international and local context: theoretical Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepes P, Dora Luz

    2002-01-01

    This article is a synthesis of the theoretical aspects related with the urban problem of the informal recycling in our means, and it is framed inside the denominated investigation project alternatives for their invigoration of the informal recycling in Medellin, which is a thesis of the grade that looks for to strengthen the informal recycling through the study of the factors associated to the labor productivity of the informal recycle. Specifically, the study will identify options of improvement of its work y points to propose alternatives to dignify the labor of these people integrally by the light of environmental precepts, technicians, normative, institutional social and of sustainability. This document describe the theoretical elements in which this investigation will be based, showing the informal recycling inside of an international context, and their situation in a national and local environment. As a result of the bibliographical revision carried out, can be said, that it glimpses a low interest in to improve the conditions of work a International level of the informal recycle, unless the strategies that it outlines the international labor organization, with regard to the strengthening of the informal economy; in Latin America, it has not been possible to go further of the official rhetoric and the pro motion of the groups environmentalists, but in the issue of the recovery policies, reuse, and the recycling of solid wastes, if there. Has been a sustained advance; at national level clear strategies to improve the informal work of the recycle are being identified, however, lacks many efforts to develop the committed actions with these strategies, in spite of the fact that has been advancing the creation of recycle organizations little by little

  18. INFORMATION TECHONOLOGY AND LIFELONG EDUCATION – IMPLICATIONS ON THE EU EMPLOYED POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality and the skills of human resources are important factors in the success of every organization wherever it act. Moreover this is really true in a very competitive market such as European Union. In the European Union the number of persons who are taking part in high education studies after the age of 25 years has seen an upward trend in recent years, increasing thus the share of employed graduates of tertiary education in total employment over 25 years. This increase is generated by the access to education forms adapted in terms of time and location of training. The appearance and development of these forms can be explained by the use of information technology (Internet access. Statistics show that in the EU, household access to the Internet and its frequency of use was also increasing, approximately 80% of all persons aged 16 to 74 years have ever used this information and communication tool.

  19. An Information Theoretic Analysis of Classification Sorting and Cognition by Ninth Grade Children within a Piagetian Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, David Livingston

    The purpose of this study was to use an information theoretic memory model to quantitatively investigate classification sorting and recall behaviors of various groups of students. The model provided theorems for the determination of information theoretic measures from which inferences concerning mental processing were made. The basic procedure…

  20. A short course in quantum information theory. An approach from theoretical physics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    This short and concise primer takes the vantage point of theoretical physics and the unity of physics. It sets out to strip the burgeoning field of quantum information science to its basics by linking it to universal concepts in physics. An extensive lecture rather than a comprehensive textbook, this volume is based on courses delivered over several years to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, but essentially it addresses anyone with a working knowledge of basic quantum physics. Readers will find these lectures a most adequate entry point for theoretical studies in this field. For the second edition, the authors has succeeded in adding many new topics while sticking to the conciseness of the overall approach. A new chapter on qubit thermodynamics has been added, while new sections and subsections have been incorporated in various chapter to deal with weak and time-continuous measurements, period-finding quantum algorithms and quantum error corrections. From the reviews of the first edition: ''The best things about this book are its brevity and clarity. In around 100 pages it provides a tutorial introduction to quantum information theory, including problems and solutions.. it's worth a look if you want to quickly get up to speed with the language and central concepts of quantum information theory, including the background classical information theory.'' (Craig Savage, Australian Physics, Vol. 44 (2), 2007). (orig.)

  1. A short course in quantum information theory an approach from theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Diosi, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    This short and concise primer takes the vantage point of theoretical physics and the unity of physics. It sets out to strip the burgeoning field of quantum information science to its basics by linking it to universal concepts in physics. An extensive lecture rather than a comprehensive textbook, this volume is based on courses delivered over several years to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, but essentially it addresses anyone with a working knowledge of basic quantum physics. Readers will find these lectures a most adequate entry point for theoretical studies in this field. For the second edition, the authors has succeeded in adding many new topics while sticking to the conciseness of the overall approach. A new chapter on qubit thermodynamics has been added, while new sections and subsections have been incorporated in various chapter to deal with weak and time-continuous measurements, period-finding quantum algorithms and quantum error corrections. From the reviews of the first edition...

  2. An Information-Theoretic-Cluster Visualization for Self-Organizing Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito da Silva, Leonardo Enzo; Wunsch, Donald C

    2018-06-01

    Improved data visualization will be a significant tool to enhance cluster analysis. In this paper, an information-theoretic-based method for cluster visualization using self-organizing maps (SOMs) is presented. The information-theoretic visualization (IT-vis) has the same structure as the unified distance matrix, but instead of depicting Euclidean distances between adjacent neurons, it displays the similarity between the distributions associated with adjacent neurons. Each SOM neuron has an associated subset of the data set whose cardinality controls the granularity of the IT-vis and with which the first- and second-order statistics are computed and used to estimate their probability density functions. These are used to calculate the similarity measure, based on Renyi's quadratic cross entropy and cross information potential (CIP). The introduced visualizations combine the low computational cost and kernel estimation properties of the representative CIP and the data structure representation of a single-linkage-based grouping algorithm to generate an enhanced SOM-based visualization. The visual quality of the IT-vis is assessed by comparing it with other visualization methods for several real-world and synthetic benchmark data sets. Thus, this paper also contains a significant literature survey. The experiments demonstrate the IT-vis cluster revealing capabilities, in which cluster boundaries are sharply captured. Additionally, the information-theoretic visualizations are used to perform clustering of the SOM. Compared with other methods, IT-vis of large SOMs yielded the best results in this paper, for which the quality of the final partitions was evaluated using external validity indices.

  3. Information Management in Portugal: education and employment conditions and some prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Vieira de Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Professors Cristina Freitas and Maria da Graça Simões answer questions prepared by teachers from the Faculdade de Informação e Comunicação (Gestão da Informação Undergraduate Degree da Universidade Federal de Goiás - UFG. The questions are related to the educational structure dedicated to the issues of information management in Portugal, the influence of the "Big Data" phenomenon on education and training in the area - including discussions on data governance, the fundation areas of Information Management and the main approaches to information research in the Country. Besides, they discuss the employment conditions (threats and opportunities for professionals in Information Management in Portugal and in Europe [Available Language: Portuguese/Portugal].

  4. Multivariate information-theoretic measures reveal directed information structure and task relevant changes in fMRI connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizier, Joseph T; Heinzle, Jakob; Horstmann, Annette; Haynes, John-Dylan; Prokopenko, Mikhail

    2011-02-01

    The human brain undertakes highly sophisticated information processing facilitated by the interaction between its sub-regions. We present a novel method for interregional connectivity analysis, using multivariate extensions to the mutual information and transfer entropy. The method allows us to identify the underlying directed information structure between brain regions, and how that structure changes according to behavioral conditions. This method is distinguished in using asymmetric, multivariate, information-theoretical analysis, which captures not only directional and non-linear relationships, but also collective interactions. Importantly, the method is able to estimate multivariate information measures with only relatively little data. We demonstrate the method to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging time series to establish the directed information structure between brain regions involved in a visuo-motor tracking task. Importantly, this results in a tiered structure, with known movement planning regions driving visual and motor control regions. Also, we examine the changes in this structure as the difficulty of the tracking task is increased. We find that task difficulty modulates the coupling strength between regions of a cortical network involved in movement planning and between motor cortex and the cerebellum which is involved in the fine-tuning of motor control. It is likely these methods will find utility in identifying interregional structure (and experimentally induced changes in this structure) in other cognitive tasks and data modalities.

  5. Employer Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Stroblová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the Master Thesis is to describe how to build Employer Brand a company. It is based on the description of Employer Branding project of a particular company and the evaluation its process. The thesis is a case study and consists of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focuses on trends and changes in leadership approach, definition of Employer Branding and HR Marketing. The practical part deals with the brand building process itself, describes the outputs of the proj...

  6. Information-theoretic model selection for optimal prediction of stochastic dynamical systems from data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, David

    2018-03-01

    In the absence of mechanistic or phenomenological models of real-world systems, data-driven models become necessary. The discovery of various embedding theorems in the 1980s and 1990s motivated a powerful set of tools for analyzing deterministic dynamical systems via delay-coordinate embeddings of observations of their component states. However, in many branches of science, the condition of operational determinism is not satisfied, and stochastic models must be brought to bear. For such stochastic models, the tool set developed for delay-coordinate embedding is no longer appropriate, and a new toolkit must be developed. We present an information-theoretic criterion, the negative log-predictive likelihood, for selecting the embedding dimension for a predictively optimal data-driven model of a stochastic dynamical system. We develop a nonparametric estimator for the negative log-predictive likelihood and compare its performance to a recently proposed criterion based on active information storage. Finally, we show how the output of the model selection procedure can be used to compare candidate predictors for a stochastic system to an information-theoretic lower bound.

  7. E-loyalty towards a cancer information website: applying a theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, Rik; Beekers, Nienke; van Eenbergen, Mies; Becker, Monique; Jongen, Lilian; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2014-06-01

    To provide more insight into user perceptions related to e-loyalty towards a cancer information website. This is needed to assure adequate provision of high quality information during the full process of cancer treatment-from diagnosis to after care-and an important first step towards optimizing cancer information websites in order to promote e-loyalty. Participants were cancer patients (n = 63) and informal caregivers (n = 202) that visited a website providing regional information about cancer care for all types of cancer. Subsequently, they filled out a questionnaire assessing e-loyalty towards the website and user perceptions (efficiency, effectiveness, active trust and enjoyment) based on a theoretical framework derived from the field of e-commerce. A structural equation model was constructed to test the relationships between user perceptions and e-loyalty. Participants in general could find the information they were looking for (efficiency), thought it was relevant (effectiveness) and that they could act upon it (active trust) and thought the visit itself was pleasant (enjoyment). Effectiveness and enjoyment were both positively related with e-loyalty, but this was mediated by active trust. Efficiency was positively related with e-loyalty. The explained variance of e-loyalty was high (R(2)  = 0.70). This study demonstrates that the importance of user perceptions is not limited to fields such as e-commerce but is also present within the context of cancer information websites. The high information need among participants might explain the positive relationship between efficiency and e-loyalty. Therefore, cancer information websites need to foster easy search and access of information provided. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. 77 FR 37715 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Self-Employment Assistance (SEA) for UI Claimants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Self-Employment Assistance (SEA) for UI Claimants, Extension Without Revisions AGENCY... changes. Title: Self-Employment Assistance for UI Claimants. OMB Number: 1205-0490. Affected Public: State...

  9. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR INFORMATION AND EDUCATIONAL COMPLEX DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE AT A HIGHER INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniia Nikolaevna Kikot

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The question of organization of contemporary education process is getting more important nowadays in the conditions of ICT (information and communication technologies and e-education usage.This defines one of the most important methodological and research directions in the university – creation of informational-educational course unit complex as the foundation of e-University resource.The foundation of informational-educational course unit complex creation are the concepts of openness, accessibility, clearness, personalisation and that allow to built the requirements system to the complex creation and its substantial content.The main functions of informational educational complex are detected: informational, educational, controlling and communicative.It’s defined that into the basis of scientific justification of new structure elements of informational-educational of course unit complex development and introduction is necessary to include creation of e-workbook, e-workshops in order to organize theoretical and practical e-conferences.Development of ICT in education that provides e-education application assume establishment of distance learning techno-logies for educational programme implementation.

  10. Information-Theoretic Approaches for Evaluating Complex Adaptive Social Simulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Jiao, Yu [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose information-theoretic approaches for comparing and evaluating complex agent-based models. In information theoretic terms, entropy and mutual information are two measures of system complexity. We used entropy as a measure of the regularity of the number of agents in a social class; and mutual information as a measure of information shared by two social classes. Using our approaches, we compared two analogous agent-based (AB) models developed for regional-scale social-simulation system. The first AB model, called ABM-1, is a complex AB built with 10,000 agents on a desktop environment and used aggregate data; the second AB model, ABM-2, was built with 31 million agents on a highperformance computing framework located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and fine-resolution data from the LandScan Global Population Database. The initializations were slightly different, with ABM-1 using samples from a probability distribution and ABM-2 using polling data from Gallop for a deterministic initialization. The geographical and temporal domain was present-day Afghanistan, and the end result was the number of agents with one of three behavioral modes (proinsurgent, neutral, and pro-government) corresponding to the population mindshare. The theories embedded in each model were identical, and the test simulations focused on a test of three leadership theories - legitimacy, coercion, and representative, and two social mobilization theories - social influence and repression. The theories are tied together using the Cobb-Douglas utility function. Based on our results, the hypothesis that performance measures can be developed to compare and contrast AB models appears to be supported. Furthermore, we observed significant bias in the two models. Even so, further tests and investigations are required not only with a wider class of theories and AB models, but also with additional observed or simulated data and more comprehensive performance measures.

  11. Informal care, employment and quality of life: Barriers and facilitators to combining informal care and work participation for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitink, Eveline; Heerkens, Yvonne; Engels, Josephine

    2017-01-01

    In The Netherlands, one out of six Dutch employees has informal care tasks; in the hospital and healthcare sector, this ratio is one out of four workers. Informal carers experience problems with the combination of work and informal care. In particular, they have problems with the burden of responsibility, a lack of independence and their health. These problems can reveal themselves in a variety of mental and physical symptoms that can result in absenteeism, reduction or loss of (work) participation, reduction of income, and even social isolation. The aim of the study was to describe the factors that informal carers who are employed in healthcare organizations identify as affecting their quality of life, labour participation and health. We conducted an exploratory study in 2013-2014 that included desk research and a qualitative study. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with healthcare employees who combine work and informal care. Data were analyzed with Atlas-TI. We identified five themes: 1. Fear and responsibility; 2. Sense that one's own needs are not being met; 3. Work as an escape from home; 4. Health: a lack of balance; and 5. The role of colleagues and managers: giving support and understanding. Respondents combine work and informal care because they have no other solution. The top three reasons for working are: income, escape from home and satisfaction. The biggest problems informal carers experience are a lack of time and energy. They are all tired and are often or always exhausted at the end of the day. They give up activities for themselves, their social networks become smaller and they have less interest in social activities. Their managers are usually aware of the situation, but informal care is not a topic of informal conversation or in performance appraisals. Respondents solve their problems with colleagues and expect little from the organization.

  12. Information-Theoretic Performance Analysis of Sensor Networks via Markov Modeling of Time Series Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Jha, Devesh K; Ray, Asok; Wettergren, Thomas A; Yue Li; Jha, Devesh K; Ray, Asok; Wettergren, Thomas A; Wettergren, Thomas A; Li, Yue; Ray, Asok; Jha, Devesh K

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents information-theoretic performance analysis of passive sensor networks for detection of moving targets. The proposed method falls largely under the category of data-level information fusion in sensor networks. To this end, a measure of information contribution for sensors is formulated in a symbolic dynamics framework. The network information state is approximately represented as the largest principal component of the time series collected across the network. To quantify each sensor's contribution for generation of the information content, Markov machine models as well as x-Markov (pronounced as cross-Markov) machine models, conditioned on the network information state, are constructed; the difference between the conditional entropies of these machines is then treated as an approximate measure of information contribution by the respective sensors. The x-Markov models represent the conditional temporal statistics given the network information state. The proposed method has been validated on experimental data collected from a local area network of passive sensors for target detection, where the statistical characteristics of environmental disturbances are similar to those of the target signal in the sense of time scale and texture. A distinctive feature of the proposed algorithm is that the network decisions are independent of the behavior and identity of the individual sensors, which is desirable from computational perspectives. Results are presented to demonstrate the proposed method's efficacy to correctly identify the presence of a target with very low false-alarm rates. The performance of the underlying algorithm is compared with that of a recent data-driven, feature-level information fusion algorithm. It is shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other algorithm.

  13. Experimental Verification of a Jarzynski-Related Information-Theoretic Equality by a Single Trapped Ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, T P; Yan, L L; Zhou, F; Rehan, K; Liang, D F; Chen, L; Yang, W L; Ma, Z H; Feng, M; Vedral, V

    2018-01-05

    Most nonequilibrium processes in thermodynamics are quantified only by inequalities; however, the Jarzynski relation presents a remarkably simple and general equality relating nonequilibrium quantities with the equilibrium free energy, and this equality holds in both the classical and quantum regimes. We report a single-spin test and confirmation of the Jarzynski relation in the quantum regime using a single ultracold ^{40}Ca^{+} ion trapped in a harmonic potential, based on a general information-theoretic equality for a temporal evolution of the system sandwiched between two projective measurements. By considering both initially pure and mixed states, respectively, we verify, in an exact and fundamental fashion, the nonequilibrium quantum thermodynamics relevant to the mutual information and Jarzynski equality.

  14. Several foundational and information theoretic implications of Bell’s theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Guruprasad; Banik, Manik

    2016-08-01

    In 1935, Albert Einstein and two colleagues, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (EPR) developed a thought experiment to demonstrate what they felt was a lack of completeness in quantum mechanics (QM). EPR also postulated the existence of more fundamental theory where physical reality of any system would be completely described by the variables/states of that fundamental theory. This variable is commonly called hidden variable and the theory is called hidden variable theory (HVT). In 1964, John Bell proposed an empirically verifiable criterion to test for the existence of these HVTs. He derived an inequality, which must be satisfied by any theory that fulfill the conditions of locality and reality. He also showed that QM, as it violates this inequality, is incompatible with any local-realistic theory. Later it has been shown that Bell’s inequality (BI) can be derived from different set of assumptions and it also find applications in useful information theoretic protocols. In this review, we will discuss various foundational as well as information theoretic implications of BI. We will also discuss about some restricted nonlocal feature of quantum nonlocality and elaborate the role of Uncertainty principle and Complementarity principle in explaining this feature.

  15. SAIL: Summation-bAsed Incremental Learning for Information-Theoretic Text Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Wu, Zhiang; Wu, Junjie; Xiong, Hui

    2013-04-01

    Information-theoretic clustering aims to exploit information-theoretic measures as the clustering criteria. A common practice on this topic is the so-called Info-Kmeans, which performs K-means clustering with KL-divergence as the proximity function. While expert efforts on Info-Kmeans have shown promising results, a remaining challenge is to deal with high-dimensional sparse data such as text corpora. Indeed, it is possible that the centroids contain many zero-value features for high-dimensional text vectors, which leads to infinite KL-divergence values and creates a dilemma in assigning objects to centroids during the iteration process of Info-Kmeans. To meet this challenge, in this paper, we propose a Summation-bAsed Incremental Learning (SAIL) algorithm for Info-Kmeans clustering. Specifically, by using an equivalent objective function, SAIL replaces the computation of KL-divergence by the incremental computation of Shannon entropy. This can avoid the zero-feature dilemma caused by the use of KL-divergence. To improve the clustering quality, we further introduce the variable neighborhood search scheme and propose the V-SAIL algorithm, which is then accelerated by a multithreaded scheme in PV-SAIL. Our experimental results on various real-world text collections have shown that, with SAIL as a booster, the clustering performance of Info-Kmeans can be significantly improved. Also, V-SAIL and PV-SAIL indeed help improve the clustering quality at a lower cost of computation.

  16. An Information-Theoretic Approach for Indirect Train Traffic Monitoring Using Building Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an indirect train traffic monitoring method to detect and infer real-time train events based on the vibration response of a nearby building. Monitoring and characterizing traffic events are important for cities to improve the efficiency of transportation systems (e.g., train passing, heavy trucks, and traffic. Most prior work falls into two categories: (1 methods that require intensive labor to manually record events or (2 systems that require deployment of dedicated sensors. These approaches are difficult and costly to execute and maintain. In addition, most prior work uses dedicated sensors designed for a single purpose, resulting in deployment of multiple sensor systems. This further increases costs. Meanwhile, with the increasing demands of structural health monitoring, many vibration sensors are being deployed in commercial buildings. Traffic events create ground vibration that propagates to nearby building structures inducing noisy vibration responses. We present an information-theoretic method for train event monitoring using commonly existing vibration sensors deployed for building health monitoring. The key idea is to represent the wave propagation in a building induced by train traffic as information conveyed in noisy measurement signals. Our technique first uses wavelet analysis to detect train events. Then, by analyzing information exchange patterns of building vibration signals, we infer the category of the events (i.e., southbound or northbound train. Our algorithm is evaluated with an 11-story building where trains pass by frequently. The results show that the method can robustly achieve a train event detection accuracy of up to a 93% true positive rate and an 80% true negative rate. For direction categorization, compared with the traditional signal processing method, our information-theoretic approach reduces categorization error from 32.1 to 12.1%, which is a 2.5× improvement.

  17. A secure approach for encrypting and compressing biometric information employing orthogonal code and steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad F.; Islam, Mohammed N.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a novel approach for encryption and compression of biometric information utilizing orthogonal coding and steganography techniques. Multiple biometric signatures are encrypted individually using orthogonal codes and then multiplexed together to form a single image, which is then embedded in a cover image using the proposed steganography technique. The proposed technique employs three least significant bits for this purpose and a secret key is developed to choose one from among these bits to be replaced by the corresponding bit of the biometric image. The proposed technique offers secure transmission of multiple biometric signatures in an identification document which will be protected from unauthorized steganalysis attempt.

  18. Investigating nurse practitioners in the private sector: a theoretically informed research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Margaret; Gardner, Glenn; Yates, Patsy

    2017-06-01

    To report a study protocol and the theoretical framework normalisation process theory that informs this protocol for a case study investigation of private sector nurse practitioners. Most research evaluating nurse practitioner service is focused on public, mainly acute care environments where nurse practitioner service is well established with strong structures for governance and sustainability. Conversely, there is lack of clarity in governance for emerging models in the private sector. In a climate of healthcare reform, nurse practitioner service is extending beyond the familiar public health sector. Further research is required to inform knowledge of the practice, operational framework and governance of new nurse practitioner models. The proposed research will use a multiple exploratory case study design to examine private sector nurse practitioner service. Data collection includes interviews, surveys and audits. A sequential mixed method approach to analysis of each case will be conducted. Findings from within-case analysis will lead to a meta-synthesis across all four cases to gain a holistic understanding of the cases under study, private sector nurse practitioner service. Normalisation process theory will be used to guide the research process, specifically coding and analysis of data using theory constructs and the relevant components associated with those constructs. This article provides a blueprint for the research and describes a theoretical framework, normalisation process theory in terms of its flexibility as an analytical framework. Consistent with the goals of best research practice, this study protocol will inform the research community in the field of primary health care about emerging research in this field. Publishing a study protocol ensures researcher fidelity to the analysis plan and supports research collaboration across teams. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A large scale analysis of information-theoretic network complexity measures using chemical structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dehmer

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate information-theoretic network complexity measures which have already been intensely used in mathematical- and medicinal chemistry including drug design. Numerous such measures have been developed so far but many of them lack a meaningful interpretation, e.g., we want to examine which kind of structural information they detect. Therefore, our main contribution is to shed light on the relatedness between some selected information measures for graphs by performing a large scale analysis using chemical networks. Starting from several sets containing real and synthetic chemical structures represented by graphs, we study the relatedness between a classical (partition-based complexity measure called the topological information content of a graph and some others inferred by a different paradigm leading to partition-independent measures. Moreover, we evaluate the uniqueness of network complexity measures numerically. Generally, a high uniqueness is an important and desirable property when designing novel topological descriptors having the potential to be applied to large chemical databases.

  20. Three-dimensionality of space and the quantum bit: an information-theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Markus P; Masanes, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    It is sometimes pointed out as a curiosity that the state space of quantum two-level systems, i.e. the qubit, and actual physical space are both three-dimensional and Euclidean. In this paper, we suggest an information-theoretic analysis of this relationship, by proving a particular mathematical result: suppose that physics takes place in d spatial dimensions, and that some events happen probabilistically (not assuming quantum theory in any way). Furthermore, suppose there are systems that carry ‘minimal amounts of direction information’, interacting via some continuous reversible time evolution. We prove that this uniquely determines spatial dimension d = 3 and quantum theory on two qubits (including entanglement and unitary time evolution), and that it allows observers to infer local spatial geometry from probability measurements. (paper)

  1. A Theoretical Framework for Soft-Information-Based Synchronization in Iterative (Turbo Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lottici Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution considers turbo synchronization, that is to say, the use of soft data information to estimate parameters like carrier phase, frequency, or timing offsets of a modulated signal within an iterative data demodulator. In turbo synchronization, the receiver exploits the soft decisions computed at each turbo decoding iteration to provide a reliable estimate of some signal parameters. The aim of our paper is to show that such "turbo-estimation" approach can be regarded as a special case of the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm. This leads to a general theoretical framework for turbo synchronization that allows to derive parameter estimation procedures for carrier phase and frequency offset, as well as for timing offset and signal amplitude. The proposed mathematical framework is illustrated by simulation results reported for the particular case of carrier phase and frequency offsets estimation of a turbo-coded 16-QAM signal.

  2. Some Observations on the Concepts of Information-Theoretic Entropy and Randomness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D.H. Smith

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Certain aspects of the history, derivation, and physical application of the information-theoretic entropy concept are discussed. Pre-dating Shannon, the concept is traced back to Pauli. A derivation from first principles is given, without use of approximations. The concept depends on the underlying degree of randomness. In physical applications, this translates to dependence on the experimental apparatus available. An example illustrates how this dependence affects Prigogine's proposal for the use of the Second Law of Thermodynamics as a selection principle for the breaking of time symmetry. The dependence also serves to yield a resolution of the so-called ``Gibbs Paradox.'' Extension of the concept from the discrete to the continuous case is discussed. The usual extension is shown to be dimensionally incorrect. Correction introduces a reference density, leading to the concept of Kullback entropy. Practical relativistic considerations suggest a possible proper reference density.

  3. STRUCTURAL AND METHODICAL MODEL OF INCREASING THE LEVEL OF THEORETICAL TRAINING OF CADETS USING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Bulgakov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Features of training in higher educational institutions of system of EMERCOM of Russia demand introduction of the new educational techniques and the technical means directed on intensification of educational process, providing an opportunity of preparation of cadets at any time in the independent mode and improving quality of their theoretical knowledge. The authors have developed a structural and methodological model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets using information and communication technologies. The proposed structural and methodological model that includes elements to stimulate and enhance cognitive activity, allows you to generate the trajectory of theoretical training of cadets for the entire period of study at the University, to organize a systematic independent work, objective, current and final control of theoretical knowledge. The structural and methodological model for improving the level of theoretical training consists of three main elements: the base of theoretical questions, functional modules "teacher" and "cadet". The basis of the structural and methodological model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets is the base of theoretical issues, developed in all disciplines specialty 20.05.01 – fire safety. The functional module "teacher" allows you to create theoretical questions of various kinds, edit questions and delete them from the database if necessary, as well as create tests and monitor their implementation. The functional module "cadet" provides ample opportunities for theoretical training through independent work, testing for current and final control, the implementation of the game form of training in the form of a duel, as well as for the formation of the results of the cadets in the form of statistics and rankings. Structural and methodical model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets is implemented in practice in the form of a multi-level automated system

  4. 76 FR 56506 - Agency Information Collection (Complaint of Employment Discrimination) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... (Complaint of Employment Discrimination) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of Human Resources and...: Title: Complaint of Employment Discrimination, VA Form 4939. OMB Control Number: 2900-0716. Type of... applicants for employment who believe they were denied employment based on race, color, religion, gender...

  5. A Game-Theoretic Approach to Information-Flow Control via Protocol Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário S. Alvim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the inference attacks studied in Quantitative Information Flow (QIF, the attacker typically tries to interfere with the system in the attempt to increase its leakage of secret information. The defender, on the other hand, typically tries to decrease leakage by introducing some controlled noise. This noise introduction can be modeled as a type of protocol composition, i.e., a probabilistic choice among different protocols, and its effect on the amount of leakage depends heavily on whether or not this choice is visible to the attacker. In this work, we consider operators for modeling visible and hidden choice in protocol composition, and we study their algebraic properties. We then formalize the interplay between defender and attacker in a game-theoretic framework adapted to the specific issues of QIF, where the payoff is information leakage. We consider various kinds of leakage games, depending on whether players act simultaneously or sequentially, and on whether or not the choices of the defender are visible to the attacker. In the case of sequential games, the choice of the second player is generally a function of the choice of the first player, and his/her probabilistic choice can be either over the possible functions (mixed strategy or it can be on the result of the function (behavioral strategy. We show that when the attacker moves first in a sequential game with a hidden choice, then behavioral strategies are more advantageous for the defender than mixed strategies. This contrasts with the standard game theory, where the two types of strategies are equivalent. Finally, we establish a hierarchy of these games in terms of their information leakage and provide methods for finding optimal strategies (at the points of equilibrium for both attacker and defender in the various cases.

  6. Evaluation of information-theoretic similarity measures for content-based retrieval and detection of masses in mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourassi, Georgia D.; Harrawood, Brian; Singh, Swatee; Lo, Joseph Y.; Floyd, Carey E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate image similarity measures employed in an information-theoretic computer-assisted detection (IT-CAD) scheme. The scheme was developed for content-based retrieval and detection of masses in screening mammograms. The study is aimed toward an interactive clinical paradigm where physicians query the proposed IT-CAD scheme on mammographic locations that are either visually suspicious or indicated as suspicious by other cuing CAD systems. The IT-CAD scheme provides an evidence-based, second opinion for query mammographic locations using a knowledge database of mass and normal cases. In this study, eight entropy-based similarity measures were compared with respect to retrieval precision and detection accuracy using a database of 1820 mammographic regions of interest. The IT-CAD scheme was then validated on a separate database for false positive reduction of progressively more challenging visual cues generated by an existing, in-house mass detection system. The study showed that the image similarity measures fall into one of two categories; one category is better suited to the retrieval of semantically similar cases while the second is more effective with knowledge-based decisions regarding the presence of a true mass in the query location. In addition, the IT-CAD scheme yielded a substantial reduction in false-positive detections while maintaining high detection rate for malignant masses

  7. Information-Theoretic Data Discarding for Dynamic Trees on Data Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoforos Anagnostopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous automated data collection at an unprecedented scale is making available streaming, real-time information flows in a wide variety of settings, transforming both science and industry. Learning algorithms deployed in such contexts often rely on single-pass inference, where the data history is never revisited. Learning may also need to be temporally adaptive to remain up-to-date against unforeseen changes in the data generating mechanism. Online Bayesian inference remains challenged by such transient, evolving data streams. Nonparametric modeling techniques can prove particularly ill-suited, as the complexity of the model is allowed to increase with the sample size. In this work, we take steps to overcome these challenges by porting information theoretic heuristics, such as exponential forgetting and active learning, into a fully Bayesian framework. We showcase our methods by augmenting a modern non-parametric modeling framework, dynamic trees, and illustrate its performance on a number of practical examples. The end product is a powerful streaming regression and classification tool, whose performance compares favorably to the state-of-the-art.

  8. Parametric sensitivity analysis for stochastic molecular systems using information theoretic metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsourtis, Anastasios, E-mail: tsourtis@uoc.gr [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Crete, Crete (Greece); Pantazis, Yannis, E-mail: pantazis@math.umass.edu; Katsoulakis, Markos A., E-mail: markos@math.umass.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Harmandaris, Vagelis, E-mail: harman@uoc.gr [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Crete, and Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics (IACM), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), GR-70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2015-07-07

    In this paper, we present a parametric sensitivity analysis (SA) methodology for continuous time and continuous space Markov processes represented by stochastic differential equations. Particularly, we focus on stochastic molecular dynamics as described by the Langevin equation. The utilized SA method is based on the computation of the information-theoretic (and thermodynamic) quantity of relative entropy rate (RER) and the associated Fisher information matrix (FIM) between path distributions, and it is an extension of the work proposed by Y. Pantazis and M. A. Katsoulakis [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 054115 (2013)]. A major advantage of the pathwise SA method is that both RER and pathwise FIM depend only on averages of the force field; therefore, they are tractable and computable as ergodic averages from a single run of the molecular dynamics simulation both in equilibrium and in non-equilibrium steady state regimes. We validate the performance of the extended SA method to two different molecular stochastic systems, a standard Lennard-Jones fluid and an all-atom methane liquid, and compare the obtained parameter sensitivities with parameter sensitivities on three popular and well-studied observable functions, namely, the radial distribution function, the mean squared displacement, and the pressure. Results show that the RER-based sensitivities are highly correlated with the observable-based sensitivities.

  9. Information-theoretic semi-supervised metric learning via entropy regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Dai, Bo; Yamada, Makoto; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2014-08-01

    We propose a general information-theoretic approach to semi-supervised metric learning called SERAPH (SEmi-supervised metRic leArning Paradigm with Hypersparsity) that does not rely on the manifold assumption. Given the probability parameterized by a Mahalanobis distance, we maximize its entropy on labeled data and minimize its entropy on unlabeled data following entropy regularization. For metric learning, entropy regularization improves manifold regularization by considering the dissimilarity information of unlabeled data in the unsupervised part, and hence it allows the supervised and unsupervised parts to be integrated in a natural and meaningful way. Moreover, we regularize SERAPH by trace-norm regularization to encourage low-dimensional projections associated with the distance metric. The nonconvex optimization problem of SERAPH could be solved efficiently and stably by either a gradient projection algorithm or an EM-like iterative algorithm whose M-step is convex. Experiments demonstrate that SERAPH compares favorably with many well-known metric learning methods, and the learned Mahalanobis distance possesses high discriminability even under noisy environments.

  10. Dimensional Information-Theoretic Measurement of Facial Emotion Expressions in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihun Hamm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered facial expressions of emotions are characteristic impairments in schizophrenia. Ratings of affect have traditionally been limited to clinical rating scales and facial muscle movement analysis, which require extensive training and have limitations based on methodology and ecological validity. To improve reliable assessment of dynamic facial expression changes, we have developed automated measurements of facial emotion expressions based on information-theoretic measures of expressivity of ambiguity and distinctiveness of facial expressions. These measures were examined in matched groups of persons with schizophrenia (n=28 and healthy controls (n=26 who underwent video acquisition to assess expressivity of basic emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust in evoked conditions. Persons with schizophrenia scored higher on ambiguity, the measure of conditional entropy within the expression of a single emotion, and they scored lower on distinctiveness, the measure of mutual information across expressions of different emotions. The automated measures compared favorably with observer-based ratings. This method can be applied for delineating dynamic emotional expressivity in healthy and clinical populations.

  11. A theoretical framework informing research about the role of stress in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brietzke, Elisa; Mansur, Rodrigo Barbachan; Soczynska, Joanna; Powell, Alissa M; McIntyre, Roger S

    2012-10-01

    The staggering illness burden associated with Bipolar Disorder (BD) invites the need for primary prevention strategies. Before preventative strategies can be considered in individuals during a pre-symptomatic period (i.e., at risk), unraveling the mechanistic steps wherein external stress is transduced and interacts with genetic vulnerability in the early stages of BD will be a critical conceptual necessity. Herein we comprehensively review extant studies reporting on stress and bipolar disorder. The overarching aim is to propose a conceptual framework to inform research about the role of stress in the pathophysiology of BD. Computerized databases i.e. PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane Library and Scielo were searched using the following terms: "bipolar disorder" cross-referenced with "stress", "general reaction to stress", "resilience", "resistance", "recovery" "stress-diathesis", "allostasis", and "hormesis". Data from literature indicate the existence of some theoretical models to understand the influence of stress in the pathophysiology of BD, including classical stress-diathesis model and new models such as allostasis and hormesis. In addition, molecular mechanisms involved in stress adaptation (resistance, resilience and recovery) can also be translated in research strategies to investigate the impact of stress in the pathophysiology of BD. Most studies are retrospective and/or cross sectional, do not consider the period of development, assess brain function with only one or few methodologies, and use animal models which are not always similar to human phenotypes. The interaction between stress and brain development is dynamic and complex. In this article we proposed a theoretical model for investigation about the role of stress in the pathophysiology of BD, based on the different kinds of stress adaptation response and their putative neurobiological underpinnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 43412 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS 7655, Iraqi Citizens and Nationals Employed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... to 30 days from July 24, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by any of the following methods..., biographical information, to include employee name, date(s) of employment, biometric, and other data must be...

  13. Consumers’ Acceptance and Use of Information and Communications Technology: A UTAUT and Flow Based Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alwahaishi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The world has changed a lot in the past years. The rapid advances in technology and the changing of the communication channels have changed the way people work and, for many, where do they work from. The Internet and mobile technology, the two most dynamic technological forces in modern information and communications technology (ICT are converging into one ubiquitous mobile Internet service, which will change our way of both doing business and dealing with our daily routine activities. As the use of ICT expands globally, there is need for further research into cultural aspects and implications of ICT. The acceptance of Information Technology (IT has become a fundamental part of the research plan for most organizations (Igbaria 1993. In IT research, numerous theories are used to understand users’ adoption of new technologies. Various models were developed including the Technology Acceptance Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, and recently, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Each of these models has sought to identify the factors which influence a citizen’s intention or actual use of information technology. Drawing on the UTAUT model and Flow Theory, this research composes a new hybrid theoretical framework to identify the factors affecting the acceptance and use of Mobile Internet -as an ICT application- in a consumer context. The proposed model incorporates eight constructs: Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Facilitating Conditions, Social Influences, Perceived Value, Perceived Playfulness, Attention Focus, and Behavioral intention. Data collected online from 238 respondents in Saudi Arabia were tested against the research model, using the structural equation modeling approach. The proposed model was mostly supported by the empirical data. The findings of this study provide several crucial implications for ICT and, in particular, mobile Internet service practitioners and researchers

  14. Theoretically informed Monte Carlo simulation of liquid crystals by sampling of alignment-tensor fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas-Pérez, Julio C.; Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Guzmán, Orlando [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, DF 09340, México (Mexico); Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P. [Departamento de Materiales y Minerales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Pablo, Juan J. de, E-mail: depablo@uchicago.edu [Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    A theoretically informed coarse-grained Monte Carlo method is proposed for studying liquid crystals. The free energy functional of the system is described in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. The alignment field and its gradients are approximated by finite differences, and the free energy is minimized through a stochastic sampling technique. The validity of the proposed method is established by comparing the results of the proposed approach to those of traditional free energy minimization techniques. Its usefulness is illustrated in the context of three systems, namely, a nematic liquid crystal confined in a slit channel, a nematic liquid crystal droplet, and a chiral liquid crystal in the bulk. It is found that for systems that exhibit multiple metastable morphologies, the proposed Monte Carlo method is generally able to identify lower free energy states that are often missed by traditional approaches. Importantly, the Monte Carlo method identifies such states from random initial configurations, thereby obviating the need for educated initial guesses that can be difficult to formulate.

  15. Theoretically informed Monte Carlo simulation of liquid crystals by sampling of alignment-tensor fields.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas-Perez, Julio C.; Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro; Guzman, Orlando; Hernandez-Ortiz, Juan P.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-07-27

    A theoretically informed coarse-grained Monte Carlo method is proposed for studying liquid crystals. The free energy functional of the system is described in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. The alignment field and its gradients are approximated by finite differences, and the free energy is minimized through a stochastic sampling technique. The validity of the proposed method is established by comparing the results of the proposed approach to those of traditional free energy minimization techniques. Its usefulness is illustrated in the context of three systems, namely, a nematic liquid crystal confined in a slit channel, a nematic liquid crystal droplet, and a chiral liquid crystal in the bulk. It is found that for systems that exhibit multiple metastable morphologies, the proposed Monte Carlo method is generally able to identify lower free energy states that are often missed by traditional approaches. Importantly, the Monte Carlo method identifies such states from random initial configurations, thereby obviating the need for educated initial guesses that can be difficult to formulate.

  16. Fuel cycle covariance of plutonium and americium separations to repository capacity using information theoretic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopatz, Anthony; Schneider, Erich; Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung

    2011-01-01

    A light water reactor, fast reactor symbiotic fuel cycle scenario was modeled and parameterized based on thirty independent inputs. Simultaneously and stochastically choosing different values for each of these inputs and performing the associated fuel cycle mass-balance calculation, the fuel cycle itself underwent Monte Carlo simulation. A novel information theoretic metric is postulated as a measure of system-wide covariance. This metric is the coefficient of variation of the set of uncertainty coefficients generated from 2D slices of a 3D contingency table. It is then applied to the fuel cycle, taking fast reactor used fuel plutonium and americium separations as independent variables and the capacity of a fully-loaded tuff repository as the response. This set of parameters is known from prior studies to have a strong covariance. When measured with all 435 other input parameters possible, the fast reactor plutonium and americium separations pair was found to be ranked the second most covariant. This verifies that the coefficient of variation metric captures the desired sensitivity of sensitivity effects in the nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  17. Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel

  18. Information-Theoretic Limits on Broadband Multi-Antenna Systems in the Presence of Mutual Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taluja, Pawandeep Singh

    2011-12-01

    Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems have received considerable attention over the last decade due to their ability to provide high throughputs and mitigate multipath fading effects. While most of these benefits are obtained for ideal arrays with large separation between the antennas, practical devices are often constrained in physical dimensions. With smaller inter-element spacings, signal correlation and mutual coupling between the antennas start to degrade the system performance, thereby limiting the deployment of a large number of antennas. Various studies have proposed transceiver designs based on optimal matching networks to compensate for this loss. However, such networks are considered impractical due to their multiport structure and sensitivity to the RF bandwidth of the system. In this dissertation, we investigate two aspects of compact transceiver design. First, we consider simpler architectures that exploit coupling between the antennas, and second, we establish information-theoretic limits of broadband communication systems with closely-spaced antennas. We begin with a receiver model of a diversity antenna selection system and propose novel strategies that make use of inactive elements by virtue of mutual coupling. We then examine the limits on the matching efficiency of a single antenna system using broadband matching theory. Next, we present an extension to this theory for coupled MIMO systems to elucidate the impact of coupling on the RF bandwidth of the system, and derive optimal transceiver designs. Lastly, we summarize the main findings of this dissertation and suggest open problems for future work.

  19. An information-theoretic approach to motor action decoding with a reconfigurable parallel architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Stefan; Brockmeier, Austin J; George, Alan D; Lam, Herman; Príncipe, José C

    2011-01-01

    Methods for decoding movements from neural spike counts using adaptive filters often rely on minimizing the mean-squared error. However, for non-Gaussian distribution of errors, this approach is not optimal for performance. Therefore, rather than using probabilistic modeling, we propose an alternate non-parametric approach. In order to extract more structure from the input signal (neuronal spike counts) we propose using minimum error entropy (MEE), an information-theoretic approach that minimizes the error entropy as part of an iterative cost function. However, the disadvantage of using MEE as the cost function for adaptive filters is the increase in computational complexity. In this paper we present a comparison between the decoding performance of the analytic Wiener filter and a linear filter trained with MEE, which is then mapped to a parallel architecture in reconfigurable hardware tailored to the computational needs of the MEE filter. We observe considerable speedup from the hardware design. The adaptation of filter weights for the multiple-input, multiple-output linear filters, necessary in motor decoding, is a highly parallelizable algorithm. It can be decomposed into many independent computational blocks with a parallel architecture readily mapped to a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and scales to large numbers of neurons. By pipelining and parallelizing independent computations in the algorithm, the proposed parallel architecture has sublinear increases in execution time with respect to both window size and filter order.

  20. Theoretically informed correlates of hepatitis B knowledge among four Asian groups: the health behavior framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Stewart, Susan L; Glenn, Beth A; Wong, Weng Kee; Yasui, Yutaka; Chang, L Cindy; Taylor, Victoria M; Nguyen, Tung T; Chen, Moon S; Bastani, Roshan

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined theoretically informed constructs related to hepatitis B (HBV) testing, and comparisons across studies are challenging due to lack of uniformity in constructs assessed. The present analysis examined relationships among Health Behavior Framework factors across four Asian American groups to advance the development of theory-based interventions for HBV testing in at-risk populations. Data were collected from 2007-2010 as part of baseline surveys during four intervention trials promoting HBV testing among Vietnamese-, Hmong-, Korean- and Cambodian-Americans (n = 1,735). Health Behavior Framework constructs assessed included: awareness of HBV, knowledge of transmission routes, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, doctor recommendation, stigma of HBV infection, and perceived efficacy of testing. Within each group we assessed associations between our intermediate outcome of knowledge of HBV transmission and other constructs, to assess the concurrent validity of our model and instruments. While the absolute levels for Health Behavior Framework factors varied across groups, relationships between knowledge and other factors were generally consistent. This suggests similarities rather than differences with respect to posited drivers of HBV-related behavior. Our findings indicate that Health Behavior Framework constructs are applicable to diverse ethnic groups and provide preliminary evidence for the construct validity of the Health Behavior Framework.

  1. Model-free information-theoretic approach to infer leadership in pairs of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butail, Sachit; Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Collective behavior affords several advantages to fish in avoiding predators, foraging, mating, and swimming. Although fish schools have been traditionally considered egalitarian superorganisms, a number of empirical observations suggest the emergence of leadership in gregarious groups. Detecting and classifying leader-follower relationships is central to elucidate the behavioral and physiological causes of leadership and understand its consequences. Here, we demonstrate an information-theoretic approach to infer leadership from positional data of fish swimming. In this framework, we measure social interactions between fish pairs through the mathematical construct of transfer entropy, which quantifies the predictive power of a time series to anticipate another, possibly coupled, time series. We focus on the zebrafish model organism, which is rapidly emerging as a species of choice in preclinical research for its genetic similarity to humans and reduced neurobiological complexity with respect to mammals. To overcome experimental confounds and generate test data sets on which we can thoroughly assess our approach, we adapt and calibrate a data-driven stochastic model of zebrafish motion for the simulation of a coupled dynamical system of zebrafish pairs. In this synthetic data set, the extent and direction of the coupling between the fish are systematically varied across a wide parameter range to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of transfer entropy in inferring leadership. Our approach is expected to aid in the analysis of collective behavior, providing a data-driven perspective to understand social interactions.

  2. Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara

    2005-07-01

    We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel.

  3. Pathways from Trauma to Psychotic Experiences: A Theoretically Informed Model of Posttraumatic Stress in Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hardy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, empirical data and theoretical accounts relating to the relationship between childhood victimization and psychotic experiences have accumulated. Much of this work has focused on co-occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder or putative causal mechanisms in isolation from each other. The complexity of posttraumatic stress reactions experienced in psychosis remains poorly understood. This paper therefore attempts to synthesize the current evidence base into a theoretically informed, multifactorial model of posttraumatic stress in psychosis. Three trauma-related vulnerability factors are proposed to give rise to intrusions and to affect how people appraise and cope with them. First, understandable attempts to survive trauma become habitual ways of regulating emotion, manifesting in cognitive-affective, behavioral and interpersonal responses. Second, event memories, consisting of perceptual and episodic representations, are impacted by emotion experienced during trauma. Third, personal semantic memory, specifically appraisals of the self and others, are shaped by event memories. It is proposed these vulnerability factors have the potential to lead to two types of intrusions. The first type is anomalous experiences arising from emotion regulation and/or the generation of novel images derived from trauma memory. The second type is trauma memory intrusions reflecting, to varying degrees, the retrieval of perceptual, episodic and personal semantic representations. It is speculated trauma memory intrusions may be experienced on a continuum from contextualized to fragmented, depending on memory encoding and retrieval. Personal semantic memory will then impact on how intrusions are appraised, with habitual emotion regulation strategies influencing people’s coping responses to these. Three vignettes are outlined to illustrate how the model accounts for different pathways between victimization and psychosis, and implications for therapy are

  4. Transactive System: Part I: Theoretical Underpinnings of Payoff Functions, Control Decisions, Information Privacy, and Solution Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-01-17

    new transactive energy system design with demonstrable guarantees on stability and performance. Specifically, the goals are to (1) establish a theoretical basis for evaluating the performance of different transactive systems, (2) devise tools to address canonical problems that exemplify challenges and scenarios of transactive systems, and (3) provide guidelines for design of future transactive systems. This report, Part 1 of a two part series, advances the above-listed research objectives by reviewing existing transactive systems and identifying a theoretical foundation that integrates payoff functions, control decisions, information privacy, and mathematical solution concepts.

  5. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 40 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. F Appendix F to Part 40—Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers 1. If you...

  6. 49 CFR 40.215 - What information about the DER do employers have to provide to BATs and STTs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What information about the DER do employers have to provide to BATs and STTs? 40.215 Section 40.215 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.215 What information about the DER do...

  7. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0002.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and...

  8. 75 FR 56662 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0002.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and...

  9. 3D nonrigid medical image registration using a new information theoretic measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bicao; Yang, Guanyu; Coatrieux, Jean Louis; Li, Baosheng; Shu, Huazhong

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a novel method for the nonrigid registration of medical images based on the Arimoto entropy, a generalization of the Shannon entropy. The proposed method employed the Jensen-Arimoto divergence measure as a similarity metric to measure the statistical dependence between medical images. Free-form deformations were adopted as the transformation model and the Parzen window estimation was applied to compute the probability distributions. A penalty term is incorporated into the objective function to smooth the nonrigid transformation. The goal of registration is to optimize an objective function consisting of a dissimilarity term and a penalty term, which would be minimal when two deformed images are perfectly aligned using the limited memory BFGS optimization method, and thus to get the optimal geometric transformation. To validate the performance of the proposed method, experiments on both simulated 3D brain MR images and real 3D thoracic CT data sets were designed and performed on the open source elastix package. For the simulated experiments, the registration errors of 3D brain MR images with various magnitudes of known deformations and different levels of noise were measured. For the real data tests, four data sets of 4D thoracic CT from four patients were selected to assess the registration performance of the method, including ten 3D CT images for each 4D CT data covering an entire respiration cycle. These results were compared with the normalized cross correlation and the mutual information methods and show a slight but true improvement in registration accuracy.

  10. 3D nonrigid medical image registration using a new information theoretic measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bicao; Yang, Guanyu; Coatrieux, Jean Louis; Li, Baosheng; Shu, Huazhong

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel method for the nonrigid registration of medical images based on the Arimoto entropy, a generalization of the Shannon entropy. The proposed method employed the Jensen–Arimoto divergence measure as a similarity metric to measure the statistical dependence between medical images. Free-form deformations were adopted as the transformation model and the Parzen window estimation was applied to compute the probability distributions. A penalty term is incorporated into the objective function to smooth the nonrigid transformation. The goal of registration is to optimize an objective function consisting of a dissimilarity term and a penalty term, which would be minimal when two deformed images are perfectly aligned using the limited memory BFGS optimization method, and thus to get the optimal geometric transformation. To validate the performance of the proposed method, experiments on both simulated 3D brain MR images and real 3D thoracic CT data sets were designed and performed on the open source elastix package. For the simulated experiments, the registration errors of 3D brain MR images with various magnitudes of known deformations and different levels of noise were measured. For the real data tests, four data sets of 4D thoracic CT from four patients were selected to assess the registration performance of the method, including ten 3D CT images for each 4D CT data covering an entire respiration cycle. These results were compared with the normalized cross correlation and the mutual information methods and show a slight but true improvement in registration accuracy. (paper)

  11. Recommended Skill Requirements of Recent Management Information Systems Graduates for Employment: A Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Michael A., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Modified Delphi study was to achieve a consensus and forecast a prediction from expert IT hiring managers on what skills are required of MIS graduates for employment. In doing so, guidance could be provided to academic leaders who design curricula for MIS students on the required skills for employment. This study was conducted…

  12. 76 FR 38743 - Proposed Information Collection (Complaint of Employment Discrimination) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ..., religion, gender, national origin age, physical or mental disability and/or reprisal for prior Equal Employment Opportunity activity complete VA Form 4939 to file a complaint of discrimination. Affected Public... (Complaint of Employment Discrimination) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Human Resources and Administration...

  13. Investigation of Means of Mitigating Congestion in Complex, Distributed Network Systems by Optimization Means and Information Theoretic Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Information Theoretic Proceedures Frank Mufalli Rakesh Nagi Jim Llinas Sumita Mishra SUNY at Buffalo— CUBRC 4455 Genessee Street Buffalo...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER NY 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) SUNY at Buffalo— CUBRC * Paine College ** 4455 Genessee

  14. Theoretical frameworks informing family-based child and adolescent obesity interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alulis, Sarah; Grabowski, Dan

    2017-01-01

    into focus. However, the use of theoretical frameworks to strengthen these interventions is rare and very uneven. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To conduct a qualitative meta-synthesis of family-based interventions for child and adolescent obesity to identify the theoretical frameworks applied, thus understanding how...... inconsistencies and a significant void between research results and health care practice. Based on the analysis, this article proposes three themes to be used as focus points when designing future interventions and when selecting theories for the development of solid, theory-based frameworks for application...... cognitive, self-efficacy and Family Systems Theory appeared most frequently. The remaining 24 were classified as theory-related as theoretical elements of self-monitoring; stimulus control, reinforcement and modelling were used. CONCLUSION: The designs of family-based interventions reveal numerous...

  15. Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom (DIKW: A Semiotic Theoretical and Empirical Exploration of the Hierarchy and its Quality Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Baskarada

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly is the difference between data and information? What is the difference between data quality and information quality; is there any difference between the two? And, what are knowledge and wisdom? Are there such things as knowledge quality and wisdom quality? As these primitives are the most basic axioms of information systems research, it is somewhat surprising that consensus on exact definitions seems to be lacking. This paper presents a theoretical and empirical exploration of the sometimes directly quoted, and often implied Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom (DIKW hierarchy and its quality dimension. We first review relevant literature from a range of perspectives and develop and contextualise a theoretical DIKW framework through semiotics. The literature review identifies definitional commonalities and divergences from a scholarly perspective; the theoretical discussion contextualises the terms and their relationships within a semiotic framework and proposes relevant definitions grounded in that framework. Next, rooted in Wittgenstein’s ordinary language philosophy, we analyse 20 online news articles for their uses of the terms and present the results of an online focus group discussion comprising 16 information systems experts. The empirical exploration identifies a range of definitional ambiguities from a practical perspective.

  16. The theoretical preconditions for problem situation realization while studying information technology at school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Александровна Прусакова

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of modern pedagogy and educational practice there have been worked out and realized various theoretical conceptions, theories, educational approaches including humanistic, personality-oriented, activity-oriented, competence-oriented. One of such approaches to education and personality development is the problem-solving approach.

  17. Asymmetric Information under the Kafala Sponsorship System: Impacts on Foreign Domestic Workers' Income and Employment Status in the GCC Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Malit, Froilan T.; Naufal, George S

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the legal and policy implications of information asymmetry on foreign domestic workers employed under the Kafala sponsorship system in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Drawing from ethnographic and field-based observations in large GCC migrant destinations – including Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) – we investigate the information flows and market uncertainties between five key stakeholders: labor-receiving governments, labor-sending governm...

  18. 49 CFR 40.287 - What information is an employer required to provide concerning SAP services to an employee who...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provide concerning SAP services to an employee who has a DOT drug and alcohol regulation violation? 40.287... § 40.287 What information is an employer required to provide concerning SAP services to an employee who... (including an applicant or new employee) who violates a DOT drug and alcohol regulation a listing of SAPs...

  19. Employability Enhancement through Formal and Informal Learning: An Empirical Study among Dutch Non-Academic University Staff Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

    2009-01-01

    Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the importance of the job as a powerful learning site,…

  20. Employability enhancement through formal and informal learning: An empirical study among Dutch non-academic university staff members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely

    2009-01-01

    Although learning is generally perceived as a way to improve employees' current job performance, so far, no research has been conducted to explore the possible relationships between formal and informal learning, on the one hand, and employability, on the other. Though contemporary views stress the

  1. Keeping older workers committed and employed through formal and informal HRD initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, Ida; Horstink, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Human resources development (HRD) initiatives are often targeted towards increasing employee organisational commitment. This specifically holds for more informal practices of learning and development, although most learning situations encompass both formal and informal elements. In this chapter a

  2. Intelligent Information Retrieval: Diagnosing Information Need. Part I. The Theoretical Framework for Developing an Intelligent IR Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the principles underlying the procedure used by doctors to diagnose a patient's disease are useful in the design of intelligent information-retrieval systems because the task of the doctor is conceptually similar to the computer or human intermediary's task in information retrieval: to draw out the user's query/information need.…

  3. 78 FR 60897 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Employer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Health Insurance Program (CHIP) for health coverage of the employee or the employee's dependents. ERISA... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Employer Children's Health Insurance Program Notice ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the Employee Benefits Security Administration (EBSA...

  4. 76 FR 24503 - Agency Information Collection Activities: DHS Individual Complaint of Employment Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (29 U.S.C. 621 et seq.) (age), the Equal Pay Act (29 U.S.C. 206(d)) (sex... Budget (OMB) for review and clearance in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104... complaint process. It is the policy of the Government of the United States to provide equal opportunity in...

  5. Globalization, social exclusion and work : with special reference to informal employment and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Marilyn; Chen, Martha

    2004-01-01

    Looks at three different patterns that limit competitiveness: a) questionable working conditions in export processing zones or within global value chains that are driven by a foreign or multinational enterprise; b) exclusion of self-employed from the internal governance process of the chain; c) import-flooding putting domestic sectors at a disadvantage. Makes policy recommendations for more favourable inclusion opportunities.

  6. Experiential Education Employment Opportunities in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria: Options and Informational Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William

    1995-01-01

    Discusses educational employment (EE) opportunities for students in German-speaking countries, and the implementation of EE programs by American colleges and universities. Also lists internship and EE opportunities administered by colleges, universities, and other organizations in the United States, Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. (six…

  7. Developing Employability Skills in Information System Graduates: Traditional vs. Innovative Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmani, Mohamad; Hindi, Nitham M.; Weerakkody, Vishanth

    2018-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that traditional teaching methods such as lectures, textbooks and case study techniques on their own are not adequate to improving the most in-demand employability skills for graduates. The aim of this article is to explore the potential impact that novel learning and teaching methods can have on improving the…

  8. 76 FR 42733 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Employment and Training Administration Disaster Unemployment... Training Administration Disaster Unemployment Assistance Handbook,'' (Form ETA-902 and ETA-902-A) to the... may be obtained from the RegInfo.gov Web site, http://www.reginfo.gov/public/do/PRAMain , on the day...

  9. Information Flow in Teachers' Organizations in Israel During Confrontations with Employers: I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1975-01-01

    First part of an article examining the content of information flow; the amount of information released; the mechanism of the flow; the factors affecting the content, amount, and mechanism; and the corollaries of information flow and the characteristics of the school system. Includes the questions put to the teachers. (Author/IRT)

  10. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: Examining information processing among young women with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. Objective The purpose of this paper is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by five dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. Results In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Conclusion Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women’s information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care. PMID:24552086

  11. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: examining information processing among young women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. The purpose of this article is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semistructured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by 5 dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women's information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care.

  12. Comparison of information-theoretic to statistical methods for gene-gene interactions in the presence of genetic heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucheston Lara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multifactorial diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases are caused by the complex interplay between genes and environment. The detection of these interactions remains challenging due to computational limitations. Information theoretic approaches use computationally efficient directed search strategies and thus provide a feasible solution to this problem. However, the power of information theoretic methods for interaction analysis has not been systematically evaluated. In this work, we compare power and Type I error of an information-theoretic approach to existing interaction analysis methods. Methods The k-way interaction information (KWII metric for identifying variable combinations involved in gene-gene interactions (GGI was assessed using several simulated data sets under models of genetic heterogeneity driven by susceptibility increasing loci with varying allele frequency, penetrance values and heritability. The power and proportion of false positives of the KWII was compared to multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR, restricted partitioning method (RPM and logistic regression. Results The power of the KWII was considerably greater than MDR on all six simulation models examined. For a given disease prevalence at high values of heritability, the power of both RPM and KWII was greater than 95%. For models with low heritability and/or genetic heterogeneity, the power of the KWII was consistently greater than RPM; the improvements in power for the KWII over RPM ranged from 4.7% to 14.2% at for α = 0.001 in the three models at the lowest heritability values examined. KWII performed similar to logistic regression. Conclusions Information theoretic models are flexible and have excellent power to detect GGI under a variety of conditions that characterize complex diseases.

  13. A novel game theoretic approach for modeling competitive information diffusion in social networks with heterogeneous nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha Mohammad Ali Kermani, Mehrdad; Fatemi Ardestani, Seyed Farshad; Aliahmadi, Alireza; Barzinpour, Farnaz

    2017-01-01

    Influence maximization deals with identification of the most influential nodes in a social network given an influence model. In this paper, a game theoretic framework is developed that models a competitive influence maximization problem. A novel competitive influence model is additionally proposed that incorporates user heterogeneity, message content, and network structure. The proposed game-theoretic model is solved using Nash Equilibrium in a real-world dataset. It is shown that none of the well-known strategies are stable and at least one player has the incentive to deviate from the proposed strategy. Moreover, violation of Nash equilibrium strategy by each player leads to their reduced payoff. Contrary to previous works, our results demonstrate that graph topology, as well as the nodes' sociability and initial tendency measures have an effect on the determination of the influential node in the network.

  14. The role of information systems in management decision making-an theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD. Associate Professor Department of Management & Informatics Mihane Berisha-Namani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of globalisation and development of information technology, information processing activities have come to be seen as essential to successful of businesses and organizations. Information has become essential to make decisions and crucial asset in organisations, whereas information systems is technology required for information processing. The application of information systems technology in business and organisations has opened up new possibilities for running and managing organisations, as well as has improved management decision making. The purpose of this paper is to give an understanding of the role that information systems have in management decision making and to discuss the possibilities how managers of organisations can make best use of information systems. The paper starts with identifying the functions of management and managerial roles and continue with information systems usage in three levels of decision making. It specifically addresses the way how information systems can help managers reduce uncertainty in decision making and includes some important implications of information systems usage for managers. Thus, this study provide a framework of effective use of information systems generally and offers an alternative approach to investigate the impact that information systems technology have in management decision making specifically

  15. A comprehensive theoretical framework for personal information-related behaviors on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldad, Ardion Daroca; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Steehouder, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Although there is near consensus on the need for privacy, the reality is that people's attitude toward their personal information privacy is complex. For instance, even when people claim that they value their information privacy, they often trade their personal information for tangible or intangible

  16. The informal economy employment impacts of trade liberalization & increased competition in export markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morocco and United States. The overall logic of such measures was that liberalization and privatization would stimulate trade, support the requested modernization of the production systems and infrastructures, and enhance public administrations and services as well. Positive impacts on income, employments...... and privatization processes were implemented at the international level by the WTO's, at regional level by the establishment of free trade agreements between individual states on the southern and eastern Mediterranean rim and the EU [under the Barcelona Process] and by bilateral agreements as the one signed between...... to focus on the impacts of restructuring in the formal textile and clothing sectors (TC) which is the major employer in three Maghrib countries: Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. The textile and clothing sectors have been particularly exposed to increased competition in foreign and/or domestic markets...

  17. "We inform the experience of health": perspectives on professionalism in nursing self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah

    2013-07-01

    Nursing work has evolved tremendously over the last century, raising ongoing questions about nursing's professional status. Through various strategies, professionalization in nursing has to some extent been accomplished, although autonomy over nursing practice has been elusive. This is especially so in the contemporary health care system, in which managerial control is emphasized and physician dominance continues. In response to professional constraints in traditional work settings, nursing self-employment is growing. In this study I used focused ethnography to explore the professional experiences of Canadian self-employed nurses and to reconsider nursing knowledge, ethics, and professionalism in this unique context. Despite the barriers they faced, these nurses offered a perspective on nursing professionalism that transcends classic professional traits, showing how the concept of professionalism can be invoked not as a way to "prove" status but as a way to describe a sense of commitment and the contribution to societal well-being.

  18. 49 CFR 40.26 - What form must an employer use to report Management Information System (MIS) data to a DOT agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What form must an employer use to report Management Information System (MIS) data to a DOT agency? 40.26 Section 40.26 Transportation Office of the... Employer Responsibilities § 40.26 What form must an employer use to report Management Information System...

  19. Reference group theory with implications for information studies: a theoretical essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Murell Dawson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role and implications of reference group theory in relation to the field of library and information science. Reference group theory is based upon the principle that people take the standards of significant others as a basis for making self-appraisals, comparisons, and choices regarding need and use of information. Research that applies concepts of reference group theory to various sectors of library and information studies can provide data useful in enhancing areas such as information-seeking research, special populations, and uses of information. Implications are promising that knowledge gained from like research can be beneficial in helping information professionals better understand the role theory plays in examining ways in which people manage their information and social worlds.

  20. A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.

  1. An information theoretic model of information processing in the Drosophila olfactory system: the role of inhibitory neurons for system efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Fiala, André; Wörgötter, Florentin; Tetzlaff, Christian

    2013-12-20

    Fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) rely on their olfactory system to process environmental information. This information has to be transmitted without system-relevant loss by the olfactory system to deeper brain areas for learning. Here we study the role of several parameters of the fly's olfactory system and the environment and how they influence olfactory information transmission. We have designed an abstract model of the antennal lobe, the mushroom body and the inhibitory circuitry. Mutual information between the olfactory environment, simulated in terms of different odor concentrations, and a sub-population of intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells) was calculated to quantify the efficiency of information transmission. With this method we study, on the one hand, the effect of different connectivity rates between olfactory projection neurons and firing thresholds of Kenyon cells. On the other hand, we analyze the influence of inhibition on mutual information between environment and mushroom body. Our simulations show an expected linear relation between the connectivity rate between the antennal lobe and the mushroom body and firing threshold of the Kenyon cells to obtain maximum mutual information for both low and high odor concentrations. However, contradicting all-day experiences, high odor concentrations cause a drastic, and unrealistic, decrease in mutual information for all connectivity rates compared to low concentration. But when inhibition on the mushroom body is included, mutual information remains at high levels independent of other system parameters. This finding points to a pivotal role of inhibition in fly information processing without which the system efficiency will be substantially reduced.

  2. Recruiter Perceptions of Information that Employment References Should Provide to Assist in Making Selection Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evuleocha, Stevina U.; Ugbah, Steve D.; Law, Sweety

    2009-01-01

    Authors investigated perceptions of campus recruiters (N = 168) in the San Francisco Bay Area regarding the importance of 15 types of information they solicit from job applicants' references in making selection decisions. Results suggest campus recruiters should consider 10 types of information to assist them in making selection decisions. Results…

  3. 77 FR 50710 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Employment Eligibility Verification, Form I-9, OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information...), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following information... sponsoring the collection: Form I-9. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (4) Affected public who will...

  4. A Study of Labour Market Information Needs through Employers' Seeking Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cuadrado, Sonia; Morato, Jorge; Andreadakis, Yorgos; Moreiro, Jose Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study is understand the information needs that businesses have while seeking Library and Information Science professionals and analyse how they formulate those needs. Method: The analysis is performed by examining the professional skills and capabilities demanded in job offers published. A total of 1,020 job…

  5. Theoretical reflections on the paradigmatic construction of Information Science: considerations about the (s paradigm (s cognitive (s and social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas Luiz Carvalho Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It presents a research about the theoretical and epistemological processes that influence the formation of the cognitive paradigm of Information Science (IS, noting the emergence of social paradigm within the domain analysis and hermeneutics of information. For this, we adopted the reflections of classical and contemporary authors, like Thomas Kuhn, Boaventura Santos, Capurro, Hjørland and Albrechtsen. We conclude that the perception paradigm in IS is a consolidated issue, however the social paradigm is still under construction, which will allow the creation of perceptions, interpretations and contributions in order to fill gaps left by other paradigms.

  6. A general information theoretical proof for the second law of thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiren

    2008-01-01

    We show that the conservation and the non-additivity of information, together with the additivity of entropy makes entropy increase in an isolated system. The collapse of the entangled quantum state offers an example of the information non-additivity. Nevertheless, the later is also true in other fields, in which the interaction information is important. Examples are classical statistical mechanics, social statistics and financial processes. The second law of thermodynamics is thus proven in its most general form. It is exactly true, not only in quantum and classical physics but also in other processes in which the information is conservative and non-additive. (author)

  7. Effect of informal employment on the relationship between psychosocial work risk factors and musculoskeletal pain in Central American workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David; Rojas Garbanzo, Marianela; Aragón, Aurora; Carmenate-Milián, Lino; Benavides, Fernando G

    2017-09-01

    The constant increase on the psychosocial demands experienced at work seems to contribute to the increase in health problems such as musculoskeletal pain (MSP). This association may be especially important in low-income and middle-income countries, where there is a large proportion of informal workers among whom there is little research. We analysed the association between psychosocial work risk factors and MSP among formal and informal workers using the First Central American Survey of Working Conditions and Health. This is a representative sample (n=12 024) of the economically active population of the six Spanish-speaking countries of Central America. Prevalence ratios (PR) and corresponding 95% CIs from Poisson regression models were used to estimate the association between psychosocial work risk factors and the MSP. Compared with formal workers, informal workers reported higher prevalence of MPS in the body regions analysed (ie, cervicodorsal, lumbosacral, upper extremities) and higher exposure to psychosocial work risk factors. However, on the whole, the associations between the exposure to psychosocial work risk factors and the prevalence of MSP were similar for both formal and informal workers. Only the association between exposure to high demands and MSP in the upper extremities was higher (p=0.012) among formal (PR=1.69, 95% CI 1.46 to 1.96) than among informal workers (PR=1.40; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.51). Exposure to adverse levels of psychosocial work risk factors is associated with higher prevalence of MPS among both formal and informal workers. However, the role of employment informality in this association is complex and requires further examination. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. A Theoretical Model of Health Information Technology Usage Behaviour with Implications for Patient Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Richard J.; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2009-01-01

    Primary objective: much research and practice related to the design and implementation of information technology in health care has been atheoretical. It is argued that using extant theory to develop testable models of health information technology (HIT) benefits both research and practice. Methods and procedures: several theories of motivation,…

  9. 78 FR 17670 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Right of First Refusal of Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Michael O. Jackson, Procurement Analyst, Office of Governmentwide Acquisition Policy GSA, at (202) 208- 4949 or via email at michaelo.jackson@gsa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  10. 75 FR 79026 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Employer's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ..., notwithstanding any other provisions of law, no person shall generally be subject to penalty for failing to comply... after the date of injury or death. See also 20 CFR 702.201. Form LS-202 requests information the...

  11. Spectroscopic information from different theoretical descriptions of (un)polarized (e,e sup ' p) reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Radici, M; Dickhoff, W H

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the unpolarized and polarized electron-induced proton knockout reactions on sup 1 sup 6 O in different kinematical settings using two theoretical approaches. The first one is based on a relativistic mean-field distorted-wave description of the bound and scattering states of the proton, including a fully relativistic electromagnetic current operator. The second approach adopts the same current operator, but describes the proton properties on the basis of microscopic calculations of the self-energy in sup 1 sup 6 O below the Fermi energy and final-state damping in nuclear matter above the Fermi energy, using the same realistic short-range and tensor correlations. Good agreement with all unpolarized data is obtained at low and high Q sup 2 by using the same spectroscopic factors fixed by the low-Q sup 2 analysis. A reasonable agreement is achieved for polarization observables. (orig.)

  12. A Theoretical Framework for Turnover Intention of Air Force Enlisted Information Systems Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-25

    removal of poor performers, advancement opportunities for talented replacements, and decreases in pre-turnover withdrawal behaviors such as absenteeism ...in Employee Turnover Intentions and Its Determinants Among Telecommuters and Non- Telecommuters ,” Journal of Management Information Systems, 16: 147

  13. The success or failure of management information systems: A theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Tonn, B.T.

    1987-03-01

    Work has been done by various disciplines to address the reasons why modern, computerized management information systems either succeed or fail. However, the studies are not based on a well-defined conceptual framework and the focus has been narrow. This report presents a comprehensive conceptual framework of how an information system is used within an organization. This framework not only suggests how the use of an information system may translate into productivity improvements for the implementing organization but also helps to identify why a system may succeed or fail. A major aspect of the model is its distinction between the objectives of the organization in its decision to implement an information system and the objectives of the individual employees who are to use the system. A divergence between these objectives can lead to system underutilization or misuse at the expense of the organization's overall productivity.

  14. Adjusting Estimates of the Expected Value of Information for Implementation: Theoretical Framework and Practical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronis, Lazaros; Barton, Pelham M

    2016-04-01

    Value of information (VoI) calculations give the expected benefits of decision making under perfect information (EVPI) or sample information (EVSI), typically on the premise that any treatment recommendations made in light of this information will be implemented instantly and fully. This assumption is unlikely to hold in health care; evidence shows that obtaining further information typically leads to "improved" rather than "perfect" implementation. To present a method of calculating the expected value of further research that accounts for the reality of improved implementation. This work extends an existing conceptual framework by introducing additional states of the world regarding information (sample information, in addition to current and perfect information) and implementation (improved implementation, in addition to current and optimal implementation). The extension allows calculating the "implementation-adjusted" EVSI (IA-EVSI), a measure that accounts for different degrees of implementation. Calculations of implementation-adjusted estimates are illustrated under different scenarios through a stylized case study in non-small cell lung cancer. In the particular case study, the population values for EVSI and IA-EVSI were £ 25 million and £ 8 million, respectively; thus, a decision assuming perfect implementation would have overestimated the expected value of research by about £ 17 million. IA-EVSI was driven by the assumed time horizon and, importantly, the specified rate of change in implementation: the higher the rate, the greater the IA-EVSI and the lower the difference between IA-EVSI and EVSI. Traditionally calculated measures of population VoI rely on unrealistic assumptions about implementation. This article provides a simple framework that accounts for improved, rather than perfect, implementation and offers more realistic estimates of the expected value of research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Income Differences on Mexico’s Northern Border: A Perspective on Formal and Informal Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio VARELA LLAMAS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con información de la “Encuesta nacional de ocupación y empleo (ENOE” se analizan las diferencias de ingreso entre trabajadores con empleo formal e informal en los estados de la frontera norte de México. La metodología ANOVA sugiere que los ingresos de los trabajadores dif ieren de acuerdo con el tipo de empleo (formal/informal, categoría de ocupación y su efecto de interacción. El modelo logit revela que la probabilidad de tener un empleo informal se asocia a un menor nivel de escolaridad y a un proceso de búsqueda de empleo.

  16. Sticky IT Workers: Discovering Why Information Technology Professionals Retain Their Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Phillip Mike

    2013-01-01

    In the current business climate and social technologies expansion era, Information Technology (IT) workers are important organization contributors that connect organizations into today's data-driven, highly social, and always-on global economy. Thus, organizations need IT workers. Unfortunately, as a class, IT workers have developed a reputation…

  17. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) for Youth in MENA : Policies to Promote Employment Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Cava, Gloria La; Rossotto, Carlo Maria; Paradi-Guilford, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    On January 18, 2011, the Arab Development Summit Youth Forum met in Sharm-el-Sheikh, Egypt, aiming to provide young Arab leaders and Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) entrepreneurs with the opportunity for dialogue with Arab decision makers, providing recommendations on how to empower youth in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) through ICT. Tunisia's Jasmine revolution and...

  18. 77 FR 74687 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Employment Authorization, Form I-765...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Policy and Strategy, Chief, Regulatory Coordination Division, 20 Massachusetts Avenue NW., Washington, DC... information provided in comments from public viewing that it determines may impact the privacy of an... required to obtain supporting documents for Forms I-765 and I-765WS. The monetary costs incurred to secure...

  19. The individualization of the employment relations on-line: the benefits and limitations of information technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; van Riemsdijk, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    One of the latest tendencies in the organisational change theory and practice is implementing e- ideas: e-business, e-commerce, e-library, e-learning, and since not long ago – e-HRM. Software engineers design information technologies (IT) to support HR processes, marketing specialists insist that

  20. 77 FR 56856 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Employment Eligibility Verification, Form I-9, OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services [OMB Control Number 1615... Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) published a 30-day..., 2012, to ensure the public sufficient opportunity to comment on the information collection. In the 30...

  1. Computational Study of Chemical Reactivity Using Information-Theoretic Quantities from Density Functional Reactivity Theory for Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjie; Wu, Zemin; Rong, Chunying; Lu, Tian; Huang, Ying; Liu, Shubin

    2015-07-23

    The electrophilic aromatic substitution for nitration, halogenation, sulfonation, and acylation is a vastly important category of chemical transformation. Its reactivity and regioselectivity is predominantly determined by nucleophilicity of carbon atoms on the aromatic ring, which in return is immensely influenced by the group that is attached to the aromatic ring a priori. In this work, taking advantage of recent developments in quantifying nucleophilicity (electrophilicity) with descriptors from the information-theoretic approach in density functional reactivity theory, we examine the reactivity properties of this reaction system from three perspectives. These include scaling patterns of information-theoretic quantities such as Shannon entropy, Fisher information, Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy and information gain at both molecular and atomic levels, quantitative predictions of the barrier height with both Hirshfeld charge and information gain, and energetic decomposition analyses of the barrier height for the reactions. To that end, we focused in this work on the identity reaction of the monosubstituted-benzene molecule reacting with hydrogen fluoride using boron trifluoride as the catalyst in the gas phase. We also considered 19 substituting groups, 9 of which are ortho/para directing and the other 9 meta directing, besides the case of R = -H. Similar scaling patterns for these information-theoretic quantities found for stable species elsewhere were disclosed for these reactions systems. We also unveiled novel scaling patterns for information gain at the atomic level. The barrier height of the reactions can reliably be predicted by using both the Hirshfeld charge and information gain at the regioselective carbon atom. The energy decomposition analysis ensued yields an unambiguous picture about the origin of the barrier height, where we showed that it is the electrostatic interaction that plays the dominant role, while the roles played by exchange-correlation and

  2. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  3. Review of Trends in Employing Library and Information Science Graduates in Slovenia for the Period from 2000 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Božič

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: The purpose of this paper is to show the trends in employing LIS graduates in Slovenia in the period from 2000 to 2012.Methodology/Approach: We collected, presented and analysed the publicly available data on the number and fluctuation of LIS graduates registered as job seekers at the national employment service. The paper also presents the fluctuation in the number of related job advertisements, and the number of employees in Slovenian libraries.Results: According to the Employment Service of Slovenia, the number of job seekers has been rising but it does not exceed the number of tendered study positions or the number of ads for job vacancies. Until 2012, only a third of job seekers were first time job seekers under 26 years of age. In recent years, the ratio of advertisements for the fixed-term employment has been increasing compared to those for the permanent employment. The majority of the ads offer employment in the central region of Slovenia, usually in the capital city which is the economic, political and university centre where the majority of all the libraries are concentrated. In addition, there is an increase in the number of ads during the summer months. The number of employees in Slovenian libraries has been rising year by year, in parallel to the increased proportion of library and information science graduates.Limitations of the research: We cannot make any conclusions about graduates of the Bologna study programmes, on one hand the first degree graduates are not very numerous on the job market and on the other hand many of them enrol the second degree Bologna study programme.Originality/practical implications of the research: For the first time in Slovenia, the research provides quantitative data on the number of the unemployed LIS graduates and on the number of job vacancy ads for LIS graduates.

  4. Motivation and stimulation of employment specialists in the sphere of information technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bazhenov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "Information and communication technologies." The characteristic of the labor specialists in the sphere of information technologies, namely the characteristics of the object, means and product of their labor. The author of the article deals with the specifics of specialists of the topic. We study the needs and motivations of IT professionals. A method for evaluating the effectiveness of labor specialists in the sphere of information technologies and offered rates for calculating the efficiency of workers, including factors: timeliness; the number of completed tasks; detected errors; the cost of bug fixes. Purpose of the article – to reveal the specifics of working IT professionals, and especially to justify the incentives and motivation of specialists in this field. The objectives of the article: to characterize the concept of "Information and communications technologies"; identify the main needs and motivations of IT professionals; develop a method for evaluating the effectiveness of specialists in this field.Methodology. In conducting this study the main sources of raw data served as the information contained in scientific, reference, periodical literature on the subject in question, including the sources of information and telecommunications network "Internet". The basis of methodological developments put the comparative methods of analysis and synthesis of existing data.Results. The characteristic of the concept of "Information and communication technologies." It is proved that the work of specialists in the sphere of information technologies is intellectual work, and that the subject, the means and the product of this kind of work – are special types of information in digital form. Emphasize that as part of the system of social production, work in the field of software development (software performs a task and a number of specific functions: creative, integration, stimulating, consumer

  5. Information-theoretical approach to control of quantum-mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Shiro

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental limits on the controllability of quantum mechanical systems are discussed in the light of quantum information theory. It is shown that the amount of entropy-reduction that can be extracted from a quantum system by feedback controller is upper bounded by a sum of the decrease of entropy achievable in open-loop control and the mutual information between the quantum system and the controller. This upper bound sets a fundamental limit on the performance of any quantum controllers whose designs are based on the possibilities to attain low entropy states. An application of this approach pertaining to quantum error correction is also discussed

  6. Information-Theoretic Analysis of a Family of Improper Discrete Constellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Santamaria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-circular or improper Gaussian signaling has proven beneficial in several interference-limited wireless networks. However, all implementable coding schemes are based on finite discrete constellations rather than Gaussian signals. In this paper, we propose a new family of improper constellations generated by widely linear processing of a square M-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation signal. This family of discrete constellations is parameterized by κ , the circularity coefficient and a phase ϕ . For uncoded communication systems, this phase should be optimized as ϕ * ( κ to maximize the minimum Euclidean distance between points of the improper constellation, therefore minimizing the bit error rate (BER. For the more relevant case of coded communications, where the coded symbols are constrained to be in this family of improper constellations using ϕ * ( κ , it is shown theoretically and further corroborated by simulations that, except for a shaping loss of 1.53 dB encountered at a high signal-to-noise ratio (snr, there is no rate loss with respect to the improper Gaussian capacity. In this sense, the proposed family of constellations can be viewed as the improper counterpart of the standard proper M-QAM constellations widely used in coded communication systems.

  7. Goal setting and action planning in the rehabilitation setting: development of a theoretically informed practice framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobbie, Lesley; Dixon, Diane; Wyke, Sally

    2011-05-01

    Setting and achieving goals is fundamental to rehabilitation practice but has been criticized for being a-theoretical and the key components of replicable goal-setting interventions are not well established. To describe the development of a theory-based goal setting practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings and to detail its component parts. Causal modelling was used to map theories of behaviour change onto the process of setting and achieving rehabilitation goals, and to suggest the mechanisms through which patient outcomes are likely to be affected. A multidisciplinary task group developed the causal model into a practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings through iterative discussion and implementation with six patients. Four components of a goal-setting and action-planning practice framework were identified: (i) goal negotiation, (ii) goal identification, (iii) planning, and (iv) appraisal and feedback. The variables hypothesized to effect change in patient outcomes were self-efficacy and action plan attainment. A theory-based goal setting practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings is described. The framework requires further development and systematic evaluation in a range of rehabilitation settings.

  8. Managing the risks of reputational disasters in Japan. Theoretical basis and need for information volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses how and why a disaster caused by a bad reputation (Fu-Hyo) occurs in Japan. We survey several cases of reputational disasters and develop a simple model of the process of how a reputational disaster occurs, lasts, and vanishes. We also show the necessity of third parties or information volunteers to reduce the damage of a reputational disaster. (author)

  9. Direction of coupling from phases of interacting oscillators: An information-theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluš, Milan; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2003-05-01

    A directionality index based on conditional mutual information is proposed for application to the instantaneous phases of weakly coupled oscillators. Its abilities to distinguish unidirectional from bidirectional coupling, as well as to reveal and quantify asymmetry in bidirectional coupling, are demonstrated using numerical examples of quasiperiodic, chaotic, and noisy oscillators, as well as real human cardiorespiratory data.

  10. A geo-information theoretical approach to inductive erosion modelling based on terrain mapping units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suryana, N.

    1997-01-01

    Three main aspects of the research, namely the concept of object orientation, the development of an Inductive Erosion Model (IEM) and the development of a framework for handling uncertainty in the data or information resulting from a GIS are interwoven in this thesis. The first and the second aspect

  11. The theoretical foundations of value-informed pricing in the service-dominant logic of marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – In the mainstream normative pricing literature, value assessment is virtually non-existent. Although the resource-based literature recognizes that pricing is a competence, value-informed pricing practices are still weakly grounded in theory. The purpose of this paper is to strengthen the

  12. Managing the risks of reputational disasters in Japan. Theoretical basis and need for information volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Makoto [University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    This paper discusses how and why a disaster caused by a bad reputation (Fu-Hyo) occurs in Japan. We survey several cases of reputational disasters and develop a simple model of the process of how a reputational disaster occurs, lasts, and vanishes. We also show the necessity of third parties or information volunteers to reduce the damage of a reputational disaster. (author)

  13. Quantitative assessment of drivers of recent global temperature variability: an information theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Ankush; Ramesh, Durbha Sai; Vichare, Geeta; Koganti, Triven; Gurubaran, S.

    2017-12-01

    Identification and quantification of possible drivers of recent global temperature variability remains a challenging task. This important issue is addressed adopting a non-parametric information theory technique, the Transfer Entropy and its normalized variant. It distinctly quantifies actual information exchanged along with the directional flow of information between any two variables with no bearing on their common history or inputs, unlike correlation, mutual information etc. Measurements of greenhouse gases: CO2, CH4 and N2O; volcanic aerosols; solar activity: UV radiation, total solar irradiance ( TSI) and cosmic ray flux ( CR); El Niño Southern Oscillation ( ENSO) and Global Mean Temperature Anomaly ( GMTA) made during 1984-2005 are utilized to distinguish driving and responding signals of global temperature variability. Estimates of their relative contributions reveal that CO2 ({˜ } 24 %), CH4 ({˜ } 19 %) and volcanic aerosols ({˜ }23 %) are the primary contributors to the observed variations in GMTA. While, UV ({˜ } 9 %) and ENSO ({˜ } 12 %) act as secondary drivers of variations in the GMTA, the remaining play a marginal role in the observed recent global temperature variability. Interestingly, ENSO and GMTA mutually drive each other at varied time lags. This study assists future modelling efforts in climate science.

  14. Theoretical and methodological significance of Information and Communication Technology in educational practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    In September 1998 the Research Network ‘ICT in Education and Training’ was initiated at the conference of the European Educational Research Association (EERA). The new network reflected the recognition and growing importance of information and communication technology (ICT) with respect to education

  15. An Informational-Theoretical Formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a formulation of the second law of thermodynamics couched in terms of Shannon's measure of information. This formulation has an advantage over other formulations of the second law. First, it shows explicitly what is the thing that changes in a spontaneous process in an isolated system, which is traditionally referred to as the…

  16. New Evidence on Employment Effects of Informal Care Provision in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Ingo W K; Reichert, Arndt R; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2018-02-22

    To estimate how labor force participation is affected when adult children provide informal care to their parents. Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe from 2004 to 2013. To offset the problem of endogeneity, we exploit the availability of other potential caregivers within the family as predictors of the probability to provide care for a dependent parent. Contrary to most previous studies, the dataset covers the whole working-age population in the majority of European countries. Individuals explicitly had to opt for or against the provision of care to their care-dependent parents, which allows us to more precisely estimate the effect of caregiving on labor force participation. Results reveal a negative causal effect that indicates that informal care provision reduces labor force participation by 14.0 percentage points (95 percent CI: -0.307, 0.026). Point estimates suggest that the effect is larger for men; however, this gender difference is not significantly different from zero at conventional levels. Results apply to individuals whose consideration in long-term care policy is highly relevant, that is, children whose willingness to provide informal care to their parents is altered by available alternatives of family caregivers. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Information-Theoretic Evidence for Predictive Coding in the Face-Processing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodski-Guerniero, Alla; Paasch, Georg-Friedrich; Wollstadt, Patricia; Özdemir, Ipek; Lizier, Joseph T; Wibral, Michael

    2017-08-23

    Predictive coding suggests that the brain infers the causes of its sensations by combining sensory evidence with internal predictions based on available prior knowledge. However, the neurophysiological correlates of (pre)activated prior knowledge serving these predictions are still unknown. Based on the idea that such preactivated prior knowledge must be maintained until needed, we measured the amount of maintained information in neural signals via the active information storage (AIS) measure. AIS was calculated on whole-brain beamformer-reconstructed source time courses from MEG recordings of 52 human subjects during the baseline of a Mooney face/house detection task. Preactivation of prior knowledge for faces showed as α-band-related and β-band-related AIS increases in content-specific areas; these AIS increases were behaviorally relevant in the brain's fusiform face area. Further, AIS allowed decoding of the cued category on a trial-by-trial basis. Our results support accounts indicating that activated prior knowledge and the corresponding predictions are signaled in low-frequency activity (information our eyes/retina and other sensory organs receive from the outside world, but strongly depends also on information already present in our brains, such as prior knowledge about specific situations or objects. A currently popular theory in neuroscience, predictive coding theory, suggests that this prior knowledge is used by the brain to form internal predictions about upcoming sensory information. However, neurophysiological evidence for this hypothesis is rare, mostly because this kind of evidence requires strong a priori assumptions about the specific predictions the brain makes and the brain areas involved. Using a novel, assumption-free approach, we find that face-related prior knowledge and the derived predictions are represented in low-frequency brain activity. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378273-11$15.00/0.

  18. Information theoretical methods as discerning quantifiers of the equations of state of neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avellar, M.G.B. de, E-mail: mgb.avellar@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas – Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, R.A. de, E-mail: rodrigo.souza@usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas – Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Horvath, J.E., E-mail: foton@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas – Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Paret, D.M., E-mail: dmanreza@fisica.uh.cu [Facultad de Física, Universidad de la Habana, San Lázaro y L, Vedado La Habana, 10400 (Cuba)

    2014-11-07

    In this work we use the statistical measures of information entropy, disequilibrium and complexity to discriminate different approaches and parametrizations for different equations of state for quark stars. We confirm the usefulness of such quantities to quantify the role of interactions in such stars. We find that within this approach, a quark matter equation of state such as SU(2) NJL with vectorial coupling and phase transition is slightly favoured and deserves deeper studies. - Highlights: • We used information theory tools to discern different compositions for compact stars. • Hadronic and quark stars analogues behave differently when analyzed with these tools. • The effects of different equations of state are singled out in this work.

  19. Acceptance and Use of Information and Communications Technology: A UTAUT and Flow Based Theoretical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Alwahaishi, Saleh; Snásel, Václav

    2013-01-01

    The world has changed a lot in the past years. The rapid advances in technology and the changing of the communication channels have changed the way people work and, for many, where do they work from. The Internet and mobile technology, the two most dynamic technological forces in modern information and communications technology (ICT) are converging into one ubiquitous mobile Internet service, which will change our way of both doing business and dealing with our daily routine activities. As th...

  20. Consumers’ Acceptance and Use of Information and Communications Technology: A UTAUT and Flow Based Theoretical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh Alwahaishi; Václav Snášel

    2013-01-01

    The world has changed a lot in the past years. The rapid advances in technology and the changing of the communication channels have changed the way people work and, for many, where do they work from. The Internet and mobile technology, the two most dynamic technological forces in modern information and communications technology (ICT) are converging into one ubiquitous mobile Internet service, which will change our way of both doing business and dealing with our daily routine activities. As th...

  1. An information-theoretic basis for uncertainty analysis: application to the QUASAR severe accident study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, S.D.; Cazzoli, E.G.; Davis, R.E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Lee, M.; Nourbakhsh, H.; Park, C.K.; Schmidt, E.

    1989-01-01

    The probabilistic characterization of uncertainty can be problematic in circumstances where there is a paucity of supporting data and limited experience on which to base engineering judgement. Information theory provides a framework in which to address this issue through reliance upon entropy-related principles of uncertainty maximization. We describe an application of such principles in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored program QUASAR (Quantification and Uncertainty Analysis of Source Terms for Severe Accidents in Light Water Reactors). (author)

  2. Culture, agency and power: Theoretical reflections on informal economic networks and political process

    OpenAIRE

    Meagher, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Do network theory really offer a suitable concept for the theorization of informal processes of economic regulation and institutional change? This working paper challenges both essentialist and skeptical attitudes to networks through an examination of the positive and negative effects of network governance in contemporary societies in a range of regional contexts. The analysis focuses on three broad principles of non-state organization - culture, agency and power - and their role in shaping p...

  3. Information-theoretic analysis of the dynamics of an executable biological model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital Sadot

    Full Text Available To facilitate analysis and understanding of biological systems, large-scale data are often integrated into models using a variety of mathematical and computational approaches. Such models describe the dynamics of the biological system and can be used to study the changes in the state of the system over time. For many model classes, such as discrete or continuous dynamical systems, there exist appropriate frameworks and tools for analyzing system dynamics. However, the heterogeneous information that encodes and bridges molecular and cellular dynamics, inherent to fine-grained molecular simulation models, presents significant challenges to the study of system dynamics. In this paper, we present an algorithmic information theory based approach for the analysis and interpretation of the dynamics of such executable models of biological systems. We apply a normalized compression distance (NCD analysis to the state representations of a model that simulates the immune decision making and immune cell behavior. We show that this analysis successfully captures the essential information in the dynamics of the system, which results from a variety of events including proliferation, differentiation, or perturbations such as gene knock-outs. We demonstrate that this approach can be used for the analysis of executable models, regardless of the modeling framework, and for making experimentally quantifiable predictions.

  4. Discovery and information-theoretic characterization of transcription factor binding sites that act cooperatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Jacob; Adami, Christoph

    2015-09-02

    Transcription factor binding to the surface of DNA regulatory regions is one of the primary causes of regulating gene expression levels. A probabilistic approach to model protein-DNA interactions at the sequence level is through position weight matrices (PWMs) that estimate the joint probability of a DNA binding site sequence by assuming positional independence within the DNA sequence. Here we construct conditional PWMs that depend on the motif signatures in the flanking DNA sequence, by conditioning known binding site loci on the presence or absence of additional binding sites in the flanking sequence of each site's locus. Pooling known sites with similar flanking sequence patterns allows for the estimation of the conditional distribution function over the binding site sequences. We apply our model to the Dorsal transcription factor binding sites active in patterning the Dorsal-Ventral axis of Drosophila development. We find that those binding sites that cooperate with nearby Twist sites on average contain about 0.5 bits of information about the presence of Twist transcription factor binding sites in the flanking sequence. We also find that Dorsal binding site detectors conditioned on flanking sequence information make better predictions about what is a Dorsal site relative to background DNA than detection without information about flanking sequence features.

  5. Information-theoretic approach to lead-lag effect on financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedor, Paweł

    2014-08-01

    Recently the interest of researchers has shifted from the analysis of synchronous relationships of financial instruments to the analysis of more meaningful asynchronous relationships. Both types of analysis are concentrated mostly on Pearson's correlation coefficient and consequently intraday lead-lag relationships (where one of the variables in a pair is time-lagged) are also associated with them. Under the Efficient-Market Hypothesis such relationships are not possible as all information is embedded in the prices, but in real markets we find such dependencies. In this paper we analyse lead-lag relationships of financial instruments and extend known methodology by using mutual information instead of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Mutual information is not only a more general measure, sensitive to non-linear dependencies, but also can lead to a simpler procedure of statistical validation of links between financial instruments. We analyse lagged relationships using New York Stock Exchange 100 data not only on an intraday level, but also for daily stock returns, which have usually been ignored.

  6. Lateral Information Processing by Spiking Neurons: A Theoretical Model of the Neural Correlate of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ebner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive brain functions, for example, sensory perception, motor control and learning, are understood as computation by axonal-dendritic chemical synapses in networks of integrate-and-fire neurons. Cognitive brain functions may occur either consciously or nonconsciously (on “autopilot”. Conscious cognition is marked by gamma synchrony EEG, mediated largely by dendritic-dendritic gap junctions, sideways connections in input/integration layers. Gap-junction-connected neurons define a sub-network within a larger neural network. A theoretical model (the “conscious pilot” suggests that as gap junctions open and close, a gamma-synchronized subnetwork, or zone moves through the brain as an executive agent, converting nonconscious “auto-pilot” cognition to consciousness, and enhancing computation by coherent processing and collective integration. In this study we implemented sideways “gap junctions” in a single-layer artificial neural network to perform figure/ground separation. The set of neurons connected through gap junctions form a reconfigurable resistive grid or sub-network zone. In the model, outgoing spikes are temporally integrated and spatially averaged using the fixed resistive grid set up by neurons of similar function which are connected through gap-junctions. This spatial average, essentially a feedback signal from the neuron's output, determines whether particular gap junctions between neurons will open or close. Neurons connected through open gap junctions synchronize their output spikes. We have tested our gap-junction-defined sub-network in a one-layer neural network on artificial retinal inputs using real-world images. Our system is able to perform figure/ground separation where the laterally connected sub-network of neurons represents a perceived object. Even though we only show results for visual stimuli, our approach should generalize to other modalities. The system demonstrates a moving sub-network zone of

  7. The quantization of the attention function under a Bayes information theoretic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynn, H.P.; Sebastiani, P.

    2001-01-01

    Bayes experimental design using entropy, or equivalently negative information, as a criterion is fairly well developed. The present work applies this model but at a primitive level in statistical sampling. It is assumed that the observer/experimentor is allowed to place a window over the support of a sampling distribution and only 'pay for' observations that fall in this window. The window can be modeled with an 'attention function', simply the indicator function of the window. The understanding is that the cost of the experiment is only the number of paid for observations: n. For fixed n and under the information model it turns out that for standard problems the optimal structure for the window, in the limit amongst all types of window including disjoint regions, is discrete. That is to say it is optimal to observe the world (in this sense) through discrete slits. It also shows that in this case Bayesians with different priors will receive different samples because typically the optimal attention windows will be disjoint. This property we refer to as the quantization of the attention function

  8. Information processing in network architecture of genome controlled signal transduction circuit. A proposed theoretical explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Sarkar, Bimal Kumar; Patel, Pratiksha; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, Shannon information theory has been applied to elaborate cell signaling. It is proposed that in the cellular network architecture, four components viz. source (DNA), transmitter (mRNA), receiver (protein) and destination (another protein) are involved. The message transmits from source (DNA) to transmitter (mRNA) and then passes through a noisy channel reaching finally the receiver (protein). The protein synthesis process is here considered as the noisy channel. Ultimately, signal is transmitted from receiver to destination (another protein). The genome network architecture elements were compared with genetic alphabet L = {A, C, G, T} with a biophysical model based on the popular Shannon information theory. This study found the channel capacity as maximum for zero error (sigma = 0) and at this condition, transition matrix becomes a unit matrix with rank 4. The transition matrix will be erroneous and finally at sigma = 1 channel capacity will be localized maxima with a value of 0.415 due to the increased value at sigma. On the other hand, minima exists at sigma = 0.75, where all transition probabilities become 0.25 and uncertainty will be maximum resulting in channel capacity with the minima value of zero.

  9. A Systematic Review of Current Understandings of Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stella; Dodd, Lorna J.; Steele, Catherine; Randall, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical framework is essential for the effective evaluation of employability. However, there are a wide range of definitions of employability coexisting in current literature. A review into existing ways in which employability has been conceptualised is needed to inform a better understanding of the nature of contributions made by various…

  10. An information-theoretic machine learning approach to expression QTL analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    Full Text Available Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL analysis is a powerful tool to study the biological mechanisms linking the genotype with gene expression. Such analyses can identify genomic locations where genotypic variants influence the expression of genes, both in close proximity to the variant (cis-eQTL, and on other chromosomes (trans-eQTL. Many traditional eQTL methods are based on a linear regression model. In this study, we propose a novel method by which to identify eQTL associations with information theory and machine learning approaches. Mutual Information (MI is used to describe the association between genetic marker and gene expression. MI can detect both linear and non-linear associations. What's more, it can capture the heterogeneity of the population. Advanced feature selection methods, Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy (mRMR and Incremental Feature Selection (IFS, were applied to optimize the selection of the affected genes by the genetic marker. When we applied our method to a study of apoE-deficient mice, it was found that the cis-acting eQTLs are stronger than trans-acting eQTLs but there are more trans-acting eQTLs than cis-acting eQTLs. We compared our results (mRMR.eQTL with R/qtl, and MatrixEQTL (modelLINEAR and modelANOVA. In female mice, 67.9% of mRMR.eQTL results can be confirmed by at least two other methods while only 14.4% of R/qtl result can be confirmed by at least two other methods. In male mice, 74.1% of mRMR.eQTL results can be confirmed by at least two other methods while only 18.2% of R/qtl result can be confirmed by at least two other methods. Our methods provide a new way to identify the association between genetic markers and gene expression. Our software is available from supporting information.

  11. The value of private patient information in the physician-patient relationship: a game-theoretic account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Kris

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a game-theoretical model of the physician-patient relationship. There is a conflict of interests between physician and patient, in that the physician prefers the patient to always obtain a particular treatment, even if the patient would not consider this treatment in his interest. The patient obtains imperfect cues of whether or not he needs the treatment. The effect of an increase in the quality of the patient's private information is studied, in the form of an improvement in the quality of his cues. It is shown that when the patient's information improves in this sense, he may either become better off or worse off. The precise circumstances under which either result is obtained are derived.

  12. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION. A THEORETICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Rodríguez Quijada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we tour the treatment of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in the field of physical education by the professed and the students. For this purpose we review the existing lines of research on the topic and how the most remarkable works of different authors, with special attention to the situation in the autonomous community of Galicia. Finally the main problems related to the use of these technologies in classrooms are analyzed. All this in order t to shed light on a very topical issue regarding the education of our youth. Studies show that ICTs are increasingly present in the field of physical education, but much remains to be done to make an effective use of them in education. 

  13. An Information-theoretic Approach to Optimize JWST Observations and Retrievals of Transiting Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alex R.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2017-01-01

    We provide an example of an analysis to explore the optimization of observations of transiting hot Jupiters with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to characterize their atmospheres based on a simple three-parameter forward model. We construct expansive forward model sets for 11 hot Jupiters, 10 of which are relatively well characterized, exploring a range of parameters such as equilibrium temperature and metallicity, as well as considering host stars over a wide range in brightness. We compute posterior distributions of our model parameters for each planet with all of the available JWST spectroscopic modes and several programs of combined observations and compute their effectiveness using the metric of estimated mutual information per degree of freedom. From these simulations, clear trends emerge that provide guidelines for designing a JWST observing program. We demonstrate that these guidelines apply over a wide range of planet parameters and target brightnesses for our simple forward model.

  14. An Information-Theoretic Perspective on the Quantum Bit Commitment Impossibility Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Nagy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a different approach to pinpoint the causes for which an unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment protocol cannot be realized, beyond the technical details on which the proof of Mayers’ no-go theorem is constructed. We have adopted the tools of quantum entropy analysis to investigate the conditions under which the security properties of quantum bit commitment can be circumvented. Our study has revealed that cheating the binding property requires the quantum system acting as the safe to harbor the same amount of uncertainty with respect to both observers (Alice and Bob as well as the use of entanglement. Our analysis also suggests that the ability to cheat one of the two fundamental properties of bit commitment by any of the two participants depends on how much information is leaked from one side of the system to the other and how much remains hidden from the other participant.

  15. AN INFORMATION-THEORETIC APPROACH TO OPTIMIZE JWST OBSERVATIONS AND RETRIEVALS OF TRANSITING EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Alex R.; Burrows, Adam [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: arhowe@umich.edu, E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: ddeming@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    We provide an example of an analysis to explore the optimization of observations of transiting hot Jupiters with the James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ) to characterize their atmospheres based on a simple three-parameter forward model. We construct expansive forward model sets for 11 hot Jupiters, 10 of which are relatively well characterized, exploring a range of parameters such as equilibrium temperature and metallicity, as well as considering host stars over a wide range in brightness. We compute posterior distributions of our model parameters for each planet with all of the available JWST spectroscopic modes and several programs of combined observations and compute their effectiveness using the metric of estimated mutual information per degree of freedom. From these simulations, clear trends emerge that provide guidelines for designing a JWST observing program. We demonstrate that these guidelines apply over a wide range of planet parameters and target brightnesses for our simple forward model.

  16. A theoretical perspective to inform assessment and treatment strategies for animal hoarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patronek, Gary J; Nathanson, Jane N

    2009-04-01

    Animal hoarding is a poorly understood, maladaptive, destructive behavior whose etiology and pathology are only beginning to emerge. We compare and contrast animal hoarding to the compulsive hoarding of objects and proceed to draw upon attachment theory, the literature of personality disorder and trauma, and our own clinical experience to propose a developmental trajectory. Throughout life, there is a persistent struggle to form a functional attachment style and achieve positive social integration. For some people, particularly those affected by a dysfunctional primary attachment experience in childhood, a protective, comforting relationship with animals may form an indelible imprint. In adulthood, when human attachment has been chronically problematic, compulsive caregiving of animals can become the primary means of maintaining or building a sense of self. Improving assessment and treatment of animal hoarders requires attention to contributing psychosocial conditions, while taking into account the centrality of the animals to the hoarder's identity, self-esteem and sense of control. It is our hope that the information presented will provide a basis upon which clinicians can focus their own counseling style, assessment, and methods of treatment.

  17. Anatomy of a Spin: The Information-Theoretic Structure of Classical Spin Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram S. Vijayaraghavan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Collective organization in matter plays a significant role in its expressed physical properties. Typically, it is detected via an order parameter, appropriately defined for each given system’s observed emergent patterns. Recent developments in information theory, however, suggest quantifying collective organization in a system- and phenomenon-agnostic way: decomposing the system’s thermodynamic entropy density into a localized entropy, that is solely contained in the dynamics at a single location, and a bound entropy, that is stored in space as domains, clusters, excitations, or other emergent structures. As a concrete demonstration, we compute this decomposition and related quantities explicitly for the nearest-neighbor Ising model on the 1D chain, on the Bethe lattice with coordination number k = 3 , and on the 2D square lattice, illustrating its generality and the functional insights it gives near and away from phase transitions. In particular, we consider the roles that different spin motifs play (in cluster bulk, cluster edges, and the like and how these affect the dependencies between spins.

  18. Fundamental energy limits of SET-based Brownian NAND and half-adder circuits. Preliminary findings from a physical-information-theoretic methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, İlke; Suyabatmaz, Enes

    2018-06-01

    The saturation in the efficiency and performance scaling of conventional electronic technologies brings about the development of novel computational paradigms. Brownian circuits are among the promising alternatives that can exploit fluctuations to increase the efficiency of information processing in nanocomputing. A Brownian cellular automaton, where signals propagate randomly and are driven by local transition rules, can be made computationally universal by embedding arbitrary asynchronous circuits on it. One of the potential realizations of such circuits is via single electron tunneling (SET) devices since SET technology enable simulation of noise and fluctuations in a fashion similar to Brownian search. In this paper, we perform a physical-information-theoretic analysis on the efficiency limitations in a Brownian NAND and half-adder circuits implemented using SET technology. The method we employed here establishes a solid ground that enables studying computational and physical features of this emerging technology on an equal footing, and yield fundamental lower bounds that provide valuable insights into how far its efficiency can be improved in principle. In order to provide a basis for comparison, we also analyze a NAND gate and half-adder circuit implemented in complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology to show how the fundamental bound of the Brownian circuit compares against a conventional paradigm.

  19. Parenting around child snacking: development of a theoretically-guided, empirically informed conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten K; Blake, Christine E; Blaine, Rachel E; Younginer, Nicholas A; Orloski, Alexandria; Hamtil, Heather A; Ganter, Claudia; Bruton, Yasmeen P; Vaughn, Amber E; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2015-09-17

    Snacking contributes to excessive energy intakes in children. Yet factors shaping child snacking are virtually unstudied. This study examines food parenting practices specific to child snacking among low-income caregivers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in English or Spanish with 60 low-income caregivers of preschool-aged children (18 non-Hispanic white, 22 African American/Black, 20 Hispanic; 92% mothers). A structured interview guide was used to solicit caregivers' definitions of snacking and strategies they use to decide what, when and how much snack their child eats. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an iterative theory-based and grounded approach. A conceptual model of food parenting specific to child snacking was developed to summarize the findings and inform future research. Caregivers' descriptions of food parenting practices specific to child snacking were consistent with previous models of food parenting developed based on expert opinion [1, 2]. A few noteworthy differences however emerged. More than half of participants mentioned permissive feeding approaches (e.g., my child is the boss when it comes to snacks). As a result, permissive feeding was included as a higher order feeding dimension in the resulting model. In addition, a number of novel feeding approaches specific to child snacking emerged including child-centered provision of snacks (i.e., responding to a child's hunger cues when making decisions about snacks), parent unilateral decision making (i.e., making decisions about a child's snacks without any input from the child), and excessive monitoring of snacks (i.e., monitoring all snacks provided to and consumed by the child). The resulting conceptual model includes four higher order feeding dimensions including autonomy support, coercive control, structure and permissiveness and 20 sub-dimensions. This study formulates a language around food parenting practices specific to child snacking

  20. Blind information-theoretic multiuser detection algorithms for DS-CDMA and WCDMA downlink systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Khuram; Salem, Fathi M

    2005-07-01

    Code division multiple access (CDMA) is based on the spread-spectrum technology and is a dominant air interface for 2.5G, 3G, and future wireless networks. For the CDMA downlink, the transmitted CDMA signals from the base station (BS) propagate through a noisy multipath fading communication channel before arriving at the receiver of the user equipment/mobile station (UE/MS). Classical CDMA single-user detection (SUD) algorithms implemented in the UE/MS receiver do not provide the required performance for modern high data-rate applications. In contrast, multi-user detection (MUD) approaches require a lot of a priori information not available to the UE/MS. In this paper, three promising adaptive Riemannian contra-variant (or natural) gradient based user detection approaches, capable of handling the highly dynamic wireless environments, are proposed. The first approach, blind multiuser detection (BMUD), is the process of simultaneously estimating multiple symbol sequences associated with all the users in the downlink of a CDMA communication system using only the received wireless data and without any knowledge of the user spreading codes. This approach is applicable to CDMA systems with relatively short spreading codes but becomes impractical for systems using long spreading codes. We also propose two other adaptive approaches, namely, RAKE -blind source recovery (RAKE-BSR) and RAKE-principal component analysis (RAKE-PCA) that fuse an adaptive stage into a standard RAKE receiver. This adaptation results in robust user detection algorithms with performance exceeding the linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE) detectors for both Direct Sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) and wide-band CDMA (WCDMA) systems under conditions of congestion, imprecise channel estimation and unmodeled multiple access interference (MAI).

  1. Selecting the right statistical model for analysis of insect count data by using information theoretic measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileshi, G

    2006-10-01

    Researchers and regulatory agencies often make statistical inferences from insect count data using modelling approaches that assume homogeneous variance. Such models do not allow for formal appraisal of variability which in its different forms is the subject of interest in ecology. Therefore, the objectives of this paper were to (i) compare models suitable for handling variance heterogeneity and (ii) select optimal models to ensure valid statistical inferences from insect count data. The log-normal, standard Poisson, Poisson corrected for overdispersion, zero-inflated Poisson, the negative binomial distribution and zero-inflated negative binomial models were compared using six count datasets on foliage-dwelling insects and five families of soil-dwelling insects. Akaike's and Schwarz Bayesian information criteria were used for comparing the various models. Over 50% of the counts were zeros even in locally abundant species such as Ootheca bennigseni Weise, Mesoplatys ochroptera Stål and Diaecoderus spp. The Poisson model after correction for overdispersion and the standard negative binomial distribution model provided better description of the probability distribution of seven out of the 11 insects than the log-normal, standard Poisson, zero-inflated Poisson or zero-inflated negative binomial models. It is concluded that excess zeros and variance heterogeneity are common data phenomena in insect counts. If not properly modelled, these properties can invalidate the normal distribution assumptions resulting in biased estimation of ecological effects and jeopardizing the integrity of the scientific inferences. Therefore, it is recommended that statistical models appropriate for handling these data properties be selected using objective criteria to ensure efficient statistical inference.

  2. An information-theoretical approach to image resolution applied to neutron imaging detectors based upon individual discriminator signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clergeau, Jean-Francois; Ferraton, Matthieu; Guerard, Bruno; Khaplanov, Anton; Piscitelli, Francesco; Platz, Martin; Rigal, Jean-Marie; Van Esch, Patrick; Daulle, Thibault

    2013-06-01

    1D or 2D neutron imaging detectors with individual wire or strip readout using discriminators have the advantage of being able to treat several neutron impacts partially overlapping in time, hence reducing global dead time. A single neutron impact usually gives rise to several discriminator signals. In this paper, we introduce an information-theoretical definition of image resolution. Two point-like spots of neutron impacts with a given distance between them act as a source of information (each neutron hit belongs to one spot or the other), and the detector plus signal treatment is regarded as an imperfect communication channel that transmits this information. The maximal mutual information obtained from this channel as a function of the distance between the spots allows to define a calibration-independent measure of resolution. We then apply this measure to quantify the power of resolution of different algorithms treating these individual discriminator signals which can be implemented in firmware. The method is then applied to different detectors existing at the ILL. Center-of-gravity methods usually improve the resolution over best-wire algorithms which are the standard way of treating these signals. (authors)

  3. Derivation of Human Chromatic Discrimination Ability from an Information-Theoretical Notion of Distance in Color Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, María; Samengo, Inés

    2016-12-01

    The accuracy with which humans detect chromatic differences varies throughout color space. For example, we are far more precise when discriminating two similar orange stimuli than two similar green stimuli. In order for two colors to be perceived as different, the neurons representing chromatic information must respond differently, and the difference must be larger than the trial-to-trial variability of the response to each separate color. Photoreceptors constitute the first stage in the processing of color information; many more stages are required before humans can consciously report whether two stimuli are perceived as chromatically distinguishable. Therefore, although photoreceptor absorption curves are expected to influence the accuracy of conscious discriminability, there is no reason to believe that they should suffice to explain it. Here we develop information-theoretical tools based on the Fisher metric that demonstrate that photoreceptor absorption properties explain about 87% of the variance of human color discrimination ability, as tested by previous behavioral experiments. In the context of this theory, the bottleneck in chromatic information processing is determined by photoreceptor absorption characteristics. Subsequent encoding stages modify only marginally the chromatic discriminability at the photoreceptor level.

  4. An information-theoretical approach to image resolution applied to neutron imaging detectors based upon individual discriminator signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clergeau, Jean-Francois; Ferraton, Matthieu; Guerard, Bruno; Khaplanov, Anton; Piscitelli, Francesco; Platz, Martin; Rigal, Jean-Marie; Van Esch, Patrick [Institut Laue Langevin, Neutron Detector Service, Grenoble (France); Daulle, Thibault [PHELMA Grenoble - INP Grenoble (France)

    2013-06-15

    1D or 2D neutron imaging detectors with individual wire or strip readout using discriminators have the advantage of being able to treat several neutron impacts partially overlapping in time, hence reducing global dead time. A single neutron impact usually gives rise to several discriminator signals. In this paper, we introduce an information-theoretical definition of image resolution. Two point-like spots of neutron impacts with a given distance between them act as a source of information (each neutron hit belongs to one spot or the other), and the detector plus signal treatment is regarded as an imperfect communication channel that transmits this information. The maximal mutual information obtained from this channel as a function of the distance between the spots allows to define a calibration-independent measure of resolution. We then apply this measure to quantify the power of resolution of different algorithms treating these individual discriminator signals which can be implemented in firmware. The method is then applied to different detectors existing at the ILL. Center-of-gravity methods usually improve the resolution over best-wire algorithms which are the standard way of treating these signals. (authors)

  5. How do small groups make decisions? : A theoretical framework to inform the implementation and study of clinical competency committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, Saad; Cristancho, Sayra; Padgett, Jessica; Lingard, Lorelei

    2017-06-01

    In the competency-based medical education (CBME) approach, clinical competency committees are responsible for making decisions about trainees' competence. However, we currently lack a theoretical model for group decision-making to inform this emerging assessment phenomenon. This paper proposes an organizing framework to study and guide the decision-making processes of clinical competency committees.This is an explanatory, non-exhaustive review, tailored to identify relevant theoretical and evidence-based papers related to small group decision-making. The search was conducted using Google Scholar, Web of Science, MEDLINE, ERIC, and PsycINFO for relevant literature. Using a thematic analysis, two researchers (SC & JP) met four times between April-June 2016 to consolidate the literature included in this review.Three theoretical orientations towards group decision-making emerged from the review: schema, constructivist, and social influence. Schema orientations focus on how groups use algorithms for decision-making. Constructivist orientations focus on how groups construct their shared understanding. Social influence orientations focus on how individual members influence the group's perspective on a decision. Moderators of decision-making relevant to all orientations include: guidelines, stressors, authority, and leadership.Clinical competency committees are the mechanisms by which groups of clinicians will be in charge of interpreting multiple assessment data points and coming to a shared decision about trainee competence. The way in which these committees make decisions can have huge implications for trainee progression and, ultimately, patient care. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build the science of how such group decision-making works in practice. This synthesis suggests a preliminary organizing framework that can be used in the implementation and study of clinical competency committees.

  6. Information-theoretic analysis of rotational distributions from quantal and quasiclassical computations of reactive and nonreactive scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    An information-theoretic approach to the analysis of rotational excitation cross sections was developed by Levine, Bernstein, Johnson, Procaccia, and coworkers and applied to state-to-state cross sections available from numerical computations of reactive and nonreactive scattering (for example, by Wyatt and Kuppermann and their coworkers and by Pack and Pattengill and others). The rotational surprisals are approximately linear in the energy transferred, thereby accounting for the so-called ''exponential gap law'' for rotational relaxation discovered experimentally by Polanyi, Woodall, and Ding. For the ''linear surprisal'' case the unique relation between the surprisal parameter theta/sub R/ and the first moment of the rotational energy distribution provides a link between the pattern of the rotational state distribution and those features of the potential surface which govern the average energy transfer

  7. A Theoretical Model of Resource-Oriented Music Therapy with Informal Hospice Caregivers during Pre-Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Noah; Bradt, Joke; Ghetti, Claire

    2018-03-09

    Over the past decade, caregiver pre-bereavement has received increased scholarly and clinical attention across multiple healthcare fields. Pre-bereavement represents a nascent area for music therapy to develop best practices in and an opportunity to establish clinical relevancy in the interdisciplinary team. This study was an exploratory inquiry into the role of music therapy with pre-bereaved informal hospice caregivers. This study intended to articulate (a) what pre-bereavement needs are present for informal hospice caregivers, (b) which of those needs were addressed in music, and (c) the process by which music therapy addressed those needs. A constructivist grounded theory methodology using situational analysis was used. We interviewed 14 currently bereaved informal hospice caregivers who had participated in music therapy with the care recipient. Analysis resulted in a theoretical model of resource-oriented music therapy promoting caregiver resilience. The resource, caregivers' stable caring relationships with care recipients through their pre-illness identities (i.e., spouse, parent, or child), is amplified through music therapy. Engagement with this resource mediates the risk of increased care burden and results in resilience fostering purposefulness and value in caregiving. Resource-oriented music therapy provides a unique clinical avenue for supporting caregivers through pre-bereavement, and was acknowledged by caregivers as a unique and integral hospice service. Within this model, caregivers are better positioned to develop meaning from the experience of providing care through the death of a loved one.

  8. Enablers and barriers to physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women: an analysis informed by the theoretical domains framework and COM-B model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, C; McHugh, S; Anaba, A E; Clifford, E; O'Riordan, M; Kenny, L C; McAuliffe, F M; Kearney, P M; Byrne, M

    2018-05-21

    Obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and other complications. Physical activity is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may help to prevent these complications but many women reduce their physical activity levels during pregnancy. Interventions targeting physical activity in pregnancy are on-going but few identify the underlying behaviour change mechanisms by which the intervention is expected to work. To enhance intervention effectiveness, recent tools in behavioural science such as the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and COM-B model (capability, opportunity, motivation and behaviour) have been employed to understand behaviours for intervention development. Using these behaviour change methods, this study aimed to identify the enablers and barriers to physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of overweight and obese women at different stages of pregnancy attending a public antenatal clinic in a large academic maternity hospital in Cork, Ireland. Interviews were recorded and transcribed into NVivo V.10 software. Data analysis followed the framework approach, drawing on the TDF and the COM-B model. Twenty one themes were identified and these mapped directly on to the COM-B model of behaviour change and ten of the TDF domains. Having the social opportunity to engage in physical activity was identified as an enabler; pregnant women suggested being active was easier when supported by their partners. Knowledge was a commonly reported barrier with women lacking information on safe activities during pregnancy and describing the information received from their midwife as 'limited'. Having the physical capability and physical opportunity to carry out physical activity were also identified as barriers; experiencing pain, a lack of time, having other children, and working prevented women from being active. A wide range of barriers

  9. Information theoretic measures of network coordination in high-frequency scalp EEG reveal dynamic patterns associated with seizure termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Schomer, Donald L; Chang, Bernard S

    2013-08-01

    How a seizure terminates is still under-studied and, despite its clinical importance, remains an obscure phase of seizure evolution. Recent studies of seizure-related scalp EEGs at frequencies >100 Hz suggest that neural activity, in the form of oscillations and/or neuronal network interactions, may play an important role in preictal/ictal seizure evolution (Andrade-Valenca et al., 2011; Stamoulis et al., 2012). However, the role of high-frequency activity in seizure termination, is unknown, if it exists at all. Using information theoretic measures of network coordination, this study investigated ictal and immediate postictal neurodynamic interactions encoded in scalp EEGs from a relatively small sample of 8 patients with focal epilepsy and multiple seizures originating in temporal and/or frontal brain regions, at frequencies ≤ 100 Hz and >100 Hz, respectively. Despite some heterogeneity in the dynamics of these interactions, consistent patterns were also estimated. Specifically, in several seizures, linear or non-linear increase in high-frequency neuronal coordination during ictal intervals, coincided with a corresponding decrease in coordination at frequencies interval, which continues during the postictal interval. This may be one of several possible mechanisms that facilitate seizure termination. In fact, inhibition of pairwise interactions between EEGs by other signals in their spatial neighborhood, quantified by negative interaction information, was estimated at frequencies ≤ 100 Hz, at least in some seizures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Double-duty caregivers: healthcare professionals juggling employment and informal caregiving. A survey on personal health and work experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Nicolle P G; Dorant, Elisabeth

    2014-07-01

    This study compared the work-related experiences and personal health status of double-duty caregivers with those of caregivers who do not provide informal care to a family member or close friend in need. The interest in providing informal care alongside employment is growing. However, little attention has been paid to the dual role of the healthcare professional who also has caregiving responsibilities for a needy person in his/her private situation. It is important to study the negative and positive consequences of this combination of professional and family care giving. A cross-sectional study. In 2011, we distributed a digital questionnaire to employees with a professional care function working at a healthcare organization in the Netherlands. Descriptive statistics, analyses of covariance and tests of linearity were performed. Analyses of variance demonstrated that as professional healthcare workers provide more hours of informal care in their private lives, their mental and physical health significantly worsens, while their need for recovery increases. Also, statistical significant increases were seen for emotional exhaustion, presenteeism and negative experiences with Work-Home and Home-Work Interferences. Remarkably, positive Home-Work Interference increased significantly with increasing hours of informal care. Double-duty caregivers appeared to be equally motivated and satisfied with their work as their co-workers. No differences were seen with respect to absenteeism. Double-duty caregivers prove to be employees who are at risk of developing symptoms of overload. This finding calls for special attention, with long-term solutions at both legislative and organizational level. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Classification of Hyperspectral Images by SVM Using a Composite Kernel by Employing Spectral, Spatial and Hierarchical Structure Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a novel classification framework for hyperspectral images (HSIs by jointly employing spectral, spatial, and hierarchical structure information. In this framework, the three types of information are integrated into the SVM classifier in a way of multiple kernels. Specifically, the spectral kernel is constructed through each pixel’s vector value in the original HSI, and the spatial kernel is modeled by using the extended morphological profile method due to its simplicity and effectiveness. To accurately characterize hierarchical structure features, the techniques of Fish-Markov selector (FMS, marker-based hierarchical segmentation (MHSEG and algebraic multigrid (AMG are combined. First, the FMS algorithm is used on the original HSI for feature selection to produce its spectral subset. Then, the multigrid structure of this subset is constructed using the AMG method. Subsequently, the MHSEG algorithm is exploited to obtain a hierarchy consist of a series of segmentation maps. Finally, the hierarchical structure information is represented by using these segmentation maps. The main contributions of this work is to present an effective composite kernel for HSI classification by utilizing spatial structure information in multiple scales. Experiments were conducted on two hyperspectral remote sensing images to validate that the proposed framework can achieve better classification results than several popular kernel-based classification methods in terms of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Specifically, the proposed classification framework can achieve 13.46–15.61% in average higher than the standard SVM classifier under different training sets in the terms of overall accuracy.

  12. Measuring excessive hours of work, low hourly pay, and informal employment through a labour force survey a pilot survey in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Mehran, Farhad

    2005-01-01

    Using 2004 data of the Philippines' labour force survey, evaluates the hours of work at all jobs, hourly pay among time-rated wage and salary workers, informal employment etc., with the aim to quantify a decent-work situation (i.e. acceptable productive employment, social protection, social dialogue, and rights at work).

  13. Barriers and facilitators to preventing pressure ulcers in nursing home residents: A qualitative analysis informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Jacqueline F; Gray, Trish A; Dumville, Jo; Cullum, Nicky

    2018-06-01

    Pressure ulcers are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue; and can cause pain, immobility, and delay recovery, impacting on health-related quality of life. The individuals who are most at risk of developing a pressure ulcer are those who are seriously ill, elderly, have impaired mobility and/or poor nutrition; thus, many nursing home residents are at risk. To understand the context of pressure ulcer prevention in nursing homes and to explore the potential barriers and facilitators to evidence-informed practices. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nursing home nurses, healthcare assistants and managers, National Health Service community-based wound specialist nurses (known in the UK as tissue viability nurses) and a nurse manager in the North West of England. The interview guide was developed using the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore the barriers and facilitators to pressure ulcer prevention in nursing home residents. Data were analysed using a framework analysis and domains were identified as salient based on their frequency and the potential strength of their impact. 25 participants (nursing home: 2 managers, 7 healthcare assistants, 11 qualified nurses; National Health Service community services: 4 tissue viability nurses, 1 manager) were interviewed. Depending upon the behaviours reported and the context, the same domain could be classified as both a barrier and a facilitator. We identified seven domains as relevant in the prevention of pressure ulcers in nursing home residents mapping to four "barrier" domains and six "facilitator" domains. The four "barrier" domains were knowledge, physical skills, social influences and environmental context and resources and the six "facilitator" domains were interpersonal skills, environmental context and resources, social influences, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences and social/professional role and identity). Knowledge and insight into these barriers and

  14. 77 FR 25225 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS 7655, Iraqi Citizens and Nationals Employed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of technology. Abstract of Proposed..., date(s) of employment, biometric, and other data must be collected and used to verify employment for...

  15. A diagnostic of the strategy employed for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities around uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari Dias, Fabiana; Tirollo Taddei, Maria H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a diagnostic of the strategy used by the Brazilian uranium mining industry to communicate nuclear related information to communities around a mining area. The uranium mining industry in Brazil, which is run by the government, has been concerned with communication issues for quite some time. The need to communicate became more apparent after new mining operations started in the Northern region of Brazil. The fact that the government does not have a clear communication guideline made the operators of the uranium mining industry aware of the increasing demand for establishment of a good relationship with several types of Stake holders as well as employment of personnel with experience in dealing with them. A diagnostic of the current communication situation in Brazil and an analysis of the approaches over the past years was done through interviews with employees of the mining industry and review of institutional communication materials. The results were discussed during a Consultant's Meeting organized by the IAEA 's Seibersdorf Laboratory in October 2007. The output of the meeting included an overview of modern communication strategies used by different countries and a suggestion for new uranium mining operations in developing or under developed countries. The strategy for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities varied according to the influence of different Stake holder groups. One initiative worth mentioning was the creation of a Mobile Nuclear Information Thematic Room, which was installed in several locations. This project was seen as one of the main tools to relate to community. Many Stake holders were identified during the diagnostic phase in preparation for the IAEA 's meeting on communication strategy: children, NGOs (Non Government Organizations), local churches, media and internal Stake holders, among others. An initial evaluation showed that the perception of a neighbouring community regarding an uranium

  16. Detection System of HTTP DDoS Attacks in a Cloud Environment Based on Information Theoretic Entropy and Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Idhammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing services are often delivered through HTTP protocol. This facilitates access to services and reduces costs for both providers and end-users. However, this increases the vulnerabilities of the Cloud services face to HTTP DDoS attacks. HTTP request methods are often used to address web servers’ vulnerabilities and create multiple scenarios of HTTP DDoS attack such as Low and Slow or Flooding attacks. Existing HTTP DDoS detection systems are challenged by the big amounts of network traffic generated by these attacks, low detection accuracy, and high false positive rates. In this paper we present a detection system of HTTP DDoS attacks in a Cloud environment based on Information Theoretic Entropy and Random Forest ensemble learning algorithm. A time-based sliding window algorithm is used to estimate the entropy of the network header features of the incoming network traffic. When the estimated entropy exceeds its normal range the preprocessing and the classification tasks are triggered. To assess the proposed approach various experiments were performed on the CIDDS-001 public dataset. The proposed approach achieves satisfactory results with an accuracy of 99.54%, a FPR of 0.4%, and a running time of 18.5s.

  17. An Information Theoretical Analysis of Human Insulin-Glucose System Toward the Internet of Bio-Nano Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naveed A; Akan, Ozgur B

    2017-12-01

    Molecular communication is an important tool to understand biological communications with many promising applications in Internet of Bio-Nano Things (IoBNT). The insulin-glucose system is of key significance among the major intra-body nanonetworks, since it fulfills metabolic requirements of the body. The study of biological networks from information and communication theoretical (ICT) perspective is necessary for their introduction in the IoBNT framework. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide and analyze for the first time in the literature, a simple molecular communication model of the human insulin-glucose system from ICT perspective. The data rate, channel capacity, and the group propagation delay are analyzed for a two-cell network between a pancreatic beta cell and a muscle cell that are connected through a capillary. The results point out a correlation between an increase in insulin resistance and a decrease in the data rate and channel capacity, an increase in the insulin transmission rate, and an increase in the propagation delay. We also propose applications for the introduction of the system in the IoBNT framework. Multi-cell insulin glucose system models may be based on this simple model to help in the investigation, diagnosis, and treatment of insulin resistance by means of novel IoBNT applications.

  18. An approach of information technologies employment within the tasks of radioactive wastes management in the 'Ukrytie' and its transformation into ecologically safe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Mazur, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    This article is a description of a concept of the information technologies employment based on the geo information systems (GIS) and the designing systems (CAD) to create an integrated information system (IIS) for the 'Ukrytie' and the industrial site. This system incorporates data based with text, tabular, screen, animation, video and vector data types involved. The IIS is a basic system for further tasks on simulation of the processes in the 'Ukrytie'. The delivered concept employs two up-to-date technologies, i.e. CAD and GIS

  19. Innovation in Information Technology: Theoretical and Empirical Study in SMQR Section of Export Import in Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edi Nugroho Soebandrija, Khristian; Pratama, Yogi

    2014-03-01

    This paper has the objective to provide the innovation in information technology in both theoretical and empirical study. Precisely, both aspects relate to the Shortage Mispacking Quality Report (SMQR) Claims in Export and Import in Automotive Industry. This paper discusses the major aspects of Innovation, Information Technology, Performance and Competitive Advantage. Furthermore, In the empirical study of PT. Astra Honda Motor (AHM) refers to SMQR Claims, Communication Systems, Analysis and Design Systems. Briefly both aspects of the major aspects and its empirical study are discussed in the Introduction Session. Furthermore, the more detail discussion is conducted in the related aspects in other sessions of this paper, in particular in Literature Review in term classical and updated reference of current research. The increases of SMQR claim and communication problem at PT. Astra Daihatsu Motor (PT. ADM) which still using the email cause the time of claim settlement become longer and finally it causes the rejected of SMQR claim by supplier. With presence of this problem then performed to design the integrated communication system to manage the communication process of SMQR claim between PT. ADM with supplier. The systems was analyzed and designed is expected to facilitate the claim communication process so that can be run in accordance with the procedure and fulfill the target of claim settlement time and also eliminate the difficulties and problems on the previous manual communication system with the email. The design process of the system using the approach of system development life cycle method by Kendall & Kendall (2006)which design process covers the SMQR problem communication process, judgment process by the supplier, claim process, claim payment process and claim monitoring process. After getting the appropriate system designs for managing the SMQR claim, furthermore performed the system implementation and can be seen the improvement in claim communication

  20. Employment contract and insecurity jobs: asymmetric information modelling of atypical situation, case of poor and less developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    El Bouhadi, Abdelhamid

    2006-01-01

    Our aim in this paper is dedicated to study the relations of recruiting among the employee and the employer in a frame characterized by the insecurity conditions of job and large scale of unemployment. The recruiting relationship that we will study is atypical as far as the offered salary is not a fixed minimum wage. The hiring contract between the employer and the employee in the developing labour markets is made with different conditions regarding to others, mainly in the developed countrie...

  1. Theoretical Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  2. Investigation of the Ethical Concepts that Inform the Laws Limiting Genetic Screening in Employment Decisions: Privacy, Human Dignity, Equality, Autonomy, Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquerella, Lynn; Rothstein, Lawrence E.

    2003-01-16

    The broad question addressed in our research is : What is the influence of ethical concepts on legislative outcomes? The research focuses on the important ethical concerns that surround the use of genetic information in employment matters and in American state legislatures. By analyzing the contents of hearings, interviews and advocacy documents involved in the legislative process, the research seeks to answer the question: How might the dominance of a particular ethical concept informing the discussion of a bill influence the legislative outcome?

  3. Why Public Employment Services Always Fail. Double-sided Asymmetric Information and the Replacement of Low-skill Workers in six European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Vesan, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    It has been a general finding across Europe that very few job matches are facilitated by public employment services (PES).The article explains this failure by highlighting the existence of a double-sided asymmetric information problem on the labour market. It is argued that although a PES...

  4. Defining the Future or Reliving the Past? Unions, Employers, and the Challenge of Workplace Learning. Information Series No. 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Howard

    This document examines the current state of workplace learning within the context of the changing workplace of the late 20th century. The document begins with an overview of the evolution of employer-dominated training from Taylorism to the rise of human resource development during the late 1970s and 1980s. The development of the concepts of…

  5. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON SOCIAL CONNECTIONS AMONG YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Alexandrovna Zverkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The urgency is due to the virtualization of communication in modern society, especially among young people, affecting social relations and social support services. Stressed the need for a more in-depth study of network virtualization of social relations of society, due to the ambiguous consequences of this phenomenon among the youth.Purpose. Analyze classic and contemporary theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of social ties and social support in terms of technological progress.Results. The article presents a sociological analysis of theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of problems of interaction and social support among youth through strong and weak social ties in cyberspace and in the real world.Practical implications. The analysis gives the opportunity for a wide range of examining social relations in various fields of sociology, such as sociology of youth, sociology of communications.

  6. An Elderly Employment Model For The Thai Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornrat Sadangharn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at studying an elderly employment model for the Thai automotive industry. Mixed methods with a sequential exploratory strategy were utilized. Grounded theory was employed by using in-depth interviews to investigate the characteristics of elderly employment in the Thai automotive industry. For this stage of the research, theoretical and purposive sampling was used to select 32 key informants from four groups of stakeholders: (1 elderly workers, (2 employers or human resource managers, (3 government officers, and (4 academics. The findings were then validated using a quantitative approach with structural equation modelling (SEM. A total of 308 elderly workers and human resource managers were surveyed regarding their opinion about elderly employment. Based on the survey, the elderly employment model in the Thai automotive industry, which is comprised of the approach to elderly employment, elderly employment preparation, and key success factors for elderly employment, was revealed to be a good fit. 

  7. Sex work and modes of self-employment in the informal economy: diverse business practices and constraints to effective working.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on research with adult sex workers in indoor settings in Great Britain to explore diverse forms of self-employment, employment relationships and small business development, set within the context of changes to the wider economy. It considers how external constraints such as the legal context, social stigma and dominant policy discourses can impact on sex workers' autonomy and actively work against their safety and wellbeing. The article argues that broad policy and legal approaches which fail to recognise the complexity of sex work constrain sex workers' opportunities for business development and improvement of their working circumstances. It suggests the need for recognition of sex work as legitimate labour, as a prerequisite for policy changes to support sex workers and pave the way for improved working conditions, not only in managed settings but also facilitating collective arrangements and independent lone working.

  8. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Simon D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to advance the science of implementation research. Methods The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s of delivery could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? Results A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. Conclusions We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be

  9. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simon D; Green, Sally E; O'Connor, Denise A; McKenzie, Joanne E; Francis, Jill J; Michie, Susan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Schattner, Peter; Spike, Neil; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2012-04-24

    There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to advance the science of implementation research. The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be maintained as the primary framework to guide researchers through a

  10. Minority Languages Learned Informally: The Social Construction of Language Skills through the Discourse of Ontario Employers. NALL Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Michelle; Corson, David

    Many immigrants, refugees, and aboriginal Canadians learn their own languages in the normal, informal way. These minority languages learned informally are not valued as a skill that yields returns in the labor market in the same way the official languages or formally learned languages do. What counts as a skill in a society, in a given point in…

  11. Categorization of species based on their microRNAs employing sequence motifs, information-theoretic sequence feature extraction, and k-mers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousef, Malik; Nigatu, Dawit; Levy, Dalit; Allmer, Jens; Henkel, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diseases like cancer can manifest themselves through changes in protein abundance, and microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in the modulation of protein quantity. MicroRNAs are used throughout all kingdoms and have been shown to be exploited by viruses to modulate their host

  12. Information-Theoretic Approach May Shed a Light to a Better Understanding and Sustaining the Integrity of Ecological-Societal Systems under Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Considering high levels of uncertainty, epistemological conflicts over facts and values, and a sense of urgency, normal paradigm-driven science will be insufficient to mobilize people and nation toward sustainability. The conceptual framework to bridge the societal system dynamics with that of natural ecosystems in which humanity operates remains deficient. The key to understanding their coevolution is to understand `self-organization.' Information-theoretic approach may shed a light to provide a potential framework which enables not only to bridge human and nature but also to generate useful knowledge for understanding and sustaining the integrity of ecological-societal systems. How can information theory help understand the interface between ecological systems and social systems? How to delineate self-organizing processes and ensure them to fulfil sustainability? How to evaluate the flow of information from data through models to decision-makers? These are the core questions posed by sustainability science in which visioneering (i.e., the engineering of vision) is an essential framework. Yet, visioneering has neither quantitative measure nor information theoretic framework to work with and teach. This presentation is an attempt to accommodate the framework of self-organizing hierarchical open systems with visioneering into a common information-theoretic framework. A case study is presented with the UN/FAO's communal vision of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) which pursues a trilemma of efficiency, mitigation, and resilience. Challenges of delineating and facilitating self-organizing systems are discussed using transdisciplinary toold such as complex systems thinking, dynamic process network analysis and multi-agent systems modeling. Acknowledgments: This study was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMA-2012-0001-A (WISE project).

  13. Employment in Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenberg, Gene; Huston, Jane

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist persons teaching a course in employment in agribusiness. Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: employment information (training plans/agreements and wages, taxes, and fringe benefits); human relations (employer/employee/customer relations and communication skills);…

  14. Social innovation in employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Torre, W. van der; Santoclides, M.E

    2017-01-01

    This policy brief on Social Innovation of Employment informs on an inventory of challenges and policy recommendations based on the Case Study Report of Employment and on the Second Policy Foresight Workshop of Employment. A ‘paradigm shift’ is needed in the mind-set of policymakers. ‘Traditional’

  15. An Information Theoretic Framework and Self-organizing Agent- based Sensor Network Architecture for Power Plant Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loparo, Kenneth [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Kolacinski, Richard [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Threeanaew, Wanchat [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Agharazi, Hanieh [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-01-30

    A central goal of the work was to enable both the extraction of all relevant information from sensor data, and the application of information gained from appropriate processing and fusion at the system level to operational control and decision-making at various levels of the control hierarchy through: 1. Exploiting the deep connection between information theory and the thermodynamic formalism, 2. Deployment using distributed intelligent agents with testing and validation in a hardware-in-the loop simulation environment. Enterprise architectures are the organizing logic for key business processes and IT infrastructure and, while the generality of current definitions provides sufficient flexibility, the current architecture frameworks do not inherently provide the appropriate structure. Of particular concern is that existing architecture frameworks often do not make a distinction between ``data'' and ``information.'' This work defines an enterprise architecture for health and condition monitoring of power plant equipment and further provides the appropriate foundation for addressing shortcomings in current architecture definition frameworks through the discovery of the information connectivity between the elements of a power generation plant. That is, to identify the correlative structure between available observations streams using informational measures. The principle focus here is on the implementation and testing of an emergent, agent-based, algorithm based on the foraging behavior of ants for eliciting this structure and on measures for characterizing differences between communication topologies. The elicitation algorithms are applied to data streams produced by a detailed numerical simulation of Alstom’s 1000 MW ultra-super-critical boiler and steam plant. The elicitation algorithm and topology characterization can be based on different informational metrics for detecting connectivity, e.g. mutual information and linear correlation.

  16. Set-Theoretic Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan

    Despite being widely accepted and applied, maturity models in Information Systems (IS) have been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. This PhD thesis focuses on addressing...... these criticisms by incorporating recent developments in configuration theory, in particular application of set-theoretic approaches. The aim is to show the potential of employing a set-theoretic approach for maturity model research and empirically demonstrating equifinal paths to maturity. Specifically...... methodological guidelines consisting of detailed procedures to systematically apply set theoretic approaches for maturity model research and provides demonstrations of it application on three datasets. The thesis is a collection of six research papers that are written in a sequential manner. The first paper...

  17. Advancing the Direction of Health Information Management in Greek Public Hospitals: Theoretical Directions and Methodological Implications for Sharing Information in order to Obtain Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evagelia Lappa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although consultants have long placed the use of research information at the centre of their activity, the extent that physicians use this information tends to vary widely. Despite this study and its recommendations, there is still a gap between the functions of a manager and the use of the associated information, while the decision-making procedures vary according to the organization in which they work. The cost of IT remains the largest barrier, while some current IT solutions are not user friendly and out-of-date, particularly for public hospitals in Greece. The knowledge management is concerned not only with the facts and figures of production, but also with the know-how of staff. The information needs protocol should not be referred only to those who comply with formal computer-based information systems, but also to those who take into account other informal information and its flow within the organization. In a field such as medicine, where out-of-date information may be positively dangerous, doctors make heavy use of journals and several texts from the web. The decision-making process is a complex approach, particularly in human diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Therefore, it is very important to set priorities in the sector of health information management and promote education and training on information and communication technology (ICT.

  18. Information-seeking behavior during residency is associated with quality of theoretical learning, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice: a strobe-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3-6; range, 1-10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77-17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33-4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09-4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01-3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46-11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the specialty (OR, 3.33; 95

  19. Information-seeking Behavior During Residency Is Associated With Quality of Theoretical Learning, Academic Career Achievements, and Evidence-based Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3–6; range, 1–10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33–4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09–4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01–3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46–11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the

  20. 29 CFR 14.22 - Availability of classified information to persons not employed by the Department of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Officer. (b) Access to Top Secret material. Access to Top Secret Information within the primary organizational units of the DOL by employees of other Federal agencies must be approved in advance by the Top Secret Control Officer of the primary organizational unit. (c) Access to Secret and Confidential...

  1. Enablers and barriers to physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women: an analysis informed by the theoretical domains framework and COM-B model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flannery, C

    2018-05-21

    Obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and other complications. Physical activity is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may help to prevent these complications but many women reduce their physical activity levels during pregnancy. Interventions targeting physical activity in pregnancy are on-going but few identify the underlying behaviour change mechanisms by which the intervention is expected to work. To enhance intervention effectiveness, recent tools in behavioural science such as the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and COM-B model (capability, opportunity, motivation and behaviour) have been employed to understand behaviours for intervention development. Using these behaviour change methods, this study aimed to identify the enablers and barriers to physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women.

  2. Employment impacts of EU biofuels policy. Combining bottom-up technology information and sectoral market simulations in an input-output framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuwahl, Frederik; Mongelli, Ignazio; Delgado, Luis; Loeschel, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the employment consequences of policies aimed to support biofuels in the European Union. The promotion of biofuel use has been advocated as a means to promote the sustainable use of natural resources and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions originating from transport activities on the one hand, and to reduce dependence on imported oil and thereby increase security of the European energy supply on the other hand. The employment impacts of increasing biofuels shares are calculated by taking into account a set of elements comprising the demand for capital goods required to produce biofuels, the additional demand for agricultural feedstock, higher fuel prices or reduced household budget in the case of price subsidisation, price effects ensuing from a hypothetical world oil price reduction linked to substitution in the EU market, and price impacts on agro-food commodities. The calculations refer to scenarios for the year 2020 targets as set out by the recent Renewable Energy Roadmap. Employment effects are assessed in an input-output framework taking into account bottom-up technology information to specify biofuels activities and linked to partial equilibrium models for the agricultural and energy sectors. The simulations suggest that biofuels targets on the order of 10-15% could be achieved without adverse net employment effects. (author)

  3. Social Informatics: Natural Tools for Students' Information Training in The Conditions of Embodied and Mental Approaches Being Employed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Barkhatova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the problem under study is due to the society's requirements for the quality information training of a personality which is oriented to forming the solid fundamental knowledge as well as to developing the cognitive capacities that are needed for solving mental tasks. With regard to this, the paper is aimed at finding out the opportunities of applying the natural tools in information training of students from the standpoints of embodied and mental approaches. The main idea of these is integrated studying of an object, beginning with learning it in an "embodied" way and finishing with abstract models formed in the human memory. The leading approach to the research is the integrated one taking into account the psychological and pedagogical, didactic and methodological constituents. It allows identifying the psychological and pedagogical conditions of application of natural tools as well as the possible ways of their use. The authors describe models of natural tools of computer science training in individual sections of the school course as the main results. The materials of the paper are of practical value in methods of teaching computer science to students at various stages of education.

  4. [Lack of access to information on oral health problems among adults: an approach based on the theoretical model for literacy in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Luana Leal; Noronha, Daniele Durães; Souza, Taiane Oliveira; Miranda, Ellen Janayne Primo; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista De; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Haikal, Desirée Sant'ana

    2018-03-01

    This study sought to investigate factors associated with the lack of access to information on oral health among adults. It is a cross-sectional study, carried out among 831 adults (35-44 years of age). The dependent variable was access to information on how to avoid oral problems, and the independent variables were gathered into subgroups according to the theoretical model for literacy in health. Binary logistic regression was carried out, and results were corrected by the design effect. It was observed that 37.5% had no access to information about dental problems. The lack of access was higher among adults who had lower per capita income, were dissatisfied with the dental services provided, did not use dental floss, had unsatisfactory physical control of the quality of life, and self-perceived their oral health as fair/poor/very poor. The likelihood of not having access to information about dental problems among those dissatisfied with the dental services used was 3.28 times higher than for those satisfied with the dental services used. Thus, decreased access to information was related to unfavorable conditions among adults. Health services should ensure appropriate information to their users in order to increase health literacy levels and improve satisfaction and equity.

  5. Changes to the Employers' Use of Genetic Information and Non-discrimination for Health Insurance in the USA: Implications for Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma A. Bilkey

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the USA, a bill has been introduced to the senate that may jeopardize an individual's rights to privacy and non-discrimination. This piece examines the proposed Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act (PEWPA, and implications this will have on the use of genetic information. The Act allows for employers to apply financial penalties for health insurance based on genetic information, which raises concerns as the capacity to interpret genetic results is limited by knowledge of the significance of both benign and pathogenic variants. In Australia, genetic information can only be used to determine life insurance, not to stratify health insurance, and any precedent set internationally should raise concerns of the potential for change on the horizon.

  6. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Ortega, Pedro A; Braun, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects' choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects' choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain.

  7. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Grau-Moya

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects' choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects' choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain.

  8. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Ortega, Pedro A.; Braun, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects’ choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects’ choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain. PMID:27124723

  9. Theoretical aspects and modelling of cellular decision making, cell killing and information-processing in photodynamic therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkigkitzis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide a mathematical model of the mechanism for making binary fate decisions about cell death or survival, during and after Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) treatment, and to supply the logical design for this decision mechanism as an application of rate distortion theory to the biochemical processing of information by the physical system of a cell. Based on system biology models of the molecular interactions involved in the PDT processes previously established, and regarding a cellular decision-making system as a noisy communication channel, we use rate distortion theory to design a time dependent Blahut-Arimoto algorithm where the input is a stimulus vector composed of the time dependent concentrations of three PDT related cell death signaling molecules and the output is a cell fate decision. The molecular concentrations are determined by a group of rate equations. The basic steps are: initialize the probability of the cell fate decision, compute the conditional probability distribution that minimizes the mutual information between input and output, compute the cell probability of cell fate decision that minimizes the mutual information and repeat the last two steps until the probabilities converge. Advance to the next discrete time point and repeat the process. Based on the model from communication theory described in this work, and assuming that the activation of the death signal processing occurs when any of the molecular stimulants increases higher than a predefined threshold (50% of the maximum concentrations), for 1800s of treatment, the cell undergoes necrosis within the first 30 minutes with probability range 90.0%-99.99% and in the case of repair/survival, it goes through apoptosis within 3-4 hours with probability range 90.00%-99.00%. Although, there is no experimental validation of the model at this moment, it reproduces some patterns of survival ratios of predicted experimental data. Analytical modeling based on cell death

  10. Guaranteed Bounds on Information-Theoretic Measures of Univariate Mixtures Using Piecewise Log-Sum-Exp Inequalities

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank

    2016-12-09

    Information-theoreticmeasures, such as the entropy, the cross-entropy and the Kullback-Leibler divergence between two mixture models, are core primitives in many signal processing tasks. Since the Kullback-Leibler divergence of mixtures provably does not admit a closed-form formula, it is in practice either estimated using costly Monte Carlo stochastic integration, approximated or bounded using various techniques. We present a fast and generic method that builds algorithmically closed-form lower and upper bounds on the entropy, the cross-entropy, the Kullback-Leibler and the α-divergences of mixtures. We illustrate the versatile method by reporting our experiments for approximating the Kullback-Leibler and the α-divergences between univariate exponential mixtures, Gaussian mixtures, Rayleigh mixtures and Gamma mixtures.

  11. Exploring Factors Influencing Self-Efficacy in Information Security an Empirical Analysis by Integrating Multiple Theoretical Perspectives in the Context of Using Protective Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Dinesh Sampangirama

    2017-01-01

    Cybersecurity threats confront the United States on a daily basis, making them one of the major national security challenges. One approach to meeting these challenges is to improve user cybersecurity behavior. End user security behavior hinges on end user acceptance and use of the protective information technologies such as anti-virus and…

  12. Employer branding

    OpenAIRE

    Mičková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...

  13. Designing theoretically-informed implementation interventions: Fine in theory, but evidence of effectiveness in practice is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Scott

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Improved Clinical Effectiveness through Behavioural Research Group (ICEBeRG authors assert that a key weakness in implementation research is the unknown applicability of a given intervention outside its original site and problem, and suggest that use of explicit theory offers an effective solution. This assertion is problematic for three primary reasons. First, the presence of an underlying theory does not necessarily ease the task of judging the applicability of a piece of empirical evidence. Second, it is not clear how to translate theory reliably into intervention design, which undoubtedly involves the diluting effect of "common sense." Thirdly, there are many theories, formal and informal, and it is not clear why any one should be given primacy. To determine whether explicitly theory-based interventions are, on average, more effective than those based on implicit theories, pragmatic trials are needed. Until empirical evidence is available showing the superiority of theory-based interventions, the use of theory should not be used as a basis for assessing the value of implementation studies by research funders, ethics committees, editors or policy decision makers.

  14. Information retrieval for children based on the aggregated search paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Torres, Sergio

    This report presents research to develop information services for children by expanding and adapting current Information retrieval technologies according to the search characteristics and needs of children. Concretely, we will employ the aggregated search paradigm as theoretical framework. The

  15. Employer Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuli, Kelli J.; Hong, Esther

    This document consists of two guides intended for either employers or service providers involved in school to work partnerships for students with disabilities. "Tools for Service Providers" is intended to be used for training local-level providers who are developing school to work linkages with employers. Following an introduction, this…

  16. VIA Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2017-01-01

    ’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased......The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it...

  17. Summer School organized by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, and the Institute for Information Sciences, University of Tübingen

    CERN Document Server

    Güttinger, Werner; Cin, Mario

    1974-01-01

    This volume is the record and product of the Summer School on the Physics and Mathematics of the Nervous System, held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste from August 21-31, 1973, and jointly organized by the Institute for Information Sciences, University of Tlibingen and by the Centre. The school served to bring biologists, physicists and mathemati­ cians together to exchange ideas about the nervous system and brain, and also to introduce young scientists to the field. The program, attended by more than a hundred scientists, was interdisciplinary both in character and participation. The primary support for the school was provided by the Volkswagen Foundation of West Germany. We are particularly indebted to Drs. G. Gambke, M. -L Zarnitz, and H. Penschuck of the Foundation for their in­ terest in and help with the project. The school also received major support from the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste and its sponsoring agencies, including the use of its exce...

  18. Employment protection

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Scarpetta

    2014-01-01

    Laws on hiring and firing are intended to protect workers from unfair behavior by employers, to counter imperfections in financial markets that limit workers’ ability to insure themselves against job loss, and to preserve firm-specific human capital. But by imposing costs on firms’ adaptation to changes in demand and technology, employment protection legislation may reduce not only job destruction but also job creation, hindering the efficient allocation of labor and productivity growth....

  19. Veteran Services - Welcome Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assistance Crosswalk websites Transition GPS National Career Readiness Certificate Post Traumatic Stress Credits (PDF) Fidelity Bonding Program National Career Readiness (PDF) Veteran Recruitment State/Federal veteran recruitment process Military Veteran Employment Guide Veterans Hiring Toolkit Other Information

  20. Do pseudo-absence selection strategies influence species distribution models and their predictions? An information-theoretic approach based on simulated data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisan Antoine

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple logistic regression is precluded from many practical applications in ecology that aim to predict the geographic distributions of species because it requires absence data, which are rarely available or are unreliable. In order to use multiple logistic regression, many studies have simulated "pseudo-absences" through a number of strategies, but it is unknown how the choice of strategy influences models and their geographic predictions of species. In this paper we evaluate the effect of several prevailing pseudo-absence strategies on the predictions of the geographic distribution of a virtual species whose "true" distribution and relationship to three environmental predictors was predefined. We evaluated the effect of using a real absences b pseudo-absences selected randomly from the background and c two-step approaches: pseudo-absences selected from low suitability areas predicted by either Ecological Niche Factor Analysis: (ENFA or BIOCLIM. We compared how the choice of pseudo-absence strategy affected model fit, predictive power, and information-theoretic model selection results. Results Models built with true absences had the best predictive power, best discriminatory power, and the "true" model (the one that contained the correct predictors was supported by the data according to AIC, as expected. Models based on random pseudo-absences had among the lowest fit, but yielded the second highest AUC value (0.97, and the "true" model was also supported by the data. Models based on two-step approaches had intermediate fit, the lowest predictive power, and the "true" model was not supported by the data. Conclusion If ecologists wish to build parsimonious GLM models that will allow them to make robust predictions, a reasonable approach is to use a large number of randomly selected pseudo-absences, and perform model selection based on an information theoretic approach. However, the resulting models can be expected to have

  1. Determining Type I and Type II Errors when Applying Information Theoretic Change Detection Metrics for Data Association and Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, M.; Moyer, E. J.; Hussein, Islam I.; Schumacher, P. W., Jr.

    will explore the effects of choosing ɛ as a function of α and β. Our intent is that this work will help bridge understanding between the well-trodden grounds of Type I and Type II errors and changes in information theoretic content.

  2. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  3. Student employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix

    2018-01-01

    , according to social origins, in student employment from first-year students through graduating students. We show that inequality in job quality exists and is partly attributable to the need for students from lower social origins to work to finance their studies. We hypothesise that initial inequalities......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  4. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  5. How Full is Full Employment? : How Tools and Not Theory Explained Full Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, P.

    2016-01-01

    The post-war debate on full employment policy was blurred and unclear since the concept of full employment itself was theoretically unclear and un-operational. Unable to theoretically determine the unemployment level of full employment, economists tried to find more empirically based ways to

  6. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  7. Employability and the UseMyAbility Online Tool: Raising Sports Students' Awareness to Inform the Development of Their Skills and Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Nick; Barber, Lerverne; Chapman, Val; Beaman-Evans, Charlotte; Beeching, Kelvin

    2016-01-01

    The collaborative project UseMyAbility (UMA) sought to reduce discrimination and enhance disabled graduates' employability through equipping them with the skills to match employability skills and attributes. An outcome from the project, completed in 2011, was a web-based tool which gave students advice on how to improve their employability.…

  8. A Two-Stage Information-Theoretic Approach to Modeling Landscape-Level Attributes and Maximum Recruitment of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    2000-11-01

    Many anadromous salmonid stocks in the Pacific Northwest are at their lowest recorded levels, which has raised questions regarding their long-term persistence under current conditions. There are a number of factors, such as freshwater spawning and rearing habitat, that could potentially influence their numbers. Therefore, we used the latest advances in information-theoretic methods in a two-stage modeling process to investigate relationships between landscape-level habitat attributes and maximum recruitment of 25 index stocks of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin. Our first-stage model selection results indicated that the Ricker-type, stock recruitment model with a constant Ricker a (i.e., recruits-per-spawner at low numbers of fish) across stocks was the only plausible one given these data, which contrasted with previous unpublished findings. Our second-stage results revealed that maximum recruitment of chinook salmon had a strongly negative relationship with percentage of surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and private moderate-high impact managed forest. That is, our model predicted that average maximum recruitment of chinook salmon would decrease by at least 247 fish for every increase of 33% in surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and privately managed forest. Conversely, mean annual air temperature had a positive relationship with salmon maximum recruitment, with an average increase of at least 179 fish for every increase in 2 C mean annual air temperature.

  9. Promoting physical therapists’ of research evidence to inform clinical practice: part 1 - theoretical foundation, evidence, and description of the PEAK program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for theoretically grounded and evidence-based interventions that enhance the use of research evidence in physical therapist practice. This paper and its companion paper introduce the Physical therapist-driven Education for Actionable Knowledge translation (PEAK) program, an educational program designed to promote physical therapists’ integration of research evidence into clinical decision-making. The pedagogical foundations for the PEAK educational program include Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory and Malcolm Knowles’s adult learning theory. Additionally, two complementary frameworks of knowledge translation, the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) and Knowledge to Action (KTA) Cycle, were used to inform the organizational elements of the program. Finally, the program design was influenced by evidence from previous attempts to facilitate the use of research in practice at the individual and organizational levels. Discussion The 6-month PEAK program consisted of four consecutive and interdependent components. First, leadership support was secured and electronic resources were acquired and distributed to participants. Next, a two-day training workshop consisting of didactic and small group activities was conducted that addressed the five steps of evidence based practice. For five months following the workshop, participants worked in small groups to review and synthesize literature around a group-selected area of common clinical interest. Each group contributed to the generation of a “Best Practices List” - a list of locally generated, evidence-based, actionable behaviors relevant to the groups’ clinical practice. Ultimately, participants agreed to implement the Best Practices List in their clinical practice. Summary This, first of two companion papers, describes the underlying pedagogical theories, knowledge translation frameworks, and research evidence used to derive the PEAK program

  10. Promoting physical therapists' of research evidence to inform clinical practice: part 1--theoretical foundation, evidence, and description of the PEAK program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilson, Julie K; Mickan, Sharon

    2014-06-25

    There is a need for theoretically grounded and evidence-based interventions that enhance the use of research evidence in physical therapist practice. This paper and its companion paper introduce the Physical therapist-driven Education for Actionable Knowledge translation (PEAK) program, an educational program designed to promote physical therapists' integration of research evidence into clinical decision-making. The pedagogical foundations for the PEAK educational program include Albert Bandura's social cognitive theory and Malcolm Knowles's adult learning theory. Additionally, two complementary frameworks of knowledge translation, the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) and Knowledge to Action (KTA) Cycle, were used to inform the organizational elements of the program. Finally, the program design was influenced by evidence from previous attempts to facilitate the use of research in practice at the individual and organizational levels. The 6-month PEAK program consisted of four consecutive and interdependent components. First, leadership support was secured and electronic resources were acquired and distributed to participants. Next, a two-day training workshop consisting of didactic and small group activities was conducted that addressed the five steps of evidence based practice. For five months following the workshop, participants worked in small groups to review and synthesize literature around a group-selected area of common clinical interest. Each group contributed to the generation of a "Best Practices List" - a list of locally generated, evidence-based, actionable behaviors relevant to the groups' clinical practice. Ultimately, participants agreed to implement the Best Practices List in their clinical practice. This, first of two companion papers, describes the underlying pedagogical theories, knowledge translation frameworks, and research evidence used to derive the PEAK program - an educational program designed to

  11. Theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Joos, Georg

    1986-01-01

    Among the finest, most comprehensive treatments of theoretical physics ever written, this classic volume comprises a superb introduction to the main branches of the discipline and offers solid grounding for further research in a variety of fields. Students will find no better one-volume coverage of so many essential topics; moreover, since its first publication, the book has been substantially revised and updated with additional material on Bessel functions, spherical harmonics, superconductivity, elastomers, and other subjects.The first four chapters review mathematical topics needed by theo

  12. Theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, G.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the theoretical Physics Center (Ecole Polytechnique, France), is presented. The research activities are carried out in the fields of the supersymmetry theory, the dynamic systems theory, the statistical mechanics, the plasma physics and the random media. Substantial improvements are obtained on dynamical system investigations. In the field theory, the definition of the Gross-Neveu model is achieved. However the construction of the non-abelian gauge theories and the conformal theories are the main research activities. Concerning Astrophysics, a three-dimensional gravitational code is obtained. The activities of each team, and the list of the published papers, congress communications and thesis are given [fr

  13. Theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear theory program deals with the properties of nuclei and with the reactions and interactions between nuclei and a variety of projectiles. The main areas of concentration are: heavy-ion direct reactions at nonrelativistic energies; nuclear shell theory and nuclear structure; nuclear matter and nuclear forces;intermediate-energy physics and pion-nucleus interactions; and high-energy collisions of heavy ions. Recent progress and plans for future work in these five main areas of concentration and a summary of other theoretical studies currently in progress or recently completed are presented

  14. Library/Information Science Education, Placement, and Salaries. Guide to Employment Sources in the Library and Information Professions; Placements and Salaries 2000: Plenty of Jobs, Salaries Flat; Accredited Master's Programs in Library and Information Studies; Library Scholarship Sources; Library Scholarship and Award Recipients, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Darlena; Terrell, Tom; Gregory, Vicki L.

    2002-01-01

    Includes five articles that report on employment sources in the library and information professions; placements and salaries, which indicate plenty of jobs and salaries that are flat; accredited master's programs in library and information studies; library scholarship sources; and library scholarship and award recipients. (LRW)

  15. Employment as a Price or a Prize of Equality: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Barth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To put Scandinavian employment in perspective, we ask whether wage compression hampers employment rates, or not. We answer by reviewing the most important theoretical arguments and the most informative regularities across countries with different wage distributions. The pattern seems to be that countries with compressed wage distributions tend to have higher employment, and countries with higher wage inequality tend to have lower employment. This also holds when we consider the rate of labor force participation. In line with the theoretical arguments, coordination in wage bargaining seems to contribute to both employment expansion and wage compression. There is a clear positive correlation between coordination and employment even when we control for inequality, country, and year-specific effects.

  16. Overview. Department of Theoretical Physics. Section 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiecinski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Research activity of the Department of the Theoretical Physics spans a wide variety of problems in theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of the nuclear matter, quark gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics, as well as general physics. Theoretical research in high energy and elementary particle physics is concentrated on the theory of deep inelastic lepton scattering in the region of low x and its phenomenological implication for the ep collider HERA at DESY, on the theory of nonleptonic decays of hadrons, and on low energy {pi}{pi} and K-anti-K interactions and scalar meson spectroscopy. The activity in the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is focused on the study of quark condensate fluctuations, on the analysis of critical scattering near the chiral phase transition, and on Bose-Einstein correlation in heavy-ion collisions. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics and in theory of nuclear matter concern analysis of models, with dynamical symmetry based on group S{sub p}(6,R) for the description of collective modes of atomic nuclei, analysis of the Goldstone bosons in nuclear matter and analysis of saturation properties of nuclear matter. Research in theoretical astrophysics is mainly devoted to the analysis of magnetic properties of hadronic matter in neutron stars with proton admixture. Studies in general physics concern problem related to the Galilean covariance of classical and quantum mechanics. The detailed results obtained in various fields are summarised in presented abstracts as well as information about employed personnel, publications, contribution to conferences, reports, workshops and seminars.

  17. Overview. Department of Theoretical Physics. Section 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiecinski, J [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Research activity of the Department of the Theoretical Physics spans a wide variety of problems in theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of the nuclear matter, quark gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics, as well as general physics. Theoretical research in high energy and elementary particle physics is concentrated on the theory of deep inelastic lepton scattering in the region of low x and its phenomenological implication for the ep collider HERA at DESY, on the theory of nonleptonic decays of hadrons, and on low energy {pi}{pi} and K-anti-K interactions and scalar meson spectroscopy. The activity in the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is focused on the study of quark condensate fluctuations, on the analysis of critical scattering near the chiral phase transition, and on Bose-Einstein correlation in heavy-ion collisions. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics and in theory of nuclear matter concern analysis of models, with dynamical symmetry based on group S{sub p}(6,R) for the description of collective modes of atomic nuclei, analysis of the Goldstone bosons in nuclear matter and analysis of saturation properties of nuclear matter. Research in theoretical astrophysics is mainly devoted to the analysis of magnetic properties of hadronic matter in neutron stars with proton admixture. Studies in general physics concern problem related to the Galilean covariance of classical and quantum mechanics. The detailed results obtained in various fields are summarised in presented abstracts as well as information about employed personnel, publications, contribution to conferences, reports, workshops and seminars.

  18. Overview. Department of Theoretical Physics. Section 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1995-01-01

    Research activity of the Department of the Theoretical Physics spans a wide variety of problems in theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of the nuclear matter, quark gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics, as well as general physics. Theoretical research in high energy and elementary particle physics is concentrated on the theory of deep inelastic lepton scattering in the region of low x and its phenomenological implication for the ep collider HERA at DESY, on the theory of nonleptonic decays of hadrons, and on low energy ππ and K-anti-K interactions and scalar meson spectroscopy. The activity in the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is focused on the study of quark condensate fluctuations, on the analysis of critical scattering near the chiral phase transition, and on Bose-Einstein correlation in heavy-ion collisions. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics and in theory of nuclear matter concern analysis of models, with dynamical symmetry based on group S p (6,R) for the description of collective modes of atomic nuclei, analysis of the Goldstone bosons in nuclear matter and analysis of saturation properties of nuclear matter. Research in theoretical astrophysics is mainly devoted to the analysis of magnetic properties of hadronic matter in neutron stars with proton admixture. Studies in general physics concern problem related to the Galilean covariance of classical and quantum mechanics. The detailed results obtained in various fields are summarised in presented abstracts as well as information about employed personnel, publications, contribution to conferences, reports, workshops and seminars

  19. Using Akaike's information theoretic criterion in mixed-effects modeling of pharmacokinetic data: a simulation study [version 3; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Olofsen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Akaike's information theoretic criterion for model discrimination (AIC is often stated to "overfit", i.e., it selects models with a higher dimension than the dimension of the model that generated the data. However, with experimental pharmacokinetic data it may not be possible to identify the correct model, because of the complexity of the processes governing drug disposition. Instead of trying to find the correct model, a more useful objective might be to minimize the prediction error of drug concentrations in subjects with unknown disposition characteristics. In that case, the AIC might be the selection criterion of choice. We performed Monte Carlo simulations using a model of pharmacokinetic data (a power function of time with the property that fits with common multi-exponential models can never be perfect - thus resembling the situation with real data. Prespecified models were fitted to simulated data sets, and AIC and AICc (the criterion with a correction for small sample sizes values were calculated and averaged. The average predictive performances of the models, quantified using simulated validation sets, were compared to the means of the AICs. The data for fits and validation consisted of 11 concentration measurements each obtained in 5 individuals, with three degrees of interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetic volume of distribution. Mean AICc corresponded very well, and better than mean AIC, with mean predictive performance. With increasing interindividual variability, there was a trend towards larger optimal models, but with respect to both lowest AICc and best predictive performance. Furthermore, it was observed that the mean square prediction error itself became less suitable as a validation criterion, and that a predictive performance measure should incorporate interindividual variability. This simulation study showed that, at least in a relatively simple mixed-effects modelling context with a set of prespecified models

  20. The Netherlands: self-employed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    This is the national contribution to the CAR on self-employed workers in the Netherlands. In this national contribution information is provided on self-employed workers in relation to (1) legal provisions and social security, (2) recent trends in self-employment with no employees, (3) collective

  1. Business/Employers Influenza Toolkit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast promotes the "Make It Your Business To Fight The Flu" toolkit for Businesses and Employers. The toolkit provides information and recommended strategies to help businesses and employers promote the seasonal flu vaccine. Additionally, employers will find flyers, posters, and other materials to post and distribute in the workplace.

  2. 信息伦理的几个基础理论问题研究%Research on Some Basic Theoretical Issues of Information Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福学

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the features and entropy of information sphere, the relationship of digital divide and information ethics, and the characteristics, principles and environmental approaches of information ethics.

  3. Theoretical Physics 1. Theoretical Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreizler, Reiner M.; Luedde, Cora S.

    2010-01-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. (orig.)

  4. Theoretical Physics 1. Theoretical Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreizler, Reiner M.; Luedde, Cora S. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-07-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. (orig.)

  5. Building Employer Capacity to Support Meaningful Employment for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Study of Employment Support Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Marghalara; Hodgetts, Sandra; Nicholas, David

    2017-11-01

    To explore strategies to build employer capacity to support people with DD in meaningful employment from perspective of employment support workers. A grounded theory study was conducted with 34 employment support individuals. A theoretical sampling approach was used to identify and recruit participants from multiple sites in Ontario and Alberta. Three main themes, with seven sub-themes, emerged: (1) experiences of supporting employment finding for people with DD, (2) institutional influences on employee experiences, and (3) attitudes, assumptions and stigma. Several recommendations related to building employer capacity were offered. Our findings provide insight on specific elements and strategies that can support building employer capacity for persons with DD.

  6. Engaging migrants and other stakeholders to improve communication in cross-cultural consultation in primary care: a theoretically informed participatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionis, Christos; Papadakaki, Maria; Saridaki, Aristoula; Dowrick, Christopher; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mair, Frances S; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; Burns, Nicola; de Brún, Tomas; O'Reilly de Brún, Mary; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Spiegel, Wolfgang; MacFarlane, Anne

    2016-07-22

    Guidelines and training initiatives (G/TIs) are available to support communication in cross-cultural consultations but are rarely implemented in routine practice in primary care. As part of the European Union RESTORE project, our objective was to explore whether the available G/TIs make sense to migrants and other key stakeholders and whether they could collectively choose G/TIs and engage in their implementation in primary care settings. As part of a comparative analysis of 5 linked qualitative case studies, we used purposeful and snowball sampling to recruit migrants and other key stakeholders in primary care settings in Austria, England, Greece, Ireland and the Netherlands. A total of 78 stakeholders participated in the study (Austria 15, England 9, Ireland 11, Greece 16, Netherlands 27), covering a range of groups (migrants, general practitioners, nurses, administrative staff, interpreters, health service planners). We combined Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) and Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) research to conduct a series of PLA style focus groups. Using a standardised protocol, stakeholders' discussions about a set of G/TIs were recorded on PLA commentary charts and their selection process was recorded through a PLA direct-ranking technique. We performed inductive and deductive thematic analysis to investigate sensemaking and engagement with the G/TIs. The need for new ways of working was strongly endorsed by most stakeholders. Stakeholders considered that they were the right people to drive the work forward and were keen to enrol others to support the implementation work. This was evidenced by the democratic selection by stakeholders in each setting of one G/TI as a local implementation project. This theoretically informed participatory approach used across 5 countries with diverse healthcare systems could be used in other settings to establish positive conditions for the start of implementation journeys for G/TIs to improve healthcare for

  7. Theoretical Mechanics Theoretical Physics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Dreizler, Reiner M

    2011-01-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. - A collection of 74 problems with detailed step-by-step guidance towards the solutions. - A col...

  8. Employment certificates on HRT

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    As part of the ongoing drive to simplify and streamline administrative procedures and processes, the IT and HR Departments have made employment certificates available on a self-service basis on the HRT application, in the main menu under "My self services". All members of the personnel can thus obtain a certificate of employment or association, in French or in English, for the present or past contractual period. The HR Department’s Records Office remains responsible for issuing any special certificates that might be required. IT-AIS (Administrative Information Services) HR-SPS (Services, Procedures & Social) Records Office – Tel. 73700

  9. Farewell to the rightist self-employed? 'New self-employment' and political alignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Giedo

    This study aims to provide theoretical and empirical clarity on whether people in “new” and precarious self-employment support the same political parties as those in traditional forms. Theoretical clarity is needed as the voting literature predominantly perceives self-employment in terms of

  10. PROMOTION OF ACTIVE MEASURES AND EMPLOYMENT STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ELISABETA POPP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches in the field of the labour market has allowed the identification of certain specific mechanisms for employment promotion; at present, on the Romanian labour market we find passive policies, concretised in financial aids paid to the unemployed, along with active policies, constituting the most efficient social protection activity addressed to the unemployed (they aim at counterbalancing the inefficiencies determined by the granting of financial allowances, help population to find a job by actions of information, professional training and contributing to the encouragement of the labour force mobility. The paper refers to some theoretical considerations related to the influence factors of employment stimulation, as well as to the unemployment – correlated adequate measures synapse. The applied research comprises the analysis of statistic documents; the method used is the case study, i.e. the activity of employment stimulation carried on by the County Agency for Employment Caraş-Severin, in the period 2004-2012. The conclusions highlight the impact of the activity of the institutions involved in the system of social protection and security within the labour market.

  11. Developing a targeted, theory-informed implementation intervention using two theoretical frameworks to address health professional and organisational factors: a case study to improve the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavender, Emma J; Bosch, Marije; Gruen, Russell L; Green, Sally E; Michie, Susan; Brennan, Sue E; Francis, Jill J; Ponsford, Jennie L; Knott, Jonathan C; Meares, Sue; Smyth, Tracy; O'Connor, Denise A

    2015-05-25

    Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department (ED), variations in practice exist. Interventions designed to implement recommended behaviours can reduce this variation. Using theory to inform intervention development is advocated; however, there is no consensus on how to select or apply theory. Integrative theoretical frameworks, based on syntheses of theories and theoretical constructs relevant to implementation, have the potential to assist in the intervention development process. This paper describes the process of applying two theoretical frameworks to investigate the factors influencing recommended behaviours and the choice of behaviour change techniques and modes of delivery for an implementation intervention. A stepped approach was followed: (i) identification of locally applicable and actionable evidence-based recommendations as targets for change, (ii) selection and use of two theoretical frameworks for identifying barriers to and enablers of change (Theoretical Domains Framework and Model of Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organisations) and (iii) identification and operationalisation of intervention components (behaviour change techniques and modes of delivery) to address the barriers and enhance the enablers, informed by theory, evidence and feasibility/acceptability considerations. We illustrate this process in relation to one recommendation, prospective assessment of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) by ED staff using a validated tool. Four recommendations for managing mild traumatic brain injury were targeted with the intervention. The intervention targeting the PTA recommendation consisted of 14 behaviour change techniques and addressed 6 theoretical domains and 5 organisational domains. The mode of delivery was informed by six Cochrane reviews. It was delivered via five intervention components : (i) local stakeholder meetings, (ii) identification of local opinion

  12. Catalogue of Workforce Information Sources: Decision Making Assistance for Regional Economic Development. U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Labor, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In early 2006, The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL), Employment and Training Administration (ETA) began an initiative called Workforce Innovation in Regional Economic Development (WIRED) to help regions create competitive conditions, integrate economic and workforce development activities, and demonstrate that talent development can successfully…

  13. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Theoretical Structural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 8. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Theoretical Structural Geology, Crystallography, Mineralogy, Thermodynamics, Experimental Petrology and Theoretical Geophysics. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 8 August 2017 ...

  14. Business/Employers Influenza Toolkit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-06

    This podcast promotes the "Make It Your Business To Fight The Flu" toolkit for Businesses and Employers. The toolkit provides information and recommended strategies to help businesses and employers promote the seasonal flu vaccine. Additionally, employers will find flyers, posters, and other materials to post and distribute in the workplace.  Created: 9/6/2011 by Office of Infectious Diseases, Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 9/7/2011.

  15. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  16. NANOSAT Employment: A Theoretical Conops for Space Object Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    was equipped with new lightweight reactor wheels , inertial measurement units, batteries, computer, and solid-state recorder. Two star tracker stellar...The communications system consisted of a VHF uplink and 100 mW S-Band downlink. A pitch-axis momentum wheel and orbit position detected via GPS...Element Value Semi-major Axis (a) 7000 km Eccentricity (e) 0 Inclination (i) 66° Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (Ω) 86.664° Argument of Perigee

  17. Global Prospects for Full Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šlaus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent international financial crisis highlights the crucial role of employment in human welfare and social stability. Access to remunerative employment opportunities is essential for economic security in a market-based economic system. As the rise of democracy compelled nations to extend the voting right to all citizens, employment must be recognized as a fundamental human right. In total defiance of conventional wisdom, since 1950 job growth has outpaced the explosive growth of population, the rapid adoption of labor-saving technologies, the manifold expansion of world trade, and the dramatic shift from manual labor to white collar work. In an increasingly globalized labor market, current nation-centric theories and models of employment need to be replaced with a human-centered global perspective complemented by new indicators that recognize the central and essential contribution of employment to human economic welfare. Employment and economy are subsets of society and their growth is driven by the more fundamental process of social development. A vast array of unmet social needs combined with an enormous reservoir of underutilized social resources – technological, scientific, educational, organizational, cultural and psychological – can be harnessed to dramatically expand employment opportunities and achieve full employment on a global basis. This paper examines the theoretical basis, policy issues and strategies required to eradicate unemployment nationally and globally.

  18. Introduction to the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health Employment Conditions Network (EMCONET) study, with a glossary on employment relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Santana, Vilma; Quinlan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Although the conditions and power relations of employment are known to be crucial health determinants for workers and their families, the nature of these relations and their effects on health have yet to be fully researched. Several types of employment--precarious employment in developed countries; informal sectors, child labor, slavery, and bonded labor in developing countries--expose workers to risky working conditions. Hazardous work and occupation-related diseases kill approximately 1,500 workers, globally, every day. Growing scientific evidence suggests that particular employment conditions, such as job insecurity and precarious employment, create adverse health effects; yet the limited number of studies and the poor quality of their methods prevent our understanding, globally, the complexity of employer-employee power relations, working conditions, levels of social protections, and the reality of employment-related health inequalities. This article introduces a special section on employment-related health inequalities, derived from the EMCONET approach, which focuses on (1) describing major methods and sources of information; (2) presenting theoretical models at the micro and macro levels; (3) presenting a typology of labor markets and welfare states worldwide; (4) describing the main findings in employment policies, including four key points for implementing strategies; and (5) suggesting new research developments, a policy agenda, and recommendations. This introduction includes a glossary of terms in the emerging area of employment conditions and health inequalities.

  19. Using a Theoretical Framework to Investigate Whether the HIV/AIDS Information Needs of the AfroAIDSinfo Web Portal Members Are Met: A South African eHealth Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Van Zyl

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available eHealth has been identified as a useful approach to disseminate HIV/AIDS information. Together with Consumer Health Informatics (CHI, the Web-to-Public Knowledge Transfer Model (WPKTM has been applied as a theoretical framework to identify consumer needs for AfroAIDSinfo, a South African Web portal. As part of the CHI practice, regular eSurveys are conducted to determine whether these needs are changing and are continually being met. eSurveys show high rates of satisfaction with the content as well as the modes of delivery. The nature of information is thought of as reliable to reuse; both for education and for referencing of information. Using CHI and the WPKTM as a theoretical framework, it ensures that needs of consumers are being met and that they find the tailored methods of presenting the information agreeable. Combining ICTs and theories in eHealth interventions, this approach can be expanded to deliver information in other sectors of public health.

  20. The freedom of information act and the practice of journalism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in National Development ... This study examines the effectiveness of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) in Nigeria. ... The study employed Libertarian media theory and Teological ethnical theory as the theoretical ...

  1. The measurement of employment benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.

    1994-01-01

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income

  2. The measurement of employment benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtraw, D

    1994-07-01

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income.

  3. Employment specialist competencies for supported employment programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbière, M.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Lanctôt, N.; van Weeghel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Supported employment (SE) programs are evidence-based programs offered to people with severe mental illness to facilitate obtaining and keeping competitive work. However, significant variations in individuals’ vocational success may be partly explained by differences in their employment

  4. The Perceived Influence of Industry-Sponsored Credentials on the Recruitment Process in the Information Technology Industry: Employer and Employee Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Kenneth R.; Horwitz, Sujin K.; Ipe, Minu; Liu, Yuwen

    2005-01-01

    The increase in the number of industry-sponsored credential programs raises many questions for career and technical education. This study investigated the perceived influence of industry-sponsored credentials on the recruitment process in the information technology (IT) field. Influence is examined from the perspective of Human Resource (HR)…

  5. What factors influence uptake of retinal screening among young adults with type 2 diabetes? A qualitative study informed by the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Amelia J; Browne, Jessica L; Rees, Gwyneth; Speight, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Young adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D, 18-39years) face increased risk of vision loss from diabetic retinopathy (DR). Retinal screening is essential to detect DR, yet screening rates for this group are low and little is known about the underlying factors influencing this important behavior. Using the theoretical domains framework (TDF) to guide data collection and analysis, we explored screening barriers and facilitator, contrasting them with a comparator group of older adults with T2D (40+ years). Thirty semi-structured telephone interviews (10 younger, 20 older adults) were conducted. Data were coded into TDF domains with salience identified by "frequency" of reference. Screening facilitators and barriers were systematically compared between groups. Although many screening facilitators and barriers were shared by younger and older adults, additional factors highly relevant to the former included: social comparison with others ('social influences'); concern for the impact on the family unit, unrealistic optimism and perceived invulnerability ('beliefs about consequences'); lack of time and financial resources ('environmental context and resources'), and DR misconceptions ('knowledge'). This study demonstrated that young adult retinal screening behavior was influenced by additional social cognitive factors compared to older adults, providing a first-step evidence base for clinicians and other health professionals, and potential targets for future eye health and retinal screening interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment and evaluation of the employment of the Midshipman Information System (MIDS) as a performance measurement tool by Company Officers at the United States Naval Academy

    OpenAIRE

    Luckett, Michael D.; Oden, David M.

    2001-01-01

    This research first examines the use of the Midshipmen Information System (MIDS) by faculty, staff and midshipmen as a performance measurement tool at the United States Naval Academy. Specifically, this project examines how Company Officers use MIDS to measure the performance and development of the midshipmen over time, what metrics they believe are important to midshipmen development, how current MIDS functionality meets the needs of end users and recommendations for improvement of the overa...

  7. 76 FR 5212 - Employment and Training Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information...): Extension With Revisions AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Department of Labor. ACTION... Training Administration is soliciting comments concerning the Office of Unemployment Insurance's collection...

  8. Do Wage Subsidies Reduce Ordinary Employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Rasmussen, Martin

    Applying administrative register data information for Danish firms in 1999, 2000, and 2001, this paper investigate how the employment of wage subsidized labour affects ordinary employment at the firm level. Descriptive statistics as well as econometric estimations are presented. Descriptive...

  9. How to employ {\\overline{B}}_d^0\\to J/ψ (π η, \\overline{K}K) decays to extract information on π η scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaladejo, M.; Daub, J. T.; Hanhart, C.; Kubis, B.; Moussallam, B.

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate that dispersion theory allows one to deduce crucial information on π η scattering from the final-state interactions of the light mesons visible in the spectral distributions of the decays {\\overline{B}}_d^0\\to J/ψ ({π}^0η, {K}+{K}-,{K}^0{\\overline{K}}^0) . Thus high-quality measurements of these differential observables are highly desired. The corresponding rates are predicted to be of the same order of magnitude as those for {\\overline{B}}_d^0\\to J/ψ {π}+{π}- measured recently at LHCb, letting the corresponding measurement appear feasible.

  10. How to employ B̄d0→J/ψ(πη,K̄K) decays to extract information on πη scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaladejo, M.; Daub, J.T.; Hanhart, C.; Kubis, B.; Moussallam, B.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that dispersion theory allows one to deduce crucial information on πη scattering from the final-state interactions of the light mesons visible in the spectral distributions of the decays B̄ d 0 →J/ψ(π 0 η,K + K − ,K 0 K̄ 0 ). Thus high-quality measurements of these differential observables are highly desired. The corresponding rates are predicted to be of the same order of magnitude as those for B̄ d 0 →J/ψπ + π − measured recently at LHCb, letting the corresponding measurement appear feasible.

  11. How to employ B̄{sub d}{sup 0}→J/ψ(πη,K̄K) decays to extract information on πη scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaladejo, M. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia,Institutos de Investigación de Paterna,Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Daub, J.T. [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) andBethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn,53115 Bonn (Germany); Hanhart, C. [Institut für Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics,Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Kubis, B. [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) andBethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn,53115 Bonn (Germany); Moussallam, B. [Groupe de Physique Théorique IPN (UMR8608), Université Paris-Sud 11,91406 Orsay (France)

    2017-04-04

    We demonstrate that dispersion theory allows one to deduce crucial information on πη scattering from the final-state interactions of the light mesons visible in the spectral distributions of the decays B̄{sub d}{sup 0}→J/ψ(π{sup 0}η,K{sup +}K{sup −},K{sup 0}K̄{sup 0}). Thus high-quality measurements of these differential observables are highly desired. The corresponding rates are predicted to be of the same order of magnitude as those for B̄{sub d}{sup 0}→J/ψπ{sup +}π{sup −} measured recently at LHCb, letting the corresponding measurement appear feasible.

  12. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  13. Employer's Manual on Affirmative Action in Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Commission on Human Rights, Frankfort.

    The express purpose of this manual is for its use by business and industry in Kentucky as an aid to eliminate discrimination. Affirmative action is defined here as a comprehensive effort by an employer designed to: employ women and minority persons where they are under-utilized; include minority persons and women in all facets of the company's…

  14. Employing Discourse: Universities and Graduate "Employability"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Rebecca; Nedeva, Maria

    2010-01-01

    What constitutes graduate employability is discursively framed. In this paper we argue that whilst universities in the UK have long had an involvement in producing useful and productive citizens, the ongoing neoliberalisation of higher education has engendered a discursive shift in definitions of employability. Traditionally, universities regarded…

  15. Wide-scope screening of pesticides in fruits and vegetables using information-dependent acquisition employing UHPLC-QTOF-MS and automated MS/MS library searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibin; Cao, Yanzhong; Ge, Na; Liu, Xiaomao; Chang, Qiaoying; Fan, Chunlin; Pang, Guo-Fang

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an application of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) for simultaneous screening and identification of 427 pesticides in fresh fruit and vegetable samples. Both full MS scan mode for quantification, and an artificial-intelligence-based product ion scan mode information-dependent acquisition (IDA) providing automatic MS to MS/MS switching of product ion spectra for identification, were conducted by one injection. A home-in collision-induced-dissociation all product ions accurate mass spectra library containing more than 1700 spectra was developed prior to actual application. Both qualitative and quantitative validations of the method were carried out. The result showed that 97.4 % of the pesticides had the screening detection limit (SDL) less than 50 μg kg -1 and more than 86.7 % could be confirmed by accurate MS/MS spectra embodied in the home-made library. Meanwhile, calibration curves covering two orders of magnitude were performed, and they were linear over the concentration range studied for the selected matrices (from 5 to 500 μg kg -1 for most of the pesticides). Recoveries between 80 and 110 % in four matrices (apple, orange, tomato, and spinach) at two spiked levels, 10 and 100 μg kg -1 , was 88.7 or 86.8 %. Furthermore, the overall relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 12) for 94.3 % of the pesticides in 10 μg kg -1 and 98.1 % of the pesticides in 100 μg kg -1 spiked levels was less than 20 %. In order to validate the suitability for routine analysis, the method was applied to 448 fruit and vegetable samples purchased in different local markets. The results show 83.3 % of the analyzed samples have positive findings (higher than the limits of identification and quantification), and 412 commodity-pesticide combinations are identified in our scope. The approach proved to be a cost-effective, time-saving and powerful strategy for routine large

  16. Joint Degree Program: the Perspective of Employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Bilevičienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — the purpose of this article is to extend discussion towards the need and importance of joint degree programs in modern universities, introducing the perspective of the employers toward this question. Design/methodology/approach — the research was conducted to analyze the demand of joint degree programs from the perspective of employers, identify weak and strong aspects, opinion and demand for graduates of such programs. To achieve this purpose, a combination of theoretical and empirical methods was chosen: document analysis (previous studies, statistics was conducted and an online qualitative survey was organized. Findings — The analysis of articles, studies and statistics points out the challenges and threats faced by universities nowadays, forcing higher education institutions to find new ways to raise the quality of studies and raise the interest of employers to choose graduates from MRU, as well as the satisfaction of employers with their choice of employees. Theoretical analysis pointed out these challenges and requirements for the modern employee, summarised the challenges in preparation of IT field specialists. The conducted research results showed that the diploma of joint degree programs would not be treated as an advantage of possible employee from the perspective of employers in case some important aspects will not be taken into consideration by program creators. On the other hand, undeniably there are strong sides, such as knowledge in the fields of foreign language, international experience, innovativeness and creativeness of employees that would be treated as an advantage in the process of selection for positions of any technical support related positions. Research limitations/implications — employers, whose business activities are closely related to information technology, have been invited as experts. In addition, these experts have a good understanding of the specifics of joint degree programs. The received

  17. Becoming Self-Employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grant; Cochran, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Explored how persons become self-employed. In critical incident interviews with five self-employed persons the critical events that assisted or hindered progress toward self-employment were listed in chronological order. In general, becoming self-employed involved establishing conditions of action that enhanced a sense of agency, thus enabling…

  18. El cuidado informal en enfermos de Alzheimer: evaluación a partir de un modelo teórico Alzheimer's disease caregivers. Assessment from a theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Gallardo Vargas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Alzheimer, dado su curso progresivo, obliga al acompañamiento de estas personas. Quienes fungen como cuidadores informales presentan quejas por malestares asociados a la situación de cuidar. Para la comprensión de esta problemática se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal cuyo objetivo general fue caracterizar el cuidado informal de personas con demencia en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, a partir de las dimensiones comunes de los modelos de estrés y afrontamiento adaptado a las situaciones de cuidado. Se seleccionó una muestra intencional de quince cuidadores informales e igual número de familiares enfermos, pertenecientes a la ciudad de Pinar del Río. Para el cumplimiento del objetivo se utilizaron las técnicas: entrevista semiestructurada, el Inventario de ansiedad de Beck, la Escala de Depresión del Centro para Estudios Epidemiológicos, el Cuestionario de carga del cuidador de Zarit, el test Listado de problemas de memoria y de conducta, el Cuestionario de apoyo social y la Escala de modos de afrontamientos. Entre los principales resultados estuvo la presencia de estresores relativos a la cantidad de horas y actividades de cuidado. Predominaron los comportamientos problemáticos con presentación muy frecuente en la mayoría de los enfermos, refiriéndose en los cuidadores sentimientos negativos asociados a los mismos. Predominó la percepción de sobrecarga intensa, así como ansiedad y depresión. La estrategia de afrontamiento más utilizada fue la aceptación de la responsabilidad, seguida del autocontrol. La mayoría de los cuidadores perciben un bajo apoyo social. Se declara repercusión del cuidado en las áreas laboral, socioeconómica y de descanso.Alzheimer's disease, due to its gradual progression, compels accompanying persons for these patients. Caregivers complain of discomforts associated with the care of Alzheimer's patients. To be aware of this problem a descriptive and cross-sectional study

  19. Employment Effects of Spatial Dispersal of Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    Spatial dispersal policies may influence labour market integration of refugees through two mechanisms. First, it may affect the local job offer arrival rate, and second, it may affect place utility. We investigate the second mechanism theoretically by formulating a partial search model in which a...... due to large local reservation wage effects. We investigate both mechanisms empirically and test the predictions of the theoretical model by evaluating the employment effects of the Danish spatial dispersal policy carried out 1986-1998....

  20. 45 CFR 1706.140 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1706.140 Section 1706.140 Public... CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE § 1706.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any...

  1. Employment of Handicapped People in Leisure Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, David M.; Vinton, Dennis A.

    In response to the need for up-to-date information on employment opportunities for handicapped people in the leisure occupations, a national survey was conducted to determine both existing levels of employment and employer practices. The survey was sent to 500 agencies and businesses representing four leisure occupational subclusters: travel,…

  2. NATIONAL EMPLOYER HEALTH INSURANCE SURVEY (NEHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Employer Health Insurance Survey (NEHIS) was developed to produce estimates on employer-sponsored health insurance data in the United States. The NEHIS was the first Federal survey to represent all employers in the United States by State and obtain information on all...

  3. Caseworker Behavior and Clients' Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; Markwardt, Kristoffer

    experience, economic environment, and rules and restrictions with respect to active labor market policies. A few studies show that organizational structures and managerial organization within the unemployment offices also influence the employability of unemployed clients. But until now, no studies have...... empirically looked at the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ employability. A very rich survey dataset on caseworker behavior combined with informative panel data on the caseworker’s client—the unemployed—makes it possible to study the link between caseworker behavior and clients’ job possibilities....... Results show that there is a relationship between caseworker behavior and employment among the unemployed. Especially the employability among the insured unemployed is related to the concepts of coping, and professional distance....

  4. Informe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Lichetenberger

    1950-10-01

    Full Text Available Informe del doctor Egon Lichetenberger ante el Consejo Directivo de la Facultad, sobre el  curso de especialización en Anatomía Patológica patrocinado por la Kellogg Foundation (Departamento de Patología

  5. A game theoretic investigation of deception in network security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Grosu, Daniel

    2010-12-03

    We perform a game theoretic investigation of the effects of deception on the interactions between an attacker and a defender of a computer network. The defender can employ camouflage by either disguising a normal system as a honeypot or by disguising a honeypot as a normal system. We model the interactions between defender and attacker using a signaling game, a non-cooperative two player dynamic game of incomplete information. For this model, we determine which strategies admit perfect Bayesian equilibria. These equilibria are refined Nash equilibria in which neither the defender nor the attacker will unilaterally choose to deviate from their strategies. Finally, we discuss the benefits of employing deceptive equilibrium strategies in the defense of a computer network.

  6. The Employer Perspective on Sustainable Employability in the Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnon, Susanne C; van der Veen, Rozan; Westerman, Marjan J; Robroek, Suzan J W; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Proper, Karin I.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the measures employers in the construction industry take to promote sustainable employability, the barriers and facilitators that influence implementation and employer needs. METHODS: Questionnaire among 499 employers and interviews with 17 employers. RESULTS: Employers

  7. Employment Growth and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke; Warzynski, Frederic; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    In this paper, we use a detailed dataset containing information about all international trade transactions of the population of Danish ?rms over more than a decade to analyze the relationship between export and import decisions and employment growth. We further distinguish between imports of ?nal...

  8. Pressing Issues of Disability Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabunova Aleksandra Anatol’evna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disability employment is a major tool for creating inclusive society. In Russia, the main obstacles to employment of the disabled are imperfect statutory measures aimed at improving competitiveness of this population group in the labor market; low prestige of jobs for people with disabilities; the employers’ unwillingness to hire disabled people. The purpose of this study is to determine the barriers disabled people face on the labor market and to justify the expedience of investing public funds in activities aimed at promoting disabled employment. Works of Russian and foreign authors, national statistics, results of sociological surveys of the population and people with disabilities conducted on the territory of the Vologda Oblast in 2013–2015 represent the information base of the study. The article reviews the impact of employment quotas for the disabled; in particular, it has been established that the number of the employed under such quotas during the period from 2008 to 2014 has declined. Based on the results of domestic research the authors have determined the reasons underlying lack of effectiveness of this social policy tool. One of the problems of promoting disability employment is training and re-training of the disabled. According to official statistics, only 38% of the employed disabled who live in a city are employed in the area of their specialty. At the same time, the results of research h of Russian authors show that training of an expert (even with consideration of their health capacities pays off within 4 years. Using the example of the Vologda Oblast, the authors show that annual tax revenues in employment of the disabled to jobs with wages close to the regional average may reach 33 million rubles. They also estimate the approximate regional cost of workplace equipment for the disabled. Finally, the authors propose a list of key courses of action on increasing competitiveness of the disabled in the labor market

  9. Information-theoretic equilibrium and observable thermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzà, F.; Vedral, V.

    2017-03-01

    A crucial point in statistical mechanics is the definition of the notion of thermal equilibrium, which can be given as the state that maximises the von Neumann entropy, under the validity of some constraints. Arguing that such a notion can never be experimentally probed, in this paper we propose a new notion of thermal equilibrium, focused on observables rather than on the full state of the quantum system. We characterise such notion of thermal equilibrium for an arbitrary observable via the maximisation of its Shannon entropy and we bring to light the thermal properties that it heralds. The relation with Gibbs ensembles is studied and understood. We apply such a notion of equilibrium to a closed quantum system and show that there is always a class of observables which exhibits thermal equilibrium properties and we give a recipe to explicitly construct them. Eventually, an intimate connection with the Eigenstate Thermalisation Hypothesis is brought to light.

  10. Information-theoretic equilibrium and observable thermalization

    OpenAIRE

    Anza, Fabio; Vedral, Vlatko

    2015-01-01

    To understand under which conditions thermodynamics emerges from the microscopic dynamics is the ultimate goal of statistical mechanics. Despite the fact that the theory is more than 100 years old, we are still discussing its foundations and its regime of applicability. A point of crucial importance is the definition of the notion of thermal equilibrium, which is given as the state that maximises the von Neumann entropy. Here we argue that it is necessary to propose a new way of describing th...

  11. Perspectives of employability skills

    OpenAIRE

    ANNE LOUISE NEWTON

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the different perspectives held by young people, employers and policy makers around Employability Skills and it examined how young people learnt these skills. This study draws young peoples’ perspectives into the research around Employability Skills and highlights the way in which social and cultural capital mediate their development. The research points to a model to re-vision employability skills which recognises the many ways in which they are learnt, over time a...

  12. An employer brand predictive model for talent attraction and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelize Botha

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In an ever shrinking global talent pool organisations use employer brand to attract and retain talent, however, in the absence of theoretical pointers, many organisations are losing out on a powerful business tool by not developing or maintaining their employer brand correctly. Research purpose: This study explores the current state of knowledge about employer brand and identifies the various employer brand building blocks which are conceptually integrated in a predictive model. Motivation for the study: The need for scientific progress though the accurate representation of a set of employer brand phenomena and propositions, which can be empirically tested, motivated this study. Research design, approach and method: This study was nonempirical in approach and searched for linkages between theoretical concepts by making use of relevant contextual data. Theoretical propositions which explain the identified linkages were developed for purpose of further empirical research. Main findings: Key findings suggested that employer brand is influenced by target group needs, a differentiated Employer Value Proposition (EVP, the people strategy, brand consistency, communication of the employer brand and measurement of Human Resources (HR employer branding efforts. Practical/managerial implications: The predictive model provides corporate leaders and their human resource functionaries a theoretical pointer relative to employer brand which could guide more effective talent attraction and retention decisions. Contribution/value add: This study adds to the small base of research available on employer brand and contributes to both scientific progress as well as an improved practical understanding of factors which influence employer brand.

  13. Employment and Regional Inequality in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Patache

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is no doubt that thinking about inequality plays a part in the judgments and actions of politicians, sociologists, economists and ordinary people, too. This paper examines which factors substantially influenced regional employment. Labour market, employment and unemployment have been the subject of various researches and the labour market object has been subject of dispute. Employment and unemployment are both decomposed and analyzed through separate components (such as: full employment, effective employment, atypical employment, precarious employment, regional/local employment etc., respectively, total unemployment, partial or hidden unemployment, technical and structural one and so on. The specific literature about the regional inequalities considered the income per capita as the most relevant indicator measured by Gini coefficient. Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income or consumption expenditure among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. At regional level we studied several indicators that generate regional disparities, and influence employment quality such us: employment rate, tertiary and medium employment, unemployment rate, occupied population in informal sector, employment in primary sector, rural employment, female employment. We developed a scoring based on the deviation from the average of a group of key indicators and devised a map of employment quality resulting from multi-criteria analysis.

  14. Youth employment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa

    2001-01-01

    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  15. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  16. Employers Roundtable: Employer Supported Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.

    This booklet outlines a number of options available to employers to enable them to better cope with child care issues that they and their employees face. Major options include: (1) flexible work policies, such as flexible scheduling, alternate work places, shorter work weeks, and the consolidating of sick leave, holidays, and vacation time into…

  17. Nonstandard Employment Relations and Implications for Decent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conceptualizing nonstandard work within the context of casual, contract and outsourced work, the paper contends that this form of employment relations has been exacerbated by the growing incidence of youth unemployment in Nigeria. Using neoliberalism as a theoretical framework, the paper further contended that most ...

  18. Theoretical Foundations of Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    I study the informational complexity of active learning in a statistical learning theory framework. Specifically, I derive bounds on the rates of...convergence achievable by active learning , under various noise models and under general conditions on the hypothesis class. I also study the theoretical...advantages of active learning over passive learning, and develop procedures for transforming passive learning algorithms into active learning algorithms

  19. Theoretical value of psychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David

    2012-01-01

    Apart from their diagnostic value, psychological tests, especially the Rorschach test, have an important theoretical value for understanding psychopathology. They present a picture of a living person, in contrast to a picture of forces and agencies within the person. This rests on 2 advantages of tests over the usual psychiatric and psychoanalytic interviews: Tests are ahistorical and they present information primarily of a formal kind.

  20. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a survey of the studies done in the Theoretical Physics Division of the Nuclear Physics Institute; the subjects studied in theoretical nuclear physics were the few-nucleon problem, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, weak interactions, intermediate energy and high energy physics. In this last field, the subjects studied were field theory, group theory, symmetry and strong interactions [fr

  1. Integrated Management of Migration, Employment, Fiscal Policy and Public Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Vytautas Rutkauskas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of the paper states that national migration indicators are closely related with employment opportunities in that country. In addition, the management quality of migration and employment processes is an indicator of the national socio-economic policy competency, while management of these processes is the main purpose of intelligent adjustment of the national fiscal policy and government debt management. The author of the paper selected the formation of the system of quantitative indicators as the main objective of the paper. The system should allow employing government debt possibilities for the selection of proper fiscal policy in order to prevent the transformation of unemployment into the key reason of uncontrolled national inflation. This would be done by revealing the possibilities of fiscal policy to impact on the level and structure of unemployment. Recent globalisation processes and integration possibilities bring a lot of uncertainty to predetermined viability of theoretical assumptions as well as the adequacy of the applied quantitative methods. The paper uses the possibilities of stochastic optimisation and stochastically informed expertise pursuing the possibilities of integrated management of employment, migration processes, fiscal policy and government debt provisions.

  2. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.

  3. General Outside Employment

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all outside employment requests held by employees of Montgomery County (excluding uniformed police officer) approved by the Ethics Commission...

  4. Secretary Marshall's Employment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Gloria

    1977-01-01

    A review of proposed employment strategies and priorities of Ray Marshall, Secretary of Labor, with regard to training programs, governmental subsidy programs, apprenticeships, private sector jobs, etc. (WL)

  5. Institutionalized Employer Collective Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that employer associations continue to exist in new ways despite internationalisation of the economy, liberalisation of markets and the decline of trade unions. This paradox raises two questions regarding EOs in today’s labour markets: Which employers join employer associations...... and what kind of services do EOs offer employers? This article explores these questions using two comprehensive surveys on EOs in Denmark – a prominent case of coordinated market economies. The main finding of the analyses is that collective activities vis-à-vis trade unions and government are still...

  6. An employer brand predictive model for talent attraction and retention

    OpenAIRE

    Annelize Botha; Mark Bussin; Lukas de Swardt

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: In an ever shrinking global talent pool organisations use employer brand to attract and retain talent, however, in the absence of theoretical pointers, many organisations are losing out on a powerful business tool by not developing or maintaining their employer brand correctly. Research purpose: This study explores the current state of knowledge about employer brand and identifies the various employer brand building blocks which are conceptually integrated in a predictiv...

  7. Theoretical nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blatt, John M

    1979-01-01

    A classic work by two leading physicists and scientific educators endures as an uncommonly clear and cogent investigation and correlation of key aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. It is probably the most widely adopted book on the subject. The authors approach the subject as ""the theoretical concepts, methods, and considerations which have been devised in order to interpret the experimental material and to advance our ability to predict and control nuclear phenomena.""The present volume does not pretend to cover all aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. Its coverage is restricted to

  8. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  9. Maternal Employment: 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis

    1979-01-01

    Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)

  10. Dimensions of Adolescent Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.; Morath, Ray A.; McLellan, Jeffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines positive and negative correlates of adolescent work as a function of work dimensions. Results indicate that concurrent costs and benefits of adolescent employment may depend on dimensions of work as well as adolescent characteristics. Adolescent employment was generally related to subsequent work motivation and nonacademic performance.…

  11. Does Supported Employment Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan McInnes, Melayne; Ozturk, Orgul Demet; McDermott, Suzanne; Mann, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    Providing employment-related services, including supported employment through job coaches, has been a priority in federal policy since the enactment of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act in 1984. We take advantage of a unique panel data set of all clients served by the South Carolina Department of Disabilities and…

  12. Theoretical clarity is not “Manicheanism”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2011-01-01

    It is argued that in order to establish a new theoretical approach to information science it is necessary to express disagreement with some established views. The “social turn” in information science is not just exemplified in relation to the works of Marcia Bates but in relation to many different...... researchers in the field. Therefore it should not be taken personally, and the debate should focus on the substance. Marcia Bates has contributed considerably to information science. In spite of this some of her theoretical points of departure may be challenged. It is important to seek theoretical clarity...... and this may involve a degree of schematic confrontation that should not be confused with theoretical one-sidedness, “Manicheanism” or lack of respect....

  13. Employee to employer communication skills: balancing cancer treatment and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard F; Owens, Myra; Bradley, Cathy

    2013-02-01

    Cancer patients face difficulties in accessing legally mandated benefits and accommodations when they return to the workplace. Poor employer-employee communication inflates these difficulties. Although proven methods to facilitate physician-patient communication exist, these have not been applied to the workplace. Thus, we aimed to assess the feasibility and utility of applying these methods to educate patients about their workplace rights and provide them with communication skills training to aid their conversations with their employers. A DVD was produced to educate patients and facilitate workplace communication. Participants consisted of 28 solid tumor cancer patients (14 women and 14 men) who completed primary cancer treatment in the past 12 months and were employed at the time of diagnosis. Participants watched a communication skills training DVD and completed a telephone interview. The interview elicited information about workplace experiences and evaluation of the DVD training program. The physician-patient communication skills training model utilized was successfully translated to the employer-employee setting. All but one participant found the DVD useful and easy to understand and indicated a high degree of confidence in using the communication skills to help them ask for workplace accommodations. All participants agreed that it would help newly diagnosed patients in discussions with their employers. Our data provides promising preliminary evidence that patient communication skills training can be applied to the workplace setting and is a welcomed aid to newly diagnosed cancer patients in their discussions with employers regarding the impact of treatment on their work performance and needs for accommodations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Neural complexity: A graph theoretic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, L.; Buckley, C. L.; Bullock, S.

    2011-04-01

    One of the central challenges facing modern neuroscience is to explain the ability of the nervous system to coherently integrate information across distinct functional modules in the absence of a central executive. To this end, Tononi [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.91.11.5033 91, 5033 (1994)] proposed a measure of neural complexity that purports to capture this property based on mutual information between complementary subsets of a system. Neural complexity, so defined, is one of a family of information theoretic metrics developed to measure the balance between the segregation and integration of a system’s dynamics. One key question arising for such measures involves understanding how they are influenced by network topology. Sporns [Cereb. Cortex53OPAV1047-321110.1093/cercor/10.2.127 10, 127 (2000)] employed numerical models in order to determine the dependence of neural complexity on the topological features of a network. However, a complete picture has yet to be established. While De Lucia [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.71.016114 71, 016114 (2005)] made the first attempts at an analytical account of this relationship, their work utilized a formulation of neural complexity that, we argue, did not reflect the intuitions of the original work. In this paper we start by describing weighted connection matrices formed by applying a random continuous weight distribution to binary adjacency matrices. This allows us to derive an approximation for neural complexity in terms of the moments of the weight distribution and elementary graph motifs. In particular, we explicitly establish a dependency of neural complexity on cyclic graph motifs.

  15. Theoretical Computer Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The proceedings contains 8 papers from the Conference on Theoretical Computer Science. Topics discussed include: query by committee, linear separation and random walks; hardness results for neural network approximation problems; a geometric approach to leveraging weak learners; mind change...

  16. Summary on Theoretical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Soffer, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    During the five days of this conference a very dense scientific program has enlighted our research fields, with the presentation of large number of interesting lectures. I will try to summarize the theoretical aspects of some of these new results.

  17. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The studies in 1977 are reviewed. In theoretical nuclear physics: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics; in elementary particle physics: field theory, strong interactions dynamics, nucleon-nucleon interactions, new particles, current algebra, symmetries and quarks are studied [fr

  18. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Research activities of the theoretical physics division for 1979 are described. Short summaries are given of specific research work in the following fields: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics, elementary particles [fr

  19. A Theoretical Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    L-rhamnose and L-fucose: A Theoretical Approach ... L-ramnose and L-fucose, by means of the Monte Carlo conformational search method. The energy of the conformers ..... which indicates an increased probability for the occurrence of.

  20. Financial Literacy and Self-Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Cumurovic, Aida; Hyll, Walter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between financial literacy and self-employment. We use established financial knowledge-based questions to measure financial literacy levels. The analysis shows a highly significant correlation between self-employment and financial literacy scores. To investigate the impact of financial literacy on being self-employed, we apply instrumental variable techniques based on information on economic education before entering the labour market and education of ...

  1. Employer`s contributions to the training of professional statisticians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustagi, J.S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Statistics Dept.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section]|[Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Statistical science provides important techniques for decision making in a large variety of fields of human endeavor mainly through statistical practice. According to Deming (1965), ``Statistical practice is mostly a collaborative venture between (professional) statisticians and experts in subject-matter (area).`` The professional statistician must be properly trained in areas of statistical science most suited to the discipline in which the applications are made. Due to a large variety of applications. The education of a professional statistician by universities can only be very general. Higher education provides the theoretical basis of statistical science whereas the specific expertise needed by the professional statistician is given by the application areas. In this paper, the authors review the approach of academic programs which are geared towards applications and discuss some of the innovative strategies for preparing statisticians as consultants in industry and business. A survey (census) of statisticians at the national laboratories of the US Department of Energy was made to assess their training by universities and to get a broad view of additional training which has brought them to their present professional status. A particular interest is the extent to which employers have contributed to the training of statisticians. A few recommendations are made which may serve to improve the future training of statisticians for applied collaborative work by universities and employers.

  2. Music Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress in Adults: A Theoretical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis-Shack, Nora; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2017-01-01

    Music therapy has been employed as a therapeutic intervention to facilitate healing across a variety of clinical populations. There is theoretical and empirical evidence to suggest that individuals with trauma exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a condition characterized by enduring symptoms of distressing memory intrusions, avoidance, emotional disturbance, and hyperarousal, may derive benefits from music therapy. The current narrative review describes the practice of music therapy and presents a theoretically-informed assessment and model of music therapy as a tool for addressing symptoms of PTSD. The review also presents key empirical studies that support the theoretical assessment. Social, cognitive, and neurobiological mechanisms (e.g., community building, emotion regulation, increased pleasure, anxiety reduction) that promote music therapy’s efficacy as an adjunctive treatment for individuals with posttraumatic stress are discussed. It is concluded that music therapy may be a useful therapeutic tool to reduce symptoms and improve functioning among individuals with trauma exposure and PTSD, though more rigorous empirical study is required. In addition, music therapy may help foster resilience and engage individuals who struggle with stigma associated with seeking professional help. Practical recommendations for incorporating music therapy into clinical practice are offered along with several suggestions for future research. PMID:29290641

  3. Employability Skills: The Demands of the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Janice A.; Lafleur, Susan

    1995-01-01

    The Employability Skills Profile, critical work abilities identified by Canadian employers, was rated by 24 secondary teachers in Ontario. Personal management skills were rated most important, followed by academic and teamwork skills. Teaching of these skills was informal--absorbed through classroom policies and management practices. (SK)

  4. Employment Maintenance and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea; Lee, Rebecca C; Martsolf, Donna S; Maler, Jeff

    2016-05-18

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the United States. Negative outcomes of IPV affect women's attainment and maintenance of employment. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework that described and explained the process by which women who have experienced IPV attain and maintain employment. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze interviews of 34 women who had experienced IPV. Analysis suggested that women who had experienced IPV could attain employment; however, they had difficulty maintaining employment. Entanglement of work and IPV was experienced by all 34 participants because of the perpetrator controlling their appearance, sabotaging their work, interfering with their work, or controlling their finances. Some women described ways in which they disentangled work from IPV through a dynamic unraveling process, with periods of re-entanglement, resulting in job security and satisfaction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Entrepreneurship and Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2017-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional belief that entrepreneurship is an unstable career path. Using longitudinal matched employer–employee data from Denmark, the analysis reveals that a transition to entrepreneurship decreases individual's employment turnover tendency. Three explanations...

  6. Employers meet employees

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    "Leaping into the future of labor economics: the research potential of linking employer and employee data" is the title of a paper by Daniel S Hammermesh published in Labour Economics in 1999. I quote it here, since it captures much of my motivation for the work included in this thesis. Considering applied micro econometrics and labor economics my main elds of interest, the development of linked employer-employee data that took place in Denmark around the time of the new mille...

  7. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  8. Employment of security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    If a company or institution hires personnel of a security service company to protect its premises, this kind of employment does not mean the company carries on temporary employment business. Within the purview of section 99, sub-section 1 of the BetrVG (Works Constitution Act), the security service personnel is not 'employed' in the proper sense even if the security tasks fulfilled by them are done at other times by regular employees of the company or institution. The court decision also decided that the Works Council need not give consent to employment of foreign security personnel. The court decision was taken for settlement of court proceedings commenced by Institute of Plasma Physics in Garching. In his comments, W. Hunold accedes to the court's decision and discusses the underlying reasons of this decision and of a previous ruling in the same matter by putting emphasis on the difference between a contract for services and a contract for work, and a contract for temporary employment. The author also discusses the basic features of an employment contract. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lebert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.

  10. Informing Educational Psychology Training with Students' Community Engagement Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersohn, Liesel; Bender, C. J. Gerda; Carvalho-Malekane, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe students' experiences of community engagement in an Educational Psychology practicum in order to inform relevant educational psychology training literature with experiences of students' community engagement. Experiential learning served as our theoretical framework and we employed an instrumental case…

  11. Liquid chromatography, in combination with a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument (LC QTOF), with sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) acquisition: systematic studies on its use for screenings in clinical and forensic toxicology and comparison with information-dependent acquisition (IDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmelt, Andreas T; Steuer, Andrea E; Poetzsch, Michael; Kraemer, Thomas

    2014-12-02

    Forensic and clinical toxicological screening procedures are employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques with information-dependent acquisition (IDA) approaches more and more often. It is known that the complexity of a sample and the IDA settings might prevent important compounds from being triggered. Therefore, data-independent acquisition (DIA) methods should be more suitable for systematic toxicological analysis (STA). The DIA method sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH), which uses Q1 windows of 20-35 Da for data-independent fragmentation, was systematically investigated for its suitability for STA. Quality of SWATH-generated mass spectra were evaluated with regard to mass error, relative abundance of the fragments, and library hits. With the Q1 window set to 20-25 Da, several precursors pass Q1 at the same time and are fragmented, thus impairing the library search algorithms to a different extent: forward fit was less affected than reverse fit and purity fit. Mass error was not affected. The relative abundance of the fragments was concentration dependent for some analytes and was influenced by cofragmentation, especially of deuterated analogues. Also, the detection rate of IDA compared to SWATH was investigated in a forced coelution experiment (up to 20 analytes coeluting). Even using several different IDA settings, it was observed that IDA failed to trigger relevant compounds. Screening results of 382 authentic forensic cases revealed that SWATH's detection rate was superior to IDA, which failed to trigger ∼10% of the analytes.

  12. Theoretical Chemistry and Electrochemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ... double layer employing statistical mechanical models and functional analysis, which occupies a central place in ... Indian National Science Academy, Third World Academy of Sciences, Palit Lectureship and Life time ... port and cooperation.

  13. Research on Employment in the Rural Nonfarm Sector in Africa. African Rural Employment Paper No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedholm, Carl

    Within the context of the role of rural employment in overall economic development, the objectives were to summarize existing knowledge of the rural African nonfarm sector and to develop an analytical framework for examing utilization of labor in this sector, using a descriptive profile, a theoretical model, and a research approach to rural…

  14. History of information science

    OpenAIRE

    Buckland, MK; Liu, Z

    1998-01-01

    This informative volume concentrates on the following areas: Historiography of Information Science; Paul Otlet and His Successors; Techniques, Tools, and Systems; People and Organizations; Theoretical Topics; and Literature.

  15. Factors Influencing Employment and Employability for Persons with Disability: Insights from a City in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Srikrishna S; Murthy, G V S; Shamanna, B R; Allagh, Komal P; Pant, Hira B; John, Neena

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence on barriers faced by persons with disability in accessing employment opportunities in India. This study was undertaken to ascertain both employee and employer perceptions on barriers existing among Information Technology (IT) and IT-enabled sectors to employ persons with disabilities. Two hundred participants from six IT/IT-enabled sector organizations were included in the study; study was conducted at Hyderabad, India. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the participants. Physical access to and within the worksite was highlighted as a concern by 95% of respondents. Majority perceived that communication, attitude of people, discrimination, harassment at work place, and information were critical barriers. Only 3.8% of employers were aware that their company had a written policy on employing persons with disabilities. Employers stated that commitment and perseverance were important facilitators among persons with disabilities. Evidence from this study will help in planning need-based employment for persons with disabilities.

  16. Topics in Theoretical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Andrew [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Schmaltz, Martin [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Katz, Emmanuel [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Rebbi, Claudio [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Glashow, Sheldon [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Brower, Richard [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Pi, So-Young [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This award supported a broadly based research effort in theoretical particle physics, including research aimed at uncovering the laws of nature at short (subatomic) and long (cosmological) distances. These theoretical developments apply to experiments in laboratories such as CERN, the facility that operates the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva, as well as to cosmological investigations done using telescopes and satellites. The results reported here apply to physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of particle physics; physics of high energy collisions such as those observed at the Large Hadron Collider; theoretical and mathematical tools and frameworks for describing the laws of nature at short distances; cosmology and astrophysics; and analytic and computational methods to solve theories of short distance physics. Some specific research accomplishments include + Theories of the electroweak interactions, the forces that give rise to many forms of radioactive decay; + Physics of the recently discovered Higgs boson. + Models and phenomenology of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe, that has so far been detected only by its gravitational effects. + High energy particles in astrophysics and cosmology. + Algorithmic research and Computational methods for physics of and beyond the Standard Model. + Theory and applications of relativity and its possible limitations. + Topological effects in field theory and cosmology. + Conformally invariant systems and AdS/CFT. This award also supported significant training of students and postdoctoral fellows to lead the research effort in particle theory for the coming decades. These students and fellows worked closely with other members of the group as well as theoretical and experimental colleagues throughout the physics community. Many of the research projects funded by this grant arose in response to recently obtained experimental results in the areas of particle physics and cosmology. We describe a few of

  17. Topics in Theoretical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Andrew; Schmaltz, Martin; Katz, Emmanuel; Rebbi, Claudio; Glashow, Sheldon; Brower, Richard; Pi, So-Young

    2016-01-01

    This award supported a broadly based research effort in theoretical particle physics, including research aimed at uncovering the laws of nature at short (subatomic) and long (cosmological) distances. These theoretical developments apply to experiments in laboratories such as CERN, the facility that operates the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva, as well as to cosmological investigations done using telescopes and satellites. The results reported here apply to physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of particle physics; physics of high energy collisions such as those observed at the Large Hadron Collider; theoretical and mathematical tools and frameworks for describing the laws of nature at short distances; cosmology and astrophysics; and analytic and computational methods to solve theories of short distance physics. Some specific research accomplishments include + Theories of the electroweak interactions, the forces that give rise to many forms of radioactive decay; + Physics of the recently discovered Higgs boson. + Models and phenomenology of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe, that has so far been detected only by its gravitational effects. + High energy particles in astrophysics and cosmology. + Algorithmic research and Computational methods for physics of and beyond the Standard Model. + Theory and applications of relativity and its possible limitations. + Topological effects in field theory and cosmology. + Conformally invariant systems and AdS/CFT. This award also supported significant training of students and postdoctoral fellows to lead the research effort in particle theory for the coming decades. These students and fellows worked closely with other members of the group as well as theoretical and experimental colleagues throughout the physics community. Many of the research projects funded by this grant arose in response to recently obtained experimental results in the areas of particle physics and cosmology. We describe a few of

  18. Towards A Theoretical Biology: Reminiscences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    engaged in since the start of my career at the University of Chicago. Theoretical biology was ... research on theoretical problems in biology. Waddington, an ... aimed at stimulating the development of such a theoretical biology. The role the ...

  19. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger....... But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes...

  20. Radiation protection - the employer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E.

    1983-01-01

    A brief report is given of a paper presented at the symposium on 'Radiation and the Worker - where do we go from here' in London 1983. The paper concerned the employers' viewpoint on the draft of the proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations in the Health and Safety Commission Consultative Document. It was concluded that there was already a very good standard of radiological protection in the UK and that any improvements could therefore only be fringe improvements, although the cost to the employer of introducing and implementing the new proposed Regulations was bound to be high. (U.K.)