WorldWideScience

Sample records for empirical relations feedback

  1. Umayyad Relations with Byzantium Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Haidari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the political and military relations between Umayyad caliphates with the Byzantine Empire. The aim of this research is to clarify Umayyad caliphate’s relations with the Byzantine Empire. We know that these relations were mostly about war and fight. Because there were always intense conflicts between Muslims and the Byzantine Empire, they had to have an active continuous diplomacy to call truce and settle the disputes. Thus, based on the general policy of the Umayyad caliphs, Christians were severely ignored and segregated within Islamic territories. This segregation of the Christians was highly affected by political relationships. It is worthy of mentioning that Umayyad caliphs brought the governing style of the Sassanid kings and Roman Caesar into the Islamic Caliphate system but they didn’t establish civil institutions and administrative organizations.

  2. Empirical Reduced-Order Modeling for Boundary Feedback Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddik M. Djouadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the practical and theoretical implications of model reduction for aerodynamic flow-based control problems. Various aspects of model reduction are discussed that apply to partial differential equation- (PDE- based models in general. Specifically, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD of a high dimension system as well as frequency domain identification methods are discussed for initial model construction. Projections on the POD basis give a nonlinear Galerkin model. Then, a model reduction method based on empirical balanced truncation is developed and applied to the Galerkin model. The rationale for doing so is that linear subspace approximations to exact submanifolds associated with nonlinear controllability and observability require only standard matrix manipulations utilizing simulation/experimental data. The proposed method uses a chirp signal as input to produce the output in the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA. This method estimates the system's Markov parameters that accurately reproduce the output. Balanced truncation is used to show that model reduction is still effective on ERA produced approximated systems. The method is applied to a prototype convective flow on obstacle geometry. An H∞ feedback flow controller is designed based on the reduced model to achieve tracking and then applied to the full-order model with excellent performance.

  3. Corrective Feedback in SLA: Theoretical Relevance and Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Lin, Jianghao; Jiang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Corrective feedback (CF) refers to the responses or treatments from teachers to a learner's nontargetlike second language (L2) production. CF has been a crucial and controversial topic in the discipline of second language acquisition (SLA). Some SLA theorists believe that CF is harmful to L2 acquisition and should be ruled out completely while…

  4. Supervising Paraprofessionals: Performance-Related Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, James D.; And Others

    Although increasing use of paraprofessionals to implement key program concepts has the advantage of increased availability and lower salaries, problems in maintaining acceptable levels of performance have also been reported. This study assessed the role of performance-related feedback on the work behavior of paraprofessional tutors in a remedial…

  5. Personalized behavioral feedback for online gamblers: A real world empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mario Auer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some gambling companies around the world have started to utilize responsible gambling tools to support their clientele gamble more responsibly (e.g., limit-setting tools, pop-up messages, personalized feedback. However, relatively few studies have evaluated whether such tools actually work. The present study examined whether the use of three types of information (i.e., personalized feedback, normative feedback, and/or a recommendation could enable players to gamble more responsibly as assessed using three measures of behavior, i.e., theoretical loss (TL, amount of money wagered, and gross gaming revenue (GGR. By manipulating the three forms of information, data from six different groups of players were analyzed. The participant sample drawn from the population were those that had played at least one game for money on the Norsk Tipping online platform (Intaspill during April 2015. A total of 17,452 players were randomly selected from 69,631 players that fulfilled the selection criteria. Gambling activity among the control group (who received no personalized feedback, normative feedback or no recommendation was also compared with the other five groups that received information of some kind (personalized feedback, normative feedback and/or a recommendation. Results clearly showed that overall gambling behavior (as assessed by the three measures was significantly higher in the control group than the other five groups. Players that received both personalized feedback and a recommendation decreased gambling behavior the most. It is concluded that personalized behavioral feedback can enable behavioral change in gambling but that normative feedback does not appear change behavior significantly more than personalized feedback.

  6. Relative Effects of Daily Feedback and Weekly Feedback on Customer Service Behavior at a Gas Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Yongjoon; Lee, Kyehoon; Oah, Shezeen

    2013-01-01

    The relative effects of daily and weekly feedback on customer service behavior at a gas station were assessed using an ABC within-subjects design. Four critical service behaviors were identified and measured daily. After baseline (A), weekly feedback (B) was introduced, and daily feedback (C) was introduced in the next phase. The results indicated…

  7. The Role of Informative and Ambiguous Feedback in Avoidance Behavior: Empirical and Computational Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Sheynin, Jony; Myers, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance behavior is a critical component of many psychiatric disorders, and as such, it is important to understand how avoidance behavior arises, and whether it can be modified. In this study, we used empirical and computational methods to assess the role of informational feedback and ambiguous outcome in avoidance behavior. We adapted a computer-based probabilistic classification learning task, which includes positive, negative and no-feedback outcomes; the latter outcome is ambiguous as it might signal either a successful outcome (missed punishment) or a failure (missed reward). Prior work with this task suggested that most healthy subjects viewed the no-feedback outcome as strongly positive. Interestingly, in a later version of the classification task, when healthy subjects were allowed to opt out of (i.e. avoid) responding, some subjects ("avoiders") reliably avoided trials where there was a risk of punishment, but other subjects ("non-avoiders") never made any avoidance responses at all. One possible interpretation is that the "non-avoiders" valued the no-feedback outcome so positively on punishment-based trials that they had little incentive to avoid. Another possible interpretation is that the outcome of an avoided trial is unspecified and that lack of information is aversive, decreasing subjects' tendency to avoid. To examine these ideas, we here tested healthy young adults on versions of the task where avoidance responses either did or did not generate informational feedback about the optimal response. Results showed that provision of informational feedback decreased avoidance responses and also decreased categorization performance, without significantly affecting the percentage of subjects classified as "avoiders." To better understand these results, we used a modified Q-learning model to fit individual subject data. Simulation results suggest that subjects in the feedback condition adjusted their behavior faster following better-than-expected outcomes

  8. The Role of Informative and Ambiguous Feedback in Avoidance Behavior: Empirical and Computational Findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A Moustafa

    Full Text Available Avoidance behavior is a critical component of many psychiatric disorders, and as such, it is important to understand how avoidance behavior arises, and whether it can be modified. In this study, we used empirical and computational methods to assess the role of informational feedback and ambiguous outcome in avoidance behavior. We adapted a computer-based probabilistic classification learning task, which includes positive, negative and no-feedback outcomes; the latter outcome is ambiguous as it might signal either a successful outcome (missed punishment or a failure (missed reward. Prior work with this task suggested that most healthy subjects viewed the no-feedback outcome as strongly positive. Interestingly, in a later version of the classification task, when healthy subjects were allowed to opt out of (i.e. avoid responding, some subjects ("avoiders" reliably avoided trials where there was a risk of punishment, but other subjects ("non-avoiders" never made any avoidance responses at all. One possible interpretation is that the "non-avoiders" valued the no-feedback outcome so positively on punishment-based trials that they had little incentive to avoid. Another possible interpretation is that the outcome of an avoided trial is unspecified and that lack of information is aversive, decreasing subjects' tendency to avoid. To examine these ideas, we here tested healthy young adults on versions of the task where avoidance responses either did or did not generate informational feedback about the optimal response. Results showed that provision of informational feedback decreased avoidance responses and also decreased categorization performance, without significantly affecting the percentage of subjects classified as "avoiders." To better understand these results, we used a modified Q-learning model to fit individual subject data. Simulation results suggest that subjects in the feedback condition adjusted their behavior faster following better

  9. Personalized Behavioral Feedback for Online Gamblers: A Real World Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Michael M; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Responsible gambling tools (e.g., limit-setting tools, pop-up messages, and personalized feedback) have become increasingly popular as a way of facilitating players to gamble in a more responsible manner. However, relatively few studies have evaluated whether such tools actually work. The present study examined whether the use of three types of information (i.e., personalized feedback, normative feedback, and/or a recommendation) could enable players to gamble more responsibly as assessed using three measures of gambling behavior, i.e., theoretical loss (TL), amount of money wagered, and gross gaming revenue (GGR) (i.e., net win/loss). By manipulating the three forms of information, data from six different groups of players were analyzed. The participant sample drawn from the population were those that had played at least one game for money on the Norsk Tipping online platform (Instaspill) during April 2015. A total of 17,452 players were randomly selected from 69,631 players that fulfilled the selection criteria. Of these, 5,528 players participated in the experiment. Gambling activity among the control group (who received no personalized feedback, normative feedback or no recommendation) was also compared with the other five groups that received information of some kind (personalized feedback, normative feedback and/or a recommendation). Compared to the control group, all groups that received some kind of messaging significantly reduced their gambling behavior as assessed by TL, amount of money wagered, and GGR. The results support the hypothesis that personalized behavioral feedback can enable behavioral change in gambling but that normative feedback does not appear change behavior significantly more than personalized feedback.

  10. Feedback-related brain activity predicts learning from feedback in multiple-choice testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Benjamin; Steinhauser, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Different event-related potentials (ERPs) have been shown to correlate with learning from feedback in decision-making tasks and with learning in explicit memory tasks. In the present study, we investigated which ERPs predict learning from corrective feedback in a multiple-choice test, which combines elements from both paradigms. Participants worked through sets of multiple-choice items of a Swahili-German vocabulary task. Whereas the initial presentation of an item required the participants to guess the answer, corrective feedback could be used to learn the correct response. Initial analyses revealed that corrective feedback elicited components related to reinforcement learning (FRN), as well as to explicit memory processing (P300) and attention (early frontal positivity). However, only the P300 and early frontal positivity were positively correlated with successful learning from corrective feedback, whereas the FRN was even larger when learning failed. These results suggest that learning from corrective feedback crucially relies on explicit memory processing and attentional orienting to corrective feedback, rather than on reinforcement learning.

  11. Relational interaction in occupational therapy: Conversation analysis of positive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiste, Elina

    2018-01-01

    The therapeutic relationship is an important factor for good therapy outcomes. The primary mediator of a beneficial therapy relationship is clinician-client interaction. However, few studies identify the observable interactional attributes of good quality relational interactions, e.g. offering the client positive feedback. The present paper aims to expand current understanding of relational interaction by analyzing the real-time interactional practices therapists use for offering positive feedback, an important value in occupational therapy. The analysis is based on the conversation analysis of 15 video-recorded occupational therapy encounters in psychiatric outpatient clinics. Two types of positive feedback were identified. In aligning feedback, therapists encouraged and complimented clients' positive perspectives on their own achievements in adopting certain behaviour, encouraging and supporting their progress. In redirecting feedback, therapists shifted the perspective from clients' negative experiences to their positive experiences. This shift was interactionally successful if they laid the foundation for the shift in perspective and attuned their expressions to the clients' emotional states. Occupational therapists routinely provide their clients with positive feedback. Awareness of the interactional attributes related to positive feedback is critically important for successful relational interaction.

  12. Clinical Feedback About Empirically Supported Treatments for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nicholas C; Newman, Michelle G; Goldfried, Marvin R

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been derived principally from randomized controlled trials. As such, evidence about the treatment of OCD has unilaterally flowed from researchers to clinicians. Despite often having decades of experience treating OCD, clinicians' feedback on their clinical observations in using these treatments has not been solicited. The current study contacted clinicians for their clinical observations on empirically supported treatments for OCD to identify commonly used cognitive-behavioral techniques and their limitations in their practices. One hundred eighty-one psychotherapists completed an online survey. The average participant practiced psychotherapy for 15 years, worked in private practice, held a doctorate, and treated an average of 25 clients with OCD in their lifetime. In regard to the most common techniques, behavioral strategies involving exposure to a feared outcome and prevention of a compulsive ritual were the most frequent group of interventions, followed by techniques that attempted to identify and challenge irrational thoughts. However, the majority of participants also reported incorporating mindfulness or acceptance-based methods. Based on therapists' reports, the most common barriers to the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions included limited premorbid functioning, chaotic lifestyles, controlling and critical families, OCD symptom severity, OCD symptom chronicity, and comorbidities. This study provides insight into common practices and limitations in clinical practice to inform future clinically relevant treatment research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. [Feedback in relation to training of practical clinical skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.S.; Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    into feedback in relation to clinical skills training is currently limited. Theories on motor learning can serve as the basis for designing research in this domain, especially the importance of including retention tests when measuring permanent learning outcomes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10/27......Feedback has been identified as an essential component of motor learning. However, feedback principles derived from motor learning theories cannot uncritically be applied to clinical skills training because this knowledge is based primarily on the study of very simple motor skills. Research...

  14. Constraints to feedback provision on forestry-related technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper ascertained the constraints to feedback provision on forestry-related technologies. Interview schedule was used to elicit information from 163 randomly selected respondents. Descriptive (frequencies, percentages) and inferential (Chi square and Ordinary Least square regression) statistics were used to analyse ...

  15. Positive and negative assessment center feedback in relation to development self-efficacy, feedback seeking, and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimotakis, Nikolaos; Mitchell, Deb; Maurer, Todd

    2017-11-01

    In this field study we examined both positive and negative developmental feedback given in managerial assessment centers in relation to employees' self-efficacy for their ability to improve their relevant skills assessed in the centers, the extent to which they sought subsequent feedback from others at work, and the career outcome of being promoted to a higher level position within the organization. We found that feedback was related to self-efficacy for improvement which was in turn positively related to feedback seeking, which was positively linked to the career outcome of promotion (e.g., feedback leads to self-efficacy for improvement leads to feedback seeking leads to promotion). In addition, we tested boundary variables for the effects of feedback in this model. Both social support for development and implicit theory of ability moderated the effects of negative feedback on self-efficacy. Having more support and believing that abilities can be improved buffered the detrimental impact of negative feedback on self-efficacy. We discuss implications for theory, future research and practical implications drawing upon literature on assessment centers, feedback and feedback seeking, employee development and career success. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Empirical Evidence on Feedback Trading in Mature and Emerging Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bohl, Martin T.; Pierre Siklos

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that some participants in mature and emerging capital markets engage in feedback trading. The analysis is based on the Shiller-Sentana-Wadhwani noise trader model. It has the attractive property that it yields testable implications about the presence of positive and negative feedback traders in stock markets. This theoretical framework, together with an asymmetric GARCH-type model, allows us to draw conclusions about whether differences exist between mature and e...

  17. The use of personalized behavioral feedback for online gamblers: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mario Auer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, online gambling has become a more common leisure time activity. However, for a small minority, the activity can become problematic. Consequently, the gambling industry has started to acknowledge their role in player protection and harm minimization and some gambling companies have introduced responsible gambling tools as a way of helping players stay in control. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of mentor (a responsible gambling tool that provides personalized feedback to players among 1,015 online gamblers at a European online gambling site, and compared their behavior with matched controls (n=15,216 on the basis of age, gender, playing duration, and theoretical loss (i.e., the amount of money wagered multiplied by the payout percentage of a specific game played. The results showed that online gamblers receiving personalized feedback spent significantly less time and money gambling compared to controls that did not receive personalized feedback. The results suggest that responsible gambling tools providing personalized feedback may help the clientele of gambling companies gamble more responsibly, and may be of help those who gamble excessively to stay within their personal time and money spending limits.

  18. Good relations with technology: Empirical ethics and aesthetics in care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pols, Jeannette

    2017-01-01

    This article is a written version of the lecture for the IPONS conference in Stockholm. The article starts from the claim that there is no such thing as technology, only different variations of technologies. These technologies, plural, all have their specific workings that we can only learn about by studying these empirically, by analysing the relations between people and their technologies. These relations are always unpredictable, as it is not given beforehand what values the participants pursue. Studying and understanding the workings of healthcare technology is a crucial task for nursing studies, as nurses are often key actors in making these devices work. The article hands the reader some tools to engage in the study of technologies in practice, using an empirical ethics approach. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Enhanced Feedback-Related Negativity in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Yamaguchi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, results in the impairment of executive function, including that of performance monitoring. Feedback-related negativity (FRN is an electrophysiological measure reflecting the activity of this monitoring system via feedback signals, and is generated from the anterior cingulate cortex. However, there have been no reports on FRN in AD. Based on prior aging studies, we hypothesized that FRN would decrease in AD patients. To assess this, FRN was measured in healthy individuals and those with AD during a simple gambling task involving positive and negative feedback stimuli. Contrary to our hypothesis, FRN amplitude increased in AD patients, compared with the healthy elderly. We speculate that this may reflect the existence of a compensatory mechanism against the decline in executive function. Also, there was a significant association between FRN amplitude and depression scores in AD, and the FRN amplitude tended to increase insomuch as the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS was higher. This result suggests the existence of a negative bias in the affective state in AD. Thus, the impaired functioning monitoring system in AD is a more complex phenomenon than we thought.

  20. Empirical relations between large wood transport and catchment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeb, Nicolas; Rickenmann, Dieter; Rickli, Christian; Badoux, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    The transport of vast amounts of large wood (LW) in water courses can considerably aggravate hazardous situations during flood events, and often strongly affects resulting flood damage. Large wood recruitment and transport are controlled by various factors which are difficult to assess and the prediction of transported LW volumes is difficult. Such information are, however, important for engineers and river managers to adequately dimension retention structures or to identify critical stream cross-sections. In this context, empirical formulas have been developed to estimate the volume of transported LW during a flood event (Rickenmann, 1997; Steeb et al., 2017). The data base of existing empirical wood load equations is, however, limited. The objective of the present study is to test and refine existing empirical equations, and to derive new relationships to reveal trends in wood loading. Data have been collected for flood events with LW occurrence in Swiss catchments of various sizes. This extended data set allows us to derive statistically more significant results. LW volumes were found to be related to catchment and transport characteristics, such as catchment size, forested area, forested stream length, water discharge, sediment load, or Melton ratio. Both the potential wood load and the fraction that is effectively mobilized during a flood event (effective wood load) are estimated. The difference of potential and effective wood load allows us to derive typical reduction coefficients that can be used to refine spatially explicit GIS models for potential LW recruitment.

  1. Pharmacists and patients feedback on empirically designed prescription warning labels: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Smith, Paul D; Huang, Yen-Ming; Mansukhani, Sonal Ghura

    2017-02-01

    Background Recommendations call for the inclusion of both patient and provider input in the redesign of prescription labels. Pharmacist opinions on prescription warning labels are important because they are the health providers who would eventually distribute and explain the revised labels during medication counseling. They may be the first health provider to notice a patient's misunderstanding on how to safely use their prescription medications. Objectives To explore the perspectives of patients and pharmacists on five newly designed PWLs, and examine if there were similarities and differences between patients' and pharmacists' perspectives. Setting Private room in Wisconsin. Methods A descriptive study using semi-structured 60-min face-to-face individual interviews with patients and pharmacists explored patients and pharmacists' feedback on five newly designed PWLs. Patients who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication and pharmacists who filled prescriptions in an ambulatory setting participated in the study. The patient and pharmacist perspectives on the words (content), picture and color (cosmetic appearance), and placement of warning instructions on the pill bottle (convenience) was based on a label redesign framework. Qualitative content analysis was done. Main outcome measure Patient and pharmacist perspectives on the newly designed PWLs. Results Twenty-one patients and eight pharmacists practicing in an academic medical center outpatient setting (n = 5) or retail pharmacy (n = 3) participated. All patients and pharmacists wanted the PWLs positioned on the front of the pill bottle but not the side of the bottle or warning instructions embedded into the main prescription label. Other similarities included participants preferring: (1) pictures closely depicting the instructions and (2) the use of yellow highlighting on the PWL to draw attention to it. There were differences in patient and pharmacist perspectives

  2. Urban driven phenotypic changes: empirical observations and theoretical implications for eco-evolutionary feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Marina; Marzluff, John; Hunt, Victoria M

    2017-01-19

    Emerging evidence that cities drive micro-evolution raises the question of whether rapid urbanization of Earth might impact ecosystems by causing systemic changes in functional traits that regulate urban ecosystems' productivity and stability. Intraspecific trait variation-variation in organisms' morphological, physiological or behavioural characteristics stemming from genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity-has significant implications for ecological functions such as nutrient cycling and primary productivity. While it is well established that changes in ecological conditions can drive evolutionary change in species' traits that, in turn, can alter ecosystem function, an understanding of the reciprocal and simultaneous processes associated with such interactions is only beginning to emerge. In urban settings, the potential for rapid trait change may be exacerbated by multiple selection pressures operating simultaneously. This paper reviews evidence on mechanisms linking urban development patterns to rapid phenotypic changes, and differentiates phenotypic changes for which there is evidence of micro-evolution versus phenotypic changes which may represent plasticity. Studying how humans mediate phenotypic trait changes through urbanization could shed light on fundamental concepts in ecological and evolutionary theory. It can also contribute to our understanding of eco-evolutionary feedback and provide insights for maintaining ecosystem function over the long term.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosati Giulio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the results of a set of experiments in which we used continuous auditory feedback to augment motor training exercises. This feedback modality is mostly underexploited in current robotic rehabilitation systems, which usually implement only very basic auditory interfaces. Our hypothesis is that properly designed continuous auditory feedback could be used to represent temporal and spatial information that could in turn, improve performance and motor learning. Methods We implemented three different experiments on healthy subjects, who were asked to track a target on a screen by moving an input device (controller with their hand. Different visual and auditory feedback modalities were envisaged. The first experiment investigated whether continuous task-related auditory feedback can help improve performance to a greater extent than error-related audio feedback, or visual feedback alone. In the second experiment we used sensory substitution to compare different types of auditory feedback with equivalent visual feedback, in order to find out whether mapping the same information on a different sensory channel (the visual channel yielded comparable effects with those gained in the first experiment. The final experiment applied a continuously changing visuomotor transformation between the controller and the screen and mapped kinematic information, computed in either coordinate system (controller or video, to the audio channel, in order to investigate which information was more relevant to the user. Results Task-related audio feedback significantly improved performance with respect to visual feedback alone, whilst error-related feedback did not. Secondly, performance in audio tasks was significantly better with respect to the equivalent sensory-substituted visual tasks. Finally, with respect to visual feedback alone, video-task-related sound feedback decreased the tracking error during the learning of a novel

  4. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper presents the results of a set of experiments in which we used continuous auditory feedback to augment motor training exercises. This feedback modality is mostly underexploited in current robotic rehabilitation systems, which usually implement only very basic auditory interfaces. Our hypothesis is that properly designed continuous auditory feedback could be used to represent temporal and spatial information that could in turn, improve performance and motor learning. Methods We implemented three different experiments on healthy subjects, who were asked to track a target on a screen by moving an input device (controller) with their hand. Different visual and auditory feedback modalities were envisaged. The first experiment investigated whether continuous task-related auditory feedback can help improve performance to a greater extent than error-related audio feedback, or visual feedback alone. In the second experiment we used sensory substitution to compare different types of auditory feedback with equivalent visual feedback, in order to find out whether mapping the same information on a different sensory channel (the visual channel) yielded comparable effects with those gained in the first experiment. The final experiment applied a continuously changing visuomotor transformation between the controller and the screen and mapped kinematic information, computed in either coordinate system (controller or video), to the audio channel, in order to investigate which information was more relevant to the user. Results Task-related audio feedback significantly improved performance with respect to visual feedback alone, whilst error-related feedback did not. Secondly, performance in audio tasks was significantly better with respect to the equivalent sensory-substituted visual tasks. Finally, with respect to visual feedback alone, video-task-related sound feedback decreased the tracking error during the learning of a novel visuomotor perturbation, whereas

  5. Relatively speaking: contrast effects influence assessors' scores and narrative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Peter; Cardell, Jenna; Byrne, Gerard; Eva, Kevin W

    2015-09-01

    In prior research, the scores assessors assign can be biased away from the standard of preceding performances (i.e. 'contrast effects' occur). This study examines the mechanism and robustness of these findings to advance understanding of assessor cognition. We test the influence of the immediately preceding performance relative to that of a series of prior performances. Further, we examine whether assessors' narrative comments are similarly influenced by contrast effects. Clinicians (n = 61) were randomised to three groups in a blinded, Internet-based experiment. Participants viewed identical videos of good, borderline and poor performances by first-year doctors in varied orders. They provided scores and written feedback after each video. Narrative comments were blindly content-analysed to generate measures of valence and content. Variability of narrative comments and scores was compared between groups. Comparisons indicated contrast effects after a single performance. When a good performance was preceded by a poor performance, ratings were higher (mean 5.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.79-5.24) than when observation of the good performance was unbiased (mean 4.36, 95% CI 4.14-4.60; p narrative comments showed contrast effects similar to those found in numerical scores. These findings are consistent with research from behavioural economics and psychology that suggests judgement tends to be relative in nature. Observing that the valence of narrative comments is similarly influenced suggests these effects represent more than difficulty in translating impressions into a number. The extent to which such factors impact upon assessment in practice remains to be determined as the influence is likely to depend on context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Progress In Transverse Feedbacks and Related Diagnostics for Hadron Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Hofle, W

    2013-01-01

    Today Hadron Accelerators with high intensity and high brightness beams increasingly rely on transverse feedback systems for the control of instabilities and the preservation of the transverse emittance. With particular emphasis, but not limited to, the CERN Hadron Accelerator Chain, the progress made in recent years, and the performances achieved are reviewed. Hadron colliders such as the LHC represent a particular challenge as they ask for low noise electronic systems in these feedbacks for acceptable emittance growth. Achievements of the LHC transverse feedback system used for damping injection oscillations and to provide stability throughout the cycle are summarized. This includes its use for abort gap and injection cleaning as well as transverse blow-up for diagnostics purposes. Beyond systems already in operation, advances in technology and modern digital signal processing with increasingly higher digitization rates have made systems conceivable to cure intra-bunch motion. With its capabilities to both ...

  7. Relationships among supervisor feedback environment, work-related stressors, and employee deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jei-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Man; Lee, Yin-Ling

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the employee deviance imposes enormous costs on organizational performance and productivity. Similar research supports the positive effect of favorable supervisor feedback on employee job performance. In light of such, it is important to understand the interaction between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviant behavior to streamline organization operations. The purposes of this study were to explore how the supervisor feedback environment influences employee deviance and to examine the mediating role played by work-related stressors. Data were collected from 276 subordinate-supervisor dyads at a regional hospital in Yilan. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test hypotheses. Structural equation modeling analysis results show that supervisor feedback environment negatively related to interpersonal and organizational deviance. Moreover, work-related stressors were found to partially mediate the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviance. Study findings suggest that when employees (nurses in this case) perceive an appropriate supervisor-provided feedback environment, their deviance is suppressed because of the related reduction in work-related stressors. Thus, to decrease deviant behavior, organizations may foster supervisor integration of disseminated knowledge such as (a) how to improve employees' actual performance, (b) how to effectively clarify expected performance, and (c) how to improve continuous performance feedback. If supervisors absorb this integrated feedback knowledge, they should be in a better position to enhance their own daily interactions with nurses and reduce nurses' work-related stress and, consequently, decrease deviant behavior.

  8. Appropriate methodologies for empirical bioethics: it's all relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Jonathan; Draper, Heather

    2009-05-01

    In this article we distinguish between philosophical bioethics (PB), descriptive policy orientated bioethics (DPOB) and normative policy oriented bioethics (NPOB). We argue that finding an appropriate methodology for combining empirical data and moral theory depends on what the aims of the research endeavour are, and that, for the most part, this combination is only required for NPOB. After briefly discussing the debate around the is/ought problem, and suggesting that both sides of this debate are misunderstanding one another (i.e. one side treats it as a conceptual problem, whilst the other treats it as an empirical claim), we outline and defend a methodological approach to NPOB based on work we have carried out on a project exploring the normative foundations of paternal rights and responsibilities. We suggest that given the prominent role already played by moral intuition in moral theory, one appropriate way to integrate empirical data and philosophical bioethics is to utilize empirically gathered lay intuition as the foundation for ethical reasoning in NPOB. The method we propose involves a modification of a long-established tradition on non-intervention in qualitative data gathering, combined with a form of reflective equilibrium where the demands of theory and data are given equal weight and a pragmatic compromise reached.

  9. Relating customer satisfaction to customer profitability: an empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores relationships between customer satisfactions; repurchase intentions, purchase behavior, and customer profitability with empirical data on attitudes, behavior, and profitability at the customer level of analysis. Purchase behavior and profitability data derived from the accounting system of a firm, are ...

  10. Child Miscues and Parental Feedback during Shared Alphabet Book Reading and Relations with Child Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bronwen J.; Evans, Mary Ann; Reynolds, Kailey Pearl

    2010-01-01

    We studied 52 parent-child dyads reading an alphabet book to examine the nature of children's miscues and parents' feedback, and whether miscues and feedback were related to each other and to preliteracy skills. Letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and expressive vocabulary were assessed in 5-year-old nonreaders who were also audiotaped…

  11. Teachers' Feedback on Homework, Homework-Related Behaviors, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, José Carlos; Suárez, Natalia; Rosário, Pedro; Vallejo, Guillermo; Cerezo, Rebeca; Valle, António

    2015-01-01

    The authors intended to (a) identify the association between gender or grade level and teachers' homework (HW) feedback and (b) examine the relationship between teachers' HW feedback, HW-related behaviors (e.g., amount of HW completed), and academic achievement. Four hundred fifty-four students (Grades 5-12) participated in this study. The results…

  12. Relative efficacy of various strategies for visual feedback in standing balance activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael W; Crowell, Charles R; Striegel, Aaron D; Villano, Michael; Schmiedeler, James P

    2013-09-01

    Seventy-nine young, healthy adults were led through static balance and weight-shifting activities in order to study the effects of visual feedback on balance. Based on their performance, the relative effects of various feedback properties were analyzed: (1) arrangement [direct center of pressure (CoP) vs. lateral weight distribution feedback], (2) numbers (presence vs. absence of numeric feedback), and (3) dimensionality (1D vs. 2D CoP information). In the static balance activity, subjects were instructed to maintain equal weight across both feet; in the dynamic weight-shifting activity, subjects were instructed to shift their weight to each displayed target location. For static balance, lateral symmetry and sway were measured by classical parameters using CoP, center of gravity (CoG), and the difference between the two (CoP-CoG). Weight-shifting balance performance was measured using the time required to shift between target CoP positions. Results indicated that feedback arrangement had a significant effect on static sway and dynamic weight shifting, with direct CoP feedback resulting in better balance performance than lateral weight distribution. Also, numbers had a significant effect on static sway, reducing lateral sway compared to feedback without numbers. Finally, 2D CoP feedback resulted in faster performance than 1D CoP feedback in dynamic weight shifting. These results show that altering different properties of visual feedback can have significant effects on resulting balance performance; therefore, proper selection of visual feedback strategy needs to take these effects into consideration.

  13. The feedback related negativity encodes both social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation

    OpenAIRE

    Rongjun eYu; Sai eSun

    2014-01-01

    Humans consistently make predictions about the valence of future events and use feedback to validate initial predictions. While the valence of outcomes provides utilitarian information, the accuracy of predictions is crucial for future performance adjustment. The feedback related negativity (FRN), identified as a marker of reward prediction error, possibly encodes social rejection and social prediction error. To test this possibility, we used event related potential (ERP) techniques combined ...

  14. 'Nobody tosses a dwarf!' The relation between the empirical and the normative reexamined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leget, Carlo; Borry, Pascal; de Vries, Raymond

    2009-05-01

    This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as a point of departure because it challenges the reader to look with fresh eyes upon several central bioethical themes, including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought together to speak to the problem of dwarf tossing: prescriptive applied ethics, theoretical ethics, critical applied ethics, particularist ethics and integrated empirical ethics. We defend a position of critical applied ethics that allows for a two-way relation between empirical and normative theories. Against efforts fully to integrate the normative and the empirical into one synthesis, we propose that the two should stand in tension and relation to one another. The approach we endorse acknowledges that a social practice can and should be judged both by the gathering of empirical data and by normative ethics. Critical applied ethics uses a five stage process that includes: (a) determination of the problem, (b) description of the problem, (c) empirical study of effects and alternatives, (d) normative weighing and (e) evaluation of the effects of a decision. In each stage, we explore the perspective from both the empirical (sociological) and the normative ethical point of view. We conclude by applying our five-stage critical applied ethics to the example of dwarf tossing.

  15. Acute stress modulates feedback processing in men and women: differential effects on the feedback-related negativity and theta and beta power.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Banis

    Full Text Available Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters feedback processing, and whether stress effects differ between men and women. Male and female participants performed a gambling task, in a control and a stress condition. Stress was induced by exposing participants to a noise stressor. Brain activity was analyzed using both event-related potential and time-frequency analyses, measuring the feedback-related negativity (FRN and feedback-related changes in theta and beta oscillatory power, respectively. While the FRN and feedback-related theta power were similarly affected by stress induction in both sexes, feedback-related beta power depended on the combination of stress induction condition and sex. FRN amplitude and theta power increases were smaller in the stress relative to the control condition in both sexes, demonstrating that acute noise stress impairs performance monitoring irrespective of sex. However, in the stress but not in the control condition, early lower beta-band power increases were larger for men than women, indicating that stress effects on feedback processing are partly sex-dependent. Our findings suggest that sex-specific effects on feedback processing may comprise a factor underlying sex-specific stress responses.

  16. Acute Stress Modulates Feedback Processing in Men and Women: Differential Effects on the Feedback-Related Negativity and Theta and Beta Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banis, Stella; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2014-01-01

    Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters feedback processing, and whether stress effects differ between men and women. Male and female participants performed a gambling task, in a control and a stress condition. Stress was induced by exposing participants to a noise stressor. Brain activity was analyzed using both event-related potential and time-frequency analyses, measuring the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and feedback-related changes in theta and beta oscillatory power, respectively. While the FRN and feedback-related theta power were similarly affected by stress induction in both sexes, feedback-related beta power depended on the combination of stress induction condition and sex. FRN amplitude and theta power increases were smaller in the stress relative to the control condition in both sexes, demonstrating that acute noise stress impairs performance monitoring irrespective of sex. However, in the stress but not in the control condition, early lower beta-band power increases were larger for men than women, indicating that stress effects on feedback processing are partly sex-dependent. Our findings suggest that sex-specific effects on feedback processing may comprise a factor underlying sex-specific stress responses. PMID:24755943

  17. Who wants feedback? An investigation of the variables influencing residents' feedback-seeking behavior in relation to night shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Pim W; Stapel, Diederik A; van der Vleuten, Cees; Scherpbier, Albert; Boor, Klarke; Scheele, Fedde

    2009-07-01

    The literature on feedback in clinical medical education has predominantly treated trainees as passive recipients. Past research has focused on how clinical supervisors can use feedback to improve a trainee's performance. On the basis of research in social and organizational psychology, the authors reconceptualized residents as active seekers of feedback. They investigated what individual and situational variables influence residents' feedback-seeking behavior on night shifts. Early in 2008, the authors sent obstetrics-gynecology residents in the Netherlands--both those in their first two years of graduate training and those gaining experience between undergraduate and graduate training--a questionnaire that assessed four predictor variables (learning and performance goal orientation, and instrumental and supportive leadership), two mediator variables (perceived feedback benefits and costs), and two outcome variables (frequency of feedback inquiry and monitoring). They used structural equation modeling software to test a hypothesized model of relationships between variables. The response rate was 76.5%. Results showed that residents who perceive more feedback benefits report a higher frequency of feedback inquiry and monitoring. More perceived feedback costs result mainly in more feedback monitoring. Residents with a higher learning goal orientation perceive more feedback benefits and fewer costs. Residents with a higher performance goal orientation perceive more feedback costs. Supportive physicians lead residents to perceive more feedback benefits and fewer costs. This study showed that some residents actively seek feedback. Residents' feedback-seeking behavior partially depends on attending physicians' supervisory style. Residents' goal orientations influence their perceptions of the benefits and costs of feedback-seeking.

  18. Interpretation of Melanoma Risk Feedback in First-Degree Relatives of Melanoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Hay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how individuals might interpret brief genetic risk feedback. We examined interpretation and behavioral intentions (sun protection, skin screening in melanoma first-degree relatives (FDRs after exposure to brief prototypic melanoma risk feedback. Using a 3 by 2 experimental pre-post design where feedback type (high-risk mutation, gene environment, and nongenetic and risk level (positive versus negative findings were systematically varied, 139 melanoma FDRs were randomized to receive one of the six scenarios. All scenarios included an explicit reminder that melanoma family history increased their risk regardless of their feedback. The findings indicate main effects by risk level but not feedback type; positive findings led to heightened anticipated melanoma risk perceptions and anticipated behavioral intentions. Yet those who received negative findings often discounted their family melanoma history. As such, 25%, 30%, and 32% of those who received negative mutation, gene-environment, and nongenetic feedback, respectively, reported that their risk was similar to the general population. Given the frequency with which those who pursue genetic testing may receive negative feedback, attention is needed to identify ideal strategies to present negative genetic findings in contexts such as direct to consumer channels where extensive genetic counseling is not required.

  19. “Nobody tosses a dwarf!” The relation between the empirical and normative reexamined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leget, C.; Borry, P.; De Vries, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as point of departure because it challenges the reader to look upon several central bioethical themes – including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people – with fresh eyes. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought together to speak to the problem of dwarf tossing: prescriptive applied ethics, theorist ethics, critical applied ethics, particularist ethics and integrated empirical ethics. We defend a position of critical applied ethics that allows for a two-way relation between empirical and normative theories. The approach we endorse acknowledges that a social practice can and should be judged by both the gathering of empirical data and by the normative ethics. Critical applied ethics uses a five stage process that includes: (a) determination of the problem, (b) description of the problem, (c) empirical study of effects and alternatives, (d) normative weighing and (e) evaluation of the effects of a decision. In each stage, we explore the perspective from both the empirical (sociological) and the normative ethical poles that, in our view, should operate as two independent focuses of the ellipse that is called bioethics. We conclude by applying our five stage critical applied ethics to the example of dwarf tossing. PMID:19338523

  20. The impact of motives-related feedback on drinking to cope among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Claire E; Stephens, Robert S

    2016-07-01

    Motives for alcohol use are associated with distinct antecedents and consequences. Drinking alcohol to cope with negative affect is consistently associated with the most problematic patterns of use. Interventions targeting drinking to cope are needed. This randomized controlled treatment trial is an initial attempt to evaluate the impact of a brief coping motive-specific personalized feedback intervention on motives and problematic outcomes associated with drinking. The study randomized 170 participants to receive either a brief Standard Feedback Condition (SFC; n=83) or a Motives Feedback Condition (MFC; n=87) that added education and feedback on drinking to cope as well as alternative coping strategies. Significant reductions in drinking to cope with anxiety and with depression were greater in the MFC at the 2-month follow-up. Significant reductions in drinking and negative consequences were observed but did not differ significantly by condition. Indirect tests showed that the MFC, relative to SFC, was associated with outcomes of drinking and negative consequences through change in drinking to cope with depression. Moderation analyses revealed that there were no differential outcomes according to baseline level of coping. This study is a promising new direction in motives research, providing support for brief personalized feedback interventions incorporating motives-related feedback. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Movement-related feedback and temporal accuracy in clarinet performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, C.; Koopmans, E.; Loehr, J.D.; Carter, C.

    2009-01-01

    SENSORY INFORMATION AVAILABLE WHEN MUSICIANS' fingers arrive on instrument keys contributes to temporal accuracy in piano performance (Goebl & Palmer, 2008). The hypothesis that timing accuracy is related to sensory (tactile) information available at finger-key contact was extended to clarinetists'

  2. Integration of sensory force feedback is disturbed in CRPS-related dystonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfred Mugge

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is characterized by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Approximately 25% of cases develop fixed dystonia. The origin of this movement disorder is poorly understood, although recent insights suggest involvement of disturbed force feedback. Assessment of sensorimotor integration may provide insight into the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia. Sensory weighting is the process of integrating and weighting sensory feedback channels in the central nervous system to improve the state estimate. It was hypothesized that patients with CRPS-related dystonia bias sensory weighting of force and position toward position due to the unreliability of force feedback. The current study provides experimental evidence for dysfunctional sensory integration in fixed dystonia, showing that CRPS-patients with fixed dystonia weight force and position feedback differently than controls do. The study shows reduced force feedback weights in CRPS-patients with fixed dystonia, making it the first to demonstrate disturbed integration of force feedback in fixed dystonia, an important step towards understanding the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia.

  3. Integration of sensory force feedback is disturbed in CRPS-related dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugge, Winfred; van der Helm, Frans C T; Schouten, Alfred C

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Approximately 25% of cases develop fixed dystonia. The origin of this movement disorder is poorly understood, although recent insights suggest involvement of disturbed force feedback. Assessment of sensorimotor integration may provide insight into the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia. Sensory weighting is the process of integrating and weighting sensory feedback channels in the central nervous system to improve the state estimate. It was hypothesized that patients with CRPS-related dystonia bias sensory weighting of force and position toward position due to the unreliability of force feedback. The current study provides experimental evidence for dysfunctional sensory integration in fixed dystonia, showing that CRPS-patients with fixed dystonia weight force and position feedback differently than controls do. The study shows reduced force feedback weights in CRPS-patients with fixed dystonia, making it the first to demonstrate disturbed integration of force feedback in fixed dystonia, an important step towards understanding the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia.

  4. Improving Diabetes-Related Parent-Adolescent Communication With Individualized Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Dana K K; Ellis, Deborah A; Cano, Annmarie; Dekelbab, Bassem

    2017-11-01

    To pilot a brief individualized feedback intervention to improve the communication skills of parents with an adolescent with type 1 diabetes. Parent-adolescent dyads (N = 79) discussed a diabetes-related problem, while an interventionist rated the parent's communication skills to give feedback to the parents. Parents were then randomized to a brief feedback session to target person-centered communication skills or an educational session. Dyads discussed another diabetes care problem to assess for change in communication skills. Independent raters coded parent communication skills from video recordings to rate behaviors in the service of examining possible changes in communication skills. Dyads completed ratings of perceived closeness and empathy after each conversation. Controlling for overall positive communication at baseline, parents who received feedback showed more improvement in specific person-centered communication skills than parents in the control group. Adolescents in the feedback group reported greater increases in parental empathy and intimacy from pre- to postmanipulation than the control. The feedback intervention showed preliminary efficacy for increasing person-centered communication skills and perceived empathy and intimacy.

  5. Differences in Feedback- and Inhibition-Related Neural Activity in Adult ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbets, Pauline; Evers, Lisbeth; Hurks, Petra; Marchetta, Natalie; Jolles, Jelle

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine response inhibition- and feedback-related neural activity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using event-related functional MRI. Sixteen male adults with ADHD and 13 healthy/normal controls participated in this study and performed a modified Go/NoGo task. Behaviourally,…

  6. Status Concern and Relative Deprivation in China: Measures, Empirical Evidence and Economic and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, CHEN

    2017-01-01

    Status concern and feelings of relative deprivation affect individual behaviour and well-being. Traditional norms and the alarming inequality in China have made relative deprivation increasingly intense for the Chinese population. This article reviews empirical literature on China that attempts to test the relative deprivation hypothesis, and also reviews the origins and pathways of relative deprivation, compares its economic measures in the literature and summarises the scientific findings. Drawing from solid empirical evidence, the author discusses the important policy implications on redistribution, official regulations and grassroots sanctions, and relative poverty alleviation. PMID:29033479

  7. The feedback related negativity encodes both social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun eYu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans consistently make predictions about the valence of future events and use feedbacks to update initial predictions. While the valence of outcomes provides utilitarian information, the accuracy of predictions is crucial for future performance adjustment. The feedback related negativity (FRN, identified as a marker of reward prediction error, possibly encodes social rejection and social prediction error. To test this possibility, we used event related potential techniques combined with social tasks in which participants make explicit prediction (whether others will accept their ‘friend request’ or not, Experiment 1 or implicit prediction (whether they would like this person or not, Experiment 2 respectively and then receive social feedback. We found that the FRN is sensitive to social rejection and explicit social prediction error in Experiment 1 but not implicit social prediction error in Experiment 2. We conclude that the FRN encodes social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation.

  8. The feedback related negativity encodes both social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sai; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    Humans consistently make predictions about the valence of future events and use feedback to validate initial predictions. While the valence of outcomes provides utilitarian information, the accuracy of predictions is crucial for future performance adjustment. The feedback related negativity (FRN), identified as a marker of reward prediction error, possibly encodes social rejection and social prediction error. To test this possibility, we used event related potential (ERP) techniques combined with social tasks in which participants were required to make explicit predictions (whether others will accept their “friend request” or not, Experiment 1) or implicit predictions (whether they would like this person or not, Experiment 2) respectively, and then received social feedback. We found that the FRN is sensitive to social rejection and explicit social prediction error in Experiment 1 but not implicit social prediction error in Experiment 2. We conclude that the FRN encodes social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation. PMID:25120457

  9. Feedback-related negativity in children with two subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Gong

    Full Text Available The current model of ADHD suggests abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, although differences in ADHD subgroups are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of feedback valence (reward or punishment and punishment magnitude (small or large on Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN and Late Positive Potential (LPP in two subtypes of ADHD (ADHD-C and ADHD-I compared to typically developing children (TD during a children's gambling task.Children with ADHD-C (n = 16, children with ADHD-I (n = 15 and typically developing children (n = 15 performed a children's gambling task under three feedback conditions: large losses, small losses and gains. FRN and LPP components in brain potentials were recorded and analyzed.In TD children and children with ADHD-C, large loss feedback evoked more negative FRN amplitudes than small loss feedback, suggesting that brain sensitivity to the punishment and its magnitude is not impaired in children with ADHD-C. In contrast to these two groups, the FRN effect was absent in children with ADHD-I. The LPP amplitudes were larger in children with ADHD-C in comparison with those with ADHD-I, regardless of feedback valence and magnitude.Children with ADHD-C exhibit intact brain sensitivity to punishment similar to TD children. In contrast, children with ADHD-I are significantly impaired in neural sensitivity to the feedback stimuli and in particular, to punishment, compared to TD and ADHD-C children. Thus, FRN, rather than LPP, is a reliable index of the difference in reward and punishment sensitivity across different ADHD-subcategories.

  10. Feedback-related negativity in children with two subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jingbo; Yuan, Jiajin; Wang, Suhong; Shi, Lijuan; Cui, Xilong; Luo, Xuerong

    2014-01-01

    The current model of ADHD suggests abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, although differences in ADHD subgroups are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of feedback valence (reward or punishment) and punishment magnitude (small or large) on Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) and Late Positive Potential (LPP) in two subtypes of ADHD (ADHD-C and ADHD-I) compared to typically developing children (TD) during a children's gambling task. Children with ADHD-C (n = 16), children with ADHD-I (n = 15) and typically developing children (n = 15) performed a children's gambling task under three feedback conditions: large losses, small losses and gains. FRN and LPP components in brain potentials were recorded and analyzed. In TD children and children with ADHD-C, large loss feedback evoked more negative FRN amplitudes than small loss feedback, suggesting that brain sensitivity to the punishment and its magnitude is not impaired in children with ADHD-C. In contrast to these two groups, the FRN effect was absent in children with ADHD-I. The LPP amplitudes were larger in children with ADHD-C in comparison with those with ADHD-I, regardless of feedback valence and magnitude. Children with ADHD-C exhibit intact brain sensitivity to punishment similar to TD children. In contrast, children with ADHD-I are significantly impaired in neural sensitivity to the feedback stimuli and in particular, to punishment, compared to TD and ADHD-C children. Thus, FRN, rather than LPP, is a reliable index of the difference in reward and punishment sensitivity across different ADHD-subcategories.

  11. PERIPHERY/CORE RELATIONS IN THE INCA EMPIRE CARROTS AND STICKS IN AN ANDEAN WORLD SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Kuznar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Inca Empire exhibited labor exploitation and the rational extraction of resources from peripheral polities by a core polity. These characteristics fit the general definition of a world empire, although core/periphery relations were diverse. The nature of core/periphery relations depended on several attributes of the conquered polity including population size, political power, natural resources, and distance from the Inca core at Cuzco. A dynamic picture of core/periphery relations emerges as the outcome of Inca demands for labor and raw materials, and peripheral peoples' desire for control over their autonomy while seeking benefits from the Inca state.

  12. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  13. Exploring Students' Perceptions of Feedback in Relation to Cognitive Styles and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carol; Waring, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the role of cognitive styles and culture in relation to students' perceptions of the value of different types and sources of feedback from sociocultural and constructivist perspectives. The increasingly heterogeneous nature of higher education highlights the importance of enhancing student accessibility to and engagement with…

  14. Relations between scripted online peer feedback processes and quality of written argumentative essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, Omid; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often complain about the quality of students' written essays in higher education. This study explores the relations between scripted online peer feedback processes and quality of written argumentative essay as they occur in an authentic learning situation with direct practical relevance.

  15. The Relation Between Policies Concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Philosophical Moral Theories - An Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Claus Strue

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind...... of common-sense morality? In order to address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based on the empirical data I collected, I start by suggesting some normative arguments used by the respondents....... Secondly, I suggest that these moral arguments implicitly rely on some specific moral principles, which I characterise. Thirdly, on the basis of these moral principles, I suggest the moral theories upon which the CSR policies are built. Previous empirical studies examining the relation between...

  16. Trait self-esteem and neural activities related to self-evaluation and social feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Xu, Xiaofan; Chen, Yu; Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2016-01-01

    Self-esteem has been associated with neural responses to self-reflection and attitude toward social feedback but in different brain regions. The distinct associations might arise from different tasks or task-related attitudes in the previous studies. The current study aimed to clarify these by investigating the association between self-esteem and neural responses to evaluation of one’s own personality traits and of others’ opinion about one’s own personality traits. We scanned 25 college students using functional MRI during evaluation of oneself or evaluation of social feedback. Trait self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale after scanning. Whole-brain regression analyses revealed that trait self-esteem was associated with the bilateral orbitofrontal activity during evaluation of one’s own positive traits but with activities in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and occipital cortices during evaluation of positive social feedback. Our findings suggest that trait self-esteem modulates the degree of both affective processes in the orbitofrontal cortex during self-reflection and cognitive processes in the medial prefrontal cortex during evaluation of social feedback. PMID:26842975

  17. Trait self-esteem and neural activities related to self-evaluation and social feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Xu, Xiaofan; Chen, Yu; Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2016-02-04

    Self-esteem has been associated with neural responses to self-reflection and attitude toward social feedback but in different brain regions. The distinct associations might arise from different tasks or task-related attitudes in the previous studies. The current study aimed to clarify these by investigating the association between self-esteem and neural responses to evaluation of one's own personality traits and of others' opinion about one's own personality traits. We scanned 25 college students using functional MRI during evaluation of oneself or evaluation of social feedback. Trait self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale after scanning. Whole-brain regression analyses revealed that trait self-esteem was associated with the bilateral orbitofrontal activity during evaluation of one's own positive traits but with activities in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and occipital cortices during evaluation of positive social feedback. Our findings suggest that trait self-esteem modulates the degree of both affective processes in the orbitofrontal cortex during self-reflection and cognitive processes in the medial prefrontal cortex during evaluation of social feedback.

  18. Empirical relation and establishment of shell effects in (n, 2n ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 72; Issue 2. Empirical relation and establishment of shell effects in (, 2) reaction cross-sections at ... Author Affiliations. Sneh Lata Goyal1 Pratibha Gur1. Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 125 001, India ...

  19. Empirical and normative ethics: a synthesis relating to the care of older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte; Liss, Per-Erik; Westerlind, Björn; Berterö, Carina

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize the concepts from empirical studies and analyze, compare and interrelate them with normative ethics. The International Council of Nurses (ICN) and the Health and Medical Service Act are normative ethics. Five concepts were used in the analysis; three from the grounded theory studies and two from the theoretical framework on normative ethics. A simultaneous concept analysis resulted in five outcomes: interconnectedness, interdependence, corroboratedness, completeness and good care are all related to the empirical perspective of the nurse's interaction with the older patient, and the normative perspective, i.e. that found in ICN code and SFS law. Empirical ethics and normative ethics are intertwined according to the findings of this study. Normative ethics influence the nurse's practical performance and could be supporting documents for nurses as professionals.

  20. Trait self-esteem and neural activities related to self-evaluation and social feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Yang; Xiaofan Xu; Yu Chen; Zhenhao Shi; Shihui Han

    2016-01-01

    Self-esteem has been associated with neural responses to self-reflection and attitude toward social feedback but in different brain regions. The distinct associations might arise from different tasks or task-related attitudes in the previous studies. The current study aimed to clarify these by investigating the association between self-esteem and neural responses to evaluation of one?s own personality traits and of others? opinion about one?s own personality traits. We scanned 25 college stud...

  1. Empirical average-case relation between undersampling and sparsity in X-ray CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Sidky, Emil Y.; Hansen, Per Christian

    2015-01-01

    In X-ray computed tomography (CT) it is generally acknowledged that reconstruction methods exploiting image sparsity allow reconstruction from a significantly reduced number of projections. The use of such reconstruction methods is inspired by recent progress in compressed sensing (CS). However...... obtained using a standard CT fan-beam sampling pattern. In empirical simulation studies we establish quantitatively a relation between the image sparsity and the sufficient number of measurements for recovery within image classes motivated by tomographic applications. We show empirically that the specific...... relation depends on the image class and in many cases exhibits a sharp phase transition as seen in CS, i.e., same-sparsity images require the same number of projections for recovery. Finally we demonstrate that the relation holds independently of image size and is robust to small amounts of additive...

  2. Relation of managerial efficiency and leadership styles – Empirical study in Hrvatska elektroprivreda d.d.

    OpenAIRE

    Damir Skansi

    2017-01-01

    The relation of the managerial efficiency and leadership styles are analysed in this paper. We conducted an empirical study in a Croatian power supply company (HEP). The dominant leadership style in HEP is consultational, which the organization, according to postulates of this research, brings closer to the top global companies, considering that the tendencies in leadership styles point to the need for a new generation of leaders which will be essentially different from the traditional manage...

  3. Feedback Controller Stabilizing Vibrations of a Flexible Cable Related to an Overhead Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Elharfi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of stabilizing vibrations of flexible cable related to an overhead crane is considered. The cable vibrations are described by a hyperbolic partial differential equation (HPDE with an update boundary condition. We provide in this paper a systematic way to derive a boundary feedback law which restores in a closed form the cable vibrations to the desired zero equilibrium. Such a control law is explicitly constructed in terms of the solution of an appropriate kernel PDE. The pursued approach combines the “backstepping method” and “semigroup theory”.

  4. Midwifery students experience of teamwork projects involving mark-related peer feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Carolyn R; Fahy, Kathleen M; Parratt, Jenny A; Grace, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Lack of teamwork skills among health care professionals endangers patients and enables workplace bullying. Individual teamwork skills are increasingly being assessed in the undergraduate health courses but rarely defined, made explicit or taught. To remedy these deficiencies we introduced a longitudinal educational strategy across all three years of the Bachelor of Midwifery program. To report on students' experiences of engaging in team based assignments which involved mark-related peer feedback. Stories of midwifery students' experiences were collected from 17 participants across the three years of the degree. These were transcribed and analysed thematically and interpreted using feminist collaborative conversations. Most participants reported being in well-functioning teams and enjoyed the experience; they spoke of 'we' and said 'Everyone was on Board'. Students in poorly functioning teams spoke of 'I' and 'they'. These students complained about the poor performance of others but they didn't speak up because they 'didn't want to make waves' and they didn't have the skills to be able to confidently manage conflict. All participants agreed 'Peer-related marks cause mayhem'. Teamwork skills should be specifically taught and assessed. These skills take time to develop. Students, therefore, should be engaged in a teamwork assignment in each semester of the entire program. Peer feedback should be moderated by the teacher and not directly related to marks. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An empirical test of competing theories of hazard-related trust: the case of GM food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allum, Nick

    2007-08-01

    Few scholars doubt the importance of trust in explaining variation in public perception of technological risk. Relatively little, however, is known about the particular types of judgments that people use in granting or withholding trust. This article presents findings from an empirical study that explores several dimensions of trust relevant for citizens' judgments of scientists involved in the development of GM food. The relationship between particular dimensions of trust and perceptions of GM food risk is also explored, using structural equation modeling. Results suggest that trust judgments based on the perception of shared values are most important in relation to GM food risk, but that judgments about scientists' technical competence are also important.

  6. Effects of Video Feedback on Early Coercive Parent–Child Interactions: The Intervening Role of Caregivers’ Relational Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Moore, Kevin J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined the effect of adding a video feedback intervention component to the assessment feedback session of the Family Check-Up intervention (FCU; Dishion & Stormshak, 2007). We hypothesized that the addition of video feedback procedures during the FCU feedback at child age 2 would have a positive effect on caregivers’ negative relational schemas of their child, which in turn would mediate reductions in observed coercive caregiver-child interactions assessed at age 5. Method We observed the caregiver-child interaction videotapes of 79 high-risk families with toddlers exhibiting clinically significant problem behaviors. A quasi-random sample of families were provided with direct feedback on their interactions during the feedback session of the FCU protocol. Results Path analysis indicated that reviewing and engaging in feedback about videotaped age-2 assessment predicted reduced caregivers’ negative relational schemas of the child at age 3, which acted as an intervening variable on the reduction of observed parent–child coercive interactions recorded at age 5. Video feedback predicted improved family functioning over and above level of engagement in the FCU in subsequent years, indicating the important incremental contribution of using video feedback procedures in early family-based preventive interventions for problem behaviors. Conclusions Supportive video feedback on coercive family dynamics is an important strategy for promoting caregiver motivation to reduce negative attributions toward the child, which fuel coercive interactions. Our study also contributes to the clinical and research literature concerning coercion theory and effective intervention strategies by identifying a potential mechanism of change. PMID:23534831

  7. Age-related changes in deterministic learning from positive versus negative performance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, I.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; de Wit, S.

    2015-01-01

    Feedback-based learning declines with age. Because older adults are generally biased toward positive information ("positivity effect"), learning from positive feedback may be less impaired than learning from negative outcomes. The literature documents mixed results, due possibly to variability

  8. Feedback-related potentials in a gambling task with randomised reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Guillen, Pablo Puente; Wilkie, Richard M; Mon-Williams, Mark A; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) time-locked to decision outcomes are reported. Participants engaged in a gambling task (see [1] for details) in which they decided between a risky and a safe option (presented as different coloured shapes) on each trial (416 in total). Each decision was associated with (fully randomised) feedback about the reward outcome (Win/Loss) and its magnitude (varying as a function of decision response; 5-9 points for Risky decisions and 1-4 points for Safe decisions). Here, we show data demonstrating: (a) the influence of Win feedback in the preceding outcome (Outcome t-1) on activity related to the current outcome (Outcome t ); (b) difference wave analysis for outcome expectancy- separating Expected Outcomes (consecutive Loss trials subtracted from consecutive reward) from Unexpected Outcomes (subtracting Loss t-1Win t trials from Win t-1Loss t trials); (c) difference waves separating Switch and Stay responses for Outcome Expectancy; (d) the effect of magnitude induced by decisions (Risk t vs. Safe t ) on Outcome Expectancy; and finally, (e) expectations reflected by response switch direction (Risk to Safe responses vs. Safe to Risk t ) on the FRN at Outcome t .

  9. Relations Between Third Grade Teachers' Depressive Symptoms and Their Feedback to Students, With Implications for Student Mathematics Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Leigh; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2017-08-31

    Recent studies have observed connections among teachers' depressive symptoms and student outcomes; however, the specific mechanisms through which teachers' mental health characteristics operate in the classroom remain largely unknown. The present study used student-level observation methods to examine the relations between third-grade teachers' (N = 32) depressive symptoms and their academic feedback to students (N = 310) and sought to make inferences about how these factors might influence students' mathematics achievement. A novel observational tool, the Teacher Feedback Coding System-Academic (TFCS-A), was used that assesses feedback across 2 dimensions-teacher affect and instructional strategy, which have been shown to be important to student learning. Multilevel exploratory factor analysis of TFCS-A data suggested 2 primary factors: positive feedback and neutral/negative feedback. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that positive feedback was related to higher math achievement among students who began the year with weaker math skills and that teachers who reported more depressive symptoms less frequently provided this positive feedback. Results offer new information about a type of instruction that may be affected by teachers' depressive symptoms and inform efforts aimed at improving teachers' instructional interactions with students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Dwarf galaxies with ionizing radiation feedback. II. Spatially resolved star formation relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-11-15

    AWe investigate the spatially resolved star formation relation using a galactic disk formed in a comprehensive high-resolution (3.8 pc) simulation. Our new implementation of stellar feedback includes ionizing radiation as well as supernova explosions, and we handle ionizing radiation by solving the radiative transfer equation rather than by a subgrid model. Photoheating by stellar radiation stabilizes gas against Jeans fragmentation, reducing the star formation rate (SFR). Because we have self-consistently calculated the location of ionized gas, we are able to make simulated, spatially resolved observations of star formation tracers, such as Hα emission. We can also observe how stellar feedback manifests itself in the correlation between ionized and molecular gas. Applying our techniques to the disk in a galactic halo of 2.3 × 1011 M , we find that the correlation between SFR density (estimated from mock Hα emission) and H2 density shows large scatter, especially at high resolutions of ≲ 75 pc that are comparable to the size of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). This is because an aperture of GMC size captures only particular stages of GMC evolution and because Hα traces hot gas around star-forming regions and is displaced from the H2 peaks themselves. By examining the evolving environment around star clusters, we speculate that the breakdown of the traditional star formation laws of the Kennicutt-Schmidt type at small scales is further aided by a combination of stars drifting from their birthplaces and molecular clouds being dispersed via stellar feedback.

  11. Empirically Derived Relational Pattern Prototypes in the Treatment of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Antonello; Tanzilli, Annalisa; Gualco, Ivan; Lingiardi, Vittorio

    Patient transference patterns play a central role in the psychotherapy of personality disorders. The aims of this study were to: (1) explore the relationship between patients' personality disorders and specific relational patterns and (2) construct empirically derived prototypes of relational patterns for each personality disorder. A random national sample of 314 clinicians completed the Psychotherapy Relationship Questionnaire, which evaluates patients' relational patterns, and the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200, which assesses personality disorders in a randomly selected patient currently in the clinician's care and with whom the clinician has worked for a minimum of 8 sessions and a maximum of 6 months (1 session per week). The avoidant/counterdependent transference pattern was associated with all cluster A personality disorders; the angry/entitled transference pattern was strongly positively associated with all cluster B personality disorders, and the anxious/preoccupied transference pattern was positively associated in a significant way with all cluster C personality disorders. Moreover, our empirically derived prototypes showed how the transference phenomena characteristic of each personality disorder are strongly coherent with the personality traits and mental and relational functioning of each specific disorder. The results strongly support a fundamental hypothesis that the patterns emerging in the therapeutic relationship are not arbitrary, and they clearly reflect patterns seen elsewhere in patients' lives that can be crucial to address. Regarding limitations, the same clinician provided data on both the personality pathology and the transference phenomena for each patient. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Eastern Georgia in the International Relations of the Russian Empire in 1801-1806

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesya Goncharenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the role and place of eastern Georgia in international relations of the Russian Empire in 1801-1806. The causes of Russian expansion against the East Georgian lands during the studied period were characterized. The position of the ruling circles of the Russian state in the matter of development and implementation of international policy towards Eastern Georgia in 1801-1806 was described. The influence of St. Petersburg imperial policy on East Georgia at changing international situation of the Russian state in the Caucasus in 1801-1806 was clarified.

  13. Does testing with feedback improve adult spelling skills relative to copying and reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Steven C; Rubin, Benjamin R; Rickard, Timothy C

    2015-12-01

    We examined testing's ability to enhance adult spelling acquisition, relative to copying and reading. Across 3 experiments in which testing with feedback was compared with copying, the spelling improvement after testing matched that following the same amount of time spent copying. A potent testing advantage, however, was observed for spelling words free-recalled. In the fourth experiment, a large testing advantage for both word free recall and spelling was observed, versus reading. Subjects also generally preferred testing and rated it as more effective than copying or reading. The equivalent performance of testing and copying for spelling contrasts with prior work involving children and suggests that retrieval practice may not be the only effective mechanism for spelling skill acquisition. Rather, we suggest that the critical learning event for spelling is focused study on phoneme-to-grapheme mappings for previously unlearned letter sequences. For adults with extensive spelling expertise, focused study is more automatic during both copying and testing with feedback than for individuals with beginning spelling skills. Reading, however, would not be expected to produce efficient focused study of phoneme-to-grapheme mappings, regardless of expertise level. Overall, adult spelling skill acquisition benefits both from testing and copying, and substantially less from reading. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Movement-Related Sensorimotor High-Gamma Activity Mainly Represents Somatosensory Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokyun Ryun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Somatosensation plays pivotal roles in the everyday motor control of humans. During active movement, there exists a prominent high-gamma (HG >50 Hz power increase in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1, and this provides an important feature in relation to the decoding of movement in a brain-machine interface (BMI. However, one concern of BMI researchers is the inflation of the decoding performance due to the activation of somatosensory feedback, which is not elicited in patients who have lost their sensorimotor function. In fact, it is unclear as to how much the HG component activated in S1 contributes to the overall sensorimotor HG power during voluntary movement. With regard to other functional roles of HG in S1, recent findings have reported that these HG power levels increase before the onset of actual movement, which implies neural activation for top-down movement preparation or sensorimotor interaction, i.e., an efference copy. These results are promising for BMI applications but remain inconclusive. Here, we found using electrocorticography (ECoG from eight patients that HG activation in S1 is stronger and more informative than it is in the primary motor cortex (M1 regardless of the type of movement. We also demonstrate by means of electromyography (EMG that the onset timing of the HG power in S1 is later (49 ms than that of the actual movement. Interestingly, we show that the HG power fluctuations in S1 are closely related to subtle muscle contractions, even during the pre-movement period. These results suggest the following: (1 movement-related HG activity in S1 strongly affects the overall sensorimotor HG power, and (2 HG activity in S1 during voluntary movement mainly represents cortical neural processing for somatosensory feedback.

  15. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters: An empirical Investigation of Relational Resources and Value Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    Cluster initiatives are a popular instrument of public policy everywhere in the world. This development acknowledges that the organisational units that create added value are not isolated individual businesses, but networks of actors. Our research has the objective to better understand value...... creation of single firms embedded in clusters in terms of overlapping value adding webs of single firms. The main focus of the paper is on how to describe and operationalise and how to manage social and symbolic capital in clusters. The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks...... raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a better understanding of valuable resources on the cluster level. Empirically...

  16. [Relation between alcoholism and depression based on a review of empirical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronisch, T

    1985-12-01

    The article surveys empirical studies on the relation between alcohol addiction and depression. For a better understanding and interpretation of the results of these empirical since the end of the 'sixties, the author presents first of all a brief historical abstract of the development of classification of depressive disorders and of the definition of alcoholism. In this article, the author restricts his comments to studies conducted since the end of the 'sixties, as self-rating scales or observers-rating scales or standardised interviews have been employed from that time for characterising the pattern of signs and symptoms and for diagnosis, and now widely used diagnostic schemas also became available (ICD-8, Feighner's criteria, DSM-II). For further clarification studies on genetic studies in the patients' families and on the premorbid personality of alcoholics and depressives are utilised for assessment. The results of these empirical studies are interpreted from the "diagnostic viewpoint" of the 'eighties (i.e. from the viewpoint of ICD-9 and DSM III). Suggestions for further research approach are given. The survey shows that depressive moods appear with greater frequency in patients with alcohol abuse or alcoholism who are under inpatient or outpatient treatment. However, such depressions are usually not very intensive; they will mostly subside towards the end of the treatment course. "Primary depression" and "secondary depression" are seen with an incidence rate far beyond the value expected if two diseases would merely coincide at random, in patient populations whenever alcoholism is involved. On the other hand, no increased prevalence rate for alcoholism was seen in first-degree relations of patients with "major depression" and "Bipolar I disorder", compared with a random sample of a healthy population and first-degree relations of such a random sample. To date we can say that a considerably increased incidence of alcohol abuse, but not of alcohol addiction

  17. Empirical Approach to Cepheid Period-Luminosity-Color and Period-Luminosity Relations by Surface Brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Benedetto, G. P.

    1995-10-01

    Empirical period-luminosity-color and period-luminosity (PLC [V, B-V] and PL[V] relations according to Stefan's law are derived for Cepheid variables by applying thermal scales of nonvariable giant and supergiant stars established by modern observational interferometry. Intrinsic surface brightnesses are predicted by the apparent color index V - K as fiducial reference unbiased by metallicity and gravity effects, along with current optical absorption data. Linear radii are inferred from periods through the period-radius relation, assumed to be insensitive to abundance and brightness variations. The dependence of PLC and PL zero points to abundance effects is further investigated. I compare current Cepheid data from our metal- normal Galaxy (GAL) with those in the Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) of poorer metal content. The major achievement is that the PL(V) relations are found to be severely biased by metallicity, whereas the PLC(V, B- V) relations turn out to be much less affected by abundances than previously expected. The new PLC and PL relations calibrated on fundamental quantities are compared with those from the classical zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) fitting empirical approach. It is shown that all metal-normal equations lead to remarkably consistent luminosities of GAL Cepheids, to within +/- 0.05 mag (PL) and +/- 0.02 mag (PLC), whereas metal-poor LMC and SMC results appear to be significantly discrepant. It is emphasized that theoretical thermal scales applied for the derivation of ZAMS metal- corrected relations, either explicit or implicit, are mainly responsible for such observed discrepancies. The actual empirical approach appears to overcome most of the previous difficulties closely related to the poor knowledge of Cepheid thermal properties. Theoretical Cepheid thermal scales are critically reviewed. It is found that recent metal-normal color-brightness relations lead to results remarkably consistent with those from observational scales, whereas

  18. The Joint Multivariate Modeling of Multiple Mixed Response Sources: Relating Student Performances with Feedback Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, J.P.; Klein Entink, R.; Timmers, C.

    2014-01-01

    The present study concerns a Dutch computer-based assessment, which includes an assessment process about information literacy and a feedback process for students. The assessment is concerned with the measurement of skills in information literacy and the feedback process with item-based support to

  19. Morphological abnormalities in chironomidae in relation to sediment metals concentrations in Empire Lake, Cherokee County, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferringington, L.C. Jr. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Morphological abnormalities of headcapsule structures of chironomid larvae were quantified in relation to concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of Empire Lake. This reservoir is situated in a catchment downstream of a US EPA Superfund Site in the Tri-State Mining District of southeast Kansas, and receives discharges from several streams that flow through the abandoned mining areas. Sediments have elevated concentrations of Zinc, Lead, and Cadmium in varying concentrations. Chironomini had the highest incidence of morphological abnormalities, followed by Procladius. Although deformities of the mentum, premandibles, and antennae were found in several taxa, no clear trends were seen for increasing concentrations of any of the metals individually or collectively. From this study it appears as if the incidence of morphological abnormalities is not a linear function of metals concentrations in sediments of this reservoir.

  20. Genetic variation of dopamine and serotonin function modulates the feedback-related negativity during altruistic punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enge, Sören; Mothes, Hendrik; Fleischhauer, Monika; Reif, Andreas; Strobel, Alexander

    2017-06-07

    Why do humans cooperate and often punish norm violations of others? In the present study, we sought to investigate the genetic bases of altruistic punishment (AP), which refers to the costly punishment of norm violations with potential benefit for other individuals. Recent evidence suggests that norm violations and unfairness are indexed by the feedback-related negativity (FRN), an anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) generated neural response to expectancy violations. Given evidence on the role of serotonin and dopamine in AP as well as in FRN-generation, we explored the impact of genetic variation of serotonin and dopamine function on FRN and AP behavior in response to unfair vs. fair monetary offers in a Dictator Game (DG) with punishment option. In a sample of 45 healthy participants we observed larger FRN amplitudes to unfair DG assignments both for 7-repeat allele carriers of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) exon III polymorphism and for l/l-genotype carriers of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLRP). Moreover, 5-HTTLPR l/l-genotype carriers punished unfair offers more strongly. These findings support the role of serotonin and dopamine in AP, potentially via their influence on neural mechanisms implicated in the monitoring of expectancy violations and their relation to impulsive and punishment behavior.

  1. Individual Differences in the Habitual Use of Cognitive Reappraisal Predict the Reward-related Feedback Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang eSai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that instructed cognitive reappraisal can regulate the neural processing of reward. However, it is still unclear whether the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal in everyday life can influence brain activity associated with reward processing. In the present study, participant’s neural responses to reward were measured using electroencephalography (EEG recorded during a gambling task, while their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal was assessed using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ. Event-related potential (ERP results indicated that losses on the gambling task elicited greater negative reward-related feedback negativity (FN than gains. The differential FN between losses and gains was significantly correlated with cognitive reappraisal scores across participants, such that individuals with a higher tendency to use cognitive reappraisal showed stronger reward processing (i.e. amplified FN difference between losses and gains. This correlation remained significant after controlling for expressive suppression scores. However, expressive suppression per se was not correlated with FN differences. Taken together, these results suggest that the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal influences the neural processing of reward.

  2. The Sense of Agency Is More Sensitive to Manipulations of Outcome than Movement-Related Feedback Irrespective of Sensory Modality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole David

    Full Text Available The sense of agency describes the ability to experience oneself as the agent of one's own actions. Previous studies of the sense of agency manipulated the predicted sensory feedback related either to movement execution or to the movement's outcome, for example by delaying the movement of a virtual hand or the onset of a tone that resulted from a button press. Such temporal sensorimotor discrepancies reduce the sense of agency. It remains unclear whether movement-related feedback is processed differently than outcome-related feedback in terms of agency experience, especially if these types of feedback differ with respect to sensory modality. We employed a mixed-reality setup, in which participants tracked their finger movements by means of a virtual hand. They performed a single tap, which elicited a sound. The temporal contingency between the participants' finger movements and (i the movement of the virtual hand or (ii the expected auditory outcome was systematically varied. In a visual control experiment, the tap elicited a visual outcome. For each feedback type and participant, changes in the sense of agency were quantified using a forced-choice paradigm and the Method of Constant Stimuli. Participants were more sensitive to delays of outcome than to delays of movement execution. This effect was very similar for visual or auditory outcome delays. Our results indicate different contributions of movement- versus outcome-related sensory feedback to the sense of agency, irrespective of the modality of the outcome. We propose that this differential sensitivity reflects the behavioral importance of assessing authorship of the outcome of an action.

  3. Transmasculine people's vocal situations: a critical review of gender-related discourses and empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azul, David

    2015-01-01

    Transmasculine people assigned female sex at birth but who do not identify with this classification have traditionally received little consideration in the voice literature. Some voice researchers and clinicians suggest that transmasculine people do not need attention because testosterone treatment leads to a satisfactory masculinization of their voice organs and voices. Others, however, argue that transmasculine people are a heterogeneous group whose members might not share the same body type, gender identity or desire for medical approaches to gender transitioning. Therefore, testosterone-induced voice changes may not necessarily meet the needs and expectations of all transmasculine people. To evaluate the gender-related discursive and empirical data about transmasculine people's vocal situations to identify gaps in the current state of knowledge and to make suggestions for future voice research and clinical practice. A comprehensive review of peer-reviewed academic and clinical literature was conducted. Publications were identified by searching seven electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles. Thirty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Discourses and empirical data were analysed thematically. Potential problem areas that transmasculine people may experience were identified and the quality of evidence appraised. The extent and quality of voice research conducted with transmasculine people so far was found to be limited. There was mixed evidence to suggest that transmasculine people's vocal situations could be regarded as problematic. The diversity that characterizes the transmasculine population received little attention and the complexity of the factors that contribute to a successful or unsuccessful vocal communication of gender in this group appeared to be under-researched. While most transmasculine people treated with testosterone can expect a lowering of their pitch, it remains unclear whether the extent of the pitch change is enough

  4. Empirical Evidence for the Relation between Customer Satisfaction and Business Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Wiele (Ton); J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); M. Hesselink

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the analysis of empirical data on customer satisfaction and the relationship with hard organisational performance data. The organisation is a Flexcompany with its headquarters in The Netherlands, but also operating in other countries in Europe. The empirical data on

  5. Age-related changes in deterministic learning from positive versus negative performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; de Wit, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    Feedback-based learning declines with age. Because older adults are generally biased toward positive information ("positivity effect"), learning from positive feedback may be less impaired than learning from negative outcomes. The literature documents mixed results, due possibly to variability between studies in task design. In the current series of studies, we investigated the influence of feedback valence on reinforcement learning in young and older adults. We used nonprobabilistic learning tasks, to more systematically study the effects of feedback magnitude, learning of stimulus-response (S-R) versus stimulus-outcome (S-O) associations, and working-memory capacity. In most experiments, older adults benefitted more from positive than negative feedback, but only with large feedback magnitudes. Positivity effects were pronounced for S-O learning, whereas S-R learning correlated with working-memory capacity in both age groups. These results underline the context dependence of positivity effects in learning and suggest that older adults focus on high gains when these are informative for behavior.

  6. Empirical relations to convert magnitudes of the earthquake catalogue for the north western of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayadi, Ilyes; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Fontiela, João; Nadji, Amansour

    2017-04-01

    North Algeria is one of the most seismically active regions on the western Mediterranean basin and it is related with the boundaries of the Eurasian and Nubian plates. We compiled an earthquake catalogue for the north western of Algeria, within the area -2°W-1°E and 34°N-37°N for the time span 1790 - 2016. To compile the earthquake catalogue we merge all available catalogues either national and international. Then we remove all duplicates and fake earthquakes. The lower level of the catalogue entries is set at M = 2.5. Nevertheless, the magnitudes reported on the catalogue are ML, Ms, Mb, Mw and macroseismic intensity. Thus, we develop new empirical relations to calculate the Mw from the different magnitudes and intensity suitable to the seismic hazard and geodynamic context of North Algeria. Acknowledgements: Ilyes Belayadi is funded entirely by the University of Oran 2 Mohamed Ben Ahmed (Algeria). This work is co-financed by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund under COMPETE 2020 (Operational Program for Competitiveness and Internationalization) through the ICT project (UID / GEO / 04683/2013) under the reference POCI-01-0145 -FEDER-007690.

  7. Analyzing the elements related to parking demand: An empirical study in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzheng Yao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that constraining parking policy can alleviate air pollution and traffic congestion by reducing vehicle ownership and usage. The feasibility and efficiency of the parking policy are crucial to urban traffic planning and management. With the aim of exploring the elements related to parking demand and improving the policy efficiency, this study analyzed several factors relevant to vehicle ownership and usage which may affect the feasibility of policy. In all, 40,000 samples obtained from Beijing residents’ trip interview survey were used. A combined method with empirical study and network dynamic analysis is used to give a clear relationship between parking supply and private usage. The results, after conducting a quantitative analysis, show that vehicle ownership is related to family income, family size, geographic location, and parking fee, while trip purpose and parking fee in destination influence the frequency of car usage. It is noteworthy that the proportion of free parking in working trips is up to 96%, and single driving occupies a proportion as high as 90%. The research suggests that planners should be cautious of parking facility supply strategy and pay great attention to parking fees of working trip.

  8. Relation of managerial efficiency and leadership styles – Empirical study in Hrvatska elektroprivreda d.d.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Skansi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation of the managerial efficiency and leadership styles are analysed in this paper. We conducted an empirical study in a Croatian power supply company (HEP. The dominant leadership style in HEP is consultational, which the organization, according to postulates of this research, brings closer to the top global companies, considering that the tendencies in leadership styles point to the need for a new generation of leaders which will be essentially different from the traditional manager. We have determined that there is a significant interdependence between leadership styles of HEP’s managers (measured using Likert’s method and the degree of management work efficiency (measured using the adjusted Mott’s technique; the closer the leadership style is to System 4, that is participational, the higher the managerial efficiency is. Also, we have found that there is no significant difference between lower and middle management in HEP, concerning the relation between leadership styles and efficiency. This means that both levels get better grades for its efficiency if they belong to a consultational and participational leadership style.

  9. Security Vulnerability Profiles of Mission Critical Software: Empirical Analysis of Security Related Bug Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina; Tyo, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    While some prior research work exists on characteristics of software faults (i.e., bugs) and failures, very little work has been published on analysis of software applications vulnerabilities. This paper aims to contribute towards filling that gap by presenting an empirical investigation of application vulnerabilities. The results are based on data extracted from issue tracking systems of two NASA missions. These data were organized in three datasets: Ground mission IVV issues, Flight mission IVV issues, and Flight mission Developers issues. In each dataset, we identified security related software bugs and classified them in specific vulnerability classes. Then, we created the security vulnerability profiles, i.e., determined where and when the security vulnerabilities were introduced and what were the dominating vulnerabilities classes. Our main findings include: (1) In IVV issues datasets the majority of vulnerabilities were code related and were introduced in the Implementation phase. (2) For all datasets, around 90 of the vulnerabilities were located in two to four subsystems. (3) Out of 21 primary classes, five dominated: Exception Management, Memory Access, Other, Risky Values, and Unused Entities. Together, they contributed from 80 to 90 of vulnerabilities in each dataset.

  10. Event-related potential studies of outcome processing and feedback-guided learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René eSan Martín

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to control behavior in an adaptive manner the brain has to learn how some situations and actions predict positive or negative outcomes. During the last decade cognitive neuroscientists have shown that the brain is able to evaluate and learn from outcomes within a few hundred milliseconds of their occurrence. This research has been primarily focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN and the P3, two event-related potential (ERP components that are elicited by outcomes. The FRN is a frontally distributed negative-polarity ERP component that typically reaches its maximal amplitude 250 ms after outcome presentation and tends to be larger for negative than for positive outcomes. The FRN has been associated with activity in the anterior cingulate cortex. The P3 (~300-600 ms is a parietally distributed positive-polarity ERP component that tends to be larger for large magnitude than for small magnitude outcomes. The neural sources of the P3 are probably distributed over different regions of the cortex. This paper examines the theories that have been proposed to explain the functional role of these two ERP components during outcome processing. Special attention is paid to extant literature addressing how these ERP components are modulated by outcome valence (negative vs. positive, outcome magnitude (large vs. small, outcome probability (unlikely vs. likely and behavioral adjustment. The literature offers few generalizable conclusions, but is beset with a number of inconsistencies across studies. This paper discusses the potential reasons for these inconsistencies and points out some challenges that will shape the field over the next decade.

  11. Feedback-related negativity is enhanced in adolescence during a gambling task with and without probabilistic reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Velázquez, Eduardo S; Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; González-Garrido, Andrés A; Sequeira, Henrique

    2015-01-21

    Feedback-related negativity (FRN) is a negative deflection that appears around 250 ms after the gain or loss of feedback to chosen alternatives in a gambling task in frontocentral regions following outcomes. Few studies have reported FRN enhancement in adolescents compared with adults in a gambling task without probabilistic reinforcement learning, despite the fact that learning from positive or negative consequences is crucial for decision-making during adolescence. Therefore, the aim of the present research was to identify differences in FRN amplitude and latency between adolescents and adults on a gambling task with favorable and unfavorable probabilistic reinforcement learning conditions, in addition to a nonlearning condition with monetary gains and losses. Higher rate scores of high-magnitude choices during the final 30 trials compared with the first 30 trials were observed during the favorable condition, whereas lower rates were observed during the unfavorable condition in both groups. Higher FRN amplitude in all conditions and longer latency in the nonlearning condition were observed in adolescents compared with adults and in relation to losses. Results indicate that both the adolescents and the adults improved their performance in relation to positive and negative feedback. However, the FRN findings suggest an increased sensitivity to external feedback to losses in adolescents compared with adults, irrespective of the presence or absence of probabilistic reinforcement learning. These results reflect processing differences on the neural monitoring system and provide new perspectives on the dynamic development of an adolescent's brain.

  12. Residential solar energy users: a review of empirical research and related literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseld, C.T.; Crews, R.

    1979-12-01

    This report reviews 15 empirical studies of residential solar energy users and related literature on residential solar energy use. The purpose of the review is to summarize and analyze the experiences of residential solar users for helping formulate policies concerning the accelerated commercialization of solar technologies. Four of the studies employed case histories or focus group techniques. The 11 questionnaire studies represented interviews with over 1,600 owners of solar systems. The demographic characteristics of samples are listed and compared; research findings and conclusions are presented. Findings on user satisfaction and system performance, possible reasons for evidence of lacking correlation between them, and implications for consumer protection and future research are discussed. General findings are: (1) systematic research on the experiences of solar users is lacking - much research remains to be done; (2) the reported overall experiences of users has been very positive; (3) user reports indicate that system performance is generally good but there is some evidence that user reports are not accurate measures of actual performance; (4) a need exists for adequate consumer protection; (5) design or installation problems are evidenced in significant numbers of early solar installations; and (6) these problems evidently are resolvable. An annotated bibliography describes 10 other studies in progress.

  13. SOME EMPIRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TRAVEL SPEED, TRAFFIC VOLUME AND TRAFFIC COMPOSITION IN URBAN ARTERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni I. VLAHOGIANNI, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traffic mix (the percentage of cars, trucks, buses and so on are of particular interest in the speed-volume relationship in urban signalized arterials under various geometric and control characteristics. The paper presents some empirical observations on the relation between travel speed, traffic volume and traffic composition in urban signalized arterials. A methodology based on emerging self-organizing structures of neural networks to identify regions in the speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition and Bayesian networks to evaluate the effect of different types of motorized vehicles on prevailing traffic conditions is proposed. Results based on data from a large urban network indicate that the variability in traffic conditions can be described by eight regions in speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition. Further evaluation of the effect of motorized vehicles in each region separately indicates that the effect of traffic composition decreases with the onset of congestion. Moreover, taxis and motorcycles are the primary affecting parameter of the form of the speed-volume relationship in urban arterials.

  14. The interplay between feedback-related negativity and individual differences in altruistic punishment: An EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, Hendrik; Enge, Sören; Strobel, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    To date, the interplay betwexen neurophysiological and individual difference factors in altruistic punishment has been little understood. To examine this issue, 45 individuals participated in a Dictator Game with punishment option while the feedback-related negativity (FRN) was derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Unlike previous EEG studies on the Dictator Game, we introduced a third party condition to study the effect of fairness norm violations in addition to employing a first person perspective. For the first time, we also examined the role of individual differences, specifically fairness concerns, positive/negative affectivity, and altruism/empathy as well as recipients' financial situation during altruistic punishment. The main results show that FRN amplitudes were more pronounced for unfair than for fair assignments in both the first person and third party perspectives. These findings suggest that FRN amplitudes are sensitive to fairness norm violations and play a crucial role in the recipients' evaluation of dictator assignments. With respect to individual difference factors, recipients' current financial situation affected the FRN fairness effect in the first person perspective, indicating that when being directly affected by the assignments, more affluent participants experienced stronger violations of expectations in altruistic punishment decisions. Regarding individual differences in trait empathy, in the third party condition FRN amplitudes were more pronounced for those who scored lower in empathy. This may suggest empathy as another motive in third party punishment. Independent of the perspective taken, higher positive affect was associated with more punishment behavior, suggesting that positive emotions may play an important role in restoring violated fairness norms.

  15. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  16. An Experimental Comparison of Deductive and Inductive Feedback Generated by a Simple Parser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Noriko

    1997-01-01

    Describes a parser-driven Japanese tutor, "BANZAI," designed for second-language instruction and presents an empirical study of the program. Results indicate that ongoing rule-driven deductive feedback is more effective than example-driven inductive feedback for learning relatively complex structures whose grammatical rules are not…

  17. The relation between feedback perceptions and the supervisor-student relationship in master's thesis projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kleijn, Renske A M; Meijer, Paulien C.; Pilot, Albert; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Research supervision can be investigated from social-emotional and cognitive perspectives, but most studies include only one perspective. This study aims to understand the interplay between a social-emotional (supervisor-student relationship) and cognitive (feedback) perspective on the outcomes of

  18. Predicting Learning-Related Emotions from Students' Textual Classroom Feedback via Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altrabsheh, Nabeela; Cocea, Mihaela; Fallahkhair, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    Teachers/lecturers typically adapt their teaching to respond to students' emotions, e.g. provide more examples when they think the students are confused. While getting a feel of the students' emotions is easier in small settings, it is much more difficult in larger groups. In these larger settings textual feedback from students could provide…

  19. The Relation between Feedback Perceptions and the Supervisor-Student Relationship in Master's Thesis Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Pilot, Albert; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Research supervision can be investigated from social-emotional and cognitive perspectives, but most studies include only one perspective. This study aims to understand the interplay between a social-emotional (supervisor-student relationship) and cognitive (feedback) perspective on the outcomes of master's thesis supervision in specific, by…

  20. Are Review Skills and Academic Writing Skills Related? An Exploratory Analysis via Multi Source Feedback Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Because students learn from each other as well as lecturers, it is important to create opportunities for collaboration in writing classes. Teachers now benefit from access to plagiarism detectors that can also provide feedback. This exploratory study considers the role of four review types, open and anonymous, involving the students themselves,…

  1. Discussing Feedback System Thinking in Relation to Scenario Evaluation in a Balanced Scorecard Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2012-01-01

    Since the emergence of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) at the beginning of the 1990s, literature has intensively discussed the problems of the cause and effect relationships, the time-delay elements between measures and perspectives and the concepts of feedback loops. This paper focuses on the use...

  2. How Physics Teachers Approach Innovation: An Empirical Study for Reconstructing the Appropriation Path in the Case of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ambrosis, Anna; Levrini, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers' education and how to foster fruitful interactions…

  3. Adolescents' Social Network Site Use, Peer Appearance-Related Feedback, and Body Dissatisfaction: Testing a Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Dian A; Peter, Jochen; de Graaf, Hanneke; Nikken, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Previous correlational research indicates that adolescent girls who use social network sites more frequently are more dissatisfied with their bodies. However, we know little about the causal direction of this relationship, the mechanisms underlying this relationship, and whether this relationship also occurs among boys to the same extent. The present two-wave panel study (18 month time lag) among 604 Dutch adolescents (aged 11-18; 50.7% female; 97.7% native Dutch) aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge. Structural equation modeling showed that social network site use predicted increased body dissatisfaction and increased peer influence on body image in the form of receiving peer appearance-related feedback. Peer appearance-related feedback did not predict body dissatisfaction and thus did not mediate the effect of social network site use on body dissatisfaction. Gender did not moderate the findings. Hence, social network sites can play an adverse role in the body image of both adolescent boys and girls.

  4. Empirical Development of an MMPI Subscale for the Assessment of Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Terence M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Developed empirically based criteria for use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to aid in the assessment and diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in patients (N=200). Analysis based on an empircally derived decision rule correctly classified 74 percent of the patients in each group. (LLL)

  5. Diffusion and Topological Neighbours in Flocks of Starlings: Relating a Model to Empirical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Hildenbrandt, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    Moving in a group while avoiding collisions with group members causes internal dynamics in the group. Although these dynamics have recently been measured quantitatively in starling flocks (Sturnus vulgaris), it is unknown what causes them. Computational models have shown that collective motion in groups is likely due to attraction, avoidance and, possibly, alignment among group members. Empirical studies show that starlings adjust their movement to a fixed number of closest neighbours or topological range, namely 6 or 7 and assume that each of the three activities is done with the same number of neighbours (topological range). Here, we start from the hypothesis that escape behavior is more effective at preventing collisions in a flock when avoiding the single closest neighbor than compromising by avoiding 6 or 7 of them. For alignment and attraction, we keep to the empirical topological range. We investigate how avoiding one or several neighbours affects the internal dynamics of flocks of starlings in our computational model StarDisplay. By comparing to empirical data, we confirm that internal dynamics resemble empirical data more closely if flock members avoid merely their single, closest neighbor. Our model shows that considering a different number of interaction partners per activity represents a useful perspective and that changing a single parameter, namely the number of interaction partners that are avoided, has several effects through selforganisation. PMID:25993474

  6. Performance and LHC beam stability issue related to Q/Q' diagnostics and feedback systems

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhagen, Ralph J

    2010-01-01

    The baseline tune (Q) and chromaticity (Q’) diagnostics and associated feedback systems played a crucial role during the LHC commissioning, in establishing circulating beam, the first ramps and their fill-to-fill feed-forward correction. Early on, they also allowed to identify issues such as the residual tune stability, beam spectrum interferences and beam-beam effects – all of which may impact beam lifetimes and thus need to be addressed in view of nominal LHC operation.

  7. Feedback et relation interpersonnelle apprenants/tuteurs dans un projet de télécollaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller Catherine

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’inscrit dans une perspective ethnographique sur les interactions didactiques en ligne. Il porte sur les commentaires évaluatifs et appréciatifs apportés par des tuteurs, étudiants en Master didactique du français langue étrangère, à des apprenants de français à Hong Kong dans le cadre d’un projet de télécollaboration. Nous cherchons à mettre en relation ce feedback avec la relation interpersonnelle qui se construit entre les partenaires d’échange. Pour cela, différentes données sont analysées : les échanges en ligne, les questionnaires complétés par les apprenants et les tuteurs, ainsi que les carnets de bord et les bilans réflexifs rédigés par les tuteurs. Une étude énonciative et pragmatique du feedback permet d’abord de mettre en évidence les appréciations très positives des tuteurs. Ces actes flatteurs pour la face semblent s’expliquer en premier lieu par une volonté des tuteurs de compenser l’offense induite par le relevé des erreurs dans les productions des apprenants. Mais on observe dans un second temps une symétrie entre le feedback apporté par les tuteurs et leur propre attente de feedback de la part des apprenants. Les compliments et les remerciements des apprenants se faisant attendre, les tuteurs manifestent leur frustration, ce qui traduit leur insécurité dans une relation pédagogique en ligne.

  8. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS IN THE SOFTWARE INDUSTRY AND THEIR RELATION WITH STRATEGIC BUSINESS ORIENTATION: AN EMPIRICAL-EXPLORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rodenes Adam

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an empirical-exploratory study applied to companies of the Software Industry (IndSw sector. One of the objectives pursued was to know the Critical Success Factors (CSF of the SWInd and their relation with the business strategic orientation. The CSF identified and analyzed were: Government Support, Human Capital, Marketing, Quality and Innovation. The research results reveal that it is possible to identify the existence of at least two main groups of strategic orientation (cost and differentiation within this sector. The analysis of the relation between business strategic orientation and the CSF emphasizes the following CSF: Human Capital, Quality and Innovation, the remaining factors present a little significant relation. The empirical study was made through multivariate analysis techniques. The analysis of results is based on data collected through the application of a web survey (Internet to Mexican software companies. The survey was applied in July 2005.

  9. Do 360-degree feedback survey results relate to patient satisfaction measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Michiel G J S; Ring, David C; Gregory, Paul J; Rubash, Harry E; Harmon, Larry

    2015-05-01

    There is evidence that feedback from 360-degree surveys-combined with coaching-can improve physician team performance and quality of patient care. The Physicians Universal Leadership-Teamwork Skills Education (PULSE) 360 is one such survey tool that is used to assess work colleagues' and coworkers' perceptions of a physician's leadership, teamwork, and clinical practice style. The Clinician & Group-Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and System (CG-CAHPS), developed by the US Department of Health and Human Services to serve as the benchmark for quality health care, is a survey tool for patients to provide feedback that is based on their recent experiences with staff and clinicians and soon will be tied to Medicare-based compensation of participating physicians. Prior research has indicated that patients and coworkers often agree in their assessment of physicians' behavioral patterns. The goal of the current study was to determine whether 360-degree, also called multisource, feedback provided by coworkers could predict patient satisfaction/experience ratings. A significant relationship between these two forms of feedback could enable physicians to take a more proactive approach to reinforce their strengths and identify any improvement opportunities in their patient interactions by reviewing feedback from team members. An automated 360-degree software process may be a faster, simpler, and less resource-intensive approach than telephoning and interviewing patients for survey responses, and it potentially could facilitate a more rapid credentialing or quality improvement process leading to greater fiscal and professional development gains for physicians. Our primary research question was to determine if PULSE 360 coworkers' ratings correlate with CG-CAHPS patients' ratings of overall satisfaction, recommendation of the physician, surgeon respect, and clarity of the surgeon's explanation. Our secondary research questions were to determine whether CG-CAHPS scores

  10. Changes of Attention during Value-Based Reversal Learning Are Tracked by N2pc and Feedback-Related Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariann Oemisch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Previously learned reward values can have a pronounced impact, behaviorally and neurophysiologically, on the allocation of selective attention. All else constant, stimuli previously associated with a high value gain stronger attentional prioritization than stimuli previously associated with a low value. The N2pc, an ERP component indicative of attentional target selection, has been shown to reflect aspects of this prioritization, by changes of mean amplitudes closely corresponding to selective enhancement of high value target processing and suppression of high value distractor processing. What has remained unclear so far is whether the N2pc also reflects the flexible and repeated behavioral adjustments needed in a volatile task environment, in which the values of stimuli are reversed often and unannounced. Using a value-based reversal learning task, we found evidence that the N2pc amplitude flexibly and reversibly tracks value-based choices during the learning of reward associated stimulus colors. Specifically, successful learning of current value-contingencies was associated with reduced N2pc amplitudes, and this effect was more apparent for distractor processing, compared with target processing. In addition, following a value reversal the feedback related negativity(FRN, an ERP component that reflects feedback processing, was amplified and co-occurred with increased N2pc amplitudes in trials following low-value feedback. Importantly, participants that showed the greatest adjustment in N2pc amplitudes based on feedback were also the most efficient learners. These results allow further insight into how changes in attentional prioritization in an uncertain and volatile environment support flexible adjustments of behavior.

  11. Phonetic detail and lateralization of reading-related inner speech and of auditory and somatosensory feedback processing during overt reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Christian A; Darquea, Maritza; Behrens, Marion; Cordani, Lorenzo; Keller, Christian; Fuchs, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Phonetic detail and lateralization of inner speech during covert sentence reading as well as overt reading in 32 right-handed healthy participants undergoing 3T fMRI were investigated. The number of voiceless and voiced consonants in the processed sentences was systematically varied. Participants listened to sentences, read them covertly, silently mouthed them while reading, and read them overtly. Condition comparisons allowed for the study of effects of externally versus self-generated auditory input and of somatosensory feedback related to or independent of voicing. In every condition, increased voicing modulated bilateral voice-selective regions in the superior temporal sulcus without any lateralization. The enhanced temporal modulation and/or higher spectral frequencies of sentences rich in voiceless consonants induced left-lateralized activation of phonological regions in the posterior temporal lobe, regardless of condition. These results provide evidence that inner speech during reading codes detail as fine as consonant voicing. Our findings suggest that the fronto-temporal internal loops underlying inner speech target different temporal regions. These regions differ in their sensitivity to inner or overt acoustic speech features. More slowly varying acoustic parameters are represented more anteriorly and bilaterally in the temporal lobe while quickly changing acoustic features are processed in more posterior left temporal cortices. Furthermore, processing of external auditory feedback during overt sentence reading was sensitive to consonant voicing only in the left superior temporal cortex. Voicing did not modulate left-lateralized processing of somatosensory feedback during articulation or bilateral motor processing. This suggests voicing is primarily monitored in the auditory rather than in the somatosensory feedback channel. Hum Brain Mapp 38:493-508, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Changes of Attention during Value-Based Reversal Learning Are Tracked by N2pc and Feedback-Related Negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oemisch, Mariann; Watson, Marcus R; Womelsdorf, Thilo; Schubö, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Previously learned reward values can have a pronounced impact, behaviorally and neurophysiologically, on the allocation of selective attention. All else constant, stimuli previously associated with a high value gain stronger attentional prioritization than stimuli previously associated with a low value. The N2pc, an ERP component indicative of attentional target selection, has been shown to reflect aspects of this prioritization, by changes of mean amplitudes closely corresponding to selective enhancement of high value target processing and suppression of high value distractor processing. What has remained unclear so far is whether the N2pc also reflects the flexible and repeated behavioral adjustments needed in a volatile task environment, in which the values of stimuli are reversed often and unannounced. Using a value-based reversal learning task, we found evidence that the N2pc amplitude flexibly and reversibly tracks value-based choices during the learning of reward associated stimulus colors. Specifically, successful learning of current value-contingencies was associated with reduced N2pc amplitudes, and this effect was more apparent for distractor processing, compared with target processing. In addition, following a value reversal the feedback related negativity(FRN), an ERP component that reflects feedback processing, was amplified and co-occurred with increased N2pc amplitudes in trials following low-value feedback. Importantly, participants that showed the greatest adjustment in N2pc amplitudes based on feedback were also the most efficient learners. These results allow further insight into how changes in attentional prioritization in an uncertain and volatile environment support flexible adjustments of behavior.

  13. Feedback and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2009-01-01

    use two pay schemes, a piece rate and a tournament. We find that overall feedback does not improve performance. In contrast to the piece-rate pay scheme there is some evidence of positive peer effects in tournaments since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly......This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay schemes and relative performance feedback policies on employee effort. We explore three feedback rules: no feedback on relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback. We...... behind, and front runners do not slack off. But in both pay schemes relative performance feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work; we refer to this as a "negative quality peer effect"....

  14. Feedback matters current feedback practices in the EFL classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Reitbauer, Margit; Mercer, Sarah; Schumm-Fauster, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This varied collection of papers is concerned with feedback in the language learning context. With its blend of theoretical overviews, action research-based empirical studies and practical implications, this will be a valuable resource for all academics and practitioners concerned with generating feedback that matters.

  15. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepl, Korbinian; Mussel, Patrick; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task) via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions) via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states) led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on depression and

  16. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian Riepl

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on

  17. Relation between delayed feedback and delay-coupled systems and its application to chaotic lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, Miguel C., E-mail: miguel@ifisc.uib-csic.es; Flunkert, Valentin; Fischer, Ingo [Instituto de Física Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos, IFISC (CSIC-UIB), Campus Universitat Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    We present a systematic approach to identify the similarities and differences between a chaotic system with delayed feedback and two mutually delay-coupled systems. We consider the general case in which the coupled systems are either unsynchronized or in a generally synchronized state, in contrast to the mostly studied case of identical synchronization. We construct a new time-series for each of the two coupling schemes, respectively, and present analytic evidence and numerical confirmation that these two constructed time-series are statistically equivalent. From the construction, it then follows that the distribution of time-series segments that are small compared to the overall delay in the system is independent of the value of the delay and of the coupling scheme. By focusing on numerical simulations of delay-coupled chaotic lasers, we present a practical example of our findings.

  18. Video feedback promotes relations between infants and vulnerable first-time mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ingeborg Hedegaard; Simonsen, Marianne; Trillingsgaard, Tea

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supporting early mother-infant relationships to ensure infants' future health has been recommended. The aim of this study was to investigate whether video feedback using the Marte Meo method promotes a healthy early relationship between infants and vulnerable first-time mothers. Video...... video subsample from the comparison group (n = 63). Data consisted of self-reported questionnaires and video recordings of mother-infant interactions. Outcomes were mother-infant dyadic synchrony (CARE-Index), maternal confidence (KPCS), parental stress (PSS), maternal mood (EPDS) and infant...... socialemotional behaviours (ASQ:SE). The data were analysed using descriptive and linear multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: The levels of dyadic synchrony in the intervention group had significantly improved (p 

  19. Acute Stress Modulates Feedback Processing in Men and Women : Differential Effects on the Feedback-Related Negativity and Theta and Beta Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banis, Stella; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Banis, Hendrika

    2014-01-01

    Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters

  20. Teacher feedback during active learning: current practices in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-06-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears difficult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about feedback and to give directions to improve teacher feedback in the context of active learning. The participants comprised 32 teachers who practiced active learning in the domain of environmental studies in the sixth, seventh, or eighth grade of 13 Dutch primary schools. A total of 1,465 teacher-student interactions were examined. Video observations were made of active learning lessons in the domain of environmental studies. A category system was developed based on the literature and empirical data. Teacher-student interactions were assessed using this system. Results. About half of the teacher-student interactions contained feedback. This feedback was usually focused on the tasks that were being performed by the students and on the ways in which these tasks were processed. Only 5% of the feedback was explicitly related to a learning goal. In their feedback, the teachers were directing (rather than facilitating) the learning processes. During active learning, feedback on meta-cognition and social learning is important. Feedback should be explicitly related to learning goals. In practice, these kinds of feedback appear to be scarce. Therefore, giving feedback during active learning seems to be an important topic for teachers' professional development. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Error-related potentials during continuous feedback: using EEG to detect errors of different type and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eSpüler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When a person recognizes an error during a task, an error-related potential (ErrP can be measured as response. It has been shown that ErrPs can be automatically detected in tasks with time-discrete feedback, which is widely applied in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs for error correction or adaptation. However, there are only a few studies that concentrate on ErrPs during continuous feedback.With this study, we wanted to answer three different questions: (i Can ErrPs be measured in electroencephalography (EEG recordings during a task with continuous cursor control? (ii Can ErrPs be classified using machine learning methods and is it possible to discriminate errors of different origins? (iii Can we use EEG to detect the severity of an error? To answer these questions, we recorded EEG data from 10 subjects during a video game task and investigated two different types of error (execution error, due to inaccurate feedback; outcome error, due to not achieving the goal of an action. We analyzed the recorded data to show that during the same task, different kinds of error produce different ErrP waveforms and have a different spectral response. This allows us to detect and discriminate errors of different origin in an event-locked manner. By utilizing the error-related spectral response, we show that also a continuous, asynchronous detection of errors is possible.Although the detection of error severity based on EEG was one goal of this study, we did not find any significant influence of the severity on the EEG.

  2. Empirical relations between sense of coherence and self-efficacy, National Danish Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trap, Rete; Rejkjær, Lillan; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2016-01-01

    , 1965 and 1975). The study used the 13-item SOC scale and the general SE scale. The main findings were that SOC score increased by age cohort (p = 0.0004), and there is a positive and graded correlation between SOC and SE (r = 0.39; p ...Salutogenic orientation is a health promotion paradigm focusing on the resources of the individual. This study analyzed the relationship between sense of coherence (SOC) and self-efficacy (SE) based on population data. By conducting an empirical analysis of the two models, we wanted to see whether...... we could make a valid judgement as to whether both SOC and SE could be utilized in health promotion practice, or whether one is preferable to the other. The study population was randomly selected from the Danish Central Population Register and consisted of five birth-year cohorts (1920, 1930, 1940...

  3. On the relation between organizational culture and leadership: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniοs D. Kargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leadership and organizational culture are considered to be two of the most crucial organizational elements in order for firms to compete successfully and to gain sustainable advantage. We examine the interconnection between the aforementioned elements and create an empirical link based on data drawn from a competitive industry. The results indicate a strong relationship between these two operational factors, while factors’ coordination (identical cultural type and leadership style enforces this relationship. Moreover, it is investigated whether market conditions, such as strength of competition and “operational age and size,” can determine the extent and the direction of the relationship. Market competition seems to affect the direction of the relationship, while operational age and size affect the relevant extent.

  4. Processing of action- but not stimulus-related prediction errors differs between active and observational feedback learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Stefan; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations is driven by outcome prediction errors (PEs). Previous studies have shown larger PE-dependent activity in the striatum for learning from own as compared to observed actions and the following outcomes despite comparable learning rates. We hypothesised that this finding relates primarily to a stronger integration of action and outcome information in active learners. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated brain activations related to action-dependent PEs, reflecting the deviation between action values and obtained outcomes, and action-independent PEs, reflecting the deviation between subjective values of response-preceding cues and obtained outcomes. To this end, 16 active and 15 observational learners engaged in a probabilistic learning card-guessing paradigm. On each trial, active learners saw one out of five cues and pressed either a left or right response button to receive feedback (monetary win or loss). Each observational learner observed exactly those cues, responses and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance was assessed in active test trials without feedback and did not differ between groups. For both types of PEs, activations were found in the globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, and insula in active learners. However, only for action-dependent PEs, activations in these structures and the anterior cingulate were increased in active relative to observational learners. Thus, PE-related activity in the reward system is not generally enhanced in active relative to observational learning but only for action-dependent PEs. For the cerebellum, additional activations were found across groups for cue-related uncertainty, thereby emphasising the cerebellum's role in stimulus-outcome learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On the relationship between learning strategy and feedback processing in the weather prediction task--Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustemeier, Martina; Schwabe, Lars; Bellebaum, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Previous work has shown that both declarative and non-declarative strategies can be engaged in probabilistic classification learning. With respect to the neural correlates of these strategies, earlier studies have focused on the classification process itself. In the present experiment, we asked whether the feedback for classification performance is processed differently by declarative and non-declarative learners. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed a modified version of the weather prediction task, a well-known probabilistic classification learning task. ERP analysis focused on two ERP components typically associated with feedback processing, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. FRN amplitude was not affected by learning strategy. The P300, however, was more pronounced in declarative learners, particularly at frontal electrode site Fz. In addition, P300 topography was different in declarative learners, with amplitude differences between negative and positive feedback being more pronounced over the frontal than the parietal cortex. Differences in feedback processing between groups were still seen after declarative learners had switched to a non-declarative strategy in later phases of the task. Our findings provide evidence for different neural mechanisms of feedback processing in declarative and non-declarative learning. This difference emerges at later stages of feedback processing, after the typical time window of the FRN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Scoping Review of Empirical Research Relating to Quality and Effectiveness of Research Ethics Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stuart G.; Hayes, Tavis P.; Brehaut, Jamie C.; McDonald, Michael; Weijer, Charles; Saginur, Raphael; Fergusson, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Background To date there is no established consensus of assessment criteria for evaluating research ethics review. Methods We conducted a scoping review of empirical research assessing ethics review processes in order to identify common elements assessed, research foci, and research gaps to aid in the development of assessment criteria. Electronic searches of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED, were conducted. After de-duplication, 4234 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Altogether 4036 articles were excluded following screening of titles, abstracts and full text. A total of 198 articles included for final data extraction. Results Few studies originated from outside North America and Europe. No study reported using an underlying theory or framework of quality/effectiveness to guide study design or analyses. We did not identify any studies that had involved a controlled trial - randomised or otherwise – of ethics review procedures or processes. Studies varied substantially with respect to outcomes assessed, although tended to focus on structure and timeliness of ethics review. Discussion Our findings indicate a lack of consensus on appropriate assessment criteria, exemplified by the varied study outcomes identified, but also a fragmented body of research. To date research has been largely quantitative, with little attention given to stakeholder experiences, and is largely cross sectional. A lack of longitudinal research to date precludes analyses of change or assessment of quality improvement in ethics review. PMID:26225553

  7. Empirical Monod-Beuneu relation of spin relaxation revisited for elemental metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, L.; Kiss, A.; Forró, L.; Simon, F.

    2014-03-01

    Monod and Beuneu [P. Monod and F. Beuneu, Phys. Rev. B 19, 911 (1979), 10.1103/PhysRevB.19.911] established the validity of the Elliott-Yafet theory for elemental metals through correlating the experimental electron spin resonance linewidth with the so-called spin-orbit admixture coefficients and the momentum-relaxation theory. The spin-orbit admixture coefficients data were based on atomic spin-orbit splitting. We highlight two shortcomings of the previous description: (i) the momentum-relaxation involves the Debye temperature and the electron-phonon coupling whose variation among the elemental metals was neglected, (ii) the Elliott-Yafet theory involves matrix elements of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which are however not identical to the SOC induced energy splitting of the atomic levels, even though the two have similar magnitudes. We obtain the empirical spin-orbit admixture parameters for the alkali metals by considering the proper description of the momentum relaxation theory. In addition we present a model calculation, which highlights the difference between the SOC matrix element and energy splitting.

  8. Feedback Valence Affects Auditory Perceptual Learning Independently of Feedback Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners’ responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability. PMID:25946173

  9. An Empirical Study of Object Relations in Adult Children of Depressed Elderly Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Nancy A.; Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Lapidus, Leah Blumberg

    1998-01-01

    Examines coping and emotional distress in children (N=50) assisting an elderly mother hospitalized for depression. The hypothesis that maternal object-relations would be related to more adaptive coping and less emotional distress received partial support, whereas the idea that mothers' history of depression would be associated with the child's…

  10. Determination of Alcohol and Total Dry Extract in Slovenian Wines by Empirical Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Košmerl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of fast determination of alcohol and total dry extract from given relative density and refractive index in wine was examined on fifty eight samples of Slovenian white and red still wines. Calculated relation values obtained from literature were compared to values determined experimentally using official methods (pycnometry and hydrostatic balance. Determination of alcohol and total dry extract together by means of calculation was the most accurate for the group of white wines (according to the concentration of reducing sugars with up to 5 g L–1 and the least accurate for the group of white wines with over 15 g L–1. For alcohol calculation the standard deviations and coefficients of variation for literature and our relations were different (literature relations: SD = 7.37–8.53, CV = 8.33–9.52 %, our relations: SD = 7.18–13.94, CV = 7.96–16.55 % and they were higher for the total dry extract (literature relations: SD = 16.39 16.76, CV = 45.14–49.49 %; our relations: SD = 13.70–16.73, CV = 42.68–49.16 %. The most accurate relations for separate groups of wines (white wines with different reducing sugars content or red wines have already been published (2–6. Our own relations for calculation of alcohol level and total dry extract were obtained by means of multiple linear regression analysis. The experiment has shown that none of the results are accurate enough to be obtained using only one relation for different wines.

  11. Encouraging residents to seek feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Dianne; Sargeant, Joan; Miller, Stephen; Holland, Joanna; Alexiadis Brown, Peggy; Leblanc, Constance; Lightfoot, Kathryn; Mann, Karen

    2013-12-01

    To explore resident and faculty perceptions of the feedback process, especially residents' feedback-seeking activities. We conducted focus groups of faculty and residents exploring experiences in giving and receiving feedback, feedback-seeking, and suggestions to support feedback-seeking. Using qualitative methods and an iterative process, all authors analyzed the transcribed audiotapes to identify and confirm themes. Emerging themes fit a framework situating resident feedback-seeking as dependent on four central factors: (1) learning/workplace culture, (2) relationships, (3) purpose/quality of feedback, (4) emotional responses to feedback. Residents and faculty agreed on many supports and barriers to feedback-seeking. Strengthening the workplace/learning culture through longitudinal experiences, use of feedback forms and explicit expectations for residents to seek feedback, coupled with providing a sense of safety and adequate time for observation and providing feedback were suggested. Tensions between faculty and resident perceptions regarding feedback-seeking related to fear of being found deficient, the emotional costs related to corrective feedback and perceptions that completing clinical work is more valued than learning. Resident feedback-seeking is influenced by multiple factors requiring attention to both faculty and learner roles. Further study of specific influences and strategies to mitigate the tensions will inform how best to support residents in seeking feedback.

  12. Anticipation- and error-related EEG signals during realistic human-machine interaction: a study on visual and tactile feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Perrin, Xavier; Siegwart, Roland; Millán, José del R

    2012-01-01

    The exploitation of EEG signatures of cognitive processes can provide valuable information to improve interaction with brain actuated devices. In this work we study these correlates in a realistic situation simulated in a virtual reality environment. We focus on cortical potentials linked to the anticipation of future events (i.e. the contingent negative variation, CNV) and error-related potentials elicited by both visual and tactile feedback. Experiments with 6 subjects show brain activity consistent with previous studies using simpler stimuli, both at the level of ERPs and single trial classification. Moreover, we observe comparable signals irrespective of whether the subject was required to perform motor actions. Altogether, these results support the possibility of using these signals for practical brain machine interaction.

  13. The psiconeural relation in stress or from neurons to social cognition: an empirical review

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Roldán, Manuel; Facultad de Psicología de la UAM

    2014-01-01

    It reviews the brain activity, facts perception-appraisal, social context and neural mechanisms related in stress processes. In this paper, that sequence defines the psychoneural relation, situated in the prefrontal cortex and thalamus dorsomedial-amygdala circuit. El trabajo revisa los mecanismos neurales que hacen posible la relación entre actividad cerebral, percepción-evaluación de acontecimientos y contexto social en el desenlace del estrés. Sostiene la tesis de que dicha secuencia cr...

  14. An empirical study on measuring the relative efficiency using DEA method: A case study of bank industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fallah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA has been widely used as an effective tool for measuring the relative efficiency of similar units by considering various input/output parameters. This paper examines DEA models for the estimation and improvement of organizational inputs and outputs in order to enhance management and decision making processes. We propose an empirical DEA analysis on banking sector by considering several financial and non-financial inputs and outputs. The relative efficiencies of various branches of banks are analyzed in different scenarios. The preliminary results indicate that there are some non-financial items that could significantly change the overall performance of a unit along with other financial items.

  15. The Importance of Failure: Feedback-Related Negativity Predicts Motor Learning Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, J. van der; Boksem, M.A.S.; Blom, J.H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Learning from past mistakes is of prominent importance for successful future behavior. In the present study, we tested whether reinforcement learning signals in the brain are predictive of adequate learning of a sequence of motor actions. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while subjects

  16. HIV-related stigma and NGO-isation in India: a historico-empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Devaki

    2012-06-01

    In response to World Bank critiques in 2007, the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare declared that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related stigma was a barrier to the participation of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the implementation of HIV prevention targeted interventions. Taking a deeper view of HIV-related stigma as a historically inflected process of devaluation, this article details the history and transformation of NGO involvement in the HIV epidemic from 1986 through economic liberalisation in the 1990s up to the Second National AIDS Control Programme (NACP II 1999-2006). It additionally examines findings from interviews and participant observation of NGO workers (N = 24) from four targeted intervention NGOs in Delhi funded under NACP II. Analysis reveals that a second wave of HIV-related NGO involvement has mushroomed in the past two decades, affording NGO workers multiple pathways to credibility in the Indian response to the epidemic. Contradictions embedded in the overlap of these pathways produce stigma, reflecting 'adverse incorporation' of the NGO workers. Drawing upon noteworthy exceptions to this trend from the first wave of Indian HIV-related NGOs, the article calls for NGO participation as an explicitly political project of addressing the social inequalities that shape stigma as well as vulnerability to illness writ large. © 2011 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Ethnicity Reporting Practices for Empirical Research in Three Autism-Related Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Nigel P.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sorrells, Audrey M.; Fragale, Christina L.; White, Pamela J.; Aguilar, Jeannie M.; Cole, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines ethnicity reporting in three autism-related journals ("Autism," "Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities," and "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders") over a 6-year period. A comprehensive multistep search of articles is used to identify ethnicity as a demographic variable in…

  18. The Home Environment and Disability-Related Outcomes in Aging Individuals: What Is the Empirical Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Hans-Werner; Fange, Agneta; Oswald, Frank; Gitlin, Laura N.; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Building on the disablement process model and the concept of person-environment fit (p-e fit), this review article examines 2 critical questions concerning the role of home environments: (a) What is the recent evidence supporting a relationship between home environments and disability-related outcomes? and (b) What is the recent evidence…

  19. Managing Blended Friendships: Using Empirical Data to Prepare Students and Employees for Relational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley Westerman, Catherine Y.; Park, Hee Sun

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigates how college students expect to react to inequity in blended friendships. Blended friendship is defined as a friendship that involves interaction at work and outside of work. Data from undergraduate students (N = 185) showed that liking and relational importance were found to be lower in underreward and overreward…

  20. Power and trust in organizational relations: an empirical study in Turkish public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozaykut, Tuba; Gurbuz, F Gulruh

    2015-01-01

    Given the salience of the interplay between trust and power relations in organizational settings, this paper examines the perceptions of social power and its effects on trust in supervisors within the context of public hospitals. Following the theoretical background from which the study model is developed, the recent situation of hospitals within Turkish healthcare system is discussed to further elucidate the working conditions of physicians. Sample data were collected employing a structured questionnaire that was distributed to physicians working at seven different public hospitals. The statistical analyses indicate that perceptions of supervisors' social power affect subordinates' trust in supervisors. Although coercive power is found to have the greatest impact on trust in supervisors, the influence of the power base is weak. In addition, the results show that perceptions of social power differ between genders. However, the results do not support any of the hypotheses regarding the relations between trust in supervisors and the examined demographic variables. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Why girls play digital games: an empirical study into the relations between gender, motivations and genre

    OpenAIRE

    Van Looy, Jan; Courtois, Cédric; Vermeulen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have explored the motivations for playing different game genres such as MMO (Yee, 2006a, 2006b) and FPS (Jansz & Tanis, 2007). Others have taken steps towards creating an integrated framework for use across genres (Sherry, Lucas, Greenberg, & Lachlan, 2006). Despite the strong gender bias of the game industry, however, none of these studies have tackled the issue of gender differences in motivations. This paper aims to fill this gap by exploring the relation b...

  2. Semi-empirical seismic relations of A-F stars from COROT and Kepler legacy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A.; Suárez, J. C.; García Hernández, A.; Mendoza, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Asteroseismology is witnessing a revolution, thanks to high-precise asteroseismic space data (MOST, COROT, Kepler, BRITE) and their large ground-based follow-up programs. Those instruments have provided an unprecedented large amount of information, which allows us to scrutinize its statistical properties in the quest for hidden relations among pulsational and/or physical observables. This approach might be particularly useful for stars whose pulsation content is difficult to interpret. This is the case of intermediate-mass classical pulsating stars (I.e. γ Dor, δ Scuti, hybrids) for which current theories do not properly predict the observed oscillation spectra. Here, we establish a first step in finding such hidden relations from data mining techniques for these stars. We searched for those hidden relations in a sample of δ Scuti and hybrid stars observed by COROT and Kepler (74 and 153, respectively). No significant correlations between pairs of observables were found. However, two statistically significant correlations emerged from multivariable correlations in the observed seismic data, which describe the total number of observed frequencies and the largest one, respectively. Moreover, three different sets of stars were found to cluster according to their frequency density distribution. Such sets are in apparent agreement with the asteroseismic properties commonly accepted for A-F pulsating stars.

  3. The Relative Effectiveness of Empirical and Physical Models for Simulating the Dense Undercurrent of Pyroclastic Flows under Different Emplacement Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Ogburn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High concentration pyroclastic density currents (PDCs are hot avalanches of volcanic rock and gas and are among the most destructive volcanic hazards due to their speed and mobility. Mitigating the risk associated with these flows depends upon accurate forecasting of possible impacted areas, often using empirical or physical models. TITAN2D, VolcFlow, LAHARZ, and ΔH/L or energy cone models each employ different rheologies or empirical relationships and therefore differ in appropriateness of application for different types of mass flows and topographic environments. This work seeks to test different statistically- and physically-based models against a range of PDCs of different volumes, emplaced under different conditions, over different topography in order to test the relative effectiveness, operational aspects, and ultimately, the utility of each model for use in hazard assessments. The purpose of this work is not to rank models, but rather to understand the extent to which the different modeling approaches can replicate reality in certain conditions, and to explore the dynamics of PDCs themselves. In this work, these models are used to recreate the inundation areas of the dense-basal undercurrent of all 13 mapped, land-confined, Soufrière Hills Volcano dome-collapse PDCs emplaced from 1996 to 2010 to test the relative effectiveness of different computational models. Best-fit model results and their input parameters are compared with results using observation- and deposit-derived input parameters. Additional comparison is made between best-fit model results and those using empirically-derived input parameters from the FlowDat global database, which represent “forward” modeling simulations as would be completed for hazard assessment purposes. Results indicate that TITAN2D is able to reproduce inundated areas well using flux sources, although velocities are often unrealistically high. VolcFlow is also able to replicate flow runout well, but

  4. Spring soil moisture-precipitation feedback in the Southern Great Plains: How is it related to large-scale atmospheric conditions?

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Hua

    2014-02-22

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) has been shown as a region of significant soil moisture-precipitation (S-P) coupling. However, how strong evapotranspiration (ET) can affect regional precipitation remains largely unclear, impeding a full grasp of the S-P feedback in that area. The current study seeks to unravel, in a spring month (April), the potential role played by large-scale atmospheric conditions in shaping S (ET)-P feedback. Our regional climate modeling experiments demonstrate that the presence of anomalous low (high) pressure and cyclonic (anticyclonic) flows at the upper/middle troposphere over the relevant areas is associated with strongest (minimum) positive S-P feedback in the SGP. Their impacts are interpreted in terms of large-scale atmospheric dynamical disturbance, including the intensity and location of synoptic eddies. Further analyses of the vertical velocity fields corroborate these interpretations. In addition, the relationship between lower tropospheric moisture conditions (including winds) and feedback composites is evaluated. Key Points The S-P feedback strength in SGP in April varies inter-annually The atmospheric dynamic features affect significantly the feedback strength composite moisture conditions are related to atmospheric circulation structure ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  5. The paraphilia-related disorders: an empirical investigation of nonparaphilic hypersexuality disorders in outpatient males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, M P; Hennen, J

    1999-01-01

    The frequency distribution of nonparaphilic hypersexual behaviors was investigated in an outpatient sample of 206 consecutively evaluated males seeking help for sexual impulsivity disorders (SIDs), either paraphilia-related disorders (PRD; n = 63) or paraphilias (PA; n = 143). Paraphilia-related disorders associated with help-seeking behaviors included compulsive masturbation (sample prevalence, 69%), protracted heterosexual or homosexual promiscuity (51%), pornography dependence (50%), telephone-sex dependence (24%), and severe sexual desire incompatibility (12%). Eighty-six percent of the PA sample reported at least one lifetime PRD. The subgroup of males with both PAs and lifetime PRDs (n = 123) self-reported the greatest number of lifetime SIDs, the highest incidence of physical and sexual abuse, the fewest years of completed education, and the highest likelihood of current unemployment or disability. As well, the subgroup of males with PAs but no lifetime PRDs (n = 20) self-reported the fewest lifetime SIDs; this subgroup was not statistically different from the PRD group on these aforementioned variables. These data suggest that social disadvantage, as assessed in this sample, is associated with the cumulative incidence of SIDs but not necessarily with the diathesis to develop paraphilic disorders.

  6. Second language syntactic processing revealed through event-related potentials: an empirical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarra, Sendy; Molinaro, Nicola; Davidson, Doug; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Learning a second language (L2) can be crucial in the present globalized society. However, reaching the level of L1 performance of native speakers is still a challenge for many. Distinct factors could account for the persistent gap observed between natives' and non-natives' syntactic abilities: L1-L2 differences, AoA, proficiency, L2 immersion duration, L2 training duration. Although different theoretical approaches described the role of these several factors, not all studies using on-line measures have investigated them comprehensively and consistently. The present work reviews available ERP studies on L2 syntactic analysis in order to establish the relative weight of each factor on the time course of L2 processing. Logistic regression analyses were performed on the presence or absence of ERP effects reported in response to L2 syntactic violations, including all the influential factors as categorical independent variables. The results showed that immersion duration has an influence on the ERP correlates linked to early mechanisms of syntactic processing, while the global proficiency level has an impact on the ERP correlates related to late, language-monitoring activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Empirical Analysis of Time in Relation to Economic Development. A System of Time Accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA CARAGEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a new approach to the relation between socio-economic development and time. Measuring the economic development of a country by GDP it is obvious that the indicator is an insufficient measure in order to illustrate the progress of the society. National Time Accounting is a set of methods for measuring, comparing and analyzing how people spend and experience their time. The approach is based on evaluated time use or the flow of emotional experience during daily activities. In order to determine the level of development an international system of new statistical indicators was elaborated to express development trough the quality of life growing. The indicators are related to the economic level of the country, living and environmental conditions, employment and the quality of human capital in labour market, but also they reflect the household activities, the balance between professional and private life of people, health condition. The U-index helps to overcome some of the limitations of interpersonal comparisons of subjective well-being.

  8. Impact of changes in the formulation of cloud-related processes on model biases and climate feedbacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacagnina, C.; Selten, F.; Siebesma, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    To test the impact of modeling uncertainties and biases on the simulation of cloud feedbacks, several configurations of the EC-Earth climate model are built altering physical parameterizations. An overview of the various radiative feedbacks diagnosed from the reference EC-Earth configuration is

  9. Escalating risk and the moderating effect of resistance to peer influence on the P200 and feedback-related negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiat, John; Straley, Elizabeth; Cheadle, Jacob E

    2016-03-01

    Young people frequently socialize together in contexts that encourage risky decision making, pointing to a need for research into how susceptibility to peer influence is related to individual differences in the neural processing of decisions during sequentially escalating risk. We applied a novel analytic approach to analyze EEG activity from college-going students while they completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), a well-established risk-taking propensity assessment. By modeling outcome-processing-related changes in the P200 and feedback-related negativity (FRN) sequentially within each BART trial as a function of pump order as an index of increasing risk, our results suggest that analyzing the BART in a progressive fashion may provide valuable new insights into the temporal neurophysiological dynamics of risk taking. Our results showed that a P200, localized to the left caudate nucleus, and an FRN, localized to the left dACC, were positively correlated with the level of risk taking and reward. Furthermore, consistent with our hypotheses, the rate of change in the FRN was higher among college students with greater self-reported resistance to peer influence. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Theoretical Re-evaluations of Scaling Relations between SMBHs and Their Host Galaxies–2. Importance of AGN Feedback Suggested by Stellar Age–Velocity Dispersion Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikari Shirakata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the galactic stellar age—velocity dispersion relation obtained from a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. We divide galaxies into two populations: galaxies which have over-massive/under-massive black holes (BHs against the best-fitting BH mass—velocity dispersion relation. We find that galaxies with larger velocity dispersion have older stellar ages. We also find that galaxies with over-massive BHs have older stellar ages. These results are consistent with observational results obtained from Martín-Navarro et al. (2016. We tested the model with weak AGN feedback and find that galaxies with larger velocity dispersion have a younger stellar age.

  11. Empirical orthogonal functions of airborne sulfur in the United States related to sources and upper level winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.C. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Gebhart, K.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) have been used by meteorologists for several decades to analyze spatial variability in pressure, temperature, and wind data. However, there have only been a few applications of EFOs to air quality. EFOs have been applied to urban sulfur dioxide, sulfate, and total suspended particulate concentrations. These studies have shown that EFOs are physically related to wind speed and direction, regional transport, and emission source location. Although EFOs have been shown to have physical significance, their interpretation has remained difficult and semi-quantitative, at best. Early efforts to produce an EFO receptor model met with limited success and were not continued. This paper proposes a new approach to EFOs based on a formal connection between EFOs, integral equations, and differential equations, this connection is developed in this paper , followed by some initial results of its application to regional airborne sulfur data.

  12. Indicial lift response function: an empirical relation for finite‐thickness airfoils, and effects on aeroelastic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo; Gaunaa, Mac; Heinz, Joachim Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aeroelastic response of wind turbines is often simulated in the time domain by using indicial response techniques. Unsteady aerodynamics in attached flow are usually based on Jones's approximation of the flat plate indicial response, although the response for finite‐thickness airfoils differs...... from the flat plate one. The indicial lift response of finite‐thickness airfoils is simulated with a panel code, and an empirical relation is outlined connecting the airfoil indicial response to its geometric characteristics. The effects of different indicial approximations are evaluated on a 2D...... profile undergoing harmonic pitching motion in the attached flow region; the resulting lift forces are compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The relevance for aeroelastic simulations of a wind turbine is also evaluated, and the effects are quantified in terms of variations...

  13. An empirical method to measure the relative efficiency of irrigation methods in agricultural industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim MohammadPour zarandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues affecting future world is managing the existing water resources. There is no doubt that global warming has created significant troubles on people's lives and it has caused shortage of water in the world. Therefore, we need to manage the water resources by allocating appropriate methods. In this paper, we use data envelopment analysis to measure the relative efficiency of fourteen different irrigation methods. The proposed model of this paper uses four inputs including cost, risk, maintenance and expertise and two outputs including flexibility and durability of irrigation methods. The preliminary results indicate that two surface irrigation methods, one sprinkler irrigation method and one subsurface irrigation technique are considered efficient. Other irrigation techniques are only as much as 50 to 94 percent efficient compared with these five irrigation techniques

  14. An empirical method to measure the relative efficiency of dairy producers using deterministic frontier analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram RostamPour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative efficiencies of various cow husbandries. The proposed model of this paper uses distribution free analysis to measure the performance of different units responsible for taking care of cows. We gather the necessary information of all units including number of cows, amount of internet usage, number of subunits for taking care of cows, amount of forage produced in each province for grazing livestock and average hour per person training courses as independent variables and consider the amount of produced milk as dependent variable. The necessary information are collected from all available units located in different provinces of Iran and the production function is estimated using a linear programming model. The results indicate that the capital city of Iran, Tehran, holds the highest technical efficiency, the lowest efficiency belongs to province of Ilam and other provinces mostly performs poorly.

  15. Three empirical essays on consumer behavior related to climate change and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Grant Douglas

    This dissertation consists of three essays. All of the chapters address a topic in the area of household and consumer behavior related to climate change or energy. The first chapter is titled "The Al Gore Effect: An Inconvenient Truth and Voluntary Carbon Offsets". This chapter examines the relationship between climate change awareness and household behavior by testing whether Al Gore's documentary An Inconvenient Truth caused an increase in the purchase of voluntary carbon offsets. The analysis shows that in the two months following the film's release, zip codes within a 10-mile radius of a zip code where the film was shown experienced a 50 percent relative increase in the purchase of voluntary carbon offsets. The second chapter is titled "Are Building Codes Effective at Saving Energy? Evidence from Residential Billing Data in Florida". The analysis shows that Florida's energy-code change that took effect in 2002 is associated with a 4-percent decrease in electricity consumption and a 6-percent decrease in natural-gas consumption in Gainesville, FL. The estimated private payback period for the average residence is 6.4 years and the social payback period ranges between 3.5 and 5.3 years. The third chapter in this dissertation is titled "Do Environmental Offsets Increase Demand for Dirty Goods? Evidence from Residential Electricity Demand". This study evaluates the relationship between green products and existing patterns of consumer behavior by examining the relationship between household enrollment in a green electricity program and consumption of residential electricity. The results suggest there are two different types of green consumers. One type makes a small monthly donation and partially views the donation as a substitute for a previously existing pattern of green behavior, in this case, energy conservation. The other type makes a larger monthly donation and views the donation as a way to make strictly additional improvements in environmental quality.

  16. Evaluation of Energy-Related Inventions Program: An Empirical Analysis of 204 Inventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). It assesses the program's effectiveness and impacts, characterizes participating inventions and inventors, and identifies correlates of successful commercialization in order to suggest possible improvements. Seventy of the 204 ERIP inventions that were studied were successfully introduced into the market, accounting for more than $200M in sales from 1976 through 1984. During 1984, 921 full-time equivalent employees were supported directly by ERIP inventors or their licensees. (Estimates of indirect economic impacts are also contained in the report.) Data on patterns of fund raising clearly show a need for assistance by programs like ERIP. Commercially successful inventors shared several traits. They had less formal education, fewer patents, more work experience in small firms, more outside funding early in their work, more shared responsibility with others for invention development, more management experience, and greater previous experience with starting new businesses. Recommendations are made regarding: (1) priorities for allocating ERIP grants; (2) improved efficiency of the NBS/DOE operations; (3) delivery of technical and commercialization assistance to grant recipients; and (4) further evaluation research.

  17. The Significance of Electronic Commerce to Firms' Operations in Relation to Business Location: an empirical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna Eze

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of production and increasing competition spurs greater business use of innovative information systems. As globalization extends its reach over cities and regions, the positions of those places within the emerging global paradigms of regional economies is changing. Only those regions and cities that can mobilize assets for local advantage would succeed. This research examines the implications of location for electronic commerce (EC role in firm operations through the lens of managerial perceptions of EC systems, EC activities, agglomeration economies, firm-specific features and outputs relative to industry. The input-based view and industrial development frameworks provide the theoretical underpinning for this research. Fully completed instruments from 106 firms in Singapore and Lagos financial services sector, respectively, are the basis of our analysis. Our findings reveal varying results between industries across the two cities, supporting our propositions. Firms with well-configured EC systems are more likely to experience efficiency in EC activities and outputs, given conducive operational conditions. However, firm-specific features were not linked to output, a finding inconsistent with prior studies. Finally, EC business models that focus on operational efficiency strongly complement the historically relevant location variable in industrial operations. These findings provide basis for recommendations to policymakers, practitioners, and researchers.

  18. Leaders’ Behaviors Matter: The Role of Delegation in Promoting Employees’ Feedback-Seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Feedback helps employees to evaluate and improve their performance, but there have been relatively few empirical investigations into how leaders can encourage employees to seek feedback. To fill this gap we examined the relationship among delegation, psychological empowerment, and feedback-seeking behavior. We hypothesized that delegation promotes feedback-seeking behavior by psychologically empowering subordinates. In addition, power distance moderates the relationship between delegation and feedback-seeking behavior. Analysis of data from a sample of 248 full-time employees of a hotel group in northern China indicated that delegation predicts subordinates’ feedback seeking for individuals with moderate and high power distance orientation, but not for those with low power distance orientation. The mediation hypothesis was also supported.

  19. The Impact of Middle-School Students' Feedback Choices and Performance on Their Feedback Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutumisu, Maria; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel examination of the impact of students' feedback choices and performance on their feedback memory. An empirical study was designed to collect the choices to seek critical feedback from a hundred and six Grade 8 middle-school students via Posterlet, a digital assessment game in which students design posters. Upon…

  20. Mechanoelectric feedback does not contribute to the Frank-Starling relation in the rat and guinea pig heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Kelly

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoelectric feedback (MEF is the process by which mechanical forces on the myocardium can alter its electrical properties. The effect can be large enough to induce ectopic beats or fibrillation. However, the role of MEF at physiological levels of mechanical stress is not clear. We have investigated alteration in action potential morphology in rat and guinea pig ventricle and in rat atrial tissue at levels of stretch near the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve. Stretch of >100 mm.Hg End Diastolic Left Ventricular Pressure (EDLVP or rapidly applied stretch (EDLVP increased by 25 mm.Hg within 100 ms often triggered ectopic beats in isolated rat and guinea-pig hearts. However, ventricular epicardial monophasic action potentials (MAPs recorded during stretch to EDLVP up to 30 mm. Hg showed no consistent changes in action potential duration (at APD20, APD50 or APD80 in either species. MAP recording detected APD prolongation with very small concentrations of 4-AP (10 μM, confirming the discrimination of the recording technique. In isolated rat atrial strips, no changes in intracellular action potential morphology or membrane potential were seen when stretched to levels producing an optimum increase in contractility. We conclude that alteration in action potential morphology with stretch does not contribute to the Frank-Starling relation in ventricle of rat or guinea-pig isolated heart, or in rat atrial tissue.

  1. The effect of learning on feedback-related potentials in adolescents with dyslexia: an EEG-ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror Kraus

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Individuals with dyslexia exhibit associated learning deficits and impaired executive functions. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST is a learning-based task that relies heavily on executive functioning, in particular, attention shift and working memory. Performance during early and late phases of a series within the task represents learning and implementation of a newly learned rule. Here, we aimed to examine two event-related potentials associated with learning, feedback-related negativity (FRN-P300 complex, in individuals with dyslexia performing the WCST. METHODS: Adolescents with dyslexia and age-matched typical readers performed the Madrid card sorting test (MCST, a computerized version of the WCST. Task performance, reading measures, and cognitive measures were collected. FRN and the P300 complex were acquired using the event-related potentials methodology and were compared in early vs late errors within a series. RESULTS: While performing the MCST, both groups showed a significant reduction in average reaction times and a trend toward decreased error rates. Typical readers performed consistently better than individuals with dyslexia. FRN amplitudes in early phases were significantly smaller in dyslexic readers, but were essentially equivalent to typical readers in the late phase. P300 amplitudes were initially smaller among readers with dyslexia and tended to decrease further in late phases. Differences in FRN amplitudes for early vs late phases were positively correlated with those of P300 amplitudes in the entire sample. CONCLUSION: Individuals with dyslexia demonstrate a behavioral and electrophysiological change within single series of the MCST. However, learning patterns seem to differ between individuals with dyslexia and typical readers. We attribute these differences to the lower baseline performance of individuals with dyslexia. We suggest that these changes represent a fast compensatory mechanism, demonstrating

  2. Effect on health-related quality of life of ongoing feedback during a 12-month maintenance walking programme in patients with COPD: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Sally L; McKeough, Zoe; Ng, Cindy L W; Jenkins, Sue; Hill, Kylie; Eastwood, Peter R; Hillman, David; Jenkins, Christine; Cecins, Nola; Spencer, Lissa; Alison, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    In patients with COPD, this study evaluated the effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of adding ongoing feedback to a 12-month unsupervised maintenance walking programme. Participants were randomized to either an intervention group (IG) or control group (CG). Both groups completed the same 2-month supervised, walking training programme followed by a 12-month unsupervised maintenance walking programme. During the maintenance programme, the IG received ongoing feedback (telephone calls, biofeedback and progressive goal setting) and the CG received no feedback. A total of 75 participants completed the study (mean (SD): age 69 (8) years; forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) 43 (15) % predicted). There was no between-group differences in the magnitude of change in HRQoL when data collected on completion of the 12-month maintenance programme were compared with that collected either before the 2-month supervised programme (mean between-group difference (MD) in total St George's Respiratory Questionnaire change scores: 1 point, 95% CI: -9 to 7) or on completion of the 2-month supervised programme (MD: 4 points, 95% CI -2 to 10). Following a 2-month supervised walking training programme, ongoing feedback was no more effective than no feedback in maintaining HRQoL during a 12-month unsupervised walking programme. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. The Relative Importance of Industry and Size Effect in Corporate Capital Structure Empirical Evidence from the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Koralun-Bereznicka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the relative importance of the industry-specific factors and the sizespecific factors in relation to their impact on the corporate capital structure in certain countries of the European Union. The first, theoretical part of the study provides a literature review on the industry and the size as capital structure determinants. The following empirical research includes 9 EU countries, where the importance of the two factors is compared both for the aggregated data, as well as in individual countries separately. The source of the data is the BACH-ESD database. The applied methodology involves the analysis of variance and cluster analysis. The contribution of this paper is two-fold. First, it prioritizes the two factors in question, whereas most of the hitherto studies only identify the significance of various determinants of leverage. The second contribution is that this study is based on non-public firms – unlike the majority of studies which verify the capital structure theories using mainly samples of large listed companies.

  4. Empirically Defined Patterns of Executive Function Deficits in Schizophrenia and Their Relation to Everyday Functioning: A Person-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iampietro, Mary; Giovannetti, Tania; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Kessler, Rachel K.

    2013-01-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are well documented, although much less is known about patterns of EF deficits and their association to differential impairments in everyday functioning. The present study empirically defined SZ groups based on measures of various EF abilities and then compared these EF groups on everyday action errors. Participants (n=45) completed various subtests from the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT), a performance-based measure of everyday action that yields scores reflecting total errors and a range of different error types (e.g., omission, perseveration). Results of a latent class analysis revealed three distinct EF groups, characterized by (a) multiple EF deficits, (b) relatively spared EF, and (c) perseverative responding. Follow-up analyses revealed that the classes differed significantly on NAT total errors, total commission errors, and total perseveration errors; the two classes with EF impairment performed comparably on the NAT but performed worse than the class with relatively spared EF. In sum, people with SZ demonstrate variable patterns of EF deficits, and distinct aspects of these EF deficit patterns (i.e., poor mental control abilities) may be associated with everyday functioning capabilities. PMID:23035705

  5. Semi-Empirical Validation of the Cross-Band Relative Absorption Technique for the Measurement of Molecular Mixing Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S

    2013-01-01

    Studies were performed to carry out semi-empirical validation of a new measurement approach we propose for molecular mixing ratios determination. The approach is based on relative measurements in bands of O2 and other molecules and as such may be best described as cross band relative absorption (CoBRA). . The current validation studies rely upon well verified and established theoretical and experimental databases, satellite data assimilations and modeling codes such as HITRAN, line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM), and the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA). The approach holds promise for atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2 and a variety of other molecules currently under investigation for several future satellite lidar missions. One of the advantages of the method is a significant reduction of the temperature sensitivity uncertainties which is illustrated with application to the ASCENDS mission for the measurement of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). Additional advantages of the method include the possibility to closely match cross-band weighting function combinations which is harder to achieve using conventional differential absorption techniques and the potential for additional corrections for water vapor and other interferences without using the data from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  6. Formativ Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldahl, Kirsten Kofod

    Denne bog undersøger, hvordan lærere kan anvende feedback til at forbedre undervisningen i klasselokalet. I denne sammenhæng har John Hattie, professor ved Melbourne Universitet, udviklet en model for feedback, hvilken er baseret på synteser af meta-analyser. I 2009 udgav han bogen "Visible...

  7. Feedback and Incentives:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback about relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedba...... of positive peer effects since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly behind, and frontrunners do not slack off. Moreover, in both pay schemes information feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work.......This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback about relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback....... The pay schemes are a piece rate payment scheme and a winner-takes-all tournament. We find that, regardless of the pay scheme used, feedback does not improve performance. There are no significant peer effects in the piece-rate pay scheme. In contrast, in the tournament scheme we find some evidence...

  8. FEEDBACK AND LOGISTICS CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehesne Berek Szilvia

    2015-07-01

    -in checkpoints which allow a retrospection of the results of corporate processes, if necessary, a formation or improvement of the processes. The cost and income management includes the most critical points of the operation of enterprises since it can be posited that, despite the dissimilar activities and management of organizations with different profiles, the common interest of every organization is to reach the better results, and with it, the higher profit and indeed to maximize it as well as to reduce or minimize the costs related to the activities. The simultaneous application of a logistical system approach and controlling even more allows the control, if necessary, a formation and development of the processes. In the life of corporations, these activities are able to appear as a tool increasing the competitiveness, efficiency. Summarizing the above, the reasons of applying the controlling system are the minimal possibility of errors and the opportunity for reaching the maximum profit which are outcomes from the information supplying, leading and coordinating functions of the system. I have carried out an empirical research regarding the following questions. What opinion do the organizations hold on the significance of feedback? How are their activities influenced by the application of a logistics controlling system or the lack of it? Have the organizations experienced an improvement in their economic results thanks to the feedback and the accurate information supply? What areas have been affected by the introduction of a logistics controlling system?

  9. Feedback Loop Gains and Feedback Behavior (1996)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Christian Erik

    2012-01-01

    Linking feedback loops and system behavior is part of the foundation of system dynamics, yet the lack of formal tools has so far prevented a systematic application of the concept, except for very simple systems. Having such tools at their disposal would be a great help to analysts in understanding...... large, complicated simulation models. The paper applies tools from graph theory formally linking individual feedback loop strengths to the system eigenvalues. The significance of a link or a loop gain and an eigenvalue can be expressed in the eigenvalue elasticity, i.e., the relative change...... of an eigenvalue resulting from a relative change in the gain. The elasticities of individual links and loops may be found through simple matrix operations on the linearized system. Even though the number of feedback loops can grow rapidly with system size, reaching astronomical proportions even for modest systems...

  10. OntologicalDiscovery.org: A web resource for the empirical discovery of phenotypic relations across species and experimental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Erich J [Baylor University; Li, Zuopan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Jay, Jeremy J [ORNL; Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Zhang, Yun [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Langston, Michael A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The Ontological Discovery Environment ( http://ontologicaldiscovery.org ) is a free, public Internet resource for the storage, sharing, retrieval and analysis of phenotype-centered genomic data sets. The intent of this resource is to allow the creation of user-defined phenotype categories based on naturally and experimentally observed biological networks, pathways and systems rather than on externally manifested constructs and semantics such as disease names and processes. By extracting the relationships of complex processes from the technology that produces those relationships, this resource meets a growing demand for data integration and hypothesis discovery across multiple experimental contexts, including broad species and phenotype domains. At a highly processed level, analyses of set similarity, distance and hierarchical relations are performed through a modular suite of tools. The core pivot point of analysis is the creation of a bipartite network of gene-phenotype relations, a unique discrete graph approach to gene-set analysis which enables set-set matching of non-referential data. The central organizing metaphor of a gene set may be created, stored and curated by individual users, shared among virtual working groups, or made publicly available. Gene sets submission incorporates a variety of accession numbers, microarray feature IDs, and gene symbols from model organisms, allowing integration across experimental platforms, literature reviews and other genomic analyses. The sets themselves are annotated with several levels of metadata which may include an unstructured description, publication information and structured community ontologies for anatomy, process and function. Gene set translation to user chosen reference species through gene homology allows translational comparison of models regardless of the face validity of the experimental systems. In addition, computationally derived gene sets can be integrated into phenome interdependency and similarity

  11. Empirical model for estimating dengue incidence using temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity: a 19-year retrospective analysis in East Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Vishnampettai G; Roy, Priyamvada; Das, Shukla; Mogha, Narendra Singh; Bansal, Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting the dengue virus. The mosquito lifecycle is known to be influenced by temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity. This retrospective study was planned to investigate whether climatic factors could be used to predict the occurrence of dengue in East Delhi. The number of monthly dengue cases reported over 19 years was obtained from the laboratory records of our institution. Monthly data of rainfall, temperature, and humidity collected from a local weather station were correlated with the number of monthly reported dengue cases. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyse whether the climatic parameters differed significantly among seasons. Four models were developed using negative binomial generalized linear model analysis. Monthly rainfall, temperature, humidity, were used as independent variables, and the number of dengue cases reported monthly was used as the dependent variable. The first model considered data from the same month, while the other three models involved incorporating data with a lag phase of 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively. The greatest number of cases was reported during the post-monsoon period each year. Temperature, rainfall, and humidity varied significantly across the pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon periods. The best correlation between these three climatic factors and dengue occurrence was at a time lag of 2 months. This study found that temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity significantly affected dengue occurrence in East Delhi. This weather-based dengue empirical model can forecast potential outbreaks 2-month in advance, providing an early warning system for intensifying dengue control measures.

  12. Feedback som tredjeordensiagttagelse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Qvortrup

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Feedback tilskrives stor betydning for læring, men trods intensiv forskning på området synes det svært at fange, hvori feedbacks særlige potentiale består. I forsøgene på at gøre dette knyttes an til en række faktorer eller parametre, der fremhæves som centrale. En af disse faktorer er tid, hvor der kredses om forskellen mellem umiddelbar og forsinket feedback samt om fordele og ulemper ved hver af de to. I denne artikel knyttes der an til en forståelse af feedback som tredjeordensiagttagelse, og der sættes herfra fokus på, hvordan man i en praktisk undervisningssituation kan imødekomme tidsfaktoren knyttet til feedback. Med udgangspunkt i et undervisningsforløb på bachelorniveau, hvor der er arbejdet systematisk med feedback understøttet af Wikis, belyses det, hvordan et sådant arbejde synes at have potentiale for understøttelse af såvel læring som undervisning. En sådan teoretisk reflekteret belysning kan udgøre et refleksionsprogram for fremtidig planlægning af og løbende refleksion over undervisning.     The article investigates the effect of feedback on learning. Feedback has been shown to be one of the most powerful influences on achievement in education. But, in spite of much research on the matter, there is no agreement on how the special potential of feedback can be described, and consequently no agreement on what is good and bad feedback. This article sets out to rectify this omission by seeking a new theoretical framework that is sensitive to the complexity of the impact of feedback. The author propose a system theoretical frame and through its use identifies significant didactical issues. Although feedback is described as an internal, system-relative construction, when seen through a system theoretical lens different teaching environments create diverse conditions for feedback constructions. The final section of the paper explores this idea in relation to wikis.

  13. Obsessive-compulsive tendencies are related to indecisiveness and reliance on feedback in a neutral color judgment task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig, Shelly; Dar, Reuven; Liberman, Nira

    2012-03-01

    The present study was designed to test whether OC tendencies are associated with indecisiveness and increased need for objective feedback in vague decision situations. This hypothesis was tested using a neutral color judgment task that places minimal demands on working memory. Sixty-one participants completed several measures of OC symptoms and tendencies. Indecisiveness was tested on a novel computerized task in which participants can move along a continuum marked by two colors at the extreme ends and are instructed to choose the color they judge to be the exact mid-point on the continuum. OC scores were positively correlated with indecisiveness on the task, as assessed by the amount of time it took participants to complete the task and the extent of their search through the color continuum. This association was most pronounced when feedback for performance was not routinely provided. Requests for feedback were also positively correlated with OC scores. OC scores were not associated with actual performance on the task (accuracy levels) or with confidence ratings. The study relies on non-clinical participants and the extent to which these results would extend to OCD patients in unknown. Some effects may be confounded by the fixed order in which the task phases were administered. The findings support the hypothesis that OC tendencies are associated with general indecisiveness and reliance on external feedback. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parental Rearing Behavior Prospectively Predicts Adolescents' Risky Decision-Making and Feedback-Related Electrical Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an…

  15. A Novel Relevance Feedback Approach Based on Similarity Measure Modification in an X-Ray Image Retrieval System Based on Fuzzy Representation Using Fuzzy Attributed Relational Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossien Pourghassem

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Relevance feedback approaches is used to improve the performance of content-based image retrieval systems. In this paper, a novel relevance feedback approach based on similarity measure modification in an X-ray image retrieval system based on fuzzy representation using fuzzy attributed relational graph (FARG is presented. In this approach, optimum weight of each feature in feature vector is calculated using similarity rate between query image and relevant and irrelevant images in user feedback. The calculated weight is used to tune fuzzy graph matching algorithm as a modifier parameter in similarity measure. The standard deviation of the retrieved image features is applied to calculate the optimum weight. The proposed image retrieval system uses a FARG for representation of images, a fuzzy matching graph algorithm as similarity measure and a semantic classifier based on merging scheme for determination of the search space in image database. To evaluate relevance feedback approach in the proposed system, a standard X-ray image database consisting of 10000 images in 57 classes is used. The improvement of the evaluation parameters shows proficiency and efficiency of the proposed system.

  16. Strategies for effective feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritek, Patricia A

    2015-04-01

    Provision of regular feedback to trainees on clinical performance by supervising providers is increasingly recognized as an essential component of undergraduate and graduate health sciences education; however, many individuals have not been formally trained in this pedagogical skill. At the bedside or in the clinic, effective performance feedback can be accomplished by following four key steps. Begin by setting expectations that incorporate the trainee's personal goals and external objectives. Delineate how and when you will provide feedback to the learner. Next, directly observe the trainee's performance. This can be challenging while engaged on a busy clinical service, but a focus on discrete activities or interactions (e.g., family meeting, intravascular volume assessment using bedside ultrasound, or obtaining informed consent) is helpful. The third step is to plan and prioritize the feedback session. Feedback is most effective when given in a timely fashion and delivered in a safe environment. Limit the issues addressed because learners often disengage if confronted with too many deficiencies. Finally, when delivering feedback, begin by listening to the trainee's self-evaluation and then take a balanced approach. Describe in detail what the trainee does well and discuss opportunities for improvement with emphasis on specific, modifiable behaviors. The feedback loop is completed with a plan for follow-up reassessment. Through the use of these relatively simple practices, both the trainee and teacher can have a more productive learning experience.

  17. Sleep disturbances in young and middle-aged adults - Empirical patterns and related factors from an epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; AjdacicGross, Vladeta; Glozier, Nick; Rodgers, Stephanie; Haker, Helene; Müller, Mario

    2017-10-01

    Previous research suggests that sleep disorders are highly associated with other mental health problems. However, sleep problems even below the diagnostic threshold of sleep disorders are very common in the general population, which highly affects wellbeing and functioning. In order to broaden the focus beyond those severe cases we explored empirical patterns across the whole spectrum of sleep problems as well as associated clinical and other factors. A representative community sample of N=1274 residents from the canton of Zurich was interviewed for sleep problems and diagnostic criteria for mental disorders as well as was given a number of mental health-related psychometrical checklists. Based on a broader spectrum of sleep problems we conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) to derive distinct classes of such disturbances. Classes were compared regarding their associations to mental health-relevant and other risk factors. The LCA revealed four classes - no sleep disturbances (72.6%), difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (15.8%), delayed sleep (5.3%), and severe sleep problems (6.4%). Severe sleep problems were related to female gender and generalized anxiety disorder, while depression was linked to all sleep problem classes. Persons with difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and severe sleep problems reported higher levels of psychopathology, burnout and neuroticism, while all sleep problem types were tied to stress-related variables, but not alcohol use disorder. Sleep problems are highly prevalent among the young and middle-aged adults in our representative sample of young and middle-aged adults and as such represent a serious public mental health problem. Our findings indicate sleep problems to have a multi-dimensional structure with some differential associations. While all subtypes were associated with poorer mental health and particularly more depression, severe sleep problems appeared to be the sleep subtype seen in agoraphobia and GAD

  18. Fear of feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Jay M; Strober, Myra H

    2003-04-01

    Nobody likes performance reviews. Subordinates are terrified they'll hear nothing but criticism. Bosses think their direct reports will respond to even the mildest criticism with anger or tears. The result? Everyone keeps quiet. That's unfortunate, because most people need help figuring out how to improve their performance and advance their careers. This fear of feedback doesn't come into play just during annual reviews. At least half the executives with whom the authors have worked never ask for feedback. Many expect the worst: heated arguments, even threats of dismissal. So rather than seek feedback, people try to guess what their bosses are thinking. Fears and assumptions about feedback often manifest themselves in psychologically maladaptive behaviors such as procrastination, denial, brooding, jealousy, and self-sabotage. But there's hope, say the authors. Those who learn adaptive techniques can free themselves from destructive responses. They'll be able to deal with feedback better if they acknowledge negative emotions, reframe fear and criticism constructively, develop realistic goals, create support systems, and reward themselves for achievements along the way. Once you've begun to alter your maladaptive behaviors, you can begin seeking regular feedback from your boss. The authors take you through four steps for doing just that: self-assessment, external assessment, absorbing the feedback, and taking action toward change. Organizations profit when employees ask for feedback and deal well with criticism. Once people begin to know how they are doing relative to management's priorities, their work becomes better aligned with organizational goals. What's more, they begin to transform a feedback-averse environment into a more honest and open one, in turn improving performance throughout the organization.

  19. What Makes You Tick? An Empirical Study of Space Science Related Social Media Communications Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwong, Y. L.; Oliver, C.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The rise of social media has transformed the way the public engages with scientists and science organisations. `Retweet', `Like', `Share' and `Comment' are a few ways users engage with messages on Twitter and Facebook, two of the most popular social media platforms. Despite the availability of big data from these digital footprints, research into social media science communication is scant. This paper presents the results of an empirical study into the processes and outcomes of space science related social media communications using machine learning. The study is divided into two main parts. The first part is dedicated to the use of supervised learning methods to investigate the features of highly engaging messages., e.g. highly retweeted tweets and shared Facebook posts. It is hypothesised that these messages contain certain psycholinguistic features that are unique to the field of space science. We built a predictive model to forecast the engagement levels of social media posts. By using four feature sets (n-grams, psycholinguistics, grammar and social media), we were able to achieve prediction accuracies in the vicinity of 90% using three supervised learning algorithms (Naive Bayes, linear classifier and decision tree). We conducted the same experiments on social media messages from three other fields (politics, business and non-profit) and discovered several features that are exclusive to space science communications: anger, authenticity, hashtags, visual descriptions and a tentative tone. The second part of the study focuses on the extraction of topics from a corpus of texts using topic modelling. This part of the study is exploratory in nature and uses an unsupervised method called Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to uncover previously unknown topics within a large body of documents. Preliminary results indicate a strong potential of topic model algorithms to automatically uncover themes hidden within social media chatters on space related issues, with

  20. An Empirical Study On Work Related Stress Among The Academic Librarian With Special Reference To Private Arts And Science Colleges, Chennai.

    OpenAIRE

    Mouli, S. Chandra; Krishnan, S. Arul

    2014-01-01

    Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the ever increasing demands of life. There have been several studies related to stress. Very few of them have been conducted in higher education. The present paper provides empirical evidence to ascertain the work related stress among the academic librarian across the private Arts and Science College in Chennai, Tamilnadu state. Data was obtained from 120 academic librarians. Results indicate that stress does not progressively increase...

  1. Social Capital in Schools: A Conceptual and Empirical Analysis of the Equity of Its Distribution and Relation to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Serena J.; Goddard, Roger D.; Larsen, Ross

    2017-01-01

    Background: Schools face pressure to promote equitable student outcomes as the achievement gap continues to persist. The authors examine different ways in which social capital has been conceptualized as well as prior theory and research on its formation and consequences. While some theoretical and empirical work conceptualizes social capital as a…

  2. The effects of tournament incentive contracts and relative performance feedback on task effort, learning effort, and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, George

    2015-01-01

    When employees work hard, they exert more effort on job tasks (task effort); and when employees learn hard, they exert more effort to learn (learning effort). Task effort and learning effort are important causes of improved performance. This thesis investigates whether the use of tournament schemes motivates employees to work harder and learn harder, and also whether providing performance feedback in tournament schemes has any impact on task effort and learning effort.This thesis has three go...

  3. Mechanoelectric feedback does not contribute to the Frank-Starling relation in the rat and guinea pig heart

    OpenAIRE

    D Kelly; L Mackenzie; David A. Saint

    2014-01-01

    Mechanoelectric feedback (MEF) is the process by which mechanical forces on the myocardium can alter its electrical properties. The effect can be large enough to induce ectopic beats or fibrillation. However, the role of MEF at physiological levels of mechanical stress is not clear. We have investigated alteration in action potential morphology in rat and guinea pig ventricle and in rat atrial tissue at levels of stretch near the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve. Stretch of >100 mm.Hg E...

  4. Empirical ground-motion relations for subduction-zone earthquakes and their application to Cascadia and other regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G.M.; Boore, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-motion relations for earthquakes that occur in subduction zones are an important input to seismic-hazard analyses in many parts of the world. In the Cascadia region (Washington, Oregon, northern California, and British Columbia), for example, there is a significant hazard from megathrust earthquakes along the subduction interface and from large events within the subducting slab. These hazards are in addition to the hazard from shallow earthquakes in the overlying crust. We have compiled a response spectra database from thousands of strong-motion recordings from events of moment magnitude (M) 5-8.3 occurring in subduction zones around the world, including both interface and in-slab events. The 2001 M 6.8 Nisqually and 1999 M 5.9 Satsop earthquakes are included in the database, as are many records from subduction zones in Japan (Kyoshin-Net data), Mexico (Guerrero data), and Central America. The size of the database is four times larger than that available for previous empirical regressions to determine ground-motion relations for subduction-zone earthquakes. The large dataset enables improved determination of attenuation parameters and magnitude scaling, for both interface and in-slab events. Soil response parameters are also better determined by the data. We use the database to develop global ground-motion relations for interface and in-slab earthquakes, using a maximum likelihood regression method. We analyze regional variability of ground-motion amplitudes across the global database and find that there are significant regional differences. In particular, amplitudes in Cascadia differ by more than a factor of 2 from those in Japan for the same magnitude, distance, event type, and National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) soil class. This is believed to be due to regional differences in the depth of the soil profile, which are not captured by the NEHRP site classification scheme. Regional correction factors to account for these differences are

  5. Perceived Insider Status and Feedback Reactions: A Dual Path of Feedback Motivation Attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Liao, JianQiao; Wu, Weijiong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have evaluated how the characteristics of feedback receiver, feedback deliverer and feedback information influence psychological feedback reactions of the feedback receiver while largely neglecting that feedback intervention is a kind of social interaction process. To address this issue, this study proposes that employees' perceived insider status (PIS), as a kind of employee-organization relationship, could also influence employees' reactions to supervisory feedback. In particular, this study investigates the influence of PIS focusing on affective and cognitive feedback reactions, namely feedback satisfaction and feedback utility. Surveys were conducted in a machinery manufacturing company in the Guangdong province of China. Samples were collected from 192 employees. Data analysis demonstrated that PIS and feedback utility possessed a U-shaped relationship, whereas PIS and feedback satisfaction exhibited positively linear relationships. The analysis identified two kinds of mediating mechanisms related to feedback satisfaction and feedback utility. Internal feedback motivation attribution partially mediated the relationship between PIS and feedback satisfaction but failed to do the same with respect to the relationship between PIS and feedback utility. In contrast, external feedback motivation attribution partially mediated the relationship between PIS and feedback utility while failing to mediate the relationship between PIS and feedback satisfaction. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of the findings are discussed at the end of the paper.

  6. Perceived Insider Status and Feedback Reactions: A Dual Path of Feedback Motivation Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijiong Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have evaluated how the characteristics of feedback receiver, feedback deliverer and feedback information influence psychological feedback reactions of the feedback receiver while largely neglecting that feedback intervention is a kind of social interaction process. To address this issue, this study proposes that employees’ perceived insider status (PIS, as a kind of employee-organization relationship, could also influence employees’ reactions to supervisory feedback. In particular, this study investigates the influence of PIS focusing on affective and cognitive feedback reactions, namely feedback satisfaction and feedback utility. Surveys were conducted in a machinery manufacturing company in the Guangdong province of China. Samples were collected from 192 employees. Data analysis demonstrated that PIS and feedback utility possessed a U-shaped relationship, whereas PIS and feedback satisfaction exhibited positively linear relationships. The analysis identified two kinds of mediating mechanisms related to feedback satisfaction and feedback utility. Internal feedback motivation attribution partially mediated the relationship between PIS and feedback satisfaction but failed to do the same with respect to the relationship between PIS and feedback utility. In contrast, external feedback motivation attribution partially mediated the relationship between PIS and feedback utility while failing to mediate the relationship between PIS and feedback satisfaction. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of the findings are discussed at the end of the paper.

  7. Perceived Insider Status and Feedback Reactions: A Dual Path of Feedback Motivation Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Liao, JianQiao; Wu, Weijiong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have evaluated how the characteristics of feedback receiver, feedback deliverer and feedback information influence psychological feedback reactions of the feedback receiver while largely neglecting that feedback intervention is a kind of social interaction process. To address this issue, this study proposes that employees’ perceived insider status (PIS), as a kind of employee-organization relationship, could also influence employees’ reactions to supervisory feedback. In particular, this study investigates the influence of PIS focusing on affective and cognitive feedback reactions, namely feedback satisfaction and feedback utility. Surveys were conducted in a machinery manufacturing company in the Guangdong province of China. Samples were collected from 192 employees. Data analysis demonstrated that PIS and feedback utility possessed a U-shaped relationship, whereas PIS and feedback satisfaction exhibited positively linear relationships. The analysis identified two kinds of mediating mechanisms related to feedback satisfaction and feedback utility. Internal feedback motivation attribution partially mediated the relationship between PIS and feedback satisfaction but failed to do the same with respect to the relationship between PIS and feedback utility. In contrast, external feedback motivation attribution partially mediated the relationship between PIS and feedback utility while failing to mediate the relationship between PIS and feedback satisfaction. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of the findings are discussed at the end of the paper. PMID:28507527

  8. Empirical likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Art B

    2001-01-01

    Empirical likelihood provides inferences whose validity does not depend on specifying a parametric model for the data. Because it uses a likelihood, the method has certain inherent advantages over resampling methods: it uses the data to determine the shape of the confidence regions, and it makes it easy to combined data from multiple sources. It also facilitates incorporating side information, and it simplifies accounting for censored, truncated, or biased sampling.One of the first books published on the subject, Empirical Likelihood offers an in-depth treatment of this method for constructing confidence regions and testing hypotheses. The author applies empirical likelihood to a range of problems, from those as simple as setting a confidence region for a univariate mean under IID sampling, to problems defined through smooth functions of means, regression models, generalized linear models, estimating equations, or kernel smooths, and to sampling with non-identically distributed data. Abundant figures offer vi...

  9. Feedback control in planarian stem cell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangel, Marc; Bonsall, Michael B; Aboobaker, Aziz

    2016-02-13

    In planarian flatworms, the mechanisms underlying the activity of collectively pluripotent adult stem cells (neoblasts) and their descendants can now be studied from the level of the individual gene to the entire animal. Flatworms maintain startling developmental plasticity and regenerative capacity in response to variable nutrient conditions or injury. We develop a model for cell dynamics in such animals, assuming that fully differentiated cells exert feedback control on neoblast activity. Our model predicts a number of whole organism level and general cell biological and behaviours, some of which have been empirically observed or inferred in planarians and others that have not. As previously observed empirically we find: 1) a curvilinear relationship between external food and planarian steady state size; 2) the fraction of neoblasts in the steady state is constant regardless of planarian size; 3) a burst of controlled apoptosis during regeneration after amputation as the number of differentiated cells are adjusted towards their homeostatic/steady state level. In addition our model describes the following properties that can inform and be tested by future experiments: 4) the strength of feedback control from differentiated cells to neoblasts (i.e. the activity of the signalling system) and from neoblasts on themselves in relation to absolute number depends upon the level of food in the environment; 5) planarians adjust size when food level reduces initially through increased apoptosis and then through a reduction in neoblast self-renewal activity; 6) following wounding or excision of differentiated cells, different time scales characterize both recovery of size and the two feedback functions; 7) the temporal pattern of feedback controls differs noticeably during recovery from a removal or neoblasts or a removal of differentiated cells; 8) the signaling strength for apoptosis of differentiated cells depends upon both the absolute and relative deviations of the

  10. Content and conceptual frameworks of psychology and social work preceptor feedback related to the educational requests of family medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Luc; Rocque, Rhéa; Audétat, Marie-Claude

    2017-06-01

    Supervision of communication competency in clinical settings in medicine is an important component of professional training. The purpose of this study was to describe the content and rationale of psychology and social work preceptor feedback to family medicine residents who express educational needs during case-based written vignettes. We conducted a qualitative study with 25 psychology and social work preceptors from family medicine departments of the three French-speaking universities in the province of Quebec, Canada. During an individual interview, preceptors were asked to respond to three short case-based written vignettes depicting resident educational issues regarding communication and to explain their responses. Authors analyzed the content of responses and the conceptual frameworks reported. The three vignettes elicited 475 responses, including 58 distinct responses and 33 distinct conceptual frameworks. Therapeutic alliance and stages of grief were the two most reported conceptual frameworks. The vignettes stimulated a wealth of responses and conceptual frameworks among psychology and social work preceptors in family medicine. The complete list of responses could be useful for faculty development activities by stimulating preceptors' reflexive practice with regard to their responses, the educational goals of these responses and the conceptual frameworks underlying their feedback. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Personality traits and achievement motives: Theoretical and empirical relations between the NEO Personality Inventory-revised and the Achievment Motives Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Diseth, Åge; Martinsen, Øyvind Lund

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical relations between personality traits and motive dispositions were investigated by comparing scores of 3 15 undergraduate psychology students on the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the Achievement hlotives Scale. Analyses showed all NEO Personality Inventory-Revised factors cwcept agreeableness were significantly correlated with the motive for success and the motive to avoid failure. h structural equation model showed that lnotivc for success was ...

  12. Depression-related difficulties disengaging from negative faces are associated with sustained attention to negative feedback during social evaluation and predict stress recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Romero, Nuria; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify: 1) the presence of depression-related attention bias related to a social stressor, 2) its association with depression-related attention biases as measured under standard conditions, and 3) their association with impaired stress recovery in depression. A sample of 39 participants reporting a broad range of depression levels completed a standard eye-tracking paradigm in which they had to engage/disengage their gaze with/from emotional faces. Participants then underwent a stress induction (i.e., giving a speech), in which their eye movements to false emotional feedback were measured, and stress reactivity and recovery were assessed. Depression level was associated with longer times to engage/disengage attention with/from negative faces under standard conditions and with sustained attention to negative feedback during the speech. These depression-related biases were associated and mediated the association between depression level and self-reported stress recovery, predicting lower recovery from stress after giving the speech.

  13. The Effect of Positive Feedback in a Constraint-Based Intelligent Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Antonija; Ohlsson, Stellan; Barrow, Devon K.

    2013-01-01

    Tutoring technologies for supporting learning from errors via negative feedback are highly developed and have proven their worth in empirical evaluations. However, observations of empirical tutoring dialogs highlight the importance of positive feedback in the practice of expert tutoring. We hypothesize that positive feedback works by reducing…

  14. Net land-atmosphere flows of biogenic carbon related to bioenergy: towards an understanding of systemic feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut

    2013-07-01

    The notion that biomass combustion is carbon neutral vis-a-vis the atmosphere because carbon released during biomass combustion is absorbed during plant regrowth is inherent in the greenhouse gas accounting rules in many regulations and conventions. But this 'carbon neutrality' assumption of bioenergy is an oversimplification that can result in major flaws in emission accounting; it may even result in policies that increase, instead of reduce, overall greenhouse gas emissions. This commentary discusses the systemic feedbacks and ecosystem succession/land-use history issues ignored by the carbon neutrality assumption. Based on recent literature, three cases are elaborated which show that the C balance of bioenergy may range from highly beneficial to strongly detrimental, depending on the plants grown, the land used (including its land-use history) as well as the fossil energy replaced. The article concludes by proposing the concept of GHG cost curves of bioenergy as a means for optimizing the climate benefits of bioenergy policies.

  15. Reduced responsiveness of kisspeptin neurons to estrogenic positive feedback associated with age-related disappearance of LH surge in middle-age female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Misawa Niki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Hisanori; Seki, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Ishikawa, Kaori; Chatani, Fumio; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Age-related disappearance of the LH surge is one of major biomarkers of reproductive aging in female rats. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) are proposed as the critical regulator of the preovulatory LH surge in response to estrogenic positive feedback. Here we investigated the possible involvement of the AVPV kisspeptin neurons in the disappearance of the LH surge in middle-age rats. Middle-age rats exhibiting persistent estrus (M-PE) did not show an LH surge although neither Kiss1 mRNA nor peptide in the AVPV was differentially expressed when compared to young rats exhibiting normal estrous cycles (YN). M-PE released LH in response to exogenous kisspeptin in a similar dose-dependent manner as YN, suggesting that their GnRH neurons still maintained responsiveness to kisspeptin. To investigate the estrogenic positive feedback effect on kisspeptin neurons in the AVPV, rats were ovariectomized and supplemented with estradiol (OVX+E2). We performed in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for Kiss1 mRNA and cFos, respectively, and found that M-PE exhibited a significantly lower percentage of Kiss1 mRNA positive neurons with cFos immunoreactivity, although the total number of kisspeptin neurons was not different from that in cyclic rats. Furthermore, OVX+E2 M-PE did not show the surge-like LH release under high estradiol administration while YN did. Thus our current study suggests that the reduced responsiveness of the AVPV kisspeptin neurons to estrogenic positive feedback presumably results in the decrease in kisspeptin secretion from neurons and eventually causes the age-related disappearance of the LH surge in middle age female rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plant–soil feedbacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortois, Roeland; Schröder-Georgi, Thomas; Weigelt, Alexandra; Putten, van der Wim H.; Deyn, De Gerlinde B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant–soil feedback (PSF), plant trait and functional group concepts advanced our understanding of plant community dynamics, but how they are interlinked is poorly known. To test how plant functional groups (FGs: graminoids, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes) and plant traits relate to PSF, we

  17. Feedback, Incentives and Peer Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire

    . The pay schemes are a piece rate payment scheme and a winner takes-all tournament. We find that the principal should not provide any information on relative  performance, regardless of the pay scheme used, since feedback does not improve performance. Indeed, we do not find evidence of positive peer...... effects in the piece-rate pay scheme. In both pay schemes, interim feedback generates negative quality peer effects on the less able performers. We find however evidence of positive peer effects in the tournament scheme since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly......This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback about relative performance...

  18. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Petrie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  19. The Feedback-Related Negativity and the P300 Brain Potential Are Sensitive to Price Expectation Violations in a Virtual Shopping Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Alexandre; Buratto, Luciano G.; Goto, Nobuhiko; Brotherhood, Emilie V.

    2016-01-01

    A large body of evidence shows that buying behaviour is strongly determined by consumers’ price expectations and the extent to which real prices violate these expectations. Despite the importance of this phenomenon, little is known regarding its neural mechanisms. Here we show that two patterns of electrical brain activity known to index prediction errors–the Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) and the feedback-related P300 –were sensitive to price offers that were cheaper than participants’ expectations. In addition, we also found that FRN amplitude time-locked to price offers predicted whether a product would be subsequently purchased or not, and further analyses suggest that this result was driven by the sensitivity of the FRN to positive price expectation violations. This finding strongly suggests that ensembles of neurons coding positive prediction errors play a critical role in real-life consumer behaviour. Further, these findings indicate that theoretical models based on the notion of prediction error, such as the Reinforcement Learning Theory, can provide a neurobiologically grounded account of consumer behavior. PMID:27658301

  20. The Feedback-Related Negativity and the P300 Brain Potential Are Sensitive to Price Expectation Violations in a Virtual Shopping Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Alexandre; Buratto, Luciano G; Goto, Nobuhiko; Brotherhood, Emilie V

    A large body of evidence shows that buying behaviour is strongly determined by consumers' price expectations and the extent to which real prices violate these expectations. Despite the importance of this phenomenon, little is known regarding its neural mechanisms. Here we show that two patterns of electrical brain activity known to index prediction errors-the Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) and the feedback-related P300 -were sensitive to price offers that were cheaper than participants' expectations. In addition, we also found that FRN amplitude time-locked to price offers predicted whether a product would be subsequently purchased or not, and further analyses suggest that this result was driven by the sensitivity of the FRN to positive price expectation violations. This finding strongly suggests that ensembles of neurons coding positive prediction errors play a critical role in real-life consumer behaviour. Further, these findings indicate that theoretical models based on the notion of prediction error, such as the Reinforcement Learning Theory, can provide a neurobiologically grounded account of consumer behavior.

  1. The Feedback-Related Negativity and the P300 Brain Potential Are Sensitive to Price Expectation Violations in a Virtual Shopping Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Schaefer

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence shows that buying behaviour is strongly determined by consumers' price expectations and the extent to which real prices violate these expectations. Despite the importance of this phenomenon, little is known regarding its neural mechanisms. Here we show that two patterns of electrical brain activity known to index prediction errors-the Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN and the feedback-related P300 -were sensitive to price offers that were cheaper than participants' expectations. In addition, we also found that FRN amplitude time-locked to price offers predicted whether a product would be subsequently purchased or not, and further analyses suggest that this result was driven by the sensitivity of the FRN to positive price expectation violations. This finding strongly suggests that ensembles of neurons coding positive prediction errors play a critical role in real-life consumer behaviour. Further, these findings indicate that theoretical models based on the notion of prediction error, such as the Reinforcement Learning Theory, can provide a neurobiologically grounded account of consumer behavior.

  2. Randomized controlled trial of a web-delivered personalized normative feedback intervention to reduce alcohol-related risky sexual behavior among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A; Patrick, Megan E; Litt, Dana M; Atkins, David C; Kim, Theresa; Blayney, Jessica A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Larimer, Mary E

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of personalized normative feedback (PNF) on college student alcohol-related risky sexual behavior (RSB). In a randomized controlled trial, 480 (57.6% female) sexually active college students were stratified by gender and level of drinking and randomly assigned to an alcohol-only intervention, an alcohol-related RSB-only intervention, a combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention, or control. All assessment and intervention procedures were Web-based. Results indicated a significant reduction in drinking outcomes for the alcohol only and the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB interventions relative to control. Findings further demonstrated a significant reduction in alcohol-related RSB outcomes for the alcohol-related RSB only and the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB interventions relative to control. There were no significant intervention effects on alcohol-related negative consequences. These findings demonstrate that the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention was the only intervention successful at reducing both drinking and alcohol-related RSB outcomes relative to control. There were no significant differences when comparing the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention to the alcohol-only intervention or the alcohol-related RSB-only intervention. Finally, results suggested that the intervention effects on high-risk behaviors were mediated by reductions in descriptive normative perceptions. These findings demonstrate that PNF specific to drinking in sexual situations was needed to reduce alcohol-related RSB. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential utility of a brief intervention that can be delivered via the Internet to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol-related RSB among college students. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Delivered Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention to Reduce Alcohol-Related Risky Sexual Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Patrick, Megan E.; Litt, Dana. M.; Atkins, David C.; Kim, Theresa; Blayney, Jessica A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of personalized normative feedback (PNF) on college student alcohol-related risky sexual behavior (RSB). Method In a randomized controlled trial, 480 (57.6% female) sexually-active college students were stratified by gender and level of drinking and randomly assigned to an alcohol only intervention, an alcohol-related RSB only intervention, a combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention, or control. All assessment and intervention procedures were web-based. Results Results indicated a significant reduction in drinking outcomes for the alcohol only and the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB interventions relative to control. Findings further demonstrated a significant reduction in alcohol-related RSB outcomes for the alcohol-related RSB only and the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB interventions relative to control. There were no significant intervention effects on alcohol-related negative consequences. These findings demonstrate that the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention was the only intervention successful at reducing both drinking and alcohol-related RSB outcomes relative to control. There were no significant differences when comparing the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention to the alcohol only intervention or the alcohol-related RSB only intervention. Finally, results suggested that the intervention effects on high-risk behaviors were mediated by reductions in descriptive normative perceptions. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that PNF specific to drinking in sexual situations was needed to reduce alcohol-related RSB. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential utility of a brief intervention that can be delivered via the Internet to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol-related RSB among college students. PMID:24491076

  4. Seasonal contributions to climate feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colman, R. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, GPO Box 1289K, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2003-05-01

    Heading Abstract. This study addresses the question: how do the contributions to feedbacks in a climate model vary over the seasonal cycle? To answer this the feedbacks are evaluated from an equilibrium doubled CO{sub 2} experiment performed using the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) General Circulation Model. Monthly means of the top-of-atmosphere radiative perturbations (which together comprise the annual climate feedbacks) are extracted to produce a mean annual cycle. It is found that the radiative contributions to the total longwave (LW) feedback are fairly constant throughout the year. Those to the total shortwave (SW) feedback, on the other hand, vary by a factor of three, from a maximum in July to a minimum in November. Of the LW feedbacks, contributions to the lapse rate shows greatest seasonal variation, while those to water vapour and cloud feedbacks vary by relatively small amounts throughout the year. Contributions to the lapse rate feedback as a function of surface type and latitude reveal conflicting positive and negative radiative perturbations, which vary most strongly at high latitudes. Of the SW feedbacks, contributions to both albedo and cloud show large seasonal variations. Radiative perturbations contributing to albedo feedback vary in strength with snow and sea-ice retreat which occurs at different latitudes and in different months. They are shown to be highly sensitive to the amount of incident solar radiation in a given month. SW radiative perturbations due to cloud changes vary in sign between opposite seasons. Contributions to the seasonal variations of the cloud component feedbacks, which make up the total cloud feedback, are also examined. In the LW, the feedback is dominated by the total cloud water term. Radiative perturbations due to this component show relatively little variation throughout the year. In the SW, the main source of seasonal variation occurs for contributions to the cloud amount feedback: radiative

  5. The Relation of College Student Self-Efficacy toward Writing and Writing Self-Regulation Aptitude: Writing Feedback Perceptions as a Mediating Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekholm, Eric; Zumbrunn, Sharon; Conklin, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite the powerful effect feedback often has on student writing success more research is needed on how students emotionally react to the feedback they receive. This study tested the predictive and mediational roles of college student writing self-efficacy beliefs and feedback perceptions on writing self-regulation aptitude. Results suggested…

  6. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...

  7. Empire Redux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    from the legacies of empire. Taking decolonization as a starting point, this thesis demonstrates how the idea of a ‘British world’ gained a new lease of life vis-à-vis the Falklands, as the Islanders adopted the rhetorical mantle of ‘abandoned Britons’. Yet this new momentum was partial and fractured...... from a remote colony was later joined by the memory of ‘dominating imperialism’, associated with gunboats, military exploits and bellicose rhetoric. The divisions caused by these latent imperial factors not only affected Britons in the UK (at a time of emergent devolutionary pressures in the ‘Celtic...

  8. Personality traits and achievement motives: theoretical and empirical relations between the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the Achievement Motives Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Age; Martinsen, Øyvind

    2009-04-01

    Theoretical and empirical relations between personality traits and motive dispositions were investigated by comparing scores of 315 undergraduate psychology students on the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the Achievement Motives Scale. Analyses showed all NEO Personality Inventory-Revised factors except agreeableness were significantly correlated with the motive for success and the motive to avoid failure. A structural equation model showed that motive for success was predicted by Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism (negative relation), and motive to avoid failure was predicted by Neuroticism and Openness (negative relation). Although both achievement motives were predicted by several personality factors, motive for success was most strongly predicted by Openness, and motive to avoid failure was most strongly predicted by neuroticism. These findings extended previous research on the relations of personality traits and achievement motives and provided a basis for the discussion of motive dispositions in personality. The results also added to the construct validity of the Achievement Motives Scale.

  9. Effects of Feedback on Collaborative Writing in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch, Teresa; Espasa, Anna; Alvarez, Ibis M.; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for supporting student writing has received much attention in writing research. One specific type of support is feedback--including peer feedback--on the writing process. Despite the wealth of literature on both feedback and academic writing, there is little empirical evidence on what type of feedback best promotes writing in online…

  10. No evidence for an elephant-termite feedback loop in Sand Forest, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagendijk, D. D G; Davies, A. B.; Eggleton, P.; Slotow, R.

    2016-01-01

    Termites and mammalian herbivores might derive mutual benefit from each other through positive feedback loops, but empirical evidence is lacking. One suggested positive feedback loop is between termites and elephant, both ecosystem engineers. Termites, as decomposer organisms, contribute to nutrient

  11. Effects of affective arousal on choice behavior, reward prediction errors, and feedback-related negativities in human reward-based decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hsiang eLiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotional experience has a pervasive impact on choice behavior, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Introducing facial-expression primes into a probabilistic learning task, we investigated how affective arousal regulates reward-related choice based on behavioral, model fitting, and feedback-related negativity (FRN data. Sixty-six paid subjects were randomly assigned to the Neutral-Neutral (NN, Angry-Neutral (AN, and Happy-Neutral (HN groups. A total of 960 trials were conducted. Subjects in each group were randomly exposed to half trials of the pre-determined emotional faces and another half of the neutral faces before choosing between two cards drawn from two decks with different assigned reward probabilities. Trial-by-trial data were fit with a standard reinforcement learning model using the Bayesian estimation approach. The temporal dynamics of brain activity were simultaneously recorded and analyzed using event-related potentials. Our analyses revealed that subjects in the NN group gained more reward values than those in the other two groups; they also exhibited comparatively differential estimated model-parameter values for reward prediction errors. Computing the difference wave of FRNs in reward versus non-reward trials, compared to the NN group, we found that subjects in the AN and HN groups had larger General FRNs (i.e., FRNs in no-reward trials minus FRNs in reward trials and Expected FRNs (i.e., FRNs in expected reward-omission trials minus FRNs in expected reward-delivery trials, indicating an interruption in predicting reward. Further, both AN and HN groups appeared to be more sensitive to negative outcomes than the NN group. Collectively, our study suggests that affective arousal negatively regulates reward-related choice, probably through overweighting with negative feedback.

  12. Development of a novel empathy-related video-feedback intervention to improve empathic accuracy of nursing students: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobchuk, Michelle; Halas, Gayle; West, Christina; Harder, Nicole; Tursunova, Zulfiya; Ramraj, Chantal

    2016-11-01

    Stressed family carers engage in health-risk behaviours that can lead to chronic illness. Innovative strategies are required to bolster empathic dialogue skills that impact nursing student confidence and sensitivity in meeting carers' wellness needs. To report on the development and evaluation of a promising empathy-related video-feedback intervention and its impact on student empathic accuracy on carer health risk behaviours. A pilot quasi-experimental design study with eight pairs of 3rd year undergraduate nursing students and carers. Students participated in perspective-taking instructional and practice sessions, and a 10-minute video-recorded dialogue with carers followed by a video-tagging task. Quantitative and qualitative approaches helped us to evaluate the recruitment protocol, capture participant responses to the intervention and study tools, and develop a tool to assess student empathic accuracy. The instructional and practice sessions increased student self-awareness of biases and interest in learning empathy by video-tagging feedback. Carers felt that students were 'non-judgmental', inquisitive, and helped them to 'gain new insights' that fostered ownership to change their health-risk behaviour. There was substantial Fleiss Kappa agreement among four raters across five dyads and 67 tagged instances. In general, students and carers evaluated the intervention favourably. The results suggest areas of improvement to the recruitment protocol, perspective-taking instructions, video-tagging task, and empathic accuracy tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonlinear empirical model of gas humidity-related voltage dynamics of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiler, M.; Andre, D.; Schmid, O.; Hofer, E. P.

    Intelligent energy management is a cost-effective key path to realize efficient automotive drive trains [R. O'Hayre, S.W. Cha, W. Colella, F.B. Prinz. Fuel Cell Fundamentals, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2006]. To develop operating strategy in fuel cell drive trains, precise and computational efficient models of all system components, especially the fuel cell stack, are needed. Should these models further be used in diagnostic or control applications, then some major requirements must be fulfilled. First, the model must predict the mean fuel cell voltage very precisely in all possible operating conditions, even during transients. The model output should be as smooth as possible to support best efficient optimization strategies of the complete system. At least, the model must be computational efficient. For most applications, a difference between real fuel cell voltage and model output of less than 10 mV and 1000 calculations per second will be sufficient. In general, empirical models based on system identification offer a better accuracy and consume less calculation resources than detailed models derived from theoretical considerations [J. Larminie, A. Dicks. Fuel Cell Systems Explained, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, 2003]. In this contribution, the dynamic behaviour of the mean cell voltage of a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack due to variations in humidity of cell's reactant gases is investigated. The validity of the overall model structure, a so-called general Hammerstein model (or Uryson model), was introduced recently in [M. Meiler, O. Schmid, M. Schudy, E.P. Hofer. Dynamic fuel cell stack model for real-time simulation based on system identification, J. Power Sources 176 (2007) 523-528]. Fuel cell mean voltage is calculated as the sum of a stationary and a dynamic voltage component. The stationary component of cell voltage is represented by a lookup-table and the dynamic voltage by a parallel placed, nonlinear transfer function. A

  14. Feedback: Breakfast of Champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Jeffrey J.

    Feedback is an important skill that people need to learn in life. Feedback is crucial in a public speaking class to improve speaking skills. Providing and receiving feedback is what champions feed on to be successful, thus feedback is called the "Breakfast of Champions." Feedback builds speakers' confidence. Providing in-depth feedback…

  15. Writing Helpful Feedback: The Influence of Feedback Type on Students' Perceptions and Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Taylor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Written feedback on students’ assignments is a common method that instructors and teaching assistants use to inform students about their performance or guide revisions. Despite its frequency of use, written feedback often lacks sufficient detail to be beneficial to students, and additional empirical research should examine its effectiveness as a teaching tool. The current study examined the effectiveness of two different types of feedback, developed and undeveloped, in terms of its influence on students’ subsequent writing performance and students’ perceptions of the feedback. Results demonstrated that the type of feedback significantly affected students’ perceptions, with developed feedback related to higher ratings of fairness and helpfulness; however, this feedback did not have a significant positive effect on students’ written performance.Les commentaires écrits sur les travaux sont une méthode courante utilisée par les enseignants et les aides-enseignants pour renseigner les étudiants sur leurs performances ou pour orienter les révisions. Malgré leur fréquence, il arrive souvent que les commentaires écrits ne soient pas assez détaillés pour être profitables aux étudiants. De plus amples recherches empiriques devraient se pencher sur l’efficacité de cet outil d'enseignement. La présente étude porte sur l'efficacité de différents types de commentaires élaborés et sous-élaborés; sur leur influence sur la performance écrite subséquente des étudiants et sur la perception de ces derniers à propos des commentaires. Les résultats démontrent que le type de commentaires influe significativement sur la perception des étudiants, les commentaires élaborés entraînant des évaluations supérieures en ce qui a trait à l’impartialité et à l'utilité; cependant, ces commentaires n'ont pas d'effets positifs importants sur la performance écrite des étudiants.

  16. Empire vs. Federation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravier, Magali

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the concepts of federation and empire in the context of the European Union (EU). Even if these two concepts are not usually contrasted to one another, the article shows that they refer to related type of polities. Furthermore, they can be used at a time because they shed light...... on different and complementary aspects of the European integration process. The article concludes that the EU is at the crossroads between federation and empire and may remain an ‘imperial federation’ for several decades. This could mean that the EU is on the verge of transforming itself to another type...

  17. The effectiveness of brief personalized normative feedback in reducing alcohol-related problems amongst University students: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foxcroft David R

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that university/college students tend to have an exaggerated view of the quantities of alcohol being consumed by their peers. Making students aware of this misperception may help change behaviour and reduce problem drinking. Methods/Design A Solomon Three Group Design will be used. There is one intervention group and two control groups, controlling separately for measurement and for intervention effects. Recruitment, consent, randomisation and data collection are all on-line. The primary outcomes are AUDIT Score, weekly consumption, perceived social norms, and alcohol related problems; secondary outcomes include alcohol expectancies and other health behaviours. Discussion This trial will provide information on the effectiveness of an on-line personalized normative feedback intervention for alcohol misuse in university students. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN30784467

  18. The Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders Is Sensitive but Not Specific in Identifying Anxiety in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Comparison to the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment Scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    W. David Lohr; Katherine Daniels; Tim Wiemken; P. Gail Williams; Robert R. Kelley; Grace Kuravackel; Lonnie Sears

    2017-01-01

    ...). The Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), a 41-item parent- and self-reported scale measuring anxiety, was compared to the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) scales...

  19. Bourdieu’s Cultural Capital in Relation to Food Choices: A Systematic Review of Cultural Capital Indicators and an Empirical Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carlijn B. M.; Jansen, Tessa; Mackenbach, Johan P.; van Lenthe, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unhealthy food choices follow a socioeconomic gradient that may partly be explained by one’s ‘cultural capital’, as defined by Bourdieu. We aim 1) to carry out a systematic review to identify existing quantitative measures of cultural capital, 2) to develop a questionnaire to measure cultural capital for food choices, and 3) to empirically test associations of socioeconomic position with cultural capital and food choices, and of cultural capital with food choices. Design We systematically searched large databases for the key-word ‘cultural capital’ in title or abstract. Indicators of objectivised cultural capital and family institutionalised cultural capital, as identified by the review, were translated to food choice relevant indicators. For incorporated cultural capital, we used existing questionnaires that measured the concepts underlying the variety of indicators as identified by the review, i.e. participation, skills, knowledge, values. The questionnaire was empirically tested in a postal survey completed by 2,953 adults participating in the GLOBE cohort study, The Netherlands, in 2011. Results The review yielded 113 studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Several indicators of family institutionalised (e.g. parents’ education completed) and objectivised cultural capital (e.g. possession of books, art) were consistently used. Incorporated cultural capital was measured with a large variety of indicators (e.g. cultural participation, skills). Based on this, we developed a questionnaire to measure cultural capital in relation to food choices. An empirical test of the questionnaire showed acceptable overall internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of .654; 56 items), and positive associations between socioeconomic position and cultural capital, and between cultural capital and healthy food choices. Conclusions Cultural capital may be a promising determinant for (socioeconomic inequalities in) food choices. PMID:26244763

  20. Bourdieu's Cultural Capital in Relation to Food Choices: A Systematic Review of Cultural Capital Indicators and an Empirical Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Jansen, Tessa; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy food choices follow a socioeconomic gradient that may partly be explained by one's 'cultural capital', as defined by Bourdieu. We aim 1) to carry out a systematic review to identify existing quantitative measures of cultural capital, 2) to develop a questionnaire to measure cultural capital for food choices, and 3) to empirically test associations of socioeconomic position with cultural capital and food choices, and of cultural capital with food choices. We systematically searched large databases for the key-word 'cultural capital' in title or abstract. Indicators of objectivised cultural capital and family institutionalised cultural capital, as identified by the review, were translated to food choice relevant indicators. For incorporated cultural capital, we used existing questionnaires that measured the concepts underlying the variety of indicators as identified by the review, i.e. participation, skills, knowledge, values. The questionnaire was empirically tested in a postal survey completed by 2,953 adults participating in the GLOBE cohort study, The Netherlands, in 2011. The review yielded 113 studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Several indicators of family institutionalised (e.g. parents' education completed) and objectivised cultural capital (e.g. possession of books, art) were consistently used. Incorporated cultural capital was measured with a large variety of indicators (e.g. cultural participation, skills). Based on this, we developed a questionnaire to measure cultural capital in relation to food choices. An empirical test of the questionnaire showed acceptable overall internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of .654; 56 items), and positive associations between socioeconomic position and cultural capital, and between cultural capital and healthy food choices. Cultural capital may be a promising determinant for (socioeconomic inequalities in) food choices.

  1. Bourdieu's Cultural Capital in Relation to Food Choices: A Systematic Review of Cultural Capital Indicators and an Empirical Proof of Concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlijn B M Kamphuis

    Full Text Available Unhealthy food choices follow a socioeconomic gradient that may partly be explained by one's 'cultural capital', as defined by Bourdieu. We aim 1 to carry out a systematic review to identify existing quantitative measures of cultural capital, 2 to develop a questionnaire to measure cultural capital for food choices, and 3 to empirically test associations of socioeconomic position with cultural capital and food choices, and of cultural capital with food choices.We systematically searched large databases for the key-word 'cultural capital' in title or abstract. Indicators of objectivised cultural capital and family institutionalised cultural capital, as identified by the review, were translated to food choice relevant indicators. For incorporated cultural capital, we used existing questionnaires that measured the concepts underlying the variety of indicators as identified by the review, i.e. participation, skills, knowledge, values. The questionnaire was empirically tested in a postal survey completed by 2,953 adults participating in the GLOBE cohort study, The Netherlands, in 2011.The review yielded 113 studies that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Several indicators of family institutionalised (e.g. parents' education completed and objectivised cultural capital (e.g. possession of books, art were consistently used. Incorporated cultural capital was measured with a large variety of indicators (e.g. cultural participation, skills. Based on this, we developed a questionnaire to measure cultural capital in relation to food choices. An empirical test of the questionnaire showed acceptable overall internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of .654; 56 items, and positive associations between socioeconomic position and cultural capital, and between cultural capital and healthy food choices.Cultural capital may be a promising determinant for (socioeconomic inequalities in food choices.

  2. Trade Relations between New Zealand and China: An Empirical Analysis in the Context of a Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Sayeeda Bano

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the bilateral trade relations between New Zealand and China from 1980 to 2012. It examines the strength of the trade relationship using export and import intensity indices; identifies the degree of trade reciprocity using a 'trade reciprocity index'; estimates the magnitude of intra-industry trade using the Grubel-Lloyd and Aquino indices; and analyses these indices to consider how trade patterns and relations have changed between 1980 and 2012. Significant growth in trade...

  3. Empirical study of the perceived ease of use and relative advantage on load-bearing masonry (LBM) technology adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nor Azlinda; Abdullah, Che Sobry; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Load-bearing masonry (LBM) technology has been identified as an alternative method that can potentially encourage the sustainability of the housing industry. The adoption of LBM technology is believed to bring beneficial effects to the housing industry as well as company productivity. The factors related to the adoption LBM technology was revealed to strongly influence the implementation of this system in the housing industry. The aim of this study is to determine the factors influencing the adoption of LBM technology among the developer firms in Malaysia as well as the factors that are highly related to perceived ease of use and relative advantage. A random sampling technique was applied and a questionnaire-based field survey was carried out to obtain the data from the respondents. All the data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The findings of this paper have revealed that perceived ease of use and relative advantage are related to the adoption of LBM technology. The findings also indicated the validity of Technology Acceptance Model TAM (perceived ease of use) and Innovation Diffusion Theory IDT (relative advantage) as the determinant factors in the adoption of LBM technology. Finally, some recommendations for future research are suggested in the final section of this paper.

  4. How many genetic markers to tag an individual? An empirical assessment of false matching rates among close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Mary Beth; Robbins, Jooke; Mattila, David; Palsbøll, Per J; Bérube, Martine

    2011-04-01

    Genetic identification of individuals is now commonplace, enabling the application of tagging methods to elusive species or species that cannot be tagged by traditional methods. A key aspect is determining the number of loci required to ensure that different individuals have non-matching multi-locus genotypes. Closely related individuals are of particular concern because of elevated matching probabilities caused by their recent co-ancestry. This issue may be addressed by increasing the number of loci to a level where full siblings (the relatedness category with the highest matching probability) are expected to have non-matching multi-locus genotypes. However, increasing the number of loci to meet this "full-sib criterion" greatly increases the laboratory effort, which in turn may increase the genotyping error rate resulting in an upward-biased mark-recapture estimate of abundance as recaptures are missed due to genotyping errors. We assessed the contribution of false matches from close relatives among 425 maternally related humpback whales, each genotyped at 20 microsatellite loci. We observed a very low (0.5-4%) contribution to falsely matching samples from pairs of first-order relatives (i.e., parent and offspring or full siblings). The main contribution to falsely matching individuals from close relatives originated from second-order relatives (e.g., half siblings), which was estimated at 9%. In our study, the total number of observed matches agreed well with expectations based upon the matching probability estimated for unrelated individuals, suggesting that the full-sib criterion is overly conservative, and would have required a 280% relative increase in effort. We suggest that, under most circumstances, the overall contribution to falsely matching samples from close relatives is likely to be low, and hence applying the full-sib criterion is unnecessary. In those cases where close relatives may present a significant issue, such as unrepresentative sampling, we

  5. An empirical study based on BSC-DEA to measure the relative efficiencies of different health care centers in province of Semnan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Ghotbuee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to measure the relative efficiency of seven health care centers in province of Semnan, Iran, which were under the coverage of social security organization of Iran. The proposed model of this paper uses a hybrid of balanced score card and data envelopment analysis for performance measurement. The proposed sudy uses four perspectives of balanced score card including learning and growth, internal process, customer and financial perspectives and within each perspective, data envelopment analysis is adopted so that the outputs of each perspective are used as inputs of the other perspective. The preliminary results indicate that all seven units perform relatively well and the overall efficiency of all units in this province is 0.769.

  6. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  7. Do Children's Learning-Related Behaviors Moderate the Impacts of an Empirically-Validated Early Literacy Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A; Piasta, Shayne B; Justice, Laura M

    2016-08-01

    The present study included 314 children who had been involved in Project STAR, and explored how two learning-related behaviors, interest in literacy and effortful control, moderated the impact of the literacy intervention on reading outcomes. Results indicated significant associations of both learning-related behaviors with reading, with the children with the highest literacy interest and effortful control in the intervention group showing the highest reading outcomes. These results indicate that accounting for a greater breadth of possible moderators of intervention impacts is an important area to explore.

  8. Do Children’s Learning-Related Behaviors Moderate the Impacts of an Empirically-Validated Early Literacy Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study included 314 children who had been involved in Project STAR, and explored how two learning-related behaviors, interest in literacy and effortful control, moderated the impact of the literacy intervention on reading outcomes. Results indicated significant associations of both learning-related behaviors with reading, with the children with the highest literacy interest and effortful control in the intervention group showing the highest reading outcomes. These results indicate that accounting for a greater breadth of possible moderators of intervention impacts is an important area to explore. PMID:28216991

  9. Love withdrawal is related to heightened processing of faces with emotional expressions and incongruent emotional feedback : Evidence from ERPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffmeijer, Renske; Tops, Mattie; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.

    Parental use of love withdrawal is thought to affect children's later psychological functioning because it creates a link between children's performance and relational consequences. To investigate whether love withdrawal is also associated with the underlying level of basic information processing in

  10. Do strong brands pay off? : An empirical investigation of the relation between brand asset valuator and financial performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.; Vijn, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relation between BrandAssetTM Valuatorand financial performance measures. More specifically, we investigate whether pillars of the BrandAssetTM Valuatormodel (Brand Vitality and Brand Stature) are associated with accounting performance (return on investment, return

  11. A Further Characterization of Empirical Research Related to Learning Outcome Achievement in Remote and Virtual Science Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, James R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper further characterizes recently reviewed literature related to student learning outcome achievement in non-traditional (virtual and remote) versus traditional (hands-on) science labs, as well as factors to consider when evaluating the state and progress of research in this field as a whole. Current research is characterized according to…

  12. [Psychosocial workload, sick leave, and health-related well being: an empirical study from the perspective of gender research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, K; Rödel, A; Hessel, A; Brähler, E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test hypotheses on the consequences of gender role expectations with regard to the extent of work stress, selected health-related measures and their associations. Data on psychosocial workload (questionnaire of effort-reward imbalance), sick leave (self-reports of the duration of medically certified sick leave during the past two years) and health-related well being were collected in a representative sample of German full-time employees (n = 666). Hypotheses were tested using analyses of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA) and moderated linear regression analyses. Women reported lower health-related well-being as compared to men while effort-reward imbalance and sick leave did not differ between the sexes. Parents reported slightly longer durations of sick leave during the past two years than childless participants (not significant). The results of stratified linear regression analyses show stronger associations between effort-reward imbalance and both health-related measures for women with children than for men with children, while single men and women do not differ in this regard. Evidence of this kind can be useful for the purposeful planning and implementation of health promotion measures at work. Women with children would be a group deserving special attention. The findings also point to continuing differences in gender role expectations in the family context.

  13. An empirical exploration of the relations between the health components of the International Clasification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R.J.M.; Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Galindo Garre, F.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Van Meeteren, N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between the ICF components from a subjective perspective. Method: Data on health condition and perceived functioning were collected among 2941 individuals with at least one chronic disease or disorder. Path analysis was used with

  14. Factors related to sustained use of a free mobile app for dietary self-monitoring with photography and peer feedback: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Elina; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Korhonen, Ilkka; Wansink, Brian

    2014-04-15

    Healthy eating interventions that use behavior change techniques such as self-monitoring and feedback have been associated with stronger effects. Mobile apps can make dietary self-monitoring easy with photography and potentially reach huge populations. The aim of the study was to assess the factors related to sustained use of a free mobile app ("The Eatery") that promotes healthy eating through photographic dietary self-monitoring and peer feedback. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the sample of 189,770 people who had downloaded the app and used it at least once between October 2011 and April 2012. Adherence was defined based on frequency and duration of self-monitoring. People who had taken more than one picture were classified as "Users" and people with one or no pictures as "Dropouts". Users who had taken at least 10 pictures and used the app for at least one week were classified as "Actives", Users with 2-9 pictures as "Semi-actives", and Dropouts with one picture as "Non-actives". The associations between adherence, registration time, dietary preferences, and peer feedback were examined. Changes in healthiness ratings over time were analyzed among Actives. Overall adherence was low-only 2.58% (4895/189,770) used the app actively. The day of week and time of day the app was initially used was associated with adherence, where 20.28% (5237/25,820) of Users had started using the app during the daytime on weekdays, in comparison to 15.34% (24,718/161,113) of Dropouts. Users with strict diets were more likely to be Active (14.31%, 900/6291) than those who had not defined any diet (3.99%, 742/18,590), said they ate everything (9.47%, 3040/32,090), or reported some other diet (11.85%, 213/1798) (χ(2) 3=826.6, Pself-monitoring did not continue using it actively and those who did may already have been healthy eaters. Hence, the societal impact of such apps may remain small if they fail to reach those who would be most in need of dietary changes. Incorporating

  15. Feedback as real-time constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very...... instant it takes place. This article argues for a clear distinction between the timing of communicative events, such as responses that are provided as help for feedback constructions, and the feedback construction itself as an event in a psychic system. Although feedback is described as an internal......, system-relative construction, different teaching environments offer diverse conditions for feedback constructions. The final section of this article explores this idea with the help of examples from both synchronous oral interaction and asynchronous text-based interaction mediated by digital media....

  16. Feedback as real-time constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    The article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very...... instant it takes place. This article argues for a clear distinction between the timing of communicative events, such as responses that are provided as help for feedback constructions, and the feedback construction itself as an event in a psychic system. Although feedback is described as an internal......, system-relative construction, different teaching environments offer diverse conditions for feedback constructions. The final section of this article explores this idea with the help of examples from both synchronous, oral interaction and asynchronous, text-based interaction mediated by digital media....

  17. A Further Characterization of Empirical Research Related to Learning Outcome Achievement in Remote and Virtual Science Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, James R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper further characterizes recently reviewed literature related to student learning outcome achievement in non-traditional (virtual and remote) versus traditional (hands-on) science labs, as well as factors to consider when evaluating the state and progress of research in this field as a whole. Current research is characterized according to (1) participant nationality and culture, (2) participant education level, (3) participant demography, (4) scientific discipline, and (5) research methodology, which could provide avenues for further research and useful dialog regarding the measurement and interpretation of data related to student learning outcome achievement in, and thus the efficacy of, non-traditional versus traditional science labs. Current research is also characterized by (6) research publication media and (7) availability of non-traditional labs used, which demonstrate some of the obstacles to progress and consensus in this research field.

  18. Assessing theoretical predictors of long-term medication adherence: patients' treatment-related beliefs, experiential feedback and habit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Phillips, L; Leventhal, Howard; Leventhal, Elaine A

    2013-01-01

    Patient non-adherence to medication is a pervasive problem that contributes to poor patient health and high healthcare costs. Basic research and interventions have focused thus far on behaviour initiation factors, such as patients' illness and treatment beliefs. This paper proposes two processes that occur after behaviour initiation that are theorised to contribute to prediction of long-term medication adherence: 'coherence' of patients' beliefs from experiences with treatment and habit development. Seventy-one hypertensive patients reported their treatment-related beliefs, experiences related to treatment efficacy and medication-taking habit strength in a baseline interview. Patients then used an electronic monitoring pill bottle for approximately one month. Patients' medication habit-strength was the strongest predictor of all adherence measures, explaining 6-27% incremental variance in adherence to that explained by patients' treatment-related beliefs. Patients' beliefs and experiences did not predict overall adherence, even for patients with 'weaker' habits. However, patients' experiences were found to predict intentional non-adherence and habit strength was found to predict unintentional adherence. Practitioners may assess patients' medication-taking habits to get an initial view of their likely adherence to long-term medications. Future research should assess the current theoretical predictions in a hypertension inception sample and in populations with symptomatic conditions.

  19. Health-related Support Groups on the Internet: Linking Empirical Findings to Social Support and Computer-mediated Communication Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin B; Bell, Sally B; Wright, Kevin B; Bell, Sally B

    2003-01-01

    This literature review of research on health-related computer-mediated support groups links features of these groups to existing theory from the areas of social support and computer-mediated communication research. The article exams computer-mediated support groups as weak tie networks, focuses on how these support groups facilitate participant similarity and empathic support and identifies changes in supportive communication due to characteristics of the medium.

  20. Solicitude: balancing compassion and empowerment in a relational ethics of hope-an empirical-ethical study in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsman, Erik; Willems, Dick; Leget, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    The ethics of hope has often been understood as a conflict between duties: do not lie versus do not destroy hope. However, such a way of framing the ethics of hope may easily place healthcare professionals at the side of realism and patients at the side of (false) hope. That leaves unexamined relational dimensions of hope. The objective of this study was to describe a relational ethics of hope based on the perspectives of palliative care patients, their family members and their healthcare professionals. A qualitative longitudinal method based on narrative theories was used. Semi-structured interviews on hope were conducted with twenty-nine palliative care patients, nineteen friends or family members, and fifty-two healthcare professionals, which were recorded and transcribed. Data on hope were thematically analyzed. The researchers wrote memos and did member checking with participants. When participants spoke about hope, they referred to power and empowerment, like the powerful bonding of hope between patients and physicians. They also associated hope with the loss of hope and suffering. Several participating healthcare professionals tried to balance both sides, which involved acknowledgment of hope and suffering. Hope and power were reflected in the ethical concept of empowerment, whereas suffering and the loss of hope were reflected in the ethical concept of compassion. Empowerment and compassion can be balanced in solicitude. In conclusion, a relational ethics of hope requires solicitude, in which healthcare professionals are able to weigh empowerment and compassion within particular relationships.

  1. Reactions to Positive and Negative Feedback: Enhancement and Consistency Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Jayne E.

    1982-01-01

    Explored reactions of low, medium, and high self-esteem college students to positive and negative feedback in two studies. Results showed that mood and satisfaction ratings related to feedback but not self-esteem; and attribution following failure feedback source accuracy ratings, and performance improvement related somewhat to feedback and…

  2. Does feedback-related brain response during reinforcement learning predict socio-motivational (in-dependence in adolescence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eRaufelder

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This multi-methodological study applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate neural activation in a group of adolescent students (N = 88 during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. We related patterns of emerging brain activity and individual learning rates to socio-motivational (in-dependence manifested in four different motivation types (MT: (1 peer-dependent MT, (2 teacher-dependent MT, (3 peer-and-teacher-dependent MT, (4 peer-and-teacher-independent MT. A multinomial regression analysis revealed that the individual learning rate predicts students’ membership to the independent MT, or the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Additionally, the striatum, a brain region associated with behavioral adaptation and flexibility, showed increased learning-related activation in students with motivational independence. Moreover, the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in behavioral control, was more active in students of the peer-and-teacher-dependent MT. Overall, this study offers new insights into the interplay of motivation and learning with (1 a focus on inter-individual differences in the role of peers and teachers as source of students’ individual motivation and (2 its potential neurobiological basis.

  3. An empirical exploration of the relations between the health components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenboom, Rom J M; Wijlhuizen, Gert Jan; Garre, Francisca Galindo; Heerkens, Yvonne F; van Meeteren, Nico L U

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between the ICF components from a subjective perspective. Data on health condition and perceived functioning were collected among 2941 individuals with at least one chronic disease or disorder. Path analysis was used with perceived level of participation as the final denominator. Three models were tested: one with the number of chronic diseases and disorders as an indicator of health condition, one with perceived health as indicator of health condition, and one with perceived health as part of the personal factors. Although all models showed a good fit, the model with the best fit was that with perceived health as an indicator of health condition. From a patient's perspective, components of the ICF scheme appear to be associated with each other, with perceived health being the best indicator of the health condition.

  4. Frequent feedback enhances complex motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, G; Shea, C H; Matschiner, S

    1998-06-01

    Feedback frequency effects on the learning of a complex motor skill, the production of slalom-type movements on a ski-simulator, were examined. In Experiment 1, a movement feature that characterizes expert performance was identified. Participants (N = 8) practiced the task for 6 days. Significant changes across practice were found for movement amplitude and relative force onset. Relative force onset is considered a measure of movement efficiency; relatively late force onsets characterize expert performance. In Experiment 2, different groups of participants (N = 27) were given concurrent feedback about force onset on either 100% or 50% of the practice trials; a control group was given no feedback. The following hypothesis was tested: Contrary to previous findings concerning relatively simple tasks, for the learning of a complex task such as the one used here, a high relative feedback frequency (100%) is more beneficial for learning than a reduced feedback frequency (50%). Participants practiced the task on 2 consecutive days and performed a retention test without feedback on Day 3. The 100% feedback group demonstrated later relative force onsets than the control group in retention; the 50% feedback group showed intermediate performance. The results provide support for the notion that high feedback frequencies are beneficial for the learning of complex motor skills, at least until a certain level of expertise is achieved. That finding suggests that there may be an interaction between task difficulty and feedback frequency similar to the interaction found in the summary-KR literature.

  5. Operating experience feedback report: Reliability of safety-related steam turbine-driven standby pumps. Commercial power reactors, Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of failure initiators, causes and design features for steam turbine assemblies (turbines with their related components, such as governors and valves) which are used as drivers for standby pumps in the auxiliary feedwater systems of US commercial pressurized water reactor plants, and in the high pressure coolant injection and reactor core isolation cooling systems of US commercial boiling water reactor plants. These standby pumps provide a redundant source of water to remove reactor core heat as specified in individual plant safety analysis reports. The period of review for this report was from January 1974 through December 1990 for licensee event reports (LERS) and January 1985 through December 1990 for Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) failure data. This study confirmed the continuing validity of conclusions of earlier studies by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by the US nuclear industry that the most significant factors in failures of turbine-driven standby pumps have been the failures of the turbine-drivers and their controls. Inadequate maintenance and the use of inappropriate vendor technical information were identified as significant factors which caused recurring failures.

  6. Technologies for learner-centered feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Costello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the number, type, and use of technologies to support learning increases, so do the opportunities for using these technologies for feedback. Learner-centered feedback is a core to the teaching-learning process. It is related to assessment in describing how learners perform in their learning, their gain in knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Feedback, types of feedback, guidelines for effective learner-centered feedback, and feedback’s relationship to assessment are presented. Methods of providing feedback, for example, automated, audio scribe pens, digital audio, etc., and the related technologies are described. Technologies that allow instructors to make informed decisions about the use of various methods for feedback are discussed.

  7. Spirituality and positive psychology go hand in hand: an investigation of multiple empirically derived profiles and related protective benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Yakov A; Miller, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the relationship between personal spirituality and positive psychology traits as potentially presented in multiple profiles, rather than monolithically across a full sample. A sample of 3966 adolescents and emerging adults (aged 18-25, mean = 20.19, SD = 2.08) and 2014 older adults (aged 26-82, mean = 38.41, SD = 11.26) completed a survey assessing daily spiritual experiences (relationship with a Higher Power and sense of a sacred world), forgiveness, gratitude, optimism, grit, and meaning. To assess the relative protective benefits of potential profiles, we also assessed the level of depressive symptoms and frequency of substance use (tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, and heavy alcohol use). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to examine common subgroupings of study participants across report on personal spirituality and positive psychology scales in each age cohort, with potential difference between latent classes then tested in level of depressive symptoms and degree of substance use. LCA determined a four-class and a three-class best-fitting models for the younger and older cohorts, respectively. Level of personal spirituality and level of positive psychology traits were found to coincide in 83 % of adolescents and emerging adults and in 71 % of older adults, suggesting personal spirituality and positive psychology traits go hand in hand. A minority subgroup of "virtuous humanists" showed high levels of positive psychology traits but low levels of personal spirituality, across both age cohorts. Whereas level of depression was found to be inversely associated with positive psychology traits and personal spirituality, uniquely personal spirituality was protective against degree of substance use across both age cohorts. Overall interpretation of the study findings suggests that personal spirituality may be foundational to positive psychology traits in the majority of people.

  8. Skriftlig feedback i engelskundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher

    2017-01-01

    The article describes useful feedback strategies in language teaching and describes the feedback practices of lower-seconday teachers in Denmark. The article is aimed at language teahcers in secondary schools.......The article describes useful feedback strategies in language teaching and describes the feedback practices of lower-seconday teachers in Denmark. The article is aimed at language teahcers in secondary schools....

  9. Osmanlı Devleti - Filipin Ticari İlişkileri The Trade Relations Between The Ottoman Empire And The Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem KARA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ottoman Empire is known to have made economical and social relationships with many countries. The relations with the Philippines were quite late. It is seen that some precautions were taken and some studies were carried out with this lateness as it is to be mentioned in our study.The current situation is seen to have been detected after a delegate was sent to the area by the Ottoman Empire. It was the early 20th century when the Ottoman Empire took the initiative on communicating with the Muslims living in the area and responding the needs of the local people as well.It is likely to gain really significant data about the area when the trade reports in 1910 are examined. The trade report dating back to 1910 forms the basis of our study. The very repot was prepared by Necip Halil, the consil general in Manila.A great deal of significant detection is seen in the report consisting of the information about the Philippines in the year of 1910. It is understood from the report that the Ottoman Empire was not aware of the area. The Empire would find an important market by responding the needs after the relations were made.It is seen that Necip Halil observed these situations in the very area and suggested the necessary proposal. With the potential of the Ottoman Empire, the business carrying on in the area and its benefit had been determined successfully.We think that about our study is to be important since there are few studies on the relationship between the Ottoman Empire and the Philippines. Thus, we have tried to explained the subject by examining the 4 th trade report of Necip Halil. Osmanlı Devleti’nin pek çok ülke ile ekonomik ve sosyal ilişkilerkurmuş olduğunu bilmekteyiz. Filipinlerle olan ilişkileri ise çok geçtarihli olup çalışmamızda konu edileceği gibi bu geç kalınmışlıkla birtakım önlem ve çalışmalar yapıldığı görülmektedir.Osmanlı Devletinin bölgeye bir temsilci göndermesi sonrasındamevcut durumun

  10. An empirical Kaiser criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeken, Johan; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2017-09-01

    In exploratory factor analysis (EFA), most popular methods for dimensionality assessment such as the screeplot, the Kaiser criterion, or-the current gold standard-parallel analysis, are based on eigenvalues of the correlation matrix. To further understanding and development of factor retention methods, results on population and sample eigenvalue distributions are introduced based on random matrix theory and Monte Carlo simulations. These results are used to develop a new factor retention method, the Empirical Kaiser Criterion. The performance of the Empirical Kaiser Criterion and parallel analysis is examined in typical research settings, with multiple scales that are desired to be relatively short, but still reliable. Theoretical and simulation results illustrate that the new Empirical Kaiser Criterion performs as well as parallel analysis in typical research settings with uncorrelated scales, but much better when scales are both correlated and short. We conclude that the Empirical Kaiser Criterion is a powerful and promising factor retention method, because it is based on distribution theory of eigenvalues, shows good performance, is easily visualized and computed, and is useful for power analysis and sample size planning for EFA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Compensatory density feedback of Oncomelania hupensis populations in two different environmental settings in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Dong-Chuan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most recent strategy for schistosomiasis control in the People's Republic of China aims to reduce the likelihood of environmental contamination of schistosome eggs. Despite considerable progress, it is believed that achievements would be further consolidated with additional intermediate host snail control measures. We provide an empirical framework for discerning the relative contribution of intrinsic effects (density feedback from other extrinsic drivers of snail population dynamics. Methods We set up experiments in two study locations to collect reproduction data of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. We applied a set of four population dynamic models that have been widely used to study phenomenological time-series data to examine the properties of demographic density feedback patterns from abundance data. We also contrasted the obtained results with the component feedback of density on survival rate to determine whether adult survival was the principal driver of the demographic feedback observed. Results Demographic density feedback models (Ricker- and Gompertz-logistic accounted for > 99% of Akaike's information criterion model weight, with the Gompertz ranking highest in all O. hupensis population groups. We found some evidence for stronger compensatory feedback in the O. hupensis population from Sichuan compared to a Jiangsu population. Survival rates revealed strong component feedback, but the log-linear relationships (i.e. Gompertz had less support in the demographic feedback analysis. Conclusions Our findings indicate that integrated schistosomiasis control measures must continue to reduce parasite abundance further because intermediate host snail populations tend to grow exponentially at low densities, especially O. hupensis populations in mountainous regions. We conclude that density feedback in adult survival is the principal component contribution to the demographic

  12. Age differences in feedback reactions: The roles of employee feedback orientation on social awareness and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Burlacu, Gabriela; Truxillo, Donald; James, Keith; Yao, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Organizations worldwide are currently experiencing shifts in the age composition of their workforces. The workforce is aging and becoming increasingly age-diverse, suggesting that organizational researchers and practitioners need to better understand how age differences may manifest in the workplace and the implications for human resource practice. Integrating socioemotional selectivity theory with the performance feedback literature and using a time-lagged design, the current study examined age differences in moderating the relationships between the characteristics of performance feedback and employee reactions to the feedback event. The results suggest that older workers had higher levels of feedback orientation on social awareness, but lower levels of feedback orientation on utility than younger workers. Furthermore, the positive associations between favorability of feedback and feedback delivery and feedback reactions were stronger for older workers than for younger workers, whereas the positive association between feedback quality and feedback reactions was stronger for younger workers than for older workers. Finally, the current study revealed that age-related differences in employee feedback orientation could explain the different patterns of relationships between feedback characteristics and feedback reactions across older and younger workers. These findings have both theoretical and practical implications for building theory about workplace aging and improving ways that performance feedback is managed across employees from diverse age groups. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Full Static Output Feedback Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotle G. Yannakoudakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a constructive solution to the problem of full output feedback equivalence, of linear, minimal, time-invariant systems. The equivalence relation on the set of systems is transformed to another on the set of invertible block Bezout/Hankel matrices using the isotropy subgroups of the full state feedback group and the full output injection group. The transformation achieving equivalence is calculated solving linear systems of equations. We give a polynomial version of the results proving that two systems are full output feedback equivalent, if and only if they have the same family of generalized Bezoutians. We present a new set of output feedback invariant polynomials that generalize the breakaway polynomial of scalar systems.

  14. Can Performance Feedback during Instruction Boost Knowledge Acquisition? Contrasting Criterion-Based and Social Comparison Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollöffel, Bas; de Jong, Ton

    2016-01-01

    Feedback indicating how well students are performing during a learning task can be very stimulating. In this study with a pre- and post-test design, the effects of two types of performance feedback on learning results were compared: feedback during a learning task was either stated in terms of how well the students were performing relative to…

  15. Testing the effects of e-mailed personalized feedback on risky alcohol use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Zachary E; Henslee, Amber M; Correia, Christopher J

    2013-10-01

    Although research utilizing the Internet to intervene with college student drinkers is growing, this study is the first to investigate the use of a theoretically-based and empirically supported personalized feedback form delivered via a single e-mail to college students. Students (n=191) completed measures of their alcohol use, related consequences, and peer perceptions at baseline and 6weeks after the intervention. Students were randomly assigned to receive either e-mailed personalized feedback or e-mailed generic feedback. Students who received e-mailed personalized feedback reported consuming significantly fewer drinks in a given week, as well as a fewer number of days being drunk in the previous 30days. They also exhibited a significant reduction in the number of days they perceived their peers to have drunk alcohol and in the amount of alcohol they perceived their peers to consume per drinking occasion. e-Mailed personalized feedback appears to help students become more aware of normative drinking behavior and reduce the quantity of alcohol they consume. Furthermore, e-mailed personalized feedback may be a cost-effective manner in which to intervene with college student drinkers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Error and feedback processing in children with ADHD and children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder : An EEG event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Yvonne; Wijers, Albertus A.; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Waggeveld, Brenda; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Althaus, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Performance monitoring was investigated in typically developing (TD) children, children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and Methylphenidate (Mph)-treated and medication-free children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods: Subjects performed a feedback-based

  17. In the Blink of an Eye: Relating Positive-Feedback Sensitivity to Striatal Dopamine D2-Like Receptors through Blink Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groman, Stephanie M.; James, Alex S.; Seu, Emanuele; Tran, Steven; Clark, Taylor A.; Harpster, Sandra N.; Crawford, Maverick; Burtner, Joanna Lee; Feiler, Karen; Roth, Robert H.; Elsworth, John D.; London, Edythe D.

    2014-01-01

    For >30 years, positron emission tomography (PET) has proven to be a powerful approach for measuring aspects of dopaminergic transmission in the living human brain; this technique has revealed important relationships between dopamine D2-like receptors and dimensions of normal behavior, such as human impulsivity, and psychopathology, particularly behavioral addictions. Nevertheless, PET is an indirect estimate that lacks cellular and functional resolution and, in some cases, is not entirely pharmacologically specific. To identify the relationships between PET estimates of D2-like receptor availability and direct in vitro measures of receptor number, affinity, and function, we conducted neuroimaging and behavioral and molecular pharmacological assessments in a group of adult male vervet monkeys. Data gathered from these studies indicate that variation in D2-like receptor PET measurements is related to reversal-learning performance and sensitivity to positive feedback and is associated with in vitro estimates of the density of functional dopamine D2-like receptors. Furthermore, we report that a simple behavioral measure, eyeblink rate, reveals novel and crucial links between neuroimaging assessments and in vitro measures of dopamine D2 receptors. PMID:25339755

  18. Assessment of country-of-origin-related and -neutral elements of mobile communication service offers: An empirical study of consumers with a Turkish migration background in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten J. Gerpott

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to more than three million people in Germany with a Turkish migration background country-of-origin (COO-sensitive, designs of offers directed at this customer segment have been implemented by various corporations and discussed in the management literature for quite a while. Unfortunately, to date most publications have a weak empirical foundation and refrain from simultaneously investigating preference effects of several country-of-origin-sensitive and -neutral offer characteristics among Turkish migrants living in Germany. Therefore, the present paper explores the relative impacts of three COO-sensitive offer characteristics and one COO-neutral attribute of bundled mobile communication offers on preference statements derived from a conjoint-analysis of questionnaire responses of 249 consumers in Germany with Turkish roots. The results suggest that for the offering category in question a COO-neutral feature (cell phone type/brand shapes the preferences of Turkish migrants almost to the same extent as the three remaining price- and communication-related characteristics investigated. Furthermore, we found that Turkish consumers in Germany encompass four subsegments with distinct preferences with respect to the design of mobile communication offerings. The members of these subsegments in turn differ primarily in terms of their age and gender structures as well as their level of accommodation to the German culture.

  19. Performance Feedback Processing Is Positively Biased As Predicted by Attribution Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christoph W; Rosenblau, Gabriela; Rodriguez Buritica, Julia M; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-01-01

    A considerable literature on attribution theory has shown that healthy individuals exhibit a positivity bias when inferring the causes of evaluative feedback on their performance. They tend to attribute positive feedback internally (e.g., to their own abilities) but negative feedback externally (e.g., to environmental factors). However, all empirical demonstrations of this bias suffer from at least one of the three following drawbacks: First, participants directly judge explicit causes for their performance. Second, participants have to imagine events instead of experiencing them. Third, participants assess their performance only after receiving feedback and thus differences in baseline assessments cannot be excluded. It is therefore unclear whether the classically reported positivity bias generalizes to setups without these drawbacks. Here, we aimed at establishing the relevance of attributions for decision-making by showing an attribution-related positivity bias in a decision-making task. We developed a novel task, which allowed us to test how participants changed their evaluations in response to positive and negative feedback about performance. Specifically, we used videos of actors expressing different facial emotional expressions. Participants were first asked to evaluate the actors' credibility in expressing a particular emotion. After this initial rating, participants performed an emotion recognition task and did--or did not--receive feedback on their veridical performance. Finally, participants re-rated the actors' credibility, which provided a measure of how they changed their evaluations after feedback. Attribution theory predicts that participants change their evaluations of the actors' credibility toward the positive after receiving positive performance feedback and toward the negative after negative performance feedback. Our results were in line with this prediction. A control condition without feedback showed that correct or incorrect performance

  20. Cultivating Engagement and Enjoyment in Exergames Using Feedback, Challenge, and Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews theoretical and empirical evidence related to three mechanisms for encouraging enjoyment during exergame play: Feedback, challenge, and rewards. A literature search and narrative review were conducted. Feedback is found in nearly all exergames, and richer, more in-depth feedback is associated with increased activity. Challenge is a vital component of any videogame, and exergames include physical as well as cognitive challenges. Flow states have traditionally been conceptualized as occurring when an optimal match between player skills and game challenge occurs. However, failure and retrial are necessary for feelings of overall satisfaction and fun, despite not necessarily being ideally fun or satisfying themselves. Rewards are a more complicated issue, with significant theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting positive and negative effects of reward systems. How rewards are integrated into the mechanics and storyline of the game likely impacts how they are perceived and, thus, their effectiveness. Finally, integration of these mechanisms into exergames requires specific attention to both cognitive and physical implementations. Movements that are not themselves enjoyable or engaging may lead to cheating and lower energy expenditure. Feedback, challenge, and rewards are promising mechanisms by which exergames could become more enjoyable. How these concepts are operationalized can affect physical and psychological reactions to exergames. Attention to these concepts in future exergame development and implementation would benefit theory, research, and practice.

  1. Non conventional empirical relations for estimating compressional-wave sonic logs; Relacoes empiricas nao-convencionais para estimativa de perfis sonicos de ondas compressionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Fabricio de O.A. [Observatorio Nacional (ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Geofisica; Martins, Jorge L. [Observatorio Nacional (ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao da Area de Geofisica

    2008-07-01

    We apply least-squares regression using non-conventional empirical relations for estimating compressional-wave sonic logs (DTP). We investigate the applicability of five expressions which involve exponential functions, with arguments representing effective porosity ({phi}e) estimated from density logs, shaliness (V{sub clay}) estimated from gamma-ray logs (GR) and electrical resistivity (R{sub ILD}) measured by the deep-induction logging tool (ILD). First, we use such physical properties individually, i.e., as the dependence parameter of compressional-wave velocities (V{sub P}), in the argument of the exponential function; then, we combine some of these properties in order to simulate the known interdependency among them. In order to test our methodology, we adopt two vertical wells - hereafter named Poco-A and Poco-B - from 'Campo Escola Namorado', with information of all geophysical well logs necessary to our study in the turbiditic interval from 2950 e 3150 m. In Poco-A, the best fit obtained through least squares for compressional-wave velocities was V{sub P} = 4.657 exp[.1.488 {phi}e - 0.986 V{sub clay} + 5.022 {phi}e V{sub clay} ], with correlation coefficient r = 0.81; in Poco-B, we found V{sub P} 4.209 exp[- 0.658 {phi}e - 0.430 V{sub clay} + 6.620 x 10.4 R{sub ILD} - 0.035 {phi}e V{sub clay} R{sub ILD}], with correlation coefficient r = 0.52. These two non-conventional empirical models take into account the effects of the interdependence between effective porosity, shaliness and electrical resistivity of the rock on Vp (i.e., they incorporate non-linear effects), becoming alternative models for predicting the sonic logs that are incomplete and/or absent in the data set 'Campo Escola Namorado'. (author)

  2. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  3. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-07-05

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit.

  4. Developing Sustainable Feedback Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, David; Salter, Diane; Yang, Min; Lam, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Feedback is central to the development of student learning, but within the constraints of modularized learning in higher education it is increasingly difficult to handle effectively. This article makes a case for sustainable feedback as a contribution to the reconceptualization of feedback processes. The data derive from the Student Assessment and…

  5. Learning from feedback: the neural mechanisms of feedback processing facilitating better performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi

    2014-03-15

    Different levels of feedback, from sensory signals to verbal advice, are needed not only for learning new skills, but also for monitoring performance. A great deal of research has focused on the electrophysiological correlates of feedback processing and how they relate to good learning. In this paper, studies on the EEG correlates of learning from feedback are reviewed. The main objective is to discuss these findings whilst also considering some key theoretical aspects of learning. The learning processes, its operational definition and the feedback characteristics are discussed and used as reference for integrating the findings in the literature. The EEG correlates of feedback processing for learning using various analytical approaches are discussed, including ERPs, oscillations and inter-site synchronization. How these EEG responses to feedback are related to learning is discussed, highlighting the gaps in the literature and suggesting future directions for understanding the neural underpinnings of learning from feedback. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Driver feedback mobile APP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)

  7. emgr - Empirical Gramian Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Himpe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Empirical Gramian Framework Gramian-based model reduction is a well established method for linear state-space systems.Beyond linear systems, empirical gramians expand the scope of gramian-based methods to nonlinear systems. Furthermore, empirical gramians can also be used for parametric model order reduction, parameter identification and parameter reduction.The empirical gramian framework is a Matlab software toolbox enabling the computation of seven types of empirical gramians, which have...

  8. Pharmacy students' views of faculty feedback on academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Maurice; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Quinn, Siobhan

    2012-02-10

    To investigate students' views on and satisfaction with faculty feedback on their academic performance. A 41-item survey instrument was developed based on a literature review relating to effective feedback. All pharmacy undergraduate students were invited via e-mail to complete the self-administered electronic questionnaire relating to their views on feedback, including faculty feedback received to date regarding their academic performance. A response rate of 61% (343/561) was obtained. Only 32.3% of students (107/331) agreed that they were satisfied with the feedback they received; dissatisfaction with examination feedback was particularly high. The provision of faculty feedback was perceived to be variable in terms of quality and quantity. There are some inconsistencies relating to provision of feedback within the MPharm degree program at Queen's University Belfast. Further work is needed to close the gap between student expectations and the faculty's delivery of feedback on academic performance.

  9. PEER FEEDBACK ON LANGUAGE FORM IN TELECOLLABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige Ware

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed a two-phase, year-long research project that explored the impact of peer feedback on language development. We investigated specifically how and when post-secondary learners of English and Spanish provide corrective feedback on their partners' use of the target language in weekly asynchronous discussions by assigning them to one of two conditions: e-tutoring, in which students were asked to provide peer feedback on any linguistic form they perceived as incorrect; and e-partnering, in which students were not required to provide peer feedback but could do so on their own initiative. We examined the frequency and type of language use by coding the feedback for language-related episodes (Swain & Lapkin, 1998 and for feedback strategies (Ros i Solé & Truman, 2005. The findings indicate that students in both conditions preferred an inclusion of feedback on form as part of their exchange, but such feedback only occurred when explicitly required in the e-tutoring condition. Pedagogical implications include the need to situate peer feedback on form within current models of telecollaboration and to assist students in using feedback strategies such as reformulations, which do not rely on a deep understanding of the target or native language grammar.

  10. Ambulatory Voice Biofeedback: Relative Frequency and Summary Feedback Effects on Performance and Retention of Reduced Vocal Intensity in the Daily Lives of Participants with Normal Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Sternad, Dagmar; Petit, Robert; Hillman, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Ambulatory voice biofeedback has the potential to significantly improve voice therapy effectiveness by targeting carryover of desired behaviors outside the therapy session (i.e., retention). This study applies motor learning concepts (reduced frequency and delayed, summary feedback) that demonstrate increased retention to ambulatory voice…

  11. Reward feedback stimuli elicit high-beta EEG oscillations in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HajiHosseini, Azadeh; Hosseini, Azadeh Haji; Holroyd, Clay B

    2015-08-17

    Reward-related feedback stimuli have been observed to elicit a burst of power in the beta frequency range over frontal areas of the human scalp. Recent discussions have suggested possible neural sources for this activity but there is a paucity of empirical evidence on the question. Here we recorded EEG from participants while they navigated a virtual T-maze to find monetary rewards. Consistent with previous studies, we found that the reward feedback stimuli elicited an increase in beta power (20-30 Hz) over a right-frontal area of the scalp. Source analysis indicated that this signal was produced in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). These findings align with previous observations of reward-related beta oscillations in the DLPFC in non-human primates. We speculate that increased power in the beta frequency range following reward receipt reflects the activation of task-related neural assemblies that encode the stimulus-response mapping in working memory.

  12. Feedback-based alcohol interventions for mandated students: an effectiveness study of three modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Jacqueline; Hall, Thomas V; Dunn, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a randomized clinical trial design to examine the effectiveness of personalized alcohol feedback delivered individually, in a group and via computer on alcohol use and related negative consequences in a sample of 173 college students referred for alcohol-related violations. Findings revealed statistically significant reductions in alcohol use and related harms for the individually delivered intervention, with significant reductions in alcohol-related harms for the electronically delivered intervention. No statistically significant results were found for the group-delivered intervention or between groups, and a main effect of time was noted for all outcome variables. This study adds to the literature by being the first randomized clinical trial to include analyses of an empirically supported individually delivered personalized alcohol feedback intervention with more cost-effective group-delivered and electronically delivered feedback formats within a single research design, by expanding the range of participant drinking habits reported at baseline to include all drinking levels and not solely those classified as 'heavy drinking' and by providing anonymity pre-intervention and post-intervention given the potential demand characteristics to underreport illegal and/or illicit behaviours in this vulnerable population. Personalized alcohol feedback delivered in a one-on-one, face-to-face format serves to decrease both alcohol use and harms in mandated college students. The use of web-delivered personalized alcohol feedback may be clinically useful when working with a mandated student population to reduce alcohol-related harms. Personalized alcohol feedback delivered in a group setting may not be indicated for use with a mandated student population as it does not demonstrate decreases in either alcohol use or harms, possibly because of the normalization of deviant behaviour. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Feedback and efficient behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Sandro; DellaValle, Nives; Mittone, Luigi; Soraperra, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Feedback is an effective tool for promoting efficient behavior: it enhances individuals' awareness of choice consequences in complex settings. Our study aims to isolate the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback on achieving efficient behavior in a controlled environment. We design a laboratory experiment in which individuals are not aware of the consequences of different alternatives and, thus, cannot easily identify the efficient ones. We introduce feedback as a mechanism to enhance the awareness of consequences and to stimulate exploration and search for efficient alternatives. We assess the efficacy of three different types of intervention: provision of social information, manipulation of the frequency, and framing of feedback. We find that feedback is most effective when it is framed in terms of losses, that it reduces efficiency when it includes information about inefficient peers' behavior, and that a lower frequency of feedback does not disrupt efficiency. By quantifying the effect of different types of feedback, our study suggests useful insights for policymakers.

  14. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... feedback episode (FFE) through an online dialogue. The paper argues that dialogue is crucial for student learning and that feedback is not only something the teacher gives to the student. Viewing good quality feedback as social, situated, formative, emphasis is put on the establishment of dialogue. We...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...

  15. Clientelae, international relations and imperialism in the expansion of the Roman Republic. Some remarks concerning «Friendship and Empire. Roman Diplomacy and Imperialism in the Middle Republic (353-146 BC» of Paul J. Burton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau VALDÉS MATÍAS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The boom of the theories of international relations in classical studies can be verified by the publication of Burton’s Friendship and Empire. Roman Diplomacy and Imperialism in the Middle Republic (353-146 BC. In the present paper we highlight its key points and discuss some of its problems concerning classical sources and its criticism to the realist theory.

  16. The Effect of Information Feedback in Construction Bidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Soo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  With the goal to achieve efficiency in bidding competitions, many codes of bidding procedure recommend clients provide contractors with bidding feedback information. Contractors strive to bid competitively via learning based on their experiences in past bidding attempts. The level of bidding feedback information, however, varies across clients. In many cases, clients do not provide feedback or provide insufficient feedback to contractors. Focussing on two information feedback conditions (full and partial, we examine: (i the changes in bidding trend over time, and (ii the effects of bidding feedback information on bidders’ competitiveness in bidding. Data were gathered using a bidding experiment that involved student (inexperienced bidders with a construction project management background. The results show that the variations in bids over time for full information feedback condition are statistically significant, but not for bids from bidders with partial bidding feedback information. Bidders with full bidding feedback information are more competitive than those with partial bidding feedback information. The findings add to both our theoretical and empirical understanding of construction bidding: an understanding of the process of changes in the price of building work, and how the process can be manipulated through the release of bidding feedback information.

  17. AGN feedback in dwarf galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashyan, Gohar; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A.; Dubois, Yohan; Hartwig, Tilman

    2018-02-01

    Dwarf galaxy anomalies, such as their abundance and cusp-core problems, remain a prime challenge in our understanding of galaxy formation. The inclusion of baryonic physics could potentially solve these issues, but the efficiency of stellar feedback is still controversial. We analytically explore the possibility of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in dwarf galaxies and compare AGN and supernova (SN) feedback. We assume the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole within low-mass galaxies and standard scaling relations between the relevant physical quantities. We model the propagation and properties of the outflow and explore the critical condition for global gas ejection. Performing the same calculation for SNe, we compare the ability of AGNs and SNe to drive gas out of galaxies. We find that a critical halo mass exists below which AGN feedback can remove gas from the host halo and that the critical halo mass for an AGN is greater than the equivalent for SNe in a significant part of the parameter space, suggesting that an AGN could provide an alternative and more successful source of negative feedback than SNe, even in the most massive dwarf galaxies.

  18. Technologies for Learner-Centered Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Jane; Crane, Daph

    2013-01-01

    As the number, type, and use of technologies to support learning increases, so do the opportunities for using these technologies for feedback. Learner-centered feedback is a core to the teaching-learning process. It is related to assessment in describing how learners perform in their learning, their gain in knowledge, skills, and attitudes.…

  19. Follower-Centered Perspective on Feedback: Effects of Feedback Seeking on Identification and Feedback Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Zhenxing; Li, Miaomiao; Qi, Yaoyuan; Zhang, Na

    2017-01-01

    In the formation mechanism of the feedback environment, the existing research pays attention to external feedback sources and regards individuals as objects passively accepting feedback. Thus, the external source fails to realize the individuals’ need for feedback, and the feedback environment cannot provide them with useful information, leading to a feedback vacuum. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of feedback-seeking by different strategies on the supervisor-feedback environme...

  20. Measuring safety in aviation : empirical results about the relation between safety outcomes and safety management system processes, operational activities and demographic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaspers, Steffen; Karanikas, Nektarios; Piric, Selma; van Aalst, Robbert; de Boer, Robert Jan; Roelen, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    A literature review conducted as part of a research project named “Measuring Safety in Aviation – Developing Metrics for Safety Management Systems” revealed several challenges regarding the safety metrics used in aviation. One of the conclusions was that there is limited empirical evidence about the

  1. Motivational beliefs, student effort, and feedback behaviour in computer-based formative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, C.F.; Braber-van den Broek, J.; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine

    2013-01-01

    Feedback can only be effective when students seek feedback and process it. This study examines the relations between students' motivational beliefs, effort invested in a computer-based formative assessment, and feedback behaviour. Feedback behaviour is represented by whether a student seeks feedback

  2. Between Empire and Anti-Empire: African Mission in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bate, Stuart C.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is always empire and anti-empire in societies. An analytical lens needs to see both together to provide a better understanding of human society. This is particularly important when it comes to issues of religion which resides in some form in both empire and anti-empire. This presentation will unpack five points. Firstly it will present a brief historiography of the existence of empire and anti-empire mainly but not exclusively as it relates to Christianity. Secondly it will provide the main parameters of a social analysis of the nature of empire and anti-empire. Thirdly it will articulate the specific role of religion (again mainly Christianity in the societies of empire and anti-empire. Fourthly it will apply these findings to the specific context of Africa (mainly South Africa indicating two signs of empire and anti-empire in our past and present context. Finally it will provide some goals for Mission in 21st century Africa which go beyond the empire/anti-empire paradigm. These are based on a vision of transformational authority centred in the paschal mystery.

  3. Abusive Supervision and Job Dissatisfaction: The Moderating Effects of Feedback Avoidance and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jing; Song, Baihe; Wang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Although research on the antecedents of job dissatisfaction has been developed greatly, we know little about the role of abusive supervision in generating job dissatisfaction. The contingencies under which abusive supervision relates to employees’ job dissatisfaction are still unknown. The present study aimed to fill this research gap by empirically exploring the abusive supervision-job dissatisfaction relationship as well as examining the moderating roles of feedback avoidance and critical thinking on this relationship. We tested the hypotheses with data from a sample of 248 employees from a high-tech communications company in northern China and found that: (a) abusive supervision was positively related to job dissatisfaction; (b) the positive relationship was moderated by both employees’ feedback avoidance and critical thinking. We conclude by extracting the theoretical as well as practical contributions, along with a discussion of the promising directions for future research. PMID:28408899

  4. RF feedback for KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezura, Eizi; Yoshimoto, Shin-ichi; Akai, Kazunori [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the present status of the RF feedback development for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB). A preliminary experiment concerning the RF feedback using a parallel comb-filter was performed through a choke-mode cavity and a klystron. The RF feedback has been tested using the beam of the TRISTAN Main Ring, and has proved to be effective in damping the beam instability. (author)

  5. Neural cryptography with feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Shacham, Lanir; Kanter, Ido

    2004-04-01

    Neural cryptography is based on a competition between attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. A feedback mechanism is added to neural cryptography which increases the repulsive forces. Using numerical simulations and an analytic approach, the probability of a successful attack is calculated for different model parameters. Scaling laws are derived which show that feedback improves the security of the system. In addition, a network with feedback generates a pseudorandom bit sequence which can be used to encrypt and decrypt a secret message.

  6. Neural cryptography with feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Shacham, Lanir; Kanter, Ido

    2004-04-01

    Neural cryptography is based on a competition between attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. A feedback mechanism is added to neural cryptography which increases the repulsive forces. Using numerical simulations and an analytic approach, the probability of a successful attack is calculated for different model parameters. Scaling laws are derived which show that feedback improves the security of the system. In addition, a network with feedback generates a pseudorandom bit sequence which can be used to encrypt and decrypt a secret message.

  7. Software Development and Feedback from Usability Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Rune Thaarup

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the strengths and weaknesses of written, multimedia and oral feedback from usability evaluations to developers. The strengths and weaknesses are related to how well the feedback supports the developers in addressing usability problems in a software system. The study...... concludes that using the traditional written usability report, as the only form of feedback from usability evaluations is associated with problems related to the report not supporting the process of addressing the usability problems. The report is criticized for representing an overwhelming amount...... of information, while still not offering the required information to address usability problems. Other forms of feedback, such as oral or multimedia feedback helps the developer in understanding the usability problems better, but are on the other hand less cost-effective than a written description....

  8. Assessing the Health-Related Quality of Life of Australian Adolescents: An Empirical Comparison of the Child Health Utility 9D and EQ-5D-Y Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Flynn, Terry; Stevens, Katherine; Brazier, John; Huynh, Elisabeth; Sawyer, Michael; Roberts, Rachel; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-06-01

    To examine the performance of two recently developed preference-based instruments-the Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D) and the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire Youth version (EQ-5D-Y)-in assessing the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Australian adolescents. An online survey including the CHU9D and the EQ-5D-Y, self-reported health status, and a series of sociodemographic questions was developed for administration to a community-based sample of adolescents (aged 11-17 years). Individual responses to both instruments were translated into utilities using scoring algorithms derived from the Australian adult general population. A total of 2020 adolescents completed the online survey. The mean ± SD utilities of the CHU9D and the EQ-5D-Y were very similar (0.82 ± 0.13 and 0.83 ± 0.19, respectively), and the intraclass correlation coefficient (0.80) suggested good levels of agreement. Both instruments were able to discriminate according to varying levels of self-reported health status (P < 0.001). Although exhibiting good levels of agreement overall, some wide divergences were apparent at an individual level. The study results are encouraging and illustrate the potential for both the CHU9D and the EQ-5D-Y to be more widely used for measuring and valuing the HRQOL of adolescent populations in Australia and internationally. Generating adolescent-specific scoring algorithms pertaining to each instrument and an empirical comparison of the resulting utilities is a natural next step. More evidence is required from the application of the CHU9D and the EQ-5D-Y in specific patient groups in adolescent health settings to inform the choice of instrument for measuring and valuing the HRQOL for the economic evaluation of adolescent health care treatments and services. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Feedback in surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Boghdady, Michael; Alijani, Afshin

    2017-04-01

    The positive effect of feedback has long been recognized in surgical education. Surgical educators convey feedback to improve the performance of the surgical trainees. We aimed to review the scientific classification and application of feedback in surgical education, and to propose possible future directions for research. A literature search was performed using Pubmed, OVID, CINAHL, Web of science, EMBASE, ERIC database and Google Scholar. The following search terms were used: 'feedback', 'feedback in medical education', 'feedback in medical training' and 'feedback in surgery'. The search was limited to articles in English. From 1157 citations, 12 books and 43 articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected for this review. Feedback comes in a variety of types and is an essential tool for learning and developing performance in surgical education. Different methods of feedback application are evolving and future work needs to concentrate on the value of each method as well as the role of new technologies in surgical education. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Strategies for effective feedback

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kritek, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Provision of regular feedback to trainees on clinical performance by supervising providers is increasingly recognized as an essential component of undergraduate and graduate health sciences education...

  11. Feedback stabilization initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  12. Effective Instructor Feedback: Perceptions of Online Graduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Getzlaf

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study explored online graduate students' perceptions of effective instructor feedback. The objectives of the study were to determine the students’ perceptions of the content of effective instructor feedback (“what should be included in effective feedback?” and the process of effective instructor feedback (“how should effective feedback be provided?”. The participants were students completing health-related graduate courses offered exclusively online. Data were collected via a survey that included open ended questions inviting participants to share their perspectives regarding effective online instructor feedback. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: student involvement/individualization, gentle guidance, being positively constructive, timeliness and future orientation. We conclude that effective instructor feedback has positive outcomes for the students. Future studies are warranted to investigate strategies to make feedback a mutual process between instructor and student that supports an effective feedback cycle.

  13. Can the Effectiveness of Different Forms of Feedback Be Measured? Retention and Student Preference for Written and Verbal Feedback in Level 4 Bioscience Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Feedback is an important part of the learning process. However, the relative effectiveness of feedback in any given situation is poorly understood. Student retention of different forms of feedback is also largely unexplored. This case study examined the relative student perception and retention of both verbal and written feedback, using 68 level 4…

  14. INDIRECT WRITTEN CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK, REVISION, AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Poorebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrective feedback, the necessity of providing it, and how it should be provided has been one of the hot topics in the area of ELT. Amid continuing controversies over whether providing feedback helps L2 learners improve their writing accuracy, many research studies have been undertaken to compare the relative effectiveness of different types of feedback. However, the difference between two types of indirect corrective feedback, namely indication and indication plus location, have not been properly examined yet. Motivated to narrow this gap, this study is designed to compare two groups of Iranian learners, each revising their papers based on one of the aforementioned options. For data analysis, a series of independent samples t tests were employed. The results revealed that the difference between the two groups in their reduction of errors from the original draft to the revision of each task followed a growing trend and became significant. Nonetheless, the difference in accuracy of new pieces of writing fell short of significance. Finally, it was found that error reduction in revision stage cannot be considered as learning. The results of the study, discussed in relation to that of others, implicate that the purpose for which feedback is provided is essential in determining the type of feedback; more explicit feedback is better for revising purposes while more implicit feedback is good for learning purposes.

  15. Motivational interviewing for screening and feedback and encouraging lifestyle changes to reduce relative weight in 4-8 year old children: design of the MInT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Barry J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because parental recognition of overweight in young children is poor, we need to determine how best to inform parents that their child is overweight in a way that enhances their acceptance and supports motivation for positive change. This study will assess 1 whether weight feedback delivered using motivational interviewing increases parental acceptance of their child's weight status and enhances motivation for behaviour change, and 2 whether a family-based individualised lifestyle intervention, delivered primarily by a MInT mentor with limited support from "expert" consultants in psychology, nutrition and physical activity, can improve weight outcomes after 12 and 24 months in young overweight children, compared with usual care. Methods/Design 1500 children aged 4-8 years will be screened for overweight (height, weight, waist, blood pressure, body composition. Parents will complete questionnaires on feeding practices, physical activity, diet, parenting, motivation for healthy lifestyles, and demographics. Parents of children classified as overweight (BMI ≥ CDC 85th will receive feedback about the results using Motivational interviewing or Usual care. Parental responses to feedback will be assessed two weeks later and participants will be invited into the intervention. Additional baseline measurements (accelerometry, diet, quality of life, child behaviour will be collected and families will be randomised to Tailored package or Usual care. Parents in the Usual care condition will meet once with an advisor who will offer general advice regarding healthy eating and activity. Parents in the Tailored package condition will attend a single session with an "expert team" (MInT mentor, dietitian, physical activity advisor, clinical psychologist to identify current challenges for the family, develop tailored goals for change, and plan behavioural strategies that best suit each family. The mentor will continue to provide support to the

  16. Feedback in Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Vivian

    In this paper, two theoretical approaches to language teaching, the audio-lingual and the cognitive code methods, are examined with respect to how they deal with feedback in the classroom situation. Audio-lingual theorists either ignore completely the need for feedback in the classroom or deal with it only in terms of its reinforcing attributes.…

  17. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out that there...

  18. Feedback og interpersonel kommunikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Som interpersonel kommunikationsform handler feedback om at observere, mærke og italesætte det, som handler om relationen mellem samtaleparterne mere end om samtaleemnet. Her er fokus på, hvad der siges og hvordan der kommunikeres sammen. Feedback er her ikke en korrigerende tilbagemelding til...

  19. On the vertical extent of atmospheric feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colman, R.A. [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Research Centre

    2001-03-01

    This study addresses the question: what vertical regions contribute the most to water vapor, surface temperature, lapse rate and cloud fraction feedback strengths in a general circulation model? Multi-level offline radiation perturbation calculations are used to diagnose the feedback contribution from each model level. As a first step, to locate regions of maximum radiative sensitivity to climate changes, the top of atmosphere radiative impact for each feedback is explored for each process by means of idealized parameter perturbations on top of a control (1 x CO{sub 2}) model climate. As a second step, the actual feedbacks themselves are calculated using the changes modelled from a 2 x CO{sub 2} experiment. The impact of clouds on water vapor and lapse rate feedbacks is also isolated using 'clear sky' calculations. Considering the idealized changes, it is found that the radiative sensitivity to water vapor changes is a maximum in the tropical lower troposphere. The sensitivity to temperature changes has both upper and lower tropospheric maxima. The sensitivity to idealized cloud changes is positive (warming) for upper level cloud increases but negative (cooling) for lower level increases, due to competing long and shortwave effects. Considering the actual feedbacks, it is found that water vapor feedback is a maximum in the tropical upper troposphere, due to the large relative increases in specific humidity which occur there. The actual lapse rate feedback changes sign with latitude and is a maximum (negative) again in the tropical upper troposphere. Cloud feedbacks reflect the general decrease in low- to mid-level low-latitude cloud, with an increase in the very highest cloud. This produces a net positive (negative) shortwave (longwave) cloud feedback. The role of clouds in the strength of the water vapor and lapse rate feedbacks is also discussed. (orig.)

  20. Effects of Informative and Confirmatory Feedback on Brain Activation During Negative Feedback Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Kyoung eWoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study compared the effects of informative and confirmatory feedback on brain activation during negative feedback processing. For confirmatory feedback trials, participants were informed that they had failed the task, whereas informative feedback trials presented task relevant information along with the notification of their failure. Fourteen male undergraduates performed a series of spatial-perceptual tasks and received feedback while their brain activity was recorded. During confirmatory feedback trials, greater activations in the amygdala, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the thalamus (including the habenular were observed in response to incorrect responses. These results suggest that confirmatory feedback induces negative emotional reactions to failure. In contrast, informative feedback trials elicited greater activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC when participants experienced failure. Further psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed a negative coupling between the DLPFC and the amygdala during informative feedback relative to confirmatory feedback trials. These findings suggest that providing task-relevant information could facilitate implicit down-regulation of negative emotions following failure.

  1. Feedback i matematik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortkær, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Feedback bliver i litteraturen igen og igen fremhævet som et af de mest effektive midler til at fremme elevers præstationer i skolen (Hartberg, Dobson, & Gran, 2012; Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Wiliam, 2015). Dette på trods af, at flere forskere påpeger, at feedback ikke altid er læringsfremmende...... (Hattie & Gan, 2011), og nogle endda viser, at feedback kan have en negativ virkning i forhold til præstationer (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). Artiklen vil undersøge disse tilsyneladende modstridende resultater ved at stille spørgsmålet: Under hvilke forudsætninger virker feedback i matematik læringsfremmende......? Dette gøres ved at dykke ned i forskningslitteraturen omhandlende feedback ud fra en række temaer for på den måde at besvare ovenstående spørgsmål....

  2. Outcomes following kinesthetic feedback for gait training in a direct access environment: a case report on social wellness in relation to gait impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blievernicht, Jessica; Sullivan, Kate; Erickson, Mark R

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe the outcomes following the use of kinesthetic feedback as a primary intervention strategy for gait training. The plan of care for this 22-year-old female addressed the patient's social wellness goal of "walking more normally," using motor learning principles. At initial examination, the patient demonstrated asymmetries for gait kinematics between the left and right lower extremity (analyzed using video motion analysis), pattern of force distribution at the foot, and activation of specific lower extremity muscles (as measured by surface electromyography). Interventions for this patient consisted of neuromuscular and body awareness training, with an emphasis on kinesthetic feedback. Weekly sessions lasted 30-60 minutes over 4 weeks. The patient was prescribed a home program of walking 30-60 minutes three times/week at a comfortable pace while concentrating on gait correction through kinesthetic awareness of specific deviations. Following intervention, the patient's gait improved across all objective measures. She reported receiving positive comments from others regarding improved gait and a twofold increase in her walking confidence. Outcomes support a broadened scope of practice that incorporates previously unreported integration of a patient's social wellness goals into patient management.

  3. L2 Communication Anxiety Levels in Relation to Different Communication Partners : An Empirical Study in Japanese EFL Classrooms(Part I,Towards the Next Decade)

    OpenAIRE

    Michiko, UEKI; Graduate School of Kansai University

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an empirical study that examines whether second language (L2) communication anxiety varies in relation to the learner's communication partner: non-native teachers of English, native teachers of English, more capable peers, less capable peers, and returnees from English speaking countries. The study also explores the relationship between learners' academic status (i.e. junior high, senior high, or college) and their L2 anxiety level with each communication ...

  4. Influence of feedback characteristics on perceived learning value of feedback in clerkships: does culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; Van Hell, Elisabeth A; Kerdijk, Wouter; Emilia, Ova; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-04-05

    Various feedback characteristics have been suggested to positively influence student learning. It is not clear how these feedback characteristics contribute to students' perceived learning value of feedback in cultures classified low on the cultural dimension of individualism and high on power distance. This study was conducted to validate the influence of five feedback characteristics on students' perceived learning value of feedback in an Indonesian clerkship context. We asked clerks in Neurology (n = 169) and Internal Medicine (n = 132) to assess on a 5-point Likert scale the learning value of the feedback they received. We asked them to record whether the feedback provider (1) informed the student what went well, (2) mentioned which aspects of performance needed improvement, (3) compared the student's performance to a standard, (4) further explained or demonstrated the correct performance, and (5) prepared an action plan with the student to improve performance. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression. A total of 250 students participated in this study, 131 from Internal Medicine (response rate 99%) and 119 from Neurology (response rate 70%). Of these participants, 225 respondents (44% males, 56% females) completed the form and reported 889 feedback moments. Students perceived feedback as more valuable when the feedback provider mentioned their weaknesses (β = 0.153, p learning value of feedback. No gender differences were found for perceived learning value. In Indonesia, we could validate four out of the five characteristics for effective feedback. We argue that our findings relate to culture, in particular to the levels of individualism and power distance. The recognized characteristics of what constitutes effective feedback should be validated across cultures.

  5. The significance of assignment feedback: from consumption to construction

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Alasdair; Curtis, Steven; Goodwin, Mark; Shields, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Research undertaken on student feedback has pointed to the difficulties that students have in understanding written feedback. However, little attention has been given to understanding student views on verbal feedback. This article aims to fill this gap by reporting on the findings of verbal feedback practices among 114 History, Politics and International Relations students obtained from a questionnaire survey. These findings were supported by five in-depth semi-structured in...

  6. Feedback Valence Affects Auditory Perceptual Learning Independently of Feedback Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they wer...

  7. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  8. Feedback and efficient behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Casal

    Full Text Available Feedback is an effective tool for promoting efficient behavior: it enhances individuals' awareness of choice consequences in complex settings. Our study aims to isolate the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback on achieving efficient behavior in a controlled environment. We design a laboratory experiment in which individuals are not aware of the consequences of different alternatives and, thus, cannot easily identify the efficient ones. We introduce feedback as a mechanism to enhance the awareness of consequences and to stimulate exploration and search for efficient alternatives. We assess the efficacy of three different types of intervention: provision of social information, manipulation of the frequency, and framing of feedback. We find that feedback is most effective when it is framed in terms of losses, that it reduces efficiency when it includes information about inefficient peers' behavior, and that a lower frequency of feedback does not disrupt efficiency. By quantifying the effect of different types of feedback, our study suggests useful insights for policymakers.

  9. Feedback - fra et elevperspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Benedikte Vilslev; Pedersen, Bent Sortkær

    Feedback bliver i litteraturen igen og igen fremhævet som et af de mest effektive midler til at fremme elevers præstationer i skolen (Hattie og Timperley, 2007). Andre studier er dog inde på at feedback ikke altid er læringsfremmende og nogle viser endda at feedback kan have en negativ virkning i...... forhold til præstationer (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). I forsøget på at forklare hvordan og hvorfor feedback virker (forskelligt), er der undersøgt flere dimensioner og forhold omkring feedback (se bl.a. Black og Wiliam, 1998; Hattie og Timperley, 2007; Shute, 2008). Dog er der få studier der undersøger...... hvordan feedback opleves fra et elevperspektiv (Ruiz-Primo og Li, 2013). Samtidig er der i feedbacklitteraturen en mangel på kvalitative studier, der kommer tæt på fænomenet feedback, som det viser sig i klasserummet (Ruiz-Primo og Li, 2013) i naturlige omgivelser (Black og Wiliam, 1998), og hvordan...

  10. Preface: Multiscale feedbacks in ecogeomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Joseph M.; Gibbins, Chris; Wainwright, John; Larsen, Laurel G.; McElroy, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Geomorphic systems are known to exhibit nonlinear responses to physical–biological feedbacks (Thornes, 1985; Baas, 2002; Reinhardt et al., 2010). These responses make understanding and/or predicting system response to change highly challenging. With growing concerns over ecosystem health, a pressing need exists for research that tries to elucidate these feedbacks (Jerolmack, 2008; Darby, 2010; National Research Council, 2010). A session was convened at the Fall 2008 meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) to provide an outlet for some of this truly interdisciplinary and original research, which is central to understanding geomorphic and ecological dynamics. The session attracted over 39 contributions, which were divided into two well-attended oral sessions and a very busy poster session. This special issue presents new research from the AGU session, which highlights clear physical–biological feedbacks. The aim is to bring together contrasting perspectives on biological and geomorphic feedbacks in a diversity of physiographic settings, ranging from wetlands and estuaries, through rivers, to uplands. These papers highlight biological and physical feedbacks which involve the modulation or amplification of geomorphic processes. These papers will be of interest to a core geomorphology audience, and should also draw attention from the fields of ecohydraulics, hydroecology, ecohydrology, ecomorphology, biogeochemistry and biogeography, and biogeomorphology as well as the more traditional fields of hydrology, ecology and biology. In this preface to the special issue, we a) review past contributions to the emerging field of ecogeomorphology and related disciplines, b) provide some context for how this topical special issue came to fruition, and c) summarize the contributions to this special issue.

  11. Feedback-Giving as Social Practice: Teachers' Perspectives on Feedback as Institutional Requirement, Work and Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    The lived experience of academic teachers as they engage in feedback has received relatively little attention compared to student perspectives on feedback. The present study used an ethnographically informed methodology to investigate the everyday practices around undergraduates' writing of fourteen UK HE teachers, in a range of disciplines and…

  12. It's all about timing: An electrophysiological examination of feedback-based learning with immediate and delayed feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbel, Yael; Hong, Lucia; Baker, Travis E; Holroyd, Clay B

    2017-05-01

    Feedback regarding an individual's action can occur immediately or with a temporal delay. Processing of feedback that varies in its delivery time is proposed to engage different brain mechanisms. fMRI data implicate the striatum in the processing of immediate feedback, and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in the processing of delayed feedback. The present study offers an electrophysiological examination of feedback processing in the context of timing, by studying the effects of feedback timing on the feedback-related negativity (FRN), a product of the midbrain dopamine system, and elucidating whether the N170 ERP component could capture MTL activation associated with the processing of delayed feedback. Participants completed a word-object paired association learning task; they received feedback 500ms (immediate feedback condition) following a button press during the learning of two sets of 14 items, and at a delay of 6500ms (delayed feedback condition) during the learning of the other two sets. The results indicated that while learning outcomes did not differ under the two timing conditions, Event Related Potential (ERPs) pointed to differential activation of the examined ERP components. FRN amplitude was found to be larger following the immediate feedback condition when compared with the delayed feedback condition, and sensitive to valence and learning only under the immediate feedback condition. Additionally, the amplitude of the N170 was found larger following the delayed feedback condition when compared with the immediate feedback condition. Taken together, the findings of the present study support the contention that the processing of delayed feedback involves a shift away from midbrain dopamine activation to the recruitment of the MTL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Ottoman Empire and the policy of alliances: Franco-Ottoman relations in the transition from the XVIth to XVIIth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Türkçelik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Western historiography considered the Ottoman Empire as a marginal and antagonist factor, the Ottomans were an integral component of the history of Early Modern age. The conscientious policy of balance of power towards the Christian powers made Ottomans a crucial element in the struggle for hegemony. The Franco-Turkish alliance that was established in the reigns of Francis I and Suleiman the Magnificent mainly depended on mutual enmity against Spanish hegemony in Europe. In the late sixteenth century, after the death of Henry III the French Wars of Religion gave rise to a chaotic situation in which the Catholic King sought the opportunity to place France under its control. This could have caused an irreversible change in the balance of power in the Mediterranean, an unacceptable situation for the geostrategic interests of the Ottoman sultans. The Ottoman Empire played a major role in the French foreign policy against Spanish claims during the different phases of the reign of Henry IV. Even Clement VIII implicitly instrumentalized Ottoman- French friendship to strengthen both its own position as well as that of France with respect to the Spanish Monarchy. This article aims to demonstrate the limits and efficiencies of politics of alliance in the transition from the sixteenth to the seventeenth century considering the role of England and the Republic of Venice.

  14. Empirical relations to estimate underwater PAR attenuation in San Quintín Bay using Secchi depth and horizontal sighting range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical relationships to estimate vertical attenuation coefficient of photosynthetically available radiation (KPAR using Secchi disk, vertical black disk, and horizontal sighting ranges for San Quintín Bay, Baja California, were developed. Radiometric PAR profiles were used to calculate KPAR. Vertical (ZD and horizontal (HS sighting ranges were measured with white (Secchi depth or ZSD, HSW and black (ZBD, HSB targets. The empirical power models KPAR = 1.48 ZSD –1.16, KPAR = 0.87 ZBD –1.52, KPAR = 0.54 HSW –0.65 and KPAR = 0.53 HSB –0.92 were developed for the corresponding relationships. The parameters of these models are not significantly different from those of models developed for Punta Banda Estuary, another Baja California lagoon, with the exception of the one for the KPAR-HSW relationship. Also, parameters of the KPAR-ZSD model for San Quintín Bay and Punta Banda Estuary are not significantly different from those developed for coastal waters near Santa Barbara, California. A set of general models is proposed that may apply to coastal water bodies of northwestern Baja California and southern California (KPAR = 1.45 ZSD –1.10, KPAR = 0.92 ZBD –1.45, and KPAR = 0.70 HSB –1.10. While this approach may be universal, more data are needed to explore the variability of the parameters between different water bodies.

  15. Clarifying students' feedback-seeking behaviour in clinical clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Harold G J; Teunissen, Pim W; Spruijt, Annemarie; Fokkema, Joanne P I; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2013-03-01

    Why and how do students seek feedback on their performance in the clinical workplace and which factors influence this? These questions have remained largely unanswered in research into workplace learning during clinical clerkships. Research on feedback has focused mainly on feedback providers. Whether and how feedback recipients actively seek feedback are under-examined issues. Research in organisational psychology has proposed a mechanism whereby feedback seeking is influenced by motives and goal orientation mediated by the perceived costs and benefits of feedback. Building on a recently published model of resident doctors' feedback-seeking behaviour, we conducted a qualitative study to explore students' feedback-seeking behaviours in the clinical workplace. Between April and June 2011, we conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews with veterinary medicine students in Years 5 and 6 about their feedback-seeking behaviour during clinical clerkships. In the interviews, 14 students were asked about their goals and motives for seeking feedback, the characteristics of their feedback-seeking behaviour and factors influencing that behaviour. Using template analysis, we coded the interview transcripts and iteratively reduced and displayed the data until agreement on the final template was reached. The students described personal and interpersonal factors to explain their reasons for seeking feedback. The factors related to intentions and the characteristics of the feedback provider, and the relationship between the feedback seeker and provider. Motives relating to image and ego, particularly when students thought that feedback might have a positive effect on image and ego, influenced feedback-seeking behaviour and could induce specific behaviours related to students' orientation towards particular sources of feedback, their orientation towards particular topics for and timing of feedback, and the frequency and method of feedback-seeking behaviour. This study shows

  16. Empirical Phenomenology: A Qualitative Research Approach (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main idea of empirical phenomenology is that scientific explanation must be grounded in the first-order construction of the actors; that is, in their own meanings. These constructions are then related to the second-order constructions of the scientist. In this paper, empirical phenomenology is considered in the light of ...

  17. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  18. NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback web application allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2015 National Agriculture Imagery Program...

  19. Autobiography After Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Astrid

    of the collective, but insufficient attention has been paid to how individuals respond to such narrative changes. This dissertation examines the relationship between individual and collective memory at the end of empire through analysis of 13 end of empire autobiographies by public intellectuals from Australia...... metropole, political legitimacy at the end of empire and settler family innocence, I argue that the writers engage with collective memories about empire in their personal recollections. Such collective narratives pattern autobiographies so that the same concerns and rhetoric recur in widely different...... and their own role in it are remembered. As such, end of empire autobiographies offer a window onto the narrative present in which they are written and reveal how the authors want to position themselves. I argue that this dialogue between individual and collective narratives is crucial to understanding memory...

  20. An empirical analysis on labor unions and occupational safety and health committees' activity, and their relation to the changes in occupational injury and illness rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kwan Hyung; Cho, Hm Hak; Kim, Jiyun

    2011-12-01

    To find out from an analysis of empirical data the levels of influence, which a labor union (LU) and Occupational Safety and Health Committee (OSHC) have in reducing the occupational injury and illness rate (OIIR) through their accident prevention activities in manufacturing industries with five or more employees. The empirical data used in this study are the Occupational Safety and Health Tendency survey data, Occupational Accident Compensation data and labor productivity and sales data for the years 2003 to 2007. By matching these three sources of data, a final data set (n = 280) was developed and analyzed using SPSS version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). It was found that a workplace with a LU has a lower OIIR than one without a LU. In manufacturing industries with five or more employees in 2007, the OIIR of the workplaces without a LU was 0.87%, while that of workplaces with a LU was much lower at 0.45%. In addition, workplaces with an established OSHC had a lower OIIR than those without an OSHC. It was found that the OIIR of workplaces with a LU is lower than those without a LU. Moreover, those with the OSHC usually had a lower OIIR than those without. The workplace OIIR may have an impact on management performance because the rate is negatively correlated with labor productivity and sales. In the long run, the OIIR of workplaces will be reduced when workers and employers join forces and recognize that the safety and health activities of the workplace are necessary, not only for securing the health rights of the workers, but also for raising labor productivity.

  1. Trust, technology affordances and feedback in peer assessments in MOOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringtved, Ulla Lunde; Milligan, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The preliminary findings in the automated peer assessments in the assessment framework in a MOOC are discussed here. We discuss whether,the assessment frame work underpins pedagogical approaches including feedback and collaboration between the participants. The empirical foundation is research...

  2. Trust, technology affordances and feedback in peer assessments in MOOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringtved, Ulla Lunde; Milligan, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The preliminary findings in the automated peer assessments in the assessment framework in a MOOC are discussed here. We discuss whether,the assessment frame work underpins pedagogical approaches including feedback and collaboration between the participants. The empirical foundation is research...... on data from a recent MOOC from Melbourne University titled “Teaching and assessing 21st century skills”....

  3. Interactional Feedback in Naturalistic Interaction between L2 English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaweera, Mahishi

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical data support that the feedback given in small group activities promote second language acquisition. There are many studies that have examined the impact of interaction on second language acquisition in controlled language situations. This study examines the small group activity "conversation partner" in order to…

  4. Effects of Immediate Feedback and Pacing of Item Presentation on Ability Test Performance and Psychological Reactions to Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    hypothesized to increase anxie - ty, and positive feedback is hypothesized to decrease anxiety. Failure feedback would tend to i-icrease expectancy of poor...withheld, students reported anxie - ty levels that varied significantly as a function of testing condition, with significant differences occuring only for...which feedback is paired. Differences in empirical results dealing with the effect feedback has oi test-taking motivation may stem from variation in

  5. Beyond "Excellent!": Uncovering the Systematicity behind Positive Feedback Turn Construction in ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Drew S.

    2014-01-01

    That oral teacher feedback influences learning opportunities in classroom settings is found across language learning research, though there remains a lack of empirical evidence concerning how "and" why teachers construct their feedback turns "in situ." The current paper begins to address this by uncovering how one English as a…

  6. On the Style-based Feedback Trading of Mutual Fund Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.P.M. Frijns (Bart); A. Gilbert (Aaron); R.C.J. Zwinkels (Remco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the style-based feedback trading behavior of mutual fund managers. We provide an empirical version of the model for style-switching behavior of Barberis and Shleifer (2003). We find style-based feedback trading for 77% of the funds, half of which is positive-

  7. Empires, Nations, and Revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    This essay examines the ways in which the age of revolutions expanded the repertoire of political ideas and identities available to new and old political subjects. It questions the traditional narrative that replaces a model of old regimes and empires with a new one of imagined unitary nation-states. Instead, it argues that the nature of the political crisis of the Iberian empires gave rise to a reinvention of familiar categories, like monarchy and empire, and sired a wider range of new ones that did not fit the national mold.

  8. Empirical Philosophy of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann

    2015-01-01

    The book examines the emerging approach of using qualitative methods, such as interviews and field observations, in the philosophy of science. Qualitative methods are gaining popularity among philosophers of science as more and more scholars are resorting to empirical work in their study...... of scientific practices. At the same time, the results produced through empirical work are quite different from those gained through the kind of introspective conceptual analysis more typical of philosophy. This volume explores the benefits and challenges of an empirical philosophy of science and addresses...

  9. Theological reflections on empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan A. Boesak

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the meeting of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches in Accra, Ghana (2004, and the adoption of the Accra Declaration, a debate has been raging in the churches about globalisation, socio-economic justice, ecological responsibility, political and cultural domination and globalised war. Central to this debate is the concept of empire and the way the United States is increasingly becoming its embodiment. Is the United States a global empire? This article argues that the United States has indeed become the expression of a modern empire and that this reality has considerable consequences, not just for global economics and politics but for theological refl ection as well.

  10. Comparison of modes of feedback on glide performance in swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Jacqueline L; Naemi, Roozbeh; Sanders, Ross H

    2012-01-01

    The software product "GlideCoach" was recently developed to give quantitative and qualitative feedback on the glide performance of a swimmer (Naemi & Sanders, 2008 ). This study compared the effect of feedback on glide performance from GlideCoach with video and verbal feedback. Nineteen elite swimmers were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Group 1 and 2 included six swimmers and Group 3 included seven swimmers. All participants performed ten dives in each of five sessions. Each group received one of three forms of feedback (video, video and verbal, and GlideCoach and verbal) for four sessions. In the fifth, retest session, performed 4 weeks after the fourth session, all groups received GlideCoach and verbal feedback only. This enabled the analysis of GlideCoach and verbal feedback on performance of the groups that had not yet received this feedback and assessment of the retention ability for the group that had. Feedback resulted in all groups recording an improvement, as indicated by effect sizes, for average velocity, glide factor (related to resistive drag), and initial velocity (P feedback was greater than that of the two other feedback methods for all variables of interest (P feedback methods. We conclude that GlideCoach feedback is effective in improving glide performance.

  11. Global climate feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B.

    1990-10-01

    The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  12. Empirical ground motion prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Archuleta

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available New methods of site-specific ground motion prediction in the time and frequency domains are presented. A large earthquake is simulated as a composite (linear combination of observed small earthquakes (subevents assuming Aki-Brune functional models of the source time functions (spectra. Source models incorporate basic scaling relations between source and spectral parameters. Ground motion predictions are consistent with the entire observed seismic spectrum from the lowest to the highest frequencies. These methods are designed to use all the available empirical Green’s functions (or any subset of observations at a site. Thus a prediction is not biased by a single record, and different possible source-receiver paths are taken into account. Directivity is accounted for by adjusting the apparent source duration at each site. Our time-series prediction algorithm is based on determination of a non-uniform distribution of rupture times of subevents. By introducing a specific rupture velocity we avoid the major problem of deficiency of predictions around the main event's corner frequency. A novel notion of partial coherence allows us to sum subevents' amplitude spectra directly without using any information on their rupture times and phase histories. Predictions by this spectral method are not Jependent on details of rupture nucleation and propagation, location of asperities and other predominantly phase-affecting factors, responsible for uncertainties in time-domain simulations.

  13. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  14. Reinforcement learning improves behaviour from evaluative feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Michael L.

    2015-05-01

    Reinforcement learning is a branch of machine learning concerned with using experience gained through interacting with the world and evaluative feedback to improve a system's ability to make behavioural decisions. It has been called the artificial intelligence problem in a microcosm because learning algorithms must act autonomously to perform well and achieve their goals. Partly driven by the increasing availability of rich data, recent years have seen exciting advances in the theory and practice of reinforcement learning, including developments in fundamental technical areas such as generalization, planning, exploration and empirical methodology, leading to increasing applicability to real-life problems.

  15. Altered Sensory Feedbacks in Pianist's Dystonia: the altered auditory feedback paradigm and the glove effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Pei-Hsin Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the effect of altered auditory feedback (AAF in musician's dystonia (MD and discusses whether altered auditory feedback can be considered as a sensory trick in MD. Furthermore, the effect of AAF is compared with altered tactile feedback, which can serve as a sensory trick in several other forms of focal dystonia. Methods: The method is based on scale analysis (Jabusch et al. 2004. Experiment 1 employs synchronization paradigm: 12 MD patients and 25 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in synchrony with a metronome on a MIDI-piano with 3 auditory feedback conditions: 1. normal feedback; 2. no feedback; 3. constant delayed feedback. Experiment 2 employs synchronization-continuation paradigm: 12 MD patients and 12 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in two phases: first in synchrony with a metronome, secondly continue the established tempo without the metronome. There are 4 experimental conditions, among them 3 are the same altered auditory feedback as in Experiment 1 and 1 is related to altered tactile sensory input. The coefficient of variation of inter-onset intervals of the key depressions was calculated to evaluate fine motor control. Results: In both experiments, the healthy controls and the patients behaved very similarly. There is no difference in the regularity of playing between the two groups under any condition, and neither did AAF nor did altered tactile feedback have a beneficial effect on patients’ fine motor control. Conclusions: The results of the two experiments suggest that in the context of our experimental designs, AAF and altered tactile feedback play a minor role in motor coordination in patients with musicians' dystonia. We propose that altered auditory and tactile feedback do not serve as effective sensory tricks and may not temporarily reduce the symptoms of patients suffering from MD in this experimental context.

  16. Declarativity and efficiency in providing services of general economic interest. Empirical study regarding the relation between heating costs and budget constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Miron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Defined by each country separately, according to real options, circumstances and traditions, the services of general economic interest have an objective purpose in ensuring protection and security for population. The services of general economic interest involve both public and economic services and show characteristics of both fields, reflecting the capabilities of communities to organize, regulate and provide them. Considering the accessibility to the essential service of general economic interest of providing household heating, as an undeniable condition of consumer protection, an analysis has been made in this field, with reference to the concrete manner of providing these services. The goal of this endeavor was to emphasize the actual conditionalities induced by the budget constraints of households while ensuring the universality of the access to the essential heating service. The empirical study is based on a survey of 55 households in sector 2 of Bucharest that have access to gas heating systems, while they have different revenues and equipments. The processing of the gathered data allowed the procurement of certain indicators that explain how household revenues determine the access to the heating services and how the deficiencies of the insurance system of these services deepen the social polarization and increase the weightings of those living at the limit of subsistence.

  17. Training symmetry of weight distribution after stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study comparing task-related reach, Bobath and feedback training approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, M H; Winzeler-Mercay, U; Radwan, S; Lee, L

    2002-09-01

    To determine (1) the most effective of three treatment approaches to retrain seated weight distribution long-term after stroke and (2) whether improvements could be generalized to weight distribution in standing. Inpatient rehabilitation unit. Forty asymmetrical acute stroke subjects were randomly allocated to one of four groups in this pilot study. Changes in weight distribution were compared between the 10 subjects of each of three treatment groups (task-specific reach, Bobath, or Balance Performance Monitor [BPM] feedback training) and a no specific treatment control group. One week of measurement only was followed by two weeks of daily training sessions with the treatment to which the subject was randomly allocated. Measurements were performed using the BPM daily before treatment sessions, two weeks after cessation of treatment and 12 weeks post study. Weight distribution was calculated in terms of mean balance (percentage of total body weight) or the mean of 300 balance points over a 30-s data run. In the short term, the Bobath approach was the most effective treatment for retraining sitting symmetry after stroke (p = 0.004). Training with the BPM and no training were also significant (p = 0.038 and p = 0.035 respectively) and task-specific reach training failed to reach significance (p = 0.26). At 12 weeks post study 83% of the BPM training group, 38% of the task-specific reach group, 29% of the Bobath group and 0% of the untrained group were found to be distributing their weight to both sides. Some generalization of symmetry training in sitting to standing was noted in the BPM training group which appeared to persist long term. Results should be treated with caution due to the small group sizes. However, these preliminary findings suggest that it might be possible to restore postural symmetry in sitting in the early stages of rehabilitation with therapy that focuses on creating an awareness of body position.

  18. Cross-Species Antiviral Activity of Goose Interferons against Duck Plague Virus Is Related to Its Positive Self-Feedback Regulation and Subsequent Interferon Stimulated Genes Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interferons are a group of antiviral cytokines acting as the first line of defense in the antiviral immunity. Here, we describe the antiviral activity of goose type I interferon (IFNα and type II interferon (IFNγ against duck plague virus (DPV. Recombinant goose IFNα and IFNγ proteins of approximately 20 kDa and 18 kDa, respectively, were expressed. Following DPV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP infection of duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs with IFNα and IFNγ pre-treatment, the number of viral gene copies decreased more than 100-fold, with viral titers dropping approximately 100-fold. Compared to the control, DPV-EGFP cell positivity was decreased by goose IFNα and IFNγ at 36 hpi (3.89%; 0.79% and 48 hpi (17.05%; 5.58%. In accordance with interferon-stimulated genes being the “workhorse” of IFN activity, the expression of duck myxovirus resistance (Mx and oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001 by IFN treatment for 24 h. Interestingly, duck cells and goose cells showed a similar trend of increased ISG expression after goose IFNα and IFNγ pretreatment. Another interesting observation is that the positive feedback regulation of type I IFN and type II IFN by goose IFNα and IFNγ was confirmed in waterfowl for the first time. These results suggest that the antiviral activities of goose IFNα and IFNγ can likely be attributed to the potency with which downstream genes are induced by interferon. These findings will contribute to our understanding of the functional significance of the interferon antiviral system in aquatic birds and to the development of interferon-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against viral disease.

  19. Computer-supported feedback message tailoring: theory-informed adaptation of clinical audit and feedback for learning and behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis-Lewis, Zach; Brehaut, Jamie C; Hochheiser, Harry; Douglas, Gerald P; Jacobson, Rebecca S

    2015-01-21

    Evidence shows that clinical audit and feedback can significantly improve compliance with desired practice, but it is unclear when and how it is effective. Audit and feedback is likely to be more effective when feedback messages can influence barriers to behavior change, but barriers to change differ across individual health-care providers, stemming from differences in providers' individual characteristics. The purpose of this article is to invite debate and direct research attention towards a novel audit and feedback component that could enable interventions to adapt to barriers to behavior change for individual health-care providers: computer-supported tailoring of feedback messages. We argue that, by leveraging available clinical data, theory-informed knowledge about behavior change, and the knowledge of clinical supervisors or peers who deliver feedback messages, a software application that supports feedback message tailoring could improve feedback message relevance for barriers to behavior change, thereby increasing the effectiveness of audit and feedback interventions. We describe a prototype system that supports the provision of tailored feedback messages by generating a menu of graphical and textual messages with associated descriptions of targeted barriers to behavior change. Supervisors could use the menu to select messages based on their awareness of each feedback recipient's specific barriers to behavior change. We anticipate that such a system, if designed appropriately, could guide supervisors towards giving more effective feedback for health-care providers. A foundation of evidence and knowledge in related health research domains supports the development of feedback message tailoring systems for clinical audit and feedback. Creating and evaluating computer-supported feedback tailoring tools is a promising approach to improving the effectiveness of clinical audit and feedback.

  20. Roman Empire and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaldo Lugli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at retracing the interrelations of ancient Roman and Asian civilizations; a key focus is made on Asian cultural heritage. The commercial and trade commercial relations are considered, which led the way to development of both as well as military clashes and claiming territories by both civilizations. A due attention is paid to the influence of different ancient establishments on the Asian territory, converting thereafter Rome into a truly multicultural and cosmopolitan empire.

  1. Democratization and Civil War : Empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederman, Lars-Erik; Hug, Simon; Krebs, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis that democratization triggers political violence has been proposed repeatedly in the quantitative literature, but it remains controversial with respect to both interstate and civil wars. Current empirical research continues to be afflicted by methodological and data problems related

  2. Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: Some Empirical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe importance of entrepreneurship for achieving economic growth in contemporary economies is widely recognized, both by policy makers and economists. However, empirical evidence linking entrepreneurship to economic growth is scarce. This book investigates the relation between

  3. False feedback and beliefs influence name recall in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland-Hughes, Carla M; West, Robin Lea; Smith, Kimberly A; Ebner, Natalie C

    2017-09-01

    Feedback is an important self-regulatory process that affects task effort and subsequent performance. Benefits of positive feedback for list recall have been explored in research on goals and feedback, but the effect of negative feedback on memory has rarely been studied. The current research extends knowledge of memory and feedback effects by investigating face-name association memory and by examining the potential mediation of feedback effects, in younger and older adults, through self-evaluative beliefs. Beliefs were assessed before and after name recognition and name recall testing. Repeated presentation of false positive feedback was compared to false negative feedback and a no feedback condition. Results showed that memory self-efficacy declined over time for participants in the negative and no feedback conditions but was sustained for those receiving positive feedback. Furthermore, participants who received negative feedback felt older after testing than before testing. For name recall, the positive feedback group outperformed the negative feedback and no feedback groups combined, with no age interactions. The observed feedback-related effects on memory were fully mediated by changes in memory self-efficacy. These findings advance our understanding of how beliefs are related to feedback in memory and inform future studies examining the importance of self-regulation in memory.

  4. The challenge of giving written thesis feedback to nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Borglin, Gunilla

    2014-11-01

    Providing effective written feedback on nursing student's assignments can be a challenging task for any assessor. Additionally, as the student groups tend to become larger, written feedback is likely to gain an overall more prominent position than verbal feedback. Lack of formal training or regular discussion in the teaching faculty about the skill set needed to provide written feedback could negatively affect the students' learning abilities. In this brief paper, we discuss written feedback practices, whilst using the Bachelor of Science in Nursing thesis as an example. Our aim is to highlight the importance of an informed understanding of the impact written feedback can have on students. Creating awareness about this can facilitate the development of more strategic and successful written feedback strategies. We end by offering examples of some relatively simple strategies for improving this practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Repeated training with augmentative vibrotactile feedback increases object manipulation performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara E Stepp

    Full Text Available Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies.

  6. Empirical Investigation of Moderating and Mediating Variables in between Transformational Leadership and Related Outcomes: A Study of Higher Education Sector in North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, Jeevan; Bhau, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the multi-layer effect of transformational leadership (TL) on employee-related outcomes, i.e. relational identification (RI) and satisfaction with leader (SWL). Further, role of leader member exchange (LMX) and the association period in between TL and RI as well as SWL shall also be examined. So,…

  7. Giving Students Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Some of the special challenges associated with evaluation and grading in the large class are discussed. Suggestions for evaluation methods include seeking clarity, reducing the stress of test administration, giving feedback, guarding against errors in record keeping, and returning exams efficiently and with respect. (MLW)

  8. Feedback i undervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Preben Olund

    2015-01-01

    undervisningsdifferentiering, feedback på læreprocesser, formativ og summativ evaluering, observationer og analyse af undervisning samt lærernes teamsamarbejde herom. Praktikken udgør et særligt læringsrum i læreruddannelsen. Samspillet mellem studerende, praktiklærere og undervisere giver den studerende en unik mulighed...

  9. The Endogenous Feedback Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustenborg, Claudia Carrara

    2010-01-01

    proposals, it will first be considered the extents of their reciprocal compatibility, tentatively shaping an integrated, theoretical profile of consciousness. A new theory, the Endogenous Feedback Network (EFN) will consequently be introduced which, beside being able to accommodate the main tenets...

  10. Portfolio, refleksion og feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Jørgen; Qvortrup, Ane; Christensen, Inger-Marie F.

    2017-01-01

    Denne leder definerer indledningsvist begrebet portfolio og gør rede for anvendelsesmuligheder i en uddannelseskontekst. Dernæst behandles portfoliometodens kvalitet og effekt for læring og undervisning og de centrale begreber refleksion, progression og feedback præsenteres og diskuteres. Herefter...

  11. Empirical determinants of relationship lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Loukil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the determinants of the incidence of relationship lending. For our study, we combine established insights from the study of Elsas with empirical banking relationship lending literature. We relate loan contract and borrower characteristics to self-assessments of Tunisian banks with respect to the existence of close relationship. Using detailed loan contract information from Tunisian banks and a questionnaire addressed to loan officers, we report the first comprehensive evidence on the development of relationship lending. We find that access to information, the ability to influence the manager, and the solvency of the company are relevant factors. While the exclusivity and the duration of the relationship, classic measures of the existence of close ties with the bank, are not determining factors. So these proxy measures should be used with caution in future empirical works.

  12. How many scientific papers are mentioned in policy-related documents? An empirical investigation using Web of Science and Altmetric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunschild, Robin; Bornmann, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    In this short communication, we provide an overview of a relatively newly provided source of altmetrics data which could possibly be used for societal impact measurements in scientometrics. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy-related documents. Using data from Altmetric, we study how many papers indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) are mentioned in policy-related documents. We find that less than 0.5% of the papers published in different subject categories are mentioned at least once in policy-related documents. Based on our results, we recommend that the analysis of (WoS) publications with at least one policy-related mention is repeated regularly (annually) in order to check the usefulness of the data. Mentions in policy-related documents should not be used for impact measurement until new policy-related sites are tracked.

  13. The Age Factor in L2 Acquisition : An empirical investigation into the choice of +/-- human relative pronouns by Spanish learners of English and the resetting of parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Mª Ángeles

    2001-01-01

    A positive approach to Second Language (L2) acquisition is to follow Chomsky's (1981) Principles and Parameters theory. Following the latest approach of the Minimalist Program (Chomsky 1995), the question of whether language acquisition involves the acquisition of morphological features that define a particular language is discussed. We would also like to examine age-related effects (Birdsong 2000) and L2 development in the acquisition of one particular linguistic phenomenon, relative clauses...

  14. Empirical research on decoupling relationship between energy-related carbon emission and economic growth in Guangdong province based on extended Kaya identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxiu; Kuang, Yaoqiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Zhao, Daiqing

    2014-01-01

    The decoupling elasticity decomposition quantitative model of energy-related carbon emission in Guangdong is established based on the extended Kaya identity and Tapio decoupling model for the first time, to explore the decoupling relationship and its internal mechanism between energy-related carbon emission and economic growth in Guangdong. Main results are as follows. (1) Total production energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong increase from 4128 × 10⁴ tC in 1995 to 14396 × 10⁴ tC in 2011. Decoupling elasticity values of energy-related carbon emission and economic growth increase from 0.53 in 1996 to 0.85 in 2011, and its decoupling state turns from weak decoupling in 1996-2004 to expansive coupling in 2005-2011. (2) Land economic output and energy intensity are the first inhibiting factor and the first promoting factor to energy-related carbon emission decoupling from economic growth, respectively. The development speeds of land urbanization and population urbanization, especially land urbanization, play decisive roles in the change of total decoupling elasticity values. (3) Guangdong can realize decoupling of energy-related carbon emission from economic growth effectively by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure, coordinating the development speed of land urbanization and population urbanization effectively, and strengthening the construction of carbon sink.

  15. Empirical Research on Decoupling Relationship between Energy-Related Carbon Emission and Economic Growth in Guangdong Province Based on Extended Kaya Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Zhao, Daiqing

    2014-01-01

    The decoupling elasticity decomposition quantitative model of energy-related carbon emission in Guangdong is established based on the extended Kaya identity and Tapio decoupling model for the first time, to explore the decoupling relationship and its internal mechanism between energy-related carbon emission and economic growth in Guangdong. Main results are as follows. (1) Total production energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong increase from 4128 × 104 tC in 1995 to 14396 × 104 tC in 2011. Decoupling elasticity values of energy-related carbon emission and economic growth increase from 0.53 in 1996 to 0.85 in 2011, and its decoupling state turns from weak decoupling in 1996–2004 to expansive coupling in 2005–2011. (2) Land economic output and energy intensity are the first inhibiting factor and the first promoting factor to energy-related carbon emission decoupling from economic growth, respectively. The development speeds of land urbanization and population urbanization, especially land urbanization, play decisive roles in the change of total decoupling elasticity values. (3) Guangdong can realize decoupling of energy-related carbon emission from economic growth effectively by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure, coordinating the development speed of land urbanization and population urbanization effectively, and strengthening the construction of carbon sink. PMID:24782666

  16. Life Writing After Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A watershed moment of the twentieth century, the end of empire saw upheavals to global power structures and national identities. However, decolonisation profoundly affected individual subjectivities too. Life Writing After Empire examines how people around the globe have made sense of the post......-imperial condition through the practice of life writing in its multifarious expressions, from auto/biography through travel writing to oral history and photography. Through interdisciplinary approaches that draw on literature and history alike, the contributors explore how we might approach these genres differently...... in order to understand how individual life writing reflects broader societal changes. From far-flung corners of the former British Empire, people have turned to life writing to manage painful or nostalgic memories, as well as to think about the past and future of the nation anew through the personal...

  17. Online feedback op schriftelijk werk: betere feedback in minder tijd.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, B.A.M.; van der Hulst, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Feedback is a powerful teaching technic to raise students’ performance, provided that the feedback is informative on how to improve, is given in a timely manner and students have the opportunity to act upon it. Therefore, many institutions want their students to receive feedback on their performance

  18. Enhanced Motor Imagery Training Using a Hybrid BCI With Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyou; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Fangyi; Zhang, Rui; Gu, Zhenghui; Cichocki, Andrzej; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-07-01

    Motor imagery-related mu/beta rhythms, which can be voluntarily modulated by subjects, have been widely used in EEG-based brain computer interfaces (BCIs). Moreover, it has been suggested that motor imagery-specific EEG differences can be enhanced by feedback training. However, the differences observed in the EEGs of naive subjects are typically not sufficient to provide reliable EEG control and thus result in unintended feedback. Such feedback can frustrate subjects and impede training. In this study, a hybrid BCI paradigm combining motor imagery and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) has been proposed to provide effective continuous feedback for motor imagery training. During the initial training sessions, subjects must focus on flickering buttons to evoke SSVEPs as they perform motor imagery tasks. The output/feedback of the hybrid BCI is based on hybrid features consisting of motor imagery- and SSVEP-related brain signals. In this context, the SSVEP plays a more important role than motor imagery in generating feedback. As the training progresses, the subjects can gradually decrease their visual attention to the flickering buttons, provided that the feedback is still effective. In this case, the feedback is mainly based on motor imagery. Our experimental results demonstrate that subjects generate distinguishable brain patterns of hand motor imagery after only five training sessions lasting approximately 1.5 h each. The proposed hybrid feedback paradigm can be used to enhance motor imagery training. This hybrid BCI system with feedback can effectively identify the intentions of the subjects.

  19. International Joint Venture Termination: An Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik B.; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Siersbæk, Nikolaj

    for the article stems from data from the project portfolio of a Danish Investment Fund for Developing Countries with a total of 773 investments. A number of hypotheses are established from the literature review and tested related to the empirical data. The result indicates that the most important factor...... the difference between intended termination and unintended termination has left a significant gap in the literature. The purpose of this article is to contribute to a better understanding of IJV exit literature by differentiating empirically between intended and unintended IJV termination. The empirical data...

  20. Empirical social choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The year 2012 was the 30th anniversary of William H. Riker’s modern classic Liberalism against populism (1982) and is marked by the present special issue. In this introduction, we seek to identify some core elements and evaluate the current status of the Rikerian research program and its empirical...... applications. Special attention is given to three phenomena and their possible empirical manifestations: The instability of social choice in the form of (1) the possibility of majority cycles, (2) the non-robustness of social choices given alternative voting methods, and (3) the possibility of various forms...

  1. Empirical Music Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    The toolbox for empirically exploring the ways that artistic endeavors convey and activate meaning on the part of performers and audiences continues to expand. Current work employing methods at the intersection of performance studies, philosophy, motion capture and neuroscience to better understand...... musical performance and reception is inspired by traditional approaches within aesthetics, but it also challenges some of the presuppositions inherent in them. As an example of such work I present a research project in empirical music aesthetics begun last year and of which I am a team member....

  2. Two concepts of empirical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm

    2009-05-01

    The turn to empirical ethics answers two calls. The first is for a richer account of morality than that afforded by bioethical principlism, which is cast as excessively abstract and thin on the facts. The second is for the facts in question to be those of human experience and not some other, unworldly realm. Empirical ethics therefore promises a richer naturalistic ethics, but in fulfilling the second call it often fails to heed the metaethical requirements related to the first. Empirical ethics risks losing the normative edge which necessarily characterizes the ethical, by failing to account for the nature and the logic of moral norms. I sketch a naturalistic theory, teleological expressivism (TE), which negotiates the naturalistic fallacy by providing a more satisfactory means of taking into account facts and research data with ethical implications. The examples of informed consent and the euthanasia debate are used to illustrate the superiority of this approach, and the problems consequent on including the facts in the wrong kind of way.

  3. Feedback: Focusing Attention on Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Margaret; Handley, Karen; Millar, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Within many higher education systems there is a search for means to increase levels of student satisfaction with assessment feedback. This article suggests that the search is under way in the wrong place by concentrating on feedback as a product rather than looking more widely to feedback as a long-term dialogic process in which all parties are…

  4. Det ved vi om Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Vibeke; Bærenholdt, Jørgen

    Præsentation af forskningsviden om feedback i forskellige personkonstellationer i undervisningen: Feedback fra lærer til elev, fra elever til lærer, fra elev til elev og elevens eget arbejde med feedback til sig selv. De præsenterede forskningsresultater er udvalgt dels inden for en kognitivistisk...

  5. A Journey towards Sustainable Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Allyson; Young, Charlotte; Davey, Tamzyn; Fitzgerald, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Meeting students' expectations associated with the provision of feedback is a perennial challenge for tertiary education. Efforts to provide comprehensive, timely feedback within our own first year undergraduate public health courses have not always met students' expectations. In response, we sought to develop peer feedback activities to support…

  6. How to Give Professional Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.; Moss, Connie M.

    2015-01-01

    Professional learning "should be a joy," the authors write, "not an affliction." Feedback experts Brookhart and Moss show how professional feedback can best motivate educators to learn. Professional conversations should be dialogs between the teacher and the principal, and feedback should feed teacher professional learning…

  7. Empirically sampling Universal Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schluter, Natalie; Agic, Zeljko

    2017-01-01

    Universal Dependencies incur a high cost in computation for unbiased system development. We propose a 100% empirically chosen small subset of UD languages for efficient parsing system development. The technique used is based on measurements of model capacity globally. We show that the diversity...

  8. Essays in empirical banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on empirical banking. They study how do information and political activeness affect banks’ lending behavior, as well as the effect of lending relationship with banks on firms’ stock performance during interbank liquidity crunch. The first essay looks at a

  9. Essays in empirical microeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Péter, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    The empirical studies in this thesis investigate various factors that could affect individuals' labor market, family formation and educational outcomes. Chapter 2 focuses on scheduling as a potential determinant of individuals' productivity. Chapter 3 looks at the role of a family factor on

  10. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  11. Positive feedback promotes oscillations in negative feedback loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthasubramaniam, Bharath; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    A simple three-component negative feedback loop is a recurring motif in biochemical oscillators. This motif oscillates as it has the three necessary ingredients for oscillations: a three-step delay, negative feedback, and nonlinearity in the loop. However, to oscillate, this motif under the common Goodwin formulation requires a high degree of cooperativity (a measure of nonlinearity) in the feedback that is biologically "unlikely." Moreover, this recurring negative feedback motif is commonly observed augmented by positive feedback interactions. Here we show that these positive feedback interactions promote oscillation at lower degrees of cooperativity, and we can thus unify several common kinetic mechanisms that facilitate oscillations, such as self-activation and Michaelis-Menten degradation. The positive feedback loops are most beneficial when acting on the shortest lived component, where they function by balancing the lifetimes of the different components. The benefits of multiple positive feedback interactions are cumulative for a majority of situations considered, when benefits are measured by the reduction in the cooperativity required to oscillate. These positive feedback motifs also allow oscillations with longer periods than that determined by the lifetimes of the components alone. We can therefore conjecture that these positive feedback loops have evolved to facilitate oscillations at lower, kinetically achievable, degrees of cooperativity. Finally, we discuss the implications of our conclusions on the mammalian molecular clock, a system modeled extensively based on the three-component negative feedback loop.

  12. Revisiting corrective saccades: role of visual feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Ying, Howard S.; Zee, David S.

    2013-01-01

    To clarify the role of visual feedback in the generation of corrective movements after inaccurate primary saccades, we used a visually-triggered saccade task in which we varied how long the target was visible. The target was on for only 100 ms (OFF100ms), on until the start of the primary saccade (OFFonset) or on for 2 s (ON). We found that the tolerance for the post-saccadic error was small (− 2%) with a visual signal (ON) but greater (−6%) without visual feedback (OFF100ms). Saccades with an error of −10%, however, were likely to be followed by corrective saccades regardless of whether or not visual feedback was present. Corrective saccades were generally generated earlier when visual error information was available; their latency was related to the size of the error. The LATER (Linear Approach to Threshold with Ergodic Rate) model analysis also showed a comparable small population of short latency corrective saccades irrespective of the target visibility. Finally, we found, in the absence of visual feedback, the accuracy of corrective saccades across subjects was related to the latency of the primary saccade. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the programming of corrective saccades: 1) the preparation of corrective saccades begins along with the preparation of the primary saccades, 2) the accuracy of corrective saccades depends on the reaction time of the primary saccades and 3) if visual feedback is available after the initiation of the primary saccade, the prepared correction can be updated. PMID:23891705

  13. Gender differences in reward and punishment for monetary and social feedback in children: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ying; Wang, Encong; Zou, Yuchen; Song, Yan; Xiao, Xue; Huang, Wanyi; Li, Yanfang

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences in feedback processing have been observed among adolescents and adults through event-related potentials. However, information on whether and how this feedback processing is affected by feedback valence, feedback type, and individual sensitivity in reward/punishment among children remains minimal. In this study, we used a guessing game task coupled with electroencephalography to investigate gender differences in feedback processing, in which feedback to reward and punishment was presented in the context of monetary and social conditions. Results showed that boys were less likely to switch their response after punishment, had generally less feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitude, and longer FRN latency in monetary and punishment conditions than girls. Moreover, FRN for monetary punishment, which is related to individual difference in reward sensitivity, was observed only in girls. The study provides gender-specific evidence for the neural processing of feedback, which may offer educational guidance for appropriate feedback for girls and boys.

  14. Gender differences in reward and punishment for monetary and social feedback in children: An ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ding

    Full Text Available Gender differences in feedback processing have been observed among adolescents and adults through event-related potentials. However, information on whether and how this feedback processing is affected by feedback valence, feedback type, and individual sensitivity in reward/punishment among children remains minimal. In this study, we used a guessing game task coupled with electroencephalography to investigate gender differences in feedback processing, in which feedback to reward and punishment was presented in the context of monetary and social conditions. Results showed that boys were less likely to switch their response after punishment, had generally less feedback-related negativity (FRN amplitude, and longer FRN latency in monetary and punishment conditions than girls. Moreover, FRN for monetary punishment, which is related to individual difference in reward sensitivity, was observed only in girls. The study provides gender-specific evidence for the neural processing of feedback, which may offer educational guidance for appropriate feedback for girls and boys.

  15. Self-control of feedback during motor learning: accounting for the absolute amount of feedback using a yoked group with self-control over feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steve; Pfeiffer, Jacob; Patterson, Jae Todd

    2011-01-01

    A traditional control group yoked to a group that self-controls their reception of feedback receives feedback in the same relative and absolute manner. This traditional control group typically does not learn the task as well as the self-control group. Although the groups are matched for the amount of feedback they receive, the information is provided on trials in which the individual may not request feedback if he or she were provided the opportunity. Similarly, individuals may not receive feedback on trials for which it would be a beneficial learning experience. Subsequently, the mismatch between the provision of feedback and the potential learning opportunity leads to a decrement in retention. The present study was designed to examine motor learning for a yoked group with the same absolute amount of feedback, but who could self-control when they received feedback. Increased mental processing of error detection and correction was expected for the participants in the yoked self-control group because of their choice to employ a limited resource in the form of a decreasing amount of feedback opportunities. Participants in the yoked with self-control group committed fewer errors than the self-control group in retention and the traditional yoked group in both the retention and time transfer blocks. The results suggest that the yoked with self-control group was able to produce efficient learning effects and can be a viable control group for further motor learning studies.

  16. Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keltsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types, this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a nZEB Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies, representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research, and laboratory buildings. The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building- and property-related energy generation, including off-site renewables. If the future nZEB Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state-related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be more useful to individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings, to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals from the other building types.

  17. Empirical Correlates of Narrative Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Klauk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation of the narratological concept of narrative closure. While narrative closure is a well-studied phenomenon in contemporary narratology, it still lacks a serious empirical foundation. In order to fill that lacuna, we performed a controlled rating experiment aimed at validating some of the properties of narrative closure proposed in the narratological literature. Our results suggest that narrative closure is closely related to two connected properties: to the completeness of the text and to questions left open by the text.

  18. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  19. Berthelot-type conductivity of porous Sr2CrReO6 : Examination of an old empirical relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B.; Chashka, K. B.; Patlagan, L.; Reisner, G. M.

    2004-11-01

    We report on the linear and nonlinear conductivity of porous samples, and of a cold-pressed powder compact of Sr2CrReO6 , a ferrimagnetic double-perovskite. The ohmic conductivity (σ) of the porous samples increases exponentially with temperature (it is Berthelot-type) over an unprecedented wide range, from liquid He, up to room temperature. This temperature dependence was predicted by Tredgold for quantum tunneling through a potential barrier of oscillating width. σ(T) of the cold-pressed sample follows another famous relation derived by Sheng for his “fluctuation induced tunneling” (FIT) model. This model is applicable to systems consisting of metallic islands separated by insulating barriers. The nonlinear conductivity dependence on electric field and temperature for both types of samples follows the generic behavior of systems with FIT-type ohmic conductivities.

  20. Feedback på arbejdspladser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Feedback på arbejdspladser er vigtig. Men feedback er også et populært begreb mange taler med om uden dog at vide sig helt sikker på hvad det er. Formålet med denne bog er at bidrage til en bedre forståelse af hvad feedback er, hvordan det fungerer og dermed hvordan arbejdspladser bedst muligt bør...... understøtte feedback. Med udgangspunkt i forskningen identificeres centrale udfordringer ved feedback, bl.a. hvorfor det kan være svært at give præcis feedback, hvordan forholdet mellem lederen og den ansatte påvirker den feedback der gives, og hvad der kendetegner en feedback kultur. Bogen er skrevet til...... undervisere og studerende på videregående uddannelser samt praktikere der ønsker en systematisk og forskningsbaseret forståelse af feedback på arbejdspladser. Bogen er således ikke en kogebog til bedre feedback, men en analyse og diskussion af hvad forskningen ved om feedback, og bidrager med inspiration og...

  1. Circumgalactic Oxygen Absorption and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, William G.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2017-09-01

    O vi absorption in quasar spectra caused by intervening circumgalactic atmospheres suggests a downturn in the atmospheric column density in sightlines passing beyond about 100 kpc from central star-forming galaxies. This turnover supports the hypothesis that the oxygen originates in the central galaxies. When converted into oxygen space density using an Abel integral inversion, the O vi columns require ≳ {10}9 M ⊙ of oxygen concentrated near 100 kpc. Circumgalactic gas within this radius cools in less than 1 Gyr and radiates ˜ {10}42.2 erg s-1 overall. The feedback power necessary to maintain such oxygen-rich atmospheres for many Gyr cannot be easily supplied by galactic supernovae. However, massive central black holes in star-forming galaxies may generate sufficient accretion power and intermittent shock waves at r˜ 100 {kpc} to balance circumgalactic radiation losses in late-type {L}\\star galaxies. The relative absence of O vi absorption observed in early-type, passive {L}\\star galaxies may arise from enhanced AGN feedback from their more massive central black holes.

  2. Benefits of Bandwidth Feedback in Learning a Complex Gymnastic Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Jerzy; Mastalerz, Andrzej; Niznikowski, Tomasz

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two different frequencies of feedback during the process of learning a complex gymnastic skill, the round-off salto backward tucked. Thirty male acrobats participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: B - bandwidth feedback (n=15) or C - 100% feedback (n=15). Group B was provided with error information regarding the key elements of movement techniques only (bandwidth feedback). Our research demonstrates the advantage of augmented feedback information related to errors in the key elements. Information about errors in the key elements during learning a complex gymnastic skill prevents the gymnast from becoming overwhelmed, which promotes better motor control. These results provide support for the generalisation of bandwidth feedback principles to a complex task. Our research shows that the guidance hypothesis can also be tested in practical settings for a complex movement task. PMID:24146719

  3. Robust permanence for ecological equations with internal and external feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Swati; Schreiber, Sebastian J

    2017-10-26

    Species experience both internal feedbacks with endogenous factors such as trait evolution and external feedbacks with exogenous factors such as weather. These feedbacks can play an important role in determining whether populations persist or communities of species coexist. To provide a general mathematical framework for studying these effects, we develop a theorem for coexistence for ecological models accounting for internal and external feedbacks. Specifically, we use average Lyapunov functions and Morse decompositions to develop sufficient and necessary conditions for robust permanence, a form of coexistence robust to large perturbations of the population densities and small structural perturbations of the models. We illustrate how our results can be applied to verify permanence in non-autonomous models, structured population models, including those with frequency-dependent feedbacks, and models of eco-evolutionary dynamics. In these applications, we discuss how our results relate to previous results for models with particular types of feedbacks.

  4. Empires, Modernisation and Modernities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ballantyne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In examining four recent books, this essay explores some key facets of contemporary scholarship on empire and the making of the modern world. Drawing on Dipesh Chakrabarty’s arguments about the often contingent relationship between modernisation as a set of material and institutional transformations and modernity as a cultural sensibility, it argues that the unfolding of the modern was messy, uneven, and remained in process until the age of decolonisation. The essay suggests that the range of modern formations that emerged out of empire-building were profoundly imprinted by local socio-political patterns and the weight of precolonial cultural traditions, meaning that modernisation never played out as an entirely homogenising force.

  5. Snow cover setting-up dates in the north of Eurasia: relations and feedback to the macro-scale atmospheric circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Popova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of snow cover onset data in 1950–2008 based on daily snow depth data collected at first-order meteorological stations of the former USSR compiled at the Russia Institute of Hydrometeorological Information are analyzed in order to reveal climatic norms, relations with macro-scale atmospheric circulation and influence of snow cover anomalies on strengthening/weakening of westerly basing on observational data and results of simulation using model Planet Simulator, as well. Patterns of mean snow cover setting-up data and their correlation with temperature of the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical land presented in Fig. 1 show that the most sensible changes observed in last decade are caused by temperature trend since 1990th. For the most portion of the studied territory variations of snow cover setting-up data may be explained by the circulation indices in the terms of Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Patterns: Scand, EA–WR, WP and NAO (Fig. 2. Role of the Scand and EA–WR (see Fig. 2, а, в, г is recognized as the most significant.Changes of snow cover extent calculated on the base of snow cover onset data over the Russia territory, and its western and eastern parts as well, for the second decade of October (Fig. 3 demonstrate significant difference in variability between eastern and western regions. Eastern part of territory essentially differs by lower both year-to-year and long-term variations in the contrast to the western part, characterized by high variance including long-term tendencies: increase in 1950–70th and decrease in 1970–80 and during last six years. Nevertheless relations between snow cover anomalies and Arctic Oscillation (AO index appear to be significant exceptionally for the eastern part of the territory. In the same time negative linear correlation revealed between snow extent and AO index changes during 1950–2008 from statistically insignificant values (in 1950–70 and 1996–2008 to coefficient

  6. Polymeric membrane materials: new aspects of empirical approaches to prediction of gas permeability parameters in relation to permanent gases, linear lower hydrocarbons and some toxic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykh, O V; Golub, A Yu; Teplyakov, V V

    2011-05-11

    Membrane gas separation technologies (air separation, hydrogen recovery from dehydrogenation processes, etc.) use traditionally the glassy polymer membranes with dominating permeability of "small" gas molecules. For this purposes the membranes based on the low free volume glassy polymers (e.g., polysulfone, tetrabromopolycarbonate and polyimides) are used. On the other hand, an application of membrane methods for VOCs and some toxic gas recovery from air, separation of the lower hydrocarbons containing mixtures (in petrochemistry and oil refining) needs the membranes with preferable penetration of components with relatively larger molecular sizes. In general, this kind of permeability is characterized for rubbers and for the high free volume glassy polymers. Data files accumulated (more than 1500 polymeric materials) represent the region of parameters "inside" of these "boundaries." Two main approaches to the prediction of gas permeability of polymers are considered in this paper: (1) the statistical treatment of published transport parameters of polymers and (2) the prediction using model of ≪diffusion jump≫ with consideration of the key properties of the diffusing molecule and polymeric matrix. In the frames of (1) the paper presents N-dimensional methods of the gas permeability estimation of polymers using the correlations "selectivity/permeability." It is found that the optimal accuracy of prediction is provided at n=4. In the frames of the solution-diffusion mechanism (2) the key properties include the effective molecular cross-section of penetrating species to be responsible for molecular transportation in polymeric matrix and the well known force constant (ε/k)(eff i) of {6-12} potential for gas-gas interaction. Set of corrected effective molecular cross-section of penetrant including noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), permanent gases (H(2), O(2), N(2), CO), ballast and toxic gases (CO(2), NO(,) NO(2), SO(2), H(2)S) and linear lower hydrocarbons (CH(4

  7. Acute noise stress impairs feedback processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banis, Stella; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of acute noise stress on the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and whether this effect depended on stressor predictability. Participants performed a gambling task in a silence and a noise condition with either predictable or unpredictable noise. FRN amplitude was measured in

  8. Obesity and health-related decisions: An empirical model of the determinants of weight status across the transition from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Leonardo Fabio; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David

    2016-12-01

    We estimate a structural dynamic model of the determinants of obesity. In addition to including many of the well-recognized endogenous factors mentioned in the literature as obesity determinants, we also model the individual's residential location as a choice variable, which is the main contribution of this paper to the literature. This allows us to control for an individual's self-selection into communities that possess the types of amenities in the built environment, which in turn affect their obesity-related behaviors such as physical activity (PA) and fast food consumption. We specify reduced form equations for a set of endogenous demand decisions, together with an obesity structural equation. The whole system of equations is jointly estimated by a semi-parametric full information log-likelihood method that allows for a general pattern of correlation in the errors across equations. Our model predicts a reduction in adult obesity of 7 percentage points as a result of a continued high level PA from adolescence into adulthood; a reduction of 0.7 (3) percentage points in adult obesity as a result of one standard deviation reduction in weekly fast food consumption for women (men); and a reduction of 0.02 (0.05) in adult obesity as a result of one standard deviation change in several neighborhood amenities for women (men). Another key finding is that controlling for residential self-selection has substantive implications. To our knowledge, this has not been yet documented within a full information maximum likelihood framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Success in publication by graduate students in psychiatry in Brazil: an empirical evaluation of the relative influence of English proficiency and advisor expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Alexandre; dos Santos, Bernardo; Dias, Álvaro Machado; Carmagnani, Anna Maria; Lafer, Beny; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2014-11-06

    This study evaluates the success of graduate students in psychiatry in an emerging country, in terms of the quantity and quality of their publication productivity (given by the number of papers and impact factors of the journals in which they publish). We investigated to what extent student proficiency in English and the scientific capabilities of academic advisors predict that success. Our sample comprised 43 master's and doctoral students in psychiatry (n = 28 and n = 15, respectively) at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. We collected information about their knowledge of English and the ways in which they wrote their articles to be submitted to periodicals published in English. Multiple regression analyses were carried out in order to investigate the influence English proficiency, h-index of supervisors and use of language editing assistance had on the number and impact of student publications. Although 60% of students scored ≥80 (out of 100) on English tests given at admission to the graduate program, 93.09% of the sample used some form of external editing assistance to produce their papers in English. The variables "number of publications" and "impact factor of journals" were significantly related to each other (r = 0.550, p periodicals where students published their articles as first authors correlated significantly not only with student proficiency in English at admission (p = 0.035), but also with the degree of language editing assistance (p = 0.050) and the h-index of the academic advisor (p = 0.050). Albeit relevant, knowledge of English was not the key factor for the publication success of the graduate students evaluated. Other variables (h-index of the advisor and third-party language editing assistance) appear to be also important predictors of success in publication.

  10. Obesity and Health-Related Decisions: An Empirical Model of the Determinants of Weight Status across the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Leonardo Fabio; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David

    2017-01-01

    We estimate a structural dynamic model of the determinants of obesity. In addition to including many of the well-recognized endogenous factors mentioned in the literature as obesity determinants, we also model the individual’s residential location as a choice variable, which is the main contribution of this paper to the literature. This allows us to control for an individual's self-selection into communities that possess the types of amenities in the built environment, which in turn affect their obesity-related behaviors such as physical activity (PA) and fast food consumption. We specify reduced form equations for a set of endogenous demand decisions, together with an obesity structural equation. The whole system of equations is jointly estimated by a semi-parametric full information log-likelihood method that allows for a general pattern of correlation in the errors across equations. Our model predicts a reduction in adult obesity of 7 percentage points as a result of a continued high level PA from adolescence into adulthood; a reduction of 0.7 (3) percentage points in adult obesity as a result of one standard deviation reduction in weekly fast food consumption for women (men); and a reduction of 0.02 (0.05) in adult obesity as a result of one standard deviation change in several neighborhood amenities for women (men). Another key finding is that controlling for residential self-selection has substantive implications. To our knowledge, this has not been yet documented within a full information maximum likelihood framework. PMID:27459276

  11. Trade and Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2007-01-01

    This articles seeks to establish a new set of organizing concepts for the analysis of the Roman imperial economy from Republic to late antiquity: tributary empire, port-folio capitalism and protection costs. Together these concepts explain better economic developments in the Roman world than the ...... much used notion of an imperial market economy.  Roman imperial government was to weak to provide the institutional supports needed by a well functioning laissez-faire economy....

  12. Essays on Empirical Macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Anesti, Nikoleta

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of four essays in empirical macroeconomics. What Are the Effects of Fiscal Policy Shocks? A VAR-Based Comparative Analysis The literature using structural vector autoregressions (SVARs) to assess the effects of fiscal policy shocks strongly disagrees on the qualitative and quantitative response of key macroeconomic variables. We find that controlling for differences in specification of the reduced-form model, all identification approaches used in the literature yield simi...

  13. Advancing empirical resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Raffael; Müller, Marianne B; Tüscher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We are delighted by the broad, intense, and fruitful discussion in reaction to our target article. A major point we take from the many comments is a prevailing feeling in the research community that we need significantly and urgently to advance resilience research, both by sharpening concepts and theories and by conducting empirical studies at a much larger scale and with a much more extended and sophisticated methodological arsenal than is the case currently. This advancement can be achieved only in a concerted international collaborative effort. In our response, we try to argue that an explicitly atheoretical, purely observational definition of resilience and a transdiagnostic, quantitative study framework can provide a suitable basis for empirically testing different competing resilience theories (sects. R1, R2, R6, R7). We are confident that it should be possible to unite resilience researchers from different schools, including from sociology and social psychology, behind such a pragmatic and theoretically neutral research strategy. In sections R3 to R5, we further specify and explain the positive appraisal style theory of resilience (PASTOR). We defend PASTOR as a comparatively parsimonious and translational theory that makes sufficiently concrete predictions to be evaluated empirically.

  14. The Impact of Second Language Proficiency in Dyadic Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David; Mills, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback is widely used in second and foreign language writing contexts. While second language (L2) proficiency is likely to be an important factor in determining peers' ability to give and utilize feedback, its contribution has been relatively under-researched. In the present study, 54 undergraduates in a foreign language writing context…

  15. The influence of a preceptor-student 'Daily Feedback Tool' on clinical feedback practices in nursing education: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Louise; Molloy, Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    Feedback in clinical education is essential for the development of competent nurses. When the process is enacted well, it offers measured performance against standards required by the nursing health profession, promoting learning and behavioural change. Despite this, health literature describes numerous barriers to effective feedback processes. A qualitative descriptive design was used to determine whether the introduction of a Daily Feedback Tool addressing some of the barriers to effective feedback, influenced nursing students and clinical supervisors (preceptors) experiences in nursing clinical education. A total of eight semi-structured focus groups related to student and preceptors reported experiences were completed comprising of preceptor and student groups independently. The data was analysed using aspects of grounded theory including purposive sampling and system analysis informing the subsequent stages of data collection. Participants reported that the introduction of the Daily Feedback Tool overcame some of the reported barriers, particularly relating to the frequency of feedback occasions, and the traditionally didactic, teacher-led feedback conversations. The Daily Feedback Tool was reported to influence the development of trusting preceptor-student relationships which gave the learner agency to seek feedback promoting learning and overall performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring Poverty: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, John

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the theoretical underpinnings of different types of income poverty measures--absolute, relative, and a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) "quasi-relative" one--and empirically assesses them by tracking their performance over time and across demographic groups. Part of the assessment involves comparing these measures to…

  17. Haptic Feedback Compared with Visual Feedback for BCI

    OpenAIRE

    Kauhanen, L.; Palomäki, T; Jylänki, P.; Aloise, F; Nuttin, Marnix; Millán, José del R.

    2006-01-01

    Feedback plays an important role when learning to use a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). Here we compare visual and haptic feedback in a short experiment. By imagining left and right hand movements, six subjects tried to control a BCI with the help of either visual or haptic feedback every 1s. Alpha band EEG signals from C3 and C4 were classified. The classifier was updated after each prediction using correct class information. Thus feedback could be given throughout the experiment. Subjects g...

  18. An integrative model linking feedback environment and organizational citizenship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jei-Chen; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2010-01-01

    Past empirical evidence has suggested that a positive supervisor feedback environment may enhance employees' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this study, we aim to extend previous research by proposing and testing an integrative model that examines the mediating processes underlying the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee OCB. Data were collected from 259 subordinate-supervisor dyads across a variety of organizations in Taiwan. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. The results demonstrated that supervisor feedback environment influenced employees' OCB indirectly through (1) both positive affective-cognition and positive attitude (i.e., person-organization fit and organizational commitment), and (2) both negative affective-cognition and negative attitude (i.e., role stressors and job burnout). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  19. Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake Kirkham; Amy Powell; Lucas Rich

    2011-02-01

    Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case Drake Kirkham1, Amy Powell2, Lucas Rich3 1Quality Manager, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625 M/S 6122, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6122 2Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory 3Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory Contact: Voice: (208) 533-7550 Email: Drake.Kirkham@inl.gov Abstract. The Radioisotope Power Systems Program of the Idaho National Laboratory makes an empirical case for a highly integrated Quality Assurance function pertaining to the preparation, assembly, testing, storage and transportation of 238Pu fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Case data represents multiple campaigns including the Pluto/New Horizons mission, the Mars Science Laboratory mission in progress, and other related projects. Traditional Quality Assurance models would attempt to reduce cost by minimizing the role of dedicated Quality Assurance personnel in favor of either functional tasking or peer-based implementations. Highly integrated Quality Assurance adds value by placing trained quality inspectors on the production floor side-by-side with nuclear facility operators to enhance team dynamics, reduce inspection wait time, and provide for immediate, independent feedback. Value is also added by maintaining dedicated Quality Engineers to provide for rapid identification and resolution of corrective action, enhanced and expedited supply chain interfaces, improved bonded storage capabilities, and technical resources for requirements management including data package development and Certificates of Inspection. A broad examination of cost-benefit indicates highly integrated Quality Assurance can reduce cost through the mitigation of risk and reducing administrative burden thereby allowing engineers to be engineers, nuclear operators to be nuclear operators, and the cross-functional team to operate more efficiently. Applicability of this case

  20. GIVING AND RECEIVING CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Олійник

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the notion of feedback applicable in classrooms where team teaching is provided. The experience of giving and receiving feedback has been a good practice in cooperation between a U.S. Peace Corps volunteer and a Ukrainian counterpart. Giving and receiving feedback is an effective means of classroom observation that provides better insight into the process of teaching a foreign language. The article discusses the stages of feedback and explicates the notion of sharing experience between two teachers working simultaneously in the same classroom. The guidelines for giving and receiving feedback have been provided as well as the most commonly used vocabulary items have been listed. It has been proved that mutual feedback leads to improving teaching methods and using various teaching styles and techniques.

  1. Emotional feedback for mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Seebode, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the functional adequacy as well as the affective impression made by feedback messages on mobile devices. It presents an easily adoptable experimental setup to examine context effects on various feedback messages, and applies it to auditory, tactile and auditory-tactile feedback messages. This approach provides insights into the relationship between the affective impression and functional applicability of these messages as well as an understanding of the influence of unimodal components on the perception of multimodal feedback messages. The developed paradigm can also be extended to investigate other aspects of context and used to investigate feedback messages in modalities other than those presented. The book uses questionnaires implemented on a Smartphone, which can easily be adopted for field studies to broaden the scope even wider. Finally, the book offers guidelines for the design of system feedback.

  2. Cultural influences on social feedback processing of character traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph W Korn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences are generally explained by how people see themselves in relation to social interaction partners. While Western culture emphasizes independence, East Asian culture emphasizes interdependence. Despite this focus on social interactions, it remains elusive how people from different cultures process feedback on their own (and on others' character traits. Here, participants of either German or Chinese origin engaged in a face-to-face interaction. Consequently, they updated their self- and other-ratings of 80 character traits (e.g., polite, pedantic after receiving feedback from their interaction partners. To exclude potential confounds, we obtained data from German and Chinese participants in Berlin (functional magnetic resonance imaging and in Beijing (behavior. We tested cultural influences on social conformity, positivity biases, and self-related neural activity. First, Chinese conformed more to social feedback than Germans (i.e., Chinese updated their trait ratings more. Second, regardless of culture, participants processed self- and other-related feedback in a positively biased way (i.e., they updated more toward desirable than toward undesirable feedback. Third, changes in self-related medial prefrontal cortex activity were greater in Germans than in Chinese during feedback processing. By investigating conformity, positivity biases, and self-related activity in relation to feedback obtained in a real-life interaction, we provide an essential step towards a unifying framework for understanding the diversity of human culture.

  3. Cultural influences on social feedback processing of character traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christoph W.; Fan, Yan; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Chenbo; Han, Shihui; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2014-01-01

    Cultural differences are generally explained by how people see themselves in relation to social interaction partners. While Western culture emphasizes independence, East Asian culture emphasizes interdependence. Despite this focus on social interactions, it remains elusive how people from different cultures process feedback on their own (and on others') character traits. Here, participants of either German or Chinese origin engaged in a face-to-face interaction. Consequently, they updated their self- and other-ratings of 80 character traits (e.g., polite, pedantic) after receiving feedback from their interaction partners. To exclude potential confounds, we obtained data from German and Chinese participants in Berlin [functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] and in Beijing (behavior). We tested cultural influences on social conformity, positivity biases, and self-related neural activity. First, Chinese conformed more to social feedback than Germans (i.e., Chinese updated their trait ratings more). Second, regardless of culture, participants processed self- and other-related feedback in a positively biased way (i.e., they updated more toward desirable than toward undesirable feedback). Third, changes in self-related medial prefrontal cortex activity were greater in Germans than in Chinese during feedback processing. By investigating conformity, positivity biases, and self-related activity in relation to feedback obtained in a real-life interaction, we provide an essential step toward a unifying framework for understanding the diversity of human culture. PMID:24772075

  4. More feedback is better than less: Learning a novel upper limb joint coordination pattern with augmented auditory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya eFujii

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning is a process whereby the acquisition of new skills occurs with practice, and can be influenced by the provision of feedback. An important question is what frequency of feedback facilitates motor learning. The guidance hypothesis assumes that the provision of less augmented feedback is better than more because a learner can use his/her own inherent feedback. However, it is unclear whether this hypothesis holds true for all types of augmented feedback, including for example sonified information about performance. Thus, we aimed to test what frequency of augmented sonified feedback facilitates the motor learning of a novel joint coordination pattern. Twenty healthy volunteers first reached to a target with their arm (baseline phase. We manipulated this baseline kinematic data for each individual to create a novel target joint coordination pattern. Participants then practiced to learn the novel target joint coordination pattern, receiving either feedback on every trial i.e. 100% feedback (n = 10, or every other trial, i.e. 50% feedback (n = 10 (acquisition phase. We created a sonification system to provide the feedback. This feedback was a pure tone that varied in intensity in proportion to the error of the performed joint coordination relative to the target pattern. Thus, the auditory feedback contained information about performance in real-time (i.e. concurrent, knowledge of performance feedback. Participants performed the novel joint coordination pattern with no-feedback immediately after the acquisition phase (immediate retention phase, and on the next day (delayed retention phase. The root-mean squared error (RMSE and variable error (VE of joint coordination were significantly reduced during the acquisition phase in both 100% and 50% feedback groups. There was no significant difference in VE between the groups at immediate and delayed retention phases. However, at both these retention phases, the 100% feedback group showed

  5. Designing feedback: multimodality and specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Ludden, Geke Dina Simone; Sugiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Now that many of us carry around devices that are equipped with sensors (e.g., smartphones with accelerometers) we can use these sensors to measure behavior. The data thus captured can be used to give someone feedback about this behavior. These feedback mechanisms are often used in so called smart coaches, a growing group of product-service systems within the domain of persuasive technology. Despite decades of research on persuasive systems, challenges remain for designers of feedback systems...

  6. The Empire Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micklitz, Hans-W.; Pałka, Przemysław; Panagis, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    The authors argue that it is possible to partly automate the process of abstract control of fairness of clauses in online consumer contracts. The authors present a theoretical and empirical argument for this claim, including a brief presentation of the software they have designed. This type...... of automation would not replace human lawyers but would assist them and make their work more effective and efficient. Policy makers should direct their attention to the potential of using algorithmic techniques in enforcing the law regarding unfair contractual terms, and to facilitating research...

  7. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...... for a proper acknowledgment of epistemology’s role in conceptual improvement...

  8. Climate feedbacks in a general circulation model incorporating prognostic clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colman, R.; Fraser, J. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia); Rotstayn, L. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale (Australia)

    2001-11-01

    This study performs a comprehensive feedback analysis on the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre General Circulation Model, quantifying all important feedbacks operating under an increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The individual feedbacks are analysed in detail, using an offline radiation perturbation method, looking at long- and shortwave components, latitudinal distributions, cloud impacts, non-linearities under 2xCO{sub 2} and 4xCO{sub 2} warmings and at interannual variability. The water vapour feedback is divided into terms due to moisture height and amount changes. The net cloud feedback is separated into terms due to cloud amount, height, water content, water phase, physical thickness and convective cloud fraction. Globally the most important feedbacks were found to be (from strongest positive to strongest negative) those due to water vapour, clouds, surface albedo, lapse rate and surface temperature. For the longwave (LW) response the most important term of the cloud 'optical property' feedbacks is due to the water content. In the shortwave (SW), both water content and water phase changes are important. Cloud amount and height terms are also important for both LW and SW. Feedbacks due to physical cloud thickness and convective cloud fraction are found to be relatively small. All cloud component feedbacks (other than height) produce conflicting LW/SW feedbacks in the model. Furthermore, the optical property and cloud fraction feedbacks are also of opposite sign. The result is that the net cloud feedback is the (relatively small) product of conflicting physical processes. Non-linearities in the feedbacks are found to be relatively small for all but the surface albedo response and some cloud component contributions. The cloud impact on non-cloud feedbacks is also discussed: greatest impact is on the surface albedo, but impact on water vapour feedback is also significant. The analysis method here proves to be a powerful tool for detailing the

  9. Fast feedback for linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Minty, M.; Sass, R. [and others

    1995-05-01

    A fast feedback system provides beam stabilization for the SLC. As the SLC is in some sense a prototype for future linear colliders, this system may be a prototype for future feedbacks. The SLC provides a good base of experience for feedback requirements and capabilities as well as a testing ground for performance characteristics. The feedback system controls a wide variety of machine parameters throughout the SLC and associated experiments, including regulation of beam position, angle, energy, intensity and timing parameters. The design and applications of the system are described, in addition to results of recent performance studies.

  10. Hvad siger forskningen om feedback?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Feedback skal serveres ligesom en gammeldags sandwich. Først lidt brød, så det lidt sejere kød og til sidst igen til lidt brød”. Sådan nogenlunde lyder en pragmatisk løsning på udfordringerne ved at give feedback. Når medarbejdere skal have negativ feedback, skal denne altså pakkes ind, så feedb...... feedbacken indledes med let fordøjeligt positiv feedback, derefter kommer den negative – og noget sværere fordøjelige – feedback, og til sidst afrundes feedbacken med en god udgangsreplik, nemlig den positive feedback.......”Feedback skal serveres ligesom en gammeldags sandwich. Først lidt brød, så det lidt sejere kød og til sidst igen til lidt brød”. Sådan nogenlunde lyder en pragmatisk løsning på udfordringerne ved at give feedback. Når medarbejdere skal have negativ feedback, skal denne altså pakkes ind, så...

  11. Offering effective feedback to trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Morkos

    2015-01-01

    Effective feedback on performance is an integral part of clinical training. It allows the trainee to critically reflect on their development, as well as enable the teacher to chart progress and detect areas for development. In order to provide effective feedback, we need to take into account the performance itself, but also the setting where feedback is offered, and the expected outcomes of the encounter. As ever, negative feedback remains more difficult to give and receive, and as such requires a greater degree of delicacy to produce a positive result.

  12. Feedback strategies for wireless communication

    CERN Document Server

    Ozbek, Berna

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the different strategies regarding the feedback information for wireless communication systems. The text analyzes the impact of quantization and correlation of channel state information (CSI) on the system performance. The authors show the effect of the reduced and limited feedback information and gives an overview about the feedback strategies in the standards. This volume presents theoretical analysis as well as practical algorithms for the required feedback information at the base stations to perform adaptive resource allocation efficiently and mitigate interference coming from other cells.

  13. Neural correlates of feedback processing in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrass, Tanja; Koehne, Svenja; Riesel, Anja; Kathmann, Norbert

    2013-05-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients show hyperactive performance monitoring when monitoring their own actions. Hyperactive performance monitoring is related to OCD symptomatology, like the unflexibility of compulsive behaviors, and was suggested as a potential endophenotype for the disorder. However, thus far the functioning of the performance monitoring system in OCD remains unclear in processes where performance is not monitored in one's own actions internally, but through external feedback during learning. The present study investigated whether electrocortical indicators of feedback processing are hyperactive, and whether feedback-guided learning is compromised in OCD. A modified deterministic four-choice object reversal learning task was used that required recurrent feedback-based behavioral adjustment in response to changing reward contingencies. Electrophysiological correlates of feedback processing (i.e. feedback-related negativity [FRN] and P300) were measured in 25 OCD patients and 25 matched healthy comparison subjects. Deficits in behavioral adjustment were found in terms of higher error rates of OCD patients in response to negative feedback. Whereas the FRN was unchanged for reversal negative feedback, it was reduced for negative feedback that indicated that a newly selected stimulus was still incorrect. The observed FRN reduction suggests attenuated monitoring of feedback during the learning process in OCD potentially contributing to a deficit in adaptive behavior reflected in obsessive thoughts and actions. The reduction of FRN amplitudes contrasts with overactive performance monitoring of self-generated errors. Nevertheless, the findings contribute to the theoretical framework of performance monitoring, suggesting a dissociation of processing systems for actions and feedback with specific alterations of these two systems in OCD. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  14. Does Constructive Performance Feedback Improve Citizenship Intentions and Job Satisfaction? The Roles of Perceived Opportunities for Advancement, Respect, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Kristin L.; Kulkarni, Mukta

    2012-01-01

    Organizational experts have long touted the importance of delivering negative performance feedback in a manner that enhances employee receptivity to feedback, yet the broader impacts of constructive feedback have received relatively little attention. The present investigation explored the impact of constructive, critical feedback on organizational…

  15. KEKB bunch feedback systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobiyama, M.; Kikutani, E. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Design and the present status of the bunch by bunch feedback systems for KEKB rings are shown. The detection of the bunch oscillation are made with the phase detection for longitudinal plane, the AM/PM method for transverse plane. Two GHz component of the bunch signal which is extracted with an analog FIR filter is used for the detection. Hardware two-tap FIR filter systems to shift the phase of the oscillation by 90deg will be used for the longitudinal signal processing. The same system will be used with no filtering but with only digital delay for transverse system. The candidate for the kicker and the required maximum power are also estimated. (author)

  16. What higher education students do with teacher feedback: Feedback ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Writing pedagogy research has constantly maintained that feedback is 'an essential component of virtually every model of the writing process' (Hall, 1990: 43) as it motivates writers to improve their next draft. Feedback during the writing process improves not only student attitude to writing but writing performance if students ...

  17. Empirically Supported Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, John S; Curtis, Sarah V

    2016-01-01

    Within the past four decades the social work profession has responded to the challenge to base practice on empirical evidence to adequately meet client needs. Most social workers would agree that the challenge has resulted in positive changes in the majority of cases-for example, in the execution of relevant research studies; the incorporation of more research findings into practice; the development of a technology of interpersonal helping; an emphasis on the incorporation of new knowledge bases, such as socio-behavioral and systems theory, in the curricula of schools of social work; and the development of services to meet emerging client needs and evidence-based practice. In this article the authors outline different references available pertaining to empirically supported interventions. A literature review revealed several textbooks, reference resources, journals, and handbooks that contain the most current research on therapeutic interventions. Different treatment components were explored in an effort to uncover the most cutting-edge developments in psychosocial treatments. These treatment components include treatment configuration, worker traits, compatibility of worker and client characteristics, professionals versus paraprofessionals, treatment length, and behavior acquisition.

  18. Role of empirical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternfeld, H.

    1982-01-01

    There are different levels of helicopter noise prediction which may be appropriate at various stages in the design process. In the early preliminary design stages, when available information is usually limited to parameters such as gross weight, tip speed, forward speed, rotor radius, and possibly number of blades, one is limited to purely empirically based methodology. As the design progresses, and airfoil blade planforms and twists are defined, predictions of airloads, vortex paths, and compressibility effects may permit application of more analytically based sound pressure level prediction methods. At the present stage of development of first principle prediction methodology, however, the designer may still find it necessary to supplement such analyses with modifications based on empirical experience. Various causes and parameters of helicopter noise were identified and discussed from the standpoint of prediction. Rotational noise, blade-vortex interaction noise, thickness noise, broadband noise, and flyover noise were considered. A modular computer program for helicopter noise prediction (HELNOP) was described briefly. Wind tunnel models as useful tools in predicting full scale helicopter noise were also discussed.

  19. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  20. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia

    2010-10-01

    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  1. Improving Nursing Home Care through Feedback On PerfoRMance Data (INFORM): Protocol for a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoben, Matthias; Norton, Peter G; Ginsburg, Liane R; Anderson, Ruth A; Cummings, Greta G; Lanham, Holly J; Squires, Janet E; Taylor, Deanne; Wagg, Adrian S; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2017-01-10

    Audit and feedback is effective in improving the quality of care. However, methods and results of international studies are heterogeneous, and studies have been criticized for a lack of systematic use of theory. In TREC (Translating Research in Elder Care), a longitudinal health services research program, we collect comprehensive data from care providers and residents in Canadian nursing homes to improve quality of care and life of residents, and quality of worklife of caregivers. The study aims are to a) systematically feed back TREC research data to nursing home care units, and b) compare the effectiveness of three different theory-based feedback strategies in improving performance within care units. INFORM (Improving Nursing Home Care through Feedback On PerfoRMance Data) is a 3.5-year pragmatic, three-arm, parallel, cluster-randomized trial. We will randomize 67 Western Canadian nursing homes with 203 care units to the three study arms, a standard feedback strategy and two assisted and goal-directed feedback strategies. Interventions will target care unit managerial teams. They are based on theory and evidence related to audit and feedback, goal setting, complex adaptive systems, and empirical work on feeding back research results. The primary outcome is the increased number of formal interactions (e.g., resident rounds or family conferences) involving care aides - non-registered caregivers providing up to 80% of direct care. Secondary outcomes are a) other modifiable features of care unit context (improved feedback, social capital, slack time) b) care aides' quality of worklife (improved psychological empowerment, job satisfaction), c) more use of best practices, and d) resident outcomes based on the Resident Assessment Instrument - Minimum Data Set 2.0. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, immediately after the 12-month intervention period, and 18 months post intervention. INFORM is the first study to systematically assess the effectiveness of different

  2. Difficulty giving feedback on underperformance undermines the educational value of multi-source feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, John R; Anderson, Elizabeth J; Pugsley, Lesley

    2013-10-01

    Multi-source feedback (MSF) was intended to provide both a summative and formative assessment of doctors' attitudes and behaviours. To explore the influences of feedback quality and trainees' acceptance of the assessment on formative educational gains from MSF. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of eight dermatology trainees, from an insider researcher position, following two pilot interviews. Interviews were manually transcribed and coded to permit template analysis, a subtype of thematic analysis. The interview data indicated that MSF provides relatively little formative educational gains largely because of a paucity of constructive feedback on sub-optimal performance. This was due to difficulties encountered by raters giving developmental feedback, in particular, potential loss of anonymity, and by trainees selecting raters expected to give favourable comments. Dual use of MSF as a summative assessment in annual appraisals also inhibited educational gains by promotion of a 'tick box' mentality in which trainees' need to pass their assessment superseded their desire for self-improvement. A relative lack of developmental feedback limits the formative educational gains from MSF and could provide false reassurance that might reinforce negative behaviours.

  3. The Rightful Demise of the Sh*t Sandwich: Providing Effective Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ian Andrew

    2015-11-01

    As a trainee cognitive therapist in the early 1990s, I was taught the Sh*t Sandwich by my supervisor. I continued to use this technique for many years without seeing the need to extend my repertoire of feedback strategies. This article describes a number of other feedback techniques, raising awareness of the processes underpinning feedback, and facilitating reflection on feedback methods. This review examines feedback and the methods of feedback used to improve clinical competence. Evidence informs us that the use of good feedback has a significant effect on learners' outcomes (Milne, 2009). However, despite recognition of its importance, many supervisors fail to give adequate feedback and utilize methods that are sub-optimal. One such problematic method is the notorious "Sh*t Sandwich" (SS), which attempts to hide criticism within a cushion of two positive statements. This paper looks at various models of giving negative and positive feedback, suggesting that our repertoire of feedback methods may require expanding. The review suggests that feedback is a complex process and methods that place an emphasis on the learner as an active participant in the learning process (i.e. interactive approaches) should be encouraged. The paper suggests that negative feedback should generally be avoided in favour of constructive support, accompanied by specific, descriptive, balanced feedback, with new learning being consolidated by role play. Generally, feedback should be given about the task rather than the person, but when it is personalized it should relate to effort rather than ability.

  4. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    consumption, we evaluate the effects of giving households detailed feedback about their electricity consumption on a small liquid crystal display (LCD) screen. Twenty Danish households participated in the study over a 5-month period. A new feedback system was developed in a user-involved innovation process...

  5. Student Interpretations of Diagnostic Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment is increasingly being recognized as a potentially beneficial tool for teaching and learning (Jang, 2012). There have been calls in the research literature for students to receive diagnostic feedback and for researchers to investigate how such feedback is used by students. Therefore, this study examined how students…

  6. Teacher Feedback during Active Learning:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Linda Keuvelaar - van den Bergh

    2013-01-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful tools teachers can use to enhance student learning. In 2006, the Dutch Inspectorate of Education concluded from classroom observations that it is difficult for Dutch teachers to give their students good feedback in order to stimulate students' learning process

  7. Videoer om feedback i undervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Nexø

    2017-01-01

    I denne video bliver du introduceret til en måde at praktisere og rammesætte klyngevejledning på i bachelorundervisning. Klyngefeedbackformen til de studerende er valgt, da de studerende lærer meget af både at give og om modtage feedback fra medstuderende. Fokus på feedback ligger derfor primært i...

  8. Designing feedback: multimodality and specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, Geke Dina Simone; Sugiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Now that many of us carry around devices that are equipped with sensors (e.g., smartphones with accelerometers) we can use these sensors to measure behavior. The data thus captured can be used to give someone feedback about this behavior. These feedback mechanisms are often used in so called smart

  9. The Right Kind of Feedback: Working through Standardized Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Fanneløb Giskeødegård

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the implications of working through globally integrated computer systems in transnational firms and addresses in particular employees’ possibility to give feedback on how these systems are working. The aim is to con-tribute to the literature on the standardization of IT with a focus on co-production by questioning the apparent neutrality of feedback processes. The literature focusing on co-production has shed light on the fact that stand-ardized IT systems are not fixed, but rather flexible in the sense that they are con-tinuously developed based on user feedback. However, based on my empirical case, I argue that employees identified the existence of a frame for acceptable criticism. Two different cases of business critical IT systems are presented; these cases share a common consensus among managers and employees that the systems required improvements. However, employees had experiences of providing business critical feedback on functionality that had not been acted upon. Conse-quently, when evaluating their possibility to provide feedback, this was not just interpreted in the sense of functionality of the system, but also the perceived pres-tige of the stakeholders of the systems, which in turn had implications for both the relationship between the central organization and employees and the functionality of the systems.

  10. Stakeholder expectations : conceptual foundations and empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Olkkonen, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Expectations are an inseparable part of interaction, whether in interpersonal, intragroup, or organization–stakeholder relations. As a concept, expectations appear frequently in the public relations literature, yet definitions are scarce or narrow. This thesis contributes to the conceptual and empirical understanding of expectations in the context of organization–stakeholder relations and, more specifically, studies how organizations translate their societal roles and how st...

  11. Multi-bunch Feedback Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lonza, M.

    2014-12-19

    Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. Advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. We first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities, analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedback systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback systems. The main co...

  12. Revisiting corrective saccades: role of visual feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Ying, Howard S; Zee, David S

    2013-08-30

    To clarify the role of visual feedback in the generation of corrective movements after inaccurate primary saccades, we used a visually-triggered saccade task in which we varied how long the target was visible. The target was on for only 100ms (OFF100ms), on until the start of the primary saccade (OFFonset) or on for 2s (ON). We found that the tolerance for the post-saccadic error was small (-2%) with a visual signal (ON) but greater (-6%) without visual feedback (OFF100ms). Saccades with an error of -10%, however, were likely to be followed by corrective saccades regardless of whether or not visual feedback was present. Corrective saccades were generally generated earlier when visual error information was available; their latency was related to the size of the error. The LATER (Linear Approach to Threshold with Ergodic Rate) model analysis also showed a comparable small population of short latency corrective saccades irrespective of the target visibility. Finally, we found, in the absence of visual feedback, the accuracy of corrective saccades across subjects was related to the latency of the primary saccade. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the programming of corrective saccades: (1) the preparation of corrective saccades begins along with the preparation of the primary saccades, (2) the accuracy of corrective saccades depends on the reaction time of the primary saccades and (3) if visual feedback is available after the initiation of the primary saccade, the prepared correction can be updated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders Is Sensitive but Not Specific in Identifying Anxiety in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Comparison to the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. David Lohr

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Validated brief screening instruments are needed to improve the detection of anxiety disorders in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED, a 41-item parent- and self-reported scale measuring anxiety, was compared to the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA scales. One hundred participants with a clinical diagnosis of high-functioning ASD, aged 8–18 years, and their parents completed the above scales. We hypothesized that the SCARED would be useful in screening for anxiety and its results for total scores of anxiety would converge with ASEBA syndrome scales for anxiety and internalizing disorders. Significant correlations were shown between the SCARED and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Youth Self-Report (YSR across a broad spectrum of scales. The CBCL syndrome scale for anxious/depressed showed the highest correlation and predicted anxiety scores on the SCARED. While many of the YSR scales significantly correlated with child ratings of anxiety, none of the scales predicted the SCARED child scores. Differences in self and parent reports suggest that parents interpret externalizing behaviors as signs of anxiety in ASD, whereas youth may describe internalized symptoms as anxiety. Females were more likely to self-report anxiety than males. Results support the use of the SCARED as a screening tool for anxiety in high-functioning ASD, but it should be supplemented with other tools to increase the specificity of its results.

  14. Models and relations in economics and econometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    1999-01-01

    Based on a money market analysis using the cointegrated VAR model the paper demonstrates some possible pitfalls in macroeconomic inference as a direct consequence of inadequate stochastic model formulation. A number of questions related to concepts such as empirical and theoretical steady......-states, speed of adjustment, feedback and interaction effects, and driving forces are addressed within the framework of the cointegrated VAR model. The interpretation and analysis of common driving trends are related to the notion of shocks or disturbances to a system, distinguishing between permanent...

  15. Debates—Perspectives on socio-hydrology: Capturing feedbacks between physical and social processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Viglione, Alberto; Carr, Gemma; Kuil, Linda; Yan, Kun; Brandimarte, Luigia; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-06-01

    In flood risk assessment, there remains a lack of analytical frameworks capturing the dynamics emerging from two-way feedbacks between physical and social processes, such as adaptation and levee effect. The former, "adaptation effect", relates to the observation that the occurrence of more frequent flooding is often associated with decreasing vulnerability. The latter, "levee effect", relates to the observation that the non-occurrence of frequent flooding (possibly caused by flood protection structures, e.g. levees) is often associated to increasing vulnerability. As current analytical frameworks do not capture these dynamics, projections of future flood risk are not realistic. In this paper, we develop a new approach whereby the mutual interactions and continuous feedbacks between floods and societies are explicitly accounted for. Moreover, we show an application of this approach by using a socio-hydrological model to simulate the behavior of two main prototypes of societies: green societies, which cope with flooding by resettling out of flood-prone areas; and technological societies, which deal with flooding also by building levees or dikes. This application shows that the proposed approach is able to capture and explain the aforementioned dynamics (i.e. adaptation and levee effect) and therefore contribute to a better understanding of changes in flood risk, within an iterative process of theory development and empirical research.

  16. Unpacking social hypersensitivity: vulnerability to the absence of positive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikara, Mina; Girgus, Joan S

    2010-10-01

    Navigating social life requires accurately calibrated sensitivity to external feedback, thus extreme sensitivity to external feedback may be maladaptive. Using a daily diary design, the authors investigated whether the relationship between social hypersensitivity and daily events predicted level, lability, and reactivity of both self-esteem and affect. Relative to their less sensitive peers, socially hypersensitive people exhibited lower levels of self-esteem and greater negative affect and experienced greater fluctuations in self-esteem and negative affect. Although most people were negatively reactive to the presence of negative feedback, socially hypersensitive people were negatively reactive to the absence of positive feedback as well. The authors argue that reactivity to the absence of positive feedback is a fundamental, heretofore untested aspect of what makes social hypersensitivity a pernicious orientation.

  17. Musical training and the role of auditory feedback during performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q

    2012-04-01

    Recent research has shown that music training enhances music-related sensorimotor associations, such as the relationship between a key press on the keyboard and its associated musical pitch (auditory feedback). Such results suggest that the role of auditory feedback in performance may be based on learned associations that are task specific. Here, results from various studies will be presented that suggest that the real state of affairs is more complex. Several recent studies have shown similar effects of altered auditory feedback during piano performance for pianists and individuals with no piano training. Other recent research suggests dramatic differences between pianists and nonmusicians concerning the influence of auditory feedback on melody switching that suggest greater influence of auditory feedback among nonmusicians than pianists. Taken together, results suggest that musical training refines preexisting sensorimotor associations. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Quantifying Feedback – Insights Into Peer Assessment Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Jensen, Ulf Aslak

    2017-01-01

    The act of producing content - for example in forms of written reports - is one of the most used methods for teaching and learning all the way from primary school to university. It is a learning tool which helps students relate their theories to practice. Getting relevant and helpful feedback...... on this work is important to ensure a good learning experience for the students. Providing this feedback is often a time-consuming job for the teacher. An effective way to learn is to teach others, and similarly give feedback on work done by others. One way to approach a combined solution to the above...... of more than 10,000 students. The students have together made more than 100,000 peer-evaluations of work by other students, and these evaluations together contain more than 10,000,000 words of text feedback. A key problem when using peer assessment is to ensure high quality feedback between peers...

  19. Feedback control of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaely, Boaz

    This thesis is concerned with the development an application of feedback control techniques for active sound control. Both fixed and adaptive controllers are considered. The controller design problem for active sound control is formulated as a constrained optimisation problem with an H2 performance objective, of minimising the variance of the control error, and H2 and H∞ design constraints involving control power output, disturbance enhancement, and robust stability. An Internal Model Controller with an FIR control filter is assumed. Conventional H2 design methods for feedback controllers are studied first. Although such controllers can satisfy the design constraints by employing effort terms in the quadratic cost function, they do not achieve the best possible performance, and when adapted using LMS-based algorithms, they suffer from instabilities if the plant response varies significantly. Improved H2/H∞ design methods for fixed and adaptive controllers are then developed, which achieve the best H2 performance under the design constraints, offer an improved stability when made adaptive, and in general outperform the conventional H2 controllers. The H2/H∞ design problems employ convex programming to ensure a unique solution. The Sequential Quadratic Programming methods is used for the off-line design of fixed controllers, and penalty and barrier function methods, together with frequency domain LMS-based algorithms are employed in the H2/H∞ adaptive controllers. The controllers studied and developed here were applied to three active sound control systems: a noise-reducing headset, an active headrest, and a sound radiating panel. The emphasis was put on developing control strategies that improve system performance. First, a high performance controller for the noise-reducing headset was implemented in real-time, which combines analogue and adaptive digital controllers, and can thus reject disturbances which has both broad-band and periodic components. Then

  20. Understanding Feedback: A Learning Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review's scope also includes feedback in classrooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory adhered to. Findings show that regardless of the…

  1. Understanding feedback: A learning theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review’s scope also includes feedback in class- rooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory

  2. Feedback in Clinical Education, Part II: Approved Clinical Instructor and Student Perceptions of and Influences on Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Sara; Henning, Jolene

    2014-01-01

    Context: Approved Clinical Instructors (ACIs; now known as preceptors) are expected to provide feedback to athletic training students (ATSs) during clinical education experiences. Researchers in other fields have found that clinical instructors and students often have different perceptions of actual and ideal feedback and that several factors may influence the feedback exchanges between instructors and students. However, understanding of these issues in athletic training education is minimal. Objective: To investigate the current characteristics and perceptions of and the influences on feedback exchanges between ATSs and ACIs. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: One entry-level master's degree program accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Patients or Other Participants: Four ACIs and 4 second-year ATSs. Data Collection and Analysis: Individual, semistructured interviews were conducted with participants and integrated with field notes and observations for analysis. We used the constant comparative approach to inductively analyze data and develop codes and categories. Member checking, triangulation, and peer debriefing were used to promote trustworthiness of the study. Results: Participants described that feedback plays an important role in clinical education and has several purposes related to improving performance. The ACIs and ATSs also discussed several preferred characteristics of feedback. Participants identified 4 main influences on their feedback exchanges, including the ACI, the ATS, personalities, and the learning environment. Conclusions: The ACIs and ATSs had similar perceptions of ideal feedback in addition to the actual feedback that was provided during their clinical education experiences. Most of the preferences for feedback were aligned with recommendations in the literature, suggesting that existing research findings are applicable to athletic training clinical education. Several factors influenced the

  3. El feedback correctivo escrito indirecto en el aprendizaje de la forma comparativa de adjetivos en inglés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Muñoz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While written corrective feedback (WCF has proven to be effective for the treatment of certain grammatical structures (Ferris & Roberts, 2001, there are still many factors that hinder the achievement of categorical outcomes. Some of these relate to the type of structures that benefit of such a treatment, distinct learning contexts, assorted students’ linguistic competence, among others (Hyland & Hyland, 2006; Guénette; 2007. This research studies two strategies of indirect WCF; i.e. indirect with indication and localization and indirect with indication, localization and metalinguistic explanation, in the treatment of comparative form of adjectives in English at school level. The objectives are 1 to examine the effectiveness of WCF in the treatment of a form that, as far as we know, has not been previously studied and 2 to strengthen the empirical evidence in learning contexts that have been poorly researched. This first approach is an unprecedented approach that contributes to strengthening and increasing the existing empirical evidence in the field of WCF. The sample consisted of 24 students in 8th grade at primary school with a basic level of proficiency in English as a foreign language. Results show that both types of feedback improve the accurate use of the target form but it is indirect WCF with indication and localization the strategy that longer retains the gain. These data support a facilitative role of WCF in the treatment of the studied grammar structure.

  4. Effects of intrinsic motivation on feedback processing during learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasque, Samantha; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Learning commonly requires feedback about the consequences of one's actions, which can drive learners to modify their behavior. Motivation may determine how sensitive an individual might be to such feedback, particularly in educational contexts where some students value academic achievement more than others. Thus, motivation for a task might influence the value placed on performance feedback and how effectively it is used to improve learning. To investigate the interplay between intrinsic motivation and feedback processing, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during feedback-based learning before and after a novel manipulation based on motivational interviewing, a technique for enhancing treatment motivation in mental health settings. Because of its role in the reinforcement learning system, the striatum is situated to play a significant role in the modulation of learning based on motivation. Consistent with this idea, motivation levels during the task were associated with sensitivity to positive versus negative feedback in the striatum. Additionally, heightened motivation following a brief motivational interview was associated with increases in feedback sensitivity in the left medial temporal lobe. Our results suggest that motivation modulates neural responses to performance-related feedback, and furthermore that changes in motivation facilitate processing in areas that support learning and memory. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Partially blind instantly decodable network codes for lossy feedback environment

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study the multicast completion and decoding delay minimization problems for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) in the case of lossy feedback. When feedback loss events occur, the sender falls into uncertainties about packet reception at the different receivers, which forces it to perform partially blind selections of packet combinations in subsequent transmissions. To determine efficient selection policies that reduce the completion and decoding delays of IDNC in such an environment, we first extend the perfect feedback formulation in our previous works to the lossy feedback environment, by incorporating the uncertainties resulting from unheard feedback events in these formulations. For the completion delay problem, we use this formulation to identify the maximum likelihood state of the network in events of unheard feedback and employ it to design a partially blind graph update extension to the multicast IDNC algorithm in our earlier work. For the decoding delay problem, we derive an expression for the expected decoding delay increment for any arbitrary transmission. This expression is then used to find the optimal policy that reduces the decoding delay in such lossy feedback environment. Results show that our proposed solutions both outperform previously proposed approaches and achieve tolerable degradation even at relatively high feedback loss rates.

  6. Inadequate Empirical Antibiotic Therapy in Hospital Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, S; Rijal, B P; Yogi, K N; Sherchand, J B; Parajuli, K; Parajuli, N; Pokhrel, B M

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy for HAP is a common phenomena and one of the indicators of the poor stewardship. This study intended to analyze the efficacy of empirical antibiotics in the light of microbiological data in HAP cases. Suspected cases of HAP were followed for clinico-bacterial evidence, antimicrobial resistance and pre and post culture antibiotic use. The study was taken from February,2014 to July 2014 in department of Microbiology and department of Respiratory medicine prospectively. Data was analyzed by Microsoft Office Excel 2007. Out of 758 cases investigated, 77(10 %) cases were HAP, 65(84%) of them were culture positive and 48(74 %) were late in onset. In early onset cases, isolates were Acinetobacter 10(42%), Escherichia coli 5(21%), S.aureus 4(17%), Klebsiella 1(4%) and Pseudomonas 1(4%). From the late onset cases Acinetobacter 15(28%), Klebsiella 17(32%) and Pseudomonas 13(24%) were isolated. All Acinetobacter, 78% Klebsiella and 36% Pseudomonas isolates were multi drug resistant. Empirical therapies were inadequate in 12(70%) of early onset cases and 44(92%) of late onset type. Cephalosporins were used in 7(41%) of early onset infections but found to be adequate only in 2(12%) cases. Polymyxins were avoided empirically but after cultures were used in 9(19%) cases. Empirical antibiotics were vastly inadequate, more frequently so in late onset infections. Use of cephalosporins empirically in early onset infections and avoiding empirical use of polymyxin antibiotics in late onset infections contributed largely to the findings. Inadequate empirical regimen is a real time feedback for a practitioner to update his knowledge on the local microbiological trends.

  7. Neural Correlates of Feedback Processing in Decision Making under Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate eSchuermann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Event-related brain potentials (ERP provide important information about the sensitivity of the brain to process varying risks. The aim of the present study was to determine how different risk levels are reflected in decision-related ERPs, namely the feedback-related negativity (FRN and the P300. Material and Methods. 20 participants conducted a probabilistic two-choice gambling task while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Choices were provided between a low-risk option yielding low rewards and low losses and a high-risk option yielding high rewards and high losses. While options differed in expected risks, they were equal in expected values and in feedback probabilities. Results. At the behavioral level, participants were generally risk-averse but modulated their risk-taking behavior according to reward history. An early positivity (P200 was enhanced on negative feedbacks in high-risk compared to low-risk options. With regard to the FRN, there were significant amplitude differences between positive and negative feedbacks in high-risk options, but not in low-risk options. While the FRN on negative feedbacks did not vary with decision riskiness, reduced amplitudes were found for positive feedbacks in high-risk relative to low-risk choices. P300 amplitudes were larger in high-risk decisions, and in an additive way, after negative compared to positive feedback. Discussion. The present study revealed significant influences of risk and valence processing on ERPs. FRN findings suggest that the reward prediction error signal is increased after high-risk decisions. The increased P200 on negative feedback in risky decisions suggests that large negative prediction errors are processed as early as in the P200 time range. The later P300 amplitude is sensitive to feedback valence as well as to the risk of a decision. Thus, the P300 carries additional information for reward processing, mainly the enhanced motivational significance of risky

  8. Empirical correlation methods for temporary anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Thomas; Weber, Rebecca J

    2011-06-23

    A temporary anion is a short-lived radical anion that decays through electron autodetachment into a neutral molecule and a free electron. The energies of these metastable species are often predicted using empirical correlation methods because ab initio predictions are computationally very expensive. Empirical correlation methods can be justified in the framework of Weisskopf-Fano-Feshbach theory but tend to work well only within closely related families of molecules or within a restricted energy range. The reason for this behavior can be understood using an alternative theoretical justification in the framework of the Hazi-Taylor stabilization method, which suggests that the empirical parameters do not so much correct for the coupling of the computed state to the continuum but for electron correlation effects and that therefore empirical correlation methods can be improved by using more accurate electronic structure methods to compute the energy of the confined electron. This idea is tested by choosing a heterogeneous reference set of temporary states and comparing empirical correlation schemes based on Hartree-Fock orbital energies, Kohn-Sham orbital energies, and attachment energies computed with the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method. The results show that using more reliable energies for the confined electron indeed enhances the predictive power of empirical correlation schemes and that useful correlations can be established beyond closely related families of molecules. Certain types of σ* states are still problematic, and the reasons for this behavior are analyzed. On the other hand, preliminary results suggest that the new scheme can even be useful for predicting energies of bound anions at a fraction of the computational cost of reliable ab initio calculations. It is then used to make predictions for bound and temporary states of the furantrione and croconic acid radical anions.

  9. Styrket feedback gennem studerendes selvevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Studerende er ofte utilfredse med såvel kvaliteten som kvantiteten af feedback på skriftligt arbejde. Ligeledes kan det som underviser være svært at afgive feedback, der tager udgangspunkt i de studerendes respektive læringssituationer, hvis man ikke har andet afsæt end opgavetekster. Denne artikel...... beskriver derfor to eksperimenter med brug af selvevaluering som kvalificerende mellemled i ekstern feedback på skriveøvelser. Eksperimenternes formål er at styrke den formative læring ved skriftligt arbejde. I det første eksperiment bestod feedbacken af underviser-feedback, mens det andet eksperiment...... indebar peer-feedback og fælles feedback. I begge tilfælde blev selvevalueringen foretaget med udgangspunkt i en kriteriebaseret retteguide. Eksperimenterne medførte, at den eksterne feedback blev målrettet og kvalificeret i forhold til den enkelte studerende, mens selve skriveprocessen mod forventning...

  10. Distributed feedback imprinted electrospun fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persano, Luana; Camposeo, Andrea; Del Carro, Pompilio; Fasano, Vito; Moffa, Maria; Manco, Rita; D'Agostino, Stefania; Pisignano, Dario

    2014-10-01

    Imprinted, distributed feedback lasers are demonstrated on individual, active electrospun polymer nanofibers. In addition to advantages related to miniaturization, optical confinement and grating nanopatterning lead to a significant threshold reduction compared to conventional thin-film lasers. The possibility of imprinting arbitrary photonic crystal geometries on electrospun lasing nanofibers opens new opportunities for realizing optical circuits and chips. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Optimal allocation of reviewers for peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Jensen, Ulf Aslak; Jørgensen, Rasmus Malthe

    2017-01-01

    feedback. In this paper we present a novel way to intelligently allocate reviewers for peer feedback. We train a statistical model to infer the quality of feedback based on a dataset of feedback quality evaluations. This dataset contains more than 20,000 reviews where the receiver of the feedback has......Peer feedback is the act of letting students give feedback to each other on submitted work. There are multiple reasons to use peer feedback, including students getting more feedback, time saving for teachers and increased learning by letting students reflect on work by others. In order for peer...... indicated the quality of the feedback. Using this model together with historical data we calculate the feedback-giving skill of each student and uses that as input to an allocation algorithm that assigns submissions to reviewers, in order to optimize the feedback quality for all students. We test...

  12. Extended empirical likelihood for estimating equations

    OpenAIRE

    Min Tsao; Fan Wu

    2014-01-01

    We derive an extended empirical likelihood for parameters defined by estimating equations which generalizes the original empirical likelihood to the full parameter space. Under mild conditions, the extended empirical likelihood has all the asymptotic properties of the original empirical likelihood. The first-order extended empirical likelihood is easy to use and substantially more accurate than the original empirical likelihood.

  13. Neural correlates of anticipation and processing of performance feedback in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Carina Y; Peterburs, Jutta; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Hallfarth, Marlit C; Böhme, Stephanie; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Fear of negative evaluation, such as negative social performance feedback, is the core symptom of social anxiety. The present study investigated the neural correlates of anticipation and perception of social performance feedback in social anxiety. High (HSA) and low (LSA) socially anxious individuals were asked to give a speech on a personally relevant topic and received standardized but appropriate expert performance feedback in a succeeding experimental session in which neural activity was measured during anticipation and presentation of negative and positive performance feedback concerning the speech performance, or a neutral feedback-unrelated control condition. HSA compared to LSA subjects reported greater anxiety during anticipation of negative feedback. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results showed deactivation of medial prefrontal brain areas during anticipation of negative feedback relative to the control and the positive condition, and medial prefrontal and insular hyperactivation during presentation of negative as well as positive feedback in HSA compared to LSA subjects. The results indicate distinct processes underlying feedback processing during anticipation and presentation of feedback in HSA as compared to LSA individuals. In line with the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential information processing and the insula in interoception, social anxiety seems to be associated with lower self-monitoring during feedback anticipation, and an increased self-focus and interoception during feedback presentation, regardless of feedback valence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Feedback-giving behaviour in performance evaluations during clinical clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Harold G J; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Spruijt, Annemarie; Van Beukelen, Peter; Van Der Vleuten, Cees P M; Teunissen, Pim W

    2016-01-01

    Narrative feedback documented in performance evaluations by the teacher, i.e. the clinical supervisor, is generally accepted to be essential for workplace learning. Many studies have examined factors of influence on the usage of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) instruments and provision of feedback, but little is known about how these factors influence teachers' feedback-giving behaviour. In this study, we investigated teachers' use of mini-CEX in performance evaluations to provide narrative feedback in undergraduate clinical training. We designed an exploratory qualitative study using an interpretive approach. Focusing on the usage of mini-CEX instruments in clinical training, we conducted semi-structured interviews to explore teachers' perceptions. Between February and June 2013, we conducted interviews with 14 clinicians participated as teachers during undergraduate clinical clerkships. Informed by concepts from the literature, we coded interview transcripts and iteratively reduced and displayed data using template analysis. We identified three main themes of interrelated factors that influenced teachers' practice with regard to mini-CEX instruments: teacher-related factors; teacher-student interaction-related factors, and teacher-context interaction-related factors. Four issues (direct observation, relationship between teacher and student, verbal versus written feedback, formative versus summative purposes) that are pertinent to workplace-based performance evaluations were presented to clarify how different factors interact with each other and influence teachers' feedback-giving behaviour. Embedding performance observation in clinical practice and establishing trustworthy teacher-student relationships in more longitudinal clinical clerkships were considered important in creating a learning environment that supports and facilitates the feedback exchange. Teachers' feedback-giving behaviour within the clinical context results from the interaction

  15. Brain responses in evaluating feedback stimuli with a social dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eZhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on outcome evaluation and performance monitoring using gambling or simple cognitive tasks have identified two components of event-related potentials (ERPs that are particularly relevant to the neural responses to decision outcome. The feedback-related negativity (FRN, typically occurring 200-300 ms post-onset of feedback stimuli, encodes mainly the valence of outcome while the P300, which is the most positive peak between 200-600 ms, is found to be related to various aspects of outcome evaluation. This study investigated the extent which neural correlates of outcome evaluation involving complex feedback stimuli (i.e., female faces are similar to those revealed for simplex feedback. We asked participants to judge the attractiveness of blurred faces and then showed them unblurred faces as (implicit feedback of their performance. The FRN effect can be identified by the ERP waveforms, albeit in a delayed 300-380 ms time window, with faces inconsistent with the initial judgment eliciting more negative-going responses than faces consistent with the judgment. However, the ERP waveforms did not show the typical pattern of P300 responses. With the principal component analysis (PCA, a clear pattern of P300 effects were revealed, with the P300 being more positive to faces consistent with the initial judgment than to faces inconsistent with the judgment and more positive to attractive faces than to unattractive ones. The feedback consistency effect on either the FRN or the P300 was unaffected by the attractiveness of the feedback faces. These findings suggest that brain responses involved in processing complex feedback stimuli with a social dimension are generally similar to those involved in processing simplex feedback stimuli in gambling or cognitive tasks, although appropriate means of data analysis are needed to reveal the typical ERP effects that may have been masked by sophisticated cognitive (and emotional processes for complex

  16. The need for faculty training programs in effective feedback provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Wahbi A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Al Wahbi1,2 1King Saud University for Health Sciences, 2King Abdulaziz Medical City, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: An important aspect of professional teaching practice is a practitioner's ability to critically evaluate the performances of subordinates for whom he or she is responsible. This is a common practice within social sciences as well as for professionals from applied specialties. The literature on professional clinical expertise identifies reflective practice as perfect when they are thoroughly accepted by practitioners. In health-related professions, critical reflection in the form of feedback that serves as the bridge between theory and practice is endorsed. The aims and objectives of this study were directed toward the application of a mixed methodology approach in order to evaluate the requirements for a feedback training program and to detect the present feedback provision skills of clinical mentors in practice. The quantitative analysis measured the effectiveness of clinical teachers' feedback in order to understand whether their understanding of and skills for giving feedback to promote students were adequate. On the other hand, the qualitative methods explored self-perceptions of feedback skills and efficacy in enabling students to improve their clinical practice. Effective feedback from faculty and the learner provides a useful and meaningful experience for absorbing knowledge and critical thinking into clinical practice. Nonadherence and limited expertise of mentors in giving feedback are the main themes of this study, and were evaluated and acknowledged through systematic analysis. Keywords: clinical mentors, feedback mechanism, feedback proficiency 

  17. NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback map allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2015 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  18. NAIP 2017 Imagery Feedback Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2017 Imagery Feedback map allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2017 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  19. Final Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....

  20. An autoethnographic exploration of the use of goal oriented feedback to enhance brief clinical teaching encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Laura; Bourgeois-Law, Gisele; Ajjawi, Rola; Regehr, Glenn

    2017-03-01

    Supervision in the outpatient context is increasingly in the form of single day interactions between students and preceptors. This creates difficulties for effective feedback, which often depends on a strong relationship of trust between preceptor and student. Building on feedback theories focusing on the relational and dialogic aspects of feedback, this study explored the use of goal-oriented feedback in brief encounters with learners. This study used autoethnography to explore one preceptor's feedback interactions over an eight-month period both in the ambulatory setting and on the wards. Data included written narrative reflections on feedback interactions with twenty-three learners informed by discussions with colleagues and repeated reading of feedback literature. Thematic and narrative analyses of data were performed iteratively. Data analysis emphasized four recurrent themes. (1) Goal discussions were most effective when initiated early and integrated throughout the learning experience. (2) Both learner and preceptor goals were multiple and varied, and feedback needed to reflect this complexity. (3) Negotiation or co-construction of goals was important when considering the focus of feedback discussions in order to create safer, more effective interactions. (4) Goal oriented interactions offer potential benefits to the learner and preceptor. Goal oriented feedback promotes dialogue as it requires both preceptor and learner to acknowledge and negotiate learning goals throughout their interaction. In doing so, feedback becomes an explicit component of the preceptor-learner relationship. This enhances feedback interactions even in relatively brief encounters, and may begin an early educational alliance that can be elaborated with longer interactions.

  1. Clinical Pathway and Monthly Feedback Improve Adherence to Antibiotic Guideline Recommendations for Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Almatar

    Full Text Available Compliance with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP guidelines remains poor despite a substantial body of evidence indicating that guideline-concordant care improves patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of a general educational and a targeted emergency department intervention on improving physicians' concordance with CAP guidelines.Two distinct interventions were implemented over specific time periods. The first intervention was educational, focusing on the development of local CAP guidelines and their dissemination through hospital-wide educational programmes. The second intervention was a targeted one for the emergency department, where a clinical pathway for the initial management of CAP patients was introduced, followed by monthly feedback to the emergency department (ED physicians about concordance rates with the guidelines. Data on the concordance rate to CAP guidelines was collected from a retrospective chart review.A total of 398 eligible patient records were reviewed to measure concordance to CAP guidelines over the study period. Concordance rates during the baseline and educational intervention periods were similar (28.1% vs. 31.2%; p > 0.05. Significantly more patients were treated in accordance with the CAP guidelines after the ED focused intervention when compared to the baseline (61.5% vs. 28.1%; p < 0.05 or educational period (61.5% vs. 31.2%; p < 0.05.A targeted intervention with a CAP clinical pathway and monthly feedback was a successful strategy to increase adherence to empirical antibiotic recommendations in CAP guidelines.

  2. Thermodynamics of Quantum Feedback Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liuzzo-Scorpo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to initialize quantum registers in pure states lies at the core of many applications of quantum technologies, from sensing to quantum information processing and computation. In this paper, we tackle the problem of increasing the polarization bias of an ensemble of two-level register spins by means of joint coherent manipulations, involving a second ensemble of ancillary spins and energy dissipation into an external heat bath. We formulate this spin refrigeration protocol, akin to algorithmic cooling, in the general language of quantum feedback control, and identify the relevant thermodynamic variables involved. Our analysis is two-fold: on the one hand, we assess the optimality of the protocol by means of suitable figures of merit, accounting for both its work cost and effectiveness; on the other hand, we characterise the nature of correlations built up between the register and the ancilla. In particular, we observe that neither the amount of classical correlations nor the quantum entanglement seem to be key ingredients fuelling our spin refrigeration protocol. We report instead that a more general indicator of quantumness beyond entanglement, the so-called quantum discord, is closely related to the cooling performance.

  3. Feedback trap using optical force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yonggun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    Recently, the feedback trap using electrophoretic force (ABEL trap) has been used in the experimental study of non-equilibrium thermodynamics such as Landauer's erasure principle. This trap can trap and manipulate a small particle in solution by canceling the Brownian fluctuations. Here, we propose a simple way to control a bead using optical force with feedback and show the dynamics of a single particle in the virtual potential.

  4. Mass production of individual feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, David

    2006-01-01

    Learning to program is intrinsically difficult. In addition there is a trend towards increased student diversity and larger class sizes. Student diversity increases the need for individual attention for each student, while increased class sizes decreases the amount of time a lecturer has to provide this attention. This thesis investigates an approach to help provide each student with detailed individual feedback. This feedback is important where individual attention is lacking. We used tw...

  5. Recognition of boundary feedback systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A system that has been the object of intense research is outlined. In view of that and recent progress of the theory of pseudodifferential boundary operator calculus, the author describes some features that could prove to be interesting in connection with the problems of boundary feedback...... stabilizability. It is shown that it is possible to use the calculus to consider more general feedback systems in a variational setup....

  6. Remembrances of Empires Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Aldrich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the colonial legacy is ever present in contemporary Europe. For a generation, most Europeans largely tried, publicly, to forget the colonial past, or remembered it only through the rose-coloured lenses of nostalgia; now the pendulum has swung to memory of that past – even perhaps, in the views of some, to a surfeit of memory, where each group agitates for its own version of history, its own recognition in laws and ceremonies, its own commemoration in museums and monuments, the valorization or repatriation of its own art and artefacts. Word such as ‘invasion,’ ‘racism’ and ‘genocide’ are emotional terms that provoke emotional reactions. Whether leaders should apologize for wrongs of the past – and which wrongs – remains a highly sensitive issue. The ‘return of the colonial’ thus has to do with ethics and politics as well as with history, and can link to statements of apology or recognition, legislation about certain views of history, monetary compensation, repatriation of objects, and—perhaps most importantly—redefinition of national identity and policy. The colonial flags may have been lowered, but many barricades seem to have been raised. Private memories—of loss of land, of unacknowledged service, of political, economic, social and cultural disenfranchisement, but also on the other side of defeat, national castigation and self-flagellation—have been increasingly public. Monuments and museums act not only as sites of history but as venues for political agitation and forums for academic debate – differences of opinion that have spread to the streets. Empire has a long after-life.

  7. Timing matters: The impact of immediate and delayed feedback on artificial language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram Opitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present experiment, we used event-related potentials (ERP to investigate the role of immediate and delayed feedback in an artificial grammar learning task. Two groups of participants were engaged in classifying non-word strings according to an underlying rule system, not known to the participants. Visual feedback was provided after each classification either immediately or with a short delay of one second. Both groups were able to learn the artificial grammar system as indicated by an increase in classification performance. However, the gain in performance was significantly larger for the group receiving immediate feedback as compared to the group receiving delayed feedback. Learning was accompanied by an increase in P300 activity in the ERP for delayed as compared to immediate feedback. Irrespective of feedback delay, both groups exhibited learning related decreases in the feedback-related positivity (FRP elicited by positive feedback only. The feedback-related negativity (FRN, however, remained constant over the course of learning. These results suggest, first, that delayed feedback is less effective for artificial grammar learning as task requirements are very demanding, and second, that the FRP elicited by positive prediction errors decreases with learning while the FRN to negative prediction errors is elicited in an all-or-none fashion by negative feedback throughout the entire experiment.

  8. Empire as a Geopolitical Figure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the ingredients of empire as a pattern of order with geopolitical effects. Noting the imperial form's proclivity for expansion from a critical reading of historical sociology, the article argues that the principal manifestation of earlier geopolitics lay not in the nation...... but in empire. That in turn has been driven by a view of the world as disorderly and open to the ordering will of empires (emanating, at the time of geopolitics' inception, from Europe). One implication is that empires are likely to figure in the geopolitical ordering of the globe at all times, in particular...... after all that has happened in the late twentieth century to undermine nationalism and the national state. Empire is indeed a probable, even for some an attractive form of regime for extending order over the disorder produced by globalisation. Geopolitics articulated in imperial expansion is likely...

  9. Empirical population and public health ethics: A review and critical analysis to advance robust empirical-normative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rod

    2016-05-01

    The field of population and public health ethics (PPHE) has yet to fully embrace the generation of evidence as an important project. This article reviews the philosophical debates related to the 'empirical turn' in clinical bioethics, and critically analyses how PPHE has and can engage with the philosophical implications of generating empirical data within the task of normative inquiry. A set of five conceptual and theoretical issues pertaining to population health that are unresolved and could potentially benefit from empirical PPHE approaches to normative inquiry are discussed. Each issue differs from traditional empirical bioethical approaches, in that they emphasize (1) concerns related to the population, (2) 'upstream' policy-relevant health interventions - within and outside of the health care system and (3) the prevention of illness and disease. Within each theoretical issue, a conceptual example from population and public health approaches to HIV prevention and health promotion is interrogated. Based on the review and critical analysis, this article concludes that empirical-normative approaches to population and public health ethics would be most usefully pursued as an iterative project (rather than as a linear project), in which the normative informs the empirical questions to be asked and new empirical evidence constantly directs conceptualizations of what constitutes morally robust public health practices. Finally, a conceptualization of an empirical population and public health ethics is advanced in order to open up new interdisciplinary 'spaces', in which empirical and normative approaches to ethical inquiry are transparently (and ethically) integrated. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. An Empirical Mass Function Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. G.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Power, C.

    2018-03-01

    The halo mass function, encoding the comoving number density of dark matter halos of a given mass, plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. As such, it is a key goal of current and future deep optical surveys to constrain the mass function down to mass scales that typically host {L}\\star galaxies. Motivated by the proven accuracy of Press–Schechter-type mass functions, we introduce a related but purely empirical form consistent with standard formulae to better than 4% in the medium-mass regime, {10}10{--}{10}13 {h}-1 {M}ȯ . In particular, our form consists of four parameters, each of which has a simple interpretation, and can be directly related to parameters of the galaxy distribution, such as {L}\\star . Using this form within a hierarchical Bayesian likelihood model, we show how individual mass-measurement errors can be successfully included in a typical analysis, while accounting for Eddington bias. We apply our form to a question of survey design in the context of a semi-realistic data model, illustrating how it can be used to obtain optimal balance between survey depth and angular coverage for constraints on mass function parameters. Open-source Python and R codes to apply our new form are provided at http://mrpy.readthedocs.org and https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/tggd/index.html respectively.

  11. Instructiveness of feedback during clerkships : Influence of supervisor, observation and student initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Kuks, Jan B.M.; Raat, A.N.; van Lohuizen, M.T.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Several authors assume that the supervisor's role, observation of behaviour and students' active participation are important factors in the instructiveness of feedback. Aim: This study aims to provide empirical evidence for these expectations. Methods: For two weeks, 142 clerks from

  12. Examining Student Teachers' Beliefs about Oral Corrective Feedback: Insights from a Teacher Education Program in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Kemal Sinan; Aydin, Hale Ülkü

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' beliefs about language learning and teaching are largely shaped during pre-service teacher education. Although many empirical studies have analyzed various dimensions of how student teachers' beliefs and practices are formed, the literature is scarce with the research on student teacher's beliefs about oral corrective feedback. For the…

  13. What Motivates Students to Provide Feedback to Teachers about Teaching and Learning? An Expectancy Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical research study was to investigate what motivates students to provide formative anonymous feedback to teachers regarding their perceptions of the teaching and learning experience in order to improve student learning. Expectancy theory, specifically Vroom's Model, was used as the conceptual framework for the study.…

  14. Feedback and learning support that fosters students' independent learning: an Australian case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine students’ reactions to formative (i.e. face to face, audio, wiki and live, email) feedback. This approach is used to improve students’ communication and critical-thinking skills and to encourage independent learning. This paper provides empirical evidence from 327 students

  15. Delayed Instructional Feedback May Be More Effective, but Is This Contrary to Learners' Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, David; Cox, Benita

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates learners' preferences for the timing of feedback provided to multiple-choice questions within technology-based instruction, hitherto an area of little empirical attention. Digital materials are undergoing a period of renewed prominence within online learning and multiple-choice questions remain a common component. There…

  16. Biogeomorphic feedback between plant growth and flooding causes alternative stable states in an experimental floodplain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Wang, Q.; Meire, D.; Ma, W.; Wu, C.; Meng, Z.; van de Koppel, J.; Troch, P.; Verhoeven, R.; De Mulder, T.; Temmerman, S.

    2016-01-01

    It is important to understand the mechanisms of vegetation establishment on bare substrate in a disturbance-driven ecosystem because of many valuable ecosystem services. This study tested for empirical indications of local alternative stable states controlled by biogeomorphic feedbacks using flume

  17. Providing Feedback on Computer-Based Algebra Homework in Middle-School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    Homework is transforming at a rapid rate with continuous advances in educational technology. Computer-based homework, in particular, is gaining popularity across a range of schools, with little empirical evidence on how to optimize student learning. The current aim was to test the effects of different types of feedback on computer-based homework.…

  18. Integrating social science into empirical models of coupled human and natural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Eric M. White; A Paige Fischer; Michelle M. Steen-Adams; Susan Charnley; Christine S. Olsen; Thomas A. Spies; John D. Bailey

    2017-01-01

    Coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) research highlights reciprocal interactions (or feedbacks) between biophysical and socioeconomic variables to explain system dynamics and resilience. Empirical models often are used to test hypotheses and apply theory that represent human behavior. Parameterizing reciprocal interactions presents two challenges for social...

  19. Specific-detection of clinical samples, systematic functional investigations, and transcriptome analysis reveals that splice variant MUC4/Y contributes to the malignant progression of pancreatic cancer by triggering malignancy-related positive feedback loops signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Xie, Kun-Ling; Tang, Jie; Liang, Wen-Biao; Zhu, Rong; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Bin; Tao, Jin-Qiu; Zhi, Xiao-Fei; Li, Zheng; Gao, Wen-Tao; Jiang, Kui-Rong; Miao, Yi; Xu, Ze-Kuan

    2014-11-04

    MUC4 plays important roles in the malignant progression of human pancreatic cancer. But the huge length of MUC4 gene fragment restricts its functional and mechanism research. As one of its splice variants, MUC4/Y with coding sequence is most similar to that of the full-length MUC4 (FL-MUC4), together with alternative splicing of the MUC4 transcript has been observed in pancreatic carcinomas but not in normal pancreas. So we speculated that MUC4/Y might be involved in malignant progression similarly to FL-MUC4, and as a research model of MUC4 in pancreatic cancer. The conjecture was confirmed in the present study. MUC4/Y expression was detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using gene-specific probe in the clinic samples. The effects of MUC4/Y were observed by serial in vitro and in vivo experiments based on stable over-expressed cell model. The underlying mechanisms were investigated by sequence-based transcriptome analysis and verified by qRT-PCR, Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The detection of clinical samples indicates that MUC4/Y is significantly positive-correlated with tumor invasion and distant metastases. Based on stable forced-expressed pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cell model, functional studies show that MUC4/Y enhances malignant activity in vitro and in vivo, including proliferation under low-nutritional-pressure, resistance to apoptosis, motility, invasiveness, angiogenesis, and distant metastasis. Mechanism studies indicate the novel finding that MUC4/Y triggers malignancy-related positive feedback loops for concomitantly up-regulating the expression of survival factors to resist adverse microenvironment and increasing the expression of an array of cytokines and adhesion molecules to affect the tumor milieu. In light of the enormity of the potential regulatory circuitry in cancer afforded by MUC4 and/or MUC4/Y, repressing MUC4 transcription, inhibiting post

  20. Feedback traps for virtual potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Momčilo; Bechhoefer, John

    2017-03-01

    Feedback traps are tools for trapping and manipulating single charged objects, such as molecules in solution. An alternative to optical tweezers and other single-molecule techniques, they use feedback to counteract the Brownian motion of a molecule of interest. The trap first acquires information about a molecule's position and then applies an electric feedback force to move the molecule. Since electric forces are stronger than optical forces at small scales, feedback traps are the best way to trap single molecules without `touching' them (e.g. by putting them in a small box or attaching them to a tether). Feedback traps can do more than trap molecules: they can also subject a target object to forces that are calculated to be the gradient of a desired potential function U(x). If the feedback loop is fast enough, it creates a virtual potential whose dynamics will be very close to those of a particle in an actual potential U(x). But because the dynamics are entirely a result of the feedback loop-absent the feedback, there is only an object diffusing in a fluid-we are free to specify and then manipulate in time an arbitrary potential U(x,t). Here, we review recent applications of feedback traps to studies on the fundamental connections between information and thermodynamics, a topic where feedback plays an even more fundamental role. We discuss how recursive maximum-likelihood techniques allow continuous calibration, to compensate for drifts in experiments that last for days. We consider ways to estimate work and heat, using them to measure fluctuating energies to a precision of ±0.03 kT over these long experiments. Finally, we compare work and heat measurements of the costs of information erasure, the Landauer limit of kT ln 2 per bit of information erased. We argue that, when you want to know the average heat transferred to a bath in a long protocol, you should measure instead the average work and then infer the heat using the first law of thermodynamics. This

  1. Accounting for the climate-carbon feedback in emission metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Thomas; Peters, Glen P.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Collins, William J.; Shindell, Drew T.; Ciais, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Most emission metrics have previously been inconsistently estimated by including the climate-carbon feedback for the reference gas (i.e. CO2) but not the other species (e.g. CH4). In the fifth assessment report of the IPCC, a first attempt was made to consistently account for the climate-carbon feedback in emission metrics. This attempt was based on only one study, and therefore the IPCC concluded that more research was needed. Here, we carry out this research. First, using the simple Earth system model OSCAR v2.2, we establish a new impulse response function for the climate-carbon feedback. Second, we use this impulse response function to provide new estimates for the two most common metrics: global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature-change potential (GTP). We find that, when the climate-carbon feedback is correctly accounted for, the emission metrics of non-CO2 species increase, but in most cases not as much as initially indicated by IPCC. We also find that, when the feedback is removed for both the reference and studied species, these relative metric values only have modest changes compared to when the feedback is included (absolute metrics change more markedly). Including or excluding the climate-carbon feedback ultimately depends on the user's goal, but consistency should be ensured in either case.

  2. "Have You Read My Comments? It Is Not Noticeable. Change!" An Analysis of Feedback Given to Students Who Have Failed Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbjer, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine what characterises feedback regarding the group of students who receive the most comments compared to the rest of the students, all failing at least one task. Could it be that teachers comment differently on the most underperforming students? The empirical material consists of feedback handed out to students…

  3. Effects of Cohesion-Based Feedback on the Collaborations in Global Software Development Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Castro-Hernández

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study that examines the effect of cohesion-based feedback on a team member’s behaviors in a global software development project. Chat messages and forum posts were collected from a software development project involving students living in the US and Mexico. Half of the teams in the project received feedback in the form of a graphical representation that displayed the group’s cohesion level, while the other teams received no feedback. The nature of the group interactions as well as the linguistic content of such interactions was then analyzed and compared. Results from this analysis show statistically significant differences between the feedback and non-feedback c onditions. More s pecifically, cohesion-based feedback had a positive relation to a team’s total message count, response rate, and individual cohesion score. In addition, the analysis of linguistic categories showed that the most salient categories observed were related to words about time and work. Furthermore, a comparison between feedback variables and type (i.e., positive and negative feedback indicates that those individuals exposed to negative feedback had an increase in their communication pacing rates when exposed to positive feedback. Although the feedback system did not appear to affect individual performance, the findings s u ggest t h at t h e c o hesion m e asure d e fined in th is st ud y is positively correlated to the task cohesion construct and is also related to individual and team performance.

  4. The Effects of Multimodal Feedback and Gender on Task Performance of Stylus Pen Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As various interactive input devices for computers have become available, the role of multimodal feedbacks generated by the devices has gained an increasing emphasis in recent years, with debates surrounding the relative efficiency of different feedback types of input devices. To address this and related issues, the present study conducted a 4 (types of feedback: visual vs. tactile vs. auditory vs. combined feedback x 2 (gender: male vs. female within-subject experiment to examine the effects of the type of feedbacks and gender on the efficiency and accuracy of a multimodal stylus pen. Results from the experiment showed that, regardless of the feedback type, males clicked the stylus faster than females while making more errors. A similar pattern was discovered when used the pen for dragging; males completed the dragging task faster than females while producing more errors. Interactions between the feedback type and gender as well as implications and limitations of the present study are discussed.

  5. The double-loop feedback for active learning with understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    2004-01-01

    Learning is an active process, and in engineering education authentic projects is often used to activate the students and promote learning. However, it is not all activity that leads to deep learning; and in a rapid changing society deep understanding is necessary for life-long learning. Empirical...... findings at DTU question the direct link between high activity and a deep approach to learning. Active learning is important to obtain engineering competencies, but active learning requires more than activity. Feedback and reflection is crucial to the learning process, since new knowledge is built...... on the student’s existing understanding. A model for an active learning process with a double-loop feedback is suggested - the first loop gives the student experience through experimentation, the second conceptual understanding through reflection. Students often miss the second loop, so it is important...

  6. Pulsed feedback defers cellular differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe H Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A, which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression. Finally, using mathematical modeling, we show how pulsing and time delays together enable "polyphasic" positive feedback, in which different parts of a feedback loop are active at different times. Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a "timer" that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle.

  7. Investigating Saudi Learners' Preferences for Giving and Receiving Macro and/or Micro Level Peer Feedback on Their Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnasser, Suliman Mohammed; Alyousef, Hesham Suleiman

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the subject of the preferences of L2 student-writers for receiving teacher feedback (FB) on macro level features (feedback related to meaning) and micro level features (feedback related to surface level issues); however, none of these have investigated their preferences when it comes to giving and receiving peer…

  8. Human Power Empirically Explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Harvesting energy from the users’ muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are

  9. 'Playing the game': How do surgical trainees seek feedback using workplace-based assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Anne; Patel, Abhilasha; Rusius, Victoria; Royle, T James; Markham, Deborah H; Pawlikowska, Teresa

    2017-09-01

    Although trainees and trainers find feedback interactions beneficial, difficulties in giving and receiving feedback are reported. Few studies have explored what drives trainees to seek feedback. This study explores how workplace-based assessments (WBAs) influence the ways surgical trainees seek feedback and feedback interactions. Utilising a template analysis approach, we conducted 10 focus groups with 42 surgical trainees from four regions across the UK. Data were independently coded by three researchers, incorporating three a priori themes identified from a previous quantitative study. Further themes emerged from exploration of these data. The final template, agreed by the three researchers, was applied to all focus group transcripts. The themes were linked in a diagrammatical form to allow critical exploration of the data. Trainees' perceptions of the purpose of WBA for learning or an assessment of learning, and their relationship with their trainer impacted upon how trainees chose to use WBA. Perceiving WBA as a test led trainees to 'play the game': seek positive and avoid negative feedback through WBA. Perceiving WBA as a chance to learn led trainees to seek negative feedback. Some trainees sought negative feedback outside WBA. Negative feedback was more important for changing practice compared with positive feedback, which enabled trainees to 'look good' but had less of an effect on changing clinical practice. The timing of feedback relative to WBA was also important, with immediate feedback being more beneficial for learning; however, delayed feedback was still sought using WBA. Trainees' perceptions of the purpose of WBA and their relationship with their trainer informed when they chose to seek feedback. Trainees who perceived WBA as a test were led to 'play the game' by seeking positive and avoiding negative feedback. Outside of WBA, trainees sought negative feedback, which was most important for change in practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The

  10. Feedback i den laegelige postgraduate uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, Sune; Ipsen, Merete; Sørensen, Jette

    2008-01-01

    . Feedback is essential in medical education and has great implications for the educational climate. It has been shown that a common language regarding the principles of feedback has a sustained effect on quality and frequency of feedback. Further research is needed on feedback and educational climate...

  11. Feedback Revolution: What Gets in the Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Icy

    2011-01-01

    Feedback in writing has in recent years attracted the attention of an increasing number of writing researchers. While much feedback research focuses on the act of feedback per se, little attention has been paid to the issue of teacher readiness to implement change in feedback. Using data gathered from Hong Kong secondary teachers attending a…

  12. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  13. Sustainable feedback: students’ and tutors’ perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geitz, Gerry; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Feedback has been shown to substantially influence students’ learning. However, not everything characterized as feedback is effective. Sustainable feedback places students in an active role in which they generate and use feedback from peers, self or others and aims at developing lifelong learning

  14. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  15. Priority for empirical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Several noise sources combine to make up the total helicopter noise spectrum. The sources that are most important to community annoyance are the tail rotor (discrete), main rotor (unsteady), and engine (unsteady). The periodic and broadband noise components of the helicopter rotor were enumerated, and an approach to rotorcraft noise prediction was discussed. Helicopter noise sources were prioritized, and design improvements to reduce noise were reviewed. Main rotor noise is believed to be the key to quieter helicopters since there are proven and relatively inexpensive ways to handle the tail rotor. Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise is a problem to some extent with all helicopters, particularly in the descent mode. Methodology must be developed to allow forecast and control of this type of noise. Additional means of controlling it, such as reduced rotor speeds for terminal operations should also be pursued because they may be the most effective means of control and they apply to all helicopter models. Main rotor broadband noise is the limiting factor in overall helicopter noise generation. Development of semi-empirical methods to predict its behavior is necessary if results are to be achieved in the short time period available.

  16. Empirical analysis of sexual recidivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Natalija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper empirically examines relation of some static factors to recidivism among sexual offenders. The research sample consists of data gathered from personal files of 82 convicted persons who are either currently in the prison in Sremska Mitrovica or who have already served their sentences. Some of the hypotheses of the research have been confirmed. Firstly, a link between age at initial offending against sexual freedom and sexual recidivism is found to be statistically significant. Moreover, sexual recidivism is associated with the type of first criminal offense against sexual freedom - there are greater chances for recidivism if the first crime is less serious (prohibited sexual acts. Lastly, sexual offenders generally commit the same type of crimes against sexual freedom and this link is statistically significant. It is possible to make a clear distinction between two groups of recidivists - those who choose to victimize children and juveniles and those whose victims are adults. On the other hand, early onset of criminal career is not found to be statistically important. The same is concluded for marital and socio-economic status as well as for the history of rule violation (except sex crimes.

  17. Rainfall feedback via persistent effects on bioaerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigg, E. K.; Soubeyrand, S.; Morris, C. E.

    2014-10-01

    Consistent temporal differences between ice nucleus concentrations after and before a heavy fall of rain have been found in four areas of Australia. Closely similar differences were found between rainfall quantity or frequency at 106 sites in south-eastern and 61 sites in south-western Australia that had >92 years of daily rainfall records. The differences suggest an impulsive increase in ice nuclei or in rain on the day following heavy rain that decreased exponentially with time and was often still detectable after 20 days. The similarity of ice nucleus concentrations, bacterial populations, bioaerosols and rainfall responses to heavy rain strongly corroborate the involvement of biological ice nuclei in a rainfall feedback process. Cumulative differences of after-before rainfall amount or frequency for each rainfall event were next combined to form a historical record of the feedback process for each site. Comparison of cumulative totals pre-1960 and post-1960 showed differences bearing apparent relations to upwind coal-fired power stations, growth of metropolitan areas and increased areas of cultivation of wheat. These observations suggested that fungal spores or other bioaerosols as well as ice-nucleating bacteria were involved in the feedback. The overall conclusion is that interactions between micro-organisms, bioaerosols and rainfall have impacts over longer time spans and are stronger than have been previously described.

  18. State and aristocracy in the Sasanian Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Bagot, David John

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to consider the competing visions of Sasanian Iran advanced by Arthur Christensen in ‘L’Iran sous les Sassanides’ (1944) and Parvaneh Pourshariati in ‘Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire’ (2008), discuss the relevant evidence in relation to their arguments, and to suggest our own theory of how the Sasanian Empire operated. Christensen argued for the strength of the Sasanian monarchy and the subservience of the aristocracy to the kings, whilst Pourshariati’s thesis st...

  19. Enhancing Feedback on Professionalism and Communication Skills in Anesthesia Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John D; Ku, Cindy; Diachun, Carol Ann B; DiLorenzo, Amy; Lee, Daniel E; Karan, Suzanne; Wong, Vanessa; Schell, Randall M; Brzezinski, Marek; Jones, Stephanie B

    2017-08-01

    Despite its importance, training faculty to provide feedback to residents remains challenging. We hypothesized that, overall, at 4 institutions, a faculty development program on providing feedback on professionalism and communication skills would lead to (1) an improvement in the quantity, quality, and utility of feedback and (2) an increase in feedback containing negative/constructive feedback and pertaining to professionalism/communication. As secondary analyses, we explored these outcomes at the individual institutions. In this prospective cohort study (October 2013 to July 2014), we implemented a video-based educational program on feedback at 4 institutions. Feedback records from 3 months before to 3 months after the intervention were rated for quality (0-5), utility (0-5), and whether they had negative/constructive feedback and/or were related to professionalism/communication. Feedback records during the preintervention, intervention, and postintervention periods were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis and χ tests. Data are reported as median (interquartile range) or proportion/percentage. A total of 1926 feedback records were rated. The institutions overall did not have a significant difference in feedback quantity (preintervention: 855/3046 [28.1%]; postintervention: 896/3327 [26.9%]; odds ratio: 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.18; P = .31), feedback quality (preintervention: 2 [1-4]; intervention: 2 [1-4]; postintervention: 2 [1-4]; P = .90), feedback utility (preintervention: 1 [1-3]; intervention: 2 [1-3]; postintervention: 1 [1-2]; P = .61), or percentage of feedback records containing negative/constructive feedback (preintervention: 27%; intervention: 32%; postintervention: 25%; P = .12) or related to professionalism/communication (preintervention: 23%; intervention: 33%; postintervention: 24%; P = .03). Institution 1 had a significant difference in feedback quality (preintervention: 2 [1-3]; intervention: 3 [2-4]; postintervention: 3 [2-4]; P

  20. Utilizing Implicit User Feedback to Improve Interactive Video Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Vrochidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to exploit the implicit user feedback gathered during interactive video retrieval tasks. We propose a framework, where the video is first indexed according to temporal, textual, and visual features and then implicit user feedback analysis is realized using a graph-based methodology. The generated graph encodes the semantic relations between video segments based on past user interaction and is subsequently used to generate recommendations. Moreover, we combine the visual features and implicit feedback information by training a support vector machine classifier with examples generated from the aforementioned graph in order to optimize the query by visual example search. The proposed framework is evaluated by conducting real-user experiments. The results demonstrate that significant improvement in terms of precision and recall is reported after the exploitation of implicit user feedback, while an improved ranking is presented in most of the evaluated queries by visual example.