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Sample records for empiric antifungal therapy

  1. Fluconazole for empiric antifungal therapy in cancer patients with fever and neutropenia

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    Peterson Josh F

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of fluconazole as empiric antifungal therapy in cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. Our objective was to assess the frequency and resource utilization associated with treatment failure in cancer patients given empiric fluconazole antifungal therapy in routine inpatient care. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of cancer patients treated with oral or intravenous fluconazole between 7/97 and 6/01 in a tertiary care hospital. The final study cohort included cancer patients with neutropenia (an absolute neutrophil count below 500 cells/mm3 and fever (a temperature above 38°C or 100.4°F, who were receiving at least 96 hours of parenteral antibacterial therapy prior to initiating fluconazole. Patients' responses to empiric therapy were assessed by reviewing patient charts. Results Among 103 cancer admissions with fever and neutropenia, treatment failure after initiating empiric fluconazole antifungal therapy occurred in 41% (95% confidence interval (CI 31% – 50% of admissions. Patients with a diagnosis of hematological malignancy had increased risk of treatment failure (OR = 4.6, 95% CI 1.5 – 14.8. When treatment failure occurred the mean adjusted increases in length of stay and total costs were 7.4 days (95% CI 3.3 – 11.5 and $18,925 (95% CI 3,289 – 34,563, respectively. Conclusion Treatment failure occurred in more than one-third of neutropenic cancer patients on fluconazole as empiric antifungal treatment for fever in routine clinical treatment. The increase in costs when treatment failure occurs is substantial.

  2. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of voriconazole vs. caspofungin in the empirical antifungal therapy of febrile neutropenia in Australia.

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    Al-Badriyeh, Daoud; Liew, Danny; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2012-05-01

    In two major clinical trials, voriconazole and caspofungin were recommended as alternatives to liposomal amphotericin B for empirical use in febrile neutropenia. This study investigated the health economic impact of using voriconazole vs. caspofungin in patients with febrile neutropenia. A decision analytic model was developed to measure downstream consequences of empirical antifungal therapy. Clinical outcomes measured were success, breakthrough infection, persistent base-line infection, persistent fever, premature discontinuation and death. Treatment transition probabilities and patterns were directly derived from data in two relevant randomised controlled trials. Resource use was estimated using an expert clinical panel. Cost inputs were obtained from latest Australian sources. The analysis adopted the perspective of the Australian hospital system. The use of caspofungin led to a lower expected mean cost per patient than voriconazole (AU$40,558 vs. AU$41,356), with a net cost saving of AU$798 (1.9%) per patient. Results were most sensitive to the duration of therapy and the alternative therapy used post-discontinuation. In uncertainty analysis, the cost associated with caspofungin is less than that with voriconazole in 65.5% of cases. This is the first economic evaluation of voriconazole vs. caspofungin for empirical therapy. Caspofungin appears to have a higher probability of having cost-savings than voriconazole for empirical therapy. The difference between the two medications does not seem to be statistically significant however. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Antifungal therapy in European hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarb, P; Amadeo, B; Muller, A

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to identify targets for quality improvement in antifungal use in European hospitals and determine the variability of such prescribing. Hospitals that participated in the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Point Prevalence Surveys (ESAC-PPS) were included. The WHO...

  4. Meta-Analysis and Cost Comparison of Empirical versus Pre-Emptive Antifungal Strategies in Hematologic Malignancy Patients with High-Risk Febrile Neutropenia.

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    Monica Fung

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal disease (IFD causes significant morbidity and mortality in hematologic malignancy patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia (FN. These patients therefore often receive empirical antifungal therapy. Diagnostic test-guided pre-emptive antifungal therapy has been evaluated as an alternative treatment strategy in these patients.We conducted an electronic search for literature comparing empirical versus pre-emptive antifungal strategies in FN among adult hematologic malignancy patients. We systematically reviewed 9 studies, including randomized-controlled trials, cohort studies, and feasibility studies. Random and fixed-effect models were used to generate pooled relative risk estimates of IFD detection, IFD-related mortality, overall mortality, and rates and duration of antifungal therapy. Heterogeneity was measured via Cochran's Q test, I2 statistic, and between study τ2. Incorporating these parameters and direct costs of drugs and diagnostic testing, we constructed a comparative costing model for the two strategies. We conducted probabilistic sensitivity analysis on pooled estimates and one-way sensitivity analyses on other key parameters with uncertain estimates.Nine published studies met inclusion criteria. Compared to empirical antifungal therapy, pre-emptive strategies were associated with significantly lower antifungal exposure (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.27-0.85 and duration without an increase in IFD-related mortality (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.36-1.87 or overall mortality (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.46-1.99. The pre-emptive strategy cost $324 less (95% credible interval -$291.88 to $418.65 pre-emptive compared to empirical than the empirical approach per FN episode. However, the cost difference was influenced by relatively small changes in costs of antifungal therapy and diagnostic testing.Compared to empirical antifungal therapy, pre-emptive antifungal therapy in patients with high-risk FN may decrease antifungal use without increasing mortality

  5. Meta-Analysis and Cost Comparison of Empirical versus Pre-Emptive Antifungal Strategies in Hematologic Malignancy Patients with High-Risk Febrile Neutropenia.

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    Fung, Monica; Kim, Jane; Marty, Francisco M; Schwarzinger, Michaël; Koo, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Invasive fungal disease (IFD) causes significant morbidity and mortality in hematologic malignancy patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia (FN). These patients therefore often receive empirical antifungal therapy. Diagnostic test-guided pre-emptive antifungal therapy has been evaluated as an alternative treatment strategy in these patients. We conducted an electronic search for literature comparing empirical versus pre-emptive antifungal strategies in FN among adult hematologic malignancy patients. We systematically reviewed 9 studies, including randomized-controlled trials, cohort studies, and feasibility studies. Random and fixed-effect models were used to generate pooled relative risk estimates of IFD detection, IFD-related mortality, overall mortality, and rates and duration of antifungal therapy. Heterogeneity was measured via Cochran's Q test, I2 statistic, and between study τ2. Incorporating these parameters and direct costs of drugs and diagnostic testing, we constructed a comparative costing model for the two strategies. We conducted probabilistic sensitivity analysis on pooled estimates and one-way sensitivity analyses on other key parameters with uncertain estimates. Nine published studies met inclusion criteria. Compared to empirical antifungal therapy, pre-emptive strategies were associated with significantly lower antifungal exposure (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.27-0.85) and duration without an increase in IFD-related mortality (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.36-1.87) or overall mortality (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.46-1.99). The pre-emptive strategy cost $324 less (95% credible interval -$291.88 to $418.65 pre-emptive compared to empirical) than the empirical approach per FN episode. However, the cost difference was influenced by relatively small changes in costs of antifungal therapy and diagnostic testing. Compared to empirical antifungal therapy, pre-emptive antifungal therapy in patients with high-risk FN may decrease antifungal use without increasing mortality. We

  6. Update on antifungal therapy with terbinafine.

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    Gianni, C

    2010-06-01

    Terbinafine, a synthetic antifungal of allylamine class, has fungicidal activity against dermatophytes, moulds and certain dimorphic fungi and fungistatic activity against Candida albicans. Following oral administration the terbinafine is absorbed rapidly (>70%) and reaches within 2 hours the peak plasma concentration. The drug is highly lipophilic and keratophilic and is highly bound to plasma protein (>90%) with a bioavailability of 70% to 80%. The drug is rapidly delivered and it is present in the stratum corneum, sebum, nails and hair for months after stopping the medication. The drug has been proven to be the choice treatment in the therapy of onychomycosis as it is very effective, well tolerated and has a relatively low potential for drug interactions. The pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties of terbinafine give strong support to the possibility that the pulse therapy may be equally effective in onychomycoses, possibly reducing medication costs and drug exposure. Several therapeutic patterns have been proposed: weekly intermittent terbinafine (500 mg/d for 1 week each month for 4 months), or single-dose terbinafine (1000 mg per month for 4 months). Use of topical terbinafine 1% may be practical where the tinea involvement is not extensive or chronic. Recently, the terbinafine is available in a novel topical solution (film-forming solution--FFS) effective in the treatment of tinea pedis (athlete's foot).

  7. Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancies: Emergence of Resistant Pathogens and New Antifungal Therapies

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    Maria N. Gamaletsou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections caused by drug-resistant organisms are an emerging threat to heavily immunosuppressed patients with hematological malignancies. Modern early antifungal treatment strategies, such as prophylaxis and empirical and preemptive therapy, result in long-term exposure to antifungal agents, which is a major driving force for the development of resistance. The extended use of central venous catheters, the nonlinear pharmacokinetics of certain antifungal agents, neutropenia, other forms of intense immunosuppression, and drug toxicities are other contributing factors. The widespread use of agricultural and industrial fungicides with similar chemical structures and mechanisms of action has resulted in the development of environmental reservoirs for some drug-resistant fungi, especially azole-resistant Aspergillus species, which have been reported from four continents. The majority of resistant strains have the mutation TR34/L98H, a finding suggesting that the source of resistance is the environment. The global emergence of new fungal pathogens with inherent resistance, such as Candida auris, is a new public health threat. The most common mechanism of antifungal drug resistance is the induction of efflux pumps, which decrease intracellular drug concentrations. Overexpression, depletion, and alteration of the drug target are other mechanisms of resistance. Mutations in the ERG11 gene alter the protein structure of C-demethylase, reducing the efficacy of antifungal triazoles. Candida species become echinocandin-resistant by mutations in FKS genes. A shift in the epidemiology of Candida towards resistant non-albicans Candida spp. has emerged among patients with hematological malignancies. There is no definite association between antifungal resistance, as defined by elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations, and clinical outcomes in this population. Detection of genes or mutations conferring resistance with the use of molecular methods

  8. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Peng; Wu Haiyan; Sun Yi; Liu Wei; Li Ruoyu; Zhu Weidong; Lopez, Jose L.; Zhang Jue; Fang Jing

    2011-01-01

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O 2 (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  9. Design of amphotericin B oral formulation for antifungal therapy.

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    Liu, Min; Chen, Meiwan; Yang, Zhiwen

    2017-11-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) remains the "gold standard" for systemic antifungal therapy, even though new drugs are emerging as the attractive antifungal agents. Since AmB has negligible oral absorption as a consequence of its unfavorable physicochemical characterizations, its use is restricted to parenteral administration which is accompanied by severe side effects. As greater understanding of the gastrointestinal tract has developed, the advanced drug delivery systems are emerging with the potential to overcome the barriers of AmB oral delivery. Much research has demonstrated that oral AmB formulations such as lipid formulations may have beneficial therapeutic efficacy with reduced adverse effects and suitable for clinical application. Here we reviewed the different formulation strategies to enhance oral drug efficacy, and discussed the current trends and future perspectives for AmB oral administration in the treatment of antifungal infections.

  10. Outcomes of Neonatal Candidiasis: The Impact of Delayed Initiation of Antifungal Therapy

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    Heather Cahan

    2011-01-01

    Results. Sixty-three newborns with invasive neonatal candidiasis were identified. Overall mortality rate was 35%. Virtually every infant had a central venous catheter (CVC, required mechanical ventilation and previous administration of antibacterial agents. Delayed institution of antifungal therapy was associated with increased mortality. In addition, length of hospitalization, duration of prior antibacterial therapy, mechanical ventilation, and CVC use, as well as evidence of end-organ disease, were associated with an adverse outcome. Conclusions. Reliance on available laboratory tools in cases of invasive neonatal candidiasis can result in delayed diagnosis and increased mortality. A risk-factor-based approach to empirical treatment could be justified in this setting.

  11. [Zygomycetes and zygomycosis in the new era of antifungal therapies].

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    Torres-Narbona, M; Guinea, J; Muñoz, P; Bouza, E

    2007-12-01

    Zygomycosis or mucormycosis is the third most invasive fungal infection after candidiasis and aspergillosis. Traditionally, it has been considered a community-acquired disease, but it is becoming a frequent nosocomial-acquired disease. Recently, several publications from different institutions have reported an increase in the number of cases of invasive zygomycosis as a result of the new antifungal and immunosuppresive therapies and the emerging immunocompromised population. In addition, the diagnosis of zygomycosis is elusive, mainly in pulmonary and disseminated forms. One of the main limitations in isolating Zygomycetes from clinical samples is the interpretation of results. The increasing number of invasive fungal infections caused by multiresistant fungi has led to the development of new antifungal drugs with variable activity against Zygomycetes.

  12. The fungal resistome: a risk and an opportunity for the development of novel antifungal therapies.

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    Reales-Calderón, Jose A; Molero, Gloria; Gil, Concha; Martínez, José L

    2016-08-01

    The risks for toxicity of novel antifungal compounds, together with the emergence of resistance, makes the use of inhibitors of resistance, in combination with antifungal compounds, a suitable strategy for developing novel antifungal formulations. Among them, inhibitors of efflux pumps are suitable candidates. Increasing drug influx or interfering with the stress response may also improve the efficacy of antifungals. Therapies as induction of fungal apoptosis or immunostimulation are also good strategies for reducing the risks for resistance and to improve antifungals' efficacy. Understanding the effect of the acquisition of resistance on the fungal physiology and determining the collateral sensitivity networks are useful for the development of novel strategies based on combination of antifungals for improving the efficacy of the therapy.

  13. Biomarker-based strategy for early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment in critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Rouzé, Anahita; Loridant, Séverine; Poissy, Julien; Dervaux, Benoit; Sendid, Boualem; Cornu, Marjorie; Nseir, Saad

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a biomarker-based strategy on early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment. Prospective randomized controlled single-center unblinded study, performed in a mixed ICU. A total of 110 patients were randomly assigned to a strategy in which empirical antifungal treatment duration was determined by (1,3)-β-D-glucan, mannan, and anti-mannan serum assays, performed on day 0 and day 4; or to a routine care strategy, based on international guidelines, which recommend 14 days of treatment. In the biomarker group, early stop recommendation was determined using an algorithm based on the results of biomarkers. The primary outcome was the percentage of survivors discontinuing empirical antifungal treatment early, defined as a discontinuation strictly before day 7. A total of 109 patients were analyzed (one patient withdraw consent). Empirical antifungal treatment was discontinued early in 29 out of 54 patients in the biomarker strategy group, compared with one patient out of 55 in the routine strategy group [54% vs 2%, p strategy compared with routine strategy [median (IQR) 6 (4-13) vs 13 (12-14) days, p strategy increased the percentage of early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment among critically ill patients with suspected invasive Candida infection. These results confirm previous findings suggesting that early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment had no negative impact on outcome. However, further studies are needed to confirm the safety of this strategy. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02154178.

  14. Cost Effectiveness of Candida Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection and Empirical Antifungal Treatment among Patients with Suspected Fungal Peritonitis in the Intensive Care Unit.

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    Pagès, Arnaud; Iriart, Xavier; Molinier, Laurent; Georges, Bernard; Berry, Antoine; Massip, Patrice; Juillard-Condat, Blandine

    2017-12-01

    Mortality from intra-abdominal candidiasis in intensive care units (ICUs) is high. It takes many days for peritoneal-fluid fungal culture to become positive, and the recommended empirical antifungal therapy involves excessive costs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) should produce results more rapidly than fungal culture. To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the combination of several diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to manage Candida peritonitis in non-neutropenic adult patients in ICUs. We constructed a decision tree model to evaluate the cost effectiveness. Cost and effectiveness were taken into account in a 1-year time horizon and from the French National Health Insurance perspective. Six strategies were compared: fluconazole or echinocandin as an empirical therapy, plus diagnosis by fungal culture or detection by PCR of all Candida species, or use of PCR to detect most fluconazole-resistant Candida species (i.e., Candida krusei and Candida glabrata). The use of fluconazole empirical treatment and PCR to detect all Candida species is more cost effective than using fluconazole empirical treatment without PCR (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €40,055/quality-adjusted life-year). Empirical treatment with echinocandin plus PCR to detect C. krusei and C. glabrata is the most effective strategy, but has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €93,776/quality-adjusted life-year. If the cost of echinocandin decreases, then strategies involving PCR plus empirical echinocandin become more cost-effective. Detection by PCR of all Candida species and of most fluconazole-resistant Candida species could improve the cost-effectiveness of fluconazole and echinocandin given to non-neutropenic patients with suspected peritoneal candidiasis in ICUs. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Empirical antimicrobial therapy of acute dentoalveolar abscess

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    Matijević Stevo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most common cause of acute dental infections are oral streptococci and anaerobe bacteria. Acute dentoalveolar infections are usually treated surgically in combination with antibiotics. Empirical therapy in such infections usually requires the use of penicillin-based antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficiency of amoxicillin and cefalexin in the empirical treatment of acute odontogenic abscess and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in early phases of its development. Methods. This study included 90 patients with acute odontogenic abscess who received surgical treatment (extraction of a teeth and/or abscess incision and were divided into three groups: two surgicalantibiotic groups (amoxicillin, cefalexin and the surgical group. In order to evaluate the effects of the applied therapy following clinical symptoms were monitored: inflammatory swelling, trismus, regional lymphadentytis and febrility. In all the patients before the beginning of antibiotic treatment suppuration was suched out of the abscess and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was tested by using the disk diffusion method. Results. The infection signs and symptoms lasted on the average 4.47 days, 4.67 days, and 6.17 days in the amoxicillin, cefalexin, and surgically only treated group, respectively. A total of 111 bacterial strains were isolated from 90 patients. Mostly, the bacteria were Gram-positive facultative anaerobs (81.1%. The most common bacteria isolated were Viridans streptococci (68/111. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria to amoxicillin was 76.6% and cefalexin 89.2%. Conclusion. Empirical, peroral use of amoxicillin or cefalexin after surgical treatment in early phase of development of dentoalveolar abscess significantly reduced the time of clinical symptoms duration in the acute odontogenic infections in comparison to surgical treatment only. Bacterial strains

  16. Untargeted antifungal therapy in adult patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marie Warrer; Perner, Anders; Sjövall, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    who are critically ill have provided conflicting results, and clinical equipoise exists. Accordingly, we aim to assess patient-important benefits and harms of untargeted antifungal therapy versus placebo or no treatment in adult patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection. Methods and analysis......-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes include adverse events, duration of mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, need for renal replacement therapy, emergence of antibiotic resistance and intensive care unit and hospital length-of-stay. Conventional meta-analysis, including sensitivity and subgroup...

  17. ArtinM offers new perspectives in the development of antifungal therapy

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    Ruas, Luciana P.; Carvalho, Fernanda C.; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most frequent systemic mycosis that affects the rural populations in Latin America. Despite significant developments in antifungal chemotherapy, its efficacy remains limited since drug therapy is prolonged and associated with toxic side effects and relapses. In response to these challenges, it is now recognized that several aspects of antifungal immunity can be modulated to better deal with fungal infections. A common idea for halting fungal infections has been the need to activate a cell-based, pro-inflammatory Th1 immune response to improve the fungal elimination. ArtinM, a D-mannose binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus, has the property of modulating immunity against several intracellular pathogens. Here, we review the immunomodulatory activity of ArtinM during experimental PCM in mice. Both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols of ArtinM administration promotes a Th1 immune response balanced by IL-10, which outstandingly reduces the fungal load in organs of the treated mice while maintaining a controlled inflammation at the site of infection. A carbohydrate recognition-based interaction of ArtinM with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) accounts for initiating the immunomodulatory effect of the lectin. The precise identification of the TLR2 N-glycan(s) targeted by ArtinM may support novel basis for the development of antifungal therapy. PMID:22715337

  18. Concepts and principles of photodynamic therapy as an alternative antifungal discovery platform

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    George eTegos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic fungal pathogens may cause superficial or serious invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised and debilitated patients. Invasive mycoses represent an exponentially growing threat for human health due to a combination of slow diagnosis and the existence of relatively few classes of available and effective antifungal drugs. Therefore systemic fungal infections result in high attributable mortality. There is an urgent need to pursue and deploy novel and effective alternative anti-fungal countermeasures. Photodynamic therapy was established as a successful modality for malignancies and age-related macular degeneration but photodynamic inactivation has only recently been intensively investigated as an alternative antimicrobial discovery and development platform. The concept of photodynamic inactivation requires microbial exposure to either exogenous or endogenous photosensitizer molecules, followed by visible light energy, typically wavelengths in the red/near infrared region that cause the excitation of the photosensitizers resulting in the production of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species that react with intracellular components, and consequently produce cell inactivation and death. Anti-fungal photodynamic therapy is an area of increasing interest, as research is advancing i to identify the photochemical and photophysical mechanisms involved in photoinactivation; ii to develop potent and clinically compatible photosensitizers; iii to understand how photoinactivation is affected by key microbial phenotypic elements multidrug resistance and efflux, virulence and pathogenesis determinants, and formation of biofilms; iv to explore novel photosensitizer delivery platforms and v to identify photoinactivation applications beyond the clinical setting such as environmental disinfectants.

  19. Empirically supported religious and spiritual therapies.

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    Hook, Joshua N; Worthington, Everett L; Davis, Don E; Jennings, David J; Gartner, Aubrey L; Hook, Jan P

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluated the efficacy status of religious and spiritual (R/S) therapies for mental health problems, including treatments for depression, anxiety, unforgiveness, eating disorders, schizophrenia, alcoholism, anger, and marital issues. Religions represented included Christianity, Islam, Taoism, and Buddhism. Some studies incorporated a generic spirituality. Several R/S therapies were found to be helpful for clients, supporting the further use and research on these therapies. There was limited evidence that R/S therapies outperformed established secular therapies, thus the decision to use an R/S therapy may be an issue of client preference and therapist comfort.

  20. ArtinM offers new perspectives in the development of antifungal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pereira Ruas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, the most frequent systemic mycosis that affects the rural populations in Latin America. Despite significant developments in antifungal chemotherapy, its efficacy remains limited since drug therapy is prolonged and associated with toxic side effects and relapses. In response to these challenges, it is now recognized that several aspects of antifungal immunity can be modulated to better deal with fungal infections. A common idea for halting fungal infections has been the need to activate a cell-based, pro-inflammatory Th1 immune response to improve the fungal elimination. ArtinM, a D-mannose binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus, has the property of modulating immunity against several intracellular pathogens. Here, we review the immunomodulatory activity of ArtinM during experimental PCM in mice. Both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols of ArtinM administration promotes a Th1 immune response balanced by IL-10, which outstandingly reduces the fungal load in organs of the treated mice while maintaining a controlled inflammation at the site of infection. A carbohydrate recognition based interaction of ArtinM

  1. Invasive fungal infections and antifungal therapies in solid organ transplant recipients.

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    Gabardi, Steven; Kubiak, David W; Chandraker, Anil K; Tullius, Stefan G

    2007-12-01

    This manuscript will review the risk factors, prevalence, clinical presentation, and management of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Primary literature was obtained via MEDLINE (1966-April 2007) and EMBASE. Abstracts were obtained from scientific meetings or pharmaceutical manufacturers and included in the analysis. All studies and abstracts evaluating IFIs and/or antifungal therapies, with a primary focus on solid organ transplantation, were considered for inclusion. English-language literature was selected for inclusion, but was limited to those consisting of human subjects. Infectious complications following SOT are common. IFIs are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in this patient population. Determining the best course of therapy is difficult due to the limited availability of data in SOT recipients. Well-designed clinical studies are infrequent and much of the available information is often based on case-reports or retrospective analyses. Transplant practitioners must remain aware of their therapeutic options and the advantages and disadvantages associated with the available treatment alternatives.

  2. Resolution of disseminated fusariosis in a child with acute leukemia treated with combined antifungal therapy: a case report

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    Zarallo Luis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium spp. is being isolated with increasing frequency as a pathogen in oncohematologic patients. Caspofungin and amphotericin B have been reported to have synergistic activity against Fusarium spp. Case presentation We herein report a case of disseminated fusariosis diagnosed by chest CT scan and positive blood cultures to Fusarium spp. Because the patient's clinical condition deteriorated, CRP levels increased, and blood cultures continued to yield Fusarium spp. despite liposomal amphotericin B monotherapy up to 5 mg/kg daily, treatment with caspofungin was added. Within 2 weeks of onset of combined antifungal therapy, the chest CT scan demonstrated a progressive resolution of the pulmonary lesions. Upon discontinuation of intravenous antifungals, the patient received suppressive therapy with oral voriconazole. Three months later, a chest CT scan showed no abnormalities. Twenty-five months after discontinuation of all antifungal therapy, the patient remains in complete remission of her neoplastic disease with no signs of clinical activity of the Fusarium infection. Conclusion This is the first description of successful treatment of disseminated fusariosis in a pediatric patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia with caspofungin and amphotericin B followed by oral suppressive therapy with voriconazole.

  3. Efficacy of T2 Magnetic Resonance Assay in Monitoring Candidemia after Initiation of Antifungal Therapy: the Serial Therapeutic and Antifungal Monitoring Protocol (STAMP) Trial.

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    Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Clancy, Cornelius J; Nguyen, M Hong; Pappas, Peter G

    2018-04-01

    The performance of blood culture for monitoring candidemia clearance is hampered by its low sensitivity, especially during antifungal therapy. The T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) assay combines magnetic resonance with nanotechnology to identify whole Candida species cells. A multicenter clinical trial studied the performance of T2MR in monitoring candidemia clearance compared to blood culture. Adults with a blood culture positive for yeast were enrolled and had blood cultures and T2MR testing performed on prespecified days. Thirty-one patients completed the trial. Thirteen of the 31 patients (41.9%) had at least one positive surveillance T2MR and/or blood culture result. All positive blood cultures (7/7 [100%]) had an accompanying positive T2MR result with concordance in the identified Candida sp., while only 7/23 (30.4%) T2MR results had an accompanying positive blood culture. There was one case of discordance in species identification between T2MR and the preenrollment blood culture with evidence to support deep-seated infection by the Candida spp. detected by the T2MR assay. Based on the log rank test, there was a statistically significant improvement in posttreatment surveillance using the T2MR assay compared to blood culture ( P = 0.004). Limitations of the study include the small sample size and lack of outcome data. In conclusion, the T2MR assay significantly outperformed blood cultures for monitoring the clearance of candidemia in patients receiving antifungal therapy and may be useful in determining adequate source control, timing for deescalation, and optimal duration of treatment. However, further studies are needed to determine the viability of Candida species cells detected by the T2MR assay and correlate the results with patient outcomes. (This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT02163889.). Copyright © 2018 Mylonakis et al.

  4. Combination antifungal therapy and surgery for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

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    Tiziana Toffolutti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year old boy, affected by severe aplastic anemia, developed a probable pulmonary invasive aspergillosis (IA early after a second unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT. He was treated promptly with the combination of liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin. Despite the initial stabilization, the patient deteriorated and the antifungal therapy was switched to voriconazole and caspofungin. The patient gradually improved and was discharged home on day +29 post-HSCT on oral voriconazole. On day +119, a sudden episode of hemoptysis occurred and a right superior lobectomy was decided to remove the residual aspergilloma. The patient is now alive and well more than 24 months from HSCT. This case demonstrated that antifungal combination therapy and surgery are valid options to cure pulmonary IA even in patients at high-risk and severely immunosuppressed.

  5. Multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of invasive fungal infections in adult patients. Prophylaxis, empirical, preemptive or targeted therapy, which is the best in the different hosts?

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    Rafael Zaragoza

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Zaragoza1, Javier Pemán2, Miguel Salavert3, Ángel Viudes2, Amparo Solé4, Isidro Jarque5, Emilio Monte6, Eva Romá6, Emilia Cantón71Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Dr Peset, Valencia, Spain; 2Servicio de Microbiología; 3Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas; 4Unidad de Trasplante Pulmonar; 5Servicio de Hematología; 6Servicio de Farmacia; 7Unidad de Microbiología Experimental, Centro de Investigación, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia, SpainAbstract: The high morbidity, mortality, and health care costs associated with invasive fungal infections, especially in the critical care setting and immunocompromised host, have made it an excellent target for prophylactic, empiric, and preemptive therapy interventions principally based on early identification of risk factors. Early diagnosis and treatment are associated with a better prognosis. In the last years there have been important developments in antifungal pharmacotherapy. An approach to the new diagnosis tools in the clinical mycology laboratory and an analysis of the use new antifungal agents and its application in different clinical situations has been made. Furthermore, an attempt of developing a state of the art in each clinical scenario (critically ill, hematological, and solid organ transplant patients has been performed, trying to choose the best strategy for each clinical situation (prophylaxis, pre-emptive, empirical, or targeted therapy. The high mortality rates in these settings make mandatory the application of early de-escalation therapy in critically ill patients with fungal infection. In addition, the possibility of antifungal combination therapy might be considered in solid organ transplant and hematological patients.Keywords: invasive fungal infections, prophylaxis, empirical therapy, preemptive treatment, targeted therapy

  6. Resistant Microascus cirrosus pneumonia can be treated with a combination of surgery, multiple anti-fungal agents and a growth factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ustun, Celalettin; Huls, Gerwin; Stewart, Marc; Marr, Kieren A.

    2006-01-01

    A 49-year old male with acute myelogenous leukemia relapsed eight years post allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. The patient received induction chemotherapy causing prolonged neutropenia. The patient developed pneumonia for which empirical antibacterial and antifungal therapy were started. The

  7. (1→3)-β-D-Glucan Assay in Monitoring Response to Anti-Fungal Therapy in Fungal Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, Jihad; Saling, Christopher; Szabela, Maria; Brown, Melinda; Johnson, Tamara; Goldfarb, Irvin

    2017-03-01

    A case is reported of Candida glabrata infective endocarditis (IE) treated without surgical intervention. The study aim was to: (i) briefly discuss the outcomes of other documented cases of fungal IE managed medically with fluconazole; (ii) discuss the (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay and its previously studied role in the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections; and (iii) examine a possible application of the (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay to monitor response to antifungal treatment in patients with Candida endocarditis. The serum Fungitell assay was used to trend (1→3)-β-D-glucan in a patient with Candida endocarditis to determine treatment effectiveness with fluconazole, to provide an appropriate end date for antifungal therapy, and to survey infection suppression while off treatment. The (1→03)-β-D-glucan assay began trending downwards at 197 days into treatment with oral fluconazole. After 16 months of therapy, fluconazole was stopped due to transaminitis. (1→3)-β-Dglucan levels were checked six weeks after the discontinuation of treatment and were negative. The patient has now been off therapy for 21 weeks with no signs of clinical disease, and values remain negative. The present case indicates that a trending (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay may have valuable application in monitoring treatment response and infection suppression for Candida endocarditis.

  8. Microemulsion and Microemulsion-Based Gels for Topical Antifungal Therapy with Phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonme, Prapaporn; Kaewbanjong, Jarika; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Andreani, Tatiana; Silva, Amélia M; Souto, Eliana B

    2016-01-01

    Skin fungal infections are regular injuries suffered by people living in tropical areas. Most common pathogens are Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton which can cause skin lesions in many parts of body. Topical antifungal phytochemicals are commonly used to avoid systemic adverse events and are more convenient for patient application than those administered by other routes. However, the effectiveness of topical treatments in eradicating fungal infection is more limited since the stratum corneum acts as the skin barrier, resulting in long treatment duration and low patient's compliance. The goal of this work is to identify optimized drug delivery systems to improve topic clinical efficacy. Microemulsions i.e. liquid dispersions of oil and water stabilized with an interfacial film of surfactant are well known drug delivery systems. A thickening agent may be included to form microemulsion-based gels to increase skin adhesion. Microemulsions and microemulsion-based gels can be loaded with several hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs because they are composed of both water and oil phases. Microemulsions and microemulsion-based gels can also be used for the delivery of many drugs including antifungal drugs through stratum corneum due to their capacity to act as skin penetration enhancement. In addition to a comprehensive review of microemulsion and microemulsion-based gels as suitable carriers for skin delivery of various antifungal drugs, this review also aims to discuss the delivery of antifungal phytochemicals.

  9. Is preemptive antifungal therapy a good alternative to empirical treatment in prolonged febrile neutropenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Koch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La neutropenia febril prolongada conlleva un alto riesgo de desarrollar infecciones fúngicas invasoras, por lo que habitualmente se administra terapia antifúngica empírica en estos casos. Sin embargo, esta se asocia a importantes efectos adversos, por lo que se ha propuesto como alternativa la estrategia "preemptive" o anticipada, es decir, la indicación de antifúngicos sólo ante la evidencia indirecta de infección fúngica invasora. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen doce estudios. Cuatro estudios aleatorizados evaluaron la pregunta abordada en este artículo. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que no está claro si la estrategia "preemptive" tiene algún efecto sobre la mortalidad porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja, pero podría disminuir levemente el uso de antifúngicos en pacientes con neutropenia febril prolongada.

  10. Advances in targeting the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase for anti-fungal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer R. Hayek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase is a membrane-bound, multi-subunit enzyme that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump protons across membranes. V-ATPase activity is critical for pH homeostasis and organelle acidification as well as for generation of the membrane potential that drives secondary transporters and cellular metabolism. V-ATPase is highly conserved across species and is best characterized in the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae. However, recent studies in mammals have identified significant alterations from fungi, particularly in the isoform composition of the 14 subunits and in the regulation of complex disassembly. These differences could be exploited for selectivity between fungi and humans and highlight the potential for V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target. Candida albicans (C. albicans is a major human fungal pathogen and causes fatality in 35% of systemic infections, even with anti-fungal treatment. The pathogenicity of C. albicans correlates with environmental, vacuolar, and cytoplasmic pH regulation, and V-ATPase appears to play a fundamental role in each of these processes. Genetic loss of V-ATPase in pathogenic fungi leads to defective virulence, and a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms involved is emerging. Recent studies have explored the practical utility of V-ATPase as an anti-fungal drug target in C. albicans, including pharmacological inhibition, azole therapy, and targeting of downstream pathways. This overview will discuss these studies as well as hypothetical ways to target V-ATPase and novel high-throughput methods for use in future drug discovery screens.

  11. Evaluation of the Effects of Photodynamic Therapy Alone and Combined with Standard Antifungal Therapy on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Jiang, Shaojie; Sun, Yi; Deng, Meiqi; Wu, Qingzhi; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp. are often chronic, recalcitrant, resulting in significant morbidity, causing discomfort, disfigurement, social isolation. Systemic disseminations happen in compromised patients, which are often refractory to available antifungal therapies and thereby lead to death. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been demonstrated to effectively inactivate multiple pathogenic fungi and is considered as a promising alternative treatment for mycoses. In the present study, we applied methylene blue (8, 16, and 32 μg/ml) as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (635 ± 10 nm, 12 and 24 J/cm(2)), and evaluated the effects of photodynamic inactivation on five strains of Fusarium spp. and five strains of Exophiala spp., as well as photodynamic effects on in vitro susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, both planktonic and biofilm forms. Photodynamic therapy was efficient in reducing the growth of all strains tested, exhibiting colony forming unit-reductions of up to 6.4 log10 and 5.6 log10 against planktonic cultures and biofilms, respectively. However, biofilms were less sensitive since the irradiation time was twice longer than that of planktonic cultures. Notably, the photodynamic effects against Fusarium strains with high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ≥16, 4-8, 4-8, and 2-4 μg/ml for itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, respectively, were comparable or even superior to Exophiala spp., despite Exophiala spp. showed relatively better antifungal susceptibility profile. MIC ranges against planktonic cells of both species were up to 64 times lower after aPDT treatment. Biofilms of both species showed high sessile MIC50 (SMIC50) and SMIC80 of ≥16 μg/ml for all azoles tested and variable susceptibilities to amphotericin B, with SMIC ranging between 1 and 16 μg/ml. Biofilms subjected to aPDT exhibited a distinct reduction in

  12. Virulence and antifungal therapy of murine disseminated infection by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pamela; López-Fernández, Loida; Guarro, Josep; Capilla, Javier

    2017-09-01

    Rhodotorula infections have emerged in recent years causing mainly fungemia associated to high mortality. We have evaluated the in vitro activity of nine antifungal drugs against four clinical strains of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, being amphotericin B, voriconazole and posaconazole the most active compounds. The experimental virulence of this fungus and the efficacy of the three mentioned drugs were evaluated in disseminated infections in neutropenic mice. Infection resulted in a high fungal load in all the organs studied without evident particular tropism. All treated animals showed reduced burden respect to the control in a strain dependent manner being voriconazole slightly superior to posaconazole and amphotericin B. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of two postoperative endophthalmitis cases due to Aspergillus flavus and Scopulariopsis spp. with local and systemic antifungal therapy

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    Uyar Guliz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endophthalmitis is the inflammatory response to invasion of the eye with bacteria or fungi. The incidence of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery varies between 0.072–0.13 percent. Treatment of endophthalmitis with fungal etiology is difficult. Case Presentation Case 1: A 71-year old male diabetic patient developed postoperative endophthalmitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The patient was treated with topical amphotericin B ophthalmic solution, intravenous (IV liposomal amphotericin-B and caspofungin following vitrectomy. Case 2: A 72-year old male cachectic patient developed postoperative endophthalmitis due to Scopulariopsis spp. The patient was treated with topical and IV voriconazole and caspofungin. Conclusion Aspergillus spp. are responsible of postoperative fungal endophthalmitis. Endophthalmitis caused by Scopulariopsis spp. is a very rare condition. The two cases were successfully treated with local and systemic antifungal therapy.

  14. Candida albicans gastrointestinal colonization and invasion in the mouse: effect of antibacterial dosing, antifungal therapy and immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, O S; Pitblado, K

    1989-12-01

    Infant mice infected with Candida albicans by the oral-intragastric route became colonized in the gut and were persistently colonized into adulthood. Faecal levels of Candida were correlated with total gastrointestinal Candida and provided a useful means of detecting yeast overgrowth or elimination. Antibacterial agents promoting Candida overgrowth when given by the oral or parenteral route included ceftriaxone, augmentin and cefoperazone. Ceftizoxime had less effect. Ceftazidime and latamoxef produced raised levels only by the oral route. Gentamicin, vancomycin and metronidazole did not affect the Candida levels. Dosing with some antibacterials promoted an increase in gastrointestinal Candida and invasion to a greater extent than immunosuppression. Antifungal therapy to reduce gastrointestinal colonization was investigated using amphotericin B, nystatin, ketoconazole, intraconazole and fluconazole. Fluconazole was most effective at reducing faecal Candida.

  15. Antifungal resistance in mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannaoui, E

    2017-11-01

    The order Mucorales, which includes the agents of mucormycosis, comprises a large number of species. These fungi are characterised by high-level resistance to most currently available antifungal drugs. Standardised antifungal susceptibility testing methods are now available, allowing a better understanding of the in vitro activity of antifungal drugs against members of Mucorales. Such tests have made apparent that antifungal susceptibility within this group may be species-specific. Experimental animal models of mucormycosis have also been developed and are of great importance in bridging the gap between in vitro results and clinical trials. Amphotericin B, posaconazole and isavuconazole are currently the most active agents against Mucorales; however, their activity remains suboptimal and new therapeutic strategies are needed. Combination therapy could be a promising approach to overcome resistance, but further studies are required to confirm its benefits and safety for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. A Multicenter Evaluation of Prolonged Empiric Antibiotic Therapy in Adult ICUs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Zachariah; Bandali, Farooq; Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Reardon, Tom; Olsen, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the rate of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in adult ICUs in the United States. Our secondary objective is to examine the relationship between the prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy rate and certain ICU characteristics. Multicenter, prospective, observational, 72-hour snapshot study. Sixty-seven ICUs from 32 hospitals in the United States. Nine hundred ninety-eight patients admitted to the ICU between midnight on June 20, 2011, and June 21, 2011, were included in the study. None. Antibiotic orders were categorized as prophylactic, definitive, empiric, or prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy. Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy was defined as empiric antibiotics that continued for at least 72 hours in the absence of adjudicated infection. Standard definitions from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to determine infection. Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy rate was determined as the ratio of the total number of empiric antibiotics continued for at least 72 hours divided by the total number of empiric antibiotics. Univariate analysis of factors associated with the ICU prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy rate was conducted using Student t test. A total of 660 unique antibiotics were prescribed as empiric therapy to 364 patients. Of the empiric antibiotics, 333 of 660 (50%) were continued for at least 72 hours in instances where Centers for Disease Control and Prevention infection criteria were not met. Suspected pneumonia accounted for approximately 60% of empiric antibiotic use. The most frequently prescribed empiric antibiotics were vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam. ICUs that utilized invasive techniques for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia had lower rates of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy than those that did not, 45.1% versus 59.5% (p = 0.03). No other institutional factor was significantly associated with prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy rate. Half of all

  17. Does appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy modify intensive care unit-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia mortality and discharge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, K B; Van Kleef, E; Vansteelandt, S; Batra, R; Edgeworth, J D; Smieszek, T; Robotham, J V

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting results have been found regarding outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia and the potentially modifying effect of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. AIM: To evaluate these associations while adjusting for potential time-varying

  18. Training should be the first step toward an antifungal stewardship program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Maricela; Muñoz, Patricia; Rodríguez-González, Carmen; Sanjurjo, María; Guinea, Jesús; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-04-01

    The frequency of use of systemic antifungal agents has increased significantly in most tertiary centers. However, antifungal stewardship has received very little attention. The objective of this article was to assess the knowledge of prescribing physicians in our institution as a first step in the development of an antifungal stewardship program. Attending physicians from the departments that prescribe most antifungals were invited to complete a questionnaire based on current guidelines on diagnosis and therapy of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis (IA). The survey was completed by 60.8% (200/329) of the physicians who were invited to participate. The physicians belonged to the following departments: medical (60%), pediatric (19%), intensive care (15.5%), and surgical (5.5%). The mean (±SD) score of correct responses was 5.16±1.73. In the case of candidiasis, only 55% of the physicians clearly distinguished between colonization and infection, and 17.5% knew the local rate of fluconazole resistance. Thirty-three percent knew the accepted indications for antifungal prophylaxis, and 23% the indications for empirical therapy. However, most physicians knew which antifungals to choose when starting empirical therapy (73.5%). As for aspergillosis, most physicians (67%) could differentiate between colonization and infection, and 34.5% knew the diagnostic value of galactomannan. The radiological features of IA were well recognized by 64%, but only 31.5% were aware of the first line of treatment for IA, and 36% of the recommended duration of therapy. The usefulness of antifungal levels was known by 67%. This simple, easily completed questionnaire enabled us to identify which areas of our training strategy could be improved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. [Evaluation of PNA-FISH method for direct identification of Candida species in blood culture samples and its potential impact on guidance of antifungal therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Özlem; İnkaya, Ahmet Çağkan; Gülmez, Dolunay; Uzun, Ömrüm; Akova, Murat; Arıkan Akdağlı, Sevtap

    2016-10-01

    Early antifungal therapy has a major influence on survival in candidemia. Rapid identification of the species has importance for the treatment, prediction of the species-specific primary resistance and variable antifungal susceptibility. Recently, molecular-based methods attempt to reduce the time between the positive signal of a blood culture and identification of the fungus. PNA-FISH (Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization) assay distinguishes a number of frequently isolated Candida species in groups following the growth in blood culture. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of the species identified by PNA-FISH with conventional identification methods in yeast positive blood cultures and its influence on the selection of antifungal therapy. Specimens of adult patients diagnosed as yeast with Gram stain in signal-positive blood cultures between August to December 2013, were included in the study. The strains were concomitantly cultivated by subculturing from the blood culture bottles onto solid media and identified by conventional methods (germ tube test, ID32C and morphology on cornmeal Tween 80 agar). Rapid species identification was performed by Yeast Traffic Light PNA-FISH, which generates green flourescence for Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, yellow for Candida tropicalis, and red for Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. C.tropicalis was identified as a single species whereas the others were identified in pairs. The time points when the yeast positive blood culture bottle was received by the mycology laboratory and reporting of the species identification results by PNA-FISH and the conventional methods were recorded. Seven C.albicans, six C.glabrata, three C.parapsilosis, one C.tropicalis, one C.krusei, one Cryptococcus neoformans, one Saprochaete capitata (Blastoschizomyces capitatus), one C.albicans and Candida dubliniensis, one C.krusei and C.dubliniensis, and one C.glabrata and C.parapsilosis were

  20. Empirically Based Psychosocial Therapies for Schizophrenia: The Disconnection between Science and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn D. Shean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirically validated psychosocial therapies for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were described in the report of the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT, 2009. The PORT team identified eight psychosocial treatments: assertive community treatment, supported employment, cognitive behavioral therapy, family-based services, token economy, skills training, psychosocial interventions for alcohol and substance use disorders, and psychosocial interventions for weight management. PORT listings of empirically validated psychosocial therapies provide a useful template for the design of effective recovery-oriented mental health care systems. Unfortunately, surveys indicate that PORT listings have not been implemented in clinical settings. Obstacles to the implementation of PORT psychosocial therapy listings and suggestions for changes needed to foster implementation are discussed. Limitations of PORT therapy listings that are based on therapy outcome efficacy studies are discussed, and cross-cultural and course and outcome studies of correlates of recovery are summarized.

  1. Early diagnosis and empiric therapy for cirrhosis associated with infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAN Yuemin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection is a frequent complication of cirrhosis, which often occurs in the lungs, chest, abdomen, biliary tract, urinary tract, soft tissue, and skin, and occasionally causes spontaneous bacteremia in patients. This paper reviews the risk factors and common types of infection in cirrhosis associated with infection, and the early diagnosis and symptomatic treatment of different types of infection. Moreover, this paper points out that cirrhosis associated with infection is a key factor for disease progression and the early diagnosis and treatment are essential for successful treatment. The third-generation cephalosporins are the first-line antibiotic agents. Drug-resistant bacteria should be treated with antibiotic compound containing β-lactamase inhibitors or carbapenems. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus should be treated with glycopeptide antibiotics or combination therapies. Pulmonary mycoses are mainly treated with caspofungin or voriconazole. Antibiotics combined with supportive therapies including the administration of albumin can improve the treatment outcome and prognosis.

  2. Adjuvant antifungal therapy using tissue tolerable plasma on oral mucosa and removable dentures in oral candidiasis patients: a randomised double-blinded split-mouth pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissner, Saskia; Kastner, Isabell; Schütte, Eyke; Hartwig, Stefan; Schmidt-Westhausen, Andrea Maria; Paris, Sebastian; Preissner, Robert; Hertel, Moritz

    2016-07-01

    Extended use of antimycotics in oral candidiasis therapy gives rise to problems related to fungal drug resistance. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the efficacy of tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) in denture stomatitis patients. It was hypothesised that (I): erythema and (IIa): complaint remission would be accelerated and (IIb): colony forming unit (CFU) reduction would be improved. The halves of the upper jaws of eight patients were randomly assigned to control (nystatin, chlorhexidine and placebo treatment) and test sides (nystatin, chlorhexidine and TTP administered six times each 7 days). The patients and the investigators, who were different from the therapists, were both blinded. Compared to the control sides, the erythema surface was reduced significantly more extensively on the test sides between 2 and 6 weeks of antifungal therapy (P ≤ 0.05). Visual analogue scale values and the frequency of moderate or heavy growth of Candida post-treatment did not differ significantly between both sides (P > 0.05). The primary hypothesis was confirmed, which may be interpreted as an accelerated remission. As drug therapy is usually limited to the time in which signs of infection are present, TTP might help reducing antifungal use. Even though the secondary hypotheses were not confirmed, persistence of Candida might be only colonisation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Assessment of empirical antibiotic therapy optimisation in six hospitals: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braykov, Nikolay P; Morgan, Daniel J; Schweizer, Marin L; Uslan, Daniel Z; Kelesidis, Theodoros; Weisenberg, Scott A; Johannsson, Birgir; Young, Heather; Cantey, Joseph; Srinivasan, Arjun; Perencevich, Eli; Septimus, Edward; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2014-12-01

    Modification of empirical antimicrobials when warranted by culture results or clinical signs is recommended to control antimicrobial overuse and resistance. We aimed to assess the frequency with which patients were started on empirical antimicrobials, characteristics of the empirical regimen and the clinical characteristics of patients at the time of starting antimicrobials, patterns of changes to empirical therapy at different timepoints, and modifiable factors associated with changes to the initial empirical regimen in the first 5 days of therapy. We did a chart review of adult inpatients receiving one or more antimicrobials in six US hospitals on 4 days during 2009 and 2010. Our primary outcome was the modification of antimicrobial regimen on or before the 5th day of empirical therapy, analysed as a three-category variable. Bivariate analyses were used to establish demographic and clinical variables associated with the outcome. Variables with p values below 0·1 were included in a multivariable generalised linear latent and mixed model with multinomial logit link to adjust for clustering within hospitals and accommodate a non-binary outcome variable. Across the six study sites, 4119 (60%) of 6812 inpatients received antimicrobials. Of 1200 randomly selected patients with active antimicrobials, 730 (61%) met inclusion criteria. At the start of therapy, 220 (30%) patients were afebrile and had normal white blood cell counts. Appropriate cultures were collected from 432 (59%) patients, and 250 (58%) were negative. By the 5th day of therapy, 12·5% of empirical antimicrobials were escalated, 21·5% were narrowed or discontinued, and 66·4% were unchanged. Narrowing or discontinuation was more likely when cultures were collected at the start of therapy (adjusted OR 1·68, 95% CI 1·05-2·70) and no infection was noted on an initial radiological study (1·76, 1·11-2·79). Escalation was associated with multiple infection sites (2·54, 1·34-4·83) and a positive

  4. Review of the Empirical and Clinical Support for Group Therapy Specific to Sexual Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L; Deming, Adam

    2017-12-01

    This review compiles 48 empirical studies and 55 clinical/practice articles specific to group therapy with sex offenders. Historically, group therapy has always been the predominant modality in sex offender-specific treatment. In the first decades of the field, treatment applied a psychoanalytic methodology that, although not empirically supported, fully appreciated the primary therapeutic importance of the group modality. Conversely, since the early 1980s, treatment has applied a cognitive behavioral method, but the field has largely neglected the therapeutic value of interpersonal group dynamics. The past decade has seen a growing re-appreciation of general therapeutic processes and more holistic approaches in sex offender treatment, and there is an emerging body of empirical research which, although often indirectly concerned with group, has yielded three definitive conclusions. First, the therapeutic qualities of the group therapist-specifically warmth, empathy, encouragement, and guidance-can strongly affect outcomes. Second, the quality of group cohesion can profoundly affect the effectiveness of treatment. Third, confrontational approaches in group therapy are ineffective, if not counter-therapeutic, and overwhelmingly rated as not helpful by sex offenders themselves. Additional conclusions are less strongly supported, but include compelling evidence that sex offenders generally prefer group therapy over individual therapy, that group therapy appears equally effective to individual therapy, and that mixing or separating groups by offense type is not important to therapeutic climate. Other group techniques and approaches specific to sexual abuse treatment are also summarized.

  5. Candidaemia and antifungal therapy in a French University Hospital: rough trends over a decade and possible links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Standaert Annie

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence for an increased prevalence of candidaemia and for high associated mortality in the 1990s led to a number of different recommendations concerning the management of at risk patients as well as an increase in the availability and prescription of new antifungal agents. The aim of this study was to parallel in our hospital candidemia incidence with the nature of prescribed antifungal drugs between 1993 and 2003. Methods During this 10-year period we reviewed all cases of candidemia, and collected all the data about annual consumption of prescribed antifungal drugs Results Our centralised clinical mycology laboratory isolates and identifies all yeasts grown from blood cultures obtained from a 3300 bed teaching hospital. Between 1993 and 2003, 430 blood yeast isolates were identified. Examination of the trends in isolation revealed a clear decrease in number of yeast isolates recovered between 1995–2000, whereas the number of positive blood cultures in 2003 rose to 1993 levels. The relative prevalence of Candida albicans and C. glabrata was similar in 1993 and 2003 in contrast to the period 1995–2000 where an increased prevalence of C. glabrata was observed. When these quantitative and qualitative data were compared to the amount and type of antifungal agents prescribed during the same period (annual mean defined daily dose: 2662741; annual mean cost: 615629 € a single correlation was found between the decrease in number of yeast isolates, the increased prevalence of C. glabrata and the high level of prescription of fluconazole at prophylactic doses between 1995–2000. Conclusion Between 1993 and 2000, the number of cases of candidemia halved, with an increase of C. glabrata prevalence. These findings were probably linked to the use of Fluconazole prophylaxis. Although it is not possible to make any recommendations from this data the information is nevertheless interesting and may have considerable implications with

  6. Optimizing empiric therapy for Gram-negative bloodstream infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Y; Reuter, C; Kociolek, L K; Patel, R; Zheng, X; Patel, S J

    2018-06-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship can be challenging in children with bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). This retrospective cohort study explored how data elements in the electronic health record could potentially optimize empiric antibiotic therapy for BSIs caused by GNB, via the construction of customized antibiograms for categorical GNB infections and identification of opportunities to minimize organism-drug mismatch and decrease time to effective therapy. Our results suggest potential strategies that could be implemented at key decision points in prescribing at initiation, modification, and targeting of therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Penicillin as empirical therapy for patients hospitalised with community acquired pneumonia at a Danish hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Glenthøj, Jonathan Peter; Dragsted, Ulrik Bak

    2001-01-01

    and outcome parameters were collected. Three groups were established according to the initial choice of antibiotic(s): penicillin only (n = 160); non-allergic patients starting broader spectrum therapy (n = 54); and patients with suspected penicillin allergy (n = 29). RESULTS: The overall mortality within...... treated with penicillin monotherapy. No differences in clinical outcomes were documented between patients treated empirically with broad-spectrum therapy and penicillin monotherapy. Therefore, penicillin seems to be a reasonable first choice for initial therapy of HCAP in Denmark as in other regions...

  8. [Drug susceptibility test guided therapy and novel empirical quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: a network Meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Q Y; Yu, R B; Shi, R H

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and the risk of adverse effect of drug susceptibility test guided therapy and novel empirical quadruple therapy for Helicobacter ( H .) pylori infection. Methods: Literature retrieval was conducted by using major databases. Related papers published up to June 2015 were considered eligible if they were randomized control trials comparing different pharmacological formulations for H. pylori infection and used in a network Meta-analysis and a single rate Meta-analysis to evaluate the relative and absolute rates of H. pylori eradication and the risk of adverse effect. The Jadad score was used to evaluate the methodological quality. Funnel plot was constructed to evaluate the risk of publication bias. Begg's rank correlation test or Egger's regression intercept test was done for the asymmetry of funnel plot. Results: Twenty randomized control trials for the treatment of 6 753 initial treated patients with H. pylori infection were included. Drug susceptibility test guided therapy was significantly superior to concomitant therapy, hybrid therapy, sequential therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy. The culture-based therapy had the highest likelihood of improving clinical efficacy, with lowest risk of adverse effect. Concomitant therapy had the highest probability of causing adverse effect despite its effectiveness. Hybrid therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy were associated with lower risk of adverse effect and higher effectiveness. Conclusion: Drug susceptibility test guided therapy showed superiority to other 4 interventions for H. pylori eradication mentioned above. Hybrid therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy might be applied in the settings where the culture-based strategy is not available.

  9. Attachment-based family therapy for depressed and suicidal adolescents: theory, clinical model and empirical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) is a manualized family-based intervention designed for working with depressed adolescents, including those at risk for suicide, and their families. It is an empirically informed and supported treatment. ABFT has its theoretical underpinnings in attachment theory and clinical roots in structural family therapy and emotion focused therapies. ABFT relies on a transactional model that aims to transform the quality of adolescent-parent attachment, as a means of providing the adolescent with a more secure relationship that can support them during challenging times generally, and the crises related to suicidal thinking and behavior, specifically. This article reviews: (1) the theoretical foundations of ABFT (attachment theory, models of emotional development); (2) the ABFT clinical model, including training and supervision factors; and (3) empirical support.

  10. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated with Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alan L.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Hatch, John P.; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 6 decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a longstanding concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette’s disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using 4 methods: (1) the onset of new tic symptoms; (2) the occurrence of adverse events; (3) change in tic medications; and (4) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette’s disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of 8 sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette’s disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the longstanding concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's Disorder. PMID:26763495

  11. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated With Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alan L; McGuire, Joseph F; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Hatch, John P; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Over the past six decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a long-standing concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette's disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using four methods: (a) the onset of new tic symptoms, (b) the occurrence of adverse events, (c) change in tic medications, and (d) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette's disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of eight sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette's disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the long-standing concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Time to Guideline-Based Empiric Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Pneumonia in a Community Hospital: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Beth L; Kyle, Jeffrey A; Allen, Leland N

    2016-08-01

    The 2005 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) stress the importance of initiating prompt appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. This study's purpose was to determine the percentage of patients with HAP, VAP, and HCAP who received guideline-based empiric antibiotic therapy and to determine the average time to receipt of an appropriate empiric regimen. A retrospective chart review of adults with HAP, VAP, or HCAP was conducted at a community hospital in suburban Birmingham, Alabama. The hospital's electronic medical record system utilized International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes to identify patients diagnosed with pneumonia. The percentage of patients who received guideline-based empiric antibiotic therapy was calculated. The mean time from suspected diagnosis of pneumonia to initial administration of the final antibiotic within the empiric regimen was calculated for patients who received guideline-based therapy. Ninety-three patients met the inclusion criteria. The overall guideline adherence rate for empiric antibiotic therapy was 31.2%. The mean time to guideline-based therapy in hours:minutes was 7:47 for HAP and 28:16 for HCAP. For HAP and HCAP combined, the mean time to appropriate therapy was 21:55. Guideline adherence rates were lower and time to appropriate empiric therapy was greater for patients with HCAP compared to patients with HAP. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Rare severe mycotic infections in children receiving empirical caspofungin treatment for febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Yilmaz Karapinar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical antifungal therapy is most often given to patients with leukemia. However breakthrough fungal infections under antifungal therapy are not uncommon. Four children, with hematologic malignant disease developed mycotic breakthrough infections while on empirical caspofungin treatment for a median of 14 (range 11–19 days. Trichosporon asahii was detected in the blood culture of two patients and Geotrichum capitatum in the other two (one patient also had positive cerebrospinal fluid culture. Because the patients’ clinical situation worsened, voriconazole was empirically added for two patients three and five days before the agent was detected. The first sterile blood culture was obtained 3–7 days of voriconazole treatment. All patients reached clear cultures but one patient died. One patient with central nervous system infection with G. capitatum had severe neurological sequelae. Very severe fungal infections can occur during empirical caspofungin therapy. Therefore, patients should be followed closely.

  14. Does appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy modify intensive care unit-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia mortality and discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwels, K B; Van Kleef, E; Vansteelandt, S; Batra, R; Edgeworth, J D; Smieszek, T; Robotham, J V

    2017-05-01

    Conflicting results have been found regarding outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia and the potentially modifying effect of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. To evaluate these associations while adjusting for potential time-varying confounding using methods from the causal inference literature. Patients who stayed more than two days in two general ICUs in England between 2002 and 2006 were included in this cohort study. Marginal structural models with inverse probability weighting were used to estimate the mortality and discharge associated with Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia and the impact of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy on these outcomes. Among 3411 ICU admissions, 195 (5.7%) ICU-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia cases occurred. Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia was associated with an increased daily risk of ICU death [cause-specific hazard ratio (HR): 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.99] and a reduced daily risk of ICU discharge (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.54-0.80). Appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy did not significantly modify ICU mortality (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.59-1.97) or discharge (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.63-1.32). ICU-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia was associated with an increased daily risk of ICU mortality. Furthermore, the daily discharge rate was also lower after acquiring infection, even when adjusting for time-varying confounding using appropriate methodology. No evidence was found for a beneficial modifying effect of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy on ICU mortality and discharge. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of round-the-clock CSF Gram stain on empirical therapy for suspected central nervous system infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, F; Prod'hom, G; Manuel, O; Greub, G

    2015-09-01

    The impact of round-the-clock cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain on overnight empirical therapy for suspected central nervous system (CNS) infections was investigated. All consecutive overnight CSF Gram stains between 2006 and 2011 were included. The impact of a positive or a negative test on empirical therapy was evaluated and compared to other clinical and biological indications based on institutional guidelines. Bacterial CNS infection was documented in 51/241 suspected cases. Overnight CSF Gram stain was positive in 24/51. Upon validation, there were two false-positive and one false-negative results. The sensitivity and specificity were 41 and 99 %, respectively. All patients but one had other indications for empirical therapy than Gram stain alone. Upon obtaining the Gram result, empirical therapy was modified in 7/24, including the addition of an appropriate agent (1), addition of unnecessary agents (3) and simplification of unnecessary combination therapy (3/11). Among 74 cases with a negative CSF Gram stain and without formal indication for empirical therapy, antibiotics were withheld in only 29. Round-the-clock CSF Gram stain had a low impact on overnight empirical therapy for suspected CNS infections and was associated with several misinterpretation errors. Clinicians showed little confidence in CSF direct examination for simplifying or withholding therapy before definite microbiological results.

  16. Empiric outpatient therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, cephalexin, or clindamycin for cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Tice, Alan

    2010-10-01

    Limited data exist on optimal empiric oral antibiotic treatment for outpatients with cellulitis in areas with a high prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. We conducted a 3-year retrospective cohort study of outpatients with cellulitis empirically treated at a teaching clinic of a tertiary-care medical center in Hawaii. Patients who received more than 1 oral antibiotic, were hospitalized, or had no follow-up information were excluded. Treatment success rates for empiric therapy were compared among commonly prescribed antibiotics in our clinic: cephalexin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin. Risk factors for treatment failure were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of 544 patients with cellulitis, 405 met the inclusion criteria. The overall treatment success rate of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was significantly higher than the rate of cephalexin (91% vs 74%; P<.001), whereas clindamycin success rates were higher than those of cephalexin in patients who had subsequently culture-confirmed MRSA infections (P=.01), had moderately severe cellulitis (P=.03), and were obese (P=.04). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was recovered in 72 of 117 positive culture specimens (62%). Compliance and adverse drug reaction rates were not significantly different among patients who received these 3 antibiotics. Factors associated with treatment failure included therapy with an antibiotic that was not active against community-associated MRSA (adjusted odds ratio 4.22; 95% confidence interval, 2.25-7.92; P<.001) and severity of cellulitis (adjusted odds ratio 3.74; 95% confidence interval, 2.06-6.79; P<.001). Antibiotics with activity against community-associated MRSA, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin, are preferred empiric therapy for outpatients with cellulitis in the community-associated MRSA-prevalent setting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Discovery of a novel dual fungal CYP51/human 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor: implications for anti-fungal therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric K Hoobler

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of a novel dual inhibitor targeting fungal sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51 or Erg11 and human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX with improved potency against 5-LOX due to its reduction of the iron center by its phenylenediamine core. A series of potent 5-LOX inhibitors containing a phenylenediamine core, were synthesized that exhibit nanomolar potency and >30-fold selectivity against the LOX paralogs, platelet-type 12-human lipoxygenase, reticulocyte 15-human lipoxygenase type-1, and epithelial 15-human lipoxygenase type-2, and >100-fold selectivity against ovine cyclooxygenase-1 and human cyclooxygnease-2. The phenylenediamine core was then translated into the structure of ketoconazole, a highly effective anti-fungal medication for seborrheic dermatitis, to generate a novel compound, ketaminazole. Ketaminazole was found to be a potent dual inhibitor against human 5-LOX (IC50 = 700 nM and CYP51 (IC50 = 43 nM in vitro. It was tested in whole blood and found to down-regulate LTB4 synthesis, displaying 45% inhibition at 10 µM. In addition, ketaminazole selectively inhibited yeast CYP51 relative to human CYP51 by 17-fold, which is greater selectivity than that of ketoconazole and could confer a therapeutic advantage. This novel dual anti-fungal/anti-inflammatory inhibitor could potentially have therapeutic uses against fungal infections that have an anti-inflammatory component.

  18. A review of empirically supported psychological therapies for mood disorders in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollon, Steven D.; Ponniah, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Background The mood disorders are prevalent and problematic. We review randomized controlled psychotherapy trials to find those that are empirically supported with respect to acute symptom reduction and the prevention of subsequent relapse and recurrence. Methods We searched the PsycINFO and PubMed databases and the reference sections of chapters and journal articles to identify appropriate articles. Results One hundred twenty-five studies were found evaluating treatment efficacy for the various mood disorders. With respect to the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and behavior therapy (BT) are efficacious and specific and brief dynamic therapy (BDT) and emotion-focused therapy (EFT) are possibly efficacious. CBT is efficacious and specific, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) efficacious, and BDT and EFT possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence following treatment termination and IPT and CBT are each possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence if continued or maintained. IPT is possibly efficacious in the treatment of dysthymic disorder. With respect to bipolar disorder, CBT and family-focused therapy (FFT) are efficacious and interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) possibly efficacious as adjuncts to medication in the treatment of depression. Psycho-education (PE) is efficacious in the prevention of mania/hypomania (and possibly depression) and FFT is efficacious and IPSRT and CBT possibly efficacious in preventing bipolar episodes. Conclusions The newer psychological interventions are as efficacious as and more enduring than medications in the treatment of MDD and may enhance the efficacy of medications in the treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:20830696

  19. Interactions between Obsessional Symptoms and Interpersonal Ambivalences in Psychodynamic Therapy: An Empirical Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Shana; Desmet, Mattias; Van Nieuwenhove, Kimberly L H D; Meganck, Reitske; Willemsen, Jochem; Inslegers, Ruth; Feyaerts, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    The classical symptom specificity hypothesis (Blatt, 1974) particularly associates obsessional symptoms to interpersonal behavior directed at autonomy and separation from others. Cross-sectional group research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings on this predicted association, and a previous empirical case study (Cornelis et al., in press; see Chapter 2) documented obsessional pathology to be rooted in profound ambivalences between autonomous and dependent interpersonal dynamics. Therefore, in the present empirical case study, concrete operationalizations of the classical symptom specificity hypothesis are contrasted to alternative hypotheses based on the observed complexities in Chapter 2. Dynamic associations between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal functioning is further explored, aiming at further contribution to theory building (i.e., through suggestions for potential hypothesis-refinement; Stiles, 2009). Similar to the first empirical case study (Chapter 1), Consensual Qualitative Research for Case studies is used to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the longitudinal, clinical interplay between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal dynamics throughout the process of supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy. In line with findings from Chapter 1, findings reveal close associations between obsessions and interpersonal dynamics, and therapist interventions focusing on interpersonal conflicts are documented as related to interpersonal and symptomatic alterations. Observations predominantly accord to the ambivalence-hypothesis rather than to the classical symptom specificity hypothesis. Yet, meaningful differences are observed in concrete manifestations of interpersonal ambivalences within significant relationships. Findings are again discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations; and limitations and future research indications are addressed.

  20. Interactions between Obsessional Symptoms and Interpersonal Ambivalences in Psychodynamic Therapy: An Empirical Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Cornelis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The classical symptom specificity hypothesis (Blatt, 1974 particularly associates obsessional symptoms to interpersonal behavior directed at autonomy and separation from others. Cross-sectional group research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings on this predicted association, and a previous empirical case study (Cornelis et al., in press; see Chapter 2 documented obsessional pathology to be rooted in profound ambivalences between autonomous and dependent interpersonal dynamics. Therefore, in the present empirical case study, concrete operationalizations of the classical symptom specificity hypothesis are contrasted to alternative hypotheses based on the observed complexities in Chapter 2. Dynamic associations between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal functioning is further explored, aiming at further contribution to theory building (i.e., through suggestions for potential hypothesis-refinement; Stiles, 2009. Similar to the first empirical case study (Chapter 1, Consensual Qualitative Research for Case studies is used to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the longitudinal, clinical interplay between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal dynamics throughout the process of supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy. In line with findings from Chapter 1, findings reveal close associations between obsessions and interpersonal dynamics, and therapist interventions focusing on interpersonal conflicts are documented as related to interpersonal and symptomatic alterations. Observations predominantly accord to the ambivalence-hypothesis rather than to the classical symptom specificity hypothesis. Yet, meaningful differences are observed in concrete manifestations of interpersonal ambivalences within significant relationships. Findings are again discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations; and limitations and future research indications are addressed.

  1. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Schools: The Role of Educational Psychology in the Dissemination of Empirically Supported Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational psychology has recently experienced something of a revival in the provision of psychological therapy. This revival has aligned with general developments in evidence-based psychology. A product of this has been more frequent delivery of empirically supported therapies in practice settings, for example, anxiety reduction programmes in…

  2. Social commitment of volunteering in clown-therapy: an empowering empirical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Strollo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a quantitative empirical research on the factors influencing volunteers in clown-therapy. The field of the volunteering has social relevance particularly for its positive aspects on social community and on prosocial behavior. However, after a broad literature review on the topic of volunteering, the researcher aims to investigate the specific issue of volunteering in clown-therapy, exploring similarities and differences with voluntary activities in other settings, and analysing motivations and reasons for the choice to become a volunteer. A comparative and statistical approach is the real innovative aspect of this research in that it carried out factor analysis, comparative analysis and overcame the limits of the prior research on volunteering, which had dealt just with some dimensions of the complex phenomenon of volunteering.Finally, the research results confirm the hypothesis that volunteering in general, and volunteering in clown-therapy in particular, is an activity empowering both for the individual and for the entire community.

  3. Economic evaluation of empirical antisecretory therapy versus Helicobacter pylori test for management of dyspepsia: a randomized trial in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarbol, Dorte Ejg; Bech, Mickael; Kragstrup, Jakob; Havelund, Troels; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2006-01-01

    An economic evaluation was performed of empirical antisecretory therapy versus test for Helicobacter pylori in the management of dyspepsia patients presenting in primary care. A randomized trial in 106 general practices in the County of Funen, Denmark, was designed to include prospective collection of clinical outcome measures and resource utilization data. Dyspepsia patients (n = 722) presenting in general practice with more than 2 weeks of epigastric pain or discomfort were managed according to one of three initial management strategies: (i) empirical antisecretory therapy, (ii) testing for Helicobacter pylori, or (iii) empirical antisecretory therapy, followed by Helicobacter pylori testing if symptoms improved. Cost-effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of the strategies were determined. The mean proportion of days without dyspeptic symptoms during the 1-year follow-up was 0.59 in the group treated with empirical antisecretory therapy, 0.57 in the H. pylori test-and-eradicate group, and 0.53 in the combination group. After 1 year, 23 percent, 26 percent, and 22 percent, respectively, were symptom-free. Applying the proportion of days without dyspeptic symptoms, the cost-effectiveness for empirical treatment, H. pylori test and the combination were 12,131 Danish kroner (DKK), 9,576 DKK, and 7,301 DKK, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness going from the combination strategy to empirical antisecretory treatment or H. pylori test alone was 54,783 DKK and 39,700 DKK per additional proportion of days without dyspeptic symptoms. Empirical antisecretory therapy confers a small insignificant benefit but costs more than strategies based on test for H. pylori and is probably not a cost-effective strategy for the management of dyspepsia in primary care.

  4. Empirical relationships among oliguria, creatinine, mortality, and renal replacement therapy in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, Tal; Lee, Joon; Scott, Daniel J; Mark, Roger G; Malhotra, Atul; Howell, Michael D; Talmor, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The observation periods and thresholds of serum creatinine and urine output defined in the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria were not empirically derived. By continuously varying creatinine/urine output thresholds as well as the observation period, we sought to investigate the empirical relationships among creatinine, oliguria, in-hospital mortality, and receipt of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Using a high-resolution database (Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II), we extracted data from 17,227 critically ill patients with an in-hospital mortality rate of 10.9 %. The 14,526 patients had urine output measurements. Various combinations of creatinine/urine output thresholds and observation periods were investigated by building multivariate logistic regression models for in-hospital mortality and RRT predictions. For creatinine, both absolute and percentage increases were analyzed. To visualize the dependence of adjusted mortality and RRT rate on creatinine, the urine output, and the observation period, we generated contour plots. Mortality risk was high when absolute creatinine increase was high regardless of the observation period, when percentage creatinine increase was high and the observation period was long, and when oliguria was sustained for a long period of time. Similar contour patterns emerged for RRT. The variability in predictive accuracy was small across different combinations of thresholds and observation periods. The contour plots presented in this article complement the AKIN definition. A multi-center study should confirm the universal validity of the results presented in this article.

  5. Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: a comprehensive review of its empirical foundations, effectiveness and implementation possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempértegui, Gabriela A; Karreman, Annemiek; Arntz, Arnoud; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2013-04-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a serious psychiatric disorder for which the effectiveness of the current pharmacotherapeutical and psychotherapeutic approaches has shown to be limited. In the last decades, schema therapy has increased in popularity as a treatment of borderline personality disorder; however, systematic evaluation of both effectiveness and empirical evidence for the theoretical background of the therapy is limited. This literature review comprehensively evaluates the current empirical status of schema therapy for borderline personality disorder. We first described the theoretical framework and reviewed its empirical foundations. Next, we examined the evidence regarding effectiveness and implementability. We found evidence for a considerable number of elements of Young's schema model; however, the strength of the results varies and there are also mixed results and some empirical blanks in the theory. The number of studies on effectiveness is small, but reviewed findings suggest that schema therapy is a promising treatment. In Western-European societies, the therapy could be readily implemented as a cost-effective strategy with positive economic consequences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Betamethasone augments the antifungal effect of menadione--towards a novel anti-Candida albicans combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Ágnes; Emri, Tamás; Sipos, Lilla; Kiss, Ágnes; Kovács, Renátó; Dombrádi, Viktor; Kemény-Beke, Ádám; Balla, József; Majoros, László; Pócsi, István

    2015-08-01

    The fluorinated glucocorticoid betamethasone stimulated both the extracellular phospholipase production and hypha formation of the opportunistic human pathogen Candida albicans and also decreased the efficiency of the polyene antimycotics amphotericin B and nystatin against C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, betamethasone increased synergistically the anti-Candida activity of the oxidative stress generating agent menadione, which may be exploited in future combination therapies to prevent or cure C. albicans infections, in the field of dermatology. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Systemic Antifungal Agents: Current Status and Projected Future Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Rafati, H.; Ilkit, M.; Tolooe, A.; Hedayati, M.T.; Verweij, P.E.

    2017-01-01

    By definition, an antifungal agent is a drug that selectively destroys fungal pathogens with minimal side effects to the host. Despite an increase in the prevalence of fungal infections particularly in immunocompromised patients, only a few classes of antifungal drugs are available for therapy, and

  8. Piperacillin-tazobactam vs. imipenem-cilastatin as empirical therapy in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients with febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yu; Li, Jian; Yuan, Lei; Zhao, Xiaoli; Wang, Quanshun; Yu, Li; Zhou, Daobin; Huang, Wenrong

    2016-03-01

    This randomized, dual-center study compared the efficacy and safety of piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) and imipenem-cilastatin (IMP) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients with febrile neutropenia. HSCT recipients with febrile neutropenia were randomized into two groups receiving either PTZ or IMP as initial empiric antibiotic. Endpoints were defervescence rate after empiric antibiotic for 48 h, success at end of therapy, and side effects. Defervescence within 48 h after empiric antibiotic was observed in 46 patients with PTZ (75.4%) and 59 patients with IMP (95.2%) (p = 0.002). Ten patients (10/46) in the PTZ group and two patients (2/59) in the IMP group switched empiric antibiotics due to recurrent fever (p = 0.005). Success of initial antibiotic with modification was achieved in 34 patients with PTZ (55.7%) and 53 patients with IMP (85.5%) at the end of therapy (p = 0.001). To treat the bacteremia, seven of 10 patients in the PTZ group and one of eight patients in the IMP group needed to switch the empiric antibiotic (p = 0.025). Compared with PTZ, IMP had more gastrointestinal adverse events (p = 0.045). This study demonstrates that IMP had better efficacy than PTZ as an empiric antibiotic for febrile neutropenia in the HSCT setting, but with more gastrointestinal side reactions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species in a tertiary care hospital, Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Bhattacharjee

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Species-level identification of Candida and their antifungal sensitivity testing should to be performed to achieve better clinical result and to select an appropriate and effective antifungal therapy. High resistance to antifungal agents is an alarming sign to the healthcare professionals.

  10. Variation in referral and access to new psychological therapy services by age: an empirical quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Sophie; Qureshi, Adam; Lee, William; Stirzaker, Alex; Gibson, Alex; Henley, William; Byng, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Older people with common mental health problems (CMHPs) are known to have reduced rates of referral to psychological therapy. To assess referral rates to the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services, contact with a therapist, and clinical outcome by age. Empirical research study using patient episodes of care from South West of England IAPT services. By analysing 82 513 episodes of care (2010-2011), referral rates and clinical improvement were compared with both total population and estimated prevalence in each age group using IAPT data. Probable recovery of those completing treatment was calculated for each group. Estimated prevalence of CMHPs peaks in 45-49-year-olds (20.59% of population). The proportions of patients identified with CMHPs being referred peaks at 20-24 years (22.95%) and reduces with increase in age thereafter to 6.00% for 70-74-year-olds. Once referred, the proportion of those attending first treatment increases with age between 20 years (57.34%) and 64 years (76.97%). In addition, the percentage of those having a clinical improvement gradually increases from the age of 18 years (12.94%) to 69 years (20.74%). Younger adults are more readily referred to IAPT services. However, as a proportion of those referred, probabilities of attending once, attending more than once, and clinical improvement increase with age. It is uncertain whether optimum levels of referral have been reached for young adults. It is important to establish whether changes to service configuration, treatment options, and GP behaviour can increase referrals for middle-aged and older adults. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  11. Cycling empirical antibiotic therapy in hospitals: meta-analysis and models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Abel zur Wiesch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The rise of resistance together with the shortage of new broad-spectrum antibiotics underlines the urgency of optimizing the use of available drugs to minimize disease burden. Theoretical studies suggest that coordinating empirical usage of antibiotics in a hospital ward can contain the spread of resistance. However, theoretical and clinical studies came to different conclusions regarding the usefulness of rotating first-line therapy (cycling. Here, we performed a quantitative pathogen-specific meta-analysis of clinical studies comparing cycling to standard practice. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar and identified 46 clinical studies addressing the effect of cycling on nosocomial infections, of which 11 met our selection criteria. We employed a method for multivariate meta-analysis using incidence rates as endpoints and find that cycling reduced the incidence rate/1000 patient days of both total infections by 4.95 [9.43-0.48] and resistant infections by 7.2 [14.00-0.44]. This positive effect was observed in most pathogens despite a large variance between individual species. Our findings remain robust in uni- and multivariate metaregressions. We used theoretical models that reflect various infections and hospital settings to compare cycling to random assignment to different drugs (mixing. We make the realistic assumption that therapy is changed when first line treatment is ineffective, which we call "adjustable cycling/mixing". In concordance with earlier theoretical studies, we find that in strict regimens, cycling is detrimental. However, in adjustable regimens single resistance is suppressed and cycling is successful in most settings. Both a meta-regression and our theoretical model indicate that "adjustable cycling" is especially useful to suppress emergence of multiple resistance. While our model predicts that cycling periods of one month perform well, we expect that too long cycling periods are detrimental. Our results suggest that

  12. Nosocomial Candidiasis: Antifungal Stewardship and the Importance of Rapid Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia and other forms of candidiasis are associated with considerable excess mortality and costs. Despite the addition of several new antifungal agents with improved spectrum and potency, the frequency of Candida infection and associated mortality have not decreased in the past two decades. The lack of rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests has led to considerable overuse of antifungal agents resulting in increased costs, selection pressure for resistance, unnecessary drug toxicity, and adverse drug interactions. Both the lack of timely diagnostic tests and emergence of antifungal resistance pose considerable problems for antifungal stewardship. Whereas antifungal stewardship with a focus on nosocomial candidiasis should be able to improve the administration of antifungal therapy in terms of drug selection, proper dose and duration, source control and de-escalation therapy, an important parameter, timeliness of antifungal therapy, remains a victim of slow and insensitive diagnostic tests. Fortunately, new proteomic and molecular diagnostic tools are improving the time to species identification and detection. In this review we will describe the potential impact that rapid diagnostic testing and antifungal stewardship can have on the management of nosocomial candidiasis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Defensins: antifungal lessons from eukaryotes

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    Patrícia M. Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been the focus of intense research towards the finding of a viable alternative to current antifungal drugs. Defensins are one of the major families of AMPs and the most represented among all eukaryotic groups, providing an important first line of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Several of these cysteine-stabilized peptides present a relevant effect against fungi. Defensins are the AMPs with the broader distribution across all eukaryotic kingdoms, namely, Fungi, Plantæ and Animalia, and were recently shown to have an ancestor in a bacterial organism. As a part of the host defense, defensins act as an important vehicle of information between innate and adaptive immune system and have a role in immunomodulation. This multidimensionality represents a powerful host shield, hard for microorganisms to overcome using single approach resistance strategies. Pathogenic fungi resistance to conventional antimycotic drugs is becoming a major problem. Defensins, as other AMPs, have shown to be an effective alternative to the current antimycotic therapies, demonstrating potential as novel therapeutic agents or drug leads. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on some eukaryotic defensins with antifungal action. An overview of the main targets in the fungal cell and the mechanism of action of these AMPs (namely, the selectivity for some fungal membrane components are presented. Additionally, recent works on antifungal defensins structure, activity and citotoxicity are also reviewed.

  14. Changes in Bacterial Resistance Patterns of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Rationale for Empirical Antibiotic Therapy

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    İbrahim Gökçe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The causative agent spectrum and resistance patterns of urinary tract infections in children are affected by many factors. Aims: To demonstrate antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections and changing ratio in antibiotic resistance by years. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: We analysed antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated Gram (- bacteria during the years 2011-2014 (study period 2 in children with urinary tract infections. We compared these findings with data collected in the same centre in 2001-2003 (study period 1. Results: Four hundred and sixty-five uncomplicated community-acquired Gram (- urinary tract infections were analysed from 2001-2003 and 400 from 2011-2014. Sixty-one percent of patients were female (1.5 girls : 1 boy. The mean age of children included in the study was 3 years and 9 months. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria isolated during both periods of the study (60% in study period 1 and 73% in study period 2. Bacteria other than E. coli demonstrated a higher level of resistance to all of the antimicrobials except trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than E. coli bacteria during the years 2011-2014. In our study, we found increasing resistance trends of urinary pathogens for cefixime (from 1% to 15%, p0.05. Conclusion: In childhood urinary tract infections, antibiotic resistance should be evaluated periodically and empiric antimicrobial therapy should be decided according to antibiotic sensitivity results

  15. Antibiotic resistance pattern and empirical therapy for urinary tract infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Harthi, Abdulla A.; Al-Fifi, Suliman H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to study the type of bacterial pathogen causing urinary tract infection in children at Aseer Central Hospital, southwestern Saudi Arabia and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. A retrospective study of all the urine cultures carried out on the children in the period from January 2003 to December 2006, for a total of 4 years were reviewed at the bacteriology laboratory, Aseer Central Hospital, southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. Their antimicrobial resistances as well as sensitivities were also analyzed. A total of 464 urine cultures were identified. Escherichia coli constitutes the most common pathogen isolated 37.3%, followed by Klebsiella 16.4% and Pseudomonas species 15.7%. In general, there was a significant increase in the resistance rates of different bacterial pathogens to different antibiotics. In spite of an increase in the resistance rates of bacterial pathogens causing UTI, ceftriaxone, imipenem and to some extent Azactam are appropriate for initial empirical intravenous therapy in UTI. In patients with uncomplicated UTI not requiring hospitalization, Nalidixic acid and Nitrofurantoin can be used as oral treatment. (author)

  16. Childhood urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria: Risk factors and empiric therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar Aksu, Nihal; Ekinci, Zelal; Dündar, Devrim; Baydemir, Canan

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated risk factors of childhood urinary tract infection (UTI) associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria (ESBL-positive UTI) and evaluated antimicrobial resistance as well as empiric treatment of childhood UTI. The records of children with positive urine culture between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2012 were evaluated. Patients with positive urine culture for ESBL-producing bacteria were defined as the ESBL-positive group, whereas patients of the same gender and similar age with positive urine culture for non-ESBL-producing bacteria were defined as the ESBL-negative group. Each ESBL-positive patient was matched with two ESBL-negative patients. The ESBL-positive and negative groups consisted of 154 and 308 patients, respectively. Potential risk factors for ESBL-positive UTI were identified as presence of underlying disease, clean intermittent catheterization (CIC), hospitalization, use of any antibiotic and history of infection in the last 3 months (P infection in the last 3 months were identified as independent risk factors. In the present study, 324 of 462 patients had empiric therapy. Empiric therapy was inappropriate in 90.3% of the ESBL-positive group and in 4.5% of the ESBL-negative group. Resistance to nitrofurantoin was similar between groups (5.1% vs 1.2%, P = 0.072); resistance to amikacin was low in the ESBL-positive group (2.6%) and there was no resistance in the ESBL-negative group. Clean intermittent catheterization, hospitalization and history of infection in the last 3 months should be considered as risk factors for ESBL-positive UTI. The combination of ampicillin plus amikacin should be taken into consideration for empiric therapy in patients with acute pyelonephritis who have the risk factors for ESBL-positive UTI. Nitrofurantoin seems to be a logical choice for the empiric therapy of cystitis. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Is Vancomycine Still a Choice for Chronic Osteomyelitis Empirical Therapy in Iran?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Morteza; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed Ahmad; Sadat, Seyed Mir Mostafa; Siami, Zeinab; Vais Ahmadi, Noushin; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Shirvani, Shahram; Majidi Fard, Mojgan; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background Pyogenic bacteria and especially Staphylococcus aurous (S. aurous) are the most common cause of chronic osteomyelitis. Not only treatment protocol of chronic osteomyelitis occasionally is amiss but also this malady responds to treatment difficultly. Objectives This study investigates antibiotic resistance pattern of S. aurous isolated from Iranian patients who suffer from chronic osteomyelitis by two methods: disk diffusion (Kirby bauyer) and E-test (Epsilometer test) to find Vancomycin susceptibility and MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration). Patients and Methods One hundred and thirty one patients who suffer from chronic osteomyelitis which have been referred to both governmental and private hospitals at 2010 were tried out for culturing of osteomyelitis site (sites). Antibiotic susceptibility and MIC of isolated bacteria were investigated by Kirby bauyer and E-test respectively. Results Samples were collected from bone (73.4%), surrounding tissue (14.6%) and wound discharge (12%). S. aureus was isolated from 49.6% of the samples. According to disc diffusion, methicillin resistance S. aureus (MRSA) was 75% and Vancomycin resistance S. aurous (VRSA) was 0% and based on MIC, MRSA was 68.5% and VRSA was 0%. According to MIC experiments, maximum sensitivity was against to Vancomycin (90.2%) and ciprofloxacin (54.4%) respectively but based on disc diffusion, maximum sensitivity was against to Vancomycin (97.7%) and ciprofloxacin (43.2%), respectively (P = 0.001). E-test (9.8%) in comparison with Disc diffusion (2.3%) showed higher percent of intermediate susceptibility to Vancomycin (P = 0.017). Conclusions Comparison of antibiograms and MICs showed that Kirby bauyer technique especially for detection of VISA strains is not reliable comparison with E-test. Already VRSA strains have not detected in Iranian chronic osteomyelitis, Thus Vancomycin is the first choice for chronic osteomyelitis empirical therapy in Iran yet. PMID:23483042

  18. Changes in Bacterial Resistance Patterns of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Rationale for Empirical Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, İbrahim; Çiçek, Neslihan; Güven, Serçin; Altuntaş, Ülger; Bıyıklı, Neşe; Yıldız, Nurdan; Alpay, Harika

    2017-09-29

    The causative agent spectrum and resistance patterns of urinary tract infections in children are affected by many factors. To demonstrate antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections and changing ratio in antibiotic resistance by years. Retrospective cross-sectional study. We analysed antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated Gram (-) bacteria during the years 2011-2014 (study period 2) in children with urinary tract infections. We compared these findings with data collected in the same centre in 2001-2003 (study period 1). Four hundred and sixty-five uncomplicated community-acquired Gram (-) urinary tract infections were analysed from 2001-2003 and 400 from 2011-2014. Sixty-one percent of patients were female (1.5 girls : 1 boy). The mean age of children included in the study was 3 years and 9 months. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria isolated during both periods of the study (60% in study period 1 and 73% in study period 2). Bacteria other than E. coli demonstrated a higher level of resistance to all of the antimicrobials except trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than E. coli bacteria during the years 2011-2014. In our study, we found increasing resistance trends of urinary pathogens for cefixime (from 1% to 15%, pUrinary pathogens showed a decreasing trend for nitrofurantoin (from 17% to 7%, p=0.0001). No significant trends were detected for ampicillin (from 69% to 71%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (from 44% to 43%), cefazolin (from 39% to 32%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (from 32% to 31%), cefuroxime (from 21% to 18%) and ceftriaxone (from 10% to 14%) between the two periods (p>0.05). In childhood urinary tract infections, antibiotic resistance should be evaluated periodically and empiric antimicrobial therapy should be decided according to antibiotic sensitivity results.

  19. Clinical efficacy of cycling empirical antibiotic therapy for febrile neutropenia in pediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Hideto; Koga, Yuhki; Nishio, Hisanori; Kato, Wakako; Ono, Hiroaki; Kanno, Shunsuke; Nakashima, Kentaro; Takada, Hidetoshi

    2017-07-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the main treatment-related cause of mortality among children with cancer, as the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance in these patients. Antibiotic cycling has been reported to limit the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among adult patients. However, no studies have evaluated pediatric patients with FN. Between September 2011 and February 2014, 126 pediatric cancer patients were admitted to our center for chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were included in this study. Retrospective and prospective data collection were performed before and after antibiotic cycling, respectively. Between September 2011 and November 2012 (before antibiotic cycling was implemented), intravenous cefpirome was used as the empirical therapy for FN. Between December 2012 and February 2014 (after antibiotic cycling was implemented), the monthly antibiotic cycling involved intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam (PIPC/TAZ), intravenous meropenem or ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and intravenous cefepime in that order. For children aged ≥13 years, the monthly cycling involved intravenous PIPC/TAZ, and CPFX was administered. The detection rates for extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers in blood and stool culture samples decreased significantly after the implementation of antibiotic cycling (0.33/1000 patient-days vs 0/1000 patient-days, p = 0.03; 1.00/1000 patient-days vs 0/1000 patient-days, p Antibiotic cycling was associated with a decreased emergence of multidrug-resistant microbes. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiology and antifungal resistance in invasive candidiasis

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    Rodloff AC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of Candida infections has changed over the last two decades: The number of patients suffering from such infections has increased dramatically and the Candida species involved have become more numerous as Candida albicans is replaced as an infecting agent by various non-C. albicans species (NAC. At the same time, additional antifungal agents have become available. The different Candida species may vary in their susceptibility for these various antifungals. This draws more attention to in vitro susceptibility testing. Unfortunately, several different test methods exist that may deliver different results. Moreover, clinical breakpoints (CBP that classify test results into susceptible, intermediate and resistant are controver- sial between CLSI and EUCAST. Therefore, clinicians should be aware that interpretations may vary with the test system being followed by the microbiological laboratory. Thus, knowledge of actual MIC values and pharmacokinetic properties of individual antifungal agents is important in delivering appropriate therapy to patients

  1. Febrile neutropenia in paediatric peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, in vitro sensitivity data and clinical response to empirical antibiotic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, S.H.; Nasim, S.; Ahmed, A.; Irfan, M.; Ishaque, A.; Farzana, T.; Panjwani, V.K.; Taj, M.; Shamsi, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    To find the in-vitro sensitivity data and clinical response in order to determine the changes required in empiric antibiotic therapy for management of febrile neutropenia in paediatric patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. All patients were treated according to institutional protocol for febrile neutropenia. Empirical antibiotics include Ceftriaxone and Amikacin. In non-responders, changes made included Imipenem and Amikacin, Piperacillin Tazobactum/Tiecoplanin or Vancomycin/Cloxacilin/Ceftazidime. In non-responders, amphotaracin was added until recovery. Out of 52 patients, 5 did not develop any fever; in the remaining 47 patients there were 57 episodes of febrile neutropenia. The mean days of febrile episodes were 4.71 (range 3-8). Fever of unknown origin (FUO) occurred in 31 (54.3%) episodes. Microbiologically documented infection (MDI) occurred in 17 (29.8%) episodes of fever. Clinically documented infection (CDI) occurred in 9 (15.7%) episodes. Gram-negative organisms were isolated in 10 while gram-positive organisms in 7. Klebseilla, S. aureus were the most common isolates. Empirical therapy was effective in 12 of the 33 (36%) episodes. Out of 28, 26 (92%) responded to Imipenem/Amikacin as second line therapy while those who received any other second line combination, only 11 out of 22 (50%) showed response. Systemic Amphotericin was used in 4 patients, 2 responded. Infection related mortality rate was 4%. (author)

  2. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  3. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia K. Shishido

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  4. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida in the Clinical Laboratory: how to do it, when to do it, and how to interpret it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Manso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in the management of fungaemia have occurred in the last decade with increased use of fluconazole prophylaxis, of empirical treatment and of echinocandins as first-line agents for documented disease. The emergence of drug resistance in fungal pathogens has a profound impact on human health given limited number of antifungal drugs. Antifungal resistance in Candida may be either intrinsic or acquired and may be encountered in the antifungal drug exposed but also the antifungal drug naïve patient The variation in resistance rates between centers emphasizes that it is essential to have knowledge of the local Candida species distribution and antifungal resistance rates to guide initial therapy for Candida BSI. Moreover, all Candida isolates from blood and normally sterile sites should be identified to the species level. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing have developed breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values that are now established for Candida spp. Clinical microbiology laboratories will be employed commercial susceptibility assays, rather than reference broth microdilution methods and comparative studies are particularly important. Vitek 2®, Etest® and Sensititre YeastOne® provided a high degree of essential agreement and comparable sensitivity and specificity to BMD-RPMI for identifying resistance to azole and echinocandins in Candida spp.

  5. How to measure the impacts of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic development on empiric therapy: new composite indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Josie S; Hurford, Amy; Finley, Rita L; Patrick, David M; Wu, Jianhong; Morris, Andrew M

    2016-12-16

    We aimed to construct widely useable summary measures of the net impact of antibiotic resistance on empiric therapy. Summary measures are needed to communicate the importance of resistance, plan and evaluate interventions, and direct policy and investment. As an example, we retrospectively summarised the 2011 cumulative antibiogram from a Toronto academic intensive care unit. We developed two complementary indices to summarise the clinical impact of antibiotic resistance and drug availability on empiric therapy. The Empiric Coverage Index (ECI) measures susceptibility of common bacterial infections to available empiric antibiotics as a percentage. The Empiric Options Index (EOI) varies from 0 to 'the number of treatment options available', and measures the empiric value of the current stock of antibiotics as a depletable resource. The indices account for drug availability and the relative clinical importance of pathogens. We demonstrate meaning and use by examining the potential impact of new drugs and threatening bacterial strains. In our intensive care unit coverage of device-associated infections measured by the ECI remains high (98%), but 37-44% of treatment potential measured by the EOI has been lost. Without reserved drugs, the ECI is 86-88%. New cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations could increase the EOI, but no single drug can compensate for losses. Increasing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence would have little overall impact (ECI=98%, EOI=4.8-5.2) because many Gram-positives are already resistant to β-lactams. Aminoglycoside resistance, however, could have substantial clinical impact because they are among the few drugs that provide coverage of Gram-negative infections (ECI=97%, EOI=3.8-4.5). Our proposed indices summarise the local impact of antibiotic resistance on empiric coverage (ECI) and available empiric treatment options (EOI) using readily available data. Policymakers and drug developers can use the

  6. Antifungal activity of multifunctional Fe3O4-Ag nanocolloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudasama, Bhupendra; Vala, Anjana K.; Andhariya, Nidhi; Upadhyay, R.V.; Mehta, R.V.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, rapid increase has been observed in the population of microbes that are resistant to conventionally used antibiotics. Antifungal drug therapy is no exception and now resistance to many of the antifungal agents in use has emerged. Therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for antibiotics with novel antimicrobial mechanisms. Aspergillus glaucus is the potential cause of fatal brain infections and hypersensitivity pneumonitis in immunocompromised patients and leads to death despite aggressive multidrug antifungal therapy. In the present article, we describe the antifungal activity of multifunctional core-shell Fe 3 O 4 -Ag nanocolloids against A. glaucus isolates. Controlled experiments are also carried out with Ag nanocolloids in order to understand the role of core (Fe 3 O 4 ) in the antifungal action. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanocolloids is determined by the micro-dilution method. MIC of A. glaucus is 2000 μg/mL. The result is quite promising and requires further investigations in order to develop a treatment methodology against this death causing fungus in immunocompromised patients. - Research Highlights: →Synthesis of Fe 3 O 4 -Ag core-shell nanocolloids. →Antifungal activity of Fe 3 O 4 -Ag nanocolloids against Aspergillus glaucus isolates. →The MIC value for A. glaucus is 2000 μg/mL. →Antifungal activity is better or comparable with most prominent antibiotics.

  7. The epidemiology of mycotic vulvovaginitis and the use of antifungal agents in suspected mycotic vulvovaginitis and its implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S T; Mullings, A M; Rainford, L; Miller, A

    2005-06-01

    Data in the Caribbean documenting the speciation of yeast associated with vulvovaginitis are lacking. The widespread use of antibiotics and increased availability of antimycotic agents, both prescribed and over-the-counter, predisposes both to a change in the epidemiologic patterns and the possible development of secondary resistance among previously susceptible yeast. This study was conducted to evaluate the aetiologic agents associated with mycotic vulvovaginitis and to review the appropriateness of prescribed antifungal therapy. Of 134 positive isolates, the most frequent yeast isolate was C. albicans accounting for 78%, C. tropicalis 10%, Prototheca wickerhamii (P. wickerhamii) 5%, C. glabrata 4%, Cryptococcus albidus (C. albidus) 2% and C. lusitaniae (1%) were also isolated. Of the positive cases, 75% were treated with antifungals, 17% with antibiotics and 8% were not treated. The azole group was the most frequently prescribed antifungal (71%). Of cases with negative yeast cultures, 83% were treated with antifungals. The presence of non-albicans Candida species and other opportunistic fungi is an important finding and combined with the pattern of therapy, represents a major challenge for future empirical therapeutic and prophylactic strategies in the treatment of mycotic vulvovaginitis.

  8. Challenges of Empirical Antibiotic Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene M.C. Rodrigues, MBChB, MRCPCH

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Effective and timely treatment is required for CAP and empirical antibiotics are evidence-based and appropriate in most settings. However, better diagnostics and education to target treatment may help to prevent antibiotic resistance. Ensuring the secure financing of clean food and water, sanitation, and public health infrastructure are also required to reduce the burden of disease in children in developing countries.

  9. A case of Candida famata sepsis in a very low birth weight infant successfully treated with fluconazole following antifungal susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpee Raturi

    2015-01-01

    This case report highlights the growing number of cases arising due to nonalbicans Candida infections in the neonatal intensive care units and the usefulness of antifungal susceptibility testing in deciding optimal antifungal therapy and preventing the emergence of drug resistance.

  10. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated with Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Alan L.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Hatch, John P.; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 6 decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a longstanding concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt...

  11. Psychodynamic therapy from the perspective of self-organization. a concept of change and a methodological approach for empirical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumz, Antje; Geyer, Michael; Brähler, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Observations from therapeutic practice and a series of empirical findings, for example, those on discontinuous change in psychotherapeutic processes, suggest modelling the therapeutic process as a self-organizing system with stable and critical instable phases and abrupt transitions. Here, a concept of psychotherapeutic change is presented that applies self-organization theory to psychodynamic principles. The authors explain the observations and considerations that form the basis of the concept and present some connections with existing findings and concepts. On the basis of this model, they generated two hypotheses regarding the co-occurrence of instability and discontinuous change and the degree of synchrony between the therapist and patient. A study design to test these hypotheses was developed and applied to a single case (psychodynamic therapy). After each session, patient and therapist rated their interaction. A measure of instability was calculated across the resulting time series. Sequences of destabilization were observed. On the basis of points of extreme instability, the process was divided into phases. Local instability maxima were accompanied by significant discontinuous change. Destabilization was highly synchronous in therapist and patient ratings. The authors discussed the concept and the methodological procedure. The approach enables the operationalization of crises and to empirically assess the significance of critical phases and developments within the therapeutic relationship. We present a concept of change that applies self-organization theory to psychodynamic therapy. We empirically tested the hypotheses formulated in the concept based on an extract of 125 long-term psychodynamic therapy sessions. We continuously monitored the therapeutic interaction and calculated a measure of the instability of the assessments. We identified several sequences of stable and unstable episodes. Episodes of high instability were accompanied by discontinuous

  12. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts; preliminary screening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Taschereau, Pierre; Belland, René J; Sand, Crystal; Rennie, Robert P

    2008-01-04

    In the setting of HIV and organ transplantation, opportunistic fungal infections have become a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus antifungal therapy is playing a greater role in health care. Traditional plants are a valuable source of novel antifungals. To assess in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous plant extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for each extract in the setting of human pathogenic fungal isolates. Plants were harvested and identification verified. Aqueous extracts were obtained and antifungal susceptibilities determined using serial dilutional extracts with a standardized microdilution broth methodology. Twenty-three fungal isolates were cultured and exposed to the plant extracts. Five known antifungals were used as positive controls. Results were read at 48 and 72 h. Of the 14 plants analyzed, Fragaria virginiana Duchesne, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Potentilla simplex Michx. demonstrated strong antifungal potential overall. Fragaria virginiana had some degree of activity against all of the fungal pathogens. Alnus viridis DC., Betula alleghaniensis Britt. and Solidago gigantea Ait. also demonstrated a significant degree of activity against many of the yeast isolates. Fragaria virginiana, Epilobium angustifolium and Potentilla simplex demonstrate promising antifungal potential.

  13. Antibiotic susceptibility of Gram-negatives isolated from bacteremia in children with cancer. Implications for empirical therapy of febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnola, Elio; Caviglia, Ilaria; Pescetto, Luisa; Bagnasco, Francesca; Haupt, Riccardo; Bandettini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Monotherapy is recommended as the first choice for initial empirical therapy of febrile neutropenia, but local epidemiological and antibiotic susceptibility data are now considered pivotal to design a correct management strategy. To evaluate the proportion of Gram-negative rods isolated in bloodstream infections in children with cancer resistant to antibiotics recommended for this indication. The in vitro susceptibility to ceftazidime, piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem and amikacin of Gram-negatives isolated in bacteremic episodes in children with cancer followed at the Istituto "Giannina Gaslini", Genoa, Italy in the period of 2001-2013 was retrospectively analyzed using the definitions recommended by EUCAST in 2014. Data were analyzed for any single drug and to the combination of amikacin with each β-lactam. The combination was considered effective in absence of concomitant resistance to both drugs, and not evaluated by means of in vitro analysis of antibiotic combinations (e.g., checkerboard). A total of 263 strains were evaluated: 27% were resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam, 23% to ceftazidime, 12% to meropenem and 13% to amikacin. Concomitant resistance to β-lactam and amikacin was detected in 6% of strains for piperacillin-tazobactam, 5% for ceftazidime and 5% for meropenem. During the study period there was a nonsignificant increase in the proportions of strains resistant to β-lactams indicated for monotherapy, and also increase in the resistance to combined therapies. in an era of increasing resistance to antibiotics guideline-recommended monotherapy could be not appropriate for initial empirical therapy of febrile neutropenia. Strict local survey on etiology and antibiotic susceptibility is mandatory for a correct management of this complication in cancer patients.

  14. A hematology consensus agreement on antifungal strategies for neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients. Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adulto, Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo, Associazione Italiana Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica, Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Sorveglianza Epidemiologica delle Infezioni Fungine nelle Emopatie Maligne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmenia, Corrado; Aversa, Franco; Busca, Alessandro; Candoni, Anna; Cesaro, Simone; Luppi, Mario; Pagano, Livio; Rossi, Giuseppe; Venditti, Adriano; Nosari, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    In the attempt to establish key therapy definitions and provide shared approaches to invasive fungal diseases in neutropenic patients, trials of empiric, preeemptive and targeted antifungal therapy (EAT, PAT and TAT) were reviewed, and a Consensus Development Conference Project was convened. The Expert-Panel concurred that all antifungal treatments, including EAT, should always follow an adequate diagnostic strategy and that the standard definition of PAT may be misleading: being PAT guided by the results of a diagnostic work-up, it should better be termed diagnostic-driven antifungal therapy (DDAT). The Expert-Panel agreed that radiological findings alone are insufficient for the choice of a TAT and that the identification of the etiologic pathogen is needed. The Consensus Agreement proceeded identifying which clinical and microbiological findings were sufficient to start a DDAT and which were not. Finally, an algorithm to rationalize the choice of antifungal drugs on the basis of clinical manifestations, antifungal prophylaxis, instrumental and laboratory findings was drawn up. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Theory, Treatment Adaptations, and Empirical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…

  16. First empirical evaluation of outcomes for mentalization-based group therapy for adolescents with BPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Sharp, Carla; Beck, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a devastating disorder, and it is essential to identify and treat the disorder in its early course. A total of 34 female Danish adolescents between 15 and 18 years old participated in 1 year of structured mentalization-based group therapy. Twent...... with borderline traits. (PsycINFO Database RecordCopyright (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)....

  17. Defining the frontiers between antifungal resistance, tolerance and the concept of persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarze, Eric; Sanglard, Dominique

    2015-11-01

    A restricted number of antifungal agents are available for the therapy of fungal diseases. With the introduction of epidemiological cut-off values for each agent in important fungal pathogens based on the distribution of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), the distinction between wild type and drug-resistant populations has been facilitated. Antifungal resistance has been described for all currently available antifungal agents in several pathogens and most of the associated resistance mechanisms have been deciphered at the molecular level. Clinical breakpoints for some agents have been proposed and can have predictive value for the success or failure of therapy. Tolerance to antifungals has been a much more ignored area. By definition, tolerance operates at antifungal concentrations above individual intrinsic inhibitory values. Important is that tolerance to antifungal agents favours the emergence of persister cells, which are able to survive antifungal therapy and can cause relapses. Here we will review the current knowledge on antifungal tolerance, its potential mechanisms and also evaluate the role of antifungal tolerance in the efficacy of drug treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Empiric antibiotic therapy in urinary tract infection in patients with risk factors for antibiotic resistance in a German emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Sebastian; Walter, Thomas; Gerigk, Marlis; Ebert, Matthias; Vogelmann, Roger

    2018-01-26

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical risk factors for antimicrobial resistances and multidrug resistance (MDR) in urinary tract infections (UTI) in an emergency department in order to improve empirical therapy. UTI cases from an emergency department (ED) during January 2013 and June 2015 were analyzed. Differences between patients with and without resistances towards Ciprofloxacin, Piperacillin with Tazobactam (Pip/taz), Gentamicin, Cefuroxime, Cefpodoxime and Ceftazidime were analyzed with Fisher's exact tests. Results were used to identify risk factors with logistic regression modelling. Susceptibility rates were analyzed in relation to risk factors. One hundred thirty-seven of four hundred sixty-nine patients who met the criteria of UTI had a positive urine culture. An MDR pathogen was found in 36.5% of these. Overall susceptibility was less than 85% for standard antimicrobial agents. Logistic regression identified residence in nursing homes, male gender, hospitalization within the last 30 days, renal transplantation, antibiotic treatment within the last 30 days, indwelling urinary catheter and recurrent UTI as risk factors for MDR or any of these resistances. For patients with no risk factors Ciprofloxacin had 90%, Pip/taz 88%, Gentamicin 95%, Cefuroxime 98%, Cefpodoxime 98% and Ceftazidime 100% susceptibility. For patients with 1 risk factor Ciprofloxacin had 80%, Pip/taz 80%, Gentamicin 88%, Cefuroxime 78%, Cefpodoxime 78% and Ceftazidime 83% susceptibility. For 2 or more risk factors Ciprofloxacin drops its susceptibility to 52%, Cefuroxime to 54% and Cefpodoxime to 61%. Pip/taz, Gentamicin and Ceftazidime remain at 75% and 77%, respectively. We identified several risk factors for resistances and MDR in UTI. Susceptibility towards antimicrobials depends on these risk factors. With no risk factor cephalosporins seem to be the best choice for empiric therapy, but in patients with risk factors the beta-lactam penicillin Piperacillin with Tazobactam

  19. Susceptibility to antifungal agents of Candida spp. from blood and feces collected in Novi Sad in 3-year period (2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelesić Zora Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Candidemia is an important emerging nosocomial infection in patients with risk factors. Candida species from nonsterile sites can give insight into the characteristics of strains that may cause invasive disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate antifungal susceptibility of Candida blood and fecal isolates in Novi Sad, Vojvodina. During a 3-year period (2008 to 2010, 424 isolates of Candida spp. were collected, 30 bloodstream isolates and 394 strains from fecal samples. In vitro susceptibility of these isolates to five antifungal agents was established using commercial ATB FUNGUS 3 (Bio-Mérieux. Predominant species was Candida albicans (6 isolates from blood and 269 from feces. Resistance to one or more antifungal agents was less common in Candida albicans (3.63% than in other species (24.83%. Resistance to itraconazole was the most commonly found in both groups of isolates, 9.64% strains from feces and 20% from blood samples. Twelve isolates were multiply resistant, usually to fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Resistance to amphotericine B was extremely rare. Although resistance to antimycotics of Candida spp. is rare at present, continued surveillance of antifungal susceptibility is necessary in order to monitor trends, and to choose the right empiric therapy.

  20. Analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii resistance patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in terms of choice of effective empiric antibiotic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Grochowalska

    2017-06-01

    In the performed study, the infections caused by multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, were observed in COPD, which should be taken into consideration in choosing empirical antibiotic therapy. Simultaneously, the local resistance patterns of multi-drug-resistant (MDR Gram-negative strains co-infecting COPD should be considered in empirical treatment. Moreover, both additional clinical complication and co-infections contribute to a more severe course of diseases. In this study, the mortality percent exceeded 29%.

  1. Reduction in Clinical Response to Empiric Antimicrobial Therapy of Febrile Granulocytopenic Patients Receiving TMP/SMX Infection Prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Bow

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a multicentre clinical trial evaluating two antibacterial regimens for the empiric treatment of suspected infection in febrile neutropenic cancer patients, a suboptimal response was noted among recipients of antibacterial prophylaxis with trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (TMP/SMX. Multivariate analysis identified TMP/SMX prophylaxis as a predictor of poor outcome independent of other variables such as classification of infection, marrow recovery, neutrophil count at first fever, indwelling central venous catheter use, and underlying disease. This effect appeared to be restricted to recipients of tobramycin plus ticarcillin (TT. TMP/SMX suppresses potentially pathogenic aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and allows colonization and subsequent infection by Gram-positive microorganisms against which TT-like regimens have limited activity. Recognition of this phenomenon may permit a more appropriate selection of antibacterial agents for the therapy of suspected infection in the neutropenic patient.

  2. An empirical analysis of mental state talk and affect regulation in two single-cases of psychodynamic child therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Sibel; Bekar, Ozlem; Gürleyen, Büşra

    2017-06-01

    Literature has shown the importance of mentalizing techniques in symptom remission and emotional understanding; however, no study to date has looked at the dynamic relations between mental state talk and affect regulation in the psychotherapy process. From a psychodynamic perspective, the emergence of the child's capacity to regulate affect through the therapist's reflection on the child's mental states is a core aspect of treatment. In an empirical investigation of 2 single cases with separation anxiety disorder, who were treated in long-term psychodynamic play therapy informed with mentalization principles, the effect of therapists' and children's use of mental state talk on children's subsequent capacity to regulate affect in play was assessed. One case was a positive outcome case, whereas the other did not show symptomatic improvement at the end of treatment. Children's and therapists' utterances in the sessions were coded using the Coding System for Mental State Talk in Narratives, and children's play was coded by Children's Play Therapy Instrument, which generated an index of children's "affect regulation." Time-series Granger Causality tests showed that even though both therapists' use of mental state talk significantly predicted children's subsequent affect regulation, the association between child's mental state talk and affect regulation was only supported for the child who showed clinically significant symptom reduction. This study provided preliminary support that mental state talk in psychodynamic psychotherapy facilitates emotion regulation in play. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Autogenic therapy: Techniques, foundations, health and clinical applications, and empirical support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Abuín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autogenic therapy emerges from the "autogenic training" method created by Schultz, and its development incorporates different therapeutic methods based on a psychophysiological approach. All these methods promote homeostatic self-regulatory brain processes. The aims of this paper are to describe and analyse the autogenic methods, the psychophysiological and neurophysiological processes involved, and their effective applications in both health and clinical fields. For these purposes, beside reviewing the earlier work by Schultz and Luthe, an electronic search of literature was conducted in order to find relevant contributions on these topics. Results show a big development of autogenic methods until the 80s, with an enormous amount of applications and studies on the psychophysiological and neurophysiological changes related to the practice of autogenic training. However, their expansion during the last 25 years has been much lower in comparison with other methods such as mindfulness and hypnosis. Possible causes are discussed and new challenges are suggested

  4. Digital Storytelling as Poetic Reflection in Occupational Therapy Education: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisebet S. Skarpaas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stories are powerful aids to reflection. Thus, the use of stories may be a pathway to enhanced reflective practice and clinical reasoning skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether and how digital storytelling can contribute to occupational therapy (OT students’ learning through reflections on experiences from placement education. A cohort of OT students (n = 57 participated in a 2-day workshop to create digital stories. Data were generated through a questionnaire with a response rate of 100% of students who completed the workshop (n = 34. Quantitative analysis methods were used to reveal a level of agreement in the questionnaire statements, and qualitative content analysis was performed for the open-ended questions. The results show that the students learned through reflection on placement experiences in the digital storytelling process as they emphasized reflection as a main outcome. They highlighted the importance of sharing thoughts and reflections with peers. The students confirmed that this happens through the creative process and the use of multimodality in poetic reflection, but they were less convinced by the use of the narrative approach as a dramatic structure. The students experienced reflection and sharing as important elements in the digital storytelling process. However, investigations are needed into the use of a narrative approach to enhance reflection with larger cohorts as well as more thematic analyses.

  5. Clinical trial: a randomized trial of early endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori testing and empirical therapy for the management of dyspepsia in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, A E; Elliott, C A; Miller, P; Hawkey, C J; Logan, R F A

    2009-01-01

    Early endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori eradication and empirical acid suppression are commonly used dyspepsia management strategies in primary care but have not been directly compared in a single trial. To compare endoscopy, H. pylori test and refer, H. pylori test and treat and empirical acid suppression for dyspepsia in primary care. Patients presenting to their general practitioner with dyspepsia were randomized to endoscopy, H. pylori'test and treat', H. pylori test and endoscope positives, or empirical therapy with symptoms, patient satisfaction, healthcare costs and cost effectiveness at 12 months being the outcomes. At 2 months, the proportion of patients reporting no or minimal dyspeptic symptoms ranged from 74% for those having early endoscopy to 55% for those on empirical therapy (P = 0.009), but at 1 year, there was little difference among the four strategies. Early endoscopy was associated with fewer subsequent consultations for dyspepsia (P = 0.003). 'Test and treat' resulted in fewer endoscopies overall and was most cost-effective over a range of cost assumptions. Empirical therapy resulted in the lowest initial costs, but the highest rate of subsequent endoscopy. Gastro-oesophageal cancers were found in four patients randomized to the H. pylori testing strategies. While early endoscopy offered some advantages 'Test and treat' was the most cost-effective strategy. In older patients, early endoscopy may be an appropriate strategy in view of the greater risk of malignant disease. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Antifungal activity of multifunctional Fe 3O 4-Ag nanocolloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudasama, Bhupendra; Vala, Anjana K.; Andhariya, Nidhi; Upadhyay, R. V.; Mehta, R. V.

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, rapid increase has been observed in the population of microbes that are resistant to conventionally used antibiotics. Antifungal drug therapy is no exception and now resistance to many of the antifungal agents in use has emerged. Therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for antibiotics with novel antimicrobial mechanisms. Aspergillus glaucus is the potential cause of fatal brain infections and hypersensitivity pneumonitis in immunocompromised patients and leads to death despite aggressive multidrug antifungal therapy. In the present article, we describe the antifungal activity of multifunctional core-shell Fe 3O 4-Ag nanocolloids against A. glaucus isolates. Controlled experiments are also carried out with Ag nanocolloids in order to understand the role of core (Fe 3O 4) in the antifungal action. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanocolloids is determined by the micro-dilution method. MIC of A. glaucus is 2000 μg/mL. The result is quite promising and requires further investigations in order to develop a treatment methodology against this death causing fungus in immunocompromised patients.

  7. [Clinical usefulness of the combined empirical therapy with flomoxef and fosfomycin for intractable respiratory tract infections. With a background of increasing MRSA incidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K; Kudoh, S; Hayashi, I; Shishido, H; Fukuchi, Y; Suzuki, H; Oritsu, M; Nakada, K; Sano, Y; Goto, H

    1994-10-01

    We conducted a multicenter trial to determine the clinical usefulness of the combined therapy with flomoxef (FMOX) and fosfomycin (FOM) (FF therapy) as an empirical therapy in the treatment of intractable respiratory tract infections, because FF therapy has clinically been proved to be very useful for the treatment of severe infections including MRSA infections. The overall efficacy rate of FF therapy was 69.2%. The efficacy rate for "pneumonia/lung abscess," which occupy the largest portions of respiratory tract infections, was 70.0%, showing a statistically significant difference from the efficacy rate for FMOX alone (56.7%) found in a previous study (P = 0.09 by chi-squared test). Although MRSA was eradicated in only 3 cases (37.5%) including superinfection cases, of 8 patients, from whom MRSA had been isolated as causative organisms, none of our patients were superinfected with MRSA. Thus it has been concluded that FF therapy is clinically very useful when used as an empirical therapy in the treatment of respiratory tract infections.

  8. Topical antifungal agents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, K B

    1996-10-01

    So many topical antifungal agents have been introduced that it has become very difficult to select the proper agent for a given infection. Nonspecific agents have been available for many years, and they are still effective in many situations. These agents include Whitfield's ointment, Castellani paint, gentian violet, potassium permanganate, undecylenic acid and selenium sulfide. Specific antifungal agents include, among others, the polyenes (nystatin, amphotericin B), the imidazoles (metronidazole, clotrimazole) and the allylamines (terbinafine, naftifine). Although the choice of an antifungal agent should be based on an accurate diagnosis, many clinicians believe that topical miconazole is a relatively effective agent for the treatment of most mycotic infections. Terbinafine and other newer drugs have primary fungicidal effects. Compared with older antifungal agents, these newer drugs can be used in lower concentrations and shorter therapeutic courses. Studies are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacies and cost advantages of both newer and traditional agents.

  9. Antifungal pharmacodynamics: Latin America's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M. Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current increment of invasive fungal infections and the availability of new broad-spectrum antifungal agents has increased the use of these agents by non-expert practitioners, without an impact on mortality. To improve efficacy while minimizing prescription errors and to reduce the high monetary cost to the health systems, the principles of pharmacokinetics (PK and pharmacodynamics (PD are necessary. A systematic review of the PD of antifungals agents was performed aiming at the practicing physician without expertise in this field. The initial section of this review focuses on the general concepts of antimicrobial PD. In vitro studies, fungal susceptibility and antifungal serum concentrations are related with different doses and dosing schedules, determining the PD indices and the magnitude required to obtain a specific outcome. Herein the PD of the most used antifungal drug classes in Latin America (polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins is discussed.

  10. Algorithmic approach to patients presenting with heartburn and epigastric pain refractory to empiric proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roorda, Andrew K; Marcus, Samuel N; Triadafilopoulos, George

    2011-10-01

    studies and were classified as patients with RLD. Utilizing the scoring system a total score was calculated for each patient and effectively distinguished patients with GERD (mean score 9), NERD (mean score 6), and RLD (mean score 3). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves confirmed the optimization of the model, particularly in RLD (P = 0.0001, 95% CI: 0.91-0.98). In a community cohort of patients presenting with heartburn and epigastric pain partly refractory to empiric PPI therapy, the prevalence of CE was 19%, BE 7%, NERD 59%, and RLD 15%. An algorithmic approach coupled with a novel scoring system, effectively distinguishes GERD from NERD and RLD and facilitates further management decisions. This novel and simple scoring system is both reproducible and validated as a diagnostic aid in evaluating patients presenting with both epigastric pain and heartburn.

  11. Antifungal Resistance, Metabolic Routes as Drug Targets, and New Antifungal Agents: An Overview about Endemic Dimorphic Fungi

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    Juliana Alves Parente-Rocha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by fungi can occur in healthy people, but immunocompromised patients are the major risk group for invasive fungal infections. Cases of fungal resistance and the difficulty of treatment make fungal infections a public health problem. This review explores mechanisms used by fungi to promote fungal resistance, such as the mutation or overexpression of drug targets, efflux and degradation systems, and pleiotropic drug responses. Alternative novel drug targets have been investigated; these include metabolic routes used by fungi during infection, such as trehalose and amino acid metabolism and mitochondrial proteins. An overview of new antifungal agents, including nanostructured antifungals, as well as of repositioning approaches is discussed. Studies focusing on the development of vaccines against antifungal diseases have increased in recent years, as these strategies can be applied in combination with antifungal therapy to prevent posttreatment sequelae. Studies focused on the development of a pan-fungal vaccine and antifungal drugs can improve the treatment of immunocompromised patients and reduce treatment costs.

  12. Decision and cost analysis of empirical antibiotic therapy of acute sinusitis in the era of increasing antimicrobial resistance: do we have an additional tool for antibiotic policy decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babela, Robert; Jarcuska, Pavol; Uraz, Vladimir; Krčméry, Vladimír; Jadud, Branislav; Stevlik, Jan; Gould, Ian M

    2017-11-01

    No previous analyses have attempted to determine optimal therapy for upper respiratory tract infections on the basis of cost-minimization models and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens in Slovakia. This investigation compares macrolides and cephalosporines for empirical therapy and look at this new tool from the aspect of potential antibiotic policy decision-making process. We employed a decision tree model to determine the threshold level of macrolides and cephalosporines resistance among community respiratory pathogens that would make cephalosporines or macrolides cost-minimising. To obtain information on clinical outcomes and cost of URTIs, a systematic review of the literature was performed. The cost-minimization model of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) treatment was derived from the review of literature and published models. We found that the mean cost of empirical treatment with macrolides for an URTIs was €93.27 when the percentage of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the community was 0%; at 5%, the mean cost was €96.45; at 10%, €99.63; at 20%, €105.99, and at 30%, €112.36. Our model demonstrated that when the percentage of macrolide resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae exceeds 13.8%, use of empirical cephalosporines rather than macrolides minimizes the treatment cost of URTIs. Empirical macrolide therapy is less expensive than cephalosporines therapy for URTIs unless macrolide resistance exceeds 13.8% in the community. Results have important antibiotic policy implications, since presented model can be use as an additional decision-making tool for new guidelines and reimbursement processes by local authorities in the era of continual increase in antibiotic resistance.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of combination antifungal therapy with voriconazole and anidulafungin versus voriconazole monotherapy for primary treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Spain

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    Grau S

    2016-12-01

    obtained from clinical trial data. The costs (in 2015 euros [€] of the drugs and the adverse event-related costs were obtained from Spanish sources. A Tornado plot and a Monte Carlo simulation (1,000 iterations were used to assess uncertainty of all model variables.Results: According to the deterministic analysis, for each patient treated with VOR+ANI compared with VOR monotherapy, there would be a total of 0.348 LYG (2.529 vs 2.181 years, respectively at an incremental cost of €5,493 (€17,902 vs €12,409, respectively. Consequently, the additional cost per LYG with VOR+ANI compared with VOR would be €15,785. Deterministic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings. In the probabilistic analysis, the cost per LYG with VOR+ANI was €15,774 (95% confidence interval: €15,763–16,692. The probability of VOR+ANI being cost-effective compared with VOR was estimated at 82.5% and 91.9%, based on local cost-effectiveness thresholds of €30,000 and €45,000, respectively.Conclusion: According to the present economic study, combination therapy with VOR+ANI is cost-effective as primary therapy of IA in galactomannan-positive patients in Spain who have hematologic disease or hematopoietic stem cell transplant, compared with VOR monotherapy. Keywords: anidulafungin, cost-effectiveness, galactomannan, invasive aspergillosis, voriconazole

  14. Candida Species Biofilms’ Antifungal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Rodrigues, Célia F.; Araújo, Daniela; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent growth form of Candida cells and a strong causative agent of the intensification of antifungal resistance. As yet, no specific resistance factor has been identified as the sole responsible for the increased recalcitrance to antifungal agents exhibited by biofilms. Instead, biofilm antifungal resistance is a complex multifactorial phenomenon, which still remains to be fully elucidated and understood. The different mechanisms, which may be responsible for the intrinsic resistance of Candida species biofilms, include the high density of cells within the biofilm, the growth and nutrient limitation, the effects of the biofilm matrix, the presence of persister cells, the antifungal resistance gene expression and the increase of sterols on the membrane of biofilm cells. Thus, this review intends to provide information on the recent advances about Candida species biofilm antifungal resistance and its implication on intensification of the candidiasis. PMID:29371527

  15. Antifungal activity of multifunctional Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag nanocolloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudasama, Bhupendra, E-mail: bnchudasama@thapar.ed [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147004 (India); Vala, Anjana K.; Andhariya, Nidhi [Department of Physics, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364022 (India); Upadhyay, R.V. [P.D. Patel Institute of Applied Sciences, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa 388421 (India); Mehta, R.V. [Department of Physics, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364022 (India)

    2011-05-15

    In recent years, rapid increase has been observed in the population of microbes that are resistant to conventionally used antibiotics. Antifungal drug therapy is no exception and now resistance to many of the antifungal agents in use has emerged. Therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for antibiotics with novel antimicrobial mechanisms. Aspergillus glaucus is the potential cause of fatal brain infections and hypersensitivity pneumonitis in immunocompromised patients and leads to death despite aggressive multidrug antifungal therapy. In the present article, we describe the antifungal activity of multifunctional core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag nanocolloids against A. glaucus isolates. Controlled experiments are also carried out with Ag nanocolloids in order to understand the role of core (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) in the antifungal action. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanocolloids is determined by the micro-dilution method. MIC of A. glaucus is 2000 {mu}g/mL. The result is quite promising and requires further investigations in order to develop a treatment methodology against this death causing fungus in immunocompromised patients. - Research Highlights: Synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag core-shell nanocolloids. Antifungal activity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag nanocolloids against Aspergillus glaucus isolates. The MIC value for A. glaucus is 2000 {mu}g/mL. Antifungal activity is better or comparable with most prominent antibiotics.

  16. Penetratin and derivatives acting as antifungal agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Marcelo F.; Rodriguez, Ana M.; Raimondi, Marcela; Zacchino, Susana A.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Somlai, Csaba; Kortvelyesi, Tamas; Penke, Botond; Enriz, Ricardo D.

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and conformational study of RQIKTWFQNRRMKWKK-NH(2) (penetratin) and related derivatives acting as antifungal agents are reported. Penetratin and some of its derivatives displayed antifungal activity against the human opportunistic pathogenic standardized ATCC

  17. The Elements of Antifungal Drug Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Lasse

    In this PhD thesis I will explore the development of antifungal drugs. Fungal infections are estimated to cause the death of 1.5 million patients each year. There is currently a need for new antifungal drugs as the existing drugs are hampered by lack of broad-spectrum antifungal activity, resista...

  18. Analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii resistance patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in terms of choice of effective empiric antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowalska, Aneta; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria; Sobieszczańska, Anna

    2017-06-12

    Introduction. Multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from patients has become one of the most hazardous pathogens in health care settings. The aim of the study was to analyze pneumonia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in patients hospitalized because of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), who were admitted to the Pulmonology Ward of the Masovian Specialistic Hospital in Radom (MSS). The incidence and drug sensitivity of these non-fermenting rods were evaluated, and compliance with antimicrobial procedure with the algorithm of the guidelines in applicable recommendations, was estimated. This should result in determining the local patterns of resistance and verifying therapeutic procedures in accordance with the assumptions of hospital antibiotic policy. In addition, the study examined the effectiveness of empiric and targeted therapy according to the clinical condition of the patient, and the eradication of A. baumannii, in comparison with the aggravating factors of the patient. Materials and Method. The retrospective study included 90 patients with exacerbation of COPD whose etiological factor of infection was A. baumannii, hospitalized in the Department of Pulmonology (MSS) in 2012-2016. Results. Studies were conducted on 90 patients with COPD exacerbation from which A. baumannii was isolated. Co-infections with other bacterial species among 41 patients were additionally noted. The majority of A. baumannii strains showed a high resistance (90%) to fluoroquinolones, ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam. For strains causing a co-infection, drug resistance was successively 44-56%, 44%, 44%. All of patients received empirical therapy. The most commonly used drug was amoxicillin with a clavulanic acid, often combined with fluoroquinolone. This type of therapy was effective among 10% of patients. The mortality in this group was determined at 29%. Among 79% of patients with COPD, a targeted therapy was performed which proved to be

  19. A comprehensive multi-institutional study of empiric therapy with flomoxef in surgical infections of the digestive organs. The Kyushu Research Group for Surgical Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, M; Takenaka, K; Sugimachi, K

    1994-08-01

    The effect of flomoxef as empiric therapy for surgical infections of the digestive organs was analyzed in 103 patients, most of whom (94.2%) had intra-abdominal infections. Surgical procedures were performed on 73 patients contemporaneously with the flomoxef therapy. Flomoxef is an oxacephem and has a potent and broad bactericidal spectrum against aerobes and anaerobes. It provokes fewer adverse reactions than latamoxef such as vitamin K deficiency and platelet dysfunction. Flomoxef was administered intravenously at a dose 1-4g/day for more than 3 days without any other antimicrobial agent. The clinical response was classified into 3 groups; cured, improved and failed, and both the cured and improved responses were defined as satisfactory. A satisfactory response was obtained in 99 patients (96.1%). Regarding bacteriological response, the overall eradication rate was 81.3%. Adverse reactions including abnormal laboratory data occurred in only two patients. One had abdominal pain, and the other had a mild elevation of transaminases, and both were mild and easily reversible. Therefore, flomoxef is considered to have the potential of becoming one of the most effective agents in empiric therapy for surgical infections of the digestive organs.

  20. Antifungal stewardship considerations for adults and pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Rana F; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Seo, Susan K

    2017-08-18

    Antifungal stewardship refers to coordinated interventions to monitor and direct the appropriate use of antifungal agents in order to achieve the best clinical outcomes and minimize selective pressure and adverse events. Antifungal utilization has steadily risen over time in concert with the increase in number of immunocompromised adults and children at risk for invasive fungal infections (IFI). Challenges in diagnosing IFI often lead to delays in treatment and poorer outcomes. There are also emerging data linking prior antifungal exposure and suboptimal dosing to the emergence of antifungal resistance, particularly for Candida. Antimicrobial stewardship programs can take a multi-pronged bundle approach to ensure suitable prescribing of antifungals via post-prescription review and feedback and/or prior authorization. Institutional guidelines can also be developed to guide diagnostic testing in at-risk populations; appropriate choice, dose, and duration of antifungal agent; therapeutic drug monitoring; and opportunities for de-escalation and intravenous-to-oral conversion.

  1. Empirical mono- versus combination antibiotic therapy in adult intensive care patients with severe sepsis – A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Karl Fredrik Lennart; Perner, Anders; Hylander Møller, Morten

    2017-01-01

    assessment and trial sequential analysis (TSA). We included randomised clinical trials (RCT) assessing empirical mono-antibiotic therapy versus a combination of two or more antibiotics in adult ICU patients with severe sepsis. We exclusively assessed patient-important outcomes, including mortality. Two...... reviewers independently evaluated studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated and the risk of random errors was assessed by TSA. Results Thirteen RCTs (n = 2633) were included; all were judged as having high risk...... of bias. Carbapenems were the most frequently used mono-antibiotic (8 of 13 trials). There was no difference in mortality (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.95–1.29; p = 0.19) or in any other patient-important outcomes between mono- vs. combination therapy. In TSA of mortality, the Z-curve reached the futility area...

  2. A Review and Empirical Comparison of Three Treatments for Adolescent Males with Conduct and Personality Disorder: Mode Deactivation Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Social Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.

    2006-01-01

    This research study compared the efficacy of three treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…

  3. A Review and Empirical Comparison of Two Treatments for Adolescent Males with Conduct and Personality Disorder: Mode Deactivation Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Jennings, Jerry L.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2005-01-01

    This research study compared the efficacy of two treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…

  4. An empirical study on the effect of speech therapy with cognitive behavior therapy on reducing the severity of stuttering and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Ansari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of speech therapy with Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT on reducing the severity of stuttering & anxiety for adults who stutter in the city of Isfahan, Iran. The study used a semi-experimental design with pre-test/post-test control groups and it was conducted among 24 clients. The sample was selected through available sampling method among the clients suffering from stuttering and attended public speech therapy clinics of Isfahan. The measurement instruments were Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI4 and Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI. After doing the pretest, clients were placed into one experimental group of speech therapy with CBT and one control group. Speech therapy for this research included ten 45-minutes sessions accomplished for each individual subject and CBT included ten 90-minutes group sessions. After finishing the therapy sessions, the posttest was executed on both groups. For statistical analysis of data, Analysis of Covariance was carried out. The research findings indicated that speech therapy with CBT reduced the severity of Stuttering and Anxiety. Speech therapy with CBT is effective in reducing Stuttering & Anxiety.

  5. Empirical Comparison of Three Treatments for Adolescent Males with Physical and Sexual Aggression: Mode Deactivation Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Social Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Jennings, Jerry L.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Hunter, Linda A.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2005-01-01

    This research study compared the efficacy of three treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…

  6. Comparison of Stepped Care Delivery Against a Single, Empirically Validated Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program for Youth With Anxiety: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M; Lyneham, Heidi J; Wuthrich, Viviana; Chatterton, Mary Lou; Hudson, Jennifer L; Kangas, Maria; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine

    2017-10-01

    Stepped care is embraced as an ideal model of service delivery but is minimally evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for child anxiety delivered via a stepped-care framework compared against a single, empirically validated program. A total of 281 youth with anxiety disorders (6-17 years of age) were randomly allocated to receive either empirically validated treatment or stepped care involving the following: (1) low intensity; (2) standard CBT; and (3) individually tailored treatment. Therapist qualifications increased at each step. Interventions did not differ significantly on any outcome measures. Total therapist time per child was significantly shorter to deliver stepped care (774 minutes) compared with best practice (897 minutes). Within stepped care, the first 2 steps returned the strongest treatment gains. Stepped care and a single empirically validated program for youth with anxiety produced similar efficacy, but stepped care required slightly less therapist time. Restricting stepped care to only steps 1 and 2 would have led to considerable time saving with modest loss in efficacy. Clinical trial registration information-A Randomised Controlled Trial of Standard Care Versus Stepped Care for Children and Adolescents With Anxiety Disorders; http://anzctr.org.au/; ACTRN12612000351819. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder : A comprehensive review of its empirical foundations, effectiveness and implementation possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sempertegui Vallejo, G.A.; Karreman, A.; Arntz, A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a serious psychiatric disorder for which the effectiveness of the current pharmacotherapeutical and psychotherapeutic approaches has shown to be limited. In the last decades, schema therapy has increased in popularity as a treatment of borderline personality

  8. Empirical antimicrobial therapy for late‐onset sepsis in a neonatal unit with high prevalence of coagulase‐negative Staphylococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Modification of the empiric treatment regimen for neonatal late‐onset sepsis with use of oxacillin showed a significant reduction in S. aureus infections, as well as a reduction in the frequency of infections with major organ system involvement and mortality due to infection with this microorganism. As a result, oxacillin can be considered as an effective treatment for late‐onset sepsis, making it possible to avoid broad‐spectrum antibiotics.

  9. Antifungal activity of topical microemulsion containing a thiophene derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani Pereira Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections have become a major problem of worldwide concern. Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus and the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans are responsible for different clinical manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal therapies are currently based on a few chemotherapeutic agents that have problems related to effectiveness and resistance profiles. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent systems of oil, water and surfactant that can improve the solubilization of lipophilic drugs. Taking into account the need for more effective and less toxic drugs along with the potential of thiophene derivatives as inhibitors of pathogenic fungi growth, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of a thiophene derivative (5CN05 embedded in a microemulsion (ME. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined using the microdilution method using amphotericin B as a control. The formulations tested (ME- blank and ME-5CN05 showed physico-chemical properties that would allow their use by the topical route. 5CN05 as such exhibited moderate or weak antifungal activity against Candida species (MIC = 270-540 µg.mL-1 and good activity against C. neoformans (MIC = 17 µg.mL-1. Candida species were susceptible to ME-5CN05 (70-140 µg.mL-1, but C. neoformans was much more, presenting a MIC value of 2.2 µg.mL-1. The results of this work proved promising for the pharmaceutical industry, because they suggest an alternative therapy against C. neoformans.

  10. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  11. Typology of Couples Entering Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy: An Empirical Approach and Test of Predictive Validity on Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Benjamin O; McCrady, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether classification of couples in which one partner has an alcohol problem is similar to that reported in the general couples literature. Typologies of couples seeking alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT) were developed via hierarchical cluster analysis using behavioral codes of couple interactions during their first ABCT session. Four couples types based on in-session behavior were established reliably, labeled avoider, validator, hostile, and ambivalent-detached. These couple types resembled couples types found in previous research. Couple type was associated with baseline relationship satisfaction, but not alcohol use. Results suggest heterogeneity in couples with alcohol problems presenting to treatment; further study is needed to investigate the function of alcohol within these different types. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  12. Finding harmony so the music plays on: pragmatic trial design considerations to promote organizational sustainment of an empirically-supported behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Bryan; Peavy, K Michelle; Jackson, T Ron; Carney, Molly

    2016-01-22

    Pragmatic trials of empirically-supported behavior therapies may inform clinical and policy decisions concerning therapy sustainment. This retrospective trial design paper describes and discusses pragmatic features of a hybrid type III implementation/effectiveness trial of a contingency management (CM) intervention at an opioid treatment program. Prior reporting (Hartzler et al., J Subst Abuse Treat 46:429-438, 2014; Hartzler, Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 10:30, 2015) notes success in recruiting program staff for voluntary participation, durable impacts of CM training on staff-level outcomes, provisional setting implementation of the intervention, documentation of clinical effectiveness, and post-trial sustainment of CM. Six pragmatic design features, and both scientific and practical bases for their inclusion in the trial, are presented: (1) a collaborative intervention design process, (2) voluntary recruitment of program staff for therapy training and implementation, (3) serial training outcome assessments, with quasi-experimental staff randomization to either single or multiple baseline assessment conditions, (4) designation of a 90-day period immediately after training in which the setting implemented the intervention on a provisional basis, (5) inclusive patient eligibility for receipt of the CM intervention, and (6) designation of two staff as local implementation leaders to oversee clinical/administrative issues in provisional implementation. Each pragmatic trial design feature is argued to have contributed to sustainment of CM. Contributions implicate the building of setting proprietorship for the CM intervention, culling of internal staff expertise in its delivery, iterative use of assessment methods that limited setting burden, documentation of setting-specific clinical effectiveness, expanded penetration of CM among staff during provisional implementation, and promotion of setting self-reliance in the oversight of sustainable implementation procedures

  13. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marqui, Sara Regina de; Lemos, Renata Brionizio; Santos, Luciana Avila; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Scorzoni, Liliana; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Maria Brandao

    2008-01-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-β-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate.Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  14. Essential Oils and Antifungal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Since ancient times, folk medicine and agro-food science have benefitted from the use of plant derivatives, such as essential oils, to combat different diseases, as well as to preserve food. In Nature, essential oils play a fundamental role in protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic attacks to which it may be subjected. Many researchers have analyzed in detail the modes of action of essential oils and most of their components. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the properties of essential oils, principally as antifungal agents, and their role in blocking cell communication mechanisms, fungal biofilm formation, and mycotoxin production. PMID:29099084

  15. INVESTIGATION OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOLINIUM DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Alexandrova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Antifungal activity (Candida albicans, Candida krusei of some substituted quinolinium derivatives has been investigated. It was established that the most perspective compound for detail investigation of antifungal activity by labeled biomarkers method was N-phenylbenzoquinaldinium tetrafluoroborate.

  16. Prescription appropriateness of empiric antibiotic therapy: survey in the internal medicine departments of the Emilia Romagna region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pedretti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the results of an observational study conducted in 53 internal medicine departments of the Emilia Romagna region based on the answers to 54 questions administered in a questionnaire, submitted electronically, based on the type of center (large >250 beds, small <250 beds, laboratory equipment, management aspects, pharmacological and clinical/economic aspects and use of antibiotics in the empirical treatment of severe infections. The result is a snapshot of the existing situation which shows a substantial availability of resources and a good level of expertise in the field of infectious disease management, despite some areas still need improvement. It also highlights some differences in terms of procedures amongst large hospitals, where infectious diseases are treated by an ad hoc specialized staff, and the small ones, where the internist is generally involved, being responsible for both direct management of severe infections and giving advice to other departments (emergency or surgery. It emerged that, both in small and large hospitals, more discussion and continuous assessment are needed to apply the appropriate protocols based on reference checklists.

  17. Screening of pharmacologically active small molecule compounds identifies antifungal agents against Candida biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao eWatamoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida species have emerged as important and common opportunistic human pathogens, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The current antifungal therapies either have toxic side effects or are insufficiently effect. The aim of this study is develop new small-molecule antifungal compounds by library screening methods using C. albicans, and to evaluate their antifungal effects on Candida biofilms and cytotoxic effects on human cells. Wild-type C. albicans strain SC5314 was used in library screening. To identify antifungal compounds, we screened a small-molecule library of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC1280TM using an antifungal susceptibility test (AST. To investigate the antifungal effects of the hit compounds, ASTs were conducted using Candida strains in various growth modes, including biofilms. We tested the cytotoxicity of the hit compounds using human gingival fibroblast (hGF cells to evaluate their clinical safety. Only 35 compounds were identified by screening, which inhibited the metabolic activity of C. albicans by >50%. Of these, 26 compounds had fungistatic effects and 9 compounds had fungicidal effects on C. albicans. Five compounds, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate, ellipticine and CV-3988, had strong fungicidal effects and could inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida biofilms. However, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate and ellipticine were cytotoxic to hGF cells at low concentrations. CV-3988 showed no cytotoxicity at a fungicidal concentration.Four of the compounds identified, BAY11-7082, BAY11-7085, sanguinarine chloride hydrate and ellipticine, had toxic effects on Candida strains and hGF cells. In contrast, CV-3988 had fungicidal effects on Candida strains, but low cytotoxic effects on hGF cells. Therefore, this screening reveals agent, CV-3988 that was previously unknown to be antifungal agent, which could be a novel therapies for superficial mucosal

  18. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact of Empirical vitamin D therapy on unintentional falls in older adults in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, C D; Smith, J; Davies, J S

    2015-09-29

    To evaluate the health outcomes and economics associated with the current guidance relating to the prevention of falls in the elderly through vitamin D supplementation. UK. UK population aged 60 years and above. A Markov health state transition model simulated patient transitions between key fall-related outcomes using a 5-year horizon and annual cycles to assess the costs and benefits of empirical treatment with colecalciferol 800 iu daily. Costs and health outcomes attributable to fall prevention following vitamin D supplementation. Our model shows that treating the UK population aged 60 years and above with 800 iu colecalciferol would, over a 5-year period: (1) prevent in excess of 430,000 minor falls; (2) avoid 190,000 major falls; (3) prevent 1579 acute deaths; (4) avoid 84,000 person-years of long-term care and (5) prevent 8300 deaths associated with increased mortality in long-term care. The greatest gains are seen among those 75 years and older. Based on reduction in falls alone, the intervention in all adults aged 65+ is cost-saving and leads to increased quality adjusted life years. Treating all adults aged 60+ incurs an intervention cost of £2.70bn over 5 years, yet produces a -£3.12bn reduction in fall-related costs; a net saving of £420M. Increasing the lower bound age limit by 5-year increments increases budget impact to -£1.17bn, -£1.75bn, and -£2.06bn for adults 65+, 70+ and 75+, respectively. This study shows that treatment of the elderly UK population with colecalciferol 800 iu daily would be associated with reductions in mortality and substantial cost-savings through fall prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Synergistic combinations of antifungals and antivirulence agents to fight against Candida albicans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jinhui; Ren, Biao; Tong, Yaojun

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans, one of the pathogenic Candida species, causes high mortality rate in immunocompromised and high-risk surgical patients. In the last decade, only one new class of antifungal drug echinocandin was applied. The increased therapy failures, such as the one caused by multi-drug resist...

  20. Clarithromycin vs. Gemifloxacin in Quadruple Therapy Regimens for Empiric Primary Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Mohsen; Talebi-Taher, Mahshid; Tabatabaie, Khadijeh; Khaleghi, Siamak; Faghihi, Amir-Hossein; Agah, Shahram; Asadi, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection plays a crucial role in the treatment of peptic ulcer. Clarithromycin resistance is a major cause of treatment failure. This randomized clinical trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a clarithromycin versus gemifloxacin containing quadruple therapy regimen in eradication of H.pylori infection. METHODS In this randomized double blind clinical trial (RCT 2012102011054N2), a total of 120 patients were randomized to two groups of 60 patients each. Patients with proven H.pylori infection were consecutively assigned into two groups to receive OBAG or OBAC in gastroenterology clinic in Rasoul-e- Akram General Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The patients in the OBAG group received omeprazole (20 mg) twice daily, bismuth subcitrate (240 mg) twice daily, amoxicillin (1 gr) twice daily, and gemifloxacin (320 mg) once daily, and those in the OBAC group received omeprazole (20 mg) twice daily, 240 mg of bismuth subcitrate twice daily, amoxicillin (1 gr) twice daily, and clarithromycin (500 mg) twice daily for 10 days. RESULTS Five patients from each group were excluded from the study because of poor compliance, so 110 patients completed the study. The intention-to-treat eradication rate was 61.6% and 66.6% for the OBAC and OBAG groups, respectively. According to the per protocol analysis, the success rates of eradication of H.pylori infection were 67.2% and 72.7% for OBAC and OBAG groups, respectively (p=0.568). CONCLUSION The results of this study suggest that gemifloxacin containing regimen is at least as effective as clarithromycin regimen; hence, this new treatment could be considered as an alternative for the patients who cannot tolerate clarithromycin. PMID:26106468

  1. Antifungal isopimaranes from Hypoestes serpens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoamiaranjanahary, L; Guilet, D; Marston, A; Randimbivololona, F; Hostettmann, K

    2003-09-01

    Five isopimarane diterpenes (7beta-hydroxyisopimara-8,15-dien-14-one, 14alpha-hydroxyisopimara-7,15-dien-1-one, 1beta,14alpha-dihydroxyisopimara-7,15-diene, 7beta-hydroxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-1-one and 7beta-acetoxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-1-one) have been isolated from the leaves of Hypoestes serpens (Acanthaceae). All compounds exhibited antifungal activity against both the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum and the yeast Candida albicans; two of them also displayed an acetylcholinesterase inhibition. The structures of the compounds were determined by means of spectrometric methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS analysis.

  2. Inglorious Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khair, Tabish

    2017-01-01

    Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00......Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00...

  3. Pathogenesis and host defence against Mucorales: the role of cytokines and interaction with antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roilides, Emmanuel; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Simitsopoulou, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Innate immune response, including macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells and their respective receptors, plays an important role in host defences against Mucorales with differential activity against specific fungal species, while adaptive immunity is not the first line of defence. A number of endogenous and exogenous factors, such as cytokines and growth factors as well as certain antifungal agents have been found that they influence innate immune response to these organisms. Used alone or especially in combination have been shown to exert antifungal effects against Mucorales species. These findings suggest novel ways of adjunctive therapy for patients with invasive mucormycosis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis strains using agar diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Magdalena; Macura, Anna B

    2011-01-01

    The genus Scopulariopsis is a common soil saprotroph and has been isolated from air, organic waste and also from plant, animal and human tissues. Scopulariopsis has mainly been associated in humans with superficial mycoses, but it has also been described as the cause of subcutaneous and invasive infections. The most common aetiological agent of infections in humans is Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. This species has been reported to be resistant in vitro to broad-spectrum antifungal agents available today. The aim of the study was to establish in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 35 S. brevicaulis strains against amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (FC), caspofungin (CAS), terbinafine (TER), ciclopirox (CIC), voriconazole (VOR), clotrimazole (CTR), miconazole (MCZ), econazole (ECO), ketoconazole (KET), itraconazole (ITR), and fluconazole (FLU). Antifungal susceptibility tests were evaluated by an agar diffusion method (Neo-Sensitabs, Rosco, Denmark). AMB, FC, CAS, ITR and FLU showed no antifungal activity against S. brevicaulis. TER, CIC, CTR, KET, VOR, ECO, and MCZ revealed inhibitory activity for S. brevicaulis, but it varied for each of the drugs. The best antifungal effect was observed for TER and CIC. All isolates had large inhibition zones for TER and CIC. CTR was also inhibitory for all tested S. brevicaulis isolates, but the diameters of inhibition zones were smaller than for TER and CIC. Nearly 89% isolates showed inhibition zones for KET and the mean diameter of the inhibition zone was comparable to CTR. The least antifungal activity exhibited VQR, ECO and MCZ. Because of the multiresistance of S. brevicaulis, infections due to this species may not respond to particular antifungal treatment and other therapeutic approaches should be considered, e.g., combined therapy and/or surgery.

  5. Production, optimization, characterization and antifungal activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... the present study, the antifungal activity of crude A. terrus chitinase was investigated against Apergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae .... Chitinase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by estimating the amount of ..... characterization of two. Bifunctional chitinases lysozyme extracellularly produced by.

  6. Antifungal effect of thymol, thymoquinone and thymohydroquinone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several human pathogenic fungi can acquire resistance against the available antifungal compounds or need ... Thymol, thymoquinone (TQ) and thymohydroquinone (THQ) are principle constituents of the essential oil of Nigella sativa seeds.

  7. Antimycotoxigenic and antifungal activities of Citrullus colocynthis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... may have significant potential for biological control of fungi and theirs toxins. Key words: Citrullus .... antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antiochratoxigenic effect ... C. colocynthis Schrad. fruits were collected in December (2010).

  8. Antifungal prescribing pattern and attitude towards the treatment of oral candidiasis among dentists in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shayyab, Mohammad H; Abu-Hammad, Osama A; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K; Dar-Odeh, Najla S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitude of Jordanian dentists towards the treatment of oral candidiasis and their current antifungal prescribing habits, shedding more light on the possible influence of their socio-professional factors on the pattern of prescribing and practice. A structured validated questionnaire was developed and tested; it was then emailed to a random sample of 600 Jordanian dental practitioners during the period of this cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire recorded practitioners' personal details and their attitude and prescribing of antifungal therapy for oral candidiasis. Statistical significance was based on probability values of oral candidiasis. Of the 423 questionnaires returned, only 330 were included. The attitude of respondents was significantly influenced by their experience [odds ratio (OR) = 0.14; P oral candidiasis is much better among the least-experienced dentists working in private practice. Nystatin and miconazole are the most popular choices of antifungal agents among Jordanian dentists. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  9. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  10. Cefozopran, meropenem, or imipenem-cilastatin compared with cefepime as empirical therapy in febrile neutropenic adult patients: A multicenter prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Takahiko; Tamura, Kazuo; Hino, Masayuki; Tamaki, Toshiharu; Yoshida, Isao; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Tatsumi, Youichi; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Hatanaka, Kazuo; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Nobu; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Urabe, Akio; Masaoka, Toru; Kanamaru, Akihisa

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an open-label, randomized study to evaluate the clinical efficacy of cefozopran, meropenem or imipenem-cilastatin using cefepime as a control in febrile neutropenia (FN) patients. Three hundred and seventy-six patients received cefepime, cefozopran, meropenem or imipenem-cilastatinas initial therapy for FN. The primary endpoint was the non-inferiority of response rates including modification at day 7 in cefozopran, meropenem or imipenem-cilastatin patients compared with cefepime in the per-protocol population (delta = 10%). The response rates for cefozopran, meropenem and imipenem-cilastatin were not significantly different compared with cefepime (cefozopran: 54/90 (60%), meropenem: 60/92 (65%), and IPM/CS: 63/88 (72%) versus cefepime: 56/85 (66%) (p = 0.44, 1.0 and 0.51, respectively)), and the differences in treatment success for cefozopran, meropenem and imipenem-cilastatin compared with cefepime were -5.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): -20.1-8.4), -0.7% (95% CI: -14.6-13.3), and 5.7% (95% CI: -8.1-19.4), respectively. The same tendency was seen in the modified intention-to-treat population. Based on the evaluation of initial drug efficacy performed on days 3-5, there was no significant difference between the four drugs. In the subgroup with an absolute neutrophil count ≤ 100 × 10(6)/L for longer than seven days, there was significantly better efficacy in the carbapenem arm compared to 4th generation beta-lactams (52% versus 27% at days 3-5, p = 0.006, and 76% versus 48% at day 7, p = 0.002). Our results suggest that the effects of these four drugs as empiric therapy were virtually the same for adult FN patients, although non-inferiority was shown only in imipenem-cilastatin compared with cefepime (clinical trial number: UMIN000000462). Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candida Isolates from Patients Suffering from Caries and Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Torre, Janire; Ortiz-Samperio, María Esther; Marcos-Arias, Cristina; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Eraso, Elena; Echebarria-Goicouria, María Ángeles; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel; Quindós, Guillermo

    2017-06-01

    Caries and chronic periodontitis are common oral diseases where a higher Candida colonization is reported. Antifungal agents could be adjuvant drugs for the therapy of both clinical conditions. The aim of the current study has been to evaluate the in vitro activities of conventional and new antifungal drugs against oral Candida isolates from patients suffering from caries and/or chronic periodontitis. In vitro activities of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, nystatin, posaconazole and voriconazole against 126 oral Candida isolates (75 Candida albicans, 18 Candida parapsilosis, 11 Candida dubliniensis, six Candida guilliermondii, five Candida lipolytica, five Candida glabrata, four Candida tropicalis and two Candida krusei) from 61 patients were tested by the CLSI M27-A3 method. Most antifungal drugs were highly active, and resistance was observed in less than 5% of tested isolates. Miconazole was the most active antifungal drug, being more than 98% of isolates susceptible. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and the new triazoles, posaconazole and voriconazole, were also very active. Miconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole have excellent in vitro activities against all Candida isolates and could represent suitable treatment for a hypothetically adjunctive therapy of caries and chronic periodontitis.

  12. Empirical likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Art B

    2001-01-01

    Empirical likelihood provides inferences whose validity does not depend on specifying a parametric model for the data. Because it uses a likelihood, the method has certain inherent advantages over resampling methods: it uses the data to determine the shape of the confidence regions, and it makes it easy to combined data from multiple sources. It also facilitates incorporating side information, and it simplifies accounting for censored, truncated, or biased sampling.One of the first books published on the subject, Empirical Likelihood offers an in-depth treatment of this method for constructing confidence regions and testing hypotheses. The author applies empirical likelihood to a range of problems, from those as simple as setting a confidence region for a univariate mean under IID sampling, to problems defined through smooth functions of means, regression models, generalized linear models, estimating equations, or kernel smooths, and to sampling with non-identically distributed data. Abundant figures offer vi...

  13. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, ... Key words: medicinal plants, antifungal activity, methanol extracts, yeast, mould, Saussurea lappa. ... Caesalpinia pulcherrima.

  14. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-04

    Sep 4, 2012 ... antifungal properties, thus it can be used as a natural alternative approach to synthetic ..... composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of seven ... Leaf Extracts on Seed-borne Fungi of African Yam Bean Seeds,.

  15. The in vitro antifungal activity of sudanese medicinal plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the eumycetoma major causative agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadil, Hassabelrasoul; Fahal, Ahmed; Kloezen, Wendy; Ahmed, Elhadi M; van de Sande, Wendy

    2015-03-01

    Eumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by low cure rate and high recurrence rates. Hence, an alternative therapy is needed to address this. Here we determined the antifungal activity of seven Sudanese medicinal plant species against Madurella mycetomatis. Of these, only three species; Boswellia papyrifera, Acacia nubica and Nigella sativa, showed some antifungal activity against M. mycetomatis and were further studied. Crude methanol, hexane and defatted methanol extracts of these species were tested for their antifungal activity. B. papyrifera had the highest antifungal activity (MIC50 of 1 ug/ml) and it was further fractionated. The crude methanol and the soluble ethyl acetate fractions of B. papyrifera showed some antifungal activity. The Gas-Liquid-Chromatography hybrid Mass-Spectrophotometer analysis of these two fractions showed the existence of beta-amyrin, beta-amyrone, beta-Sitosterol and stigmatriene. Stigmatriene had the best antifungal activity, compared to other three phytoconstituents, with an MIC-50 of 32 μg/ml. Although the antifungal activity of the identified phytoconstituents was only limited, the antifungal activity of the complete extracts is more promising, indicating synergism. Furthermore these plant extracts are also known to have anti-inflammatory activity and can stimulate wound-healing; characteristics which might also be of great value in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore further exploration of these plant species in the treatment of mycetoma is encouraging.

  16. The in vitro antifungal activity of sudanese medicinal plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the eumycetoma major causative agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassabelrasoul Elfadil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by low cure rate and high recurrence rates. Hence, an alternative therapy is needed to address this. Here we determined the antifungal activity of seven Sudanese medicinal plant species against Madurella mycetomatis. Of these, only three species; Boswellia papyrifera, Acacia nubica and Nigella sativa, showed some antifungal activity against M. mycetomatis and were further studied. Crude methanol, hexane and defatted methanol extracts of these species were tested for their antifungal activity. B. papyrifera had the highest antifungal activity (MIC50 of 1 ug/ml and it was further fractionated. The crude methanol and the soluble ethyl acetate fractions of B. papyrifera showed some antifungal activity. The Gas-Liquid-Chromatography hybrid Mass-Spectrophotometer analysis of these two fractions showed the existence of beta-amyrin, beta-amyrone, beta-Sitosterol and stigmatriene. Stigmatriene had the best antifungal activity, compared to other three phytoconstituents, with an MIC-50 of 32 μg/ml. Although the antifungal activity of the identified phytoconstituents was only limited, the antifungal activity of the complete extracts is more promising, indicating synergism. Furthermore these plant extracts are also known to have anti-inflammatory activity and can stimulate wound-healing; characteristics which might also be of great value in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore further exploration of these plant species in the treatment of mycetoma is encouraging.

  17. Effect of 2-Phenylethanol as Antifungal Agent and Common Antifungals (Amphotericin B, Fluconazole, and Itraconazole) on Candida Species Isolated from Chronic and Recurrent Cases of Candidal Vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdabadi, Niloufar; Falahati, Mehraban; Heidarie-Kohan, Fariba; Farahyar, Shirin; Rahimi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh; Ashrafi-Khozani, Mahtab; Razavi, Tandis; Mohammadnejad, Sina

    2018-04-01

    The antifungal effects of 2-phenylethanol are clearly visible through its intervention in Candida morphogenesis. Chronic and recurrent vulvovaginitis, however, does not respond to this standard experimental therapy; therefore, the study presented in this article investigated the effect of common antifungal drugs (amphotericin B [AMB], fluconazole [FLU], and itraconazole [ITC]), in combination with 2-phenylethanol, on the Candida species isolated from cases of chronic and recurrent vulvovaginitis, thereby allowing the recommendation of a more appropriate treatment option. Forty isolates from patients with chronic and recurrent vaginal candidiasis were investigated in this experimental study. The specimens were examined by direct microscopy, culturing, and PCR to identify the species. The antifungal effects of 2-phenylethanol and conventional drugs, both alone and in combination, were determined in duplicate. Finally, the findings were analyzed. In this study, 40 strains of Candida species were identified, whose agents were Candida albicans (95%) and Candida africana (5%). After 48 h, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of the 2-phenylethanol was 800-3,200 μg/mL. Also, in the final study on the MIC levels of common antifungal drugs, AMB (0.42 μg/mL) had the lowest MIC, FLU (40.51 μg/mL) had the highest MIC, and the combination of ITC and 2-phenylethanol had the lowest fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of any of the combinations (FICI range, 0.26-1.03). Combining FLU and ITC with 2-phenylethanol can effectively increase their antifungal effect.

  18. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of guanylhydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajdačić Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel guanylhydrazones were designed, synthesized and characterized. All the compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Compounds 26 and 27 showed excellent antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 379 with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 4 μg mL-1, and good antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019. These results suggested that the selected guanylhydrazones could serve as promising leads for improved antimicrobial development. [Project of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, Grant No. 172008 and Grant No. 173048

  19. Aspergillus--classification and antifungal susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzina, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus is one of the most important fungal genera for the man, for its industrial use, its ability to spoil food and not least its medical impact as cause of a variety of diseases. Currently hundreds of species of Aspergillus are known; nearly fifty of them are able to cause infections in humans and animals. Recently, the genus Aspergillus is subdivided into 8 subgenera and 22 sections. The spectrum of diseases caused by Aspergillus species varies from superficial cutaneous to invasive and systemic infections. All species of Aspergillus investigated so far are resistant against the antifungals fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine, the range of susceptibilities to currently available antifungals is discussed in this paper.

  20. Antifungal Susceptibilities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginitis and Epidemiology of Recurrent Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sandra S.; Galask, Rudolph P.; Messer, Shawn A.; Hollis, Richard J.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Pfaller, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    There are limited data regarding the antifungal susceptibility of yeast causing vulvovaginal candidiasis, since cultures are rarely performed. Susceptibility testing was performed on vaginal yeast isolates collected from January 1998 to March 2001 from 429 patients with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis. The charts of 84 patients with multiple positive cultures were reviewed. The 593 yeast isolates were Candida albicans (n = 420), Candida glabrata (n = 112), Candida parapsilosis (n = 30), Candida krusei (n = 12), Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( n = 9), Candida tropicalis (n = 8), Candida lusitaniae (n = 1), and Trichosporon sp. (n = 1). Multiple species suggesting mixed infection were isolated from 27 cultures. Resistance to fluconazole and flucytosine was observed infrequently (3.7% and 3.0%); 16.2% of isolates were resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 1 μg/ml). The four imidazoles (econazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole) were active: 94.3 to 98.5% were susceptible at ≤1 μg/ml. Among different species, elevated fluconazole MICs (≥16 μg/ml) were only observed in C. glabrata (15.2% resistant [R], 51.8% susceptible-dose dependent [S-DD]), C. parapsilosis (3.3% S-DD), S. cerevisiae (11.1% S-DD), and C. krusei (50% S-DD, 41.7% R, considered intrinsically fluconazole resistant). Resistance to itraconazole was observed among C. glabrata (74.1%), C. krusei (58.3%), S. cerevisiae (55.6%), and C. parapsilosis (3.4%). Among 84 patients with recurrent episodes, non-albicans species were more common (42% versus 20%). A ≥4-fold rise in fluconazole MIC was observed in only one patient with C. parapsilosis. These results support the use of azoles for empirical therapy of uncomplicated candidal vulvovaginitis. Recurrent episodes are more often caused by non-albicans species, for which azole agents are less likely to be effective. PMID:15872235

  1. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from patients with vulvovaginitis in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifynia, Somayeh; Falahati, Mehraban; Akhlaghi, Lame; Foroumadi, Alireza; Fateh, Roohollah

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates are crucial to determine suitable antifungal drugs for the treatment of patients with vulvovaginitis candidiasis. Vaginal samples were collected from 150 women with suspicious vaginal candidiasis, and then cultured on Sabouraoud's Dextrose Agar with chloramphenicol to isolate Candida species. After identification of Candida isolates using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, antifungal susceptibility testing of four azolic antifungal drugs was carried out using broth microdilution method according to the CLSI M27-A3. Candida species were isolated from eighty suspected patients (61.79%). The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (63.75%). Resistance to fluconazole and ketoconazole was observed in 27.5% and 23.75% of Candida isolates, respectively, and only 2% of Candida isolates were resistant to miconazole. Interestingly, resistance to fluconazole in C. albicans was more than other Candida species. The results indicated that therapy should be selected according to the antifungal susceptibility tests for the prevention of treatment failure and miconazole therapy can be considered as the best therapeutic choice in the management of vulvovaginitis.

  2. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from patients with vulvovaginitis in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Sharifynia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid and accurate identification and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates are crucial to determine suitable antifungal drugs for the treatment of patients with vulvovaginitis candidiasis. Materials and Methods: Vaginal samples were collected from 150 women with suspicious vaginal candidiasis, and then cultured on Sabouraoud's Dextrose Agar with chloramphenicol to isolate Candida species. After identification of Candida isolates using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, antifungal susceptibility testing of four azolic antifungal drugs was carried out using broth microdilution method according to the CLSI M27-A3. Results: Candida species were isolated from eighty suspected patients (61.79%. The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (63.75%. Resistance to fluconazole and ketoconazole was observed in 27.5% and 23.75% of Candida isolates, respectively, and only 2% of Candida isolates were resistant to miconazole. Interestingly, resistance to fluconazole in C. albicans was more than other Candida species. Conclusion: The results indicated that therapy should be selected according to the antifungal susceptibility tests for the prevention of treatment failure and miconazole therapy can be considered as the best therapeutic choice in the management of vulvovaginitis.

  3. Antifungal resistance of candida isolates obtained from various specimens of intensive care unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibe Çolak Pirinççioğlu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study; we aimed to determine the identificationof yeasts from the samples of the patients thatcome from Anesthesia Intensive Care Unit of DiyarbakırEducation and Research Hospital and also we aimed toperform the antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts.Materials and methods: Antifungal susceptibility test resultsof yeasts that isolated from 25 blood, 24 urine, 3sputum and 3 peritoneal fluid samples of the patients thatcome from Anesthesia Intensive Care Unit to our laboratoryduring the period December 2009 - Septemberl/2010were evaluated.The yeasts identified by germ tube test, cornmeal tween80 and VITEC 2 Compact® (Biomerieux, France yeastidentification system. The antifungal susceptibility testswere performed for amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazoleand voriconazole by using VITEC 2 Compact®(Biomerieux, France system.Results: 56.36% of the yeasts were determined asC.albicans which was the most common yeast followedby; C.parapsilosis (30.9%, C.tropicalis (10.6%,C.tropicalis (5.45%, C.dubliniensis (3,63%, C.glabrata(1.81% and C.guilliermondi (1.81%. According to theresults of antifungal susceptibility tests, the resistancerate for fluconazole and variconazole were 1.81% and3.63% respectively. However no resistance were detectedagainst amphotericin B and flucytosine.Conclusions: Our results shows that C.albicans is themost common yeast isolated from the patients at intensivecare unit in our hospital. Increased resistance to fluconazolewhich is frequently used for empirical treatmentdemostrates importance of antifungal susceptibility tests.

  4. In vivo application of a small molecular weight antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palicz, Zoltán; Jenes, Ágnes; Gáll, Tamás [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Miszti-Blasius, Kornél [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona [Department of Pathology, Kenézy Hospital LTD, Debrecen (Hungary); Emri, Miklós; Márián, Teréz [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Leiter, Éva; Pócsi, István [Department of Microbial Biotechnology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre of Arts, Humanities and Sciences, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Csősz, Éva; Kalló, Gergő [Proteomics Core Facility, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Hegedűs, Csaba; Virág, László [Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Csernoch, László [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Szentesi, Péter, E-mail: szentesi.peter@med.unideb.hu [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2013-05-15

    The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) inhibits the growth of important pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus family and some dermatophytes. Furthermore, PAF was proven to have no toxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. To prove that PAF could be safely used in therapy, experiments were carried out to investigate its in vivo effects. Adult mice were inoculated with PAF intranasally in different concentrations, up to 2700 μg·kg{sup −1} daily, for 2 weeks. Even at the highest concentration – a concentration highly toxic in vitro for all affected molds – used, animals neither died due to the treatment nor were any side effects observed. Histological examinations did not find pathological reactions in the liver, in the kidney, and in the lungs. Mass spectrometry confirmed that a measurable amount of PAF was accumulated in the lungs after the treatment. Lung tissue extracts from PAF treated mice exerted significant antifungal activity. Small-animal positron emission tomography revealed that neither the application of physiological saline nor that of PAF induced any inflammation while the positive control lipopolysaccharide did. The effect of the drug on the skin was examined in an irritative dermatitis model where the change in the thickness of the ears following PAF application was found to be the same as in control and significantly less than when treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate used as positive control. Since no toxic effects of PAF were found in intranasal application, our result is the first step for introducing PAF as potential antifungal drug in therapy. - Highlights: • PAF, the antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum, was not toxic in mice. • Its intranasal application didn't induce pathological reactions in the lung. • PAF retained its antifungal activity in lung extracts. • Its application on the skin did not cause inflammation.

  5. In vivo application of a small molecular weight antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palicz, Zoltán; Jenes, Ágnes; Gáll, Tamás; Miszti-Blasius, Kornél; Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona; Emri, Miklós; Márián, Teréz; Leiter, Éva; Pócsi, István; Csősz, Éva; Kalló, Gergő; Hegedűs, Csaba; Virág, László; Csernoch, László; Szentesi, Péter

    2013-01-01

    The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) inhibits the growth of important pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus family and some dermatophytes. Furthermore, PAF was proven to have no toxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. To prove that PAF could be safely used in therapy, experiments were carried out to investigate its in vivo effects. Adult mice were inoculated with PAF intranasally in different concentrations, up to 2700 μg·kg −1 daily, for 2 weeks. Even at the highest concentration – a concentration highly toxic in vitro for all affected molds – used, animals neither died due to the treatment nor were any side effects observed. Histological examinations did not find pathological reactions in the liver, in the kidney, and in the lungs. Mass spectrometry confirmed that a measurable amount of PAF was accumulated in the lungs after the treatment. Lung tissue extracts from PAF treated mice exerted significant antifungal activity. Small-animal positron emission tomography revealed that neither the application of physiological saline nor that of PAF induced any inflammation while the positive control lipopolysaccharide did. The effect of the drug on the skin was examined in an irritative dermatitis model where the change in the thickness of the ears following PAF application was found to be the same as in control and significantly less than when treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate used as positive control. Since no toxic effects of PAF were found in intranasal application, our result is the first step for introducing PAF as potential antifungal drug in therapy. - Highlights: • PAF, the antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum, was not toxic in mice. • Its intranasal application didn't induce pathological reactions in the lung. • PAF retained its antifungal activity in lung extracts. • Its application on the skin did not cause inflammation

  6. Empirical Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Talman, R.

    1987-01-01

    As proton accelerators get larger, and include more magnets, the conventional tracking programs which simulate them run slower. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method, still under development, in which element-by-element tracking around one turn is replaced by a single man, which can be processed far faster. It is assumed for this method that a conventional program exists which can perform faithful tracking in the lattice under study for some hundreds of turns, with all lattice parameters held constant. An empirical map is then generated by comparison with the tracking program. A procedure has been outlined for determining an empirical Hamiltonian, which can represent motion through many nonlinear kicks, by taking data from a conventional tracking program. Though derived by an approximate method this Hamiltonian is analytic in form and can be subjected to further analysis of varying degrees of mathematical rigor. Even though the empirical procedure has only been described in one transverse dimension, there is good reason to hope that it can be extended to include two transverse dimensions, so that it can become a more practical tool in realistic cases

  7. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi H. Anfoka; Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Talal A. Aburaj; Wesam Shahrour

    2001-01-01

    Powdered, dried olive (Olea europaea) cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation. The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Colletotrichu...

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION EVALUATION OF ANTIFUNGAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The target substrates were characterized by UV, IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR .... Also substituents like methyl, methoxy and hydroxyl, having +M effect that ... antibacterial and antifungal agents and can find use in biomedical area in near future.

  9. Antifungal diterpenes from Hypoestes serpens (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoamiaranjanahary, Lalao; Marston, Andrew; Guilet, David; Schenk, Kurt; Randimbivololona, Fanantenanirainy; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2003-02-01

    Two new diterpenes, fusicoserpenol A and dolabeserpenoic acid A, with antifungal activity, were isolated from leaves of Hypoestes serpens (Acanthaceae). Their structures were elucidated by means of spectrometric methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS analysis. X-ray crystallographic analysis confirmed the structure of fusicoserpenol A and established the relative configuration.

  10. Studies on Buddleja asiatica antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-27

    Jul 27, 2011 ... Studies on Buddleja asiatica antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic and Ca. ++ ... strong cyclo-oxygenase inhibitory activities in elicited rat peritoneal ... A resting tension of 1 g was applied to each tissue and kept constant ... Statistical analysis .... through opening of VDCs, thus allowing the influx of extra.

  11. Antifungal evaluation and phytochemical screening of methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to further examine the medicinal value of Boswellia dalzielii plant by evaluating the antifungal activity and carrying out phytochemical screening of methanolic extract, hexane, ethyl acetate, aqueous fractions and the sub-fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Standard methods were used for ...

  12. Studies of antifungal activity of forsskalea tenacissima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaisar, M.; Ahmad, V.U.; Nisar, M.; Gilani, S.N.; Pervez, S.

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal activity of different extracts from Forsskalea tenacissima prepared by solvent-solvent extraction and vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) was determined. Extracts were found to be active against Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, Allescheria boydii, Microsporum canis, Aspergillus niger, Drechslera rostrata, Nigrospora oryzae, Stachybotrys atra, Curvularia lunata, Trichophyton semii and Trichophyton schoenleinii. (author)

  13. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeida-Paes

    Full Text Available Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  14. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies. PMID:27031728

  15. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  16. The In Vitro Efficacy of Essential Oils and Antifungal Drugs Against Prototheca zopfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, Barbara; Głowacka, Anna; Krukowski, Henryk; Lisowski, Andrzej; Lassa, Henryka; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2016-08-01

    The algae of the genus Prototheca are environmental pathogens whose main reservoir is the habitat of cows. They can cause protothecosis in domestic and wild animals, as well as human beings, with the main etiological agents being Prototheca zopfii in animals and Prototheca wickerhamii in humans. The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of selected essential oils and antifungal antibiotics against P. zopfii isolates. The material consisted of nine P. zopfii strains isolated from the milk of cows suffering from mastitis. Eight essential oils produced by POLLENA-AROMA, Poland, and nine antifungal agents were tested. The effects of essential oils on P. zopfii were evaluated by microdilution with liquid Sabouraud dextrose broth, and susceptibility to antifungal agents was tested using the disk-diffusion method. All used essential oils inhibited the activity of P. zopfii isolates, with MIC values ranging from 0.2 to 10.5 μl/ml. Cinnamon, clove, and thyme demonstrated the highest activity against the tested P. zopfii strains at concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 μl/ml. Of the antifungal agents, the tested strains were the most sensitive to nystatin (100 %). The tested essential oils can be used to complement protothecosis therapy in animals and human beings.

  17. An in vitro study of antifungal drug susceptibility of Candida species isolated from human immunodeficiency virus seropositive and human immunodeficiency virus seronegative individuals in Lucknow population Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Mohammad Shafi; Sreedar, Gadiputi; Shukla, Abhilasha; Gupta, Prashant; Rehan, Ahmad Danish; George, Jiji

    2015-01-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients, starting from asymptomatic colonization to pathogenic forms and gradual colonization of non-albicans in patients with advanced immunosuppression leads to resistance for azole group of antifungal drugs with high rate of morbidity and mortality. To isolate the Candida species and determine of antifungal drug susceptibility against fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B, and clotrimazolein HIV seropositive and control individuals, with or without clinical oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Includes samples from faucial region of 70 subjects with and without clinical candidiasis in HIV seropositive and controls were aseptically inoculated onto Sabaraud's Dextrose Agar media and yeasts were identified for the specific species by Corn Meal Agar, sugar fermentation and heat tolerance tests. Antifungal drug susceptibility of the isolated species was done against above-mentioned drugs by E-test and disc diffusion method. The commonly isolated species in HIV seropositive and controls were Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis Candida guilliermondii and Candida dubliniensis isolated only in HIV seropositive patients. Susceptibility against selected antifungal drugs was observed more in HIV-negative individuals whereas susceptible dose-dependent and resistance were predominant in HIV-positive patients. Resistance is the major problem in the therapy of OPC, especially in HIV seropositive patients due to aggressive and prolonged use of antifungal agents, therefore, our study emphasizes the need for antifungal drug susceptibility testing whenever antifungal treatment is desired, especially in HIV-infected subjects.

  18. In vitro interactions of amantadine hydrochloride, R-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride and valproic acid sodium salt with antifungal agents against filamentous fungal species causing central nervous system infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgóczy, L; Tóth, Liliána; Virágh, M; Papp, T; Vágvölgyi, C S

    2012-12-01

    The mortality rates of fungal infections that affect the central nervous system are high in consequence of the absence of effective antifungal drugs with good penetration across the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In the present work in vitro antifungal activities of three good penetrating non-antifungal drugs (amantadine hydrochloride, R-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride, valproic acid sodium salt) and their combinations with three antifungal agents (amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine) were tested with broth microdilution method against eight fungal isolates belonging to Zygomycetes (Lichtheimia corymbifera, Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis, Saksenaeavasiformis) and Aspergillus genus (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. terreus). These are known to be possible agents of central nervous fungal infections (CNFI). When used alone, the investigated nonantifungal drugs exerted slight antifungal effects. In their combinations with antifungal agents they acted antagonistically, additively and synergistically against zygomyceteous isolates. Primarily antagonistic interactions were revealed between the investigated drugs in case of Aspergilli, but additive and synergistic interactions were also observed. The additive and synergistic combinations allowed the usage of reduced concentrations of antifungal agents to inhibit the fungal growth in our study. These combinations would be a basis of an effective, less toxic therapy for treatment of CNFI.

  19. COMPARISON OF IMIPENEM VERSUS CEFUROXIM PLUS TOBRAMYCIN AS EMPIRICAL THERAPY FOR FEBRILE GRANULOCYTOPENIC PATIENTS AND EFFICACY OF VANCOMYCIN AND AZTREONAM IN CASE OF FAILURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ERJAVEC, Z; DEVRIESHOSPERS, HG; VANKAMP, H; VANDERWAAIJ, D; HALIE, MR; DAENEN, SMGJ

    1994-01-01

    143 aplastic episodes with fever in 91 haematological patients with granulocytopenia were treated empirically in a randomized prospective study using either imipenem (Imi) or a combination of tobramycin and cefuroxim (T/C). Response after 72 h was significantly better in patients receiving Imi

  20. In vitro antifungal sensitivity of fluconazole, clotrimazole and nystatin against vaginal candidiasis in females of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fouzia; Baqai, Rakhshanda

    2010-01-01

    Vaginal candidiasis is the most common infection of females. A large variety of antifungal drugs are used for treatment. The objective of this study was isolation and identification of Candida from high vaginal swabs and in vitro antifungal activity of Clotrimazole, Fluconazole and Nystatin against Candida. Two hundred and fifty high vaginal swabs were collected from females reporting at different hospitals of Karachi. Wet mount was performed to observe the budding cells of Candida. Vaginal swabs were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar with added antibiotics. Plates were incubated at room temperature for seven days. Chlamydospores of Candida albicans were identified on corn meal agar. Species of Candida were identified on Biggy agar. In vitro antifungal activity of Clotrimazole, Fluconazole and Nystatin was performed by MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration), well diffusion method and disc diffusion method. Out of 250 high vaginal swabs, Candida species were isolated in 100 (40%) of cases. Out of 100, C. albican 30 (30%), C. tropicalis 21 (21%), C. parapsillosis 10 (10%), C. parakrusi 8 (8%), C. glabrata 8 (8%), C. krusei 3 (3%) were isolated. In vitro antifungal activity indicated Clotrimazole (MIC 16 and 8 microg/ml) effective against 68 (70%) of Candida SPP, Fluconazole (MIC 64 and 32 microg/ml) effective against 29 (36.2%) and Nystatin disc (100 units) was 51 (63.5%) effective. C. albicans was mainly isolated. Clotrimazole was more effective as compared to Fluconazole and Nystatin. Antifungal susceptibility testing should be determined before therapy to avoid treatment failures.

  1. EPICO 3.0. Antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Rafael; Aguado, José María; Ferrer, Ricard; Rodríguez, Alejandro H; Maseda, Emilio; Llinares, Pedro; Grau, Santiago; Muñoz, Patricia; Fortún, Jesús; Bouzada, Mercedes; Pozo, Juan Carlos Del; León, Rafael

    donor, choledochojejunostomy, increased transfusion requirements, renal failure without replacement therapy, early reoperation, or multifocal colonization or infection with Candida; intestinal and pancreas transplant with no risk factors for echinocandin treatment. Liposomal amphotericin B antifungal prophylaxis should be considered in lung transplant (inhalant form) and liver transplant with major risk factors. Antifungal prophylaxis with voriconazole should be considered in lung transplant, and heart transplant with hemodialysis, surgical re-exploration after transplantation, environmental colonization by Aspergillus, or CMV infection. The management of antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients requires the application of knowledge and skills that are detailed in our recommendations and the algorithm developed therein. These recommendations, based on the DELPHI methodology, may help to identify potential patients, standardize their management and improve overall prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic Comparison of an Empirical Versus Diagnostic-Driven Strategy for Treating Invasive Fungal Disease in Immunocompromised Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rosemary; Earnshaw, Stephanie; Herbrecht, Raoul; Morrissey, Orla; Slavin, Monica; Bow, Eric; McDade, Cheryl; Charbonneau, Claudie; Weinstein, David; Kantecki, Michal; Schlamm, Haran; Maertens, Johan

    2015-06-01

    Patients with persistent or recurrent neutropenic fevers at risk of invasive fungal disease (IFD) are treated empirically with antifungal therapy (AFT). Early treatment using a diagnostic-driven (DD) strategy may reduce clinical and economic burdens. We compared costs and outcomes of both strategies from a UK perspective. An empirical strategy with conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate (C-AmB), liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB), or caspofungin was compared with a DD strategy (initiated based on positive ELISA results for galactomannan antigen) and/or positive results for Aspergillus species on polymerase chain reaction assay) using C-AmB, voriconazole, or L-AmB in a decision-analytic model. Rates of IFD incidence, overall mortality, and IFD-related mortality in adults expected to be neutropenic for ≥10 days were obtained. The empirical strategy was assumed to identify 30% of IFD and targeted AFT to improve survival by a hazard ratio of 0.589. AFT-specific adverse events were obtained from a summary of product characteristics. Resource use was obtained, and costs were estimated by using standard UK costing sources. All costs are presented in 2012 British pounds sterling. Total costs were 32% lower for the DD strategy (£1561.29) versus the empirical strategy (£2301.93) due to a reduced incidence of adverse events and decreased use of AFT. Administration of AFT was reduced by 41% (DD strategy, 74 of 1000; empirical strategy, 125 of 1000), with similar survival rates. This study suggests that a DD strategy is likely to be cost-saving versus empirical treatment for immunocompromised patients with persistent or recurrent neutropenic fevers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tolerability and safety of antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Scaglione

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When treating critically ill patients, as those with fungal infections, attention should be focused on the appropriate use of drugs, especially in terms of dose, safety, and tolerability. The fungal infection itself and the concomitant physiological disorders concur to increase the risk of mortality in these patients, therefore the use of any antifungal agent should be carefully evaluated, considering both the direct action on the target fungus and the adverse effects eventually caused. Among antifungal drugs, echinocandins have the greatest tolerability. In fact, unlike amphotericin B, showing nephrotoxicity, and azoles, which are hepatotoxic, the use of echinocandins doesn’t result in major adverse events.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i2s.873

  4. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Meng, Xiao; Li, Ya; Zhao, Cai-Ning; Tang, Guo-Yi; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine, have been weakened by microbial resistance. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Many spices—such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin—possessed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, harmful fungi like Aspergillus flavus, even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, spices have a great potential to be developed as new and safe antimicrobial agents. This review summarizes scientific studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of several spices and their derivatives. PMID:28621716

  5. Lipid Biosynthesis as an Antifungal Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Pan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, commonly including phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, sterols, and triacylglycerols (TAGs, are important biomolecules for the viability of all cells. Phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols are important constituents of biological membranes. Many lipids play important roles in the regulation of cell metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Neutral lipids, including TAGs and sterol esters (STEs, are important storage lipids in cells. In view of the importance of lipid molecules, this review briefly summarizes the metabolic pathways for sterols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, and neutral lipids in fungi and illustrates the differences between fungal and human (or other mammalian cells, especially in relation to lipid biosynthetic pathways. These differences might provide valuable clues for us to find target proteins for novel antifungal drugs. In addition, the development of lipidomics technology in recent years has supplied us with a shortcut for finding new antifungal drug targets; this ability is important for guiding our research on pathogenic fungi.

  6. Antifungal activity of streptomycetes isolated bentonite clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Shirobokov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the biological activity of streptomycetes, isolated from Ukrainian bentonite clay. Methods. For identification of the investigated microorganisms there were used generally accepted methods for study of morpho-cultural and biochemical properties and sequencing of 16Ѕ rRNA producer. Antagonistic activity of the strain was determined by agar diffusion and agar block method using gram-positive, gram-negative microorganisms and fungi. Results. Research of autochthonous flora from bentonite clay of Ukrainian various deposits proved the existence of stable politaxonomic prokaryotic-eukaryotic consortia there. It was particularly interesting that the isolated microorganisms had demonstrated clearly expressed antagonistic properties against fungi. During bacteriological investigation this bacterial culture was identified like representative of the genus Streptomyces. Bentonite streptomycetes, named as Streptomyces SVP-71, inagar mediums (agar block method inhibited the growth of fungi (yeast and mold; zones of growth retardation constituted of 11-36 mm, and did not affect the growth of bacteria. There were investigated the inhibitory effects of supernatant culture fluid, ethanol and butanol extracts of biomass streptomycetes on museum and clinical strains of fungi that are pathogenic for humans (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. utilis, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. kefir, S. glabrata, C. lusitaniae, Aspergillus niger, Mucor pusillus, Fusarium sporotrichioides. It has been shown that research antifungal factor had 100% of inhibitory effect against all fungi used in experiments in vitro. In parallel, it was found that alcohol extracts hadn’t influence to the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria absolutely. It was shown that the cultural fluid supernatant and alcoholic extracts of biomass had the same antagonistic effect, but with different manifestation. This evidenced about identity of antifungal substances

  7. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Nejad; Erfani Nejad; Yusef Naanaie; Zarrin

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae) is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro) of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a g...

  8. Antifungal Activity of Maytenin and Pristimerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda P. Gullo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections in humans have increased alarmingly in recent years, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Among the infections systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis mortality are more prevalent and more severe in humans. The current high incidence of dermatophytosis is in humans, especially as the main etiologic agents Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Molecules pristimerin and maytenin obtained from the plant Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae are known to show various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the spectrum of antifungal activity of maytenin and pristimerin and their cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (NOK cells of the oral mucosa. It was concluded that the best spectrum of antifungal activity has been shown to maytenin with MIC varying from 0.12 to 125 mg/L, although it is also active with pristimerin MIC ranging between 0.12 and 250 mg/L. Regarding the toxicity, both showed to have high IC50. The SI showed high pristimerin against some species of fungi, but SI maytenin was above 1.0 for all fungi tested, showing a selective action of fungi. However, when comparing the two substances, maytenin also showed better results. The two molecules can be a possible prototype with a broad spectrum of action for the development of new antifungal agents.

  9. Antifungal Activity of Maytenin and Pristimerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Fernanda P.; Sardi, Janaina C. O.; Santos, Vânia A. F. F. M.; Sangalli-Leite, Fernanda; Pitangui, Nayla S.; Rossi, Suélen A.; de Paula e Silva, Ana C. A.; Soares, Luciana A.; Silva, Julhiany F.; Oliveira, Haroldo C.; Furlan, Maysa; Silva, Dulce H. S.; Bolzani, Vanderlan S.; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections in humans have increased alarmingly in recent years, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Among the infections systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis mortality are more prevalent and more severe in humans. The current high incidence of dermatophytosis is in humans, especially as the main etiologic agents Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Molecules pristimerin and maytenin obtained from the plant Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) are known to show various pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the spectrum of antifungal activity of maytenin and pristimerin and their cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (NOK cells of the oral mucosa). It was concluded that the best spectrum of antifungal activity has been shown to maytenin with MIC varying from 0.12 to 125 mg/L, although it is also active with pristimerin MIC ranging between 0.12 and 250 mg/L. Regarding the toxicity, both showed to have high IC50. The SI showed high pristimerin against some species of fungi, but SI maytenin was above 1.0 for all fungi tested, showing a selective action of fungi. However, when comparing the two substances, maytenin also showed better results. The two molecules can be a possible prototype with a broad spectrum of action for the development of new antifungal agents. PMID:22675379

  10. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Nejad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a growth inhibitor against 24 clinical isolates of Candida, including C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis also three species of Aspergillus, including A. niger, A. flavus, and A. terreus. Materials and Methods The ethanolic extract of myrtle leaves was prepared by maceration method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Myrtus communis leaves extract was determined by agar-well diffusion technique. Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were used as the positive control in this assay. Results The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs values of Myrtus communis leaves extract ranged 0.625-5.0 µg/µL and 5-40 µg/µL against tested Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Conclusions Results revealed that the ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis leaves have antifungal potency against both pathogenic tested fungi, and it can be used as a natural antifungal agent.

  11. ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING: CURRENT ROLE FROM THE CLINICAL LABORATORY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Posteraro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite availability of many antifungal agents, antifungal clinical resistance occurs, perhaps as a result of an infecting organism found to be resistant in vitro to one or more antifungals tested. Thus, antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST results, if timely generated by the clinical microbiology and communicated to clinicians, can aid them in the therapeutic decision making, especially for difficult-to-treat invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Although recently refined AFST methods are commercially available to allow a close antifungal resistance surveillance in many clinical setting, novel assays, relying on short-time antifungal drug exposure of fungal isolates, are upcoming tools for AFST. Based on emerging technologies such as flow cytometry, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and isothermal microcalorimetry, these assays could provide a reliable means for quicker and sensitive assessment of AFST.

  12. Molecular basis of antifungal drug resistance in yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morio, Florent; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Le Pape, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Besides inherent differences in in vitro susceptibilities, clinically-relevant yeast species may acquire resistance upon exposure to most antifungal drugs used in the clinic. In recent years, major fundamental research studies have been conducted to improve our understanding of the molecular basis...... of antifungal resistance. This topic is of major interest as antifungal resistance in yeast is clearly evolving and is correlated with clinical failure. This minireview is an overview of the most recent findings about key molecular mechanisms evolving in human pathogenic yeasts, particularly Candida spp......., in the context of antifungal drug resistance. Also included are the methods currently available for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing and for molecular detection of mutations associated with resistance. Finally, the genetic drivers of antifungal resistance are discussed in light of the spectra...

  13. Empirical Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Talman, R.

    1986-08-01

    As proton accelerators get larger, and include more magnets, the conventional tracking programs which simulate them run slower. At the same time, in order to more carefully optimize the higher cost of the accelerators, they must return more accurate results, even in the presence of a longer list of realistic effects, such as magnet errors and misalignments. For these reasons conventional tracking programs continue to be computationally bound, despite the continually increasing computing power available. This limitation is especially severe for a class of problems in which some lattice parameter is slowly varying, when a faithful description is only obtained by tracking for an exceedingly large number of turns. Examples are synchrotron oscillations in which the energy varies slowly with a period of, say, hundreds of turns, or magnet ripple or noise on a comparably slow time scale. In these cases one may with to track for hundreds of periods of the slowly varying parameter. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method, still under development, in which element-by-element tracking around one turn is replaced by a single map, which can be processed far faster. Similar programs have already been written in which successive elements are ''concatenated'' with truncation to linear, sextupole, or octupole order, et cetera, using Lie algebraic techniques to preserve symplecticity. The method described here is rather more empirical than this but, in principle, contains information to all orders and is able to handle resonances in a more straightforward fashion

  14. Antifungal Poly(lactic acid) Films Containing Thymol and Carvone

    OpenAIRE

    Boonruang Kanchana; Chinsirikul Wannee; Hararak Bongkot; Kerddonfag Noppadon; Chonhenchob Vanee

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop antifungal poly(lactic acid) films for food packaging applications. The antifungal compounds, thymol and R-(-)-carvone were incorporated into poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based polymer at 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Film converting process consists of three steps including melt blending, sheet extrusion and biaxial stretching. The incorporation of antifungal compounds into the polymer matrix resulted in decreased Tg and Tm, increased gas permeabilility, reduced ...

  15. Catalytic Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of New Polychlorinated Natural Terpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Ighachane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various unsaturated natural terpenes were selectively converted to the corresponding polychlorinated products in good yields using iron acetylacetonate in combination with nucleophilic cocatalyst. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity. The antifungal bioassays showed that 2c and 2d possessed significant antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis (Foc, and Verticillium dahliae (Vd.

  16. Effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor on empiric therapy with flomoxef sodium and tobramycin in febrile neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. Kan-etsu Hematological Disease and Infection Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Karasawa, M; Naruse, T; Fukuda, M; Hirashima, K; Oh, H; Ninomiya, H; Abe, T; Saito, K; Shishido, H; Moriyama, Y; Shibata, A; Motoyoshi, K; Nagata, N; Miura, Y

    1999-02-01

    The clinical effects of concomitant use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on empiric antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenic patients were evaluated in a randomized fashion. Two hundred and fourteen neutropenic febrile episodes (neutrophil counts flomoxef sodium and tobramycin with or without G-CSF. The resolution of fever at day 4 (excellent response) or at day 7 (good response) was deemed effective. Among 157 evaluable episodes, the observed excellent responses were 31 (38.8%) and the good responses were 20 (25.0%) in the G-CSF group; those in the control group were 26 (33.8%) and 25 (32.5%), respectively. The overall efficacy rate was 63.8% (51/80) in the G-CSF group and 66.2% (51/77) in the control group (not significant). The initial neutrophil count was 0.186 +/- 0.249 x 10(9)/l in the G-CSF group and 0.235 +/- 0.290 x 10(9)/l in the control group, and rose to 2.889 +/- 4.198 x 10(9)/l and 0.522 +/- 0.844 x 10(9)/l, respectively, at day 7. These results indicate that G-CSF does not affect the rate of response to empiric antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenic patients, although a significant effect of G-CSF was observed on neutrophil recovery.

  17. Antifungal Poly(lactic acid Films Containing Thymol and Carvone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonruang Kanchana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop antifungal poly(lactic acid films for food packaging applications. The antifungal compounds, thymol and R-(--carvone were incorporated into poly(lactic acid (PLA-based polymer at 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Film converting process consists of three steps including melt blending, sheet extrusion and biaxial stretching. The incorporation of antifungal compounds into the polymer matrix resulted in decreased Tg and Tm, increased gas permeabilility, reduced tensile strength and increased elongation at break of the antifungal PLA films.

  18. Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi from the angiosperm Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Juthatip Jeenkeawpieam, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Jariya Sakayaroj ...

  19. Species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of oral yeast isolates from Tanzanian HIV-infected patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijs Antonius JMM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, little is known on the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of yeast isolates from HIV-infected patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis. Methods A total of 296 clinical oral yeasts were isolated from 292 HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Identification of the yeasts was performed using standard phenotypic methods. Antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, amphotericin B and nystatin was assessed using a broth microdilution format according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI; M27-A2. Results Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species from 250 (84.5% patients followed by C. glabrata from 20 (6.8% patients, and C. krusei from 10 (3.4% patients. There was no observed significant difference in species distribution between patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis, but isolates cultured from patients previously treated were significantly less susceptible to the azole compounds compared to those cultured from antifungal naïve patients. Conclusion C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species from patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Oral yeast isolates from Tanzania had high level susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. Recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous antifungal therapy significantly correlated with reduced susceptibility to azoles antifungal agents.

  20. Chemical modification of antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovieva, S E; Olsufyeva, E N; Preobrazhenskaya, M N

    2011-01-01

    The review summarizes advances in the methods for the synthesis of polyene antibiotics (amphotericin B, partricin A, etc.) and investigations of the structure-activity relationship made in the last 15 years. State-of-the-art approaches based on the combination of the chemical synthesis and genetic engineering are considered. Emphasis is given to the design of semisynthetic antifungal agents against chemotherapy-resistant pathogens having the highest therapeutic indices. Recent results of research on the mechanisms of action of polyenes are outlined.

  1. Antifungal cyclic peptides from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening natural product extracts from National Cancer Institute Open Repository for antifungal discovery afforded hits for bioassay-guided fractionation. Upon LC-MS analysis of column fractions with antifungal activities to generate information on chemical structure, two new cyclic hexapeptides, m...

  2. Antifungal Activity of Endemic Salvia tigrina in Turkey | Dulger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ketoconazole was used as a positive reference standard to determine the sensitivity of the strains. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 3.12 to 25 mg/mL. All the extracts exhibited a strong antifungal effect against the fungal cultures. The extracts exhibited greater antifungal effect against C.

  3. In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf extracts (Moraceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The active ingredients of this plant could be an addition to the antifungal arsenal to opportunistic fungal yeast pathogens. Key words: Antifungal activity, Dorstenia mannii, yeasts, opportunistic candidiasis. INTRODUCTION. Nowadays, fungal diseases have emerged and are being increasingly recognized as important public ...

  4. Cuticular antifungals in spiders: density- and condition dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Tokman

    Full Text Available Animals living in groups face a high risk of disease contagion. In many arthropod species, cuticular antimicrobials constitute the first protective barrier that prevents infections. Here we report that group-living spiders produce cuticular chemicals which inhibit fungal growth. Given that cuticular antifungals may be costly to produce, we explored whether they can be modulated according to the risk of contagion (i.e. under high densities. For this purpose, we quantified cuticular antifungal activity in the subsocial crab spider Diaea ergandros in both natural nests and experimentally manipulated nests of varying density. We quantified the body-condition of spiders to test whether antifungal activity is condition dependent, as well as the effect of spider density on body-condition. We predicted cuticular antifungal activity to increase and body-condition to decrease with high spider densities, and that antifungal activity would be inversely related to body-condition. Contrary to our predictions, antifungal activity was neither density- nor condition-dependent. However, body-condition decreased with density in natural nests, but increased in experimental nests. We suggest that pathogen pressure is so important in nature that it maintains high levels of cuticular antifungal activity in spiders, impacting negatively on individual energetic condition. Future studies should identify the chemical structure of the isolated antifungal compounds in order to understand the physiological basis of a trade-off between disease prevention and energetic condition caused by group living, and its consequences in the evolution of sociality in spiders.

  5. IIn vitro antifungal evaluation of various plant extracts against early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activities of 27 plant extracts were tested against Alternaria solani (E. & M.) Jones and Grout using radial growth technique. While all tested plant extracts produced some antifungal activities, the results revealed that Circium arvense, Humulus lupulus, Lauris nobilis and Salvia officinalis showed significant ...

  6. In vitro control of Alternaria citri using antifungal potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro control of Alternaria citri using antifungal potentials of Trichoderma species. Asma Murtaza, Shazia Shafique, Tehmina Anjum, Sobiya Shafique. Abstract. The antifungal potential of five species of Trichoderma viz., Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma aureoviride, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii and ...

  7. Cuticular antifungals in spiders: density- and condition dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tokman, Daniel; Ruch, Jasmin; Pulpitel, Tamara; Ponton, Fleur

    2014-01-01

    Animals living in groups face a high risk of disease contagion. In many arthropod species, cuticular antimicrobials constitute the first protective barrier that prevents infections. Here we report that group-living spiders produce cuticular chemicals which inhibit fungal growth. Given that cuticular antifungals may be costly to produce, we explored whether they can be modulated according to the risk of contagion (i.e. under high densities). For this purpose, we quantified cuticular antifungal activity in the subsocial crab spider Diaea ergandros in both natural nests and experimentally manipulated nests of varying density. We quantified the body-condition of spiders to test whether antifungal activity is condition dependent, as well as the effect of spider density on body-condition. We predicted cuticular antifungal activity to increase and body-condition to decrease with high spider densities, and that antifungal activity would be inversely related to body-condition. Contrary to our predictions, antifungal activity was neither density- nor condition-dependent. However, body-condition decreased with density in natural nests, but increased in experimental nests. We suggest that pathogen pressure is so important in nature that it maintains high levels of cuticular antifungal activity in spiders, impacting negatively on individual energetic condition. Future studies should identify the chemical structure of the isolated antifungal compounds in order to understand the physiological basis of a trade-off between disease prevention and energetic condition caused by group living, and its consequences in the evolution of sociality in spiders.

  8. In vitro Antifungal, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of a Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract and protein fraction of Atlantia monophylla Linn (Rutaceae) leaf. Methods: Ammonium sulphate (0 – 80 %) precipitation method was used to extract protein from the leaves of A. monophylla Linn (Rutaceae). In vitro antifungal ...

  9. Antifungal activity of crude extracts of Gladiolus dalenii van Geel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulb extracts of Gladiolus dalenii reportedly used in the treatment of fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Lake Victoria region were tested for antifungal activity using the disc diffusion assay technique. Commercially used antifungal drugs, Ketaconazole and Griseofulvin (Cosmos Pharmaceuticals) were used as ...

  10. Extracellular DNA Release Acts as an Antifungal Resistance Mechanism in Mature Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Williams, Craig; Lappin, David F.; Millington, Owain; Martins, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus has been shown to form biofilms that are associated with adaptive antifungal resistance mechanisms. These include multidrug efflux pumps, heat shock proteins, and extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM is a key structural and protective component of microbial biofilms and in bacteria has been shown to contain extracellular DNA (eDNA). We therefore hypothesized that A. fumigatus biofilms also possess eDNA as part of the ECM, conferring a functional role. Fluorescence microscopy and quantitative PCR analyses demonstrated the presence of eDNA, which was released phase dependently (8 autolysis, were significantly upregulated as the biofilm matured and that inhibition of chitinases affected biofilm growth and stability, indicating mechanistically that autolysis was possibly involved. Finally, using checkerboard assays, it was shown that combinational treatment of biofilms with DNase plus amphotericin B and caspofungin significantly improved antifungal susceptibility. Collectively, these data show that eDNA is an important structural component of A. fumigatus ECM that is released through autolysis, which is important for protection from environmental stresses, including antifungal therapy. PMID:23314962

  11. Sensitivity of Candida albicans to essential oils: are they an alternative to antifungal agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, E; Cantamessa, S; Pavan, M; Novello, G; Massa, N; Rocchetti, A; Berta, G; Gamalero, E

    2016-12-01

    Candida albicans is an important opportunistic pathogen, responsible for the majority of yeast infections in humans. Essential oils, extracted from aromatic plants, are well-known antimicrobial agents, characterized by a broad spectrum of activities, including antifungal properties. The aim of this work was to assess the sensitivity of 30 different vaginal isolated strains of C. albicans to 12 essential oils, compared to the three main used drugs (clotrimazole, fluconazole and itraconazole). Thirty strains of C. albicans were isolated from vaginal swab on CHROMagar ™ Candida. The agar disc diffusion method was employed to determine the sensitivity to the essential oils. The antifungal activity of the essential oils and antifungal drugs (clotrimazole, itraconazole and fluconazole) were investigated using a microdilution method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed to get a deep inside on cellular damages. Mint, basil, lavender, tea tree oil, winter savory and oregano essential oils inhibited both the growth and the activity of C. albicans more efficiently than clotrimazole. Damages induced by essential oils at the cellular level were stronger than those caused by clotrimazole. Candida albicans is more sensitive to different essential oils compared to the main used drugs. Moreover, the essential oil affected mainly the cell wall and the membranes of the yeast. The results of this work support the research for new alternatives or complementary therapies against vaginal candidiasis. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Antifungal therapy: drug-drug interactions at your fingertips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lempers, V.J.; Bruggemann, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    The Information Age has revolutionized the ability of healthcare professionals (HCPs) to oversee a substantial body of clinically relevant information literally at one's fingertips. In the field of clinical pharmacology, this may be particularly useful for managing drug-drug interactions (DDIs). A

  13. Microbial Biotransformation to Obtain New Antifungals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Luiz F.; Arruda, Maria F. C.; Vieira, Sergio R.; Campelo, Patrícia M. S.; Grégio, Ana M. T.; Rosa, Edvaldo A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal drugs belong to few chemical groups and such low diversity limits the therapeutic choices. The urgent need of innovative options has pushed researchers to search new bioactive molecules. Literature regarding the last 15 years reveals that different research groups have used different approaches to achieve such goal. However, the discovery of molecules with different mechanisms of action still demands considerable time and efforts. This review was conceived to present how Pharmaceutical Biotechnology might contribute to the discovery of molecules with antifungal properties by microbial biotransformation procedures. Authors present some aspects of (1) microbial biotransformation of herbal medicines and food; (2) possibility of major and minor molecular amendments in existing molecules by biocatalysis; (3) methodological improvements in processes involving whole cells and immobilized enzymes; (4) potential of endophytic fungi to produce antimicrobials by bioconversions; and (5) in silico research driving to the improvement of molecules. All these issues belong to a new conception of transformation procedures, so-called “green chemistry,” which aims the highest possible efficiency with reduced production of waste and the smallest environmental impact. PMID:26733974

  14. Oropharyngeal candidiasis and resistance to antifungal drugs in patients receiving radiation for head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rad DMD, MSc

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common infection in patient receiving radiotherapy for head and neckcancer. Accurate and rapid identification of candida species is very important in clinical laboratory, because theincidence of candidiasis continues to rise after radiotherapy. The genus Candida has about 154 species that showdifferent level of resistance to antifungal drugs and have high degree of phenotypic similarity. The aim of this study wasto investigate oral yeast colonization and infection and resistance to antifungal drugs in these patients.METHODS: Thirty patients receiving a 6-week course of radiation therapy for treatment of head and neck cancer at theOncology Unit in Shafa Hospital, in 2008, were enrolled in the study. Specimens from patients were cultured weeklyfor Candida. All isolates were plated on CHROM agar and RPMI-based medium. They were subcultured and submittedfor antifungal susceptibility testing (nystatin, fluconazole, clotrimazole and ketoconazole and molecular typing.RESULTS: Infection (clinical and microbiological evidence occurred in 50% of the patients and Candida colonization(only microbiological evidence occurred in 70% of subjects in the first week. Candida albicans alone was isolated in94.9% of patient visits with positive cultures. Candida tropicalis was isolated from 5.1% of patient visits with positivecultures. All isolates were susceptible to nystatin, but did not respond to the other antifungal drugsCONCLUSIONS: The irradiation-induced changes of the intraoral environment such as xerostomia lead to increasedintraoral colonization by Candida species. All yeast isolates were susceptible to nystatin. Thus prophylactic therapywith nystatin should be considered for these patients.

  15. Comparing the therapeutic efficacies of third-generation cephalosporins and broader-spectrum β-lactams as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia: a propensity score matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hsun; Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Hung, Yuan-Pin; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Ching-Chi

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) was compared with that of broader-spectrum β-lactams (BSBLs) [fourth-generation cephalosporins (4GCs) and carbapenems] as empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia. Compared with those in the 3GC group (n = 477), a significantly higher proportion of patients in the BSBL group (n = 141) had initial presentation with severe sepsis or septic shock, critical illness (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) at bacteraemia onset and fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification). For propensity score matching, 318 of the 477 patients in the 3GC group were matched with 106 patients in the BSBL group with the closest propensity scores on the basis of five independent predictors of 28-day mortality. After appropriate matching, no significant differences were observed in major baseline characteristics between the 3GC and BSBL groups in terms of causative micro-organism, bacteraemia severity, major source of bacteraemia, major co-morbidities and severity of co-morbidity. Consequently, the early clinical failure rate (12.9% vs. 12.3%; P = 0.87), bacteraemia severity (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4; 4.6% vs. 8.2%; P = 0.17) at Day 3, and 3-day (3.8% vs. 7.5%; P = 0.11) and 28-day (13.2% vs. 17.0%; P = 0.33) crude mortality rates between the two groups were similar. These data suggest that the efficacy of 3GCs is similar to that of 4GCs or carbapenems when used as empirical antimicrobial therapy for community-onset Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Steroid acne vs. Pityrosporum folliculitis: the incidence of Pityrosporum ovale and the effect of antifungal drugs in steroid acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H J; Lee, S K; Son, S J; Kim, Y S; Yang, H Y; Kim, J H

    1998-10-01

    Steroid acne is a folliculitis that can result from systemic or topical administration of steroid, and has been described as showing a similar clinical picture to Pityrosporum folliculitis, but there have been few reports about the incidence of Pityrosporum ovale and the effect of antimycotic drugs in steroid acne and other acneiform eruptions. Our purpose was to describe the association between steroid acne and P. ovale, and to confirm the superior efficacy of oral antifungal drugs over anti-acne drugs in the treatment of steroid acne. The history, clinical features direct microscopy, histopathologic analysis, and therapeutic results of 125 cases with steroid acne or other acneiform eruptions were described and compared. Over 80% of patients with acneiform eruption receiving systemic steroid revealed significant numbers of P. ovale in the lesional follicle. Furthermore, oral antifungal drug (itraconazole) showed significantly better clinical and mycologic effects than any other group of medications used in this study. Steroid acne and other acneiform eruptions showing discrete follicular papules and/or pustules localized to the upper trunk and acneiform facial skin lesions associated with multiple acneiform lesions on the body in the summer period should be suspected as Pityrosporum folliculitis. In addition, oral antifungal drugs recommended for Pityrosporum folliculitis; however, it will require a larger case-control study to confirm the superiority of antifungal therapy over anti-acne treatment.

  17. Comparative study on antifungal activities of chitosan nanoparticles and chitosan silver nano composites against Fusarium oxysporum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dananjaya, S H S; Erandani, W K C U; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Jehee; De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2017-12-01

    Though the metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown favorable results against fungal diseases, erratic environmental toxicity of NPs have raised serious concerns against their applications. Hence, it is vital to modify antifungal compounds into safe substitutes over synthetic chemicals. In this study, antifungal effects of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) and chitosan silver nanocomposites (CAgNCs) were compared against Fusarium oxysporum species complex. CNPs and CAgNCs were synthesized, characterized and compared based on the transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis absorbance spectra, particle size distribution, zeta potential and thermal stability analysis. Ultra-structural analysis on mycelium membrane of treated F. oxysporum showed that CNPs and CAgNCs could induce a pronounced membrane damage and disruption of the mycelium surface, increase the membrane permeability, and even cell disintegration. CAgNCs showed a significantly higher radial growth inhibition than CNPs in all the tested concentrations. Both CNPs and CAgNCs were not only effective in reducing the fungal growth, but also caused morphological and ultrastructural changes in the pathogen, thereby suggesting its usage as an antifungal dispersion system to control F. oxysporum. Additionally, CNPs and CAgNCs therapy reduced the F. oxysporum infection in zebrafish. Data demonstrates biologically active CNPs and CAgNCs are promising antifungal agents against F. oxysporum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Mithun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment and maintenance of oral microbiota is related not only to interbacterial coaggregations but also to interactions of these bacteria with yeasts. Hence, it is important for agents used in the treatment of oral diseases to have antifungal properties for effective therapy. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The pomegranate peel is separated, dried and powdered. Fennel, cumin and acacia bark obtained from the tree are powdered. Candida is inoculated at 37˚C and seeded on Sabourauds agar medium. Sterilized filter papers saturated with 30 μl of the extracts are placed on the seeded plates and inoculated at 24 and 48 h. Zones of inhibition on all four sides are measured around the filter paper with a vernier caliper. The experiments were repeated on four plates, with four samples of each extract on one plate for all of the extracts. Results: All the above-mentioned ingredients showed antifungal property, with Punica granatum showing the highest inhibition of Candida albicans with a mean zone of inhibition of 22 mm. P-values <0.05 were obtained for Punica granatum when compared with the other extracts. Conclusion: The results showed the potential use of these products as cheap and convenient adjuvants to pharmaceutical antifungal products.

  19. Tioconazole, a new imidazole-antifungal agent for the treatment of dermatomycoses. Antifungal and pharmacologic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, M S; Baird, J R; Brammer, K W; Faulkner, J K; Halliwell, G; Jevons, S; Tarbit, M H

    1983-01-01

    Tioconazole is a new imidazole antifungal agent with broad-spectrum activity. Its in vitro activity against common dermal pathogens is generally better than miconazole by a factor of 2-8. This activity is paralleled by good topical efficacy in a guinea pig dermatomycosis model. Pharmacokinetic studies in animals have demonstrated minimal systemic exposure following dermal application. Acute general pharmacology studies have shown that the compound is well tolerated in animals and unlikely to produce side-effects in man.

  20. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications.

  1. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Limonene against Trichophyton rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Hee Youn; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Min Hee

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the antifungal activities of limonene against Trichophyton rubrum were evaluated via broth microdilution and vapor contact assays. In both assays, limonene was shown to exert a potent antifungal effect against T. rubrum. The volatile vapor of limonene at concentrations above 1 ?l/800 ml air space strongly inhibited the growth of T. rubrum. The MIC value was 0.5% v/v in the broth microdilution assay. The antifungal activity of limonene against T. rubrum was characterized as a fu...

  2. Functionalised isocoumarins as antifungal compounds: Synthesis and biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Milena; Paunovic, Nikola; Boric, Ivan; Randjelovic, Jelena; Vojnovic, Sandra; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Pekmezovic, Marina; Savic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 3-substituted isocoumarins was prepared via Pd-catalysed coupling processes and screened in vitro for antifungal activity against Candida species. The study revealed antifungal potential of isocoumarins possessing the azole substituents, which, in some cases, showed biological properties equal to those of clinically used voriconazole. Selected compounds were also screened against voriconazole resistant Candida krusei 6258 and a clinical isolate Candida parapsilosis CA-27. Although the activity against these targets needs to be improved further, the results emphasise additional potential of this new class of antifungal compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.; Shahnaz; Tabassum, S.; Ogunwande, I.A.; Pervez, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  4. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M S; Shahnaz,; Tabassum, S; Ogunwande, I A; Pervez, M K [University of Karachi (Pakistan). HEJ Research Inst. of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences

    2010-08-15

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  5. Relationship between intracranial pressure and antifungal agents levels in the CSF of patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Fernanda; de Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Pilla, Carmen; Aquino, Valério Rodrigues; Neto, Gustavo Wissmann; Goldani, Luciano Zubaran

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of intracranial hypertension in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amphotericin B and fluconazole levels of patients with cryptococcal meningitis. CSF samples and intracranial pressure were obtained by means of routine punctures performed at days 1, 7, and 14 of therapy, respectively. Amphotericin B and fluconazole CSF levels were measured by HPLC method as previously described. The minimum inhibitory concentration for amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5΄flucytosine, and voriconazole of each Cryptococcus isolate was performed according to CLSI. The predominant Cryptococcus species found was C. neoformans, and the major underlying condition was AIDS. Only one CSF sample had a detectable level for amphotericin B during the 14 days of therapy. Fluconazole CSF levels progressively increased from day 1 to day 14 of therapy for most cases. Fluconazole levels in the CSF were above the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Cryptococcus during the initial 14 days of antifungal therapy. Variations of intracranial pressure did not affect amphotericin B and fluconazole levels in the CSF. The generalized estimating correlation (GEE) and Spearman correlation test (SCT) showed no significant correlation between the amphotericin B or fluconazole concentrations in the CSF and intracranial pressure (P = .953 and P = .093, respectively for GEE test and P = .477 and P = .847, respectively, for SCT). Combination therapy of amphotericin B with fluconazole was effective in 60% of the patients considering CSF cultures were negative in 9 of 15 patients after 14 days of therapy. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of intracranial hypertension on the therapeutic efficacy of different antifungal agents in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

  6. EFFECT OF EXTRACTION METHODS ON ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SEA CUCUMBER (Stichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Husni

    2014-05-01

    Both SM and CS exhibited their highest antifungal activity when extracted by HRE with 70% ethanol and by HRE with water, respectively, while their highest yields were obtained when extracted by PSE with water. SM has more antifungal than potassium sorbate but weaker than propyl paraben, while CS has more antifungal than the two antifungal agents. Keywords: Antifungal, heat reflux extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, Stichopus japonicus

  7. Antifungal susceptibility and phylogeny of opportunistic members of the order mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Roxana G; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schwarz, Patrick; Dannaoui, Eric; Deng, Shuwen; Machouart, Marie; Voigt, Kerstin; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Meis, Jacques F; Walther, Grit

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the nuclear ribosomal large subunit to reveal taxon-specific susceptibility profiles. The impressive phylogenetic diversity of the Mucorales was reflected in susceptibilities differing at family, genus, and species levels. Amphotericin B was the most active drug, though somewhat less against Rhizopus and Cunninghamella species. Posaconazole was the second most effective antifungal agent but showed reduced activity in Mucor and Cunninghamella strains, while voriconazole lacked in vitro activity for most strains. Genera attributed to the Mucoraceae exhibited a wide range of MICs for posaconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine and included resistant strains. Cunninghamella also comprised strains resistant to all azoles tested but was fully susceptible to terbinafine. In contrast, the Lichtheimiaceae completely lacked strains with reduced susceptibility for these antifungals. Syncephalastrum species exhibited susceptibility profiles similar to those of the Lichtheimiaceae. Mucor species were more resistant to azoles than Rhizopus species. Species-specific responses were obtained for terbinafine where only Rhizopus arrhizus and Mucor circinelloides were resistant. Complete or vast resistance was observed for 5-fluorocytosine, caspofungin, and micafungin. Intraspecific variability of in vitro susceptibility was found in all genera tested but was especially high in Mucor and Rhizopus for azoles and terbinafine. Accurate molecular identification of etiologic agents is compulsory to predict therapy outcome. For species of critical genera such as Mucor and Rhizopus, exhibiting high intraspecific variation, susceptibility testing before the onset of therapy is recommended.

  8. Antifungal Effect of (+-Pinoresinol Isolated from Sambucus williamsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomi Hwang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of (+-pinoresinol, a biphenolic compound isolated from the herb Sambucus williamsii,used in traditional medicine. (+-Pinoresinol displays potent antifungal properties without hemolytic effects on human erythrocytes. To understand the antifungal mechanism of (+-pinoresinol, we conducted fluorescence experiments on the human pathogen Candida albicans. Fluorescence analysis using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH indicated that the (+-pinoresinol caused damage to the fungal plasma membrane. This result was confirmed by using rhodamine-labeled giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV experiments. Therefore, the present study indicates that (+-pinoresinol possesses fungicidal activities and therapeutic potential as an antifungal agent for the treatment of fungal infectious diseases in humans.

  9. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Musa Phytoalexins and Structural Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gallego

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Several perinaphthenone/phenylphenalenone compounds were synthesized to establish a relationship between structure and antifungal activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Substitutions on the unsaturated carbonyl system or addition of a phenyl group reduced antibiotic activity.

  10. Design, Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Psoralen Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of linear furanocoumarins with different substituents have been designed and synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectra (EI-MS, IR, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. All of the target compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antifungal activity against Rhizoctorzia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Gibberella zeae, Cucumber anthrax, and Alternaria leaf spot at 100 μg/mL, and some of the designed compounds exhibited potential antifungal activities. Compound 3a (67.9% exhibited higher activity than the control Osthole (66.1% against Botrytis cinerea. Furthermore, compound 4b (62.4% represented equivalent antifungal activity as Osthole (69.5% against Rhizoctonia solani. The structure-activity relationship (SAR study demonstrates that linear furanocoumarin moiety has an important effect on the antifungal activity, promoting the idea of the coumarin ring as a framework that might be exploited in the future.

  11. A Novel Mechanistic Approach to Identify New Antifungal Lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... The MIC of the more effective compounds, delta-decalactone and mandelonitrile ... screening which is increasingly used as a cost- ..... AD. Lanomycin and glucolanomycin, antifungal agents produced by ...

  12. Antifungal Activity of Hypericum havvae Against Some Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antifungal activity of the extracts was tested against medical yeast, Candida (C. albicans ATCC 10231, ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), .... It is important to bear in mind that the.

  13. Phytochemical Analysis, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... of total phenolics, antifungal and antioxidant activity of leaf and fruit extract of Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) ... Flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins and phenols were found in both extracts.

  14. Antifungal activity of different extracts of Ageratum conyzoides for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhammad Arif Javed

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... In case of aqueous extracts, the maximum reduction was observed in leaf extract (72%) ... antifungal and insecticidal agents (Hajlaoui et al., 2009). Extracts of many ..... growth reduction of mycelia of phytophthora on neem leaf.

  15. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Key words: Barringtonia racemosa, antifungal, HPLC, phenolic acids, flavonoids. ... Among them, phenolic acids and flavonoids have been the object of .... on the previous method as described by Crozier et al. ... Quantification.

  16. Cryptic antifungal compounds active by synergism with polyene antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Mariko; Ihara, Fumio; Nihira, Takuya

    2016-04-01

    The majority of antifungal compounds reported so far target the cell wall or cell membrane of fungi, suggesting that other types of antibiotics cannot exert their activity because they cannot penetrate into the cells. Therefore, if the permeability of the cell membrane could be enhanced, many antibiotics might be found to have antifungal activity. We here used the polyene antibiotic nystatin, which binds to ergosterol and forms pores at the cell membrane, to enhance the cellular permeability. In the presence of nystatin, many culture extracts from entomopathogenic fungi displayed antifungal activity. Among all the active extracts, two active components were purified and identified as helvolic acid and terramide A. Because the minimum inhibitory concentration of either compound was reduced four-fold in the presence of nystatin, it can be concluded that this screening method is useful for detecting novel antifungal activity. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antibioticoterapia oral versus endovenosa em crianças neutropênicas febris recebendo quimioterapia Oral vs. intravenous empirical antimicrobial therapy in febrile neutropenic patients receiving childhood cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Rech Cagol

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o uso de antibioticoterapia endovenosa versus oral. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas todas as crianças e adolescentes neutropênicos com idade inferior a 18 anos classificados como baixo risco para complicações e recebendo quimioterapia. O estudo ocorreu entre 2002 e 2005 na Unidade de Oncologia Pediátrica, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre (RS. Os pacientes, divididos em grupo A e grupo B, eram randomizados para receber terapia oral ou endovenosa. O tratamento utilizado para o grupo A foi ciprofloxacina e amoxicilina/clavulanato via oral e placebo endovenoso e, para o grupo B, cefepime e placebo oral. RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados 91 episódios consecutivos de neutropenia febril em 58 crianças. Para os pacientes do grupo A, a taxa de falência foi de 51,2% e a média de tempo de hospitalização foi de 8 dias (variação de 2-10. Para os pacientes tratados com antibioticoterapia endovenosa, a taxa de falência foi de 45,8% e a média de tempo de hospitalização foi de 7 dias (variação de 3-10. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo não houve diferenças entre a antibioticoterapia oral versus a terapia endovenosa. Estudos randomizados com maior número de pacientes são necessários antes de padronizar a terapêutica oral como tratamento para esta população de pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of intravenous vs. oral antibiotic therapy. METHODS: All febrile neutropenic patients younger than 18 years old with low risk of complications and receiving chemotherapy were selected. The study was conducted from 2002 to 2005 at the Pediatric Oncology Unit of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were divided into group A and group B and were randomly assigned to receive oral or intravenous therapy. The empirical antimicrobial treatment used for group A consisted in oral ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin-clavulanate and intravenous placebo, and group B received cefepime and oral placebo

  18. A Comparison of Evidence-Based Estimates and Empirical Benchmarks of the Appropriate Rate of Use of Radiation Therapy in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackillop, William J.; Kong, Weidong; Brundage, Michael; Hanna, Timothy P.; Zhang-Salomons, Jina; McLaughlin, Pierre-Yves; Tyldesley, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Estimates of the appropriate rate of use of radiation therapy (RT) are required for planning and monitoring access to RT. Our objective was to compare estimates of the appropriate rate of use of RT derived from mathematical models, with the rate observed in a population of patients with optimal access to RT. Methods and Materials: The rate of use of RT within 1 year of diagnosis (RT 1Y ) was measured in the 134,541 cases diagnosed in Ontario between November 2009 and October 2011. The lifetime rate of use of RT (RT LIFETIME ) was estimated by the multicohort utilization table method. Poisson regression was used to evaluate potential barriers to access to RT and to identify a benchmark subpopulation with unimpeded access to RT. Rates of use of RT were measured in the benchmark subpopulation and compared with published evidence-based estimates of the appropriate rates. Results: The benchmark rate for RT 1Y , observed under conditions of optimal access, was 33.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.0%-34.1%), and the benchmark for RT LIFETIME was 41.5% (95% CI, 41.2%-42.0%). Benchmarks for RT LIFETIME for 4 of 5 selected sites and for all cancers combined were significantly lower than the corresponding evidence-based estimates. Australian and Canadian evidence-based estimates of RT LIFETIME for 5 selected sites differed widely. RT LIFETIME in the overall population of Ontario was just 7.9% short of the benchmark but 20.9% short of the Australian evidence-based estimate of the appropriate rate. Conclusions: Evidence-based estimates of the appropriate lifetime rate of use of RT may overestimate the need for RT in Ontario

  19. Propensity score-matched analysis comparing the therapeutic efficacies of cefazolin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus mirabilis bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Lee, Chung-Hsun; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Hung, Yuan-Pin; Lee, Nan-Yao; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Ching-Chi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of cefazolin was compared with that of extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime) as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial bacteraemia caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. or Proteus mirabilis (EKP). Compared with cefazolin-treated patients (n = 135), significantly higher proportions of patients in the ESC treatment group (n = 456) had critical illness at bacteraemia onset (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) and fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification). Of the 591 patients, 121 from each group were matched using propensity score matching (PSM) based on the following independent predictors of 28-day mortality: fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification); Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4 at bacteraemia onset; initial syndrome of septic shock; and bacteraemia due to pneumonia. After appropriate PSM, no significant differences were observed in the early clinical failure rate (10.7% vs. 7.4%; P = 0.37), the proportion of critical illness (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) (0% vs. 0%; P = 1.00) and defervescence (52.6% vs. 42.6%; P = 0.13) on Day 3 between the cefazolin and ESC treatment groups. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in the mean of time to defervescence (4.1 days vs. 4.9 days; P = 0.15), late clinical failure rate (18.2% vs. 10.7%; P = 0.10) and 28-day crude mortality rate (0.8% vs. 3.3%; P = 0.37) between the two groups. These data suggest that the efficacy of cefazolin is similar to that of ESCs when used as appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment for community-onset EKP bacteraemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation of antifungally active lactobacilli from edam cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuma, S.; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Plocková, M.

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal activity of 322 lactobacilli strains isolated from Edam cheese at different stages of the ripening process was tested against Fusarium proliferatum M 5689 using a dual overlay spot assay. Approximately 21% of the isolates showed a certain level of inhibitory activity. Seven strains...... as Lb. paracasei and three as Lb. fermentum. Lb. paracasei ST 68 was chosen for further testing as antifungal protective adjunct for Edam cheese production.  ...

  1. Use of a modified hair strand test to assess the antifungal activity kinetics of dog hair after a 2% climbazole shampoo application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean Yanique; Cavana, Paola; Thoumire, Sandra; Guillot, Jacques; Perrot, Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    The "hair strand test" was first developed as a model to evaluate the antifungal activity of antidandruff shampoos. To assess the residual activity of an antifungal shampoo on the hair shafts of dogs after a single application, followed by bathing with a physiological shampoo one month later. Six beagles (two males and four females) from a research colony. Dogs were bathed with a 2% climbazole shampoo. Hairs were collected before application of the shampoo and at scheduled intervals for 30 days after treatment. A physiological shampoo was then applied to all dogs and hairs were collected following the same schedule. The inhibition zone around the hair shafts was measured after incubation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates streaked with three Malassezia pachydermatis strains. Inhibition zones around hairs collected from dogs bathed with 2% climbazole shampoo were significantly larger than those around hairs collected before shampooing at all time points (P = 0.003). An increase in the width of the inhibition zones around climbazole treated hairs was observed following physiological shampoo on Day 30 (P = 0.005). No significant differences were observed between Malassezia pachydermatis isolates (P = 0.571). No inhibition zones were seen around the hairs of dogs bathed with physiological shampoo only. The modified hair strand test is useful for the assessment of residual antifungal activity on animal hairs. Use of a physiological shampoo following antifungal shampoo therapy may increase the efficacy of the antifungal product for the control of Malassezia overgrowth. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  2. ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS, HEXANE AND METHANOLIC FROM THE LEAVES OF Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. PERS (Malva corama AGAINST MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma de Souza Santana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The infections caused by bacteria and fungi, as well as the subsequent resistance of these microorganisms continue with high incidencesthus studies of medicinal plants and their combination with conventional therapy, are becoming essential. This study examined the antibacterial, antifungal and modifier of resistance to antibiotics and antifungal extracts of ethanol, hexane and methanol from the leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata, used in folk medicine. The phytochemical was performed qualitatively by visual observation of color changes and formation of precipitates after addition of specific reagents, such as ferric chloride (Fecl310% sodium hydroxide (NaOH10%, hydrochloric acid (HCl 1%, acid  acetic acid 5%, ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH 10%, chloroform and  reagent Draggendorff 10%. The analysis for antimicrobial activity was through the microdilution test for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and modifying the action of antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin and antifungals (ketoconazole and fluconazole in association with the extracts. The phytochemicals assays indicated the presence of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids and flabobênicos tannins. In assessing the MIC results were obtained <1024μg/ mL for Candida albicans and Candida krusei. There was synergism between extracts of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves with aminoglycosides and antifungal, reducing the concentration of CIM of multidrug-resistant strains. Our results demonstrate that the extracts of Kalanchoe pinnata have bioactive constituents with antimicrobial activity in vitro. Keywords: Kalcinchoe pinnata, Microorganisms, Synergistic effect, Antifungal, Antibacterial.

  3. Antifungal Activity of Brazilian Propolis Microparticles against Yeasts Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen Fátima Dalben Dota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis, a resinous compound produced by Apis mellifera L. bees, is known to possess a variety of biological activities and is applied in the therapy of various infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis ethanol extract (PE and propolis microparticles (PMs obtained from a sample of Brazilian propolis against clinical yeast isolates of importance in the vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC. PE was used to prepare the microparticles. Yeast isolates (n=89, obtained from vaginal exudates of patients with VVC, were exposed to the PE and the PMs. Moreover, the main antifungal drugs used in the treatment of VVC (Fluconazole, Voriconazole, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Miconazole and Amphotericin B were also tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined according to the standard broth microdilution method. Some Candida albicans isolates showed resistance or dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs and Amphotericin B. Non-C. albicans isolates showed more resistance and dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs than C. albicans. However, all of them were sensitive or dose-dependent susceptible for Amphotericin B. All yeasts were inhibited by PE and PMs, with small variation, independent of the species of yeast. The overall results provided important information for the potential application of PMs in the therapy of VVC and the possible prevention of the occurrence of new symptomatic episodes.

  4. Molecular Tools for the Detection and Deduction of Azole Antifungal Drug Resistance Phenotypes in Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudakova, Anna; Spiess, Birgit; Tangwattanachuleeporn, Marut; Sasse, Christoph; Buchheidt, Dieter; Weig, Michael; Groß, Uwe; Bader, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of azole resistance in Aspergillus species has increased over the past years, most importantly for Aspergillus fumigatus . This is partially attributable to the global spread of only a few resistance alleles through the environment. Secondary resistance is a significant clinical concern, as invasive aspergillosis with drug-susceptible strains is already difficult to treat, and exclusion of azole-based antifungals from prophylaxis or first-line treatment of invasive aspergillosis in high-risk patients would dramatically limit drug choices, thus increasing mortality rates for immunocompromised patients. Management options for invasive aspergillosis caused by azole-resistant A. fumigatus strains were recently reevaluated by an international expert panel, which concluded that drug resistance testing of cultured isolates is highly indicated when antifungal therapy is intended. In geographical regions with a high environmental prevalence of azole-resistant strains, initial therapy should be guided by such analyses. More environmental and clinical screening studies are therefore needed to generate the local epidemiologic data if such measures are to be implemented on a sound basis. Here we propose a first workflow for evaluating isolates from screening studies, and we compile the MIC values correlating with individual amino acid substitutions in the products of cyp51 genes for interpretation of DNA sequencing data, especially in the absence of cultured isolates. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Rapamycin exerts antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo against Mucor circinelloides via FKBP12-dependent inhibition of Tor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Robert J; Shertz, Cecelia A; Lee, Soo Chan; Heitman, Joseph; Cardenas, Maria E

    2012-03-01

    The zygomycete Mucor circinelloides is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that commonly infects patients with malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and solid organ transplants. Despite the widespread use of antifungal therapy in the management of zygomycosis, the incidence of infections continues to rise among immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we established that the target and mechanism of antifungal action of the immunosuppressant rapamycin in M. circinelloides are mediated via conserved complexes with FKBP12 and a Tor homolog. We found that spontaneous mutations that disrupted conserved residues in FKBP12 conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Disruption of the FKBP12-encoding gene, fkbA, also conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Expression of M. circinelloides FKBP12 (McFKBP12) complemented a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain lacking FKBP12 to restore rapamycin sensitivity. Expression of the McTor FKBP12-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain conferred rapamycin resistance in S. cerevisiae, and McFKBP12 interacted in a rapamycin-dependent fashion with the McTor FRB domain in a yeast two-hybrid assay, validating McFKBP12 and McTor as conserved targets of rapamycin. We showed that in vitro, rapamycin exhibited potent growth inhibitory activity against M. circinelloides. In a Galleria mellonella model of systemic mucormycosis, rapamycin improved survival by 50%, suggesting that rapamycin and nonimmunosuppressive analogs have the potential to be developed as novel antifungal therapies for treatment of patients with mucormycosis.

  6. Rapamycin Exerts Antifungal Activity In Vitro and In Vivo against Mucor circinelloides via FKBP12-Dependent Inhibition of Tor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Robert J.; Shertz, Cecelia A.; Lee, Soo Chan; Heitman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The zygomycete Mucor circinelloides is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that commonly infects patients with malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and solid organ transplants. Despite the widespread use of antifungal therapy in the management of zygomycosis, the incidence of infections continues to rise among immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we established that the target and mechanism of antifungal action of the immunosuppressant rapamycin in M. circinelloides are mediated via conserved complexes with FKBP12 and a Tor homolog. We found that spontaneous mutations that disrupted conserved residues in FKBP12 conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Disruption of the FKBP12-encoding gene, fkbA, also conferred rapamycin and FK506 resistance. Expression of M. circinelloides FKBP12 (McFKBP12) complemented a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain lacking FKBP12 to restore rapamycin sensitivity. Expression of the McTor FKBP12-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain conferred rapamycin resistance in S. cerevisiae, and McFKBP12 interacted in a rapamycin-dependent fashion with the McTor FRB domain in a yeast two-hybrid assay, validating McFKBP12 and McTor as conserved targets of rapamycin. We showed that in vitro, rapamycin exhibited potent growth inhibitory activity against M. circinelloides. In a Galleria mellonella model of systemic mucormycosis, rapamycin improved survival by 50%, suggesting that rapamycin and nonimmunosuppressive analogs have the potential to be developed as novel antifungal therapies for treatment of patients with mucormycosis. PMID:22210828

  7. Routine versus selective antifungal administration for control of fungal infections in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2014-01-01

    commonly used antifungal drugs decrease mortality in cancer patients with neutropenia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched PubMed from 1966 to 7 July 2014 and the reference lists of identified articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised clinical trials of amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole....... Prophylactic or empirical treatment with amphotericin B significantly decreased total mortality (relative risk (RR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50 to 0.96), whereas the estimated RRs for fluconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and itraconazole were close to 1.00. No eligible trials were found.......73), fluconazole (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.57) and itraconazole (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.97), but not with ketoconazole or miconazole. Effect estimates were similar for those 13 trials that had adequate allocation concealment and were blinded. The reporting of harms was far too variable from trial to trial...

  8. Antibiotics and antifungals in VLBW infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cuzzolin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Very low birth weight infants are particularly vulnerable to bacterial and fungal infections. This leads to a common use of antiinfectives, often on a prophylactic basis. Due to the limited available information and the lack of guidelines, the use of antibacterials and antifungals in preterm newborns admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Units is characterized by a large variability and these drugs are frequently given with different modalities, particularly as regards dosage and frequency, and in an off-label manner. This article provides an updated overview of the current situation on the use of antiinfectives in prematures, by reporting information derived by an analysis of the literature. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  9. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Terbinafine: novel formulations that potentiate antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y; Chen, X; Guan, S

    2015-03-01

    Terbinafine, an orally and topically active antifungal agent, has been available for the treatment of dermatophytic infections and onychomycosis for more than a decade. In addition, oral administration has been shown to be associated with drug-drug interactions, hepatotoxicity, low concentration at the infected sites, gastrointestinal and systemic side effects and other adverse effects. Since topical drug delivery can provide higher patient compliance, allow immediate access to the infected site and reduce unwanted systemic drug exposure, an improved topical drug delivery approach with high permeability, sustained release and prolonged retainment could overcome the limitations and side effects caused by oral administration. Conventional topical formulations cannot keep the drug in the targeted sites for a long duration of time and hence a novel drug delivery that can avoid the side effects while still providing sustained efficacy in treatment should be developed. This brief review of novel formulations based on polymers and nanostructure carriers provides insight into the efficacy and topical delivery of terbinafine. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  11. Antifungal Paper Based on a Polyborneolacrylate Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangqi Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Paper documents and products are very susceptible to microbial contamination and damage. Fungi are mainly responsible for those biodeterioration processes. Traditional microbicidal strategies constitute a serious health risk even when microbes are dead. Ideal methods should not be toxic to humans and should have no adverse effects on paper, but should own a broad spectrum, good chemical stability and low cost. In this work, we utilize an advanced antimicrobial strategy of surface stereochemistry by applying a coating of a shallow layer of polyborneolacrylate (PBA, resulting in the desired antifungal performance. The PBA-coated paper is challenged with the most common air-borne fungi growing on paper, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. Ten percent by weight of the coating concentration or a 19-μm infiltration of PBA is sufficient to keep the paper spotless. The PBA coating also exhibits significant inhibition of spores’ germination. After PBA coating, both physicochemical properties (paper whiteness, pH, mechanical strength and inking performance display only slight changes, which are acceptable for general utilization. This PBA coating method is nontoxic, rapid and cost-effective, thus demonstrating great potential for applications in paper products.

  12. Speciation and antifungal susceptibility of esophageal candidiasis in cancer patients in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abirami Lakshmy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection in patients with altered immunity such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection, cancer patients on chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Neutropenia, irradiation and chemotherapy will facilitate deeper mucosal invasion leading to esophageal candidiasis. Empirical treatment of esophageal candidiasis without antifungal susceptibility testing will lead to the emergence of drug resistant species increasing the morbidity and mortality associated with cancer. The present study aimed to study the frequency of esophageal candida in individuals with cancer, species level identification and antifungal susceptibility pattern. Scrapings of whitish appearing lesions were obtained from a total of thirty five cases of endoscopically identified esophageal candidiasis were obtained from cancer patients. Identification of the Candida isolates were done by cultivation in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA, Gram staining, germ tube test, colony morphology in Chrom agar and corn meal agar, sugar assimilation and fermentation tests. Antifungal susceptibility was done by Microbroth dilution method for Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericin B. We found that Candida albicans was the predominant species isolated followed by Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. Sensitivity rates were 94%, 96% and 100% for Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericin B. Species level identification of Candida isolated from esophageal candidiasis and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed for early identification of resistant strains and for promptly treating the cases there by preventing the dissemination of infection in case of immune-compromised individuals. Further the susceptibility pattern will facilitate therapeutic guidance especially in individuals prone to relapse. [J Med Allied Sci 2016; 6(1: 29-34

  13. Clinico-mycological study of dermatophytic infections and their sensitivity to antifungal drugs in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soniya Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Inadequate and irregular use of antifungal drugs has led to the emergence of resistant strains, which cause poor treatment outcomes. Thus, it is very important to test for antifungal sensitivity to check for resistance to antifungals.

  14. Potato dextrose agar antifungal susceptibility testing for yeasts and molds: evaluation of phosphate effect on antifungal activity of CMT-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Tortora, George; Ryan, Maria E; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Golub, Lorne M

    2002-05-01

    The broth macrodilution method (BMM) for antifungal susceptibility testing, approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), was found to have deficiencies in testing of the antifungal activity of a new type of antifungal agent, a nonantibacterial chemically modified tetracycline (CMT-3). The high content of phosphate in the medium was found to greatly increase the MICs of CMT-3. To avoid the interference of phosphate in the test, a new method using potato dextrose agar (PDA) as a culture medium was developed. Eight strains of fungi, including five American Type Culture Collection strains and three clinical isolates, were used to determine the MICs of amphotericin B and itraconazole with both the BMM and the PDA methods. The MICs of the two antifungal agents determined with the PDA method showed 99% agreement with those determined with the BMM method within 1 log(2) dilution. Similarly, the overall reproducibility of the MICs with the PDA method was above 97%. Three other antifungal agents, fluconazole, ketoconazole, and CMT-3, were also tested in parallel against yeasts and molds with both the BMM and the PDA methods. The MICs of fluconazole and ketoconazole determined with the PDA method showed 100% agreement within 1 log(2) dilution of those obtained with the BMM method. However, the MICs of CMT-3 determined with the BMM method were as high as 128 times those determined with the PDA method. The effect of phosphate on the antifungal activity of CMT-3 was evaluated by adding Na2HPO4 to PDA in the new method. It was found that the MIC of CMT-3 against a Penicillium sp. increased from 0.5 microg/ml (control) to 2.0 microg/ml when the added phosphate was used at a concentration of 0.8 mg/ml, indicating a strong interference of Na2HPO4 with the antifungal activity of CMT-3. Except for fluconazole, all the other antifungal agents demonstrated clear end points among the yeasts and molds tested. Nevertheless, with its high reproducibility

  15. In vitro and in vivo antifungal efficacy of plant based lawsone against Fusarium oxysporum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dananjaya, S H S; Udayangani, R M C; Shin, Sang Yeop; Edussuriya, M; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Jehee; De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2017-08-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycete facultative fungus which generally affects to plants. However, it is recently known as a serious emerging opportunistic pathogen of human and other animals. F. oxysporum shows broad resistance to commonly used antifungal agents and therefore development of alternative therapeutic agents is required. In this study, we investigated the antifungal efficacy of plant based natural lawsone against pathogenic F. oxysporum. Antifungal susceptibility test determined the concentration dependent growth inhibition of lawsone against F. oxysporum with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 100μg/mL. Ultra-structural analysis indicates the prominent damage on cell wall of the mycelium after lawsone treatment, and suggests that it could increase the membrane permeability and disintegration of cells leading to cellular death. Propidium iodide (PI) uptake assay results showed the higher level of cell death in lawsone treated F. oxysporum which further confirms the loss of plasma membrane integrity. Also, detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using DCFH-DA has clearly indicated that lawsone (100μg/mL) can induce the ROS level in the filaments of F. oxysporum. MTT assay results showed the loss of viability and germination capacity of F. oxysporum spores by lawsone in concentration dependent manner. Moreover, lawsone treatment induced the mRNA expression of two autophagy related genes (ATG1 and ATG8) indicating that lawsone may activate the autophagy related pathways in F. oxysporum due to the oxidative stress generated by ROS. F. oxysporum infected zebrafish has recovered after lawsone therapy as a topical treatment suggesting that lawsone is a potential natural antifusariosis agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita, L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis.

  17. Dynamics of Mixed- Candida Species Biofilms in Response to Antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipulanandan, G; Herrera, M; Wiederhold, N P; Li, X; Mintz, J; Wickes, B L; Kadosh, D

    2018-01-01

    Oral infections caused by Candida species, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, are frequently associated with biofilms. Although Candida albicans is the predominant organism found in patients with oral thrush, a biofilm infection, there is an increasing incidence of oral colonization and infections caused by non- albicans Candida species, including C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis, which are frequently more resistant to antifungal treatment. While single-species Candida biofilms have been well studied, considerably less is known about the dynamics of mixed- Candida species biofilms and how these dynamics are altered by antifungal treatment. To address these questions, we developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based approach to determine the precise species composition of mixed- Candida species biofilms formed by clinical isolates and laboratory strains in the presence and absence of clinically relevant concentrations of 3 commonly used antifungals: fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B. In monospecies biofilms, fluconazole exposure favored growth of C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, while caspofungin generally favored significant growth of all species to a varying degree. Fluconazole was not effective against preformed mixed- Candida species biofilms while amphotericin B was potent. As a general trend, in mixed- Candida species biofilms, C. albicans lost dominance in the presence of antifungals. Interestingly, presence in mixed versus monospecies biofilms reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Overall, our data suggest that antifungal treatment favors the growth of specific non- albicans Candida species in mixed- Candida species biofilms.

  18. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cobalt complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, M.I.; Gul, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Co(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activity against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cobalt(II) chloride was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine had antifungal activity against all species of fungi studied except Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Candida tropicalis, and Alternaria infectoria. Cobalt(II) nicotine was found to be effective against all selected species of fungi but ineffective against Candida solani, Penicillium notalum, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme. (author)

  19. Isolation and antifungal screening of endophytic fungi from Erigeron canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Bai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen fungal strains isolated from the Erigeron canadensis, one of traditional Chinese medicines used to treat the pathogenic infection and dysentery, were evaluated for their antifungal activities against one human pathogen Candida albicans, and two phytopathogens, Colletotrichum fructicola and Rhizoctonia cerealis. The bioassay results indicated that the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of these fungal endophytes had stronger antimicrobial activities. Among these endophytic strains, the ethyl acetate extracts of strains NPR003 and NPR005 showed the strongest inhibitory effects and has potential application in the discovery of new antifungal agents. This was the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from E. canadensis and evaluation of their antifungal activities.

  20. Mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, David C

    2010-06-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first described in 1995 and is the most closely related species to the predominant human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. C. dubliniensis is significantly less prevalent and less pathogenic than C. albicans and is primarily associated with infections in HIV-infected individuals and other immunocompromised cohorts. The population structure of C. dubliniensis consists of three well-defined major clades and is significantly less diverse than C. albicans. The majority of C. dubliniensis isolates are susceptible to antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections. To date only two major patterns of antifungal drug resistance have been identified and the molecular mechanisms of these are very similar to the resistance mechanisms that have been described previously in C. albicans. However, significant differences are evident in the predominant antifungal drug mechanisms employed by C. dubliniensis, differences that reflect its more clonal nature, its lower prevalence and characteristics of its genome, the complete sequence of which has only recently been determined.

  1. Screening for antifungal activities of extracts of the brazilian seaweed genus Laurencia (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika M. Stein

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of pathogens to commonly used antibiotics has enhanced morbidity and mortality and has triggered the search for new drugs. Several species of the red alga genus Laurencia are very interesting candidates as potential sources of natural products with pharmaceutical activity because they are known to produce a wide range of chemically interesting halogenated secondary metabolites. This is an initial report of the antifungal activities of the secondary metabolites of five species of Laurencia, collected in the state of Espírito Santo, against three strains of pathogenic fungi: Candida albicans (CA, Candida parapsilosis (CP, and Cryptococcus neoformans (CN. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the algal extracts were determined by serial dilution method in RPMI 1640 Medium in 96-well plates according to the NCCLS and microbial growth was determined by absorbance at 492nm. A result showing maintenance or reduction of the inoculum was defined as fungistatic, while fungicidal action was no observed growth in the 10 µL fungistatic samples subcultured in Sabouraud Agar. Our results indicate that apolar extracts of Laurencia species possess antifungal properties and encourage continued research to find new drugs for therapy of infectious diseases in these algae.

  2. Possible mechanisms of the antifungal activity of fluconazole in combination with terbinafine against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodavandi, Alireza; Alizadeh, Fahimeh; Vanda, Nasim Aghai; Karimi, Golgis; Chong, Pei Pei

    2014-12-01

    Candidiasis is a term describing infections by yeasts from the genus Candida, the majority Candida albicans. Treatment of such infections often requires antifungals such as the azoles, but increased use of these drugs has led to selection of yeasts with increased resistance to these drugs. Combination therapy would be one of the best strategies for the treatment of candidiasis due to increased resistance to azoles. The antifungal activities of fluconazole and terbinafine were evaluated in vitro alone and in combination using broth microdilution test and time kill study. Eventually the expression level of selected genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis of Candida was evaluated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The obtained results showed the significant MICs ranging from 0.25 to 8 µg/mL followed by FICs ranged from 0.37 to 1 in combination with fluconazole/terbinafine. Our findings have demonstrated that the combination of fluconazole and terbinafine could also significantly reduce the expression of ERG1, 3, and 11 in the cell membrane of Candida in all concentrations tested ranging from 1.73- to 6.99-fold. This study was undertaken with the ultimate goal of finding the probable targets of fluconazole/terbinafine in C. albicans by looking at its effects on cell membrane synthesis.

  3. Screening for antifungal activities of extracts of the brazilian seaweed genus Laurencia (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika M. Stein

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of pathogens to commonly used antibiotics has enhanced morbidity and mortality and has triggered the search for new drugs. Several species of the red alga genus Laurencia are very interesting candidates as potential sources of natural products with pharmaceutical activity because they are known to produce a wide range of chemically interesting halogenated secondary metabolites. This is an initial report of the antifungal activities of the secondary metabolites of five species of Laurencia, collected in the state of Espírito Santo, against three strains of pathogenic fungi: Candida albicans (CA, Candida parapsilosis (CP, and Cryptococcus neoformans (CN. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the algal extracts were determined by serial dilution method in RPMI 1640 Medium in 96-well plates according to the NCCLS and microbial growth was determined by absorbance at 492nm. A result showing maintenance or reduction of the inoculum was defined as fungistatic, while fungicidal action was no observed growth in the 10 µL fungistatic samples subcultured in Sabouraud Agar. Our results indicate that apolar extracts of Laurencia species possess antifungal properties and encourage continued research to find new drugs for therapy of infectious diseases in these algae.

  4. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  5. Hydrogel of Ketoconazole and PAMAM Dendrimers: Formulation and Antifungal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Tryniszewska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ketoconazole (KET, an imidazole derivative with well-known antifungal properties, is lipophilic and practically insoluble in water, therefore its clinical use has some practical disadvantages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of PAMAM-NH2 and PAMAM-OH dendrimers generation 2 and generation 3 on the solubility and antifungal activity of KET and to design and evaluate KET hydrogel with PAMAM dendrimers. It was shown that the surface charge of PAMAM dendrimers strongly affects their influence on the improvement of solubility and antifungal activity of KET. The MIC and MFC values obtained by broth dilution method indicate that PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers significantly (up to 16-fold increased the antifungal activity of KET against Candida strains (e.g., in culture Candida albicans 1103059/11 MIC value was 0.008 μg/mL and 0.064 μg/mL, and MFC was 2 μg/mL and 32 μg/mL for KET in 10 mg/mL solution of PAMAM-NH2 G2 and pure KET, respectively. Antifungal activity of designed KET hydrogel with PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers measured by the plate diffusion method was definitely higher than pure KET hydrogel and than commercial available product. It was shown that the improvement of solubility and in the consequence the higher KET release from hydrogels seems to be a very significant factor affecting antifungal activity of KET in hydrogels containing PAMAM dendrimers.

  6. Antifungal chemical compounds identified using a C. elegans pathogenicity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Breger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for the development of new antifungal agents. A facile in vivo model that evaluates libraries of chemical compounds could solve some of the main obstacles in current antifungal discovery. We show that Candida albicans, as well as other Candida species, are ingested by Caenorhabditis elegans and establish a persistent lethal infection in the C. elegans intestinal track. Importantly, key components of Candida pathogenesis in mammals, such as filament formation, are also involved in nematode killing. We devised a Candida-mediated C. elegans assay that allows high-throughput in vivo screening of chemical libraries for antifungal activities, while synchronously screening against toxic compounds. The assay is performed in liquid media using standard 96-well plate technology and allows the study of C. albicans in non-planktonic form. A screen of 1,266 compounds with known pharmaceutical activities identified 15 (approximately 1.2% that prolonged survival of C. albicans-infected nematodes and inhibited in vivo filamentation of C. albicans. Two compounds identified in the screen, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, a major active component of honeybee propolis, and the fluoroquinolone agent enoxacin exhibited antifungal activity in a murine model of candidiasis. The whole-animal C. elegans assay may help to study the molecular basis of C. albicans pathogenesis and identify antifungal compounds that most likely would not be identified by in vitro screens that target fungal growth. Compounds identified in the screen that affect the virulence of Candida in vivo can potentially be used as "probe compounds" and may have antifungal activity against other fungi.

  7. Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquid has antifungal activity against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Yolanda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background To develop new effective antifungals, it is essential to search for antifungal compounds from plants such as Nepenthes spp., which have their greatest diversity in Indonesia. Since chitin-induced liquid (CIL from Nepenthes khasiana pitchers has antifungal activity, due to their naphthoquinone content, this study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of Nepenthes rafflesiana pitcher liquids on Candida spp. Methods Collected pitcher liquids were of 3 types: non-induced liquid (NIL, prey-induced liquid (PIL, and chitin-induced liquid (CIL. Non-induced liquid (NIL was collected from fresh naturally opened pitchers, PIL from opened pitchers after 3 hours of induction with Zophobas morio larvae, and CIL from closed pitchers after 5 days of chitin solution injection. The antifungal activity of the liquids against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis were detected by disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. Results Inhibition zone diameters of NIL, PIL, and CIL against C. albicans were 35.00 (35.00 – 39.33 mm, 26.33 (23.00 – 40.00 mm, and 30.00 ( 28.00 – 32.00 mm, respectively, while for C. glabrata the zone diameters were 22.22 ± 3.66 mm, 29.89 ± 2.79 mm, and 28.89 ± 1.17 mm, respectively. No inhibition zones were found for NIL, PIL, and CIL against C. krusei and C. tropicalis. At concentrations of 80%, almost all samples showed visually apparent inhibition of fungal growth. Conclusion The pitcher liquid of N. rafflesiana has antifungal properties, presumably due to the presence of many potentially active substances, such as naphthoquinones, as has been proven in other studies.

  8. Potent In Vitro Antifungal Activities of Naturally Occurring Acetylenic Acids▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Cong; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Ashfaq, M. Khalid; Babu, K. Suresh; Agarwal, Ameeta K.; ElSohly, Hala N.; Manly, Susan P.; Clark, Alice M.

    2008-01-01

    Our continuing effort in antifungal natural product discovery has led to the identification of five 6-acetylenic acids with chain lengths from C16 to C20: 6-hexadecynoic acid (compound 1), 6-heptadecynoic acid (compound 2), 6-octadecynoic acid (compound 3), 6-nonadecynoic acid (compound 4), and 6-icosynoic acid (compound 5) from the plant Sommera sabiceoides. Compounds 2 and 5 represent newly isolated fatty acids. The five acetylenic acids were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum by comparison with the positive control drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, caspofungin, terbinafine, and undecylenic acid. The compounds showed various degrees of antifungal activity against the 21 tested strains. Compound 4 was the most active, in particular against the dermatophytes T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum and the opportunistic pathogens C. albicans and A. fumigatus, with MICs comparable to several control drugs. Inclusion of two commercially available acetylenic acids, 9-octadecynoic acid (compound 6) and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (compound 7), in the in vitro antifungal testing further demonstrated that the antifungal activities of the acetylenic acids were associated with their chain lengths and positional triple bonds. In vitro toxicity testing against mammalian cell lines indicated that compounds 1 to 5 were not toxic at concentrations up to 32 μM. Furthermore, compounds 3 and 4 did not produce obvious toxic effects in mice at a dose of 34 μmol/kg of body weight when administered intraperitoneally. Taking into account the low in vitro and in vivo toxicities and significant antifungal potencies, these 6-acetylenic acids may be excellent leads for further preclinical studies. PMID:18458131

  9. Potent in vitro antifungal activities of naturally occurring acetylenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Cong; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I; Ashfaq, M Khalid; Babu, K Suresh; Agarwal, Ameeta K; Elsohly, Hala N; Manly, Susan P; Clark, Alice M

    2008-07-01

    Our continuing effort in antifungal natural product discovery has led to the identification of five 6-acetylenic acids with chain lengths from C(16) to C(20): 6-hexadecynoic acid (compound 1), 6-heptadecynoic acid (compound 2), 6-octadecynoic acid (compound 3), 6-nonadecynoic acid (compound 4), and 6-icosynoic acid (compound 5) from the plant Sommera sabiceoides. Compounds 2 and 5 represent newly isolated fatty acids. The five acetylenic acids were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activities against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum by comparison with the positive control drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, caspofungin, terbinafine, and undecylenic acid. The compounds showed various degrees of antifungal activity against the 21 tested strains. Compound 4 was the most active, in particular against the dermatophytes T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum and the opportunistic pathogens C. albicans and A. fumigatus, with MICs comparable to several control drugs. Inclusion of two commercially available acetylenic acids, 9-octadecynoic acid (compound 6) and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (compound 7), in the in vitro antifungal testing further demonstrated that the antifungal activities of the acetylenic acids were associated with their chain lengths and positional triple bonds. In vitro toxicity testing against mammalian cell lines indicated that compounds 1 to 5 were not toxic at concentrations up to 32 muM. Furthermore, compounds 3 and 4 did not produce obvious toxic effects in mice at a dose of 34 mumol/kg of body weight when administered intraperitoneally. Taking into account the low in vitro and in vivo toxicities and significant antifungal potencies, these 6-acetylenic acids may be excellent leads for further preclinical studies.

  10. Mode of Antifungal Drugs Interaction with Cytochrome P- 450

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Mahmodian

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer was used to identify the interactions of substrates and antifungal drugs with the enzyme, Cytochrome P-450; and then Molplot.bas computer program was applied to get three dimensional figures of 5-hydroxy camphor.oxidation products of camphor analogues, and antifungal drugs.Cartesian characteristics of atoms building molecules, are taken from Buildz. for program, which can calculate X,Y,Z coordinates of atoms by Zmatrix data. The other program which can calculate X,Y,Z coordinates, using fractional characteristics, is the Coord, for program that, gives our cartesian characteristics of the atoms of molecule, then by using these data, we obtain three dimensional figures and distance between active atoms in compounds under consideration. Results show that distance between two oxygen atoms in 5-exo-hydroxy- camphor and the other compounds obtained from oxidation of camphor analogues, with the distance of two oxygen atoms in antifungal compounds under discussion are equal. Therefore, we can conclude that, the antifungal molecule also interacts with enzyme's active site, by its own sites, in a similar manner to the 5-hydroxy camphor molecule, which is:"n1. Nitrogen atom (N of Imidazole and Triazole ring in antifungal molecule with Iron atom in heam molecule belonging to Cytochrome P-450 enzyme, are coordinated."n2. The other atoms such as : 0,S or N in structure of the antifungal drug are coordinated with hydrogen atom of hydroxyl group belong ing to Tyr-96 in the structure of enzyme, forming hydrogen bonding.

  11. A Multi-centric, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized, Prospective Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Carica papaya Leaf Extract, as Empirical Therapy for Thrombocytopenia associated with Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasture, Prabhu Nagnathappa; Nagabhushan, K H; Kumar, Arun

    2016-06-01

    Dengue is a rapidly expanding global health problem. Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. The management of dengue virus infection is essentially supportive and symptomatic and no specific treatment is available for increasing the fallen platelets, which have a significant role in causing the mortality of dengue patient.This study was conducted to evaluate the platelet increasing efficacy of Carica papaya leaf extract (CPLE) in patients with dengue fever (DF). The administration of Carica papaya leaf extract should significantly increase the platelet count in cases of thrombocytopenia associated with dengue, preventing the patient to go in DHF or DSS conditions. A Multi-centric, Double blind, Placebo controlled, Randomized, prospective study was conducted in 300 patients across 5 centres', to evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Carica Papaya Leaf Extract, as empirical therapy for thrombocytopenia associated with dengue fever. The subjects were randomized into two groups, as control and intervention group. Both the groups were managed by the standard management guidelines for dengue except steroid administration. In addition to this, the intervention group received CPLE tablet three times daily for five days. All of them were followed daily with platelet monitoring. This study has been registered in the clinical trial registry-India (CTRI Registration number: CTRI/2015/05/005806). The results indicate that CPLE had significant increase(p< 0.01) in the platelet count over the therapy duration, in dengue fever patients, confirming CPLE accelerates the increase in platelet count compared to the control group. There were few adverse events related to GI disturbance like nausea and vomiting which were similar in both groups. Thus this study

  12. [INVESTIGATION ON ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA YEASTS IN PREGNANT PATIENTS WITH CONFIRMED VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS AND THEIR NEWBORNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokoeva, A; Kouzmanov, A; Ivanova, Z; Zisova, L; Amalie, G; Petleshkova, P; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Ts; Krasteva, M; Uchikova, E

    patients with VVC immediately before birth (n = 22, 91.67 +/- 0.06%). Positive Candida colonization was detected in 14 (58.33%) of their newborns (n = 24), as no statistically significant difference was established, depending on the mode of delivery. The investigated antifungal susceptibility with test Fungifast (ELITech Microbiology Reagents), found 100% sensitivity of Candida albicans to Amphotericin B, Flucytosin and Voriconazole. Intermediate susceptibility to Itraconazole was found in 6 of 23 (26%) maternal isolates, and 5 of 23 (22%) isolates were moderately sensitive to Fluconazole. Candida krusei showed complete resistance to Fluconazole and Itraconazole. Within the group of antifungals for topical application (Econazole, Ketoconazole, Miconazole, Nystatin), the results established that 100% of the studied fungi were sensitive to Nystatin, while within the groups of azoles for vaginal and topical use - C.krusei was 100% resistant, as the sensitivity of C. albicans varied between 60-80%. Conclusion Our recommendation, based on the esablished results is that in pregnant with uncomplicated VVC as a first-line therapy should be considered the group of vaginal azoles and Nystatin, while the systemic therapy should be considered carefully and only after the firSt trimester. In cases of oral and intestinal candidiasis in neonatology, we recommend a therapy with minimal absorbable antifungals as Nystatin and miconazole (amphotericin B is available in our country), while systemic antifungal should be initiated only as a second choice. The exact etiological diagnosis is especially important because in our country there is a tendency for increased incidence of non-albicans fungus resistant to therapy, and that changes the therapeutic behavior.

  13. Posaconazole exhibits in vitro and in vivo synergistic antifungal activity with caspofungin or FK506 against Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Lien Chen

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to test whether posaconazole, a broad-spectrum antifungal agent inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, exhibits synergy with the β-1,3 glucan synthase inhibitor caspofungin or the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 against the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Although current drug treatments for Candida infection are often efficacious, the available antifungal armamentarium may not be keeping pace with the increasing incidence of drug resistant strains. The development of drug combinations or novel antifungal drugs to address emerging drug resistance is therefore of general importance. Combination drug therapies are employed to treat patients with HIV, cancer, or tuberculosis, and has considerable promise in the treatment of fungal infections like cryptococcal meningitis and C. albicans infections. Our studies reported here demonstrate that posaconazole exhibits in vitro synergy with caspofungin or FK506 against drug susceptible or resistant C. albicans strains. Furthermore, these combinations also show in vivo synergy against C. albicans strain SC5314 and its derived echinocandin-resistant mutants, which harbor an S645Y mutation in the CaFks1 β-1,3 glucan synthase drug target, suggesting potential therapeutic applicability for these combinations in the future.

  14. Diagnosis of oral fungal infection in patients undergoing head and neck cancer radiation. Antifungal susceptibility of isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulacio, L.; Paz, M.; Ramadan, S.; Ramos, L.; Marozzi, M.L.; Sortino, M.; Escovich, L.; Lopez, C.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy adverse effects are very common, they contribute to development of opportunistic infections. Genus Candida is often associated with oral diseases in susceptible patients. The aim of this study was to study the presence of yeast in oral lesions, in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and to evaluate antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Swabs of oral mucosal lesions of 76 patients were studied. Antifungal susceptibility of the isolates was evaluated, with ATB Fungus-3 method, which tests 5-fluorcitosine (5-FC), amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FCA), itraconazole (ITR) and voriconazole (VRC); and allows the estimation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Yeasts were isolated in 74% of samples, being Candida albicans, most frequent specie (53%), followed by C.tropicalis (24%), C.parapsilosis (14%), C.krusei (5%), C.dubliniensis (2%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2%). All strains were susceptible to VRC. For other antifungals, there were resistant or dose-dependent-susceptible strains. Only C.krusei was resistant to the FCA. About AMB, 2 isolates of C. tropicalis presented a value of 2 mg/l MIC, dose with high incidence of adverse effects. These studies are important to establish early and suitable therapy, wich contribute to achieve lowers rates of disseminated forms of candidiasis, and to reduce the difficulties in food intake that carries the presence of oral lesions. (authors)

  15. In vitro antifungal activities of 26 plant extracts on mycelial growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activities of 26 plant extracts were tested against Phytophthora infestans using radial growth technique. While all tested plant extracts produced some antifungal activities Xanthium strumarium, Lauris nobilis, Salvia officinalis and Styrax officinalis were the most active plants that showed potent antifungal activity.

  16. DMPD: C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18160296 C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. Willment JA, Brown GD. Tre...nds Microbiol. 2008 Jan;16(1):27-32. Epub 2007 Dec 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show C-type lectin receptors in antifun...gal immunity. PubmedID 18160296 Title C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. Author

  17. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, Erick A.; Durango, Diego L.; Garcia, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1), (+)-agathadiol (2) and epi-13-torulosol (3) were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions. (author)

  18. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Erick A.; Durango, Diego L.; Garcia, Carlos M. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Escuela de Quimica], e-mail: cmgarcia@unal.edu.co

    2009-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1), (+)-agathadiol (2) and epi-13-torulosol (3) were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions. (author)

  19. In vitro antifungal susceptibility to six antifungal agents of 229 Candida isolates from patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, M; McCullough, M J; Polonelli, L; Conti, S; Al-Karaawi, Z M; Vescovi, P; Porter, S R

    2006-06-01

    The most common antifungal drugs in current clinical use for the treatment of oral candidosis are polyenes and azoles, mainly used topically. Poor glycaemic control in association with other local factors, such as the presence of oral dental prostheses, salivary pH, salivary flow rate and tobacco habits, may lead to the development of oral candidosis. Topical antifungal agents are frequently used to prevent the development of candidal infections in patients with poor metabolic control, particularly in the elderly wearing dentures. The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates to six antifungal agents using a commercially available kit, Fungitest. The isolated were collected from patients affected by diabetes mellitus from two different geographic localities (London, UK, and Parma, Italy) and from a group of healthy non-diabetic subjects. No differences in antifungal susceptibility to the six agents tested were observed between Candida isolates from diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. However, differences were observed between the two geographically different diabetes mellitus populations. Oral yeast isolates from diabetes mellitus patients in the UK more often displayed resistance or intermediate resistance to fluconazole (P=0.02), miconazole (Pdiabetes mellitus patients in Italy. In addition, more C. albicans isolates were found in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects that were susceptible to fluconazole (P=0.0008 and P=0.01, respectively) than non-albicans isolates. The difference in the antifungal resistance of isolates from the two populations of diabetes mellitus patients may be related to differences in the therapeutic management of candidal infections between the two centres.

  20. Is antifungal resistance a cause for treatment failure in dermatophytosis: A study focused on tinea corporis and cruris from a tertiary centre?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Sardana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophytoses are one of the most common skin diseases that have been largely simple to treat. However, in recent years, these infections have become recalcitrant to treatment which can possibly be due to antifungal resistance. Aim: To analyze the resistance pattern of patients with recalcitrant dermatophytoses. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional evaluation was undertaken of 40 consecutive patients with recalcitrant tinea corporis/cruris/both who had taken systemic antifungal treatment and did not respond completely to therapy or had recurrent lesion within 1 month of stopping the therapy. Terbinafine, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin B, and voriconazole were the antifungals tested using broth microdilution assay for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, and MIC50, 90 values were recorded. Results: KOH mount was positive in 18 (45% patients, culture was positive in 28 (70% patients. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (35% and T. rubrum (27.5% were the predominant isolates. Overall, activity of terbinafine and itraconazole were significantly higher than the other drugs tested. For terbinafine, both T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum were inhibited at MIC90of 0.125 μg/ml. Itraconazole-inhibited T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum at MIC90of 0.0625 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively. All isolates had reduced susceptibility to fluconazole. Conclusion: While MIC seen were higher than western data, in-vitro resistance (>1 μg/ml to antifungals was not seen and probably may not be a cause of treatment failure. Possibly, treatment failure lies in the intricate host fungal interaction and virulence of species which help it to evade host immune response.

  1. Empirical Philosophy of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann

    2015-01-01

    knowledge takes place through the integration of the empirical or historical research into the philosophical studies, as Chang, Nersessian, Thagard and Schickore argue in their work. Building upon their contributions we will develop a blueprint for an Empirical Philosophy of Science that draws upon...... qualitative methods from the social sciences in order to advance our philosophical understanding of science in practice. We will regard the relationship between philosophical conceptualization and empirical data as an iterative dialogue between theory and data, which is guided by a particular ‘feeling with......Empirical insights are proven fruitful for the advancement of Philosophy of Science, but the integration of philosophical concepts and empirical data poses considerable methodological challenges. Debates in Integrated History and Philosophy of Science suggest that the advancement of philosophical...

  2. In vitro investigation on antifungal activity of some plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    In vitro investigation on antifungal activity of some plant extracts against Pyricularia oryzae. Olufolaji, D. B.1, Adeosun, B.O.1 and Onasanya, R. O.2. 1. Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, The Federal University of Technology, PMB 704. Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria. 2. Department of Agriculture, Federal College ...

  3. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of an alcoholic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Senna alata leaves were screened for phytochemicals, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Out of the three crude extracts, the methanolic extract showed the highest activity than the ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts. The unidentified active components purified ...

  4. In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf extracts (Moraceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The disc diffusion method (Chattopadhyay et al., 2001) was employed for the determination of antifungal activities of the crude extract and fractions prepared from D. mannii leaves. Briefly, 0.1 ml of suspension of yeast containing 1.5 × 106 spores/ml was spread on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium in 90 mm Petri dishes.

  5. Antifungal and Antihepatotoxic Effects of Sepia Ink Extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a great need for novel strategies to overcome the high mortality associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompromised patients. To evaluate the antifungal and antihepatotoxic potentials of Sepia ink extract, its effect on liver oxidative stress levels was analyzed against IPA in ...

  6. A non-polyene antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces albidoflavus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Out of these, 22% of the isolates exhibited activity against fungi. One promising strain, Streptomyces albidoflavus PU 23 with strong antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi was selected for further studies. Antibiotic was extracted and purified from the isolate. Aspergillus spp. was most sensitive to the antibiotic followed by ...

  7. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of 9 Indian medicinal plants belonging to 9 different families were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, C. albicans (2) ATCC18804, Candida glabrata NCIM3448, Candida tropicalis ATCC4563, Cryptococcus luteolus ATCC32044, ...

  8. In vitro assay of potential antifungal and antibacterial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the dermatophytes strains Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton soudanense, Microsporum langeronii, and Epidermophyton floccosum were used. The E2F2 extract showed strong inhibitory activity on four of the five fungal species used against ketoconazole, a standard antifungal drug. However ...

  9. Evaluation of antifungal activity from Bacillus strains against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, 30 bacterial strains isolated from marine biofilms were screened for their antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani by dual culture assay. Two bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showed a clear antagonism against R. solani on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The antagonistic activity ...

  10. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of Algerian citrus. They were extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves of citrus species (orange, Bigaradier, mandarin and lemon), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their chemical composition and antifungal ...

  11. Genetic determinants of antifungal resistance in Candida species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the previous decades, it has been an increase in cases of resistance to antifungal agents used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Candida species. The emergence of resistance to drug classes, it is usually explained by genome alterations ranging from point mutations to gain or loss of whole ...

  12. Antifungal activity of epithelial secretions from selected frog species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of skin secretions from selected frogs (Amietia fuscigula, Strongylopus grayi and Xenopus laevis) and one toad (Amietophrynus pantherinus) of the south Western Cape Province of South Africa. Initially, different extraction techniques for the collection of skin secretions ...

  13. Antifungal activities of selected Venda medicinal plants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... extracts from 30 plants used by Venda traditional healers for the ... cost of antifungal agents (Debruyne, 1997; Traeder et al., ... the use of medicinal plants is very common based on ... used to determine the activity of the plant extracts against the .... diffusion method: Table 3) as well as the two Candida.

  14. Antifungal activity of methanolic root extract of Withania somnifera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    remedy for many diseases in various regions of the world, especially in ... For control, 2 mL of DMSO was added to 16 mL of water, and 4 mL of this .... 3E). Since the four organic solvents used for fractionation of methanolic root .... Purification of a Lectin-Like Antifungal Protein from the Medicinal Herb, Withania Somnifera.

  15. Essential oil of Algerian Eucalyptus citriodora: Chemical composition, antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, H; Moghrani, H; Benelmouffok, A; Kellou, D; Maachi, R

    2015-12-01

    Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora is a natural product which has been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, E. citriodora essential oil was used to evaluate its antifungal effect against medically important dermatophytes. Essential oil from the Algerian E. citriodora leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antifungal effect of E. citriodora essential oil was evaluated against four dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum using disc diffusion method, disc volatilization method, and agar dilution method. The chemical composition of the oil revealed the presence of 22 compounds accounting for 95.27% of the oil. The dominant compounds were citronellal (69.77%), citronellol (10.63%) and isopulegol (4.66%). The disc diffusion method, MIC and MFC determination, indicated that E. citriodora essential oil had a higher antifungal potential against the tested strains with inhibition zone diameter which varied from (12 to 90mm) and MIC and MFC values ranged from (0.6 to 5μL/mL and 1.25 to 5μL/mL) respectively. The M. gypseum was the most resistant to the oil. The results of the present study indicated that E. citriodora essential oil may be used as a new antifungal agent recommended by the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of four Algerian marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cmi

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... and antifungal activities of the extracts of marine algae from southern coast of India. Botanica marina. 40: 507-515. Patra JK, Patra AP, Mahapatra NK, Thatoi HN, Das S, Sahu, RK, Swain. GC (2009). Antimicrobial activity of organic solvent extracts of three marine macroalgae from Chilika Lake, Orissa, India.

  17. Antifungal Activity of Hypericum havvae Against Some Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... potency against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus laurentii, with the same MIC value of 1.56 mg/ml. Conclusion: Our findings support the use of Hypericum havvae in traditional medicine for the treatment of fungal infections, especially Candidiasis. Keywords: Antifungal activity, Candida, Hypericum havvae, Candidiasis ...

  18. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Polyphenol-rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antioxidant and antifungal activities of polyphenol-rich extracts of the dried fruit pulp of Garcinia pedunculata (GP) and Garcinia morella (GM) to determine their traditional claims of therapeutic activity against certain diseases. Methods: Analysis of total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) contents of the ...

  19. Activation of Melanin Synthesis in Alternaria infectoria by Antifungal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Chantal; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Silva, Branca M A; Nakouzi-Naranjo, Antonio; Zuzarte, Mónica; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Stark, Ruth E; Casadevall, Arturo; Gonçalves, Teresa

    2015-12-28

    The importance of Alternaria species fungi to human health ranges from their role as etiological agents of serious infections with poor prognoses in immunosuppressed individuals to their association with respiratory allergic diseases. The present work focuses on Alternaria infectoria, which was used as a model organism of the genus, and was designed to unravel melanin production in response to antifungals. After we characterized the pigment produced by A. infectoria, we studied the dynamics of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin production during growth, the degree of melanization in response to antifungals, and how melanization affected susceptibility to several classes of therapeutic drugs. We demonstrate that A. infectoria increased melanin deposition in cell walls in response to nikkomycin Z, caspofungin, and itraconazole but not in response to fluconazole or amphotericin B. These results indicate that A. infectoria activates DHN-melanin synthesis in response to certain antifungal drugs, possibly as a protective mechanism against these drugs. Inhibition of DHN-melanin synthesis by pyroquilon resulted in a lower minimum effective concentration (MEC) of caspofungin and enhanced morphological changes (increased hyphal balloon size), characterized by thinner and less organized A. infectoria cell walls. In summary, A. infectoria synthesizes melanin in response to certain antifungal drugs, and its susceptibility is influenced by melanization, suggesting the therapeutic potential of drug combinations that affect melanin synthesis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Antifungal activity of Parmotrema tinctorum (Delise ex Nyl.) hale and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lichens are composite organisms comprising of a photobiont and a mycobiont. Studies have shown that extracts and secondary metabolites from lichens exhibit various bioactivities. The present study evaluates antifungal potential of crude methanolic extract of two corticolous Parmotrema species viz. Parmotrema tinctorum ...

  1. Composition and antioxidant and antifungal activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the oil constituents of Lippia gracilis were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant and antifungal activities were also evaluated. The leaf oil showed a yield of 3.7% and its main constituents were thymol (70.3%), p-cymene (9.2%), thymol ...

  2. Anti-fungal properties of chitinolytic dune soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Lafeber, P.; Janse, J.H.; Spit, B.E.; Woldendorp, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Anti-fungal properties of chitinolytic soil bacteria may enable them to compete successfully for chitin with fungi. Additionally, the production of chitinase may be part of a lytic system that enables the bacteria to use living hyphae rather than chitin as the actual growth substrate, since chitin

  3. Antifungal susceptibility profiles and risk factors of vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporary young women often shift their preference from skirt to trousers and leggingswhich also coincides with a rise in auto-medication and over-the-counter drugs phenomena in our communities. These could result in increased occurrence of vaginal candidiasis infection and antifungal drug resistance. This was a ...

  4. Antifungal Capacity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Salad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the use of lactic acid bacteria from fresh salad vegetables to inhibit fungal growth. The antifungal assay was done using the agar well diffusion method as reported by Schillinger and Lucke (1989). The largest zone of inhibition (25mm) was recorded by the antagonistic activity of the isolate identified to ...

  5. Antifungal activity of bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the antifungal action of biomolecules produced from the secondary metabolism of bacterial strains found in the rhizosphere of semi arid plants against human pathogenic Candida albicans. Crude extracts were obtained using ethyl acetate as an organic solvent and the bioactivity was assessed with a ...

  6. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Baccharis trimera Less (DC) Essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    investigate their in vitro antifungal activity against seven fungal strains that cause onychomycosis. Methods: The ... 220 °C and detector at 220 °C. The carrier gas used was ... wavelength of 530 nm [31]. ..... (HTSS) followed by 3D graphs.

  7. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity of allelochemicals extracted from rice straw on the radial growth rate and the activity of some hydrolyzing enzymes of Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea were studied in vitro. Five different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%, w/v) of water, methanol and acetone extracts of rice ...

  8. Antifungal evaluation of shell pyrolysates of oil palm ( Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The medicinal values of oil palm and coconut shells are not much known in herbal medicine and the two mostly constitute waste products. The antifungal effects of steam-distilled pyrolysates obtained from the two shells and the respective organic solvent fractions were evaluated against human pathogenic fungi ...

  9. Antifungal activity of leaf extract of Crassocephalum repidiodes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptibility profile of the dermatophytes tested was T. mentagrophytes. > T. rubrum > M. audouinii. The phytochemical studies of the extracts revealed that the aqueous extract lacked terpenes and anthraquinone while terpenes were absent in ethanolic extract. KEY WORDS: Antifungal, Dermatophytes, Extract, ...

  10. Comparative study of the antifungal activity of some essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the antimould activity of oregano, thyme, rosemary and clove essential oils and some of their main constituents: eugenol, carvacrol and thymol against Aspergillus niger. This antifungal activity was assessed using broth dilution, disc diffusion and micro atmosphere methods. In both agar diffusion ...

  11. Antifungal potential of leaf extracts of leguminous trees against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii and A. nilotica subsp. indica exhibited the maximum fungicidal potential. Materials and Methods: Two hundred grams dried leaf material of each of the three test plant species were extracted with ...

  12. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the ethanolic and aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... psoriasis and eczema, through to the more serious disease like leprosy, syphilis and skin cancer (Burkill,. 1985). Previous studies of the fruits of K. africana showed some antibacterial activity (Grace et al., 2002). However there is no report on the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the stem bark of this ...

  13. Trypanocide, cytotoxic, and antifungal activities of Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Sobral-Souza, Celestina E; Tintino, Saulo R; Morais-Braga, Maria F B; Guedes, Glaucia M M; Santos, Francisco A V; Sousa, Ana Carla A; Rolón, Miriam; Vega, Celeste; de Arias, Antonieta Rojas; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2012-02-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is a public health problem. Currently, chemotherapy is the only available treatment for this disease, and the drugs used, nifurtimox and benzonidazol, present high toxicity levels. An alternative for replacing these drugs are natural extracts from Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) used in traditional medicine because of their antimicrobial and biological activities. In this study, we evaluated the extract of M. charantia for its antiepimastigote, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities. An ethanol extract of leaves from M. charantia was prepared. To research in vitro antiepimastigote activity, T. cruzi CL-B5 clone was used. Epimastigotes were inoculated at a concentration of 1 × 10(5) cells/mL in 200 µl tryptose-liver infusion. For the cytotoxicity assay, J774 macrophages were used. The antifungal activity was evaluated by microdilution using strains of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The effective concentration capable of killing 50% of parasites (IC(50)) was 46.06 µg/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was ≤ 1024 µg/mL. Metronidazole showed a potentiation of its antifungal effect when combined with an extract of M. charantia. Our results indicate that M. charantia could be a source of plant-derived natural products with antiepimastigote and antifungal-modifying activity with moderate toxicity.

  14. POSACONAZOLE — NEW AZOLE BROAD-SPECTRUM ANTIFUNGAL AGENT FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF INVASIVE MYCOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Klimko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive mycoses are a common complication of various categories of immune depressed patients that are characterized with heavy clinical presentations and high lethal rate. Many causatives of invasive mycoses are resistant to currently applied antifungal medications, and some are polybresistant. Posaconazole (Noksafil is a new triazole antimycotic of second generation that is active both in vitro and in vivo against most causatives of invasive mycoses, including poly resistant microbmycets. Clinical study demonstrate high efficiency and safety of applying this medication. in russia posaconazole is allowed for prevention of invasive mycoses for hematological patients with longbrunning neutropenia resulting from chemical therapy, who are prescribed large doses of immune suppressors, recipients of transplants of hemapoietic stem cells, as well as for treatment of invasive candidoses, aspergillus, zigomicosys, criptococcosis, fuzariosis, chromomycosis and micetoma, as well as cocsidiodosis that are refractory towards other anti fungal medications, or in cases of intolerance.Key words: mycoses, posaconazole, treatment.

  15. Common drug-drug interactions in antifungal treatments for superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Versteeg, Sarah G; Shear, Neil H

    2018-04-01

    Antifungal agents can be co-administered alongside several other medications for a variety of reasons such as the presence of comorbidities. Pharmacodynamic interactions such as synergistic and antagonistic interactions could be the result of co-administered medications. Pharmacokinetic interactions could also transpire through the inhibition of metabolizing enzymes and drug transport systems, altering the absorption, metabolism and excretion of co-administered medications. Both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions can result in hospitalization due to serious adverse effects associated with antifungal agents, lower therapeutic doses required to achieve desired antifungal activity, and prevent antifungal resistance. Areas covered: The objective of this review is to summarize pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions associated with common antifungal agents used to treat superficial fungal infections. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions that impact the therapeutic effects of antifungal agents and drugs that are influenced by the presence of antifungal agents was the context to which these antifungal agents were addressed. Expert opinion: The potential for drug-drug interactions is minimal for topical antifungals as opposed to oral antifungals as they have minimal exposure to other co-administered medications. Developing non-lipophilic antifungals that have unique metabolizing pathways and are topical applied are suggested properties that could help limit drug-drug interactions associated with future treatments.

  16. Antifungal effect and action mechanism of antimicrobial peptide polybia-CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kairong; Jia, Fengjing; Dang, Wen; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhu, Ranran; Sun, Mengyang; Qiu, Shuai; An, Xiaoping; Ma, Zelin; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Yan, Jiexi; Kong, Ziqing; Yan, Wenjin; Wang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of life-threatening invasive fungal infections increased significantly in recent years. However, the antifungal therapeutic options are very limited. Antimicrobial peptides are a class of potential lead chemical for the development of novel antifungal agents. Antimicrobial peptide polybia-CP was purified from the venom of the social wasp Polybia paulista. In this study, we synthesized polybia-CP and determined its antifungal effects against a series of Candidian species. Our results showed that polybia-CP has potent antifungal activity and fungicidal activity against the tested fungal cells with a proposed membrane-active action mode. In addition, polybia-CP could induce the increase of cellular reactive oxygen species production, which would attribute to its antifungal activity. In conclusion, the present study suggests that polybia-CP has potential as an antifungal agent or may offer a new strategy for antifungal therapeutic option. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A simplified regimen of targeted antifungal prophylaxis in liver transplant recipients: A single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzo, B; Patrono, D; Tandoi, F; Martini, S; Fop, F; Ballerini, V; Stratta, C; Skurzak, S; Lupo, F; Strignano, P; Donadio, P P; Salizzoni, M; Romagnoli, R; De Rosa, F G

    2018-04-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a severe complication of liver transplantation burdened by high mortality. Guidelines recommend targeted rather than universal antifungal prophylaxis based on tiers of risk. We aimed to evaluate IFI incidence, risk factors, and outcome after implementation of a simplified two-tiered targeted prophylaxis regimen based on a single broad-spectrum antifungal drug (amphotericin B). Patients presenting 1 or more risk factors according to literature were administered prophylaxis. Prospectively collected data on all adult patients transplanted in Turin from January 2011 to December 2015 were reviewed. Patients re-transplanted before postoperative day 7 were considered once, yielding a study cohort of 581 cases. Prophylaxis was administered to 299 (51.4%) patients; adherence to protocol was 94.1%. Sixteen patients developed 18 IFIs for an overall rate of 2.8%. All IFI cases were in targeted prophylaxis group; none of the non-prophylaxis group developed IFI. Most cases (81.3%) presented within 30 days after transplantation during prophylaxis; predominant pathogens were molds (94.4%). Only 1 case of candidemia was observed. One-year mortality in IFI patients was 33.3% vs 6.4% in patients without IFI (P = .001); IFI attributable mortality was 6.3%. At multivariate analysis, significant risk factors for IFI were renal replacement therapy (OR = 8.1) and re-operation (OR = 5.2). The implementation of a simplified targeted prophylaxis regimen appeared to be safe and applicable and was associated with low IFI incidence and mortality. Association of IFI with re-operation and renal replacement therapy calls for further studies to identify optimal prophylaxis in this subset of patients. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. [i]Lavandula angustifolia[/i], [i]Carum carvi[/i], [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Mentha piperita[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.,[i] Pinus sylvestris[/i], [i]Satureia hortensis[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L., [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinali[/i]s L., [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L. [i]Rausch[/i], [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. for antifungal activity against five [i]Penicillium[/i] species: [i]Penicillium brevicompactum[/i], [i]Penicillium citrinum[/i], [i]Penicillium crustosum[/i], [i]Penicillium expansum[/i] and [i]Penicillium griseofulvum[/i]. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against [i]Penicillium[/i] fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L., [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i], [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. and [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i]. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.[i] Rausch[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinalis[/i].

  19. Life Writing After Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A watershed moment of the twentieth century, the end of empire saw upheavals to global power structures and national identities. However, decolonisation profoundly affected individual subjectivities too. Life Writing After Empire examines how people around the globe have made sense of the post...... in order to understand how individual life writing reflects broader societal changes. From far-flung corners of the former British Empire, people have turned to life writing to manage painful or nostalgic memories, as well as to think about the past and future of the nation anew through the personal...

  20. Theological reflections on empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan A. Boesak

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the meeting of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches in Accra, Ghana (2004, and the adoption of the Accra Declaration, a debate has been raging in the churches about globalisation, socio-economic justice, ecological responsibility, political and cultural domination and globalised war. Central to this debate is the concept of empire and the way the United States is increasingly becoming its embodiment. Is the United States a global empire? This article argues that the United States has indeed become the expression of a modern empire and that this reality has considerable consequences, not just for global economics and politics but for theological refl ection as well.

  1. Empirical Evidence from Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Empirical results reveal that consumption of sugar in. Kenya varies ... experiences in trade in different regions of the world. Some studies ... To assess the relationship between domestic sugar retail prices and sugar sales in ...

  2. The Effectiveness of Antifungal Controlling Aspergillus Niger Growth on Plasterboard

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    Parjo Umi Kalthsom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good indoor environmental quality is desired for a healthy indoor environment. The microbial growth under indoor environments contribute to the poor indoor environmental quality that can cause various of health problems. In this study, the applications of three types of antifungals to prevent microbial migration, subsequent growth and bio-deterioration of the substrates. The aim of this research was to evaluate the coating-bio resistance in remediation of indoor fungal using three types of antifungals with different types of wall finishing materials. The treatment was exposed to optimum temperature and relative humidity at 30°C and 90% respectively. The potassium sorbate, zinc salicylate and calcium benzoate are tested against Aspergillus niger which is collected from indoor rooms. This study has revealed the growth of A. niger are more affected by the potassium sorbate on thick wallpaper, which is the percentage growth are 47%.

  3. Inhibitors of amino acids biosynthesis as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębowska, Kamila; Gabriel, Iwona

    2015-02-01

    Fungal microorganisms, including the human pathogenic yeast and filamentous fungi, are able to synthesize all proteinogenic amino acids, including nine that are essential for humans. A number of enzymes catalyzing particular steps of human-essential amino acid biosynthesis are fungi specific. Numerous studies have shown that auxotrophic mutants of human pathogenic fungi impaired in biosynthesis of particular amino acids exhibit growth defect or at least reduced virulence under in vivo conditions. Several chemical compounds inhibiting activity of one of these enzymes exhibit good antifungal in vitro activity in minimal growth media, which is not always confirmed under in vivo conditions. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge on pathways of amino acids biosynthesis in fungi, with a special emphasis put on enzymes catalyzing particular steps of these pathways as potential targets for antifungal chemotherapy.

  4. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cadmium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, I.M.; Gul, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Cd(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activities against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cadmium(II) iodide was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine is quite effective against the rare pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi but comparatively less effective against Pathogenic fungi. Nicotine was found to be completely ineffective against the selected species of Occasional pathogenic fungi. Cadmium(II) iodide effectively inhibited Pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi whereas relatively ineffective against the Occasional pathogenic and Rare pathogenic fungi. On the other hand, Cadmium(II) nicotine complex inhibited all the selected species of fungi except Fusarium solani. (author)

  5. Chemical Constituents and Antifungal Activity of Ficus hirta Vahl. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpeng Wan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of Ficus hirta Vahl. (Moraceae fruits led to isolate two carboline alkaloids (1 and 2, five sesquiterpenoids/norsesquiterpenoids (3–7, three flavonoids (8–10, and one phenylpropane-1,2-diol (11. Their structures were elucidated by the analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS data. All of the isolates were isolated from this species for the first time, while compounds 2, 4–6, and 8–11 were firstly reported from the genus Ficus. Antifungal assay revealed that compound 8 (namely pinocembrin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, a major flavonoid compound present in the ethanol extract of F. hirta fruits, showed good antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum, the phytopathogen of citrus blue mold caused the majority rotten of citrus fruits.

  6. Synthesis of chitosan derivative with diethyldithiocarbamate and its antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yukun; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Kecheng; Hu, Linfeng; Yu, Huahua; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2014-04-01

    With an aim to discover novel chitosan derivatives with enhanced antifungal properties compared with chitosan. Diethyl dithiocarbamate chitosan (EtDTCCS) was investigated and its structure was well identified. The antifungal activity of EtDTCCS against Alternaria porri (A. porri), Gloeosporium theae sinensis Miyake (G. theae sinensis), and Stemphylium solani Weber (S. solani) was tested at 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL, respectively. Compared with plain chitosan, EtDTCCS shows better inhibitory effect with 93.2% inhibitory index on G. theae sinensis at 1.0 mg/mL, even stronger than for polyoxin (82.5%). It was inferred derivatives of this kind may find potential applications for the treatment of various crop-threatening diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and antifungal evaluation of PCA amide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuan; Yu, Di-Ya; Zhou, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Min; Wu, Qing-Lai; Li, Jun-Kai

    2018-04-18

    To improve the physical and chemical properties of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and find higher antifungal compounds, a series of PCA amide analogues were designed and synthesized and their structures were confirmed by 1 H NMR, HRMS, and X-ray. Most compounds showed some antifungal activities in vitro. Particularly, compound 3d exhibited inhibition effect against Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra with EC 50 value of 28.7 μM and compound 3q exhibited effect against Rhizoctonia solani with EC 50 value of 24.5 μM, more potently active than that of the positive control PCA with its EC 50 values of 37.3 μM (Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra) and 33.2 μM (Rhizoctonia solani), respectively.

  8. Synthesis of heterocycle-attached methylidenebenzenesulfonohydrazones as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhinan; Lv, Min; Li, Qin; Xu, Hui

    2015-11-15

    A series of heterocycle-attached methylidenebenzenesulfonohydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activities against seven phytopathogenic fungi such as Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria solani, Valsa mali, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Glomerella cingulata. Compounds 7b, 8d, 9a, 9b and 9d exhibited a good and broad-spectrum of antifungal activities against at least five phytopathogenic fungi at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. It demonstrated that addition of one double bond between the phenylsulfonylhydrazone fragment and the furan ring of 6a,b,d could afford more active compounds 9a,b,d; however, introduction of the nitro group on the phenyl ring of 6a-9a gave less potent compounds 6e-9e. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antifungal Activity from Leaves of Acacia Nilotica against Pythium Aphanidermatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Khan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallic acid and methyl ester of gallic acid has been identified as antifungal compounds against the mycelial growth of Pythium aphanidermatum from acetone-water extracts of Acacia nilotica leaves. The growth of fungus was completely ceased by gallic acid and its methyl ester at 1000 ppm and 750 ppm, respectively. Antifungal properties of both compounds were found to be higher in combination than alone. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both compounds was 1000 ppm. No phytotoxic effect of the compounds was observed on watermelon seed germination. The growth of roots and shoots of watermelon seedlings was promoted by gallic acid but decreased with methyl ester of gallic acid. Nitrate reductase activity of the fungus was significantly inhibited by both compounds.

  10. Neosordarin and hydroxysordarin, two new antifungal agents from Sordaria araneosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoli, Paolo; Engel, Günther; Werle, Andreas; Sterner, Olov; Anke, Timm

    2002-04-01

    Two novel antifungal agents belonging to the sordarin family have been isolated from fermentations of Sordaria araneosa by bioassay-guided purification and their structures elucidated by NMR techniques. Neosordarin (1) is closely related to the recently discovered hypoxysordarin (2), with only small differences on the aliphatic side chain acylating the hydroxyl in the 3'-position of the sordarose moiety. Hydroxysordarin (3) closely resembles sordarin (4), the only slight difference being the replacement of sordarose with altrose as the sugar unit.

  11. Antifungal activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons against Ligninolytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memić Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs has caused increasing concern because of their known, or suspected, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occurring in the environment are usually the result of the incomplete combustion of carbon containing materials. The main sources of severe PAHs contamination in soil come from fossil fuels, i.e. production or use of fossil fuels or their products, such as coal tar and creosote. Creosote is used as a wood preservation for railway ties, bridge timbers, pilling and large-sized lumber. It consists mainly of PAHs, phenol and cresol compounds that cause harmful health effects. Research on biodegradation has shown that a special group of microorganisms, the white-rot fungi and brown-rot fungi, has a remarkable potential to degrade PAHs. This paper presents a study of the antifungal activity of 12 selected PAHs against two ligninolytic fungi Hypoxylon fragiforme (white rot and Coniophora puteana (brown rot. The antifungal activity of PAHs was determined by the disc-diffusion method by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition. The results showed that the antifungal activity of the tested PAHs (concentration of 2.5 mmol/L depends on the their properties such as molar mass, solubility in water, values of log Kow, ionization potential and Henry’s Law constant as well as number of aromatic rings, molecule topology or pattern of ring linkage. Among the 12 investigated PAHs, benzo(k fluoranthene with five rings, and pyrene with four cyclic condensed benzene rings showed the highest antifungal activity.

  12. Antifungal activity of aloe vera gel against plant pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitara, U.; Hassan, N.; Naseem, J.

    2011-01-01

    Aloe vera gel extracted from the Aloe vera leaves was evaluated for their antifungal activity at the rate of 0.15%, 0.25% and 0.35% concentration against five plants pathogenic fungi viz., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata, Drechslera hawaiensis and Penicillum digitatum 0.35% concentration Aloe vera gel completely inhibited the growth of Drechslera hawaiensis and Alternaria alternata. (author)

  13. Antifungal amphiphilic aminoglycoside K20: bioactivities and mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib K. Shrestha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available K20 is a novel amphiphilic antifungal aminoglycoside that is synthetically derived from the antibiotic kanamycin A. Reported here are investigations of K20’s antimicrobial activities, cytotoxicity, and fungicidal mechanism of action. In vitro growth inhibitory activities against a variety of human and plant pathogenic yeasts, filamentous fungi, and bacteria were determined using microbroth dilution assays and time-kill curve analyses, and hemolytic and animal cell cytotoxic activities were determined. Effects on Cryptococcus neoformans H-99 infectivity were determined with a preventive murine lung infection model. The antifungal mechanism of action was studied using intact fungal cells, yeast lipid mutants, and small unilamellar lipid vesicles. K20 exhibited broad-spectrum in vitro antifungal activities but not antibacterial activities. Pulmonary, single dose-administration of K20 reduced C. neoformans lung infection rates 4-fold compared to controls. Hemolysis and half-maximal cytotoxicities of mammalian cells occurred at concentrations that were 10 to 32-fold higher than fungicidal MICs. With fluorescein isothiocyanate, 20 to 25 mg/L K20 caused staining of >95% of C. neoformans and Fusarium graminearum cells and at 31.3 mg/L caused rapid leakage (30 to 80% in 15 min of calcein from preloaded small unilamellar lipid vesicles. K20 appears to be a broad-spectrum fungicide, capable of reducing the infectivity of C. neoformans, and exhibits low hemolytic activity and mammalian cell toxicity. It perturbs the plasma membrane by mechanisms that are lipid modulated. K20 is a novel amphiphilic aminoglycoside amenable to scalable production and a potential lead antifungal for therapeutic and crop protection applications.

  14. Trichoharzianol, a new antifungal from Trichoderma harzianum F031.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeerapong, Chotika; Phupong, Worrapong; Bangrak, Phuwadol; Intana, Warin; Tuchinda, Patoomratana

    2015-04-15

    A new decalin derivative, trichoharzianol (1), together with three known compounds, eujavanicol A (2), 5-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-7-methoxychromone (3), and 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methylphthalide (4), were isolated from Trichoderma harzianum F031. For the first time, compounds 2-4 were reported from the Trichoderma species. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. Trichoharzianol (1) showed the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 128 μg/mL.

  15. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    Hedychiums have been reported to possess antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities [4,5]. Strawberry anthracnose, caused by the plant...pathogens Colletotrichum species is one of the most important diseases affecting strawberries worldwide [6]. Colletotrichum fragariae Brooks is most...often associated with anthracnose crown rot of strawberries grown in hot, humid areas such as the southeastern United States [7]. The azalea lace bug

  16. Effect of cultivation conditions on growth and antifungal activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Growth and production of antifungal agent by Mycena leptocephala was investigated in different culture media composition at various initial pH and temperatures. Maximum growth and activity was observed at the initial pH of 5.5 and 25oC. No detectable growth and activity was observed at pH of 3.5 and 7.5. Growth of the ...

  17. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...... is giving its own answer to questions such as: Why does the use of qualitative empirical methods benefit philosophical accounts of science? And how should these methods be used by the philosopher?...

  18. Antifungal Monoterpene Derivatives from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis foedan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Zhang, Bing-Yang; Yang, Xiao-Long

    2016-10-01

    A new monoterpene lactone, (1R,4R,5R,8S)-8-hydroxy-4,8-dimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-one (1), along with one related known compound, (2R)-2-[(1R)-4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-yl]propanoic acid (2), were isolated from the liquid culture of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis foedan obtained from the branch of Bruguiera sexangula. The structure and absolute configuration of 1 were determined on the basis of extensive analysis of NMR spectra combined with computational methods via calculation of the optical rotation (OR) and 13 C-NMR. Both compounds exhibited strong antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora nicotianae with MIC values of 3.1 and 6.3 μg/ml, respectively, which are comparable to those of the known antifungal drug ketoconazole. Compound 2 also showed modest antifungal activity against Candida albicans with a MIC value of 50 μg/ml. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  19. Antifungal and Antibacterial Metabolites from a French Poplar Type Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Boisard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During this study, the in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities of different extracts (aqueous and organic obtained from a French propolis batch were evaluated. Antifungal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution on three pathogenic strains: Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Antibacterial activity was assayed using agar dilution method on 36 Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains including Staphylococcus aureus. Organic extracts showed a significant antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata (MIC80 between 16 and 31 µg/mL but only a weak activity towards A. fumigatus (MIC80 = 250 µg/mL. DCM based extracts exhibited a selective Gram-positive antibacterial activity, especially against S. aureus (SA and several of its methicillin-resistant (MRSA and methicillin-susceptible (MSSA strains (MIC100 30–97 µg/mL. A new and active derivative of catechin was also identified whereas a synergistic antimicrobial effect was noticed during this study.

  20. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils from coniferous trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Na, Ki-Jeung; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2004-06-01

    Essential oils have potential biological effects, i.e., antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, and sedative effects during stress. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from the coniferous species Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, because their biological activities have not been yet elucidated. The essential oils were quantified using gas chromatography and identified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. Simultaneously, antibacterial and antifungal assays were performed using the essential oils distilled from the needles of coniferous trees. The major components and the percentage of each essential oil were: 19.33% beta-thujene in P. densiflora; 10.49% alpha-pinene in P. koraiensis; 10.88% bornyl acetate in C. obtusa. The essential oils from P. densiflora and C. obtusa have antibacterial effects, whereas essential oils from P. koraiensis and C. obtusa have antifungal effects. These results indicate that the essential oils from the three coniferous trees, which have mild antimicrobial properties, can inhibit the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi.

  1. Antifungal defensins and their role in plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Ariane F; Vasconcelos, Erico A R; Pelegrini, Patrícia Barbosa; Grossi de Sa, Maria F

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 90s lots of cationic plant, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been studied. However, Broekaert et al. (1995) only coined the term "plant defensin," after comparison of a new class of plant antifungal peptides with known insect defensins. From there, many plant defensins have been reported and studies on this class of peptides encompass its activity toward microorganisms and molecular features of the mechanism of action against bacteria and fungi. Plant defensins also have been tested as biotechnological tools to improve crop production through fungi resistance generation in organisms genetically modified (OGM). Its low effective concentration towards fungi, ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM and its safety to mammals and birds makes them a better choice, in place of chemicals, to control fungi infection on crop fields. Herein, is a review of the history of plant defensins since their discovery at the beginning of 90s, following the advances on its structure conformation and mechanism of action towards microorganisms is reported. This review also points out some important topics, including: (i) the most studied plant defensins and their fungal targets; (ii) the molecular features of plant defensins and their relation with antifungal activity; (iii) the possibility of using plant defensin(s) genes to generate fungi resistant GM crops and biofungicides; and (iv) a brief discussion about the absence of products in the market containing plant antifungal defensins.

  2. Antifungal susceptibility testing method for resource constrained laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In resource-constrained laboratories of developing countries determination of antifungal susceptibility testing by NCCLS/CLSI method is not always feasible. We describe herein a simple yet comparable method for antifungal susceptibility testing. Methods: Reference MICs of 72 fungal isolates including two quality control strains were determined by NCCLS/CLSI methods against fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and cancidas. Dermatophytes were also tested against terbinafine. Subsequently, on selection of optimum conditions, MIC was determined for all the fungal isolates by semisolid antifungal agar susceptibility method in Brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 0.5% agar (BHIA without oil overlay and results were compared with those obtained by reference NCCLS/CLSI methods. Results: Comparable results were obtained by NCCLS/CLSI and semisolid agar susceptibility (SAAS methods against quality control strains. MICs for 72 isolates did not differ by more than one dilution for all drugs by SAAS. Conclusions: SAAS using BHIA without oil overlay provides a simple and reproducible method for obtaining MICs against yeast, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes in resource-constrained laboratories.

  3. Genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of Fusarium isolates in onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Priscila D; Heidrich, Daiane; Corrêa, Carolina; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia; Vettorato, Gerson; Fuentefria, Alexandre M; Goldani, Luciano Z

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium species have emerged as an important human pathogen in skin disease, onychomycosis, keratitis and invasive disease. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium spp. The infection has been increasingly described in the immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. Considering onychomycosis is a difficult to treat infection, and little is known about the genetic variability and susceptibility pattern of Fusarium spp., further studies are necessary to understand the pathogenesis and better to define the appropriate antifungal treatment for this infection. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to describe the in vitro susceptibility to different antifungal agents and the genetic diversity of 35 Fusarium isolated from patients with onychomycosis. Fusarium spp. were isolated predominantly from female Caucasians, and the most frequent anatomical location was the nail of the hallux. Results revealed that 25 (71.4%) of isolates belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex, followed by 10 (28.5%) isolates from the Fusarium oxysporum species complex. Noteworthy, the authors report the first case of Neocosmospora rubicola isolated from a patient with onychomycosis. Amphotericin B was the most effective antifungal agent against the majority of isolates (60%, MIC ≤4 μg/mL), followed by voriconazole (34.2%, MIC ≤4 μg/mL). In general, Fusarium species presented MIC values >64 μg/mL for fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine. Accurate pathogen identification, characterisation and susceptibility testing provide a better understanding of pathogenesis of Fusarium in onychomycosis. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Antifungal Properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides Essential Oil Against Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Vilarem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the aerial part (leaves, flowers and stem of Chenopodium ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analyzed by GC and GC/MS, which permitted the identification of 14 components, representing 98.8% of the total oil. Major components were α-terpinene (51.3%, p-cymene (23.4% and p-mentha-1,8-diène (15.3%. The antifungal properties of this essential oil were investigated in vitro by the well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The in vitro antifungal activity was concentration dependent and minimum inhibitory concentration values varied from 0.25 to 2 mg/mL. The in vivo antifungal activity was evaluated on an induced vaginal candidiasis rat model. The in vivo activity of the oil on mice vaginal candidiasis was not dose-dependent. Indeed, all the three tested doses; 0.1%, 1% and 10% led to the recovery of mice from the induced infection after 12 days of treatment. The effect of the essential oil on C. albicans ATCC 1663 fatty acid profile was studied. This oil has a relatively important dose-dependent effect on the fatty acids profile.

  5. Biofilm antifungal susceptibility of Candida urine isolated from ambulatory patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora da Luz Becker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: the association between the biofilm formations an antifungal resistance has been suggested to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of several Candida species. Besides, studies have included invasive candidiasis from hospitalized patients; however there are few studies that evaluated the species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and biofilm formation of Candida species isolated from ambulatory patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether biofilm producing contributes to antifungal resistance in Candida isolates from urine sample obtained from ambulatory patients. Methods: During one year, 25 urine samples positive for yeast were collected, stored and plated on agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and Sabouread left at room temperature for 5 days for subsequent: 52% (13/25 were C. albicans, 36% (9/25 C. tropicalis, 8% (2/25 C. krusei and 4% (1/25 C. parapsilosis. Results: The ability to form biofilm was detected in 23 (92% of the yeast studied and 15.4% (2/13 of C. albicans were fluconazole (FLU and ketoconazole (KET resistant, while 11.1% (1/9 of C. tropicalis were ketoconazole resistant and were anidulafungin (ANI non-susceptible. Conclusion: our results showed the high capacity for biofilm formation among Candida isolates from ambulatory patients.

  6. Antifungal Microbial Agents for Food Biopreservation-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva Salas, Marcia; Mounier, Jérôme; Valence, Florence; Coton, Monika; Thierry, Anne; Coton, Emmanuel

    2017-07-08

    Food spoilage is a major issue for the food industry, leading to food waste, substantial economic losses for manufacturers and consumers, and a negative impact on brand names. Among causes, fungal contamination can be encountered at various stages of the food chain (e.g., post-harvest, during processing or storage). Fungal development leads to food sensory defects varying from visual deterioration to noticeable odor, flavor, or texture changes but can also have negative health impacts via mycotoxin production by some molds. In order to avoid microbial spoilage and thus extend product shelf life, different treatments-including fungicides and chemical preservatives-are used. In parallel, public authorities encourage the food industry to limit the use of these chemical compounds and develop natural methods for food preservation. This is accompanied by a strong societal demand for 'clean label' food products, as consumers are looking for more natural, less severely processed and safer products. In this context, microbial agents corresponding to bioprotective cultures, fermentates, culture-free supernatant or purified molecules, exhibiting antifungal activities represent a growing interest as an alternative to chemical preservation. This review presents the main fungal spoilers encountered in food products, the antifungal microorganisms tested for food bioprotection, and their mechanisms of action. A focus is made in particular on the recent in situ studies and the constraints associated with the use of antifungal microbial agents for food biopreservation.

  7. Antifungal defensins and their role in plant defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane eLacerda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 90’s lots of cationic plant, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP have been studied. However, Broekaert only coined the term plant defensin in 1995, after comparison of a new class of plant antifungal peptides with known insect defensins. From there, many plant defensins have been reported and studies on this class of peptides encompass its activity towards microorganisms and molecular features of the mechanism of action against bacteria and fungi. Plant defensins also have been tested as biotechnological tools to improve crop production through fungi resistance generation in organisms genetically modified (OGM. Its low effective concentration towards fungi, ranging from 0.1 to 10 µM and its safety to mammals and birds makes them a better choice, in place of chemicals, to control fungi infection on crop fields. Herein, is a review of the history of plant defensins since their discovery at the beginning of 90’s, following the advances on its structure conformation and mechanism of action towards microorganisms is reported. This review also points out some important topics, including: (i the most studied plant defensins and their fungal targets; (ii the molecular features of plant defensins and their relation with antifungal activity; (iii the possibility of using plant defensin(s genes to generate fungi resistant GM crops and biofungicides; and (iv a brief discussion about the absence of products in the market containing plant antifungal defensins.

  8. Colonization and antifungals susceptibility patterns of Candida species isolated from hospitalized patients in ICUs and NICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Navid, Mojgan; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Mazdarani, Shahnam

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have shown that there are an increasing in invasive candidiasis during 2-3 last decades. Although, Candida albicans is considered as the most common candidiasis agents, other non-albicans such as C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis were raised as infectious agents. Resistance to fluconazole among non-albicans species is an important problem for clinicians during therapy and prophylaxis. The aim of current study was to detect the Candida species from hospitalized neonatal and children in intensive care units (ICUs) and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). In addition, the susceptibility of isolated agents were also evaluated against three antifungals. In the present study 298 samples including 98 blood samples, 100 urines and 100 swabs from oral cavity were inoculated on CHROMagar Candida. Initial detection was done according to the coloration colonies on CHROMagar Candida . Morphology on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and growth at 45°C were confirmed isolates. Amphotericin B, fluconazole and terbinafine (Lamisil) were used for the susceptibility tests using microdilution method. In the present study 21% and 34% of urines and swabs from oral cavity were positive for Candida species, respectively. The most common species was C. albicans (62.5%) followed by C. tropicalis (15.6%), C. glabrata (6.3%) and Candida species (15.6%). Our study indicated that the most tested species of Candida, 70.3% were sensitive to fluconazole at the concentration of ≤8 μg/mL. Whereas 9 (14.1%) of isolates were resistant to amphotericine B at ≥8 μg/mL. This study demonstrates the importance of species identification and antifungals susceptibility testing for hospitalized patients in ICUs and NICUs wards.

  9. Empire vs. Federation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravier, Magali

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the concepts of federation and empire in the context of the European Union (EU). Even if these two concepts are not usually contrasted to one another, the article shows that they refer to related type of polities. Furthermore, they can be used at a time because they shed light...... on different and complementary aspects of the European integration process. The article concludes that the EU is at the crossroads between federation and empire and may remain an ‘imperial federation’ for several decades. This could mean that the EU is on the verge of transforming itself to another type...

  10. Empirical comparison of theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, K.D.; Wippler, R.

    1990-01-01

    The book represents the first, comprehensive attempt to take an empirical approach for comparative assessment of theories in sociology. The aims, problems, and advantages of the empirical approach are discussed in detail, and the three theories selected for the purpose of this work are explained. Their comparative assessment is performed within the framework of several research projects, which among other subjects also investigate the social aspects of the protest against nuclear power plants. The theories analysed in this context are the theory of mental incongruities and that of the benefit, and their efficiency in explaining protest behaviour is compared. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Empirical Music Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    The toolbox for empirically exploring the ways that artistic endeavors convey and activate meaning on the part of performers and audiences continues to expand. Current work employing methods at the intersection of performance studies, philosophy, motion capture and neuroscience to better understand...... musical performance and reception is inspired by traditional approaches within aesthetics, but it also challenges some of the presuppositions inherent in them. As an example of such work I present a research project in empirical music aesthetics begun last year and of which I am a team member....

  12. Empirical research through design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Bruns, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the empirical research through design method (ERDM), which differs from current approaches to research through design by enforcing the need for the designer, after a series of pilot prototype based studies, to a-priori develop a number of testable interaction design hypothesis

  13. Essays in empirical microeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Péter, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    The empirical studies in this thesis investigate various factors that could affect individuals' labor market, family formation and educational outcomes. Chapter 2 focuses on scheduling as a potential determinant of individuals' productivity. Chapter 3 looks at the role of a family factor on

  14. Worship, Reflection, Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Dong,

    2012-01-01

    In my youth, I was a worshipper of Mao Zedong. From the latter stage of the Mao Era to the early years of Reform and Opening, I began to reflect on Mao and the Communist Revolution he launched. In recent years I’ve devoted myself to empirical historical research on Mao, seeking the truth about Mao and China’s modern history.

  15. Trade and Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2007-01-01

    This articles seeks to establish a new set of organizing concepts for the analysis of the Roman imperial economy from Republic to late antiquity: tributary empire, port-folio capitalism and protection costs. Together these concepts explain better economic developments in the Roman world than the...

  16. Empirically sampling Universal Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schluter, Natalie; Agic, Zeljko

    2017-01-01

    Universal Dependencies incur a high cost in computation for unbiased system development. We propose a 100% empirically chosen small subset of UD languages for efficient parsing system development. The technique used is based on measurements of model capacity globally. We show that the diversity o...

  17. 2016 guideline strategies for the use of antifungal agents in patients with hematological malignancies or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bor-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Ting; Kung, Hsiang-Chi; Wu, Un-In; Tang, Jih-Luh; Yao, Ming; Chen, Yee-Chun; Tien, Hwei-Fang; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Lin, Dong-Tsamn

    2017-07-25

    The Infectious Diseases Society of Taiwan (IDST), the Hematology Society of Taiwan, the Taiwan Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Medical Foundation in Memory of Dr. Deh-Lin Cheng, Foundation of Professor Wei-Chuan Hsieh for Infectious Diseases Research and Education, and CY Lee's Research Foundation for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccines cooperatively published this guideline for the use of antifungal agents in hematological patients with invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in Taiwan. The guideline is the first one endorsed by IDST focusing on selection of antifungal strategies, including prophylaxis, empirical (or symptom-driven) and pre-emptive (or diagnostic-driven) strategy. We suggest a risk-adapted dynamic strategy and provide an algorithm to facilitate decision making in population level as well as for individual patient. Risk assessment and management accordingly is explicitly emphasized. In addition, we highlight the importance of diagnosis in each antifungal strategy among five elements of the antimicrobial stewardship (diagnosis, drug, dose, de-escalation and duration). The rationale, purpose, and key recommendations for the choice of antifungal strategy are summarized, with concise review of international guidelines or recommendation, key original articles and local epidemiology reports. We point out the interaction and influence between elements of recommendations and limitation of and gap between evidences and daily practice. The guideline balances the quality of evidence and feasibility of recommendation in clinical practice. Finally, this version introduces the concept of health economics and provides data translated from local disease burdens. All these contents hopefully facilitate transparency and accountability in medical decision-making, improvements in clinical care and health outcomes, and appropriateness of medical resource allocation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. 2016 guideline strategies for the use of antifungal agents in patients with hematological malignancies or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sheng Ko

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Infectious Diseases Society of Taiwan (IDST, the Hematology Society of Taiwan, the Taiwan Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Medical Foundation in Memory of Dr. Deh-Lin Cheng, Foundation of Professor Wei-Chuan Hsieh for Infectious Diseases Research and Education, and CY Lee's Research Foundation for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccines cooperatively published this guideline for the use of antifungal agents in hematological patients with invasive fungal diseases (IFDs in Taiwan. The guideline is the first one endorsed by IDST focusing on selection of antifungal strategies, including prophylaxis, empirical (or symptom-driven and pre-emptive (or diagnostic-driven strategy. We suggest a risk-adapted dynamic strategy and provide an algorithm to facilitate decision making in population level as well as for individual patient. Risk assessment and management accordingly is explicitly emphasized. In addition, we highlight the importance of diagnosis in each antifungal strategy among five elements of the antimicrobial stewardship (diagnosis, drug, dose, de-escalation and duration. The rationale, purpose, and key recommendations for the choice of antifungal strategy are summarized, with concise review of international guidelines or recommendation, key original articles and local epidemiology reports. We point out the interaction and influence between elements of recommendations and limitation of and gap between evidences and daily practice. The guideline balances the quality of evidence and feasibility of recommendation in clinical practice. Finally, this version introduces the concept of health economics and provides data translated from local disease burdens. All these contents hopefully facilitate transparency and accountability in medical decision-making, improvements in clinical care and health outcomes, and appropriateness of medical resource allocation.

  19. Antifungal treatment for invasive Candida infections: a mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachega Jean B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of mortality among patients at risk. Treatment guidelines vary on optimal treatment strategies. We aimed to determine the effects of different antifungal therapies on global response rates, mortality and safety. Methods We searched independently and in duplicate 10 electronic databases from inception to May 2009. We selected any randomized trial assessing established antifungal therapies for confirmed cases of invasive candidiasis among predominantly adult populations. We performed a meta-analysis and then conducted a Bayesian mixed treatment comparison to differentiate treatment effectiveness. Sensitivity analyses included dosage forms of amphotericin B and fluconazole compared to other azoles. Results Our analysis included 11 studies enrolling a total of 965 patients. For our primary analysis of global response rates, we pooled 7 trials comparing azoles to amphotericin B, Relative Risk [RR] 0.87 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.78–0.96, P = 0.007, I2 = 43%, P = 0.09. We also pooled 2 trials of echinocandins versus amphotericin B and found a pooled RR of 1.10 (95% CI, 0.99–1.23, P = 0.08. One study compared anidulafungin to fluconazole and yielded a RR of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.06–1.51 in favor of anidulafungin. We pooled 7 trials assessing azoles versus amphotericin B for all-cause mortality, resulting in a pooled RR of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.74–1.05, P = 0.17, I2 = 0%, P = 0.96. Echinocandins versus amphotericin B (2 trials for all-cause mortality resulted in a pooled RR of 1.01 (95% CI, 0.84–1.20, P = 0.93. Anidulafungin versus fluconazole resulted in a RR of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.48–1.10, P = 0.34. Our mixed treatment comparison analysis found similar within-class effects across all interventions. Adverse event profiles differed, with amphotericin B exhibiting larger adverse event effects. Conclusion Treatment options appear to offer preferential effects on response rates and mortality. When

  20. Antifungal drugs as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in 0.1 M HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obot, I.B. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, Uyo (Nigeria)], E-mail: proffoime@yahoo.com; Obi-Egbedi, N.O. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Umoren, S.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, Uyo (Nigeria)

    2009-08-15

    The inhibitive capabilities of Clotrimazole (CTM) and Fluconazole (FLC), two antifungal drugs, on the electrochemical corrosion of aluminium in 0.1 M HCl solution has been studied using weight loss measurements at 30 and 50 deg. C. The results indicate that both compound act as inhibitors in the acidic corrodent. At constant acid concentration, the inhibition efficiency (%I) increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitors. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate in the absence and presence of the inhibitors but decreased the inhibition efficiency. CTM and FLC adsorbed on the surface of aluminium according to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model at all the concentrations and temperatures studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the activation parameter obtained. Thermodynamic parameters reveal that the adsorption process is spontaneous. The reactivity of these compounds was analyzed through theoretical calculations based on AM1 semi-empirical method to explain the different efficiencies of these compounds as corrosion inhibitors. CTM was found to be a better inhibitor than FLC.

  1. Molecular and cellular responses of the pathogenic fungus Lomentospora prolificans to the antifungal drug voriconazole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aize Pellon

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Lomentospora (Scedosporium prolificans is an emerging opportunistic pathogen associated with fatal infections in patients with disturbed immune function. Unfortunately, conventional therapies are hardly of any use against this fungus due to its intrinsic resistance. Therefore, we performed an integrated study of the L. prolificans responses to the first option to treat these mycoses, namely voriconazole, with the aim of unveiling mechanisms involved in the resistance to this compound. To do that, we used a wide range of techniques, including fluorescence and electron microscopy to study morphological alterations, ion chromatography to measure changes in cell-wall carbohydrate composition, and proteomics-based techniques to identify the proteins differentially expressed under the presence of the drug. Significantly, we showed drastic changes occurring in cell shape after voriconazole exposure, L. prolificans hyphae being shorter and wider than under control conditions. Interestingly, we proved that the architecture and carbohydrate composition of the cell wall had been modified in the presence of the drug. Specifically, L. prolificans constructed a more complex organelle with a higher presence of glucans and mannans. In addition to this, we identified several differentially expressed proteins, including Srp1 and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70, as the most overexpressed under voriconazole-induced stress conditions. The mechanisms described in this study, which may be directly related to L. prolificans antifungal resistance or tolerance, could be used as targets to improve existing therapies or to develop new ones in order to successfully eliminate these mycoses.

  2. Molecular and cellular responses of the pathogenic fungus Lomentospora prolificans to the antifungal drug voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellon, Aize; Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Buldain, Idoia; Antoran, Aitziber; Rementeria, Aitor; Hernando, Fernando L

    2017-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Lomentospora (Scedosporium) prolificans is an emerging opportunistic pathogen associated with fatal infections in patients with disturbed immune function. Unfortunately, conventional therapies are hardly of any use against this fungus due to its intrinsic resistance. Therefore, we performed an integrated study of the L. prolificans responses to the first option to treat these mycoses, namely voriconazole, with the aim of unveiling mechanisms involved in the resistance to this compound. To do that, we used a wide range of techniques, including fluorescence and electron microscopy to study morphological alterations, ion chromatography to measure changes in cell-wall carbohydrate composition, and proteomics-based techniques to identify the proteins differentially expressed under the presence of the drug. Significantly, we showed drastic changes occurring in cell shape after voriconazole exposure, L. prolificans hyphae being shorter and wider than under control conditions. Interestingly, we proved that the architecture and carbohydrate composition of the cell wall had been modified in the presence of the drug. Specifically, L. prolificans constructed a more complex organelle with a higher presence of glucans and mannans. In addition to this, we identified several differentially expressed proteins, including Srp1 and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), as the most overexpressed under voriconazole-induced stress conditions. The mechanisms described in this study, which may be directly related to L. prolificans antifungal resistance or tolerance, could be used as targets to improve existing therapies or to develop new ones in order to successfully eliminate these mycoses.

  3. Antifungal activity of eicosanoic acids isolated from the endophytic fungus Mycosphaerella sp. against Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane Bigatti; Pereira de Sá, Nívea; Borelli, Beatriz Martins; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Barbeira, Paulo Jorge Sanches; Cota, Betania Barros; Johann, Susana

    2016-11-01

    The antifungal effects of two eicosanoic acids, 2-amino-3,4-dihydroxy-2-25-(hydroxymethyl)-14-oxo-6,12-eicosenoic acid (compound 1) and myriocin (compound 2), isolated from Mycosphaerella sp. were evaluated against Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. The compounds displayed antifungal activities against several isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.49 to 7.82 μM for compound 1 and 0.48-1.95 μM for compound 2. In the checkerboard microtiter test, both compounds exhibited synergistic activity with amphotericin B against C. gattii. Ultrastructural analysis revealed several signs of damage in C. gattii and C. neoformans cells treated with compounds 1 and 2, including deformities in cell shape, depressions on the surface, and withered cells. The cells of C. gattii treated with compounds 1 and 2 showed less loss of cellular material in comparison to those treated with amphotericin B. The difference in cellular material loss increased in a test compound concentration-dependent manner. Consistent with this observation, compounds 1 and 2 were able to internalize propidium iodide (PI) in C. gattii cells. In addition, compound 2 induced the formation of several pseudohyphae, suggesting that it could reduce virulence in C. gattii cells. The study results show that these natural products led to membrane damage; however, this may not be the main target of action. These compounds have potential antifungal activity and could be useful in further studies for developing more effective combination therapies with amphotericin B and reducing side effects in patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Autobiography After Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Astrid

    of the collective, but insufficient attention has been paid to how individuals respond to such narrative changes. This dissertation examines the relationship between individual and collective memory at the end of empire through analysis of 13 end of empire autobiographies by public intellectuals from Australia......Decolonisation was a major event of the twentieth century, redrawing maps and impacting on identity narratives around the globe. As new nations defined their place in the world, the national and imperial past was retold in new cultural memories. These developments have been studied at the level......, the Anglophone Caribbean and Zimbabwe. I conceive of memory as reconstructive and social, with individual memory striving to make sense of the past in the present in dialogue with surrounding narratives. By examining recurring tropes in the autobiographies, like colonial education, journeys to the imperial...

  5. Gazprom: the new empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemoles, A.; Lazareva, A.

    2008-01-01

    Gazprom is conquering the world. The Russian industrial giant owns the hugest gas reserves and enjoys the privilege of a considerable power. Gazprom edits journals, owns hospitals, airplanes and has even built cities where most of the habitants work for him. With 400000 workers, Gazprom represents 8% of Russia's GDP. This inquiry describes the history and operation of this empire and show how its has become a masterpiece of the government's strategy of russian influence reconquest at the world scale. Is it going to be a winning game? Are the corruption affairs and the expected depletion of resources going to weaken the empire? The authors shade light on the political and diplomatic strategies that are played around the crucial dossier of the energy supply. (J.S.)

  6. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Tokeer, E-mail: tahmad3@jmi.ac.in [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ahmed, Jahangeer [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Al-Shihri, Ayed S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m{sup 2}/g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m{sup 2/}g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl{sub 2}, however, NaBH{sub 4} produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m{sup 2}/g for 7 nm and 269 m{sup 2}/g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H{sup +} efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  7. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna; Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Al-Shihri, Ayed S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m 2 /g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m 2/ g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl 2 and NaBH 4 as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl 2 , however, NaBH 4 produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m 2 /g for 7 nm and 269 m 2 /g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H + efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  8. Antifungal Activity of Gallic Acid In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Meng; Dawuti, Gulina; Dou, Qin; Ma, Yu; Liu, Heng-Ge; Aibai, Silafu

    2017-07-01

    Gallic acid (GA) is a polyphenol natural compound found in many medicinal plant species, including pomegranate rind (Punica granatum L.), and has been shown to have antiinflammatory and antibacterial properties. Pomegranate rind is used to treat bacterial and fungal pathogens in Uyghur and other systems of traditional medicine, but, surprisingly, the effects of GA on antifungal activity have not yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of GA on fungal strains both in vitro and in vivo. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the NCCLS (M38-A and M27-A2) standard method in vitro, and GA was found to have a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, with MICs for all the tested dermatophyte strains between 43.75 and 83.33 μg/mL. Gallic acid was also active against three Candida strains, with MICs between 12.5 and 100.0 μg/mL. The most sensitive Candida species was Candida albicans (MIC = 12.5 μg/mL), and the most sensitive filamentous species was Trichophyton rubrum (MIC = 43.75 μg/mL), which was comparable in potency to the control, fluconazole. The mechanism of action was investigated for inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis using an HPLC-based assay and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Gallic acid reduced the activity of sterol 14α-demethylase P450 (CYP51) and squalene epoxidase in the T. rubrum membrane, respectively. In vivo model demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection administration of GA (80 mg/kg d) significantly enhanced the cure rate in a mice infection model of systemic fungal infection. Overall, our results confirm the antifungal effects of GA and suggest a mechanism of action, suggesting that GA has the potential to be developed further as a natural antifungal agent for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii; Saponinas antifungicas de Swartzia langsdorffii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marqui, Sara Regina de; Lemos, Renata Brionizio; Santos, Luciana Avila; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dhsilva@iq.unesp.br; Scorzoni, Liliana; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Maria Brandao [Inst. de Botanica, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2008-07-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-{beta}-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate. Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  10. Antifungal activity of natural and synthetic amides from Piper species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Joaquim V.; Oliveira, Alberto de; Kato, Massuo J., E-mail: majokato@iq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Raggi, Ludmila; Young, Maria C. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2010-07-01

    The antifungal leaves extract from Piper scutifolium was submitted to bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum yielding piperine, piperlonguminine and corcovadine as the active principles which displayed a detection limit of 1 {mu}g. Structure-activity relationships were investigated with the preparation of twelve analogs having differences in the number of unsaturations, aromatic ring substituents and in the amide moiety. Analogs having a single double-bond and no substituent in the aromatic ring displayed higher activity, while N,N,-diethyl analogs displayed higher dose-dependent activity. (author)

  11. Butyrylcholinesterase, lipoxygenase inhibiting and antifungal alkaloids from Isatis tinctoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Fatima, Itrat

    2008-06-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the alkaloidal fraction of the whole plant of the Isatis tinctoria led to the isolation of the alkaloids 1-6. Compounds 3, 2 were found to be potent butyrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase enzymes inhibitors in a concentration-dependent manner with the IC(50) values 16.3 +/- 0.06 and 19.7 +/- 0.03 microM against BChE and 30.6 +/- 0.02 and 33.7 +/- 0.05 microM against LOX, respectively. The compounds (1-6) showed significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton schoen leinii, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Trichophyton simii, and Macrophomina phaseolina.

  12. Synthesis, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of s Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Baldaniya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Nʹ-{4-[(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl amino]-6-[(-aryl amino] -1, 3, 5-triazin-2-yl} isonicotinohydrazides (6a-r and N2-(Aryl-N4, N6-dipyrimidin-2-yl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamines (4a-o were prepared. All newly synthesized compounds have been tested for their antibacterial activity against gram (+ve and gram (-ve bacteria and also on different strains of fungi. Introduction of -OH, -OCH3, -NO2, -Cl and -Br groups to the heterocyclic frame work enhanced antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  13. New microbial source of the antifungal allylamine “Terbinafine”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged S. Abdel-Kader

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The isolated active compound “F12” from the culture media of the Streptomyces sp. KH-F12 was identified using different spectroscopic techniques. Both 1D- and 2D-NMR as well as HRESIMS were utilized to characterize the structure of the isolated compound. ‘F12” was found to be the known systemic antifungal drug terbinafine marketed under the name “Lamisil”. Full analysis of the COSY, HSQC and HMBC enables the full assignment of proton and carbon atoms. Terbinafine is a synthetic allylamine and is reported here for the first time from natural source.

  14. Candidaemia and antifungal susceptibility testing in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzar, M N; Shamim, A S

    2009-03-01

    We reviewed cases of candidaemia at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre from 1st January 2005 to 30th June 2006. All blood cultures positive for Candida species or its teleomorphs within the study period were identified and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed. Out of 50 blood isolates, 20 (40%) were identified as Candida albicans, 16 (32%) C. tropicalis, five (10%) C. parapsilosis, three (6%) C. famata, two (4%) C. glabrata, two (4%) Pichia ohmeri, one (2%) C. krusei and one (2%) P. etchell/carsonii. Susceptibility to amphotericin B was 100%, fluconazole 90%, itraconazole 40%, ketoconazole 88%, 5-flucytosine 98% and voriconazole 98%.

  15. Taxonomy and antifungal susceptibility of clinically important Rasamsonia species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.; Giraud, S.; Meijer, M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Geosmithia argillacea has been increasingly reported in humans and animals and can be considered an emerging pathogen. The taxonomy of Geosmithia was recently studied, and Geosmithia argillacea and related species were transferred to the new genus Rasamsonia. The diversity among...... reported clinical isolates from animal or human patients. Susceptibility tests showed that the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the four members of the R. argillacea complex are similar, and caspofungin showed significant activity in vitro, followed by amphotericin B and posaconazole. Voriconazole...

  16. Protective and antifungal properties of Nanodisk-Amphotericin B over commercially available Amphotericin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Yeon Cho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Amphotericin B (AMB, a potent antifungal agent, has been employed as topical and systemic therapy for sinonasal fungal infections. A novel formulation of nanodisc (ND containing super aggregated AMB (ND-AMB for the treatment of fungal infections has been recently developed to provide greater protection from AMB toxicity than current, clinically approved lipid-based formulations. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the safety and potency of ND-AMB for sinonasal delivery using an in vitro model. Methods: Human sinonasal tissue was harvested during endoscopic sinus surgery and grown at air–liquid interface until well-differentiated. Cultures were exposed to ND-AMB vs AMB and changes in K+ permeability and resistance were measured and recorded via Ussing chamber assay. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF was analyzed in parallel as well as cytotoxic assay. Potency was assessed using real-time PCR measurement of the Aspergillus fumigatus 18S rRNA. Results: Ussing chamber studies revealed K+ currents that increased rapidly within 30 s of adding AMB (10 μg/mL to the apical side, indicating apical membranes had become permeable to K+ ions. In contrast, negligible induction of K+ current was obtained following addition of ND-AMB [AMB = (107.7 ± 15.9 μA/cm2 AMB vs ND-AMB = (2.3 ± 0.7 μA/cm2 ND-AMB; P = 0.005]. ND-AMB also protected nasal epithelial cells from cytotoxicity of AMB (P < 0.05. There was no difference in ciliary beat frequency between the two groups (P = 0.96. The expression of A. fumigatus 18S rRNA with exposure of lower dose of ND-AMB was significantly lower compared to that with AMB (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Data from the present study suggests ND-AMB protects human nasal epithelia membranes from AMB toxicity by protecting against apical cell K+ permeability while maintaining uncompromised antifungal property compared to AMB. ND-AMB could provide

  17. Fungal and Bacterial Infection Mitigation with Antibiotic and Antifungal Loaded Biopolymer Sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Cox

    Musculoskeletal injuries are some of the most prevalent injuries in both civilian and military populations and their infections can be difficult to treat, often resulting in multiple surgeries and increased costs. In both previous and recent military operations, extremity injuries have been the most common battlefield injuries and many involve complex, open fractures. These extremity injuries are especially susceptible to multiple pathogenic, and sometimes drug resistant, bacteria and fungi. Fungal infections have recently become increasingly problematic in both military and civilian populations and have significantly higher amputation rates than those from bacterial infections. Many of these bacterial and fungal strains adhere to tissue and implanted orthopaedic hardware within wounds, forming biofilms. These problematic, often polymicrobial, infections threaten the health of the patient, but the risk also exists of spreading within hospitals to become prominent resistant infections. Local antimicrobial delivery releases high levels of antimicrobials directly to injured wound tissue, overcoming sub-bactericidal or subfungicidal antimicrobial levels present in the avascular wound zones. This research will determine the ability of modified chitosan sponges, buffered with sodium acetate or blended with polyethylene glycol (PEG), to act as short term adjunctive therapies to initial surgical treatment for delivering both antibiotics and/or antifungals for early abatement of infection. The objective of this work was to evaluate both types of modified sponges for in vitro and in vivo material characteristics and device functionality. In vitro analysis demonstrated both the buffered and PEG modified chitosan sponges exhibited increased degradation and functional cytocompatibility. The chitosan/PEG sponges were able to be loaded with hydrophobic antifungals and the sponges released in vitro biologically active concentrations, alone or in combination with the antibiotic

  18. In vitro susceptibility of Candida albicans clinical isolates to eight antifungal agents in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zida, A; Yacouba, A; Bamba, S; Sangare, I; Sawadogo, M; Guiguemde, T; Kone, S; Traore, L K; Ouedraogo-Traore, R; Guiguemde, R T

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the infection Candida albicans infection worldwide has risen, and the incidence of resistance to traditional antifungal therapies is also increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro susceptibility of C. albicans clinical isolates to eight antifungal agents in Ouagadougou. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2015 at Yalgado Ouédraogo University Teaching Hospital. Two hundred seven strains have been isolated from 347 symptomatic patients received in different clinical services. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar supplemented with Cloramphenicol. Isolates were diagnosed as C. albicans using germ tube test, chlamydospore formation on Corn Meal Agar, and Api-Candida test (Biomérieux). Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method and isolates classified as susceptible, susceptible dose-dependent and resistant. Three hundred forty-seven (347) patients are included in this study. Two hundred and six (206) out of 347 collected samples (59.36%) were found positive for C. albicans. The strains were mostly isolated from vulvovaginal (49%) and oral infections (40.3%). The highest resistance rates of azoles were obtained with fluconazole (66.5%), itraconazole (52.3%) and ketoconazole (22.9%) when all clinical isolates were included. The resistance rates of fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole remain highest for vulvovaginal and oral isolates. The rate of resistance to the polyene amphotericin B was 32.0% for all clinical isolates and was 56.4% for vulvovaginal strains. Resistance rate to nystatin was 6.3% for all clinical isolates. Cross-resistance analysis with data of all clinical strains revealed that the incidence of resistance to ketoconazole and itraconazole in fluconazole-resistant isolates was significantly higher than recorded for fluconazole-susceptible isolates. In vitro C. albicans antifungal susceptibility test in this study showed relatively high

  19. In Vitro Investigation of Antifungal Activities of Actinomycetes against Microsporum gypseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Keikha

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: The findings of the present research show that terrigenous actinomycetes have an antifungal effect upon Microsporum gypseum. So, one hopes that-in future-rather than administering antifungal chemicals that have side-effects, dermatophytic infections can be cured by applying these actinomycetes.

  20. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant ...

  1. Evaluation of antifungal efficacy of QMix 2in1 as a final irrigant: An in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of antifungal efficacy of QMix 2in1 as a final irrigant: An in vitro study. E Kalyoncuoglu, E Sen Tunc, S Ozer, C Keskin, K Bilgin, A Birinci. Abstract. Background: It is known that no specific antifungal agent exists at present for irrigation of infected root canals. QMix 2in1 was investigated to determine whether they ...

  2. In vitro antifungal effect of mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine and thymol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Shrestha

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: Antimicrobial agents used in the study had good in vitro activity against the two Candida species. Mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine showed superior antifungal and fungicidal activities compared to the thymol-containing mouth rinse. Both antimicrobial agents may be suggested for use as topical antifungal agents.

  3. Risk of Fungemia Due to Rhodotorula and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Rhodotorula Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Zaas, Aimee K.; Boyce, Molly; Schell, Wiley; Lodge, Barbara Alexander; Miller, Jackie L.; Perfect, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Rhodotorula infections occur among patients with immunosuppression and/or central venous catheters. Using standardized methods (NCCLS M27-A), we determined the antifungal susceptibilities of 10 Rhodotorula bloodstream infection isolates. Patient information was collected for clinical correlation. The MICs of amphotericin B and posaconazole were the lowest, and the MICs of triazoles and echinocandins were higher than those of other antifungal agents.

  4. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  5. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Di?genes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.

  6. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.

  7. Prenatal exposure to antifungal medication may change anogenital distance in male offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Djamilla Madelung; Pihl, Maria Bergkvist; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik

    2017-01-01

    (AGDap) and penile width; measured at the base of the penis. Results: Eighty seven women had used antifungal medicine during pregnancy. Maternal use of oral fluconazole (n = 4) was associated with a 6.4 mm shorter AGDas (95% CI: -11.9;-0.9) in the male offspring. Use of antifungal vaginal tablets (n = 21...

  8. Antibacterial and antifungal effect of high pH and paraffin wax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial and antifungal effects of high pH (9, 10) and paraffin wax were determined. Determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity of the combined treatments was achieved by aerobic mesophilic count of bacteria and fungi on the surface of the tomatoes, peppers and oranges using serial dilution and pour ...

  9. ANTI-FUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF m-IODOBENZOIC ACID AND SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-fungal activities of alkali and alkaline earth metal iodobenzoates were studied. Calcium iodobenzoate exhibited the highest anti-fungal activities of 74.60% inhibition for 15 ppm while sodium iodobenzoate exhibited the least inhibition of 61.64%. An optimum concentration of all the metal complexes for inhibition ...

  10. Evaluation of Antifungal Potentials and Antioxidant Capacities of Some Foliose Lichen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar BİLGİN SÖKMEN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed to assess of antioxidant and antifungal potential of the foliose lichen species: Flavoparmelia caperata, Xanthoparmelia stenophylla and Xanthoparmelia conspersa. The antifungal activity of lichens were studied against some pathogenic fungi by disc diffusion method. The acetonitrile extracts of these lichens were obtained with Soxhlet extraction. While F. caperata exhibited maximum antifungal activity (32 mm against the C. albicans, the minimum antifungal activity (10 mm was obtained from X. stenophylla lichen against S. cerevisiae. In CUPRAC assay, absorbance values was in order of BHT>X. conspersa>F. caperata>X. stenophylla. As a result of the study, it was concluded that these lichen species may be a potential source for the development of new antifungal and antioxidant compounds.

  11. Production and characterization of antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaiKuan Wang

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10014 was isolated from koumiss that produces a broad spectrum of antifungal compounds, all of which were active against plant pathogenic fungi in an agar plate assay. Two major antifungal compounds were extracted from the cell-free supernatant broth of L. plantarum IMAU10014. 3-phenyllactic acid and Benzeneacetic acid, 2-propenyl ester were carried out by HPLC, LC-MS, GC-MS, NMR analysis. It is the first report that lactic acid bacteria produce antifungal Benzeneacetic acid, 2-propenyl ester. Of these, the antifungal products also have a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, namely against Botrytis cinerea, Glomerella cingulate, Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium oxysporum, which was identified by the overlay and well-diffusion assay. F. oxysporum, P. citrinum and P. drechsleri Tucker were the most sensitive among molds.

  12. Azole Antifungal Resistance in Candida albicans and Emerging Non-albicans Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Sarah G.; Berkow, Elizabeth L.; Rybak, Jeffrey M.; Nishimoto, Andrew T.; Barker, Katherine S.; Rogers, P. David

    2017-01-01

    Within the limited antifungal armamentarium, the azole antifungals are the most frequent class used to treat Candida infections. Azole antifungals such as fluconazole are often preferred treatment for many Candida infections as they are inexpensive, exhibit limited toxicity, and are available for oral administration. There is, however, extensive documentation of intrinsic and developed resistance to azole antifungals among several Candida species. As the frequency of azole resistant Candida isolates in the clinical setting increases, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of such resistance in order to both preserve and improve upon the azole class of antifungals for the treatment of Candida infections. This review examines azole resistance in infections caused by C. albicans as well as the emerging non-albicans Candida species C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. glabrata and in particular, describes the current understanding of molecular basis of azole resistance in these fungal species. PMID:28127295

  13. Antifungal Activity of Bacillus coagulans TQ33, Isolated from Skimmed Milk Powder, against Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Feng Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus coagulans TQ33 is isolated from the skimmed milk powder and has a broad antifungal activity against pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker, Fusarium oxysporum and Glomerella cingulata. The characteristics of active antifungal substances produced by B. coagulans TQ33 and its antifungal effects against the growth of plant pathogenic fungi has been evaluated. The effect of pH, temperature and protease on the antifungal activity of B. coagulans TQ33 was determined. The results of partial characterization of the antifungal compound indicated that its activity is likely to be due to the production of a proteinaceous substance together with other substances. The greenhouse trials suggest that B. coagulans TQ33 has a great potential for the control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  14. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of some 1-benzylbenzimidazole derivatives as antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the antifungal activity of some 1-benzylbenzimidazole derivatives against yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. The tested benzimidazoles displayed in vitro antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined for all the compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR has been used to study the relationships between the antifungal activity and lipophilicity parameter, logP, calculated by using CS Chem-Office Software version 7.0. The results are discussed on the basis of statistical data. The best QSAR model for prediction of antifungal activity of the investigated series of benzimidazoles was developed. High agreement between experimental and predicted inhibitory values was obtained. The results of this study indicate that the lipophilicity parameter has a significant effect on antifungal activity of this class of compounds, which simplify design of new biologically active molecules.

  15. A Study on the Frequency of Fungal Rhinosinusitis and to Determine the Sensitivity of the Isolates to Antifungal Drugs in Shiraz, Iran 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Fungal spores are present in large amounts in the nature which may cause diseases in the susceptible individuals. Fungal rhinosinusitis has been increased during recent decades. This study aims to investigate fungal rhinosinusitis in the patients with chronic needing endoscopic sinus surgery aims and to determine the sensitivity of the isolates to rhin sinusitis antifungal agents. Materials and Methods: In cross sectional study, specimens were obtained in sterile plates containing normal saline. from the suspected cases of chronic rhinosinusitis who had undergone endoscopic sinus surgery. Microscopic experiments and Cultures were done in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the growth of fungi for seven antifungal agents against the isolates was determined using E-Test. Results: In total, specimens from 102 immunocompetent patients were examined. Nine positive specimens were presented, consisting of 3 for Aspergillus fumigatus, 3 for Penicillium, 2 for Aspergillus flavus and 1 for Alternaria. The mean age of the patients was 38 years, with 59 males and 43 females. The isolates were most sensitive to the voriconazole and amphotericin B. Conclusion: Since the prevalence of fungal rhinosinusitis is low, unfortunately, the clinicians are not attentive enough to the condition, and they initiate antifungal therapy if the patients are not responsive to antibiotics. Early diagnosis and suitable treatment can help more efficient management of patients.

  16. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the antifungal activity of allicin alone and in combination with antifungal drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Kim

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of allicin and its synergistic effects with the antifungal agents flucytosine and amphotericin B (AmB were investigated in Candida albicans (C. albicans. C. albicans was treated with different conditions of compounds alone and in combination (allicin, AmB, flucytosine, allicin + AmB, allicin + flucytosine, allicin + AmB + flucytosine. After a 24-hour treatment, cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM to measure morphological and biophysical properties associated with cell death. The clearing assay was conducted to confirm the effects of allicin. The viability of C. albicans treated by allicin alone or with one antifungal drug (AmB, flucytosine in addition was more than 40% after a 24-hr treatment, but the viability of groups treated with combinations of more than two drugs was less than 32%. When the cells were treated with allicin alone or one type of drug, the morphology of the cells did not change noticeably, but when cells were treated with combinations of drugs, there were noticeable morphological changes. In particular, cells treated with allicin + AmB had significant membrane damage (burst or collapsed membranes. Classification of cells according to their cell death phase (CDP allowed us to determine the relationship between cell viability and treatment conditions in detail. The adhesive force was decreased by the treatment in all groups compare to the control. Cells treated with AmB + allicin had a greater adhesive force than cells treated with AmB alone because of the secretion of molecules due to collapsed membranes. All cells treated with allicin or drugs were softer than the control cells. These results suggest that allicin can reduce MIC of AmB while keeping the same efficacy.

  17. Radiation application for upgrading of bioresources - Development of antifungal and/or nitrogen fixative microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Sung; Ko, Dong Kyu; Han, Gab Jin [Paichai University, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    (1) In this study, the antifungal bacteria six strains were isolated from various environment located in Chung-cheong area, Korea. These isolates were identified the genera Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp. through morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis. Strains KL3362 and KL3397 were identified as Pseudomonas aurantiaca and Alcaligenes faecalis, respectively. Considering antifungal(AF) spectrum, strain KL3303, 3334, and 3341 show the broad range, KL3362 and KL3397 the narrow range of AF activity on a number of pathogenic fungi. Therefore, strains KL3341 and KL3362 were selected as the strong candidate of antifungal bacteria on every purpose and usage related with our research goal. (2) KL3341 producing-antifungal substances were consisted of five different kinds of low molecular weight polypeptides (3) Optimal conditions for the production of antifungal substances were analyzed under various environmental conditions. Growth rates were different according to carbon and nitrogen source, antifungal substance production yields were not different, however. Product of antifungal substances according t phosphate is proportional to the concentration. And productivity of antifungal substances was generally high in the range 30 {approx} 37 deg. C at pH 7. In case of adding vitamin B1 or lysine to medium, the antifungal activity was enhanced. (4) Mutants with enhanced antifungal activities were constructed by radiation of {gamma}-ray. (5) AF strains were screened and selected from this research can be used in the microbial biocides as well as multifunctional bio-controllers in order to remove plant pathogenic fungi and to clarify the polluted environment. Due to their excellent degradation capability for agricultural and/or organic substances, they also can be used to improve soil quality, to ferment compost and to clean up the environment. 35 refs., 17 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  18. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...

  19. In Silico Approach for Prediction of Antifungal Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Agrawal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes in silico models developed using a wide range of peptide features for predicting antifungal peptides (AFPs. Our analyses indicate that certain types of residue (e.g., C, G, H, K, R, Y are more abundant in AFPs. The positional residue preference analysis reveals the prominence of the particular type of residues (e.g., R, V, K at N-terminus and a certain type of residues (e.g., C, H at C-terminus. In this study, models have been developed for predicting AFPs using a wide range of peptide features (like residue composition, binary profile, terminal residues. The support vector machine based model developed using compositional features of peptides achieved maximum accuracy of 88.78% on the training dataset and 83.33% on independent or validation dataset. Our model developed using binary patterns of terminal residues of peptides achieved maximum accuracy of 84.88% on training and 84.64% on validation dataset. We benchmark models developed in this study and existing methods on a dataset containing compositionally similar antifungal and non-AFPs. It was observed that binary based model developed in this study preforms better than any model/method. In order to facilitate scientific community, we developed a mobile app, standalone and a user-friendly web server ‘Antifp’ (http://webs.iiitd.edu.in/raghava/antifp.

  20. Structural Basis of Human CYP51 Inhibition by Antifungal Azoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strushkevich, Natallia; Usanov, Sergey A.; Park, Hee-Won (Toronto); (IBC-Belarus)

    2010-09-22

    The obligatory step in sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes is demethylation of sterol precursors at the C14-position, which is catalyzed by CYP51 (sterol 14-alpha demethylase) in three sequential reactions. In mammals, the final product of the pathway is cholesterol, while important intermediates, meiosis-activating sterols, are produced by CYP51. Three crystal structures of human CYP51, ligand-free and complexed with antifungal drugs ketoconazole and econazole, were determined, allowing analysis of the molecular basis for functional conservation within the CYP51 family. Azole binding occurs mostly through hydrophobic interactions with conservative residues of the active site. The substantial conformational changes in the B{prime} helix and F-G loop regions are induced upon ligand binding, consistent with the membrane nature of the protein and its substrate. The access channel is typical for mammalian sterol-metabolizing P450 enzymes, but is different from that observed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis CYP51. Comparison of the azole-bound structures provides insight into the relative binding affinities of human and bacterial P450 enzymes to ketoconazole and fluconazole, which can be useful for the rational design of antifungal compounds and specific modulators of human CYP51.

  1. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of endodontic intracanal medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    TONEA, ANDRADA; BADEA, MANDRA; OANA, LIVIU; SAVA, SORINA; VODNAR, DAN

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The sterilization of the entire root canal system represents the main goal of every endodontist, given the fact that the control of the microbial flora is the key point of every root canal treatment. The diversity of microorganisms found inside the root canal and also the resistance of some bacterial species to intracanal medications led to a continuous development of new endodontic products. The present study focuses on the comparison of the antibacterial and antifungal properties of different endodontic products, two commercially available, one experimental plant based extract, and two control substances. Methods The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide, a mix extract between Arctium lappa root powder and Aloe barbadensis Miller gel, Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and Fluconazole (as control substances). Two of the most common microorganisms found in endodontic infections were chosen: Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Candida albicans ATCC(10231). Results All tested substances showed inhibition zones around the discs, for Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans, including the experimental mix extract of Arctium lappa root powder with Aloe vera gel. Conclusion The experimental mix extract of Arctium lappa root powder and Aloe vera gel is able to inhibit very resistant microorganisms, like Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. PMID:28781531

  2. Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Severo Gomes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256µg/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health.

  3. Lavandula luisieri essential oil as a source of antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzarte, M; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Cavaleiro, C; Canhoto, J; Vaz, S; Pinto, E; Salgueiro, L

    2012-12-01

    This work reports the antifungal activity of Lavandula luisieri essential oils against yeast, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains responsible for human infections and food contamination. The oil's cytotoxicity and its effect on the yeast-mycelium transition in Candida albicans, an important virulence factor, were also evaluated. Analyses by GC and GC/MS showed a peculiar composition of irregular monoterpenes. Significant differences between the samples occurred in the amounts of 1,8-cineole, fenchone and trans-α-necrodyl acetate. The oil with higher amounts of irregular monoterpenes was the most effective. The influence of the oils on the dimorphic transition in C. albicans was also studied through the germ tube inhibition assay. Filamentation was completely inhibited at concentrations sixteen times lower than the minimal inhibitory concentration. The results support the use of L. luiseiri essential oils in the development of new phytopharmaceuticals and food preservatives and emphasise its antifungal properties at concentrations not cytotoxic or with very low detrimental effects on mammalian cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; García, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martínez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

    2009-12-01

    In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study.

  5. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  6. Omics for Investigating Chitosan as an Antifungal and Gene Modulator

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    Federico Lopez-Moya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer with a wide range of applications. The use of chitosan in clinical medicine to control infections by fungal pathogens such as Candida spp. is one of its most promising applications in view of the reduced number of antifungals available. Chitosan increases intracellular oxidative stress, then permeabilizes the plasma membrane of sensitive filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa and yeast. Transcriptomics reveals plasma membrane homeostasis and oxidative metabolism genes as key players in the response of fungi to chitosan. A lipase and a monosaccharide transporter, both inner plasma membrane proteins, and a glutathione transferase are main chitosan targets in N. crassa. Biocontrol fungi such as Pochonia chlamydosporia have a low content of polyunsaturated free fatty acids in their plasma membranes and are resistant to chitosan. Genome sequencing of P. chlamydosporia reveals a wide gene machinery to degrade and assimilate chitosan. Chitosan increases P. chlamydosporia sporulation and enhances parasitism of plant parasitic nematodes by the fungus. Omics studies allow understanding the mode of action of chitosan and help its development as an antifungal and gene modulator.

  7. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

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    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  8. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi-Garbin, Renata Perugini; Demitto, Fernanda de Oliveira; Amaral, Renata Claro Ribeiro do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species.

  9. Antifungal activity of Cymbopogon citratus against Colletotrichum gloesporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Francisco Pérez Cordero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate in vitro the inhibitory activity of essential oils from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in yam. The research was conducted in the department of Sucre, Colombia. The essential oils of C. citratus were collected in the municipalities of Sincelejo, La Union and Sampues, in September and October 2015. The essential oil was extract from fresh leaves using the microwave-assisted hydrodistillation. Concentrations of 5000, 8000 and 10 000 ppm of each essential oil were prepared. An absolute control, a positive control (benomyl 1 g/l and a negative control was used. An inhibitory activity was obtained by using the direct seeding on surface of the potato-dextrose-agar method and it was expressed as percentage of inhibition rate. The chemical characterization of essential oils was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The highest percentages of antifungal index were observed in the lemongrass from Sincelejo at concentrations of 5000, 8000 and 10 000 ppm, after in La Union at 8000 and 10 000 ppm, and finally at Sampues at 10 000 ppm, with a value of 97.77%; the effect was similar to the positive control with benomyl 1 g/l. Citral was the main constituent of the essential oils extracted. The essential oils obtained from the three municipalities showed antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides.

  10. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIASI-GARBIN, Renata Perugini; DEMITTO, Fernanda de Oliveira; do AMARAL, Renata Claro Ribeiro; FERREIRA, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; SOARES, Luiz Alberto Lira; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; YAMADA-OGATTA, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  11. Antifungal activity of indigenous Bacillus spp. isolated from soil

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    Bjelić Dragana Đ.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR represents an alternative approach to disease management, since PGPR are known to promote growth and reduce diseases in various crops. Among the different PGPR, members of the genus Bacillus are prefered for most biotechnological uses due to their capability to form extremely resistant spores and produce a wide variety of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The objective of this research was to identify antagonistic bacteria for management of the plant diseases. Eleven isolates of Bacillus spp. were obtained from the soil samples collected from different localities in the Province of Vojvodina. The antifungal activity of bacterial isolates against five fungal species was examined using a dual plate assay. Bacillus isolates exhibited the highest antifungal activity against Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae and Alternaria padwickii, while they had the least antagonistic effect on Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum. Molecular identification showed that effective bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus safensis (B2, Bacillus pumilus (B3, B11, Bacillus subtilis (B5, B7 and Bacillus megaterium (B8, B9. The highest antagonistic activity was exhibited by isolates B5 (from 39% to 62% reduction in fungal growth and B7 (from 40% to 71% reduction in fungal growth. These isolates of B. subtilis could be used as potential biocontrol agents of plant diseases. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31073

  12. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities of some flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Ozçelik, Berrin; Ozgen, Selda; Ergun, Fatma

    2010-08-20

    Antibacterial and antifungal activities of six plant-derived flavonoids representing two different structural groups were evaluated against standard strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and their drug-resistant isolates, as well as fungi (Candida albicans, C. krusei) using the microdilution broth method. Herpes simplex virus Type-1 and Parainfluenza-3 virus were employed for antiviral assessment of the flavonoids using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines. Ampicillin, gentamycin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, fluconazole, ketoconazole, acyclovir, and oseltamivir were used as the control agents. All tested compounds (32-128 microg/ml) showed strong antimicrobial and antifungal activities against isolated strains of P. aeruginosa, A. baumanni, S. aureus, and C. krusei. Rutin, 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-flavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.2-0.05 microg/ml) were active against PI-3, while 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-[2''-O-(5'''-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-beta-D-apiofuranosyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.16-0.2 microg/ml) inhibited potently HSV-1. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Antifungal activity of some essential oils against toxigenic Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Alireza; Zamani, Elham; Sharaifi, Rohollah; Javan-Nikkhah, Mohammad; Nazari, Somayeh

    2010-01-01

    Increasing attentions have been paid on the application of essential oils and plant extracts for control of postharvest pathogens due to their natural origin and less appearance of resistance in fungi pathogens. Some Aspergillus species are toxigenic and responsible for many cases of food and feed contamination. Some Toxins that produce with some Aspergillus species are known to be potent hepatocarcinogens in animals and humans. The present work evaluated the parameters of antifungal activity of the essential oils of Zataria multiflora, Thymus migricus, Satureja hortensis, Foeniculum vulgare, Carum capticum and thiabendazol fungicide on survival and growth of different species of Aspergillus. Aerial part and seeds of plant species were collected then dried and its essential oils isolated by means of hydrodistillation. Antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro by poisonous medium technique with PDA medium at six concentrations. Results showed that all essential oils could inhibit the growth of Aspergillus species. The essential oil with the best effect and lowest EC50 and MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) was Z. multiflora (223 microl/l and 650 microl/l, respectively). The chemical composition of the Z. multiflora essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS.

  14. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Perugini BIASI-GARBIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE, Libidibia ferrea (AE, and Persea americana (AcE also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species.

  15. Screening of Azotobacter isolates for PGP properties and antifungal activity

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    Bjelić Dragana Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Аmong 50 bacterial isolates obtained from maize rhizospherе, 13 isolates belonged to the genus Azotobacter. Isolates were biochemically characterized and estimated for pH and halo tolerance ability and antibiotic resistance. According to characterization, the six representative isolates were selected and further screened in vitro for plant growth promoting properties: production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, exopolysaccharides, phosphate solubilization and antifungal activity (vs. Helminthosporium sp., Macrophomina sp., Fusarium sp.. Beside HCN production, PGP properties were detected for all isolates except Azt7. All isolates produced IAA in the medium without L-tryptophan and the amount of produced IAA increased with concentration of precursor in medium. The highest amount of IAA was produced by isolates Azt4 (37.69 and 45.86 μg ml-1 and Azt5 (29.44 and 50.38 μg ml-1 in the medium with addition of L-tryptophan (2.5 and 5 mM. The isolates showed the highest antifungal activity against Helminthosporium sp. and the smallest antagonistic effect on Macrophomina sp. Radial Growth Inhibition (RGI obtained by the confrontation of isolates with tested phytopathogenic fungi, ranged from 10 to 48%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31073

  16. Antifungal activity of phlorotannins against dermatophytes and yeasts: approaches to the mechanism of action and influence on Candida albicans virulence factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciliana Lopes

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, fungal infections, particularly nosocomial, increased all around the world. This increment stimulated the search for new antifungal agents, especially those derived from nature. Among natural products, those from marine sources have gained prominence in the last years. Purified phlorotannins extracts from three brown seaweeds (Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering M. Roberts, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus were screened for their antifungal activity against human pathogenic yeast and filamentous fungi. The purified phlorotannins extracts from the studied seaweeds displayed fungistatic and fungicidal activity against yeast and dermatophytes, respectively, pointing to their interest as anti-dermatophyte agent. C. albicans ATCC 10231 was the most susceptible among yeast, while Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton rubrum were the most susceptible among dermatophytes. Since the antifungal mechanism constitutes an important strategy for limiting the emergence of resistance to the commercially available agents, the mechanism of action of purified phlorotannins extracts was approached. C. nodicaulis and C. usneoides seem to act by affecting the ergosterol composition of the cell membrane of yeast and dermatophyte, respectively. F. spiralis influenced the dermatophyte cell wall composition by reducing the levels of chitin. Phlorotannins also seem to affect the respiratory chain function, as all of the studied species significantly increased the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases and increased the incorporation of rhodamine 123 by yeast cells. Phlorotannins from F. spiralis inhibited the dimorphic transition of Candida albicans, leading to the formation of pseudohyphae with diminished capacity to adhere to epithelial cells. This finding is associated with a decrease of C. albicans virulence and capacity to invade host cells and can be potentially interesting for combined antifungal

  17. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  18. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia

    2010-10-01

    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  19. Combination of CuO nanoparticles and fluconazole: preparation, characterization, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitz, Iris S., E-mail: irisweitz@braude.ac.il; Maoz, Michal; Panitz, Daniel [ORT Braude College, Department of Biotechnology Engineering (Israel); Eichler, Sigal; Segal, Ester [Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering (Israel)

    2015-08-15

    Combination therapy becomes an important strategy in the management of invasive fungal infections and emergence of resistant fungi mutants. In this work, we examine the combination of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with fluconazole as potential treatment against the pathogenic fungi, Candidaalbicans. CuO NPs (∼7 nm in size) were synthesized with acetate ligands assembled on their surface, as shown by both thermal gravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Unlike the commercial CuO (both bulk and 50 nm particles), that are poorly dispersed in water, the interaction with water allows the fine dispersion of the coated CuO NPs and their excellent colloidal stability. The addition of fluconazole to the aqueous CuO dispersion induced spontaneous self-assembly of the NPs into linear pearl-like chains network, shown by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The antifungal activity of the CuO NPs and their combination with fluconazole (fluconazole–CuO NPs) was studied against C. albicans. The best MIC values were obtained at concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL, respectively. The results suggest that fluconazole–CuO NPs can provide a potential alternative treatment for C. albicans infections.

  20. Antifungal activity of phenolic-rich Lavandula multifida L. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzarte, M; Vale-Silva, L; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Vaz, S; Canhoto, J; Pinto, E; Salgueiro, L

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluates the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of a new chemotype of Lavandula multifida from Portugal. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of the oil and its major compounds were determined against several pathogenic fungi responsible for candidosis, meningitis, dermatophytosis, and aspergillosis. The influence of the oil on the dimorphic transition in Candida albicans was also studied, as well as propidium iodide (PI) and FUN-1 staining of C. albicans cells by flow cytometry. The essential oil was characterized by high contents of monoterpenes, with carvacrol and cis-β-ocimene being the main constituents. The oil was more effective against dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC and MLC values of 0.16 μL/mL and 0.32 μL/mL, respectively. The oil was further shown to completely inhibit filamentation in C. albicans at concentrations below the respective MIC (0.08 μL/mL), with cis-β-ocimene being the main compound responsible for this inhibition (0.02 μL/mL). The flow cytometry results suggest a mechanism of action ultimately leading to cytoplasmic membrane disruption and cell death. L. multifida essential oil may be useful in complementary therapy to treat disseminated candidosis, since the inhibition of filamentation alone appears to be sufficient to treat this type of infection.

  1. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: antifungal effect against adhered cells and biofilms of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D R; Gorup, L F; Silva, S; Negri, M; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (SN) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata adhered cells and biofilms. SN (average diameter 5 nm) were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were performed for C. albicans (n = 2) and C. glabrata (n = 2) grown in suspension following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute microbroth dilution method. SN were applied to adhered cells (2 h) or biofilms (48 h) and after 24 h of contact their effect was assessed by enumeration of colony forming units (CFUs) and quantification of total biomass (by crystal violet staining). The MIC results showed that SN were fungicidal against all strains tested at very low concentrations (0.4-3.3 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, SN were more effective in reducing biofilm biomass when applied to adhered cells (2 h) than to pre-formed biofilms (48 h), with the exception of C. glabrata ATCC, which in both cases showed a reduction ∼90%. Regarding cell viability, SN were highly effective on adhered C. glabrata and respective biofilms. On C. albicans the effect was not so evident but there was also a reduction in the number of viable biofilm cells. In summary, SN may have the potential to be an effective alternative to conventional antifungal agents for future therapies in Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  2. EGG: Empirical Galaxy Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, C.; Elbaz, D.; Pannella, M.; Merlin, E.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Bourne, N.; Boutsia, K.; Cullen, F.; Dunlop, J.; Ferguson, H. C.; Michałowski, M. J.; Okumura, K.; Santini, P.; Shu, X. W.; Wang, T.; White, C.

    2018-04-01

    The Empirical Galaxy Generator (EGG) generates fake galaxy catalogs and images with realistic positions, morphologies and fluxes from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared. The catalogs are generated by egg-gencat and stored in binary FITS tables (column oriented). Another program, egg-2skymaker, is used to convert the generated catalog into ASCII tables suitable for ingestion by SkyMaker (ascl:1010.066) to produce realistic high resolution images (e.g., Hubble-like), while egg-gennoise and egg-genmap can be used to generate the low resolution images (e.g., Herschel-like). These tools can be used to test source extraction codes, or to evaluate the reliability of any map-based science (stacking, dropout identification, etc.).

  3. Antifungal susceptibility profiles of 1698 yeast reference strains revealing potential emerging human pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Desnos-Ollivier

    Full Text Available New molecular identification techniques and the increased number of patients with various immune defects or underlying conditions lead to the emergence and/or the description of novel species of human and animal fungal opportunistic pathogens. Antifungal susceptibility provides important information for ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic issues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of the various species based on their antifungal drug resistance, keeping in mind the methodological limitations. Antifungal susceptibility profiles to the five classes of antifungal drugs (polyens, azoles, echinocandins, allylamines and antimetabolites were determined for 1698 yeast reference strains belonging to 992 species (634 Ascomycetes and 358 Basidiomycetes. Interestingly, geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of all antifungal drugs tested were significantly higher for Basidiomycetes compared to Ascomycetes (p<0.001. Twenty four strains belonging to 23 species of which 19 were Basidiomycetes seem to be intrinsically "resistant" to all drugs. Comparison of the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the 4240 clinical isolates and the 315 reference strains belonging to 53 shared species showed similar results. Even in the absence of demonstrated in vitro/in vivo correlation, knowing the in vitro susceptibility to systemic antifungal agents and the putative intrinsic resistance of yeast species present in the environment is important because they could become opportunistic pathogens.

  4. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Bae Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV and sweet bee venom (SBV against Candida albicans (C. albicans clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assays were performed by using a broth microdilution method. Also, a killing curve assay was conducted to investigate the kinetics of the anti- fungal action. Results: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans that were cultured from blood and the vagina by using disk diffusion method. The MIC values obtained for clinical isolates by using the broth microdilution method varied from 62.5 μg/ mL to 125 μg/mL for BV and from 15.63 μg/mL to 62.5 μg/mL for SBV. In the killing-curve assay, SBV behaved as amphotericin B, which was used as positive control, did. The antifungal efficacy of SBV was much higher than that of BV. Conclusion: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against C. albicans clinical strains that were isolated from blood and the vagina. Especially, SBV might be a candidate for a new antifungal agent against C. albicans clinical isolates.

  5. Contribution of volatiles to the antifungal effect of Lactobacillus paracasei in defined medium and yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunsbjerg, S D; Honoré, A H; Marcussen, J; Ebrahimi, P; Vogensen, F K; Benfeldt, C; Skov, T; Knøchel, S

    2015-02-02

    Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties can be used to control spoilage of food and feed. Previously, most of the identified metabolites have been isolated from cell-free fermentate of lactic acid bacteria with methods suboptimal for detecting possible contribution from volatiles to the antifungal activity. The role of volatile compounds in the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei DGCC 2132 in a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) and yogurt was therefore investigated with a sampling technique minimizing volatile loss. Diacetyl was identified as the major volatile produced by L. paracasei DGCC 2132 in CDIM. When the strain was added to a yogurt medium diacetyl as well as other volatiles also increased but the metabolome was more complex. Removal of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 cells from CDIM fermentate resulted in loss of both volatiles, including diacetyl, and the antifungal activity towards two strains of Penicillium spp. When adding diacetyl to CDIM or yogurt without L. paracasei DGCC 2132, marked inhibition was observed. Besides diacetyl, the antifungal properties of acetoin were examined, but no antifungal activity was observed. Overall, the results demonstrate the contribution of diacetyl in the antifungal effect of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 and indicate that the importance of volatiles may have been previously underestimated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular identification and in-vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from patients with onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Pakshir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Candida species are the most opportunistic fungi affecting the nails and resulting in onychomycosis. In this study, we identified and evaluated in-vitro susceptibility of the recovered isolates against fluconazole (FLC, voriconazole (VRC, and clotrimazole (CLT using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3 document. Materials and Methods: From patients with either clinically or mycologically proven onychomycosis, 97 isolates comprising of seven Candida species were isolated, which were identified by both conventional and molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In addition, Candida dubliniensis was confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Antifungal susceptibility of each isolate against the three azoles applied in this study was determined using the CLSI microdilution reference method M27-A3. Results: Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species (n=44, followed by C. albicans (n=23, C. tropicalis (n=13, C. glabrata (n=7, C. krusei (n=6, C. guilliermondii (n=3, and C. dubliniensis (n=1. All the isolates were susceptible to CLT. VRC had lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values for the isolates compared to FLC. Geometric mean MIC values of VRC, FLC, and CLT for C. parapsilosis isolates were 0.07 µg/ml, 0.8 µg/ml, and 0.35 µg/ml, respectively. Collectively, all species exhibited greater susceptibility to VRC in comparison to C. albicans (P≤0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that non-albicans Candida species were the most common etiologic agents of non-dermatophyte onychomycosis. The major antifungal agents used in clinics to empirically treat yeast onychomycosis are FLC and CLT. Our data suggested that CLT is a better choice for the treatment of Candida onychomycosis, especially in drug resistant cases.

  7. In vitro and in vivo activity of a novel antifungal small molecule against Candida infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sze Wah Wong

    Full Text Available Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of humans worldwide and has become a major clinical problem because of the growing number of immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to infection. Moreover, the number of available antifungals is limited, and antifungal-resistant Candida strains are emerging. New and effective antifungals are therefore urgently needed. Here, we discovered a small molecule with activity against Candida spp. both in vitro and in vivo. We screened a library of 50,240 small molecules for inhibitors of yeast-to-hypha transition, a major virulence attribute of Candida albicans. This screening identified 20 active compounds. Further examination of the in vitro antifungal and anti-biofilm properties of these compounds, using a range of Candida spp., led to the discovery of SM21, a highly potent antifungal molecule (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 0.2-1.6 µg/ml. In vitro, SM21 was toxic to fungi but not to various human cell lines or bacterial species and was active against Candida isolates that are resistant to existing antifungal agents. Moreover, SM21 was relatively more effective against biofilms of Candida spp. than the current antifungal agents. In vivo, SM21 prevented the death of mice in a systemic candidiasis model and was also more effective than the common antifungal nystatin at reducing the extent of tongue lesions in a mouse model of oral candidiasis. Propidium iodide uptake assay showed that SM21 affected the integrity of the cell membrane. Taken together, our results indicate that SM21 has the potential to be developed as a novel antifungal agent for clinical use.

  8. Ebselen exerts antifungal activity by regulating glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in fungal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangamani, Shankar; Eldesouky, Hassan E; Mohammad, Haroon; Pascuzzi, Pete E; Avramova, Larisa; Hazbun, Tony R; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2017-01-01

    Ebselen, an organoselenium compound and a clinically safe molecule has been reported to possess potent antifungal activity, but its antifungal mechanism of action and in vivo antifungal activity remain unclear. The antifungal effect of ebselen was tested against Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and C. gattii clinical isolates. Chemogenomic profiling and biochemical assays were employed to identify the antifungal target of ebselen. Ebselen's antifungal activity in vivo was investigated in a Caenorhabditis elegans animal model. Ebselen exhibits potent antifungal activity against both Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp., at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2μg/ml. Ebselen rapidly eradicates a high fungal inoculum within 2h of treatment. Investigation of the drug's antifungal mechanism of action indicates that ebselen depletes intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thereby disturbs the redox homeostasis in fungal cells. Examination of ebselen's in vivo antifungal activity in two Caenorhabditis elegans models of infection demonstrate that ebselen is superior to conventional antifungal drugs (fluconazole, flucytosine and amphotericin) in reducing Candida and Cryptococcus fungal load. Ebselen possesses potent antifungal activity against clinically relevant isolates of both Candida and Cryptococcus by regulating GSH and ROS production. The potent in vivo antifungal activity of ebselen supports further investigation for repurposing it for use as an antifungal agent. The present study shows that ebselen targets glutathione and also support that glutathione as a potential target for antifungal drug development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antifungal activity of fabrics knitted by metalized Silver/Polyester composite yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, İ.; Duru Baykal, P.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, antifungal properties of fabric knitted from metalized silver/polyester composite yarn were investigated. Intermingling is an alternative technique for yarn blending process. Yarns having different features can be combined by feeding the same intermingling jet. This process is defined as commingling. In the study, intermingling process was used to produce metalized silver/polyester composite yarn. Commingled yarns were knitted to single jersey fabrics by IPM brand sample type circular knitting machine. Antifungal activity test was applied to samples against Aspergillus Niger according to AATCC 30 test procedure. It has been identified that the application provides antifungal activity to fabric.

  10. Another point of view on side effects of antifungal compounds used in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lidia Chitescu,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The release of pharmaceuticals into environment has become an increasing concern in recent years. Fungi are part of the microbial flora of many animals, humans and foodstuffs, and some species can cause disease. An antimycotic or antifungal product is one that is used in the treatment of fungal infections. Even at low concentrations, antifungals exert an action against micro-organisms and exhibit selective toxicity towards them. The use of antimicrobials selects for resistant populations of micro-organisms. Development of resistance to antifungals is an increasing problem in veterinary and human medicine.

  11. Enhancement of the antifungal activity of antimicrobial drugs by Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo

    2013-07-01

    Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Ethanol extract from Eugenia uniflora was assayed, for its antifungal activity, either alone or combined with four selected chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents, including anphotericin B, mebendazole, nistatin, and metronidazole against these strains. The obtained results indicated that the association of the extract of E. uniflora to metronidazole showed a potential antifungal activity against C. tropicalis. However, no synergistic activity against the other strains was observed, as observed when the extract was associated with the other, not enhancing their antifungal activity.

  12. Antifungal activity of the lemongrass oil and citral against Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Bona da Silva

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses of the skin are among the most common dermatological infections, and causative organisms include dermatophytic, yeasts, and non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi. The treatment is limited, for many reasons, and new drugs are necessary. Numerous essential oils have been tested for both in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity and some pose much potential as antifungal agents. By using disk diffusion assay, we evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and citral against yeasts of Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. This study showed that lemongrass oil and citral have a potent in vitro activity against Candida spp.

  13. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES OBTAINED BY GREEN SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José J. MALLMANN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are metal structures at the nanoscale. AgNPs have exhibited antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria; however synthesis of AgNPs can generate toxic waste during the reaction process. Accordingly, new routes using non-toxic compounds have been researched. The proposal of the present study was to synthesize AgNPs using ribose as a reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as a stabilizer. The antifungal activity of these particles against C. albicans and C. tropicalis was also evaluated. Stable nanoparticles 12.5 ± 4.9 nm (mean ± SD in size were obtained, which showed high activity against Candida spp. and could represent an alternative for fungal infection treatment.

  14. Antifungal silver nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgorban, Abdallah Mohamed; El-Samawaty, Abd El-Rahim Mohamed; Yassin, Mohamed Abdallah; Sayed, Shaban Rushdy; Adil, Syed Farooq; Elhindi, Khaled Mohamed; Bakri, Marwa; Khan, Mujeeb

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have a high antimicrobial activity and are broadly utilized for several disinfection purposes including water and materials’ Sanitation for medical purposes. There have been comparatively few studies on using silver against plant pathogenic fungi. In this study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were used at concentrations of 0.0, 0.0002, 0.0005, 0.0007, 0.0009, 0.0014 and 0.0019 mol/L. Six different Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis groups (AGs) infecting cotton plants were treated in vitro with Ag NPs on Czapek Dox agar (CDA) and potato dextrose agar plates. The results showed that various concentrations of Ag NPs have antifungal properties to control R. solani AGs. The obtained results also revealed that strong inhibition of R. solani AGs was noticed on CDA at all concentrations

  15. Antifungal activity of allylamines against agents of eumycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal Pankajalakshmi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of the two allylamines naftifine and terbinafine was investigated against 22 strains of eumycetes isolated from cases of eumycetoma by agar dilution. The isolates included Madurella mycetomatis (4, M. Grisea (8, Pyrenochaeta romeroi (2, Exophiala jeanselmei (2 and Leptosphaeria tompkinsii (1 from black grain eumycetomas and Pseudalescheria boydii (3 Acremonium kiliense (1 and A. recifei (1 form pale grain eumycetomas. Terbinafine was more active than naftifine inhibiting 50% (MIC50 and 90% (MIC90 of the black grain eumycetoma agents at 0.5 and 2.5 ?g/ml respectively. The MIC50s and MIC90s of naftifine were 1 and 5 ?g/ml. For pale grain eumycetoma agents, the MIC range for terbinafine and naftifine were ??0.01 - 100 and 0.1 - 100 ?g/ml.

  16. Activities of Available and Investigational Antifungal Agents against Rhodotorula Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekema, D. J.; Petroelje, B.; Messer, S. A.; Hollis, R. J.; Pfaller, M. A

    2005-01-01

    Rhodotorula species are emerging pathogens in immunocompromised patients. We report the in vitro activities of eight antifungals against 64 Rhodotorula isolates collected in surveillance programs between 1987 and 2003. Rhodotorula strains are resistant in vitro to fluconazole (MIC at which 50% of the isolates tested are inhibited [MIC50], >128 μg/ml) and caspofungin (MIC50, >8 μg/ml). Amphotericin B (MIC50,1 μg/ml) and flucytosine (MIC50, 0.12 μg/ml) are both active in vitro, and the new and investigational triazoles all have some in vitro activity, with ravuconazole being the most active (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml). PMID:15635020

  17. Amino Acid Metabolism and Transport Mechanisms as Potential Antifungal Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. McCarthy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Discovering new drugs for treatment of invasive fungal infections is an enduring challenge. There are only three major classes of antifungal agents, and no new class has been introduced into clinical practice in more than a decade. However, recent advances in our understanding of the fungal life cycle, functional genomics, proteomics, and gene mapping have enabled the identification of new drug targets to treat these potentially deadly infections. In this paper, we examine amino acid transport mechanisms and metabolism as potential drug targets to treat invasive fungal infections, including pathogenic yeasts, such as species of Candida and Cryptococcus, as well as molds, such as Aspergillus fumigatus. We also explore the mechanisms by which amino acids may be exploited to identify novel drug targets and review potential hurdles to bringing this approach into clinical practice.

  18. Fosfluconazole for Antifungal Prophylaxis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective case series study to evaluate the safety of fosfluconazole prophylaxis for preventing invasive fungal infection in VLBW infants with a central vascular access. Fosfluconazole was administered intravenously at a dose of 6 mg/kg everyday during which time a central venous catheter was placed. A total of 23 infants met the criteria for enrollment in our study. No cases of fungal infection were detected during the central venous catheter placement in the group. None of the infants had an elevated β-D-glucan, and all of them were still alive at discharge. Regarding the liver and renal function, no statistically significant differences were observed before and at the end of fosfluconazole prophylaxis. The results of this study demonstrate that fosfluconazole prophylaxis in preventing invasive fungal infection was well tolerated by VLBW infants. This is a first report to describe antifungal prophylaxis using fosfluconazole for VLBW infants.

  19. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanshir Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC₅₀ values (ppm of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm. Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC₅₀ values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473, P. melonis (33.097 and P. drechsleri (69.112, respectively. The mean EC₅₀ values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral (39.16% and z-citral (30.95% were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05. Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases.

  20. Candida albicans infection of Caenorhabditis elegans induces antifungal immune defenses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Pukkila-Worley

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans yeast cells are found in the intestine of most humans, yet this opportunist can invade host tissues and cause life-threatening infections in susceptible individuals. To better understand the host factors that underlie susceptibility to candidiasis, we developed a new model to study antifungal innate immunity. We demonstrate that the yeast form of C. albicans establishes an intestinal infection in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereas heat-killed yeast are avirulent. Genome-wide, transcription-profiling analysis of C. elegans infected with C. albicans yeast showed that exposure to C. albicans stimulated a rapid host response involving 313 genes (124 upregulated and 189 downregulated, ~1.6% of the genome many of which encode antimicrobial, secreted or detoxification proteins. Interestingly, the host genes affected by C. albicans exposure overlapped only to a small extent with the distinct transcriptional responses to the pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that there is a high degree of immune specificity toward different bacterial species and C. albicans. Furthermore, genes induced by P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were strongly over-represented among the genes downregulated during C. albicans infection, suggesting that in response to fungal pathogens, nematodes selectively repress the transcription of antibacterial immune effectors. A similar phenomenon is well known in the plant immune response, but has not been described previously in metazoans. Finally, 56% of the genes induced by live C. albicans were also upregulated by heat-killed yeast. These data suggest that a large part of the transcriptional response to C. albicans is mediated through "pattern recognition," an ancient immune surveillance mechanism able to detect conserved microbial molecules (so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns or PAMPs. This study provides new information on the evolution and regulation of the innate

  1. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty). It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Ma...

  2. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  3. The outcome of non-carbapenem-based empirical antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is generally a complication of cancer chemotherapy. Objective: ... Furthermore, non-carbapenem-based empirical therapy provides benefit in regard to cost-effectiveness and antimicrobial stewardship when local antibiotic resistance patterns of gram-negative bacteria are considered.

  4. Antifungal effect of essential oil components against Aspergillus niger when loaded into silica mesoporous supports

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardos, A.; Marina, T.; Žáček, Petr; Pérez-Esteve, É.; Martínez-Manez, R.; Lhotka, M.; Kouřimská, L.; Pulkrábek, J.; Klouček, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 14 (2015), s. 2824-2831 ISSN 0022-5142 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : essential oils * encapsulation * cyclodextrin * controlled release * antifungal activity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.076, year: 2015

  5. Insufficient Antifungal Potential of Crude Extracts of Carissa Carandas Linn. & Nerium Oleander Linn.”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fartyal, M.; Kumar, P.

    2016-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifungal potential of crude extracts from different parts of Carissa carandas Linn. (Leaf, stem & root) and Nerium oleander Linn. (Leaf, stem & root). Material & method: Different parts of plants were collected, dried and then extracted by using soxhlet extraction method in different polar and non-polar solvents (Water, Methanol & petroleum ether). Extracts were then screened for antifungal activity using ‘Disc Diffusion Assay’ against Candida albicans (Yeast), Aspergillus flavus & Tricophyton mentagrophyte (fungi). Minimum inhibitory concentration, Minimum fungicidal concentration & Total activity were studied. Mean and Standard Deviation have also been calculated. Result: The results indicate that all the tested extracts were found to have no antifungal activity against all the tested microorganisms. Conclusion: The tested extracts did not have, or had too little, antifungal activity. Hence, may not be explored as promising source of new antimicrobial drugs.

  6. Study on mutagenic breeding of bacillus subtilis and properties of its antifungal substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jing; Yao Jianming

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis JA isolated by our laboratory produced a large amount of antifungal substances, which had strong inhibitory activity against various plant pathogenic fungi, such as Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum and so on. Ion beam implantation as a new mutagenic methods was applied in our study. After B. subtilis JA was implanted by N + ions, a strain designated as B. Subtilis JA-026 was screened and obtained, which had a higher ability to produce those antifungal substances. A series of experiments indicated that the antifungal substances were thermostable and partially sensitive to proteinases K and tryproteinase. When the fermentating broth was fractionated with ammonium sulphate of a final saturation of 70%, the precipitate enhanced inhibitory activity while the supernatant lost this activity. It appeared that the antifungal substances were likely to be protein. (authors)

  7. Five year results of an international proficiency testing programme for measurement of antifungal drug concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lempers, V.J.C.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Touw, D.J.; Burger, D.M.; Uges, D.R.A.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Brüggemann, R.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since 2007 the Dutch Association for Quality Assessment in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (KKGT) has organized an international interlaboratory proficiency testing (PT) programme for measurement of antifungal drugs in plasma. We describe the 5 year results of the laboratories' performance.

  8. Correlation between Plant Secondary Metabolites and Their Antifungal Mechanisms–A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Sara; Jäger, Anna

    2014-01-01

    the biosynthetic group of terpenes and their antifungal mechanisms of action, all of them exhibiting their antifungal action through cell membrane disruption, although some of the terpenes also seemed to work through mitochondrial dysfunction. A clear correlation has not been demonstrated between the two other......The search for new antifungal drugs often involves secondary metabolites from plants because of their pharmacological activity against foreign pathogens. Among the modern drugs in use today about 40% are of natural origin. To distinguish the secondary metabolites they can be divided into groups...... based on their structure or biosynthetic origin. When searching for new antifungal agents it is crucial to search for a mechanism of action for which unwanted side effects can be avoided. This can be done if the mechanism of action only involves fungal cells and not mammalian cells. For that reason...

  9. First isolation of a novel thermostable antifungal peptide secreted by Aspergillus clavatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouri-Gargouri, Houda; Gargouri, Ali

    2008-11-01

    A novel antifungal peptide produced by an indigenous fungal strain (VR) of Aspergillus clavatus was purified. The antifungal peptide was enriched in the supernatant after heat treatment at 70 degrees C. The thermostable character was exploited in the first purification step, as purified peptide was obtained after ultrafiltration and reverse phase-HPLC on C18 column application. The purified peptide named "AcAFP" for A. clavatus antifungal peptide, has molecular mass of 5773Da determined by MALDI-ToF spectrometry. The N-terminal sequence showed a notable identity to the limited family of antifungal peptides produced by ascomycetes fungi. The AcAFP activity remains intact even after heat treatment at 100 degrees C for 1h confirming its thermostability. It exhibits a strong inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of several serious human and plant pathogenic fungi: Fusariuym oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, whereas AcAFP did not affect yeast and bacterial growth.

  10. In vitro susceptibility patterns of clinically important Trichophyton and Epidermophyton species against nine antifungal drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, Hamid; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mashedi, Olga; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F

    Despite the common, worldwide, occurrence of dermatophytes, little information is available regarding susceptibility profiles against currently available and novel antifungal agents. A collection of sixty-eight clinical Trichophyton species and Epidermophyton floccosum were previously identified and

  11. Antifungal susceptibility and phylogeny of opportunistic members of the order mucorales.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitale, R.G.; Hoog, G.S. de; Schwarz, P.; Dannaoui, E.; Deng, S.; Machouart, M.; Voigt, K.; Sande, W.W. van de; Dolatabadi, S.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Walther, G.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the nuclear

  12. Antifungal susceptibility and phylogeny of opportunistic members of the order Mucorales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Vitale (Roxana); G.S. de Hoog; P. Schwarz (Peter); E. Dannaoui (Eric); S. Deng (Shuwen); M. Machouart (Marie); K. Voigt (Kerstin); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); S. Dolatabadi (Somayeh); J.F. Meis; G. Walther

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the

  13. Antifungal Susceptibility and Phylogeny of Opportunistic Members of the Order Mucorales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitale, R.G.; de Hoog, G.S.; Schwarz, P.; Dannaoui, E.; Deng, S.; Machouart, M.; Voigt, K.; de Sande, W.W.J.v.; Dolatabadi, S.; Meis, J.F.; Walther, G.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the nuclear

  14. Antibacterial and antifungal effect of high pH and paraffin wax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity of the combined treatments was achieved by ... or control the growth and activities of spoilage microor- .... Kawo AH, Bassey SE, Aliyu YU (2005): Bacteriological Quality of.

  15. Development of antifungal films based on low-density polyethylene and thyme oil for avocado packaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Trilayer low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were prepared by incorporating varying concentrations of thyme oil, as the antifungal active additive for avocado packaging. A comprehensive thermal, structural, mechanical, and functional...

  16. Determining Antifungal Target Sites in the Sterol Pathway of the Yeast Candida and Saccharomyces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bard, Martin

    1998-01-01

    ... as in topical infections which lead to significant losses in work-place productivity. The work reported here seeks to identify new target sites in the sterol biosynthetic pathway against which new antifungal compounds might be developed...

  17. Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India, against food spoilage Aspergillus strains

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, C.G.

    Crude aqueous methanol extracts obtained from 31 species of various marine organisms (including floral and faunal), were screened for their antifungal activity against food poisoning strains of Aspergillus. Seventeen species exhibited mild (+ = zone...

  18. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel 3-Caren-5-One Oxime Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 3-caren-5-one oxime esters were designed and synthesized by multi-step reactions in an attempt to develop potent antifungal agents. Two E-Z stereoisomers of the intermediate 3-caren-5-one oxime were separated by column chromatography for the first time. The structures of all the intermediates and target compounds were confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activity of the target compounds was preliminarily evaluated by the in vitro method against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Physalospora piricola, Alternaria solani, Cercospora arachidicola, Gibberella zeae, Rhizoeotnia solani, Bipolaris maydis, and Colleterichum orbicalare at 50 µg/mL. The target compounds exhibited best antifungal activity against P. piricola, in which compounds (Z-4r (R = β-pyridyl, (Z-4q (R = α-thienyl, (E-4f′ (R = p-F Ph, (Z-4i (R = m-Me Ph, (Z-4j (R = p-Me Ph, and (Z-4p (R = α-furyl had inhibition rates of 97.1%, 87.4%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 81.9%, and 77.7%, respectively, showing better antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Also, compound (Z-4r (R = β-pyridyl displayed remarkable antifungal activity against all the tested fungi, with inhibition rates of 76.7%, 82.7%, 97.1%, 66.3%, 74.7%, 93.9%, 76.7% and 93.3%, respectively, showing better or comparable antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Besides, the E-Z isomers of the target oxime esters were found to show obvious differences in antifungal activity. These results provide an encouraging framework that could lead to the development of potent novel antifungal agents.

  19. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel 3-Caren-5-One Oxime Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Duan, Wen-Gui; Lin, Gui-Shan; Li, Kun; Hu, Qiong

    2017-09-12

    A series of novel 3-caren-5-one oxime esters were designed and synthesized by multi-step reactions in an attempt to develop potent antifungal agents. Two E - Z stereoisomers of the intermediate 3-caren-5-one oxime were separated by column chromatography for the first time. The structures of all the intermediates and target compounds were confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activity of the target compounds was preliminarily evaluated by the in vitro method against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum , Physalospora piricola , Alternaria solani , Cercospora arachidicola , Gibberella zeae, Rhizoeotnia solani , Bipolaris maydis , and Colleterichum orbicalare at 50 µg/mL. The target compounds exhibited best antifungal activity against P. piricola , in which compounds ( Z )- 4r (R = β -pyridyl), ( Z )- 4q (R = α -thienyl), ( E )- 4f' (R = p -F Ph), ( Z )- 4i (R = m -Me Ph), ( Z )- 4j (R = p -Me Ph), and ( Z )- 4p (R = α -furyl) had inhibition rates of 97.1%, 87.4%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 81.9%, and 77.7%, respectively, showing better antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Also, compound ( Z )- 4r (R = β -pyridyl) displayed remarkable antifungal activity against all the tested fungi, with inhibition rates of 76.7%, 82.7%, 97.1%, 66.3%, 74.7%, 93.9%, 76.7% and 93.3%, respectively, showing better or comparable antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Besides, the E-Z isomers of the target oxime esters were found to show obvious differences in antifungal activity. These results provide an encouraging framework that could lead to the development of potent novel antifungal agents.

  20. Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum

    OpenAIRE

    Navickiene, HMD; Morandim, ADA; Alecio, A. C.; Regasini, L. O.; Bergamo, DCB; Telascrea, M.; Cavalheiro, Alberto José [UNESP; Lopes, Márcia Nasser [UNESP; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP; Furlan, Maysa [UNESP; Marques, MOM; Young, MCM; Kato, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    The composition of essential oils from leaves, stems and fruits of Piper aduncum, P. arboreum and P. tuberculatum was examined by means of GC-MS and antifungal assay. There was a predominance of monoterpenes in P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum and of sesquiterpenes in P. arboreum. P. aduncum showed the richest essential oil composition, including linalool. The essential oils from fruits of P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum showed the highest antifungal activity with the MIC of 10 µg as determined ...

  1. Antifungal Activity of Culture Filtrates and Organic Extracts of Aspergillus spp. against Pythium ultimum

    OpenAIRE

    Rania Aydi-Ben Abdallah; Marwa Hassine; Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine; Rabiaa Haouala; Mejda Daami-Remadi

    2014-01-01

    Culture filtrates, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of nine isolates of Aspergillus spp. (A. niger, A. terreus, A. flavus and Aspergillus sp.), isolated from soil and compost, were tested for antifungal activity against Pythium ultimum the causal agent of the potato Pythium leak. Culture filtrates showed a significant antifungal activity at the different tested concentrations. Total inhibition of the pathogen was induced by the filtrate of CH8 of Aspergillus sp., used at 10% ...

  2. Purification and characterization of antifungal compounds from Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 isolated from kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Eun Hye; Yang, Eun Ju; Woo, Eun Rhan; Chang, Hae Choon

    2014-08-01

    Strain HD1 with antifungal activity was isolated from kimchi and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Antifungal compounds from Lb. plantarum HD1 were active against food- and feed-borne filamentous fungi and yeasts in a spot-on-the-lawn assay. Antifungal activity of Lb. plantarum HD1 was stronger against filamentous fungi than yeast. Antifungal compounds were purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and recycling preparative-HPLC. Structures of the antifungal compounds were elucidated by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Active compounds from Lb. plantarum HD1 were identified as 5-oxododecanoic acid (MW 214), 3-hydroxy decanoic acid (MW 188), and 3-hydroxy-5-dodecenoic acid (MW 214). To investigate the potential application of these antifungal compounds for reduction of fungal spoilage in foods, Korean draft rice wine was used as a food model. White film-forming yeasts were observed in control draft rice wine after 11 days of incubation. However, film-forming yeasts were not observed in draft rice wine treated with SPE-prepared culture supernatant of Lb. plantarum HD1 (equivalent to 2.5% addition of culture supernatant) until 27 days of incubation. The addition of antifungal compounds to Korean draft rice wine extended shelf-life up to 27 days at 10 °C without any sterilization process. Therefore, the antifungal activity of Lb. plantarum HD1 may lead to the development of powerful biopreservative systems capable of preventing food- and feed-borne fungal spoilage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synergy and antagonism between iron chelators and antifungal drugs in Cryptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Wen; Campbell, Leona T; Wilkins, Marc R; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Chen, Sharon; Carter, Dee A

    2016-10-01

    Fungal infections remain very difficult to treat, and developing new antifungal drugs is difficult and expensive. Recent approaches therefore seek to augment existing antifungals with synergistic agents that can lower the therapeutic dose, increase efficacy and prevent resistance from developing. Iron limitation can inhibit microbial growth, and iron chelators have been employed to treat fungal infections. In this study, chequerboard testing was used to explore combinations of iron chelators with antifungal agents against pathogenic Cryptococcus spp. with the aim of determining how disruption to iron homeostasis affects antifungal susceptibility. The iron chelators ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), deferoxamine (DFO), deferiprone (DFP), deferasirox (DSX), ciclopirox olamine and lactoferrin (LF) were paired with the antifungal agents amphotericin B (AmB), fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. All chelators except for DFO increased the efficacy of AmB, and significant synergy was seen between AmB and LF for all Cryptococcus strains. Addition of exogenous iron rescued cells from the antifungal effect of LF alone but could not prevent inhibition by AmB + LF, indicating that synergy was not due primarily to iron chelation but to other properties of LF that were potentiated in the presence of AmB. Significant synergy was not seen consistently for other antifungal-chelator combinations, and EDTA, DSX and DFP antagonised the activity of azole drugs in strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. This study highlights the range of interactions that can be induced by chelators and indicates that most antifungal drugs are not enhanced by iron limitation in Cryptococcus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk of Fungemia Due to Rhodotorula and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Rhodotorula Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaas, Aimee K.; Boyce, Molly; Schell, Wiley; Lodge, Barbara Alexander; Miller, Jackie L.; Perfect, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Rhodotorula infections occur among patients with immunosuppression and/or central venous catheters. Using standardized methods (NCCLS M27-A), we determined the antifungal susceptibilities of 10 Rhodotorula bloodstream infection isolates. Patient information was collected for clinical correlation. The MICs of amphotericin B and posaconazole were the lowest, and the MICs of triazoles and echinocandins were higher than those of other antifungal agents. PMID:14605170

  5. Macrophage Reporter Cell Assay for Screening Immunopharmacological Activity of Cell Wall-Active Antifungals

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Russell E.; Liao, Guangling; Young, Katherine; Douglas, Cameron; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2014-01-01

    Antifungal exposure can elicit immunological effects that contribute to activity in vivo, but this activity is rarely screened in vitro in a fashion analogous to MIC testing. We used RAW 264.7 murine macrophages that express a secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene induced by transcriptional activation of NF-κB and activator protein 1 (AP-1) to develop a screen for immunopharmacological activity of cell wall-active antifungal agents. Isolates of Candida albicans and Aspergillus f...

  6. Final Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....

  7. Remembrances of Empires Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Aldrich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the colonial legacy is ever present in contemporary Europe. For a generation, most Europeans largely tried, publicly, to forget the colonial past, or remembered it only through the rose-coloured lenses of nostalgia; now the pendulum has swung to memory of that past – even perhaps, in the views of some, to a surfeit of memory, where each group agitates for its own version of history, its own recognition in laws and ceremonies, its own commemoration in museums and monuments, the valorization or repatriation of its own art and artefacts. Word such as ‘invasion,’ ‘racism’ and ‘genocide’ are emotional terms that provoke emotional reactions. Whether leaders should apologize for wrongs of the past – and which wrongs – remains a highly sensitive issue. The ‘return of the colonial’ thus has to do with ethics and politics as well as with history, and can link to statements of apology or recognition, legislation about certain views of history, monetary compensation, repatriation of objects, and—perhaps most importantly—redefinition of national identity and policy. The colonial flags may have been lowered, but many barricades seem to have been raised. Private memories—of loss of land, of unacknowledged service, of political, economic, social and cultural disenfranchisement, but also on the other side of defeat, national castigation and self-flagellation—have been increasingly public. Monuments and museums act not only as sites of history but as venues for political agitation and forums for academic debate – differences of opinion that have spread to the streets. Empire has a long after-life.

  8. Empirical Support for Perceptual Conceptualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Alejandro Serrano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to show that perceptual conceptualism can be understood as an empirically meaningful position and, furthermore, that there is some degree of empirical support for its main theses. In order to do this, I will start by offering an empirical reading of the conceptualist position, and making three predictions from it. Then, I will consider recent experimental results from cognitive sciences that seem to point towards those predictions. I will conclude that, while the evidence offered by those experiments is far from decisive, it is enough not only to show that conceptualism is an empirically meaningful position but also that there is empirical support for it.

  9. Empire as a Geopolitical Figure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the ingredients of empire as a pattern of order with geopolitical effects. Noting the imperial form's proclivity for expansion from a critical reading of historical sociology, the article argues that the principal manifestation of earlier geopolitics lay not in the nation...... but in empire. That in turn has been driven by a view of the world as disorderly and open to the ordering will of empires (emanating, at the time of geopolitics' inception, from Europe). One implication is that empires are likely to figure in the geopolitical ordering of the globe at all times, in particular...... after all that has happened in the late twentieth century to undermine nationalism and the national state. Empire is indeed a probable, even for some an attractive form of regime for extending order over the disorder produced by globalisation. Geopolitics articulated in imperial expansion is likely...

  10. Candidiasis and the impact of flow cytometry on antifungal drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Tsun Sheng N; Bernardo, Stella; Walraven, Carla J; Lee, Samuel A

    2017-11-01

    Invasive candidiasis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality as well as substantial health care costs nationally and globally. One of the contributing factors is the development of resistance to antifungal agents that are already in clinical use. Moreover, there are known treatment limitations with all of the available antifungal agents. Since traditional techniques in novel drug discovery are time consuming, high-throughput screening using flow cytometry presents as a potential tool to identify new antifungal agents that would be useful in the management of these patients. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the use of automated high-throughput screening assays based upon flow cytometry to identify potential antifungals from a library comprised of a large number of bioactive compounds. They also review studies that employed the use of this research methodology that has identified compounds with antifungal activity. Expert opinion: High-throughput screening using flow cytometry has substantially decreased the processing time necessary for screening thousands of compounds, and has helped enhance our understanding of fungal pathogenesis. Indeed, the authors see this technology as a powerful tool to help scientists identify new antifungal agents that can be added to the clinician's arsenal in their fight against invasive candidiasis.

  11. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of fatty acid methyl esters from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA E.A. PINTO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were obtained from vegetable oils of soybean, corn and sunflower. The current study was focused on evaluating the antifungal activity of FAMEs mainly against Paracoccidioides spp., as well as testing the interaction of these compounds with commercial antifungal drugs and also their antioxidant potential. FAMEs presented small IC50 values (1.86-9.42 μg/mL. All three FAMEs tested showed antifungal activity against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. with MIC values ranging from 15.6-500 µg/mL. Sunflower FAMEs exhibited antifungal activity that extended also to other genera, with an MIC of 15.6 μg/mL against Candida glabrata and C. krusei and 31.2 μg/mL against C. parapsilosis. FAMEs exhibited a synergetic effect with itraconazole. The antifungal activity of the FAMEs against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. is likely due to the presence of methyl linoleate, the major compound present in all three FAMEs. The results obtained indicate the potential of FAMEs as sources for antifungal and antioxidant activity.

  12. Design, synthesis of novel chitosan derivatives bearing quaternary phosphonium salts and evaluation of antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenqiang; Zhang, Jingjing; Luan, Fang; Wei, Lijie; Chen, Yuan; Dong, Fang; Li, Qing; Guo, Zhanyong

    2017-09-01

    Two novel chitosan derivatives modified with quaternary phosphonium salts were successfully synthesized, including tricyclohexylphosphonium acetyl chitosan chloride (TCPACSC) and triphenylphosphonium acetyl chitosan chloride (TPPACSC), and characterized by FTIR, 1 H NMR, and 13 C NMR spectra. The degree of substitution was also calculated by elemental analysis results. Their antifungal activities against Colletotrichum lagenarium, Watermelon fusarium, and Fusarium oxysporum were investigated in vitro using the radial growth assay, minimal inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration assay. The fungicidal assessment revealed that the synthesized chitosan derivatives had superior antifungal activity compared with chitosan. Especially, TPPACSC exhibited the best antifungal property with inhibitory indices of over 75% at 1.0mg/mL. The results obviously showed that quaternary phosphonium groups could effectively enhance antifungal activity of the synthesized chitosan derivatives. Meanwhile, it was also found that their antifungal activity was influenced by electron-withdrawing ability of the quaternary phosphonium salts. The synthetic strategy described here could be utilized for the development of chitosan as antifungal biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Occidiofungin is an important component responsible for the antifungal activity of Burkholderia pyrrocinia strain Lyc2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Q; Liu, A X; Guerrero, A; Liu, J; Yu, X Q; Deng, P; Ma, L; Baird, S M; Smith, L; Li, X D; Lu, S E

    2016-03-01

    To identify the taxonomy of tobacco rhizosphere-isolated strain Lyc2 and investigate the mechanisms of the antifungal activities, focusing on antimicrobials gene clusters identification and function analysis. Multilocus sequence typing and 16S rRNA analyses indicated that strain Lyc2 belongs to Burkholderia pyrrocinia. Bioassay results indicated strain Lyc2 showed significant antifungal activities against a broad range of plant and animal fungal pathogens and control efficacy on seedling damping off disease of cotton. A 55·2-kb gene cluster which was homologous to ocf gene clusters in Burkholderia contaminans MS14 was confirmed to be responsible for antifungal activities by random mutagenesis; HPLC was used to verify the production of antifungal compounds. Multiple antibiotic and secondary metabolized biosynthesis gene clusters predicated by antiSMASH revealed the broad spectrum of antimicrobials activities of the strain. Our results revealed the mechanisms of antifungal activities of strain Lyc2 and expand our knowledge about production of occidiofungin in the bacteria Burkholderia. Understanding the mechanisms of antifungal activities of strain Lyc2 has contributed to discovery of new antibiotics and expand our knowledge of production of occidiofungin in the bacteria Burkholderia. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Experimental models in predicting topical antifungal efficacy: practical aspects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J; Maibach, H I

    2009-01-01

    What are efficient screening models for improved topical antifungals? The use of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as one such parameter is discussed; we focus on the use of animal membranes for in vitro testing while highlighting the pros and cons of each model, exploring alternatives and discussing the importance of data transferability to humans and the influence of penetration kinetics in topical antifungal efficacy. Ultimately, the gold standard of testing is in vivo in humans; however, initiating with human testing, especially for novel topical antifungal agents, may be impractical, which is why we seek the ideal experimental model that most closely mimics human skin. We conclude that the pig may be an appropriate model membrane for topical antifungal testing based on its similarities in anatomical structure, physiology and permeation to human skin. Most importantly, pig and human skins appear equally permeable to several antifungals in prior in vitro and in vivo work. We do not discuss all prior work but highlight important issues in designing the protocol and parameters of the ideal experimental model for topical antifungals. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Synthesis of inulin derivatives with quaternary phosphonium salts and their antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Tan, Wenqiang; Li, Qing; Dong, Fang; Gu, Guodong; Guo, Zhanyong

    2018-03-13

    Inulin is a kind of renewable and biodegradable carbohydrate with good water solubility and numerous physiological functions. For further utilization of inulin, chemical modification can be applied to improve its bioactivities. In this paper, five novel inulin derivatives were synthesized via chemical modification with quaternary phosphonium salt. Their antifungal activity against three kinds of plant pathogens including Colletotrichum lagenarium, Phomopsis asparagi, and Fusarium oxysporum was assessed with radial growth assay in vitro. Results revealed that all the inulin derivatives exhibited improved antifungal activity compared with inulin. Particularly, inulin modified with triphenylphosphine (TPhPAIL) exhibited the best antifungal activity with inhibitory indices of 80.0%, 78.8%, and 87.4% against Colletotrichum lagenarium, Phomopsis asparagi, and Fusarium oxysporum at 1.0mg/mL respectively. The results clearly showed that chemical modification of inulin with quaternary phosphonium salt could efficiently improve derivatives' antifungal activity. Further analysis of results indicated that the antifungal activity was influenced by alkyl chain length or electron-withdrawing ability of the grafted quaternary phosphonium salts. Longer alkyl chain lengths or the stronger electron-withdrawing groups would lead to enhanced antifungal efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antifungal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae extracts against dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Iván Ospina Salazar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis.  Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitos Se determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  17. Antifungal activity of the extract of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, against yeasts of the genus Candida isolated from the oral cavity of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S. Shinobu-Mesquita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and is treated empirically with topical or systemic antifungals. The objective of the present study was to investigate the possible antifungal action of the hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, on yeasts in this population. Samples were collected from HIV-positive patients who attended the Laboratory for Teaching and Research in Clinical Analysis at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá for routine exams. The isolated yeasts were identified at the genus and species levels through classical methodology. Next, tests of microdilution in broth were carried out to determine the profile of susceptibility of these yeasts towards the hydroalcoholic extract of C. zedoaria, following methodology standardised by the CLSI (2002. A total of 53 yeasts were identified, 49 of them C. albicans, two C. tropicalis and two C. glabrata. These yeasts were inhibited by low concentrations of the extract of C. zedoaria (between 1.95 and 15.63 μg/mL. In addition, 7.82 μg/mL inhibited 90% of the yeasts. Our results indicate a potent antifungal action for C. zedoaria and suggest more detailed studies with a view towards the practical application of this phytomedicine in topical pharmaceutical forms for the treatment of oral candidosis or candidiasis.

  18. Oral candidiasis following steroid therapy for oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marable, D R; Bowers, L M; Stout, T L; Stewart, C M; Berg, K M; Sankar, V; DeRossi, S S; Thoppay, J R; Brennan, M T

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this multicentre study was to determine the incidence of oral candidiasis in patients treated with topical steroids for oral lichen planus (OLP) and to determine whether the application of a concurrent antifungal therapy prevented the development of an oral candidiasis in these patients. Records of 315 patients with OLP seen at four Oral Medicine practices treated for at least 2 weeks with steroids with and without the use of an antifungal regimen were retrospectively reviewed. The overall incidence of oral fungal infection in those treated with steroid therapy for OLP was 13.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of oral candidiasis development in those treated with an antifungal regimen vs those not treated prophylactically (14.3% vs 12.6%) (P = 0.68). Despite the use of various regimens, none of the preventive antifungal strategies used in this study resulted in a significant difference in the rate of development of an oral candidiasis in patients with OLP treated with steroids. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  20. Play Therapy in School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice-Black, Shannon; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Kiper Riechel, Morgan E.

    2013-01-01

    Play therapy is an empirically supported intervention used to address a number of developmental issues faced in childhood. Through the natural language of play, children and adolescents communicate feelings, thoughts, and experiences. Schools provide an ideal setting for play therapy in many ways; however, several challenges exist in implementing…

  1. Metabolomics and Cheminformatics Analysis of Antifungal Function of Plant Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, Miroslava; Rajagopalan, NandhaKishore; Tulpan, Dan; Loewen, Michele C

    2016-09-30

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a devastating disease of wheat. Partial resistance to FHB of several wheat cultivars includes specific metabolic responses to inoculation. Previously published studies have determined major metabolic changes induced by pathogens in resistant and susceptible plants. Functionality of the majority of these metabolites in resistance remains unknown. In this work we have made a compilation of all metabolites determined as selectively accumulated following FHB inoculation in resistant plants. Characteristics, as well as possible functions and targets of these metabolites, are investigated using cheminformatics approaches with focus on the likelihood of these metabolites acting as drug-like molecules against fungal pathogens. Results of computational analyses of binding properties of several representative metabolites to homology models of fungal proteins are presented. Theoretical analysis highlights the possibility for strong inhibitory activity of several metabolites against some major proteins in Fusarium graminearum , such as carbonic anhydrases and cytochrome P450s. Activity of several of these compounds has been experimentally confirmed in fungal growth inhibition assays. Analysis of anti-fungal properties of plant metabolites can lead to the development of more resistant wheat varieties while showing novel application of cheminformatics approaches in the analysis of plant/pathogen interactions.

  2. Antifungal Activity of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf Oleoresin against Dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia R. B. Raposo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytoses are mycoses that affect keratinized tissues in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of the oleoresin extracted from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. against the strains Microsporum canis ATCC 32903, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 14683, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 and Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507. The antimicrobial activity was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC values. Ketoconazole and terbinafine were used as reference drugs. The copaiba oleoresin showed moderate fungicidal activity against T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481 (MIC and MFC = 170 μg mL−1 and weak fungicidal activity against T. rubrum CCT 5507 (MIC = 1,360 μg mL−1 and MFC = 2,720 μg mL−1. There was no activity against M. canis ATCC 32903 and M. gypseum ATCC 14683. SEM analysis revealed physical damage and morphological alterations such as compression and hyphae clustering in the structure of the fungi exposed to the action of the oleoresin. The results stimulate the achievement of in vivo assays to confirm the benefits of the application of oleoresin extracted from copaiba in the treatment of dermatophytosis, both in humans and in animals.

  3. Scaling adult doses of antifungal and antibacterial agents to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Thomas H

    2012-06-01

    My general pharmacokinetic scaling theory is discussed for the important matter of determining pediatric dosing for existing and new therapeutic drugs when optimal, or near-optimal, dosing for adults is known. The basis for the scaling is the requirement of a time-scaled likeness of the free-drug concentration time histories of children and adults. Broad categories of single and periodic dosing are considered. The former involves the scaling of dosage, and the latter involves both the dosage and schedule. The validity of the scaling relations is demonstrated by using measurements from previously reported clinical trials with adults and children (with ages generally 1 year or older) for the relatively new antifungal agent caspofungin and for the relatively new antibacterial agent linezolid. Standard pharmacodynamic effectiveness criteria are shown to be satisfied for the scaled dosage and schedule for children to the same extent that they are for the referenced adult. Consideration of scaling from adults to children is discussed for the case of new agents where no pediatric data are available and needed parameters are determined from in vitro measurements and preclinical animal data. A connection is also made between the allometric representation of clearance data and the dosing formulas. Limitations of the scaling results for infants because of growth and maturational matters are discussed. The general conclusion from this work is that the scaling theory does indeed have application to pediatric dosing for children, for both confirmation and refinement of present practice and guidance in pediatric treatment with new therapeutic agents.

  4. Characteristics of bacillus strains with antifungal activity against phytopathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Keun; Senthilkumar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Four bacterial isolates that showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and other phytopathogens were isolates from bean rhizosphere. 16S rDNA analysis and phylogenetic relationship indicated that these isolates belong to Genus Bacillus. Isolate A1 clustered with Bacillus licheniformis while other isolates A2, A3 and A4 clustered together with B.pumilus. n-Butanol extract of these isolates strongly inhibited the growth of A. alternata while, chloroform extract of isolate A2 and ethyl acetate extract of A1,A3, and A4 inhibited the test fungus partially. All the isolates except A4 produced chitinase enzyme. None of the isolates solubilized mineral phosphate. Radiation sensitivity of isolates A1, A2, A3 and A4 were assessed and the LD 99 values are determined as 0.50, 6.69, 11,60, 1.53 kGy, respectively. Mutant libraries of each isolate were prepared by exposing them to gamma radiation at their respective LD 99 dose. Crude metabolite caused drastic changes on A. alternata hyphal morphology. Appearance of shrunken and collapsed hyphae could be due to the leak of cell wall or changes in membrane permeability

  5. Isolation and Characterization of a Bacteriophage Preying an Antifungal Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryan Rahimi-Midani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several Bacillus species were isolated from rice field soils, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that Bacillus cereus was the most abundant. A strain named BC1 showed antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Bacteriophages infecting strain BC1 were isolated from the same soil sample. The isolated phage PK16 had an icosahedral head of 100 ± 5 nm and tail of 200 ± 5 nm, indicating that it belonged to the family Myoviridae. Analysis of the complete linear dsDNA genome revealed a 158,127-bp genome with G + C content of 39.9% comprising 235 open reading frames as well as 19 tRNA genes (including 1 pseudogene. Blastp analysis showed that the proteins encoded by the PK16 genome had the closest hits to proteins of seven different bacteriophages. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree based on the major capsid protein showed a robust clustering of phage PK16 with phage JBP901 and BCP8-2 isolated from Korean fermented food.

  6. In Vitro antifungal activity of essential oils against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nor Hanis Aifaa; Abdullah, Siti Aisyah; Othman, Zaulia; Zainal, Zamri

    2018-04-01

    The efficacy of Citrus hystrix, Azadirachta indica and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils were evaluated for controlling the growth of mycelia and spore germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. In order to determine the best essential oil (EO) and suitable concentration of essential oil, in vitro experiment was conducted by preparing a pure culture of antrachnose on Potato Dextrose Agar containing EOs of C. hystrix, A. indica and C. citratus with different concentrations (0.2%, 0.6%, 1% and 1.4% (v/v)). The result shows that C. hystrix essential oil at a concentration of 1.4% (v/v) reduced of mycelia growth of C. gloeosporioides by 29.49%. A second experiment was conducted, but at higher concentration of each essential oils (1.8%, 2.2%, 2.6% and 2.8% (v/v)). Significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) inhibition of mycelia growth was obtained in all treatments except the control. The antifungal index values of essential oils were proportionally increased with concentration of essential oil applied in each treatment. It is concluded that essential oil from C. hystrix are efficient in inhibiting C. gloeosporioides.

  7. Characteristics of bacillus strains with antifungal activity against phytopathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Senthilkumar, M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Four bacterial isolates that showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and other phytopathogens were isolates from bean rhizosphere. 16S rDNA analysis and phylogenetic relationship indicated that these isolates belong to Genus Bacillus. Isolate A1 clustered with Bacillus licheniformis while other isolates A2, A3 and A4 clustered together with B.pumilus. n-Butanol extract of these isolates strongly inhibited the growth of A. alternata while, chloroform extract of isolate A2 and ethyl acetate extract of A1,A3, and A4 inhibited the test fungus partially. All the isolates except A4 produced chitinase enzyme. None of the isolates solubilized mineral phosphate. Radiation sensitivity of isolates A1, A2, A3 and A4 were assessed and the LD{sub 99} values are determined as 0.50, 6.69, 11,60, 1.53 kGy, respectively. Mutant libraries of each isolate were prepared by exposing them to gamma radiation at their respective LD{sub 99} dose. Crude metabolite caused drastic changes on A. alternata hyphal morphology. Appearance of shrunken and collapsed hyphae could be due to the leak of cell wall or changes in membrane permeability.

  8. Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S.; Benson, Ryan W.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2013-11-01

    The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant β-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations.

  9. nanohybrid composites as antimicrobial, antifungal and anticancer platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Demircan

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new approach to synthesize the colloidal ODA-MMT-poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-dodecene-g-α,ω-methoxyhydroxyl-PEO/silver nanoparticles (AgNPs nanohybrid composites (NHC using the following synthetic pathways: (1 complex-radical alternating copolymerization of maleic anhydride with 1-dodecene α-olefin comonomer, (2 grafting of PEO onto alternating copolymer through esterification, (3 intercalating a copolymer-g-PEO between organoclay layers via complex formation of maleate carboxyl with octadecyl amine, and (4 in situ generation of AgNPs in polymer nanocomposite by annealing method under vacuum. The obtained multifunctional NHCs with different contents of AgNPs were characterized by UV spectroscopy, ζ-potential and size analysis methods. It was demonstrated that annealing of the colloidal NHC is accompanied with in situ generation of stable and partially protonated AgNPs due to specific reducing and stabilizing effects of multifunctional matrix polymer contained positively charged reactive and bioactive sites. Antibacterial and antifungal activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungal microorganism were investigated. The cytotoxic, apoptotic and necrotic effects in NHC/L929 fibroblast cells systems were evaluated. The synthesized watersoluble, biocompatible, and bioactive colloidal NHCs are promising candidate for a wide-range of applications in air filtration, food packaging systems, bioengineering, especially in tissue regeneration and nanomedicine.

  10. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, G A; Gazim, Z C; Cardoso, B K; Jorge, L F; Tešević, V; Glamoćlija, J; Soković, M; Colauto, N B

    2016-07-29

    Parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss] is regarded as an aromatic, culinary, and medicinal plant and is used in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, few studies with conflicting results have been conducted on the antimicrobial activity of parsley essential oil. In addition, there have been no reports of essential oil obtained from parsley aerial parts, except seeds, as an alternative natural antimicrobial agent. Also, microorganism resistance is still a challenge for health and food production. Based on the demand for natural products to control microorganisms, and the re-evaluation of potential medicinal plants for controlling diseases, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and b-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent.

  11. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects of three essential oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochot, Amandine; Guilbot, Angèle; Haddioui, Laïla; Roques, Christine

    2017-08-01

    New agents that are effective against common pathogens are needed particularly for those resistant to conventional antimicrobial agents. Essential oils (EOs) are known for their antimicrobial activity. Using the broth microdilution method, we showed that (1) two unique blends of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Daucus carota, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis EOs (AB1 and AB2; cinnamon EOs from two different suppliers) were active against the fourteen Gram-positive and -negative bacteria strains tested, including some antibiotic-resistant strains. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.01% to 3% v/v with minimal bactericidal concentrations from Origanum vulgare EOs was antifungal to the six Candida strains tested, with MICs ranging from 0.01% to 0.05% v/v with minimal fungicidal concentrations from 0.02% to 0.05% v/v. Blend AB1 was also effective against H1N1 and HSV1 viruses. With this dual activity, against H1N1 and against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae notably, AB1 may be interesting to treat influenza and postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia infections. These blends could be very useful in clinical practice to combat common infections including those caused by microorganisms resistant to antimicrobial drugs. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Pharmacology of the antifungals used in the treatment of aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, José Ramón; Sádaba, Belén; Gómez-Guíu, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of invasive aspergillosis requires the use of drugs that characteristically have complex pharmacokinetic properties, the knowledge of which is essential to achieve maximum efficacy with minimal risk to the patient. The lipid-based amphotericin B formulations vary significantly in their pharmacokinetic behaviour, with very high plasma concentrations of the liposomal form, probably related to the presence of cholesterol in their structure. Azoles have a variable absorption profile, particularly in the case of itraconazole and posaconazole, with the latter very dependent on multiple factors. This may also lead to variations in voriconazole, which requires considering the possibility of monitoring plasma concentrations. The aim of this article is to review some of the most relevant aspects of the pharmacology of the antifungals used in the prophylaxis and treatment of the Aspergillus infection. For this reason, it includes the most relevant features of some of the azoles normally prescribed in this infection (itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole) and the amphotericin B formulations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  13. Identification and quantification of antifungal compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria and propionibacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Lay, Céline; Coton, Emmanuel; Le Blay, Gwenaëlle; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas; Choiset, Yvan; Van Long, Nicolas Nguyen; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Mounier, Jérôme

    2016-12-19

    Fungal growth in bakery products represents the most frequent cause of spoilage and leads to economic losses for industrials and consumers. Bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria and propionibacteria, are commonly known to play an active role in preservation of fermented food, producing a large range of antifungal metabolites. In a previous study (Le Lay et al., 2016), an extensive screening performed both in vitro and in situ allowed for the selection of bacteria exhibiting an antifungal activity. In the present study, active supernatants against Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger were analyzed to identify and quantify the antifungal compounds associated with the observed activity. Supernatant treatments (pH neutralization, heating and addition of proteinase K) suggested that organic acids played the most important role in the antifungal activity of each tested supernatant. Different methods (HPLC, mass spectrometry, colorimetric and enzymatic assays) were then applied to analyze the supernatants and it was shown that the main antifungal compounds corresponded to lactic, acetic and propionic acids, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide, as well as other compounds present at low levels such as phenyllactic, hydroxyphenyllactic, azelaic and caproic acids. Based on these results, various combinations of the identified compounds were used to evaluate their effect on conidial germination and fungal growth of P. corylophilum and Eurotium repens. Some combinations presented the same activity than the bacterial culture supernatant thus confirming the involvement of the identified molecules in the antifungal activity. The obtained results suggested that acetic acid was mainly responsible for the antifungal activity against P. corylophilum and played an important role in E. repens inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk of serious skin disorders among users of oral antifungals: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duque Alberto

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serious skin disorders have been associated with the use of oral antifungals in a number of case reports and series of cases. However the incidence of these disorders remains unknown. Methods We estimated the risk of serious skin disorders in a cohort of users of oral antifungals identified in the general population of the General Practice Research Database in the UK. The cohort included 61,858 patients, 20 to 79 years old, who had received at least one prescription for either oral fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, or terbinafine. Results The background rate of serious cutaneous adverse reactions (the one corresponding to non use of oral antifungals was 3.9 per 10,000 person-years (95% CI 2.9–5.2. Incidence rates for current use were 15.4 per 10,000 person-years (1.9–55.7 for itraconazole, 11.1 (3.0–28.5 for terbinafine, 10.4 (1.3–37.5 for fluconazole, and 4.6 (0.1–25.8 for griseofulvin. Itraconazole was the antifungal associated with the highest relative risk, 3.9 (0.5–15.0, when compared to the risk among non users, followed by terbinafine and fluconazole, with relative risks of 2.8 (0.7–7.8 and 2.6 (0.3–10.1, respectively. Conclusions We conclude that cutaneous disorders associated with the use of oral antifungals in this study were all of mild severity and that the risk associated with the use of oral antifungals was slightly higher than the risk in non-users. The safety profile of terbinafine regarding cutaneous disorders is similar to other antifungals and in the very low range of risks associated with other drugs.

  15. Radiation application for upgrading of bioresources - Development of antifungal and-or nitrogen fixative microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Sung; Kim, Soo Ki; Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Jung Suk [Paichai University, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    (1) In this study, the antifungal bacterial eight strains were isolated from various environment located in Chung-cheong area, Korea. These isolates were identified the genera Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp. through morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis. Especially, strain KL2143, 2367 were identified as Bacillus subtilis (KL2143/KL2367) and strain KL2326, KL2314 identified as Pseudomonas aurantiaca have never been reported internationally. Considering antifungal(AF) spectrum of strain KL2143 show the broad range of AF activity on a number of pathogenic fungi. Therefore, strain KL2143 was selected with the strong candidate of antifungal bacteria on every purpose and usage related with our research goal. (2) Optimal conditions for the production of antifungal material were analyzed under various environmental conditions (carbon source, nitrogen source, phosphate concentration, pH, temperature, amino acids, vitamins). Growth rates were different according to carbon and nitrogen source, antifungal material production yield were not different, however. Product of antifungal material according to phosphate is proportional to concentration; the higher in high concentration and the low in lower concentration. And productivity of antifungal material is was generally high in the range 30 - 37 deg C at pH7 and in case of adding vitamin B12, lysine and aginine to medium it was enhanced. (3) Moreover, bio-degradability upon agricultural substance and organic substances by AF bacteria was strikingly effective. (4) AF stains were screened and selected from this research can be used in the microbial biocides as well as multifunctional bio-controllers in order to remove plant pathogenic fungi and to clarify the polluted environment. Due to their excellent degradation capability for agricultural and/or organic substances, they also can be used to improve soil quality, to ferment compost and to clean up the environment. (5) Establishment of a new technology for the

  16. Empirical Legality and Effective Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Pringe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The conditions that Kant’s doctrine establishes are examined for the predication of the effective reality of certain empirical objects. It is maintained that a for such a predication, it is necessary to have not only perception but also a certain homogeneity of sensible data, and b the knowledge of the existence of certain empirical objects depends on the application of regulative principles of experience.

  17. Empirical logic and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulis, D.J.; Randall, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses some of the basic notions of quantum physics within the more general framework of operational statistics and empirical logic (as developed in Foulis and Randall, 1972, and Randall and Foulis, 1973). Empirical logic is a formal mathematical system in which the notion of an operation is primitive and undefined; all other concepts are rigorously defined in terms of such operations (which are presumed to correspond to actual physical procedures). (Auth.)

  18. Empirical Research In Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly engineering design research involves the use of empirical studies that are conducted within an industrial environment [Ahmed, 2001; Court 1995; Hales 1987]. Research into the use of information by designers or understanding how engineers build up experience are examples of research...... of research issues. This paper describes case studies of empirical research carried out within industry in engineering design focusing upon information, knowledge and experience in engineering design. The paper describes the research methods employed, their suitability for the particular research aims...

  19. Comparison of two systemic antifungal agents, itraconazole and terbinafine, for the treatment of dermatophytosis in European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexton, Steve; Nelson, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton erinacei is a common scaling and crusting skin disease affecting European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) admitted to wildlife rescue centres. The application of topical therapy can be challenging because wild hedgehogs are subject to stress and often roll into a ball when handled. Systemic antifungal therapy is more convenient but has not been evaluated in this species. To compare the efficacy of oral itraconazole versus oral terbinafine for the treatment of dermatophytosis affecting hedgehogs. A treatment trial was undertaken in a wildlife hospital involving 165 hedgehogs with naturally occurring dermatophytosis. Animals were randomly divided into two groups and treated with either itraconazole or terbinafine orally for 28 days. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated after 14 and 28 days by mycological culture and clinical dermatological lesion scores. Both drugs were well tolerated and clinically effective. After 14 and 28 days of treatment, the respective mycological cure rate was 36.6% and 65.9% for the itraconazole-treated group and 92.8% and 98.8% for the terbinafine-treated group. Itraconazole and terbinafine were both effective for the treatment of dermatophytosis affecting hedgehogs; however, terbinafine was more effective. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Antifungal effects of Lavandula binaludensis and Cuminum cyminum essential oils against Candida albicans strains isolated from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooeianhaghighi, M H; Sepehrian, L; Shokri, H

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), which affects approximately 5% of women of reproductive age, is defined as 4 or more episodes of symptomatic Candida vaginitis within a year. The purposes of this study were to determine the chemical compositions and antifungal susceptibility of Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) and Lavandula binaludensis (L. binaludensis) essential oils and their combination against Candida albicans (C. albicans) strains isolated from patients with RVVC. C. albicans isolates were identified via germ tube test, CHROMagar and RapID Yeast Plus System. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The broth microdilution method was used as antifungal susceptibility test (CLSI-M27-A3). The GC-MS analysis allowed 13 components to be determined; the main components of C. cyminum and L. binaludensis essential oils were γ-terpinene (21.07%) and 1,8-cineole (71.56%), respectively. L. binaludensis and C. cyminum oils were effective in inhibiting C. albicans growth at mean concentrations of 7.91±1.61μg/mL and 8.00±1.89μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the combination of C. cyminum with L. binaludensis oils were more active causing inhibition in all C. albicans isolates, with concentrations varying from 3.90 to 11.71μg/mL (mean value: 7.22±1.69μg/mL). The results suggested the potential substitution of the antifungal chemicals by C. cyminum and L. binaludensis essential oils as natural inhibitors to control the growth of the most important pathogenic Candida species and alternative therapies for RVVC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.