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Sample records for emphysema susceptible smokers

  1. Heterogeneity of pulmonary perfusion as a mechanistic image-based phenotype in emphysema susceptible smokers.

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    Alford, Sara K; van Beek, Edwin J R; McLennan, Geoffrey; Hoffman, Eric A

    2010-04-20

    Recent evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction and pathology of pulmonary vascular responses may serve as a precursor to smoking-associated emphysema. Although it is known that emphysematous destruction leads to vasculature changes, less is known about early regional vascular dysfunction which may contribute to and precede emphysematous changes. We sought to test the hypothesis, via multidetector row CT (MDCT) perfusion imaging, that smokers showing early signs of emphysema susceptibility have a greater heterogeneity in regional perfusion parameters than emphysema-free smokers and persons who had never smoked (NS). Assuming that all smokers have a consistent inflammatory response, increased perfusion heterogeneity in emphysema-susceptible smokers would be consistent with the notion that these subjects may have the inability to block hypoxic vasoconstriction in patchy, small regions of inflammation. Dynamic ECG-gated MDCT perfusion scans with a central bolus injection of contrast were acquired in 17 NS, 12 smokers with normal CT imaging studies (SNI), and 12 smokers with subtle CT findings of centrilobular emphysema (SCE). All subjects had normal spirometry. Quantitative image analysis determined regional perfusion parameters, pulmonary blood flow (PBF), and mean transit time (MTT). Mean and coefficient of variation were calculated, and statistical differences were assessed with one-way ANOVA. MDCT-based MTT and PBF measurements demonstrate globally increased heterogeneity in SCE subjects compared with NS and SNI subjects but demonstrate similarity between NS and SNI subjects. These findings demonstrate a functional lung-imaging measure that provides a more mechanistically oriented phenotype that differentiates smokers with and without evidence of emphysema susceptibility.

  2. Pulmonary Emphysema Subtypes on Computed Tomography in Smokers

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    Smith, Benjamin M.; Austin, John H.M.; Newell, John D.; D’Souza, Belinda M.; Rozenshtein, Anna; Hoffman, Eric A.; Ahmed, Firas; Barr, R. Graham

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary emphysema is divided into three major subtypes at autopsy: centrilobular, paraseptal and panlobular emphysema. These subtypes can be defined by visual assessment on computed tomography (CT); however, clinical characteristics of emphysema subtypes on CT are not well-defined. We developed a reliable approach to visual assessment of emphysema subtypes on CT and examined if emphysema subtypes have distinct characteristics. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50–79 years with ≥10 pack-years. Participants underwent CT following a standardized protocol. Definitions of centrilobular, paraseptal and panlobular emphysema were obtained by literature review. Six-minute walk distance and pulmonary function were performed following guidelines. Results Twenty-seven percent of 318 smokers had emphysema on CT. Inter-rater reliability of emphysema subtype was substantial (K:0.70). Compared to participants without emphysema, individuals with centrilobular or panlobular emphysema had greater dyspnea, reduced walk distance, greater hyperinflation, and lower diffusing capacity. In contrast, individuals with PSE were similar to controls, except for male predominance. Centrilobular but not panlobular or paraseptal emphysema was associated with greater smoking history (+21 pack-years Pemphysema was associated with reduced body mass index (−5 kg/m2;P=0.01). Other than for dyspnea, these findings were independent of the forced expiratory volume in one second. Seventeen percent of smokers without COPD on spirometry had emphysema, which was independently associated with reduced walk distance. Conclusions Emphysema subtypes on CT are common in smokers with and without COPD. Centrilobular and panlobular emphysema but not paraseptal emphysema have considerable symptomatic and physiological consequences. PMID:24384106

  3. Sex differences in emphysema and airway disease in smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camp, Pat G; Coxson, Harvey O; Levy, Robert D

    2009-01-01

    -resolution CT (HRCT) scanning in male and female smokers with and without COPD. METHODS: All subjects completed spirometry and answered an epidemiologic respiratory questionnaire. Inspiratory HRCT scans were obtained on 688 smokers enrolled in a family-based study of COPD. Emphysema was assessed by using......-years of smoking, current smoking status, center of enrollment, and FEV(1) percent predicted; p = 0.0006). Women had a smaller SQRTWA and WA% after adjusting for covariates (p smokers have more emphysema than female smokers, but female smokers do not show increased wall thickness...

  4. Longitudinal study of spatially heterogeneous emphysema progression in current smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Naoya Tanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for emphysema, which is a key pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Low attenuation areas (LAA in computed tomography (CT images reflect emphysema, and the cumulative size distribution of LAA clusters follows a power law characterized by the exponent D. This property of LAA clusters can be explained by model simulation, where mechanical force breaks alveolar walls causing local heterogeneous lung tissue destruction. However, a longitudinal CT study has not investigated whether continuous smoking causes the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema. METHODS: We measured annual changes in ratios of LAA (LAA%, D and numbers of LAA clusters (LAN in CT images acquired at intervals of ≥ 3 years from 22 current and 31 former smokers with COPD to assess emphysema progression. We constructed model simulations using CT images to morphologically interpret changes in current smokers. RESULTS: D was decreased in current and former smokers, whereas LAA% and LAN were increased only in current smokers. The annual changes in LAA%, D, and LAN were greater in current, than in former smokers (1.03 vs. 0.37%, p=0.008; -0.045 vs. -0.01, p=0.004; 13.9 vs. 1.1, p=0.007, respectively. When LAA% increased in model simulations, the coalescence of neighboring LAA clusters decreased D, but the combination of changes in D and LAN in current smokers could not be explained by the homogeneous emphysema progression model despite cluster coalescence. Conversely, a model in which LAAs heterogeneously increased and LAA clusters merged somewhat in relatively advanced emphysematous regions could reflect actual changes. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to parenchymal destruction induced by continuous smoking is not uniform over the lung, but might be higher in local regions of relatively advanced emphysema. These could result in the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema in current smokers.

  5. Emphysema in heavy smokers with normal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sashidhar, K.; Monga, S.; Suri, S.; Gulati, M.; Gupta, D.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the severity and extent of emphysema in heavy smokers by high-resolution CT (HRCT) and to correlate the findings with spirometric tests (STs) and symptomatology. Material and Methods: Fifty adult smokers with a mean age of 53 years with a smoking history of more than 30 pack years and normal chest radiographs underwent HRCT of the chest and ST (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR). Among these, 22 had symptoms of pulmonary disease and 28 were asymptomatic. Quantification of emphysema was done using a density mask program and the visual scoring method. The results were correlated with ST and symptomatology. Results: 58% (29 out of 50) of the subjects had significant emphysema on HRCT. Eleven out of 15 with normal ST showed emphysema on HRCT while 2 with airflow obstruction on ST showed normal CT scores. 14% (4 out of 28) asymptomatic subjects had severe emphysema compared to 64% of symptomatic subjects. Emphysematous changes were predominantly seen in upper lung zones in 48% of the patients while in 52% it was distributed equally in both upper and lower zones. The number of pack years of smoking showed a positive correlation with CT scores. The correlation between HRCT scores and ST was statistically significant. Conclusion: A significant number of asymptomatic and clinically undiagnosed smokers tend to have significant emphysema. HRCT helps in early detection of disease and thus helps implementation of preventive measures

  6. CT screening for lung cancer: Importance of emphysema for never smokers and smokers.

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    Henschke, Claudia I; Yip, Rowena; Boffetta, Paolo; Markowitz, Steven; Miller, Albert; Hanaoka, Takaomi; Wu, Ning; Zulueta, Javier J; Yankelevitz, David F

    2015-04-01

    To address the prevalence of lung cancer in high and low-risk people according to their smoking history, age, and CT findings of emphysema. We reviewed the baseline low-dose CT scans of 62,124 current, former and never smokers, aged 40-90 to determine the prevalence of lung cancer. We performed logistic regression analysis of the prevalence of lung cancer to determine the odds ratio (OR) for emphysema, conditionally on age, female gender, and ethnicity. The prevalence of lung cancer was 1.4% (95% CI: 1.3-1.6) for current smokers, 1.1% (95% CI: 1.0-1.2) for former smokers, and 0.4% (95% CI: 0.3-0.6) for never smokers. Emphysema was identified in 28.5% (6,684), 20.6% (5,422), and 1.6% (194) of current, former, and never smokers, respectively. The prevalence of lung cancer among current smokers was 1.1% for those without emphysema vs. 2.3% for those with emphysema (odds ratio [OR] 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-2.2) and the corresponding difference for former smokers was 0.9% vs. 1.8% (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2), and for never smokers, it was 0.4% vs. 2.6% (OR: 6.3; 95% CI: 2.4-16.9). Identification of emphysema in low-dose CT scans increases the risk of lung cancer and is important in determining follow-up of current, former, and never smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lung volumes and emphysema in smokers with interstitial lung abnormalities.

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    Washko, George R; Hunninghake, Gary M; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Lynch, David A; Brehm, John M; Andriole, Katherine P; Diaz, Alejandro A; Khorasani, Ramin; D'Aco, Katherine; Sciurba, Frank C; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O

    2011-03-10

    Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known. We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema. Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (-0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.596 to -0.292; Ppulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking. In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities--which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans--were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00608764.).

  8. The Relationship Between Pulmonary Emphysema and Kidney Function in Smokers

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    Chandra, Divay; Stamm, Jason A.; Palevsky, Paul M.; Leader, Joseph K.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Zhang, Yingze; Bon, Jessica; Duncan, Steven R.; Branch, Robert A.; Weissfeld, Joel; Gur, David; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that the prevalence of kidney dysfunction may be increased in patients exposed to tobacco with airflow obstruction. We hypothesized that kidney dysfunction would associate with emphysema rather than with airflow obstruction measured by the FEV1. Methods: Five hundred eight current and former smokers completed a chest CT scan, pulmonary function tests, medical questionnaires, and measurement of serum creatinine. Glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) were estimated using the method of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Quantitative determinants of emphysema and airway dimension were measured from multidetector chest CT scans. Results: The mean age was 66 ± 7 years, and mean eGFR was 101 ± 22 mL/min/1.73 m2. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed a significant association between radiographically measured emphysema and eGFR: Participants with 10% more emphysema had an eGFR that was lower by 4.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P = .01), independent of airflow obstruction (FEV1), age, sex, race, height, BMI, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, patient-reported dyspnea, pack-years of smoking, and current smoking. There was no association between eGFR and either FEV1 or quantitative CT scan measures of airway dimension. Conclusions: More severe emphysema, rather than airflow obstruction, is associated with kidney dysfunction in tobacco smokers, independent of common risk factors for kidney disease. This finding adds to recent observations of associations between emphysema and comorbidities of COPD, including osteoporosis and lung cancer, which are independent of the traditional measure of reduced FEV1. The mechanisms and clinical implications of kidney dysfunction in patients with emphysema need further investigation. PMID:22459775

  9. Emphysema progression is visually detectable in low-dose CT in continuous but not in former smokers

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    Wille, Mathilde Marie Winkler; Thomsen, Laura H.; Dirksen, Asger

    2014-01-01

    prevalence and grade of emphysema in late CT examinations). Significant progression in emphysema was seen in continuous smokers, but not in former smokers. Agreement on centrilobular emphysema subtype was substantial; agreement on paraseptal subtype, moderate. Agreement on panlobular and mixed subtypes......: Visual scoring of chest CT is able to characterise the presence, pattern, and progression of early emphysema. Continuous smokers progress; former smokers do not. KEY POINTS: • Substantial interobserver consistency in determining early-stage emphysema in low-dose CT. • Longitudinal analyses show clear...... time-trends for emphysema presence and grading. • For continuous smokers, progression of emphysema was seen in all lung zones. • For former smokers, progression of emphysema was undetectable by visual assessment. • Onset and progression of interstitial abnormalities are visually detectable....

  10. Emphysema predicts hospitalisation and incident airflow obstruction among older smokers: a prospective cohort study.

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    David A McAllister

    Full Text Available Emphysema on CT is common in older smokers. We hypothesised that emphysema on CT predicts acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease among older smokers.Participants in a lung cancer screening study age ≥ 60 years were recruited into a prospective cohort study in 2001-02. Two radiologists independently visually assessed the severity of emphysema as absent, mild, moderate or severe. Percent emphysema was defined as the proportion of voxels ≤ -910 Hounsfield Units. Participants completed a median of 5 visits over a median of 6 years of follow-up. The primary outcome was hospitalization, emergency room or urgent office visit for chronic lower respiratory disease. Spirometry was performed following ATS/ERS guidelines. Airflow obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVC ratio <0.70 and FEV1<80% predicted.Of 521 participants, 4% had moderate or severe emphysema, which was associated with acute episodes of care (rate ratio 1.89; 95% CI: 1.01-3.52 adjusting for age, sex and race/ethnicity, as was percent emphysema, with similar associations for hospitalisation. Emphysema on visual assessment also predicted incident airflow obstruction (HR 5.14; 95% CI 2.19-21.1.Visually assessed emphysema and percent emphysema on CT predicted acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease, with the former predicting incident airflow obstruction among older smokers.

  11. CT-quantified emphysema in male heavy smokers : association with lung function decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Hoop, Bartjan; Zanen, Pieter; Gietema, Hester; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; van Ginneken, Bram; Isgum, Ivana; Mol, Christian; van Klaveren, Rob J; Dijkstra, Akkelies E; Groen, Hendricus; Boezen, Hendrika; Postma, Dirkje S; Prokop, Mathias; Lammers, Jan-Willem J

    BACKGROUND: Emphysema and small airway disease both contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterised by accelerated decline in lung function. The association between the extent of emphysema in male current and former smokers and lung function decline was

  12. Sequential occurrence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome in a non-smoker female patient.

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    Gupta, Pawan; Dash, Devijyoti; Mittal, Richa; Chhabra, Sunil K

    2017-05-01

    The combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) syndrome is a unique and an under-recognized disorder characterized by emphysema in the upper lobes and interstitial fibrosis in the lower lobes of the lung. It occurs predominantly in males and almost exclusively in smokers. This rare combination of a restrictive and an obstructive mechanical defect carries a poorer prognosis than either of the two components. We present a case of CPFE syndrome in a non-smoker female patient who developed lower lobe emphysema subsequent to development of interstitial fibrosis. The case was remarkable for the extreme rarity of several presenting features, namely, a lower lobe occurrence of emphysema subsequent to pre-existent interstitial fibrosis, female gender and absence of a history of smoking. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effect of Emphysema on CT Scan Measures of Airway Dimensions in Smokers

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    Han, MeiLan K.; Come, Carolyn E.; San José Estépar, Raúl; Ross, James C.; Kim, Victor; Dransfield, Mark T.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Schroeder, Joyce D.; Lynch, David A.; Tschirren, Juerg; Silverman, Edwin K.; Washko, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In CT scans of smokers with COPD, the subsegmental airway wall area percent (WA%) is greater and more strongly correlated with FEV1 % predicted than WA% obtained in the segmental airways. Because emphysema is linked to loss of airway tethering and may limit airway expansion, increases in WA% may be related to emphysema and not solely to remodeling. We aimed to first determine whether the stronger association of subsegmental vs segmental WA% with FEV1 % predicted is mitigated by emphysema and, second, to assess the relationships among emphysema, WA%, and total bronchial area (TBA). Methods: We analyzed CT scan segmental and subsegmental WA% (WA% = 100 × wall area/TBA) of six bronchial paths and corresponding lobar emphysema, lung function, and clinical data in 983 smokers with COPD. Results: Compared with segmental WA%, the subsegmental WA% had a greater effect on FEV1% predicted (−0.8% to −1.7% vs −1.9% to −2.6% per 1-unit increase in WA%, respectively; P < .05 for most bronchial paths). After adjusting for emphysema, the association between subsegmental WA% and FEV1 % predicted was weakened in two bronchial paths. Increases in WA% between bronchial segments correlated directly with emphysema in all bronchial paths (P < .05). In multivariate regression models, emphysema was directly related to subsegmental WA% in most bronchial paths and inversely related to subsegmental TBA in all bronchial paths. Conclusion: The greater effect of subsegmental WA% on airflow obstruction is mitigated by emphysema. Part of the emphysema effect might be due to loss of airway tethering, leading to a reduction in TBA and an increase in WA%. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00608764; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:23460155

  14. COPD: recognizing the susceptible smoker

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    Hoonhorst, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is the main cause of COPD, a chronic non-curable lung disease. Not all smokers develop COPD and it is still unclear why COPD is only manifested in a small subset of smokers (15-20%). Probably their genetic background makes the difference. We investigated whether young individuals (18-40

  15. Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Utility of Pulmonary Function Tests in Predicting Emphysema in Ever-Smokers

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    Farrah Kheradmand

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. We enrolled 224 ever-smokers (current or former over the age of 40. CT of thorax was used to quantify the low attenuation area (% emphysema, and to measure the standardized airway wall thickness. PFTs were used individually and in combination to predict their ability to discriminate radiographic emphysema. Significant emphysema (>7% was detected in 122 (54% subjects. Twenty six (21% emphysema subjects had no evidence of airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC ratio 23% emphysema showed airflow obstruction. The sensitivity and specificity of spirometry for detecting radiographic emphysema were 79% and 75%, respectively. Standardized airway wall thickness was increased in subjects with airflow obstruction, but did not correlate with emphysema severity. In this cohort of lifetime ever-smokers, PFTs alone were inadequate for diagnosing emphysema. Airway wall thickness quantified by CT morphometry was associated with airflow limitation, but not with emphysema indicating that the heterogeneous nature of lung disease in smokers may represent distinct phenotypes.

  16. Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Utility of Pulmonary Function Tests in Predicting Emphysema in Ever-Smokers

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    Hesselbacher, Sean E.; Ross, Robert; Schabath, Matthew B.; Smith, E. O’Brian; Perusich, Sarah; Barrow, Nadia; Smithwick, Pamela; Mammen, Manoj J.; Coxson, Harvey; Krowchuk, Natasha; Corry, David B.; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2011-01-01

    Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. We enrolled 224 ever-smokers (current or former) over the age of 40. CT of thorax was used to quantify the low attenuation area (% emphysema), and to measure the standardized airway wall thickness. PFTs were used individually and in combination to predict their ability to discriminate radiographic emphysema. Significant emphysema (>7%) was detected in 122 (54%) subjects. Twenty six (21%) emphysema subjects had no evidence of airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC ratio 23% emphysema showed airflow obstruction. The sensitivity and specificity of spirometry for detecting radiographic emphysema were 79% and 75%, respectively. Standardized airway wall thickness was increased in subjects with airflow obstruction, but did not correlate with emphysema severity. In this cohort of lifetime ever-smokers, PFTs alone were inadequate for diagnosing emphysema. Airway wall thickness quantified by CT morphometry was associated with airflow limitation, but not with emphysema indicating that the heterogeneous nature of lung disease in smokers may represent distinct phenotypes. PMID:21655122

  17. Detection of COPD, lung function decline and emphysema progression in heavy smokers

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    Mohamed Hoesein, F.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis has improved our insights in important determinants of lung function decline and emphysema progression in heavy smokers. Secondly, it improved our insight on the question which threshold of FEV1/FVC is most appropriate in diagnosing COPD. We showed in chapter 2 that

  18. Sex-specific features of emphysema among current and former smokers with COPD.

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    Hardin, Megan; Foreman, Marilyn; Dransfield, Mark T; Hansel, Nadia; Han, MeiLan K; Cho, Michael H; Bhatt, Surya P; Ramsdell, Joe; Lynch, David; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Silverman, Edwin K; Washko, George; DeMeo, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have more emphysema than females. It is not known if these differences persist across degrees of COPD severity. Our aim was to identify sex-specific differences in quantitative emphysema within COPD subgroups based on COPD severity.We included non-Hispanic white and African-American subjects from the COPDGene study with at least 10 pack-years of smoking and COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometry grade II or greater. We examined sex-specific differences in log-transformed emphysema (log per cent low-attenuation area (%LAA)) by GOLD spirometry grade among subjects with early-onset COPD (25% emphysema).Compared with females, males had higher log %LAA: overall (1.97±1.4 versus 1.69±1.6, β=0.32 (0.04), p=1.34×10(-14)), and among non-Hispanic white (p=8.37×10(-14)) and African-American subjects (p=0.002). Females with early-onset COPD, severe emphysema and GOLD grade IV COPD had similar emphysema as males, but markedly fewer pack-years smoking (early-onset, p=0.01; severe emphysema and GOLD grade IV, psmokers with COPD who are particularly susceptible to parenchymal destruction. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  19. An assessment of pulmonary emphysema in smokers using CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Katashi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Misao, Takahiko

    1999-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between PE and smoking in 639 cases (411 males and 228 females with age ranged 21-86 years) who underwent CT scans during the period, from December 1997 to December 1998, under suspicion of respiratory disease on chest radiograph or some respiratory complaints. PE was diagnosed by the existence of low attenuation areas in CT scan and not by pulmonary function tests. CT was performed with 10 mm collimation in a standard algorithm. PE, regardless of the grade, was seen: in 189 out of 348 (54.3%) cases in male smokers and in only 2 out of 63 (3.2%) cases in male non-smokers; and in 5 out of 25 (20.0%) female smokers and in 4 out of 203 (2.0%) female non-smokers. PE was observed in more than half of male smokers. High incidence of PE was also observed in even younger generation, and its severity progresses with advancing age and increasing smoking index. (author)

  20. Emphysema progression is visually detectable in low-dose CT in continuous but not in former smokers

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    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Thomsen, Laura H.; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B. [Gentofte Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hellerup (Denmark); Petersen, Jens [Copenhagen University, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, Jesper Holst [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-11-15

    To evaluate interobserver agreement and time-trend in chest CT assessment of emphysema, airways, and interstitial abnormalities in a lung cancer screening cohort. Visual assessment of baseline and fifth-year examination of 1990 participants was performed independently by two observers. Results were standardised by means of an electronic score sheet; kappa and time-trend analyses were performed. Interobserver agreement was substantial in early emphysema diagnosis; highly significant (p < 0.001) time-trends in both emphysema presence and grading were found (higher prevalence and grade of emphysema in late CT examinations). Significant progression in emphysema was seen in continuous smokers, but not in former smokers. Agreement on centrilobular emphysema subtype was substantial; agreement on paraseptal subtype, moderate. Agreement on panlobular and mixed subtypes was only fair. Agreement was fair regarding airway analysis. Interstitial abnormalities were infrequent in the cohort, and agreement on these was fair to moderate. A highly significant time-trend was found regarding interstitial abnormalities, which were more frequent in late examinations. Visual scoring of chest CT is able to characterise the presence, pattern, and progression of early emphysema. Continuous smokers progress; former smokers do not. (orig.)

  1. Emphysema progression is visually detectable in low-dose CT in continuous but not in former smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Thomsen, Laura H.; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B.; Petersen, Jens; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate interobserver agreement and time-trend in chest CT assessment of emphysema, airways, and interstitial abnormalities in a lung cancer screening cohort. Visual assessment of baseline and fifth-year examination of 1990 participants was performed independently by two observers. Results were standardised by means of an electronic score sheet; kappa and time-trend analyses were performed. Interobserver agreement was substantial in early emphysema diagnosis; highly significant (p < 0.001) time-trends in both emphysema presence and grading were found (higher prevalence and grade of emphysema in late CT examinations). Significant progression in emphysema was seen in continuous smokers, but not in former smokers. Agreement on centrilobular emphysema subtype was substantial; agreement on paraseptal subtype, moderate. Agreement on panlobular and mixed subtypes was only fair. Agreement was fair regarding airway analysis. Interstitial abnormalities were infrequent in the cohort, and agreement on these was fair to moderate. A highly significant time-trend was found regarding interstitial abnormalities, which were more frequent in late examinations. Visual scoring of chest CT is able to characterise the presence, pattern, and progression of early emphysema. Continuous smokers progress; former smokers do not. (orig.)

  2. Emphysema Quantification Using Low Dose Chest CT: Changes in Follow-Up Examinations of Asymptomatic Smokers

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    Jang, Eun Ho; Sun, Joo Sung; Kang, Doo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwang Joo; Park, Kyung Joo [Dept. of Pulmolary Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    To evaluate the changes of emphysema quantification in a follow-up low dose CT compared with pulmonary function test (PFT) results in asymptomatic smokers. We selected 66 asymptomatic smokers (> 40 years old) who underwent a follow-up low dose CT at least one year after the first CT as well as PFT within the same time period. Emphysema quantification was performed using an automated measurement software and an emphysema index (EI) was calculated using multiple threshold values (-970--900 HU). The interval change of EI ({Delta} EI) was compared with the change in the PFT values. Mean follow-up %forced expiratory volume in 1 second (88.1), %forced vital capacity (FVC) (89.5) and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (3.21) were significantly lower compared with the values of initial tests (93.3, 93.1, 3.48). The mean EIs (2.4-25.6%) increased on follow-up CTs compared with initial EIs (2.1-24.5%), though the increase was not statistically significant. In a group with a follow-up period of 2 years or more (n = 32), EI significantly increased when using -900 HU as the threshold. The ({Delta} EIs were poorly correlated with the ({Delta} PFT values, but significantly correlated with ({Delta} FVC (r = -0.32--0.27). Emphysema quantification using low dose CT was not effective for the evaluation of short-term changes in less than a 2-year period, but may be used for long term follow-up series in asymptomatic smokers.

  3. Assessment of lobar perfusion in smokers according to the presence and severity of emphysema: preliminary experience with dual-energy CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansini, Vittorio; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Schmidt, Bernhard; Dejardin-Bothelo, Alexis; Perez, Thierry; Delannoy, Valerie; Duhamel, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess pulmonary perfusion on a lobar level in smokers using dual-energy computed tomography (CT). Forty-seven smokers and ten non-smokers underwent a dual-energy multi-detector CT angiogram of the chest that allowed automatic quantification of emphysema and determination of the iodine content at the level of the microcirculation (i.e. ''perfusion imaging''). Emphysema was present in 37 smokers and absent in ten smokers. Smokers with an upper lobe predominance of emphysema (n = 8) had: (1) significantly lower attenuation enhancement values in the upper lobes compared with smokers without emphysema; (2) the lobes with the most severe emphysematous changes had a statistically significantly higher percentage of emphysema (p = 0.0001) and lower mean attenuation enhancement values (p = 0.0001) than the ipsilateral lobes with less severe emphysema, matching parenchymal destruction; (3) a correlation was found between the difference in percentage of emphysema between the upper and lower lobes and the difference in attenuation attenuation enhancement values in the corresponding lobes (p = 0.0355; r = -0.54). Regional alterations of lung perfusion can be depicted by dual-energy CT in smokers with predominant emphysema. (orig.)

  4. Prevalence and progression of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in asymptomatic smokers: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Kum Ju; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Kim, Yong Seek; Chon, Su Bin; Lee, Young Sun [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Keun Sang [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Department of Preventive Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hye Mi [Chonbuk National University, Department of Statistics and Institute of Applied Statistics, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Lynch, David [National Jewish Health, Department of Radiology, Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) and describe the follow-up CT results of CPFE in asymptomatic smokers. This study was retrospective, and approved by an institutional review board. CT images of 2,016 current or previous male smokers who underwent low-dose chest CT at our healthcare centre were reviewed. Quantitative CT analysis was used to assess the extent of emphysema, and two radiologists visually analyzed the extent of fibrosis. Changes in fibrosis (no change, improvement, or progression) were evaluated on follow-up CT imaging (n = 42). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, multivariate logistic regression and its ROC curve were used for survival and progression analysis. The prevalence of CPFE among asymptomatic male smokers was 3.1 % (63/2,016). The median follow-up period was 50.4 months, and 72.7 % (16/22) of continued smoker had progressing fibrosis on follow-up CT. CPFE progressed more rapidly in continuous smokers than in former smokers (p = 0.002). The 3.5-year follow-up period after initial CPFE diagnosis maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity of CPFE progression prediction in continuous smokers. The prevalence of CPFE turned out not to be inconsiderable in asymptomatic male smokers, but serial CT follow-up would be helpful in recognizing disease progression. (orig.)

  5. Prevalence and progression of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in asymptomatic smokers: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kum Ju; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Kim, Yong Seek; Chon, Su Bin; Lee, Young Sun; Kwon, Keun Sang; Choi, Hye Mi; Lynch, David

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) and describe the follow-up CT results of CPFE in asymptomatic smokers. This study was retrospective, and approved by an institutional review board. CT images of 2,016 current or previous male smokers who underwent low-dose chest CT at our healthcare centre were reviewed. Quantitative CT analysis was used to assess the extent of emphysema, and two radiologists visually analyzed the extent of fibrosis. Changes in fibrosis (no change, improvement, or progression) were evaluated on follow-up CT imaging (n = 42). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, multivariate logistic regression and its ROC curve were used for survival and progression analysis. The prevalence of CPFE among asymptomatic male smokers was 3.1 % (63/2,016). The median follow-up period was 50.4 months, and 72.7 % (16/22) of continued smoker had progressing fibrosis on follow-up CT. CPFE progressed more rapidly in continuous smokers than in former smokers (p = 0.002). The 3.5-year follow-up period after initial CPFE diagnosis maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity of CPFE progression prediction in continuous smokers. The prevalence of CPFE turned out not to be inconsiderable in asymptomatic male smokers, but serial CT follow-up would be helpful in recognizing disease progression. (orig.)

  6. The effect of inhaled corticosteroids on the development of emphysema in smokers assessed by annual computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B; Dirksen, Asger; Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on disease progression in smokers with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as assessed by annual computed tomography (CT) using lung density (LD) measurements. Two hundred and fifty-four current smokers...... (-54 mL) and placebo (-56 mL) (p = 0.89). Long-term budesonide inhalation shows a non-significant trend towards reducing the progression of emphysema as determined by the CT-derived 15th percentile lung density from annual CT scans in current smokers with moderate to severe COPD....

  7. Influence of preexisting pulmonary emphysema on susceptibility of rats to inhaled diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bice, D.E.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gillett, N.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The susceptibilities of normal rats and rats with preexisting pulmonary emphysema to chronically inhaled diesel exhaust were compared. Rats were exposed 7 h/day, 5 days/wk for 24 months to diesel exhaust at 3.5 mg soot/m3, or to clean air as controls. Emphysema was induced in one-half of the rats by intratracheal instillation of elastase 6 wk before exhaust exposure. Measurements included lung burdens of diesel soot, respiratory function, bronchoalveolar lavage, clearance of radiolabeled particles, pulmonary immune responses, lung collagen, excised lung weight and volume, histopathology, and mean linear intercept of terminal air spaces. Parameters indicated by analysis of variance to exhibit significant interactions between the influences of emphysema and exhaust were examined to determine if the effects were more than additive (indicating increased susceptibility). Although 14 of 63 parameters demonstrated emphysema-exhaust interactions, none indicated increased susceptibility. Less soot accumulated in lungs of emphysematous rats than in those of nonemphysematous rats, and the reduced accumulation had a sparing effect in the emphysematous rats. The results did not support the hypothesis that emphysematous lungs are more susceptible than are normal lungs to chronic exposure to high levels of diesel exhaust. The superimposition of effects of emphysema and exhaust, however, might still warrant special concern for heavy exposures of emphysematous subjects

  8. Frequency of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation in Smokers with Lung Cancer Without Pulmonary Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kenichi; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Yuji; Ito-Nishii, Shizuka; Izumi, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Touge, Hirokazu; Kodani, Masahiro; Makino, Haruhiko; Yanai, Masaaki; Tanaka, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Araki, Kunio; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Shimizu, Eiji

    2017-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a smoking-related disease, and is categorized into the emphysema and airway dominant phenotypes. We examined the relationship between emphysematous changes and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. The medical records for 250 patients with lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were categorized into the emphysema or non-emphysema group. Wild-type EGFR was detected in 136 (54%) and mutant EGFR in 48 (19%). Emphysematous changes were observed in 87 (36%) patients. EGFR mutation was highly frequent in the non-emphysema group (p=0.0014). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that emphysema was an independent risk factor for reduced frequency of EGFR mutation (Odds Ratio=3.47, p=0.005). Our data showed a relationship between emphysematous changes and EGFR mutation status. There might be mutually exclusive genetic risk factors for carcinogenesis and development of emphysematous changes. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of inhaled corticosteroids on the development of emphysema in smokers assessed by annual computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Saher B; Dirksen, Asger; Ulrik, Charlotte S; Hestad, Marianne; Stavngaard, Trine; Laursen, Lars C; Maltbaek, Niels; Clementsen, Paul; Skjaerbaek, Nanna; Nielsen, Lars; Stoel, Berend; Skovgaard, Lene T; Tonnesen, Philip

    2009-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on disease progression in smokers with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as assessed by annual computed tomography (CT) using lung density (LD) measurements. Two hundred and fifty-four current smokers with COPD were randomised to treatment with either an inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), budesonide 400 microg bid, or placebo. COPD was defined as FEV(1) < or = 70% pred, FEV(1)/FVC < or = 60% and no reversibility to beta(2)-agonists and oral corticosteroids. The patients were followed for 2-4 years with biannual spirometry and annual CT and comprehensive lung function tests (LFT). CT images were analysed using Pulmo-CMS software. LD was derived from a pixel-density histogram of the whole lung as the 15th percentile density (PD15) and the relative area of emphysema at a threshold of -910 Hounsfield units (RA-910), and both were volume-adjusted to predicted total lung capacity. At baseline, mean age was 64 years and 64 years; mean number of pack-years was 56 and 56; mean FEV(1) was 1.53 L (51% pred) and 1.53 L (53% pred); mean PD15 was 103 g/L and 104 g/L; and mean RA-910 was 14% and 13%, respectively, for the budesonide and placebo groups. The annual fall in PD15 was -1.12 g/L in the budesonide group and -1.81 g/L in the placebo group (p = 0.09); the annual increase in RA-910 was 0.4% in the budesonide group and 1.1% in the placebo group (p = 0.02). There was no difference in annual decline in FEV(1) between ICS (-54 mL) and placebo (-56 mL) (p = 0.89). Long-term budesonide inhalation shows a non-significant trend towards reducing the progression of emphysema as determined by the CT-derived 15th percentile lung density from annual CT scans in current smokers with moderate to severe COPD.

  10. Contribution of CT quantified emphysema, air trapping and airway wall thickness on pulmonary function in male smokers with and without COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Jong, Pim A; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Mali, Willem P Th M; Mets, Onno M; Schmidt, Michael; de Koning, Harry J; Aalst, Carlijn van der; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Ginneken, Bram van; van Rikxoort, Eva M; Zanen, Pieter

    2014-09-01

    Emphysema, airway wall thickening and air trapping are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). All three can be quantified by computed tomography (CT) of the chest. The goal of the current study is to determine the relative contribution of CT derived parameters on spirometry, lung volume and lung diffusion testing. Emphysema, airway wall thickening and air trapping were quantified automatically on CT in 1,138 male smokers with and without COPD. Emphysema was quantified by the percentage of voxels below -950 Hounsfield Units (HU), airway wall thickness by the square root of wall area for a theoretical airway with 10 mm lumen perimeter (Pi10) and air trapping by the ratio of mean lung density at expiration and inspiration (E/I-ratio). Spirometry, residual volume to total lung capacity (RV/TLC) and diffusion capacity (Kco) were obtained. Standardized regression coefficients (β) were used to analyze the relative contribution of CT changes to pulmonary function measures. The independent contribution of the three CT measures differed per lung function parameter. For the FEV1 airway wall thickness was the most contributing structural lung change (β = -0.46), while for the FEV1/FVC this was emphysema (β = -0.55). For the residual volume (RV) air trapping was most contributing (β = -0.35). Lung diffusion capacity was most influenced by emphysema (β = -0.42). In a cohort of smokers with and without COPD the effect of different CT changes varies per lung function measure and therefore emphysema, airway wall thickness and air trapping need to be taken in account.

  11. Short-term Reproducibility of Computed Tomography-based Lung Density Measurements in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Smokers with Emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaker, S.B.; Dirksen, A.; Laursen, L.C.; Maltbaek, N.; Christensen, L.; Sander, U.; Seersholm, N.; Skovgaard, L.T.; Nielsen, L.; Kok-Jensen, A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To study the short-term reproducibility of lung density measurements by multi-slice computed tomography (CT) using three different radiation doses and three reconstruction algorithms. Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients with smoker's emphysema and 25 patients with 1-antitrypsin deficiency underwent 3 scans at 2-week intervals. Low-dose protocol was applied, and images were reconstructed with bone, detail, and soft algorithms. Total lung volume (TLV), 15th percentile density (PD-15), and relative area at -910 Hounsfield units (RA-910) were obtained from the images using Pulmo-CMS software. Reproducibility of PD-15 and RA-910 and the influence of radiation dose, reconstruction algorithm, and type of emphysema were then analysed. Results: The overall coefficient of variation of volume adjusted PD-15 for all combinations of radiation dose and reconstruction algorithm was 3.7%. The overall standard deviation of volume-adjusted RA-910 was 1.7% (corresponding to a coefficient of variation of 6.8%). Radiation dose, reconstruction algorithm, and type of emphysema had no significant influence on the reproducibility of PD-15 and RA-910. However, bone algorithm and very low radiation dose result in overestimation of the extent of emphysema. Conclusion: Lung density measurement by CT is a sensitive marker for quantitating both subtypes of emphysema. A CT-protocol with radiation dose down to 16 mAs and soft or detail reconstruction algorithm is recommended

  12. COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION IN NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OBTAINED FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies have demonstrated that individuals who smoke have greater susceptibility to influenza infections, as well as other respiratory virus infections, than non-smokers, yet the role of airway epithelial cells in this response is not clear. To determine whether in vivo t...

  13. Genetic polymorphism in matrix metalloproteinase-9 and transforming growth factor-β1 and susceptibility to combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Bian, Wei; Gu, Xiao-Hua; Shen, Ce

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore the association of genetic polymorphism in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and the susceptibility to combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). We examined the polymorphisms of the MMP-9 C-1562T and TGF-β1 T869C in 38 CPFE patients, 50 pulmonary emphysema patients, and 34 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. The frequencies of polymorphic genotypes in MMP-9 were 78.95% CC and 21.05% CT in CPFE group, 76.0% CC and 24.0% CT in emphysema group, and 100.0% CC in IPF group. There were highly statistically significant increased frequencies of the CT genotype and T allele in CPFE and emphysema groups compared with IPF group (p emphysema group, and 5.88% CC, 41.18% CT, 52.94% TT in IPF group. Significant increases in the TT genotype and T allele frequencies were observed in emphysema group compared with IPF group (p pulmonary emphysema. The T allele in MMP-9 (C-1562T) possibly predisposes patients with pulmonary fibrosis to develop emphysema. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  14. The effects of emphysema on airway disease: Correlations between multi-detector CT and pulmonary function tests in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaba, Misuzu; Kawata, Naoko; Iesato, Ken; Matsuura, Yukiko; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Kasai, Hajime; Sakurai, Yoriko; Terada, Jiro; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tada, Yuji; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation caused by emphysema and small airway narrowing. Quantitative evaluation of airway dimensions by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) has revealed a correlation between airway dimension and airflow limitation. However, the effect of emphysema on this correlation is unclear. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether emphysematous changes alter the relationships between airflow limitation and airway dimensions as measured by inspiratory and expiratory MDCT. Methods: Ninety-one subjects underwent inspiratory and expiratory MDCT. Images were evaluated for mean airway luminal area (Ai), wall area percentage (WA%) from the third to the fifth generation of three bronchi (B1, B5, B8) in the right lung, and low attenuation volume percent (LAV%). Correlations between each airway index and airflow limitation were determined for each patient and compared between patients with and without evidence of emphysema. Results: In patients without emphysema, Ai and WA% from both the inspiratory and expiratory scans were significantly correlated with FEV 1. No correlation was detected in patients with emphysema. In addition, emphysematous COPD patients with GOLD stage 1 or 2 disease had significantly lower changes in B8 Ai than non-emphysematous patients. Conclusions: A significant correlation exists between airway parameters and FEV 1 in patients without emphysema. Emphysema may influence airway dimensions even in patients with mild to moderate COPD

  15. The effects of emphysema on airway disease: Correlations between multi-detector CT and pulmonary function tests in smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahaba, Misuzu, E-mail: mis_misuzu@yahoo.co.jp; Kawata, Naoko, E-mail: chumito_03@yahoo.co.jp; Iesato, Ken, E-mail: iesato_k@yahoo.co.jp; Matsuura, Yukiko, E-mail: matsuyuki_future@yahoo.co.jp; Sugiura, Toshihiko, E-mail: sugiura@js3.so-net.ne.jp; Kasai, Hajime, E-mail: daikasai6075@yahoo.co.jp; Sakurai, Yoriko, E-mail: yoliri@nifty.com; Terada, Jiro, E-mail: jirotera@chiba-u.jp; Sakao, Seiichiro, E-mail: sakao@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Tada, Yuji, E-mail: ytada@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Tanabe, Nobuhiro, E-mail: ntanabe@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Tatsumi, Koichiro, E-mail: tatsumi@faculty.chiba-u.jp

    2014-06-15

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation caused by emphysema and small airway narrowing. Quantitative evaluation of airway dimensions by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) has revealed a correlation between airway dimension and airflow limitation. However, the effect of emphysema on this correlation is unclear. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether emphysematous changes alter the relationships between airflow limitation and airway dimensions as measured by inspiratory and expiratory MDCT. Methods: Ninety-one subjects underwent inspiratory and expiratory MDCT. Images were evaluated for mean airway luminal area (Ai), wall area percentage (WA%) from the third to the fifth generation of three bronchi (B1, B5, B8) in the right lung, and low attenuation volume percent (LAV%). Correlations between each airway index and airflow limitation were determined for each patient and compared between patients with and without evidence of emphysema. Results: In patients without emphysema, Ai and WA% from both the inspiratory and expiratory scans were significantly correlated with FEV{sub 1.} No correlation was detected in patients with emphysema. In addition, emphysematous COPD patients with GOLD stage 1 or 2 disease had significantly lower changes in B8 Ai than non-emphysematous patients. Conclusions: A significant correlation exists between airway parameters and FEV{sub 1} in patients without emphysema. Emphysema may influence airway dimensions even in patients with mild to moderate COPD.

  16. Effect of mixing scanner types and reconstruction kernels on the characterization of lung parenchymal pathologies: emphysema, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and normal non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ye; van Beek, Edwin J.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Guo, Junfeng; Sonka, Milan; Hoffman, Eric

    2006-03-01

    In this study we utilize our texture characterization software (3-D AMFM) to characterize interstitial lung diseases (including emphysema) based on MDCT generated volumetric data using 3-dimensional texture features. We have sought to test whether the scanner and reconstruction filter (kernel) type affect the classification of lung diseases using the 3-D AMFM. We collected MDCT images in three subject groups: emphysema (n=9), interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n=10), and normal non-smokers (n=9). In each group, images were scanned either on a Siemens Sensation 16 or 64-slice scanner, (B50f or B30 recon. kernel) or a Philips 4-slice scanner (B recon. kernel). A total of 1516 volumes of interest (VOIs; 21x21 pixels in plane) were marked by two chest imaging experts using the Iowa Pulmonary Analysis Software Suite (PASS). We calculated 24 volumetric features. Bayesian methods were used for classification. Images from different scanners/kernels were combined in all possible combinations to test how robust the tissue classification was relative to the differences in image characteristics. We used 10-fold cross validation for testing the result. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. One-way Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was used to compare the classification result between the various combinations of scanner and reconstruction kernel types. This study yielded a sensitivity of 94%, 91%, 97%, and 93% for emphysema, ground-glass, honeycombing, and normal non-smoker patterns respectively using a mixture of all three subject groups. The specificity for these characterizations was 97%, 99%, 99%, and 98%, respectively. The F test result of ANOVA shows there is no significant difference (p <0.05) between different combinations of data with respect to scanner and convolution kernel type. Since different MDCT and reconstruction kernel types did not show significant differences in regards to the classification result, this study suggests that the 3-D AMFM can

  17. Reduced expression IRF7 in nasal epithelial cells from smokers as a potential mechanism mediating enhanced susceptibility to influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Smokers are more susceptible to viral infections, including influenza virus, yet the mechanisms mediating this effect are not known. Methods: We have established an in vitro model of differentiated nasal epithelial cells from smokers, which maintain enhanced levels...

  18. Influence of tobacco marketing and exposure to smokers on adolescent susceptibility to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N; Farkas, A; Gilpin, E; Berry, C; Pierce, J P

    1995-10-18

    Today the uptake of smoking is primarily an adolescent pursuit. Awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion is high, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in adolescent smoking uptake. We evaluated the influence of tobacco advertising and promotion and exposure to smokers on never-smoking adolescents' susceptibility to smoking. We used data on 3536 adolescent never smokers (those who had never even puffed on a cigarette) from the 1993 California Tobacco Survey. That survey questioned adolescents about smoking history and inclinations. For this analysis, we defined as susceptible to smoking those never smokers who said on the survey that they could not rule out independently deciding to try a cigarette soon or smoking one offered by a friend. Also for this analysis, we devised two indices: 1) a 5-point index of an individual's receptivity to tobacco advertising as determined by the number of positive responses to five survey items (recognition of advertising messages, having a favorite advertisement, naming a brand he/she might buy, owning a tobacco-related promotional item, and willingness to use a tobacco-related promotional item) and 2) an index classifying an individual's reported exposure to family and peer smoking into one of four levels. Using logistic regression, we assessed the independent importance of our indices in predicting susceptibility to smoking after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, including age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and for perceived school performance. Tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Receptivity to tobacco advertising and exposure to smokers were independently associated with susceptibility to smoking, but the relationship appeared stronger for receptivity to advertising. Adolescents exposed to family members and peers (n = 489) who smoked were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-2.74) times as likely to be susceptible, whereas adolescents who scored 4 or more on the Index of Receptivity to Tobacco

  19. Pulmonary emphysema and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Katashi; Murota, Makiko [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan); Mitani, Masahiro (and others)

    2001-12-01

    We assessed the relation between PE and smoking in 1,563 cases (1,068 men and 495 women) who underwent CT scaring for suspicion of respiratory disease on chest radiograph or some respiratory complaints. PE was diagnosed by the existence of low attenuation areas in CT scan and not by pulmonary function tests. CT was performed with 10 mm collimation in a standard algorithm. There were 2 subtypes of pulmonary emphysema: centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema. PE, regardless of the grade, was seen: in 189 out of 348 (54.3%) cases in males smokers and in only 2 out of 63 (3.2%) cases in male non-smokers; and in 5 out of 25 (20.0%) in female smokers and in 4 out of 203 (2.0%) in female non-smokers. PE was observed in more than half of male smokers. High incidence of PE was also observed in even younger generation, and severity would progress with advancing age and smoking. Both types of emphysema progress with age and amount of cigarette smoking. (author)

  20. Neutrophil formyl-peptide receptors. Relationship to peptide-induced responses and emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, R A; Grant, R A; Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Hill, S L; Burnett, D

    1994-02-01

    A reproducible assay was established to assess the number of formyl-peptide receptors expressed on the surface of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Using this assay the number of receptors was shown to demonstrate wide within- and between-subject variability. However, the receptor numbers were related to the chemotactic response (r = 0.572) and degranulation response (r = 0.512) to the peptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Subsequent studies showed increased receptor numbers on PMN from patients with emphysema (median, 459 x 10(3)/cell; range, 207 to 1,080) as compared with age-matched control subjects (median, 288; range, 168 to 519; p < 0.02), which may explain the increased chemotactic response of the PMN to formyl peptides. This difference was not observed in patients with bronchiectasis, suggesting that the increased receptor number is a feature of emphysema. Furthermore, the increase was largely a feature of smokers with emphysema (median, 463; range, 362 to 1,080), whereas age-matched smokers without emphysema had lower numbers of receptors (p < 0.001; median, 332; range, 243 to 411). This observation suggests a mechanism that may explain the susceptibility of some smokers to the development of emphysema.

  1. Persistent diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema mimicking pulmonary emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Demura, Y; Ishizaki, T; Nakanishi, M; Ameshima, S; Itoh, H

    2009-01-01

    A 69-year-old male non-smoker with a history of atopic asthma presented with symptoms suggestive of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and this appeared to be corroborated by lung function testing and a chest radiograph. However, a chest CT showed no evidence of pulmonary emphysema and instead demonstrated free air along the bronchovascular sheaths indicative of pulmonary interstistial emphysema, possibly caused by repeated prior exacerbations of asthma. His lung function tests and symptom...

  2. Pulmonary emphysema subtypes on computed tomography: the MESA COPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin M; Austin, John H M; Newell, John D; D'Souza, Belinda M; Rozenshtein, Anna; Hoffman, Eric A; Ahmed, Firas; Barr, R Graham

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is divided into 3 major subtypes at autopsy: centrilobular, paraseptal, and panlobular emphysema. These subtypes can be defined by visual assessment on computed tomography (CT); however, clinical characteristics of emphysema subtypes on CT are not well defined. We developed a reliable approach to visual assessment of emphysema subtypes on CT and examined if emphysema subtypes have distinct characteristics. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and controls ages 50-79 years with ≥ 10 pack-years. Participants underwent CT following a standardized protocol. Definitions of centrilobular, paraseptal, and panlobular emphysema were obtained by literature review. Six-minute walk distance and pulmonary function were performed following guidelines. Twenty-seven percent of 318 smokers had emphysema on CT. Interrater reliability of emphysema subtype was substantial (K: 0.70). Compared with participants without emphysema, individuals with centrilobular or panlobular emphysema had greater dyspnea, reduced walk distance, greater hyperinflation, and lower diffusing capacity. In contrast, individuals with paraseptal emphysema were similar to controls, except for male predominance. Centrilobular, but not panlobular or paraseptal, emphysema was associated with greater smoking history (+21 pack-years P emphysema, was associated with reduced body mass index (-5 kg/m(2); P = .01). Other than for dyspnea, these findings were independent of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Seventeen percent of smokers without COPD on spirometry had emphysema, which was independently associated with reduced walk distance. Emphysema subtypes on CT are common in smokers with and without COPD. Centrilobular and panlobular emphysema, but not paraseptal emphysema, have considerable symptomatic and physiological consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study of the Genetic Determinants of Emphysema Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boueiz, Adel; Lutz, Sharon M; Cho, Michael H; Hersh, Craig P; Bowler, Russell P; Washko, George R; Halper-Stromberg, Eitan; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Laird, Nan M; Beaty, Terri H; Coxson, Harvey O; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K; Castaldi, Peter J; DeMeo, Dawn L

    2017-03-15

    Emphysema has considerable variability in the severity and distribution of parenchymal destruction throughout the lungs. Upper lobe-predominant emphysema has emerged as an important predictor of response to lung volume reduction surgery. Yet, aside from alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, the genetic determinants of emphysema distribution remain largely unknown. To identify the genetic influences of emphysema distribution in non-alpha-1 antitrypsin-deficient smokers. A total of 11,532 subjects with complete genotype and computed tomography densitometry data in the COPDGene (Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease [COPD]; non-Hispanic white and African American), ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints), and GenKOLS (Genetics of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) studies were analyzed. Two computed tomography scan emphysema distribution measures (difference between upper-third and lower-third emphysema; ratio of upper-third to lower-third emphysema) were tested for genetic associations in all study subjects. Separate analyses in each study population were followed by a fixed effect metaanalysis. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-, gene-, and pathway-based approaches were used. In silico functional evaluation was also performed. We identified five loci associated with emphysema distribution at genome-wide significance. These loci included two previously reported associations with COPD susceptibility (4q31 near HHIP and 15q25 near CHRNA5) and three new associations near SOWAHB, TRAPPC9, and KIAA1462. Gene set analysis and in silico functional evaluation revealed pathways and cell types that may potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of emphysema distribution. This multicohort genome-wide association study identified new genomic loci associated with differential emphysematous destruction throughout the lungs. These findings may point to new biologic pathways on which to expand diagnostic and therapeutic

  4. Fibrose pulmonar idiopática simultânea a enfisema em pacientes tabagistas Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rossato Silva

    2008-10-01

    were identified retrospectively. All of the patients underwent high-resolution computed tomography of the lung and pulmonary function tests. RESULTS: Of the 11 patients, 8 were male and 3 were female. The mean age was 70.7 ± 7.2 years (range, 61-86 years. All of the patients were smokers (mean smoking history, 61.5 ± 43.5 pack-years. The mean values of forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were 72.1% ± 12.7%, 68.2% ± 11.9% and 74.4 ± 10.8, respectively. Lung volumes were normal in 7 patients. A restrictive pattern was observed in 3 patients, and hyperinflation was present in one. The diffusing capacity was moderately-to-severely reduced in all of the patients (mean, 27.7% ± 12.9% of predicted. Ten of the 11 patients performed the six-minute walk test. The mean distance covered was 358.4 ± 143.1 m, and 9 of the 10 patients presented desaturation > 4%. Echocardiographic findings suggestive of pulmonary hypertension were present in 4 patients (mean systolic pulmonary artery pressure, 61.8 mmHg; range, 36-84 mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: The concomitant presence of emphysema and IPF causes characteristic changes on pulmonary function tests. The most significant finding is a discrepancy between diffusing capacity and spirometry results.

  5. Exposure to celebrity-endorsed small cigar promotions and susceptibility to use among young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Moore, Roland S; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H; Eriksen, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18-35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking.

  6. Analysis of plasma microRNA expression profiles revealed different cancer susceptibility in healthy young adult smokers and middle-aged smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Gao, Hongmin; Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Qinghua

    2016-04-19

    Cigarette smoking is a world-wide habit and an important risk factor for cancer. It was known that cigarette smoking can change the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in healthy middle-aged adults. However, it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking can change the levels of circulating miRNAs in young healthy smokers and whether there are differences in cancer susceptibility for the two cases. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles of 28 smokers and 12 non-smokers were determined by Agilent human MicroRNA array. We further performed bioinformatics analysis for the differentially expressed miRNAs. The result showed that 35 miRNAs were differentially expressed. Among them, 24 miRNAs were up-regulated and 11 miRNAs were down-regulated in smokers. Functional enrichment analysis showed that the deregulated miRNAs are related to immune system and hormones regulation. Strikingly, the up-regulated miRNAs are mostly associated with hematologic cancers, such as lymphoma, leukemia. As a comparison, the up-regulated plasma miRNAs in middle-aged smokers are mostly associated with solid cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer, suggesting that smoking could have different influences on young adults and middle-aged adults. In a conclusion, we identified the circulating miRNAs deregulated by cigarette smoking and revealed that the age-dependent deregulated miRNAs tend to be mainly involved in different types of human cancers.

  7. Evolution of emphysema in relation to smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Veronesi, Giulia; Harari, Sergio; Lanfranchi, Federica; Raimondi, Sara; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We have little knowledge about the evolution of emphysema, and relatively little is understood about its evolution in relation to smoking habits. This study aims to assess the evolution of emphysema in asymptomatic current and former smokers over 2 years and to investigate the association with subjects' characteristics. The study was approved by our Ethics Committee and all participants provided written informed consent. We measured emphysema by automatic low-dose computed tomography densitometry in 254 current and 282 former smokers enrolled in a lung-cancer screening. The measures were repeated after 2 years. The association between subjects' characteristics, smoking habits and emphysema were assessed by chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the risk of emphysema worsening according to subjects' characteristics. We assessed the trend of increasing risk of emphysema progression by smoking habits using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared test. The median percentage increase in emphysema over a 2-year period was significantly higher in current than in former smokers (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.6; p < 0.0001). The risk of worsening emphysema (by 30% in 2 years) in current smokers increased with smoking duration (p for trend <0.02). As emphysema is a known risk factor for lung cancer, its evaluation could be used as a potential factor for identification of a high-risk population. The evaluation of emphysema progression can be added to low-dose CT screening programmes to inform and incite participants to stop smoking. (orig.)

  8. Evolution of emphysema in relation to smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellomi, Massimo [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan - IT, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Rampinelli, Cristiano [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Veronesi, Giulia [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Milan (Italy); Harari, Sergio [Fatebenefratelli-Milanocuore, Pneumology Operative Unit, San Giuseppe Hospital, Milan (Italy); Lanfranchi, Federica [University of Milan - IT, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Raimondi, Sara; Maisonneuve, Patrick [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milan (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    We have little knowledge about the evolution of emphysema, and relatively little is understood about its evolution in relation to smoking habits. This study aims to assess the evolution of emphysema in asymptomatic current and former smokers over 2 years and to investigate the association with subjects' characteristics. The study was approved by our Ethics Committee and all participants provided written informed consent. We measured emphysema by automatic low-dose computed tomography densitometry in 254 current and 282 former smokers enrolled in a lung-cancer screening. The measures were repeated after 2 years. The association between subjects' characteristics, smoking habits and emphysema were assessed by chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the risk of emphysema worsening according to subjects' characteristics. We assessed the trend of increasing risk of emphysema progression by smoking habits using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared test. The median percentage increase in emphysema over a 2-year period was significantly higher in current than in former smokers (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.6; p < 0.0001). The risk of worsening emphysema (by 30% in 2 years) in current smokers increased with smoking duration (p for trend <0.02). As emphysema is a known risk factor for lung cancer, its evaluation could be used as a potential factor for identification of a high-risk population. The evaluation of emphysema progression can be added to low-dose CT screening programmes to inform and incite participants to stop smoking. (orig.)

  9. Contribution of CT Quantified Emphysema, Air Trapping and Airway Wall Thickness on Pulmonary Function in Male Smokers With and Without COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoesein, Firdaus A. A. Mohamed; de Jong, Pim A.; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Mets, Onno M.; Schmidt, Michael; de Koning, Harry J.; van der Aalst, Carlijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Ginneken, Bram; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Zanen, Pieter

    Emphysema, airway wall thickening and air trapping are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). All three can be quantified by computed tomography (CT) of the chest. The goal of the current study is to determine the relative contribution of CT derived parameters on spirometry,

  10. Contribution of CT Quantified Emphysema, Air Trapping and Airway Wall Thickness on Pulmonary Function in Male Smokers With and Without COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoesein, F.A.A.M.; Jong, P.A. de; Lammers, J.-W.J.; Mali, W.P.Th.; Mets, O.M.; Schmidt, M.; Koning, H.J. de; Aalst, C. van der; Oudkerk, M.; Vliegenthart, R.; Ginneken, B. van; Rikxoort, E.M. van; Zanen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Emphysema, airway wall thickening and air trapping are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). All three can be quantified by computed tomography (CT) of the chest. The goal of the current study is to determine the relative contribution of CT derived parameters on

  11. Longitudinal follow-up study of smoking-induced emphysema progression in low-dose CT screening of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Matsuhiro, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, N.

    2014-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a major public health problem that is predicted to be third leading cause of death in 2030. Although spirometry is traditionally used to quantify emphysema progression, it is difficult to detect the loss of pulmonary function by emphysema in early stage, and to assess the susceptibility to smoking. This study presents quantification method of smoking-induced emphysema progression based on annual changes of low attenuation volume (LAV) by each lung lobe acquired from low-dose CT images in lung cancer screening. The method consists of three steps. First, lung lobes are segmented using extracted interlobar fissures by enhancement filter based on fourdimensional curvature. Second, LAV of each lung lobe is segmented. Finally, smoking-induced emphysema progression is assessed by statistical analysis of the annual changes represented by linear regression of LAV percentage in each lung lobe. This method was applied to 140 participants in lung cancer CT screening for six years. The results showed that LAV progressions of nonsmokers, past smokers, and current smokers are different in terms of pack-year and smoking cessation duration. This study demonstrates effectiveness in diagnosis and prognosis of early emphysema in lung cancer CT screening.

  12. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymberle L. Sterling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist’s endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers’ susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist’s endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54. Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74 and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08 were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers’ exposure to the music artist’s small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking.

  13. Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Sharon I. S.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing clinical, radiologic, and pathologic recognition of the coexistence of emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis in the same patient, resulting in a clinical syndrome known as combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) that is characterized by dyspnea, upper-lobe emphysema, lower-lobe fibrosis, and abnormalities of gas exchange. This syndrome frequently is complicated by pulmonary hypertension, acute lung injury, and lung cancer. The CPFE syndrome typically occurs in male smokers, and the mortality associated with this condition, especially if pulmonary hypertension is present, is significant. In this review, we explore the current state of the literature and discuss etiologic factors and clinical characteristics of the CPFE syndrome. PMID:22215830

  14. Relative preservation of peripheral lung function in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema: assessment with 99mTc-MAA perfusion and dynamic 133Xe SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kume, Norihiko; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Ogasawara, Nobuhiko; Motoyama, Kazumi; Hara, Akiko; Matsumoto, Tsuneo

    2000-01-01

    In this study the cross-sectional functional differences between the central and peripheral lung in smokers with pulmonary emphysema were evaluated by lung perfusion and dynamic xenon-133 single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The subjects were 81 patients with a long-term smoking history and relatively advanced emphysema, 17 non-smoker patients with non-obstructive lung diseases and six healthy non-smokers. Regional lung functional difference between the peripheral and central lung was assessed in the upper, middle and lower lung zones by technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPET and dynamic 133 Xe SPET. The distribution of emphysematous changes was assessed by density-mask computed tomography (CT) images which depicted abnormally low attenuation areas (LAAs) of less than -960 Hounsfield units. Two hundred and eighty-eight (59.2%) lung zones of 63 (77.7%) patients with pulmonary emphysema showed relative preservation of lung function in the peripheral lung, with a curvilinear band of normal perfusion (a stripe sign) and a significantly faster 133 Xe half-clearance time (T 1/2 ) than in central lung (P 1/2 in the peripheral lung area (P 1/2 values and LAA distributions between the central and peripheral lung. Relative preservation of peripheral lung function seems to be a characteristic feature in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema, and may indicate a lower susceptibility of peripheral parenchyma to the development of this disease. (orig.)

  15. Detection of Mild Emphysema by Computed Tomography Density Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikgren, J.; Friman, O.; Borga, M.; Boijsen, M.; Gustavsson, S.; Bake, B.; Tylen, U.; Ekberg-Jansson, A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the ability of a conventional density mask method to detect mild emphysema by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); to analyze factors influencing quantification of mild emphysema; and to validate a new algorithm for detection of mild emphysema. Material and Methods: Fifty-five healthy male smokers and 34 never-smokers, 61-62 years of age, were examined. Emphysema was evaluated visually, by the conventional density mask method, and by a new algorithm compensating for the effects of gravity and artifacts due to motion and the reconstruction algorithm. Effects of the reconstruction algorithm, slice thickness, and various threshold levels on the outcome of the density mask area were evaluated. Results: Forty-nine percent of the smokers had mild emphysema. The density mask area was higher the thinner the slice irrespective of the reconstruction algorithm and threshold level. The sharp algorithm resulted in increased density mask area. The new reconstruction algorithm could discriminate between smokers with and those without mild emphysema, whereas the density mask method could not. The diagnostic ability of the new algorithm was dependent on lung level. At about 90% specificity, sensitivity was 65-100% in the apical levels, but low in the rest of the lung. Conclusion: The conventional density mask method is inadequate for detecting mild emphysema, while the new algorithm improves the diagnostic ability but is nevertheless still imperfect

  16. Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors in human lung emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchal Joëlle

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors are key growth factors in the process of alveolar repair. We hypothesized that excessive alveolar destruction observed in lung emphysema involves impaired expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors or their respective receptors, c-met and keratinocyte growth factor receptor. The aim of our study was to compare the expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors in lung samples from 3 groups of patients: emphysema; smokers without emphysema and non-smokers without emphysema. Methods Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factor proteins were analysed by immunoassay and western blot; mRNA expression was measured by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors, c-met and keratinocyte growth factor receptor mRNA levels were similar in emphysema and non-emphysema patients. Hepatocyte growth factor mRNA correlated negatively with FEV1 and the FEV1/FVC ratio both in emphysema patients and in smokers with or without emphysema. Hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factor protein concentrations were similar in all patients' groups. Conclusion The expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors is preserved in patients with lung emphysema as compared to patients without emphysema. Hepatocyte growth factor mRNA correlates with the severity of airflow obstruction in smokers.

  17. Paraseptal emphysema: Prevalence and distribution on CT and association with interstitial lung abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josée; Okajima, Yuka; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Murakami, Takamichi; O’Connor, George T.; Washko, George R.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% (85/2633) in the Framingham Heart Study population, predominantly affects the upper lung zone, and contributes to slightly decreased pulmonary function. • There was significant association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities, which is a novel finding. • Prevalence of paraseptal emphysema and its impact on pulmonary function could have been underestimated in the previous reports. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate the prevalence and distribution of paraseptal emphysema on chest CT images in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) population, and assess its impact on pulmonary function. Also pursued was the association with interstitial lung abnormalities. Materials and methods: We assessed 2633 participants in the FHS for paraseptal emphysema on chest CT. Characteristics of the participants, including age, sex, smoking status, clinical symptoms, and results of pulmonary function tests, were compared between those with and without paraseptal emphysema. The association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities was investigated. Results: Of the 2633 participants, 86 (3%) had pure paraseptal emphysema (defined as paraseptal emphysema with no other subtypes of emphysema other than paraseptal emphysema or a very few centrilobular emphysema involved) in at least one lung zone. The upper zone of the lungs was almost always involved. Compared to the participants without paraseptal emphysema, those with pure paraseptal emphysema were significantly older, and were more frequently male and smokers (mean 64 years, 71% male, mean 36 pack-years, P < 0.001) and had significantly decreased FEV 1 /FVC% (P = 0.002), and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) (P = 0.002). There was a significant association between pure paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% in the FHS

  18. Paraseptal Emphysema: Prevalence and Distribution on CT and Association with Interstitial Lung Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josée; Okajima, Yuka; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Murakami, Takamichi; O’Connor, George T.; Washko, George R.; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and distribution of paraseptal emphysema on chest CT images in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) population, and assess its impact on pulmonary function. Also pursued was the association with interstitial lung abnormalities. Materials and Methods We assessed 2633 participants in the FHS for paraseptal emphysema on chest CT. Characteristics of participants, including age, sex, smoking status, clinical symptoms, and results of pulmonary function tests, were compared between those with and without paraseptal emphysema. The association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities was investigated. Results Of the 2633 participants, 86 (3%) had pure paraseptal emphysema (defined as paraseptal emphysema with no other subtypes of emphysema other than paraseptal emphysema or a very few centrilobular emphysema involved) in at least one lung zone. The upper zone of the lungs was almost always involved. Compared to the participants without paraseptal emphysema, those with pure paraseptal emphysema were significantly older, and were more frequently male and smokers (mean 64 years, 71% male, mean 36 pack-years, pemphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities (pemphysema was 3% in the FHS population, predominantly affects the upper lung zone, and contributes to decreased pulmonary function. Cigarette smoking, aging, and male gender were the factors associated with the presence of paraseptal emphysema. Significant association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities was observed. PMID:25868675

  19. Dental health in smokers with and without COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bergström

    Full Text Available The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and periodontal disease is sparsely studied. The aim was to describe the co-variation of periodontitis and lung function impairment in smokers. The hypothesis was that the destructive processes in the mouth and the lungs are interdependent due to a general individual susceptibility to detrimental effects of tobacco smoke. Smokers with COPD (n = 28 stage II and III according to GOLD guidelines and smokers without COPD (n = 29 and healthy non-smokers (n = 23 participated in the study. The groups of smokers were matched for cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Radiographic, general and dental clinical examination, lung function measurements and quality of life (SF-36 assessment were conducted. The relationship between respiratory and dental outcomes was analyzed. Dental health, assessed by plaque, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocket depth and loss of teeth was impaired in the smokers compared with non-smokers with no major differences between smokers with and without COPD. There was, however, a weak correlation between periodontitis and emphysema/impaired diffusion capacity. Impaired quality of life was associated with smoking and impaired lung function but not influenced by dental status. In conclusion periodontitis was strongly associated with smoking, weakly associated with lung tissue destruction and very weakly or even not at all associated with chronic airflow limitation. The results indicate that, although there was a co-variation between periodontitis and pathologic lung processes in smokers, the risk of developing COPD, as defined by spirometric outcomes, is not associated with the risk of impaired dental health in smokers.

  20. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: an increasingly recognized condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Meira Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE has been increasingly recognized in the literature. Patients with CPFE are usually heavy smokers or former smokers with concomitant lower lobe fibrosis and upper lobe emphysema on chest HRCT scans. They commonly present with severe breathlessness and low DLCO, despite spirometry showing relatively preserved lung volumes. Moderate to severe pulmonary arterial hypertension is common in such patients, who are also at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. Unfortunately, there is currently no effective treatment for CPFE. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and prognostic factors of CPFE. Given that most of the published data on CPFE are based on retrospective analysis, more studies are needed in order to address the role of emphysema and its subtypes; the progression of fibrosis/emphysema and its correlation with inflammation; treatment options; and prognosis.

  1. PPARγ in emphysema: blunts the damage and triggers repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Neil J.; Shapiro, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is the most common cause of pulmonary emphysema, which results in an irreversible loss of lung structure and function. Th1 and Th17 immune responses have been implicated in emphysema pathogenesis; however, the drivers of emphysema-associated immune dysfunction are not fully understood. In this issue of the JCI, Shan and colleagues found that peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is downregulated in APCs isolated from the lungs of emphysematous chronic smokers and mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Furthermore, treatment with a PPARγ agonist prevented emphysema development and appeared to reduce emphysema-associated lung volume expansion in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Further work will need to be done to evaluate the potential of PPARγ agonists to restore lung capacity in emphysematous patients. PMID:24569365

  2. Expression profiling identifies genes involved in emphysema severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman Rayleen V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in emphysema severity in COPD patients. Gene expression profiling was performed on total RNA extracted from non-tumor lung tissue from 30 smokers with emphysema. Class comparison analysis based on gas transfer measurement was performed to identify differentially expressed genes. Genes were then selected for technical validation by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR if also represented on microarray platforms used in previously published emphysema studies. Genes technically validated advanced to tests of biological replication by qRT-PCR using an independent test set of 62 lung samples. Class comparison identified 98 differentially expressed genes (p p Gene expression profiling of lung from emphysema patients identified seven candidate genes associated with emphysema severity including COL6A3, SERPINF1, ZNHIT6, NEDD4, CDKN2A, NRN1 and GSTM3.

  3. CT assessment of progression in pulmonary emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Katashi; Mitani, Masahiro [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan); Murota, Makiko (and others)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the progression of pulmonary emphysema (PE) using CT. We reviewed the records of 25 cases (all male smokers and age range of 36-85 years) in whom progression of PE was recognized using CT scanning. PE was diagnosed by the presence of low attenuation areas on CT scan. PE was divided into 2 subtypes: centrilobular emphysema (CLE) and paraseptal emphysema (PSE). There were 8 younger cases less than 50s. With respect to smoking habit, 6 cases had 1 pack per day at maximum whereas the remaining 19 cases had more over than 1.5 packs per day. Interval periods of observation were from 8 months minimum to 10 years maximum. PE, of both CLE and PSE subtype, was recognized even in younger cases less than 40 years of age, and progressed with cigarette consumption even a minimum during 8 months periods of observation. (author)

  4. Quantitative assessment of smoking-induced emphysema progression in longitudinal CT screening for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Mizuguchi, R.; Matsuhiro, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Moriyama, N.

    2015-03-01

    Computed tomography has been used for assessing structural abnormalities associated with emphysema. It is important to develop a robust CT based imaging biomarker that would allow quantification of emphysema progression in early stage. This paper presents effect of smoking on emphysema progression using annual changes of low attenuation volume (LAV) by each lung lobe acquired from low-dose CT images in longitudinal screening for lung cancer. The percentage of LAV (LAV%) was measured after applying CT value threshold method and small noise reduction. Progression of emphysema was assessed by statistical analysis of the annual changes represented by linear regression of LAV%. This method was applied to 215 participants in lung cancer CT screening for five years (18 nonsmokers, 85 past smokers, and 112 current smokers). The results showed that LAV% is useful to classify current smokers with rapid progression of emphysema (0.2%/year, pemphysema in CT screening for lung cancer.

  5. CT-quantified emphysema distribution is associated with lung function decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoesein, F.A.A.M.; Rikxoort, E.M. van; Ginneken, B. van; de Jong, P. A.; Prokop, M.; Lammers, J.W.; Zanen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Emphysema distribution is associated with COPD. It is however unknown whether CT-quantified emphysema distribution (upper/lower lobe) is associated with lung function decline in heavy (former) smokers.587 male participants underwent lung CT-scanning and pulmonary function testing at baseline and

  6. Smoking-related emphysema is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and rheumatoid lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Katerina M; Walsh, Simon L; Hansell, David M; Rubens, Michael R; Marten, Katharina; Tennant, Rachel; Hansel, Trevor; Desai, Sujal R; Siafakas, Nikolaos M; du Bois, Roland M; Wells, Athol U

    2013-11-01

    A combined pulmonary fibrosis/emphysema syndrome has been proposed, but the basis for this syndrome is currently uncertain. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of emphysema in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and rheumatoid lung (rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD)), and to compare the morphological features of lung fibrosis between smokers and non-smokers. Using high-resolution computed tomography, the prevalence of emphysema and the pack-year smoking histories associated with emphysema were compared between current/ex-smokers with IPF (n = 186) or RA-ILD (n = 46), and non-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) controls (n = 103) and COPD controls (n = 34). The coarseness of fibrosis was compared between smokers and non-smokers. Emphysema, present in 66/186 (35%) patients with IPF and 22/46 (48%) smokers with RA-ILD, was associated with lower pack-year smoking histories than in control groups (P emphysema in IPF was positively linked to the pack-year smoking history (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.06, P emphysema but did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers. In IPF and RA-ILD, a high prevalence of concurrent emphysema, in association with low pack-year smoking histories, and an association between coarser pulmonary fibrosis and a history of smoking in IPF together provide support for possible pathogenetic linkage to smoking in both diseases. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. Premature emphysema in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Knowles, M.

    1988-01-01

    The CT scans of 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reviewed for evidence of pulmonary emphysema. While the average age of patients in this series was 38 years, 25 of the 55 patients, or 45%, demonstrated CT evidence of emphysema. CT findings suggestive of emphysema included areas of low-attenuation, blebs and/or vascular disruption. The authors conclude there is an increased incidence of CT-detectable pulmonary emphysema that is premature for age in patients with AIDS. Destruction of pulmonary parenchyma may represent the response of the lung to repeated pulmonary infections or may be a direct result of the human immunodeficiency virus

  8. Volume of emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, P; Whimster, W F

    1981-01-01

    A method of determining the volume of emphysema in excised lungs is presented, with its validation. This method is based on macroscopic point counting using a perforated grid but only the holes (points) overlying emphysema need be counted to produce results within a percentage standard error of 5%. Application of the method shows that an adequate assessment of emphysema cannot be made from one lung slice alone, and that the amount of emphysema found in one lung cannot be used to predict the a...

  9. Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scan in Pulmonary Emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jeong Soo; Park, Yong Ha; Kyo, Chung Soo; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Perfusion and ventilation imagings of the lung are well established procedure for diagnosing pulmonary embolism, differentiation it from chronic obstructive lung disease, and making an early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease. To evaluate the usefulness of radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) in chronic obstructive lung disease, especially pulmonary emphysema, we analyzed RIIs of five normal adult non-smokers, five asymptomatic smokers (age 25-42 years with the mean 36), and 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema (age 59-78 years with the mean 67). Scintigrams were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a BARC nebuliser with 15 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-phytate. Scanning was performed in the anterior, posterior, and lateral projections after five to 10-minute inhalation of the radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analyzed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function studies and chest radiographs. Also lung perfusion scan with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA was performed in 12 patients. In five patients, we performed follow-up scans for the evaluation of the effects of a bronchodilator. Based on the X-ray findings and clinical symptoms, pulmonary emphysema was classified into four types: centrilobular (3 patients), panlobular (4 patients), intermediate (10 patients), and combined (4 patients). RII findings were patternized according to the type, extent, and intensity of the aerosol deposition in the central bronchial and bronchopulmonary system and lung parenchyma. 10 controls, normal five non-smokers and three asymptomatic smokers revealed homogeneous parenchymal deposition in the entire lung fields without central bronchial deposition. The remaining two of asymptomatic smokers revealed mild central airway deposition. The great majority of the patients showed either central (9/21) or combined type (10/21) of bronchopulmonary deposition and the remaining two patients peripheral bronchopulmonary deposition. Parenchymal aerosol deposition in pulmonary

  10. Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scan in Pulmonary Emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jeong Soo; Park, Yong Ha; Chung Soo Kyo; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Perfusion and ventilation imagings of the lung are well established procedure for diagnosing pulmonary embolism, differentiation it from chronic obstructive lung disease, and making an early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease. To evaluate the usefulness of radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) in chronic obstructive lung disease, especially pulmonary emphysema, we analyzed RIIs of five normal adult non-smokers, five asymptomatic smokers (age 25-42 years with the mean 36), and 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema (age 59-78 years with the mean 67). Scintigrams were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a BARC nebuliser with 15 mCi of 99m Tc-phytate. Scanning was performed in the anterior, posterior, and lateral projections after five to 10-minute inhalation of the radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analyzed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function studies and chest radiographs. Also lung perfusion scan with 99m Tc-MAA was performed in 12 patients. In five patients, we performed follow-up scans for the evaluation of the effects of a bronchodilator. Based on the X-ray findings and clinical symptoms, pulmonary emphysema was classified into four types: centrilobular (3 patients), panlobular (4 patients), intermediate (10 patients), and combined (4 patients). RII findings were patternized according to the type, extent, and intensity of the aerosol deposition in the central bronchial and bronchopulmonary system and lung parenchyma. 10 controls, normal five non-smokers and three asymptomatic smokers revealed homogeneous parenchymal deposition in the entire lung fields without central bronchial deposition. The remaining two of asymptomatic smokers revealed mild central airway deposition. The great majority of the patients showed either central (9/21) or combined type (10/21) of bronchopulmonary deposition and the remaining two patients peripheral bronchopulmonary deposition. Parenchymal aerosol deposition in pulmonary emphysema was

  11. Prothymosin α overexpression contributes to the development of pulmonary emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bing-Hua; Tseng, Yau-Lin; Shieh, Gia-Shing; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Shiang, Ya-Chieh; Wu, Pensee; Li, Kuo-Jung; Yen, Te-Hsin; Shiau, Ai-Li; Wu, Chao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Emphysema is one of the disease conditions that comprise chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prothymosin α transgenic mice exhibit an emphysema phenotype, but the pathophysiological role of prothymosin α in emphysema remains unclear. Here we show that prothymosin α contributes to the pathogenesis of emphysema by increasing acetylation of histones and nuclear factor-kappaB, particularly upon cigarette smoke exposure. We find a positive correlation between prothymosin α levels and the severity of emphysema in prothymosin α transgenic mice and emphysema patients. Prothymosin α overexpression increases susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema, and cigarette smoke exposure further enhances prothymosin α expression. We show that prothymosin α inhibits the association of histone deacetylases with histones and nuclear factor-kappaB, and that prothymosin α overexpression increases expression of nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9, which are found in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These results demonstrate the clinical relevance of prothymosin α in regulating acetylation events during the pathogenesis of emphysema. PMID:23695700

  12. INVITRO RELEASE OF NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE, MYELOPEROXIDASE AND BETA-GLUCURONIDASE IN PATIENTS WITH EMPHYSEMA AND HEALTHY-SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RENKEMA, TEJ; POSTMA, DS; NOORDHOEK, JA; SLUITER, HJ; KAUFFMAN, HF

    1991-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that cigarette smoking plays an important role in the protease-antiprotease imbalance in alpha-1-antitrypsin-sufficient emphysema. Since most smokers, however, do not develop emphysema, it has to be presumed that other factors in addition to smoking contribute to the origin

  13. Crowdsourced emphysema assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørting, Silas Nyboe; Cheplygina, Veronika; Petersen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Classification of emphysema patterns is believed to be useful for improved diagnosis and prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Emphysema patterns can be assessed visually on lung CT scans. Visual assessment is a complex and time-consuming task performed by experts, making...... it unsuitable for obtaining large amounts of labeled data. We investigate if visual assessment of emphysema can be framed as an image similarity task that does not require expert. Substituting untrained annotators for experts makes it possible to label data sets much faster and at a lower cost. We use crowd...... annotators to gather similarity triplets and use t-distributed stochastic triplet embedding to learn an embedding. The quality of the embedding is evaluated by predicting expert assessed emphysema patterns. We find that although performance varies due to low quality triplets and randomness in the embedding...

  14. Computed tomography measurement of rib cage morphometry in emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Sverzellati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors determining the shape of the human rib cage are not completely understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of anthropometric and COPD-related changes to rib cage variability in adult cigarette smokers. METHODS: Rib cage diameters and areas (calculated from the inner surface of the rib cage in 816 smokers with or without COPD, were evaluated at three anatomical levels using computed tomography (CT. CTs were analyzed with software, which allows quantification of total emphysema (emphysema%. The relationship between rib cage measurements and anthropometric factors, lung function indices, and %emphysema were tested using linear regression models. RESULTS: A model that included gender, age, BMI, emphysema%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%, and forced vital capacity (FVC% fit best with the rib cage measurements (R(2 = 64% for the rib cage area variation at the lower anatomical level. Gender had the biggest impact on rib cage diameter and area (105.3 cm(2; 95% CI: 111.7 to 98.8 for male lower area. Emphysema% was responsible for an increase in size of upper and middle CT areas (up to 5.4 cm(2; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.8 for an emphysema increase of 5%. Lower rib cage areas decreased as FVC% decreased (5.1 cm(2; 95% CI: 2.5 to 7.6 for 10 percentage points of FVC variation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that simple CT measurements can predict rib cage morphometric variability and also highlight relationships between rib cage morphometry and emphysema.

  15. Inspiratory and expiratory HRCT findings in healthy smokers' lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Kwak, Byung Kook; Choi, Chi Hoon; Yang, Keun Mung; Lee, Chang Joon; Joo, Dong Il; Kim, Yang Soo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lung changes in healthy smokers, as seen on inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Twenty-seven healthy smokers (light smokers, below 20 pack-years, n=16; heavy smokers, above 20 pack-years, n=11) and 25 nonsmokers underwent inspiratory and expiratory HRCT. All healthy smokers had normal pulmonary function and chest radiography. Parenchymal and subpleural micronodules, ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema, bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis and septal line were evaluated on inspiratory scan and by air-trapping on expiratory scan. According to the findings of HRCT, heavy smokers and higher frequency of parenchymal micronodules, ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema, and air-trapping than nonsmokers and light smokers. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  16. Paraseptal emphysema: Prevalence and distribution on CT and association with interstitial lung abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro, E-mail: taraki@partners.org [Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Radiology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki [Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Zazueta, Oscar E. [The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josée [Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Okajima, Yuka [Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Latourelle, Jeanne C. [Department of Medicine and Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Rosas, Ivan O. [The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Department of Radiology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O’Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Washko, George R.; Hunninghake, Gary M. [The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% (85/2633) in the Framingham Heart Study population, predominantly affects the upper lung zone, and contributes to slightly decreased pulmonary function. • There was significant association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities, which is a novel finding. • Prevalence of paraseptal emphysema and its impact on pulmonary function could have been underestimated in the previous reports. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate the prevalence and distribution of paraseptal emphysema on chest CT images in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) population, and assess its impact on pulmonary function. Also pursued was the association with interstitial lung abnormalities. Materials and methods: We assessed 2633 participants in the FHS for paraseptal emphysema on chest CT. Characteristics of the participants, including age, sex, smoking status, clinical symptoms, and results of pulmonary function tests, were compared between those with and without paraseptal emphysema. The association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities was investigated. Results: Of the 2633 participants, 86 (3%) had pure paraseptal emphysema (defined as paraseptal emphysema with no other subtypes of emphysema other than paraseptal emphysema or a very few centrilobular emphysema involved) in at least one lung zone. The upper zone of the lungs was almost always involved. Compared to the participants without paraseptal emphysema, those with pure paraseptal emphysema were significantly older, and were more frequently male and smokers (mean 64 years, 71% male, mean 36 pack-years, P < 0.001) and had significantly decreased FEV{sub 1}/FVC% (P = 0.002), and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) (P = 0.002). There was a significant association between pure paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% in the

  17. Lung Mass in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Kinney, Gregory L; Ross, James C; San José Estépar, Raúl; Han, MeiLan K; Dransfield, Mark T; Kim, Victor; Hatabu, Hiroto; Come, Carolyn E; Bowler, Russell P; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John; Diaz, Alejandro A

    2017-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by airspace dilation, inflammation, and irregular deposition of elastin and collagen in the interstitium. Computed tomographic studies have reported that lung mass (LM) may be increased in smokers, a finding attributed to inflammatory and parenchymal remodeling processes observed on histopathology. We sought to examine the epidemiologic and clinical associations of LM in smokers. Baseline epidemiologic, clinical, and computed tomography (CT) data (n = 8156) from smokers enrolled into the COPDGene Study were analyzed. LM was calculated from the CT scan. Changes in lung function at 5 years' follow-up were available from 1623 subjects. Regression analysis was performed to assess for associations of LM with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 decline. Subjects with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had greater LM than either smokers with normal lung function or those with GOLD 2-4 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P smokers: the presence of such nonlinearity must be accounted for in longitudinal computed tomographic studies. Baseline LM predicts the decline in lung function. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism contributes to lung cancer susceptibility among lung squamous carcinoma and smokers: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Nan Ji

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined the association between the CYP1A1 Ile462Val gene polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in various populations, but their results have been inconsistent. To assess this relationship more precisely, a meta-analysis was performed. Ultimately, 43 case-control studies, comprising 19,228 subjects were included. A significantly elevated lung cancer risk was associated with 2 Ile462Val genotype variants (for Val/Val vs Ile/Ile: OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.08-1.40; for (Ile/Val +Val/Val vs Ile/Ile: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.07-1.23 in overall population. In the stratified analysis, a significant association was found in Asians, Caucasians and lung SCC, not lung AC and lung SCLC. Additionally, a significant association was found in smoker population and not found in non-smoker populations. This meta-analysis suggests that the Ile462Val polymorphisms of CYP1A1 correlate with increased lung cancer susceptibility in Asian and Caucasian populations and there is an interaction with smoking status, but these associations vary in different histological types of lung caner.

  19. Differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes between non-smokers and smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wonjun; Lim, Myoung Nam; Bak, So Hyeon; Hong, Seok-Ho; Han, Seon-Sook; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin; Hong, Yoonki

    2018-02-01

    Although tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), more than one-fourth of COPD patients are non-smokers. In this cross-sectional study, the differences in COPD phenotypes between non-smokers and smokers in male subjects were investigated and were focused on structural lung changes using a quantitative assessment of computed tomography (CT) images. They divided male participants with COPD, from a Korean cohort near a cement plant, into non-smokers and smokers by a cutoff of a 5 pack-year smoking history. Clinical characteristics, including age, body mass index (BMI), spirometry results, history of biomass smoke exposure, and CT measurements, were compared between the two groups. Emphysema index (EI) and mean wall area percentage (MWA %) were used to evaluate the structural lung changes on volumetric CT scans. The non-smoker group (n = 49) had younger patients and had a greater BMI than the smoker group (n = 113) (P smokers had emphysema than non-smokers (EI 10.0 vs. 6.5, P smokers than in non-smokers (MWA 69.1 vs. 65.3, P = .03), while EI was not statistically different (EI 7.1 vs. 10.4, P = .52). Non-smoker males with COPD were younger and had a greater BMI than the smokers. Tobacco smoke exposure seemed to be associated with an emphysema-predominant phenotype, while biomass smoke exposure exhibited a significant interaction with tobacco smoking in an airway-predominant phenotype. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. COPD, emphysema and the onset of lung cancer. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouronte-Roibás, Cecilia; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Botana-Rial, Maribel; Ramos-Hernández, Cristina; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2016-11-28

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and emphysema have been described as possible risk factors for lung cancer. We aim to assess the relationship between COPD, emphysema and the onset of lung cancer. We have developed a systematic review of the published literature in order to systematically analyze the scientific evidence available on this association, applying predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. 11 Studies were included. Both COPD and emphysema seem to increase the risk of developing lung cancer, being this risk higher for smokers with heavier tobacco consumption. These results emphasize the need for physicians to perform spirometries in current and former smokers and lung image tests when needed in order to identify COPD and emphysema and thus select patients at higher risk of developing lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia in cigarette smokers: a CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, Katharina; Milne, David; Antoniou, Katerina M.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Tennant, Rachel C.; Wells, Athol U.; Hansel, Trevor T.; Hansell, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to seek indirect evidence that smoking is an aetiological factor in some patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Ten current and eight ex-smokers with NSIP were compared to controls including 137 current smokers with no known interstitial lung disease and 11 non-smokers with NSIP. Prevalence and extent of emphysema in 18 smokers with NSIP were compared with subjects meeting GOLD criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; group A; n = 34) and healthy smokers (normal FEV 1 ; group B; n = 103), respectively. Emphysema was present in 14/18 (77.8%) smokers with NSIP. Emphysema did not differ in prevalence between NSIP patients and group A controls (25/34, 73.5%), but was strikingly more prevalent in NSIP patients than in group B controls (18/103, 17.5%, P < 0.0005). On multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of emphysema increased when NSIP was present (OR = 18.8; 95% CI = 5.3-66.3; P < 0.0005) and with increasing age (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.99-1.11; P = 0.08). Emphysema is as prevalent in smokers with NSIP as in smokers with COPD, and is strikingly more prevalent in these two groups than in healthy smoking controls. The association between NSIP and emphysema provides indirect support for a smoking pathogenesis hypothesis in some NSIP patients. (orig.)

  2. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia in cigarette smokers: a CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, Katharina [Georg August University of Goettingen, Department of Radiology, Goettingen (Germany); Milne, David [Green Lane Hospital, Department of Radiology, Auckland (New Zealand); Antoniou, Katerina M. [University of Crete, Department of Thoracic Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Nicholson, Andrew G. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Tennant, Rachel C.; Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hansel, Trevor T. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Clinical Trials Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The goal of this study was to seek indirect evidence that smoking is an aetiological factor in some patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Ten current and eight ex-smokers with NSIP were compared to controls including 137 current smokers with no known interstitial lung disease and 11 non-smokers with NSIP. Prevalence and extent of emphysema in 18 smokers with NSIP were compared with subjects meeting GOLD criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; group A; n = 34) and healthy smokers (normal FEV{sub 1}; group B; n = 103), respectively. Emphysema was present in 14/18 (77.8%) smokers with NSIP. Emphysema did not differ in prevalence between NSIP patients and group A controls (25/34, 73.5%), but was strikingly more prevalent in NSIP patients than in group B controls (18/103, 17.5%, P < 0.0005). On multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of emphysema increased when NSIP was present (OR = 18.8; 95% CI = 5.3-66.3; P < 0.0005) and with increasing age (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.99-1.11; P = 0.08). Emphysema is as prevalent in smokers with NSIP as in smokers with COPD, and is strikingly more prevalent in these two groups than in healthy smoking controls. The association between NSIP and emphysema provides indirect support for a smoking pathogenesis hypothesis in some NSIP patients. (orig.)

  3. Interstitial Features at Chest CT Enhance the Deleterious Effects of Emphysema in the COPDGene Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Samuel Y; Harmouche, Rola; Ross, James C; Diaz, Alejandro A; Rahaghi, Farbod N; Sanchez-Ferrero, Gonzalo Vegas; Putman, Rachel K; Hunninghake, Gary M; Onieva, Jorge Onieva; Martinez, Fernando J; Choi, Augustine M; Bowler, Russell P; Lynch, David A; Hatabu, Hiroto; Bhatt, Surya P; Dransfield, Mark T; Wells, J Michael; Rosas, Ivan O; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George R

    2018-06-05

    Purpose To determine if interstitial features at chest CT enhance the effect of emphysema on clinical disease severity in smokers without clinical pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and Methods In this retrospective cohort study, an objective CT analysis tool was used to measure interstitial features (reticular changes, honeycombing, centrilobular nodules, linear scar, nodular changes, subpleural lines, and ground-glass opacities) and emphysema in 8266 participants in a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) called COPDGene (recruited between October 2006 and January 2011). Additive differences in patients with emphysema with interstitial features and in those without interstitial features were analyzed by using t tests, multivariable linear regression, and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multivariable linear and Cox regression were used to determine if interstitial features modified the effect of continuously measured emphysema on clinical measures of disease severity and mortality. Results Compared with individuals with emphysema alone, those with emphysema and interstitial features had a higher percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (absolute difference, 6.4%; P < .001), a lower percentage predicted diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (absolute difference, 7.4%; P = .034), a 0.019 higher right ventricular-to-left ventricular (RVLV) volume ratio (P = .029), a 43.2-m shorter 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) (P < .001), a 5.9-point higher St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score (P < .001), and 82% higher mortality (P < .001). In addition, interstitial features modified the effect of emphysema on percentage predicted DLCO, RVLV volume ratio, 6WMD, SGRQ score, and mortality (P for interaction < .05 for all). Conclusion In smokers, the combined presence of interstitial features and emphysema was associated with worse clinical disease severity and higher mortality than was emphysema alone. In addition, interstitial features

  4. Early detection of emphysema progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Jacobs, Sander S A M; Lo, Pechin

    2010-01-01

    Emphysema is one of the most widespread diseases in subjects with smoking history. The gold standard method for estimating the severity of emphysema is a lung function test, such as forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). However, several clinical studies showed that chest CT scans offer...... more sensitive estimates of emphysema progression. The standard CT densitometric score of emphysema is the relative area of voxels below a threshold (RA). The RA score is a global measurement and reflects the overall emphysema progression. In this work, we propose a framework for estimation of local...... emphysema progression from longitudinal chest CT scans. First, images are registered to a common system of coordinates and then local image dissimilarities are computed in corresponding anatomical locations. Finally, the obtained dissimilarity representation is converted into a single emphysema progression...

  5. Relative preservation of peripheral lung function in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema: assessment with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA perfusion and dynamic {sup 133}Xe SPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kume, Norihiko; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Ogasawara, Nobuhiko; Motoyama, Kazumi; Hara, Akiko; Matsumoto, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In this study the cross-sectional functional differences between the central and peripheral lung in smokers with pulmonary emphysema were evaluated by lung perfusion and dynamic xenon-133 single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The subjects were 81 patients with a long-term smoking history and relatively advanced emphysema, 17 non-smoker patients with non-obstructive lung diseases and six healthy non-smokers. Regional lung functional difference between the peripheral and central lung was assessed in the upper, middle and lower lung zones by technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPET and dynamic {sup 133}Xe SPET. The distribution of emphysematous changes was assessed by density-mask computed tomography (CT) images which depicted abnormally low attenuation areas (LAAs) of less than -960 Hounsfield units. Two hundred and eighty-eight (59.2%) lung zones of 63 (77.7%) patients with pulmonary emphysema showed relative preservation of lung function in the peripheral lung, with a curvilinear band of normal perfusion (a stripe sign) and a significantly faster {sup 133}Xe half-clearance time (T{sub 1/2}) than in central lung (P<0.0001). Of these lung zones, 256 (88.8%) showed central-dominant LAA distributions on density-mask CT images, but the remaining 32 zones did not show any regional preference in LAA distribution. Conversely, 117 (24.0%) lung zones of 19 (23.4%) patients showed periphery-dominant perfusion defects and LAA distributions, with significantly prolonged T{sub 1/2} in the peripheral lung area (P<0.0001). The remaining 81 lung zones of the patients with pulmonary emphysema and all the lung zones of the healthy subjects and patients with non-obstructive lung diseases did not show a stripe sign, and no differences were observed in T{sub 1/2} values and LAA distributions between the central and peripheral lung. Relative preservation of peripheral lung function seems to be a characteristic feature in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema, and may indicate a

  6. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F. H. Y.

    2009-02-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV1 <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m3 x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  7. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.D. Kuempel; V. Vallyathan; F.H.Y. Green [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV{sub 1}, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV1 <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m{sup 3} x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79). 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuempel, E D [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Education and Information Division, Risk Evaluation Branch, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Vallyathan, V [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Health Effects Laboratory Division, Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Green, F H Y, E-mail: ekuempel@cdc.go [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-02-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV{sub 1}, as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV{sub 1} <80% at the cohort mean cumulative coal dust exposure (87 mg/m{sup 3} x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  9. Emphysema and pulmonary impairment in coal miners: Quantitative relationship with dust exposure and cigarette smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuempel, E D; Vallyathan, V; Green, F H Y

    2009-01-01

    Coal miners have been shown to be at increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including emphysema. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust is a significant predictor of developing emphysema at a clinically-relevant level of severity by the end of life, after controlling for cigarette smoking and other covariates. Clinically-relevant emphysema severity was determined from the association between individuals' lung function during life (forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV 1 , as a percentage of predicted normal values) and emphysema severity at autopsy (as the proportion of lung tissue affected). In a logistic regression model, cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust was a statistically significant predictor of developing clinically-relevant emphysema severity, among both ever-smokers and never-smokers. The odds ratio for developing emphysema associated with FEV 1 3 x yr) was 2.30 (1.46-3.64, 95% confidence limits), and at the cohort mean cigarette smoking (among smokers: 42 pack-years) was 1.95 (1.39-2.79).

  10. Crowdsourced emphysema assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørting, Silas Nyboe; Petersen, Jens; Thomsen, Laura H.

    2017-01-01

    it unsuitable for obtaining large amounts of labeled data. We investigate if visual assessment of emphysema can be framed as an image similarity task that does not require expert. Substituting untrained annotators for experts makes it possible to label data sets much faster and at a lower cost. We use crowd...

  11. A novel environmental exposure index and its interaction with familial susceptibility on oral cancer in non-smokers and non-drinkers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lingjun; Chen, Fa; He, Baochang; Liu, Fengqiong; Liu, Fangping; Huang, Jiangfeng; Wu, Junfeng; Lin, Lisong; Qiu, Yu; Cai, Lin

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the collective effect of environmental factors and its interaction with familial susceptibility on oral cancer among non-smokers and non-drinkers (NSND). A hospital-based case-control study, including 319 oral cancer patients and 994 frequency-matched controls, was conducted in Fujian, China. We raised a weighed environmental exposure index according to nine significant environmental factors obtained from multivariable logistic regression model. And then, the index was classified into three categories according to the tertiles of controls (2.43). Multiplicative and additive interactions were evaluated between environmental exposure index and family cancer history. Our results showed that environmental exposure index was associated with an increased risk of oral cancer especially for those with family cancer history. Compared to subjects with low environmental exposure index and without family cancer history, those with high index and family cancer history showed the highest magnitude of OR in oral cancer risk (OR 10.40, 95% CI 5.46-19.80). Moreover, there was a multiplicative interaction between environmental exposure index and family cancer history for the risk of oral cancer (P oral cancer among NSND and may interact with family cancer history. Further studies are warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms.

  12. Noninvasive quantification of alveolar morphometry in elderly never- and ex-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Gregory A; Ouriadov, Alexei; Lessard, Eric; Sheikh, Khadija; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a way to generate in vivo lung images with contrast sensitive to the molecular displacement of inhaled gas at subcellular length scales. Here, we aimed to evaluate hyperpolarized 3He MRI estimates of the alveolar dimensions in 38 healthy elderly never-smokers (73 ± 6 years, 15 males) and 21 elderly ex-smokers (70 ± 10 years, 14 males) with (n = 8, 77 ± 6 years) and without emphysema (n = 13, 65 ± 10 years). The ex-smoker and never-smoker subgroups were significantly different for FEV1/FVC (P = 0.0001) and DLCO (P = 0.009); while ex-smokers with emphysema reported significantly diminished FEV1/FVC (P = 0.02) and a trend toward lower DLCO (P = 0.05) than ex-smokers without emphysema. MRI apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and CT measurements of emphysema (relative area–CT density histogram, RA950) were significantly different (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007) for never-smoker and ex-smoker subgroups. In never-smokers, the MRI estimate of mean linear intercept (260 ± 27 μm) was significantly elevated as compared to the results previously reported in younger never-smokers (210 ± 30 μm), and trended smaller than in the age-matched ex-smokers (320 ± 72 μm, P = 0.06) evaluated here. Never-smokers also reported significantly smaller internal (220 ± 24 μm, P = 0.01) acinar radius but greater alveolar sheath thickness (120 ± 4 μm, P smokers. Never-smokers were also significantly different than ex-smokers without emphysema for alveolar sheath thickness but not ADC, while ex-smokers with emphysema reported significantly different ADC but not alveolar sheath thickness compared to ex-smokers without CT evidence of emphysema. Differences in alveolar measurements in never- and ex-smokers demonstrate the sensitivity of MRI measurements to the different effects of smoking and aging on acinar morphometry. PMID:26462748

  13. Endothelial progenitor cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Russell P.; Parikh, Megha A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Shimbo, Daichi; Austin, John H. M.; Smith, Benjamin M.; Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Lima, Joao; Gomes, Antoinette; Watson, Karol; Kawut, Steven; Barr, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50–79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cell populations (CD34+KDR+ and CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells) and circulating endothelial cells (CD45dimCD31+CD146+CD133-) were measured by flow cytometry. COPD was defined by standard spirometric criteria. Emphysema was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively on CT. Full pulmonary function testing and expiratory CTs were measured in a subset. Among 257 participants, both endothelial progenitor cell populations, and particularly CD34+KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells, were reduced in COPD. The CD34+KDR+CD133+ endothelial progenitor cells were associated inversely with emphysema extent. Both endothelial progenitor cell populations were associated inversely with extent of panlobular emphysema and positively with diffusing capacity. Circulating endothelial cells were not significantly altered in COPD but were inversely associated with pulmonary microvascular blood flow on MRI. There was no consistent association of endothelial progenitor cells or circulating endothelial cells with measures of gas trapping. These data provide evidence that endothelial repair is impaired in COPD and suggest that this pathological process is specific to emphysema. PMID:28291826

  14. Early detection of emphysema progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Jacobs, Sander S. A. M.; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    Emphysema is one of the most widespread diseases in subjects with smoking history. The gold standard method for estimating the severity of emphysema is a lung function test, such as forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). However, several clinical studies showed that chest CT scans offer...

  15. CT assessment of subtypes of pulmonary emphysema in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togami, Taro; Yamamoto, Yuka; Kameyama, Reiko; Murota, Makiko; Kimura, Naruhide; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Katashi

    2011-01-01

    We performed a retrospective study examining the prevalence and subtypes of pulmonary emphysema (PE) identified by computed tomography (CT) in females. We reviewed the records of 1,687 female subjects who had undergone CT. They were divided into the following 2 age groups: group A (<50 years) and group B (≥50 years). PE was diagnosed by the presence of low-attenuation areas using visual assessment (grades 0-3) on CT images. Two subtypes of PE were observed: centrilobular emphysema (CLE) and paraseptal emphysema (PSE). PE was divided into the following 3 categories: I (CLE or CLE-predominant); II (CLE and PSE of equal extent); and III (PSE or PSE-predominant). PE was found in 64 of 274 smokers (23.3%) and 54 of 1,413 non-smokers (3.8%). In smoking subjects, when grades 1 and 2 were grouped together as mild PE, the mean age for CT grade 3 (severe PE) was significantly higher than that for mild PE. In group A, category III predominated, whereas category I was more prevalent in group B, in both smoking and non-smoking subjects. A high incidence of PE was found in smoking subjects as compared with non-smoking subjects. PSE predominated in younger subjects, whereas CLE predominated in older subjects. (author)

  16. Towards exaggerated emphysema stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Sørensen, L.; Lauze, F.; Igel, C.; Loog, M.; Feragen, A.; de Bruijne, M.; Nielsen, M.

    2012-03-01

    Classification is widely used in the context of medical image analysis and in order to illustrate the mechanism of a classifier, we introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype based on training data and trained classifier. The stereotype of some image class of interest should emphasize/exaggerate the characteristic patterns in an image class and visualize the information the employed classifier relies on. This is useful for gaining insight into the classification and serves for comparison with the biological models of disease. In this work, we build exaggerated image stereotypes by optimizing an objective function which consists of a discriminative term based on the classification accuracy, and a generative term based on the class distributions. A gradient descent method based on iterated conditional modes (ICM) is employed for optimization. We use this idea with Fisher's linear discriminant rule and assume a multivariate normal distribution for samples within a class. The proposed framework is applied to computed tomography (CT) images of lung tissue with emphysema. The synthesized stereotypes illustrate the exaggerated patterns of lung tissue with emphysema, which is underpinned by three different quantitative evaluation methods.

  17. Contributions of dust exposure and cigarette smoking to emphysema severity in coal miners in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuempel, E.D.; Wheeler, M.W.; Smith, R.J.; Vallyathan, V.; Green, F.H.Y. [NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Previous studies have shown associations between dust exposure or lung burden and emphysema in coal miners, although the separate contributions of various predictors have not been clearly demonstrated. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust, cigarette smoking, and other factors on emphysema severity. The study group included 722 autopsied coal miners and nonminers in the United States. Data on work history, smoking, race, and age at death were obtained from medical records and questionnaire completed by next-of-kin. Emphysema was classified and graded using a standardized schema. Job-specific mean concentrations of respirable coal mine dust were matched with work histories to estimate cumulative exposure. Relationships between various metrics of dust exposure (including cumulative exposure and lung dust burden) and emphysema severity were investigated in weighted least squares regression models. Emphysema severity was significantly elevated in coal miners compared with nonminers among ever- and never-smokers (P < 0.0001). Cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust or coal dust retained in the lungs were significant predictors of emphysema severity (P < 0.0001) after accounting for cigarette smoking, age at death, and race. The contributions of coal mine dust exposure and cigarette smoking were similar in predicting emphysema severity averaged over this cohort. Coal dust exposure, cigarette smoking, age, and race are significant and additive predictors of emphysema severity in this study.

  18. Cardiovascular function in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visca, Dina; Aiello, Marina; Chetta, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, have a strong influence on each other, and systemic inflammation has been considered as the main linkage between them. On the other hand, airflow limitation may markedly affect lung mechanics in terms of static and dynamic hyperinflation, especially in pulmonary emphysema, and they can in turn influence cardiac performance as well. Skeletal mass depletion, which is a common feature in COPD especially in pulmonary emphysema patients, may have also a role in cardiovascular function of these patients, irrespective of lung damage. We reviewed the emerging evidence that highlights the role of lung mechanics and muscle mass impairment on ventricular volumes, stroke volume, and stroke work at rest and on exercise in the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Patients with emphysema may differ among COPD population even in terms of cardiovascular function.

  19. Towards exaggerated emphysema stereotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Sørensen, Lauge; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype for some image class of interest, which emphasizes/exaggerates the characteristic patterns in an image class and visualizes what visual information the classication relies on. This is useful for gaining insight into the classi cation...... and serves for comparison with thebiological models of disease. We build the exaggerated image stereotypes by optimizing an objective function which consists of a discriminativeterm based on the classi cation accuracy, and a generative term based on the class distribution. Agradient descent method...... is employed for optimization. We use this idea with Fisher's Linear Discriminant rule,and assume a multivariate normal distribution for samples within a class. The proposed framework is appliedto computed tomography (CT) images of lung tissue with emphysema. The synthesized stereotypes illustratethe...

  20. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with coexisting emphysema : high-resolution CT and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Oh, Yu Whan; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Kyung Ho

    1997-01-01

    To correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings with smoking history and pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with or without coexisting emphsema. The study included 24 patients who had undergone HRCT and in whom IPF had been confirmed pathologically (n=7) and clinically (n=17). The patients included 19 men and 5 women aged between from 44 and 78(mean 59) years. HRCT findings were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for the presence and extent of emphysema (CT emphysema score;CES) and honeycombing (CT honeycombing score;CHS). CES and CHS were retrospectively correlated with smoking status and pulmonary function test. Evidence of emphysema was seen on HRCT in 20 fo 24 patients with IPF (83%). CES was 14.3 and CHS was 18.1 in smokers with IPF, as compared with 1.8 and 6.7 in nonsmokers (p<0.01). Pulmonary function tests showed lower percent predicted FEVI (69.3%), FVC (64.7%), TLC (73.7%), and RV (77.3%), a lower percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (58.2%), and normal FEVI/FVC (99.1%). The pulmonary function test in smokers showed higher TLC and RV than in nonsmokers. Eight of nine patients whose CES was higher than their CHS, an seen on HRCT, were smokers and had a smoking history of 33.1 pack-years. Seven of 15 whose CHS was higher than their CES were smokers and had a smoking history of 16.8 pack-years. In patients with a higher CES than CHS pulmonary function test results showed normal TLC(85%) and RV(100.7%); this contrasted with decreased TLC(72%) and RV (68%) in patients whose CHS was higher than their CES. Emphysema is a frequently associated finding in patients with IPF, as seen on HRCT, and emphysema is more frequent and extensive in smokers with IPF than non-smokers. HRCT is useful for detecting emphysema in patients with IPF, and the extent of emphysema on HRCT correlates with the results of the pulmonary function test and smoking status

  1. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with coexisting emphysema : high-resolution CT and clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Oh, Yu Whan; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Kyung Ho [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-01

    To correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings with smoking history and pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with or without coexisting emphsema. The study included 24 patients who had undergone HRCT and in whom IPF had been confirmed pathologically (n=7) and clinically (n=17). The patients included 19 men and 5 women aged between from 44 and 78(mean 59) years. HRCT findings were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for the presence and extent of emphysema (CT emphysema score;CES) and honeycombing (CT honeycombing score;CHS). CES and CHS were retrospectively correlated with smoking status and pulmonary function test. Evidence of emphysema was seen on HRCT in 20 fo 24 patients with IPF (83%). CES was 14.3 and CHS was 18.1 in smokers with IPF, as compared with 1.8 and 6.7 in nonsmokers (p<0.01). Pulmonary function tests showed lower percent predicted FEVI (69.3%), FVC (64.7%), TLC (73.7%), and RV (77.3%), a lower percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (58.2%), and normal FEVI/FVC (99.1%). The pulmonary function test in smokers showed higher TLC and RV than in nonsmokers. Eight of nine patients whose CES was higher than their CHS, an seen on HRCT, were smokers and had a smoking history of 33.1 pack-years. Seven of 15 whose CHS was higher than their CES were smokers and had a smoking history of 16.8 pack-years. In patients with a higher CES than CHS pulmonary function test results showed normal TLC(85%) and RV(100.7%); this contrasted with decreased TLC(72%) and RV (68%) in patients whose CHS was higher than their CES. Emphysema is a frequently associated finding in patients with IPF, as seen on HRCT, and emphysema is more frequent and extensive in smokers with IPF than non-smokers. HRCT is useful for detecting emphysema in patients with IPF, and the extent of emphysema on HRCT correlates with the results of the pulmonary function test and smoking status.

  2. The Relationship of Educational Attainment with Pulmonary Emphysema and Airway Wall Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdevik, Miriam; Grydeland, Thomas B; Washko, George R; Coxson, Harvey O; Silverman, Edwin K; Gulsvik, Amund; Bakke, Per S

    2015-06-01

    Low educational attainment is a risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is limited knowledge on the relationship between educational level and computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT). We hypothesized that low educational attainment is associated with increased emphysema and AWT in ever-smokers with and without COPD. We included 462 and 485 ever-smokers with and without COPD in a cross-sectional study, aged 40-86 years. The sample was divided into groups reflecting educational attainment: primary, secondary, and university. We performed linear regression to examine associations between educational attainment and both emphysema and AWT separately for those with and without COPD. We adjusted for sex, age, smoking status, age of onset of smoking, pack-years, height, and body mass index. Compared with university education, in subjects with COPD, primary education was associated with a 68.1% (95% confidence interval = 14.2-147.6%; P = 0.01) relative increase in emphysema and secondary education was associated with a 50.6% (95% confidence interval = 5.7-114.6%; P = 0.02) relative increase. There was a nonsignificant trend toward an association between lower educational attainment and increased emphysema among those without COPD (P = 0.18), yet greater age appeared to modify this association (P = 0.01). We did not detect significant linear relationships between educational attainment and AWT in subjects with or without COPD. Lower educational attainment was associated with increased emphysema among adults with COPD. Among those without COPD, this association was more pronounced with increasing age. No significant linear relationship between educational attainment and AWT was found. Clinicians treating adults with emphysema should keep in mind that factors related to low education beyond that of smoking and occupational dust exposure might be of importance to the disease.

  3. Pulmonary Microvascular Blood Flow in Mild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Emphysema. The MESA COPD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Parikh, Megha A; Austin, John H M; Bluemke, David A; Carr, James; Choi, Jiwoong; Goldstein, Thomas A; Gomes, Antoinette S; Hoffman, Eric A; Kawut, Steven M; Lima, Joao; Michos, Erin D; Post, Wendy S; Po, Ming Jack; Prince, Martin R; Liu, Kiang; Rabinowitz, Dan; Skrok, Jan; Smith, Ben M; Watson, Karol; Yin, Youbing; Zambeli-Ljepovic, Alan M; Barr, R Graham

    2015-09-01

    Smoking-related microvascular loss causes end-organ damage in the kidneys, heart, and brain. Basic research suggests a similar process in the lungs, but no large studies have assessed pulmonary microvascular blood flow (PMBF) in early chronic lung disease. To investigate whether PMBF is reduced in mild as well as more severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. PMBF was measured using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among smokers with COPD and control subjects age 50 to 79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. COPD severity was defined by standard criteria. Emphysema on computed tomography (CT) was defined by the percentage of lung regions below -950 Hounsfield units (-950 HU) and by radiologists using a standard protocol. We adjusted for potential confounders, including smoking, oxygenation, and left ventricular cardiac output. Among 144 participants, PMBF was reduced by 30% in mild COPD, by 29% in moderate COPD, and by 52% in severe COPD (all P emphysema-950HU and radiologist-defined emphysema, particularly panlobular and centrilobular emphysema (all P ≤ 0.01). Registration of MRI and CT images revealed that PMBF was reduced in mild COPD in both nonemphysematous and emphysematous lung regions. Associations for PMBF were independent of measures of small airways disease on CT and gas trapping largely because emphysema and small airways disease occurred in different smokers. PMBF was reduced in mild COPD, including in regions of lung without frank emphysema, and may represent a distinct pathological process from small airways disease. PMBF may provide an imaging biomarker for therapeutic strategies targeting the pulmonary microvasculature.

  4. CT appearances of emphysema and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinlian; Ma Daqing; Chen Budong; He Wen; Guan Yansheng; Zhang Yansong; Tang Hongqu; Wang Zhenguang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate CT appearances of different types of emphysema and to determine the clinic value for differential diagnosis. Methods: Twenty-three specimens with emphysema selected from 33 autopsy specimens were included in this study. All specimens were inflated and fixed by Heitzman's method, then examined by spiral CT scan. The CT appearances of different types of emphysema in every specimen were analyzed. After the specimens were cut into 10 mm thickness slices, the CT- pathologic correlation was done. Fifteen clinical cases confirmed by pathology or clinical process were all performed spiral CT scan and analyzed, including emphysema-accompanying pneumonia 11 cases, emphysema-accompanying nodule 4 cases. Result: Centriacinar emphysema (CAE)can be seen in 21 of 23 specimens, pancinar emphysema(PAE) can be seen in 5 of 23 specimens, all coexisting with CAE. Distal acinar emphysema(DAE) can be seen in 19 of 23 specimens, irregular emphysema can be seen in 3 of 23 specimens. In all specimens, emphysema can be seen in bilateral lung fields, distributing similarly. Seventeen of 23 eases (17/23) showed no less than two types of emphysema. Fourteen cases of emphysema- accompanying pneumonia (clinic: 11 cases, specimen: 3 cases) showed 'pseudocavity' or 'pseudohoneycombing' (emphysema lesion that had not been filled in the consolidation). Four eases of emphysema-accompanying nodule showed 'pseudopleuralhollow' (wall of DAE or bulla connecting with nodule). Conclusion: The CT manifestations of emphysema, the characteristics of distribution and multi- type of emphysema coexisting can help differentiate cystic air space diseases. The characteristics of complications of emphysema, the 'pseudocavity', 'pseudohoneycombing' and 'pseudopleuralhollow', may be help for differential diagnosis. (authors)

  5. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  6. Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis combined with pulmonary emphysema: computed tomography-pathologic correlative study using lobectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Hideji; Tanaka, Tomonori; Murata, Kiyoshi; Fukuoka, Junya; Nitta, Norihisa; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Sonoda, Akinaga; Takahashi, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and pathologic correlation of thin-section computed tomography (TSCT) findings in smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) with pulmonary emphysema. Our study included 172 consecutive patients who underwent TSCT and subsequent lobectomy. TSCT findings including clustered cysts with visible walls (CCVW) and ground-glass attenuation with/without reticulation (GGAR) were evaluated and compared in nonsmokers and smokers and among lung locations. TSCT findings, especially CCVW, were also compared with histological findings using lobectomy specimens. The incidence of CCVW and GGAR was significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (34.1% and 40.7%, respectively, vs 2.0% and 12.2%). CCVW and GGAR were frequently found in the lower and peripheral zones. Histologically, CCVW corresponded more often with SRIF with emphysema than usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, 63.3% vs 30%). CCVW of irregular size and shape were seen in 19 of 20 SRIF with emphysema and in seven of nine UIP-manifested areas with similar round cysts. A less-involved subpleural parenchyma was observed more frequently in SRIF with emphysema. SRIF with emphysema is a more frequent pathological finding than UIP in patients with CCVW on TSCT. The irregular size and shape of CCVW and a less-involved subpleural parenchyma may be a clue suggesting the presence of SRIF with emphysema.

  7. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Karadağ, Demet; Doner, Egemen; Adapınar, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After pene...

  8. [Lung volume reduction surgery for emphysema and bullous pulmonary emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pimpec-Barthes, F; Das Neves-Pereira, J-C; Cazes, A; Arame, A; Grima, R; Hubsch, J-P; Zukerman, C; Hernigou, A; Badia, A; Bagan, P; Delclaux, C; Dusser, D; Riquet, M

    2012-04-01

    The improvement of respiratory symptoms for emphysematous patients by surgery is a concept that has evolved over time. Initially used for giant bullae, this surgery was then applied to patients with diffuse microbullous emphysema. The physiological and pathological concepts underlying these surgical procedures are the same in both cases: improve respiratory performance by reducing the high intrapleural pressure. The functional benefit of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in the severe diffuse emphysema has been validated by the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) and the later studies which allowed to identify prognostic factors. The quality of the clinical, morphological and functional data made it possible to develop recommendations now widely used in current practice. Surgery for giant bullae occurring on little or moderately emphysematous lung is often a simpler approach but also requires specialised support to optimize its results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging of pulmonary emphysema: A pictorial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Fukuoka, Junya; Nitta, Norihisa; Takazakura, Ryutaro; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Murakami, Yoko; Otani, Hideji; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The term ‘emphysema’ is generally used in a morphological sense, and therefore imaging modalities have an important role in diagnosing this disease. In particular, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a reliable tool for demonstrating the pathology of emphysema, even in subtle changes within secondary pulmonary lobules. Generally, pulmonary emphysema is classified into three types related to the lobular anatomy: centrilobular emphysema, panlobular emphysema, and paraseptal emphysema. In this pictorial review, we discuss the radiological – pathological correlation in each type of pulmonary emphysema. HRCT of early centrilobular emphysema shows an evenly distributed centrilobular tiny areas of low attenuation with ill-defined borders. With enlargement of the dilated airspace, the surrounding lung parenchyma is compressed, which enables observation of a clear border between the emphysematous area and the normal lung. Because the disease progresses from the centrilobular portion, normal lung parenchyma in the perilobular portion tends to be preserved, even in a case of far-advanced pulmonary emphysema. In panlobular emphysema, HRCT shows either panlobular low attenuation or ill-defined diffuse low attenuation of the lung. Paraseptal emphysema is characterized by subpleural well-defined cystic spaces. Recent topics related to imaging of pulmonary emphysema will also be discussed, including morphometry of the airway in cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, combined pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema, and bronchogenic carcinoma associated with bullous lung disease. PMID:18686729

  10. Progression of emphysema in a 12-month hyperpolarized 3He-MRI study: lacunarity analysis provided a more sensitive measure than standard ADC analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Sandra; Casselbrant, Ingrid; Piitulainen, Eeva

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Inhaled hyperpolarized (3)He magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been used to measure alveolar size in patients with emphysema. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that (3)He MR images could be used to develop a biomarker of emphysema progression. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: Twelve healthy controls and 18 patients with emphysema (eight current smokers, 10 ex-smokers) were imaged at baseline and 6 and 12 months. An additional nine subjects with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (four with emphysema, six without symptoms) were also imaged at baseline and at 6 months. Each...... subject was imaged at two lung volumes: functional residual capacity (FRC) and FRC plus 15% of total lung capacity. Means and standard deviations of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were calculated from coronal images of the entire lung and correlated with pulmonary function test results...

  11. Visual assessment of early emphysema and interstitial abnormalities on CT is useful in lung cancer risk analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Mathilde M. W.; Thomsen, Laura H.; Petersen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Screening for lung cancer should be limited to a high-risk-population, and abnormalities in low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening images may be relevant for predicting the risk of lung cancer. Our aims were to compare the occurrence of visually detected emphysema and interstitial...... abnormalities in subjects with and without lung cancer in a screening population of smokers. Methods: Low-dose chest CT examinations (baseline and latest possible) of 1990 participants from The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial were independently evaluated by two observers who scored emphysema and interstitial...... abnormalities. Emphysema (lung density) was also measured quantitatively. Results: Emphysema was seen more frequently and its extent was greater among participants with lung cancer on baseline (odds ratio (OR), 1.8, p = 0.017 and p = 0.002) and late examinations (OR 2.6, p

  12. Visual assessment of early emphysema and interstitial abnormalities on CT is useful in lung cancer risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B. [Gentofte Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hellerup (Denmark); Thomsen, Laura H. [Hvidovre Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hvidovre (Denmark); Petersen, Jens [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, DIKU, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Bruijne, Marleen de [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, DIKU, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Erasmus MC -University Medical Center Rotterdam, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pedersen, Jesper H. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    Screening for lung cancer should be limited to a high-risk-population, and abnormalities in low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening images may be relevant for predicting the risk of lung cancer. Our aims were to compare the occurrence of visually detected emphysema and interstitial abnormalities in subjects with and without lung cancer in a screening population of smokers. Low-dose chest CT examinations (baseline and latest possible) of 1990 participants from The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial were independently evaluated by two observers who scored emphysema and interstitial abnormalities. Emphysema (lung density) was also measured quantitatively. Emphysema was seen more frequently and its extent was greater among participants with lung cancer on baseline (odds ratio (OR), 1.8, p = 0.017 and p = 0.002) and late examinations (OR 2.6, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). No significant difference was found using quantitative measurements. Interstitial abnormalities were more common findings among participants with lung cancer (OR 5.1, p < 0.001 and OR 4.5, p < 0.001).There was no association between presence of emphysema and presence of interstitial abnormalities (OR 0.75, p = 0.499). Even early signs of emphysema and interstitial abnormalities are associated with lung cancer. Quantitative measurements of emphysema - regardless of type - do not show the same association. (orig.)

  13. Visual assessment of early emphysema and interstitial abnormalities on CT is useful in lung cancer risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B.; Thomsen, Laura H.; Petersen, Jens; Bruijne, Marleen de; Pedersen, Jesper H.

    2016-01-01

    Screening for lung cancer should be limited to a high-risk-population, and abnormalities in low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening images may be relevant for predicting the risk of lung cancer. Our aims were to compare the occurrence of visually detected emphysema and interstitial abnormalities in subjects with and without lung cancer in a screening population of smokers. Low-dose chest CT examinations (baseline and latest possible) of 1990 participants from The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial were independently evaluated by two observers who scored emphysema and interstitial abnormalities. Emphysema (lung density) was also measured quantitatively. Emphysema was seen more frequently and its extent was greater among participants with lung cancer on baseline (odds ratio (OR), 1.8, p = 0.017 and p = 0.002) and late examinations (OR 2.6, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). No significant difference was found using quantitative measurements. Interstitial abnormalities were more common findings among participants with lung cancer (OR 5.1, p < 0.001 and OR 4.5, p < 0.001).There was no association between presence of emphysema and presence of interstitial abnormalities (OR 0.75, p = 0.499). Even early signs of emphysema and interstitial abnormalities are associated with lung cancer. Quantitative measurements of emphysema - regardless of type - do not show the same association. (orig.)

  14. Cigarette design and marketing features are associated with increased smoking susceptibility and perception of reduced harm among smokers in 27 EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Omaduvie, Uyoyo T; Filippidis, Filippos T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the role of cigarette design and marketing characteristics in initial smoking, cigarette brand choice and the perception of reduced harm of cigarette brands among adults in the European Union in 2012. Data were from the Eurobarometer 385 (V.77.1) survey conducted in 2012 (n=26 566). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between cigarette design/marketing features with aspects of initial smoking (among current and former smokers), cigarette brand choice and perception of reduced harm of cigarette brands (among current smokers; pmarketing strategies that may increase the attractiveness of tobacco products or promote perceptions of harm reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Pneumothorax Risk Factors in Smokers with and without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Brian D.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Bowler, Russell; Jacobson, Francine; Make, Barry J.; Castaldi, Peter J.; San José Estépar, Raúl; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: The demographic, physiological, and computed tomography (CT) features associated with pneumothorax in smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not clearly defined. Objectives: We evaluated the hypothesis that pneumothorax in smokers is associated with male sex, tall and thin stature, airflow obstruction, and increased total and subpleural emphysema. Methods: The study included smokers with and without COPD from the COPDGene Study, with quantitative chest CT analysis. Pleural-based emphysema was assessed on the basis of local histogram measures of emphysema. Pneumothorax history was defined by subject self-report. Measurements and Main Results: Pneumothorax was reported in 286 (3.2%) of 9,062 participants. In all participants, risk of prior pneumothorax was significantly higher in men (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08–2.22) and non-Hispanic white subjects (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.34–2.69). Risk of prior pneumothorax was associated with increased percent CT emphysema in all participants and participants with COPD (OR, 1.04 for each 1% increase in emphysema; 95% CI, 1.03–1.06). Increased pleural-based emphysema was independently associated with risk of past pneumothorax in all participants (OR, 1.05 for each 1% increase; 95% CI, 1.01–1.10). In smokers with normal spirometry, risk of past pneumothorax was associated with non-Hispanic white race and lifetime smoking intensity (OR, 1.20 for every 10 pack-years; 95% CI, 1.09–1.33). Conclusions: Among smokers, pneumothorax is associated with male sex, non-Hispanic white race, and increased percentage of total and subpleural CT emphysema. Pneumothorax was not independently associated with height or lung function, even in participants with COPD. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00608764). PMID:25295410

  16. Pneumothorax risk factors in smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Brian D; Foreman, Marilyn G; Bowler, Russell; Jacobson, Francine; Make, Barry J; Castaldi, Peter J; San José Estépar, Raúl; Silverman, Edwin K; Hersh, Craig P

    2014-11-01

    The demographic, physiological, and computed tomography (CT) features associated with pneumothorax in smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not clearly defined. We evaluated the hypothesis that pneumothorax in smokers is associated with male sex, tall and thin stature, airflow obstruction, and increased total and subpleural emphysema. The study included smokers with and without COPD from the COPDGene Study, with quantitative chest CT analysis. Pleural-based emphysema was assessed on the basis of local histogram measures of emphysema. Pneumothorax history was defined by subject self-report. Pneumothorax was reported in 286 (3.2%) of 9,062 participants. In all participants, risk of prior pneumothorax was significantly higher in men (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-2.22) and non-Hispanic white subjects (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.34-2.69). Risk of prior pneumothorax was associated with increased percent CT emphysema in all participants and participants with COPD (OR, 1.04 for each 1% increase in emphysema; 95% CI, 1.03-1.06). Increased pleural-based emphysema was independently associated with risk of past pneumothorax in all participants (OR, 1.05 for each 1% increase; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10). In smokers with normal spirometry, risk of past pneumothorax was associated with non-Hispanic white race and lifetime smoking intensity (OR, 1.20 for every 10 pack-years; 95% CI, 1.09-1.33). Among smokers, pneumothorax is associated with male sex, non-Hispanic white race, and increased percentage of total and subpleural CT emphysema. Pneumothorax was not independently associated with height or lung function, even in participants with COPD. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00608764).

  17. Serum Levels of Surfactant Proteins in Patients with Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema (CPFE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriana I Papaioannou

    Full Text Available Emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF present either per se or coexist in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE. Serum surfactant proteins (SPs A, B, C and D levels may reflect lung damage. We evaluated serum SP levels in healthy controls, emphysema, IPF, and CPFE patients and their associations to disease severity and survival.122 consecutive patients (31 emphysema, 62 IPF, and 29 CPFE and 25 healthy controls underwent PFTs, ABG-measurements, 6MWT and chest HRCT. Serum levels of SPs were measured. Patients were followed-up for 1-year.SP-A and SP-D levels differed between groups (p = 0.006 and p<0.001 respectively. In post-hoc analysis, SP-A levels differed only between controls and CPFE (p<0.05 and CPFE and emphysema (p<0.05. SP-D differed between controls and IPF or CPFE (p<0.001 for both comparisons. In IPF SP-B correlated to pulmonary function while SP-A, correlated to the Composite Physiological Index (CPI. Controls current smokers had higher SP-A and SP-D levels compared to non-smokers (p = 0.026 and p = 0.023 respectively. SP-D levels were higher in CPFE patients with extended emphysema (p = 0.042. In patients with IPF, SP-B levels at the upper quartile of its range (≥26 ng/mL presented a weak association with reduced survival (p = 0.05.In conclusion, serum SP-A and SP-D levels were higher where fibrosis exists or coexists and related to disease severity, suggesting that serum SPs relate to alveolar damage in fibrotic lungs and may reflect either local overproduction or overleakage. The weak association between high levels of SP-B and survival needs further validation in clinical trials.

  18. Indices allowing early detection of chronic pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Soejima, Kenzo; Koda, Eiichi; Mori, Masaaki; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Masahumi; Kobayashi, Koichi

    1996-01-01

    To establish criteria allowing early detection of pathologically significant alterations in pulmonary emphysema caused by smoking, pulmonary-function tests and high-resolution computed tomography were done in 104 subjects categorized into three groups: nonsmoking healthy adults, smokers with a normal FEV 1 %, and smokers with a low FEV 1 % (cross-sectional analysis). Fifty-six of the 104 patients underwent pulmonary-function testing and high-resolution computed tomography once per year for 3 years (longitudinal analysis). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that abnormalities in functional residual capacity, in single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and in the average tomographic density of sections in the lower lung fields obtained after a deep inspiration could be used to predict whether the disease would reach an advanced stage, even if the patients had no significant symptoms at the time of testing. Relative areas of low-attenuation regions, which were alleged to directly reflect the size of emphysematous areas, appear not to be useful for early detection of pathological emphysema. (author)

  19. Functional Characterization of a Porcine Emphysema Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Camilla Sichlau; Jensen, Louise Kruse; Leifsson, Páll Skuli

    2013-01-01

    Lung emphysema is a central feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a frequent human disease worldwide. Cigarette smoking is the major cause of COPD, but genetic predisposition seems to be an important factor. Mutations in surfactant protein genes have been linked to COPD...... phenotypes in humans. Also, the catalytic activities of metalloproteinases (MMPs) are central in the pathogenesis of emphysema/COPD. Especially MMP9, but also MMP2, MMP7, and MMP12 seem to be involved in human emphysema. MMP12−/− mice are protected from smoke-induced emphysema. ITGB6−/− mice spontaneously...... develop age-related lung emphysema due to lack of ITGB6-TGF-β1 regulation of the MMP12 expression.A mutated pig phenotype characterized by age-related lung emphysema and resembling the ITGB6−/− mouse has been described previously. To investigate the emphysema pathogenesis in this pig model, we examined...

  20. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Karadağ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After penetrating neck traumas, physicians should consider subtle esophageal or tracheal laceration. Thyroid emphysema can occur as the result of penetrating neck trauma. The mechanism of emphysema of the thyroid parenchyma can be explained by the thyroid gland’s presence in a single visceral compartment that encompasses the larynx, trachea and thyroid gland. We describe an unusual case of thyroid emphysema of a normal thyroid gland following a penetrating neck injury.

  1. Lung volume reduction for emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, Pallav L.; Herth, Felix J.; van Geffen, Wouter H.; Deslee, Gaetan; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    Advanced emphysema is a lung disease in which alveolar capillary units are destroyed and supporting tissue is lost. The combined effect of reduced gas exchange and changes in airway dynamics impairs expiratory airflow and leads to progressive air trapping. Pharmacological therapies have limited

  2. Detecting airway remodeling in COPD and emphysema using low-dose CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyanto, R.; Ceresa, M.; Muñoz-Barrutia, A.; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, C.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we quantitatively characterize lung airway remodeling caused by smoking-related emphysema and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), in low-dose CT scans. To that end, we established three groups of individuals: subjects with COPD (n=35), subjects with emphysema (n=38) and healthy smokers (n=28). All individuals underwent a low-dose CT scan, and the images were analyzed as described next. First the lung airways were segmented using a fast marching method and labeled according to its generation. Along each airway segment, cross-section images were resampled orthogonal to the airway axis. Next 128 rays were cast from the center of the airway lumen in each crosssection slice. Finally, we used an integral-based method, to measure lumen radius, wall thickness, mean wall percentage and mean peak wall attenuation on every cast ray. Our analysis shows that both the mean global wall thickness and the lumen radius of the airways of both COPD and emphysema groups were significantly different from those of the healthy group. In addition, the wall thickness change starts at the 3rd airway generation in the COPD patients compared with emphysema patients, who display the first significant changes starting in the 2nd generation. In conclusion, it is shown that airway remodeling happens in individuals suffering from either COPD or emphysema, with some local difference between both groups, and that we are able to detect and accurately quantify this process using images of low-dose CT scans.

  3. Assessment of pulmonary emphysema on CT teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Katashi; Kato, Koji; Mitani, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    The present study assessed the current wave of using CT for the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema using teleradiology. Thirty patients were examined. CT images were transmitted by Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) to an image viewer and displayed in 4-image and 1-image arrays for reading. Pulmonary emphysema was found in 7 of the 30 patients. On both displays, the same diagnosis was obtained in 5 cases. In the remaining 2 cases, the low attenuation areas (LAAs) of mild centrilobular emphysema could be recognized only on the 1-image display. The diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema can be made by CT examination using teleradiology even in cases with mild lesions. (author)

  4. Subcutaneous emphysema during status astmaticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous subcutaneous accumulations of air in the soft parts of the thorax during an asthmatic crisis (status asthmaticus) are rarely seen. The pathomechanism of the phenomenon, which may lead to the formation of an emphysema of the soft parts via the pneumomediastinum, is discussed, and the possible complications which must be taken into account are pointed out. The value of radiological examination of the thorax in children suffering from asthma bronchiale, is explained briefly. (orig.) [de

  5. Emphysema Distribution and Diffusion Capacity Predict Emphysema Progression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janice M; Malagoli, Andrea; Santoro, Antonella; Besutti, Giulia; Ligabue, Guido; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Dai, Darlene; Hague, Cameron; Leipsic, Jonathon; Sin, Don D.; Man, SF Paul; Guaraldi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema are common amongst patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We sought to determine the clinical factors that are associated with emphysema progression in HIV. Methods 345 HIV-infected patients enrolled in an outpatient HIV metabolic clinic with ≥2 chest computed tomography scans made up the study cohort. Images were qualitatively scored for emphysema based on percentage involvement of the lung. Emphysema progression was defined as any increase in emphysema score over the study period. Univariate analyses of clinical, respiratory, and laboratory data, as well as multivariable logistic regression models, were performed to determine clinical features significantly associated with emphysema progression. Results 17.4% of the cohort were emphysema progressors. Emphysema progression was most strongly associated with having a low baseline diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and having combination centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema distribution. In adjusted models, the odds ratio (OR) for emphysema progression for every 10% increase in DLCO percent predicted was 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41–0.81). The equivalent OR (95% CI) for centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema distribution was 10.60 (2.93–48.98). Together, these variables had an area under the curve (AUC) statistic of 0.85 for predicting emphysema progression. This was an improvement over the performance of spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity ratio), which predicted emphysema progression with an AUC of only 0.65. Conclusion Combined paraseptal and centrilobular emphysema distribution and low DLCO could identify HIV patients who may experience emphysema progression. PMID:27902753

  6. Emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis: computed tomography features and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin J

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jianmin Jin,1 Shuling Li,2 Wenling Yu,2 Xiaofang Liu,1 Yongchang Sun1,3 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB is a risk factor for COPD, but the clinical characteristics and the chest imaging features (emphysema and bronchiectasis of COPD with previous PTB have not been studied well.Methods: The presence, distribution, and severity of emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with and without previous PTB were evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT and compared. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sputum culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also compared between patients with and without previous PTB.Results: A total of 231 COPD patients (82.2% ex- or current smokers, 67.5% male were consecutively enrolled. Patients with previous PTB (45.0% had more severe (p=0.045 and longer history (p=0.008 of dyspnea, more exacerbations in the previous year (p=0.011, and more positive culture of P. aeruginosa (p=0.001, compared with those without PTB. Patients with previous PTB showed a higher prevalence of bronchiectasis (p<0.001, which was more significant in lungs with tuberculosis (TB lesions, and a higher percentage of more severe bronchiectasis (Bhalla score ≥2, p=0.031, compared with those without previous PTB. The overall prevalence of emphysema was not different between patients with and without previous PTB, but in those with previous PTB, a higher number of subjects with middle (p=0.001 and lower (p=0.019 lobe emphysema, higher severity score (p=0.028, higher prevalence of panlobular emphysema (p=0.013, and more extensive centrilobular emphysema (p=0.039 were observed. Notably, in patients with

  7. An advanced case of indium lung disease with progressive emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Makiko; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Kumazoe, Hiroyuki; Wakamatsu, Kentaro; Kamada, Dan; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2016-09-30

    To report the occurrence of an advanced case of indium lung disease with severely progressive emphysema in an indium-exposed worker. A healthy 42-year-old male smoker was employed to primarily grind indium-tin oxide (ITO) target plates, exposing him to indium for 9 years (1998-2008). In 2004, an epidemiological study was conducted on indium-exposed workers at the factory in which he worked. The subject's serum indium concentration (In-S) was 99.7 μg/l, while his serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 level was 2,350 U/ml. Pulmonary function tests showed forced vital capacity (FVC) of 4.17 l (91.5% of the JRS predicted value), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) of 3.19 l (80.8% of predicted), and an FEV 1 -to-FVC ratio of 76.5%. A high-resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT) scan showed mild interlobular septal thickening and mild emphysematous changes. In 2008, he was transferred from the ITO grinding workplace to an inspection work section, where indium concentrations in total dusts had a range of 0.001-0.002 mg/m 3 . In 2009, the subject's In-S had increased to 132.1 μg/l, and pulmonary function tests revealed obstructive changes. In addition, HRCT scan showed clear evidence of progressive lung destruction with accompanying severe centrilobular emphysema and interlobular septal thickening in both lung fields. The subject's condition gradually worsened, and in 2015, he was registered with the Japan Organ Transplant Network for lung transplantation (LTx). Heavy indium exposure is a risk factor for emphysema, which can lead to a severity level that requires LTx as the final therapeutic option.

  8. The deposition, distribution and retention of inhaled 239PuO2 in the lungs of rats with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Damon, E.G.; Diel, J.H.; Hahn, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    Individuals with chronic obstructive lung disease, such as emphysema, may be more susceptible to injury from other inhaled pollutants. However, dose-response studies of inhaled radionuclides conducted to aid in estimating the biological effects of inhaled radionuclides in man have typically used healthy laboratory animals. Changes in radionuclide deposition, distribution and retention in the lungs as the result of pre-existing lung diseases could alter the radiation dose or the resulting biological effects. An experimental animal model for human emphysema, in which emphysema is induced by the intratracheal instillation of either elastase or papain, has been reviewed. This model was used to study the effects of pulmonary emphysema on the deposition, distribution and retention of inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats. (author)

  9. Prevalence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Johannes; Lorenz, Vivian-Wilma [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hagen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hagen (Germany); Kirchner, Esther Maria [Staedtisches Klinikum Wedau, Clinic for Medicine, Duisburg (Germany); Goltz, Jan Peter; Kickuth, Ralph [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)

  10. Prevalence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Johannes; Lorenz, Vivian-Wilma; Kirchner, Esther Maria; Goltz, Jan Peter; Kickuth, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)

  11. Bilirubin treatment suppresses pulmonary inflammation in a rat model of smoke-induced emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingjing; Zhao, Hui; Fan, Guoquan; Li, Jianqiang

    2015-09-18

    Cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor for emphysema, which is characterized by airway inflammation and oxidative damage. To assess the capacity of bilirubin to protect against smoke-induced emphysema. Smoking status and bilirubin levels were recorded in 58 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and 71 non-COPD participants. The impact of smoking on serum bilirubin levels and exogenous bilirubin (20 mg/kg/day) on pulmonary injury was assessed in a rat model of smoking-induced emphysema. At sacrifice lung histology, airway leukocyte accumulation and cytokine and chemokine levels in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung were analyzed. Oxidative lipid damage and anti-oxidative components was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione. Total serum bilirubin levels were lower in smokers with or without COPD than non-smoking patients without COPD (P pulmonary injury by suppressing inflammatory cell recruitment and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, and anti-oxidant SOD activity in a rat model of smoke-induced emphysema. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Nasal mucociliary transportability of male and female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzeloto, Juliana Souza; Ramos, Dionei; C F Freire, Ana Paula; G D Christofaro, Diego; Mara C Ramos, Ercy

    Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF 25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Lung volume reduction for emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pallav L; Herth, Felix J; van Geffen, Wouter H; Deslee, Gaetan; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2017-02-01

    Advanced emphysema is a lung disease in which alveolar capillary units are destroyed and supporting tissue is lost. The combined effect of reduced gas exchange and changes in airway dynamics impairs expiratory airflow and leads to progressive air trapping. Pharmacological therapies have limited effects. Surgical resection of the most destroyed sections of the lung can improve pulmonary function and exercise capacity but its benefit is tempered by significant morbidity. This issue stimulated a search for novel approaches to lung volume reduction. Alternative minimally invasive approaches using bronchoscopic techniques including valves, coils, vapour thermal ablation, and sclerosant agents have been at the forefront of these developments. Insertion of endobronchial valves in selected patients could have benefits that are comparable with lung volume reduction surgery. Endobronchial coils might have a role in the treatment of patients with emphysema with severe hyperinflation and less parenchymal destruction. Use of vapour thermal energy or a sclerosant might allow focal treatment but the unpredictability of the inflammatory response limits their current use. In this Review, we aim to summarise clinical trial evidence on lung volume reduction and provide guidance on patient selection for available therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Severity of pulmonary emphysema and lung cancer: analysis using quantitative lobar emphysema scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyungsoo; Jeon, Kyung Nyeo; Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Ho Cheol; Ha, Ji Young; Park, Sung Eun; Baek, Hye Jin; Choi, Bo Hwa; Cho, Soo Buem; Moon, Jin Il

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between lobar severity of emphysema and lung cancer using automated lobe segmentation and emphysema quantification methods.This study included 78 patients (74 males and 4 females; mean age of 72 years) with the following conditions: pathologically proven lung cancer, available chest computed tomographic (CT) scans for lobe segmentation, and quantitative scoring of emphysema. The relationship between emphysema and lung cancer was analyzed using quantitative emphysema scoring of each pulmonary lobe.The most common location of cancer was the left upper lobe (LUL) (n = 28), followed by the right upper lobe (RUL) (n = 27), left lower lobe (LLL) (n = 13), right lower lobe (RLL) (n = 9), and right middle lobe (RML) (n = 1). Emphysema ratio was the highest in LUL, followed by that in RUL, LLL, RML, and RLL. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that upper lobes (odds ratio: 1.77; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-3.11, P = 0.048) and lobes with emphysema ratio ranked the 1st or the 2nd (odds ratio: 2.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.48-4.15, P emphysema patients, lung cancer has a tendency to develop in lobes with more severe emphysema.

  15. Angiotensin-Converting Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers and Longitudinal Change in Percent Emphysema on Computed Tomography. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Lung Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Megha A.; Aaron, Carrie P.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Madrigano, Jaime; Austin, John H. M.; Lovasi, Gina; Watson, Karol; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Although emphysema on computed tomography (CT) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with and without spirometrically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, no available medications target emphysema outside of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Transforming growth factor-β and endothelial dysfunction are implicated in emphysema pathogenesis, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) inhibit transforming growth factor-β, improve endothelial function, and restore airspace architecture in murine models. Evidence in humans is, however, lacking. Objectives: To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and ARB dose is associated with slowed progression of percent emphysema by CT. Methods: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis researchers recruited participants ages 45–84 years from the general population from 2000 to 2002. Medication use was assessed by medication inventory. Percent emphysema was defined as the percentage of lung regions less than −950 Hounsfield units on CTs. Mixed-effects regression models were used to adjust for confounders. Results: Among 4,472 participants, 12% used an ACE inhibitor and 6% used an ARB at baseline. The median percent emphysema was 3.0% at baseline, and the rate of progression was 0.64 percentage points over a median of 9.3 years. Higher doses of ACE or ARB were independently associated with a slower change in percent emphysema (P = 0.03). Over 10 years, in contrast to a predicted mean increase in percent emphysema of 0.66 percentage points in those who did not take ARBs or ACE inhibitors, the predicted mean increase in participants who used maximum doses of ARBs or ACE inhibitors was 0.06 percentage points (P = 0.01). The findings were of greatest magnitude among former smokers (P emphysema. There was no evidence that ACE inhibitor or ARB dose was associated with decline in lung function. Conclusions: In a large population-based study, ACE

  16. Cervical surgical emphysema following routine tonsillectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al Omari, B

    2011-01-01

    Complications of tonsillectomy have been well documented. However spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema of the neck following tonsillectomy has rarely been described. We report a case of this complication in a young female patient.

  17. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... the chest X-ray did not find any abnormalities such as pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, or foreign bodies. Furthermore, computed ... Retropharyngeal emphysema is usually secondary to trauma, iatrogenic injury, and ...

  18. Congenital lobar emphysema in a kitten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonk, M; Van de Maele, I; Combes, A; Stablay, B; De Cock, H; Polis, I; Rybachuk, G; de Rooster, H

    2017-11-01

    A five-month-old ragdoll cat presented with severe respiratory signs, unresponsive to medical therapy. Hyperinflation of the right middle lung lobe was diagnosed with radiography and computed tomography. Lung lobectomy following a median sternotomy led to full recovery. Histopathological analysis revealed lobar emphysema and, based on the animal's age, congenital lobar emphysema was considered the most likely diagnosis. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  19. Elastase-induced emphysema in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loscutoff, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Pulmonary function changes measured in guinea pigs 4 to 5 wk following intratracheal instillation of crystalline porcine pancreatic elastase resembled comparable changes in humans with moderately severe pulmonary emphysema. Compared with saline-treated controls, elastase-treated animals had increased values for all divisions of lung volume, increased static compliance and prolonged time constants. Since humans with emphysema are especially sensitive to air pollutants, elastase-treated animals may be useful as sensitive animal models in inhalatio toxicology

  20. Protein networks in induced sputum from smokers and COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniuk JN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available James N Baraniuk,1 Begona Casado,1 Lewis K Pannell,2 Peter B McGarvey,3 Piera Boschetto,4 Maurizio Luisetti,5,† Paolo Iadarola6 1Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Proteomics and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Mitchell Cancer Center, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, 3Innovation Center for Biomedical Informatics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA; 4Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, 5SC Pneumologia, Dipartimento Medicina Molecolare, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 6Lazzaro Spallanzani Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy †Maurizio Luisetti passed away on October 20, 2014 Rationale: Subtypes of cigarette smoke-induced disease affect different lung structures and may have distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Objective: To determine if proteomic classification of the cellular and vascular origins of sputum proteins can characterize these mechanisms and phenotypes. Subjects and methods: Individual sputum specimens from lifelong nonsmokers (n=7 and smokers with normal lung function (n=13, mucous hypersecretion with normal lung function (n=11, obstructed airflow without emphysema (n=15, and obstruction plus emphysema (n=10 were assessed with mass spectrometry. Data reduction, logarithmic transformation of spectral counts, and Cytoscape network-interaction analysis were performed. The original 203 proteins were reduced to the most informative 50. Sources were secretory dimeric IgA, submucosal gland serous and mucous cells, goblet and other epithelial cells, and vascular permeability. Results: Epithelial proteins discriminated nonsmokers from smokers. Mucin 5AC was elevated in healthy smokers and chronic bronchitis, suggesting a continuum with the severity of hypersecretion determined by mechanisms of goblet-cell hyperplasia. Obstructed airflow was correlated with glandular proteins and lower levels of

  1. Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema in Scleroderma-Related Lung Disease Has a Major Confounding Effect on Lung Physiology and Screening for Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, K M; Margaritopoulos, G A; Goh, N S; Karagiannis, K; Desai, S R; Nicholson, A G; Siafakas, N M; Coghlan, J G; Denton, C P; Hansell, D M; Wells, A U

    2016-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and the effect of CPFE on the pulmonary function tests used to evaluate the severity of SSc-related ILD and the likelihood of pulmonary hypertension (PH). High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans were obtained in 333 patients with SSc-related ILD and were evaluated for the presence of emphysema and the extent of ILD. The effects of emphysema on the associations between pulmonary function variables and the extent of SSc-related ILD as visualized on HRCT and echocardiographic evidence of PH were quantified. Emphysema was present in 41 (12.3%) of the 333 patients with SSc-related ILD, in 26 (19.7%) of 132 smokers, and in 15 (7.5%) of 201 lifelong nonsmokers. When the extent of fibrosis was taken into account, emphysema was associated with significant additional differences from the expected values for diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) (average reduction of 24.1%; P emphysema had a greater effect than echocardiographically determined PH on the FVC/DLco ratio, regardless of whether it was analyzed as a continuous variable or using a threshold value of 1.6 or 2.0. Among patients with SSc-related ILD, emphysema is sporadically present in nonsmokers and is associated with a low pack-year history in smokers. The confounding effect of CPFE on measures of gas exchange has major implications for the construction of screening algorithms for PH in patients with SSc-related ILD. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Association of emphysema-like lung on cardiac computed tomography and mortality in persons without airflow obstruction: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Lung Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelsner, Elizabeth C.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Enright, Paul L.; Kawut, Steven M.; Kronmal, Richard; Lederer, David; Lima, Joao A. C.; Lovasi, Gina S.; Shea, Steven; Barr, R. Graham

    2015-01-01

    Background Whereas low lung function is known to predict mortality in the general population, the prognostic significance of emphysema on computed tomography (CT) in persons without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains uncertain. Objective To determine whether greater emphysema-like lung on CT is associated with all-cause mortality among persons without airflow obstruction or COPD in the general population. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Population-based, multiethnic sample from 6 US communities. Participants 2965 participants ages 45-84 years without airflow obstruction on spirometry. Measurements Emphysema-like lung was defined on cardiac CT as the number of lung voxels less than -950 Hounsfield Units, and was adjusted for the number of total imaged lung voxels. Results Among 2965 participants, 50.9% of whom never smoked, there were 186 deaths over a median of 6.2 years. Greater emphysema-like lung was independently associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]1.14 per one-half of the interquartile range, 95% CI 1.04-1.24, P=0.004), adjusting for potential confounders including cardiovascular risk factors and the forced expiratory volume in one second. Generalized additive models supported a linear association between emphysema-like lung and mortality without evidence for a threshold. The association was of greatest magnitude among smokers, although multiplicative interaction terms did not support effect modification by smoking status. Limitations Cardiac CT scans did not include lung apices. The number of deaths was limited among subgroup analyses. Conclusions Emphysema-like lung on CT was associated with all-cause mortality among persons without airflow obstruction or COPD in a general population sample, particularly among smokers. Recognition of the independent prognostic significance of emphysema on CT among patients without COPD on spirometry is warranted. Primary Funding Source NIH/NHLBI. PMID:25506855

  3. Characteristics of COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers in the general population: results from the CanCOLD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W C; Sin, D D; Bourbeau, J; Hernandez, P; Chapman, K R; Cowie, R; FitzGerald, J M; Marciniuk, D D; Maltais, F; Buist, A S; Road, J; Hogg, J C; Kirby, M; Coxson, H; Hague, C; Leipsic, J; O'Donnell, D E; Aaron, S D

    2015-09-01

    There is limited data on the risk factors and phenotypical characteristics associated with spirometrically confirmed COPD in never-smokers in the general population. To compare the characteristics associated with COPD by gender and by severity of airway obstruction in never-smokers and in ever-smokers. We analysed the data from 5176 adults aged 40 years and older who participated in the initial cross-sectional phase of the population-based, prospective, multisite Canadian Cohort of Obstructive Lung Disease study. Never-smokers were defined as those with a lifetime exposure of never-smokers was 6.4%, constituting 27% of all COPD subjects. The common independent predictors of COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers were older age, self reported asthma and lower education. In never-smokers a history of hospitalisation in childhood for respiratory illness was discriminative, while exposure to passive smoke and biomass fuel for heating were discriminative for women. COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers was characterised by increased respiratory symptoms, 'respiratory exacerbation' events and increased residual volume/total lung capacity, but only smokers had reduced DLCO/Va and emphysema on chest CT scans. The study confirmed the substantial burden of COPD among never-smokers, defined the common and gender-specific risk factors for COPD in never-smokers and provided early insight into potential phenotypical differences in COPD between lifelong never-smokers and ever-smokers. NCT00920348 (ClinicalTrials.gov); study ID number: IRO-93326. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer by amount of emphysema and airway wall thickness: a community-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamli Gagnat, Ane; Gjerdevik, Miriam; Gallefoss, Frode; Coxson, Harvey O; Gulsvik, Amund; Bakke, Per

    2017-05-01

    There is limited knowledge about the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness in cancer.The aim of this study was to investigate if using CT to quantitatively assess the amount of emphysema and airway wall thickness independently predicts the subsequent incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer.In the GenKOLS study of 2003-2005, 947 ever-smokers performed spirometry and underwent CT examination. The main predictors were the amount of emphysema measured by the percentage of low attenuation areas (%LAA) on CT and standardised measures of airway wall thickness (AWT-PI10). Cancer data from 2003-2013 were obtained from the Norwegian Cancer Register. The hazard ratio associated with emphysema and airway wall thickness was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression for cancer diagnoses.During 10 years of follow-up, non-pulmonary cancer was diagnosed in 11% of the subjects with LAA emphysema remained a significant predictor of the incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer. Airway wall thickness did not predict cancer independently.This study offers a strong argument that emphysema is an independent risk factor for both non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  5. Contribution of pulmonary emphysema to functional impairment in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A high-resolution CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zompatori, M.; Fasano, L.; Battista, G.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate whether high-resolution CT (HRCT) can detect the subjects with massive emphysematous destruction in a group of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and therefor be of help in selecting the candidates to surgical lung volume reduction. Have been examined 40 former smokers with severe COPD (FEV 1 ≤40% of the predicted value, with no major improvement after inhalation of bronchodilators). The emphysema extent score was significantly correlated with the hematocrit value and Tiffeneau index (p 1 was significantly correlated with emphysema extent (p [it

  6. Pulmonary emphysema in a neonate with Marfan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D L; Burke, B A

    1986-09-01

    A premature infant with arachnodactyly and congential cyanotic heart disease had severe pulmonary emphysema, a little-known manifestation of Marfan syndrome. The possible etiologies of emphysema in this syndrome are discussed.

  7. Pulmonary emphysema in a neonate with Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.L.; Burke, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    A premature infant with arachnodactyly and congential cyanotic heart disease had severe pulmonary emphysema, a little-known manifestation of Marfan syndrome. The possible etiologies of emphysema in this syndrome are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Deposition, distribution and retention of inhaled /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ in the lungs of rats with pulmonary emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D L; Damon, E G; Diel, J H; Hahn, F F [Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Albuquerque, NM (USA). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.

    1981-02-01

    Individuals with chronic obstructive lung disease, such as emphysema, may be more susceptible to injury from other inhaled pollutants. However, dose-response studies of inhaled radionuclides conducted to aid in estimating the biological effects of inhaled radionuclides in man have typically used healthy laboratory animals. Changes in radionuclide deposition, distribution and retention in the lungs as the result of pre-existing lung diseases could alter the radiation dose or the resulting biological effects. An experimental animal model for human emphysema, in which emphysema is induced by the intratracheal instillation of either elastase or papain, has been reviewed. This model was used to study the effects of pulmonary emphysema on the deposition, distribution and retention of inhaled /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ in rats.

  9. Subcutaneous emphysema in cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis without pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dixit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-alveolar air in the form of subcutaneous tissue emphysema is observed in a variety of clinical settings. Spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum is very rare. We report a case of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema secondary to cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum.

  10. Quantitative assessment of pulmonary function using low dose multi-slice spiral CT in smoker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huai; Zeng Qingsi; Zheng Jinping; Guan Yubao; Zhang Chaoliang; Cen Renli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of low dose MSCT for quantitative assessment of pulmonary function in smokers. Methods: One hundred and forty-six patients with chronic objective pulmonary disease (COPD) including 109 smokers (74.6%) and 37 non-smokers (25.3%) underwent pulmonary function test and low-dose MSCT scan. All data were analyzed using computer-aided lung analysis software. Pulmonary function parameters from low-dose MSCT were compared between smokers and non-smokers and also compared with pulmonary function test in non-smokers (Pearson test). Results: In smokers, the average volume at full inspiratory phase (Vin) was (5125 ± 862 ) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-902 ± 26) HU, mean lung density was (0.0984 ± 0.0260 ) g/cm 3 , emphysema volume was (2890 ±1370) ml. The average volume at full expiratory phase (Vex) was (2756 ±1027) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-811 ±62) HU, mean lung density was (0.1878 ±0.0631) g/cm 3 , emphysema volume was (685 ±104) ml. In non-smokers, the average Vin was (3734 ± 759) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-876 ±40) HU,mean lung density was (0.1244 ±0.0401)g/cm 3 , emphysema volume was ( 1503 ± 1217) ml. The average Vex was (1770 ± 679) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-765 ± 56) HU, mean lung density was (0.2360 ± 0.0563) g/cm 3 , emphysema volume was (156 ± 45) ml. There were significant differences between smokers and non-smokers (P<0.01). The Vex/Vin was correlated with residual volume/total lung capacity (RV/TLC, r=0.60, P<0.01), and Vin was correlated with TLC (r=0.58, P<0.01), Vex with RV (r=0.59, P<0.01). Pixel index (PI) -950 in was correlated with FEV 1% pre and FEV1/FVC% (r=-0.53, -0.62, respective, P<0.01), Pl-950ex was correlated with FEV1 % pre and FEV1/FVC% (r=-0.71, -0.77, respective, P<0.01). Conclusion: Low-dose MSCT can be a potential imaging tool for quantitative pulmonary function assessment in smokes. (authors)

  11. Pulmonary emphysema induced by methylphenidate: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapello, Gabriel Victor Guimarães; Antoniolli, Andréia; Pereira, Daniel Martins; Facco, Gilberto; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Pazetti, Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate is the most widely used drug for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, it has important side effects, such as abdominal pain, insomnia, anorexia and loss of appetite, and also some cases of early severe emphysema after drug abuse have been reported. Our aim was to investigate the development of pulmonary emphysema in rats that were subjected to different doses of methylphenidate. Experimental study carried out at the laboratory of a public university. Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (0.9% saline solution); MP 0.8 (methylphenidate, 0.8 mg/kg); MP 1.2 (methylphenidate, 1.2 mg/kg). After 90 days of daily gavage, the animals were sacrificed and lung tissue samples were prepared for analysis on the mean alveolar diameter (Lm). The Lm was greater in MP 0.8 (47.91 ± 3.13; P pulmonary emphysema.

  12. Matrix Remodeling in Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Reilly, Philip; Antony, Veena B.; Gaggar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema are chronic lung diseases characterized by a progressive decline in lung function, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A hallmark of these diseases is recurrent or persistent alveolar epithelial injury, typically caused by common environmental exposures such as cigarette smoke. We propose that critical determinants of the outcome of the injury-repair processes that result in fibrosis versus emphysema are mesenchymal cell fate and associated extracellular matrix dynamics. In this review, we explore the concept that regulation of mesenchymal cells under the influence of soluble factors, in particular transforming growth factor-β1, and the extracellular matrix determine the divergent tissue remodeling responses seen in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. PMID:26741177

  13. Lung disease with chronic obstruction in opium smokers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, J. L.; Tock, E. P. C.; Boey, H. K.

    1971-01-01

    Fifty-four opium smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied for two-and-a-half years. Forty-eight patients had a cough for at least two years before the onset of inappropriate exertional dyspnoea. Fine, bubbling adventitious sounds suggesting small airway disease were heard on auscultation over the middle and lower lobes in 38 patients. The prevalence of inflammatory lung disease and chronic respiratory failure in this series is suggested as the main cause for the frequent finding of right ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. Physiological studies revealed moderate to severe airways obstruction with gross over-inflation and, in 32 patients, an additional restrictive defect probably due to peribronchiolar fibrosis. Radiological evidence of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis was observed in 45 patients, `pure' chronic bronchiolitis in six patients, and `widespread' emphysema in 25 patients respectively. Necropsy examinations in nine patients, however, showed destructive emphysema of variable severity in all. Chronic bronchiolitis often associated with striking bronchiolectasis was present in six cases. More severe bronchiolar rather than bronchial inflammation was noted. The heavy opium smokers had characteristic nodular shadows on chest radiography, sometimes associated with a striking reticular pattern not seen in `pure' cigarette smokers. This was due to gross pigmented dust (presumably carbon) deposition in relation to blood vessels, lymphatics, and bronchioles, and also within the alveoli. It is speculated that the initial lesion is an acquired bronchiolitis. Opium smoking induces an irritative bronchopathy favouring repeated attacks of acute bronchiolitis and eventually resulting in obliterative bronchiolitis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and destructive emphysema. Images PMID:5134057

  14. CT analysis of lung cancer and coexistent emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Kyung Hee; Chung, Myung Hee; Sung, Mi Sook; Yoo, Won Jong; Son, Kyung Myung; Son, Jung Min; Park, Seog Hee

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the relation of the location and cell type of lung cancer to the location and degree in coexistent emphysema on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Ninety-eight of 209 lung cancer patients having HRCT scans were retrospectively analyzed to assess the total lung emphysema and peritumoral regional emphysema. Single and primary lung cancers were included. The clinical data, including sex, age, smoking history and the pathologic cancer subtype, were recorded to correlate with the HRCT findings. The lobar distribution, central-peripheral predominance, surrounding parenchymal abnormality for cancer, cephalocaudal predominance, and subtype for emphysema were analyzed on HRCT. Using a CT scoring method, we scored the whole lung emphysema and peritumoral emphysema, and correlated the grading of emphysema with pulmonary functional values. Sixty-nine of 98 patients with lung cancer (71%) had emphysema. Lung cancer with emphysema was significantly higher in men than in women, and was significantly related to smoking. The mean age of cancer patients without emphysema was significantly lower than that of cancer patients with emphysema (68 yrs vs. 61 yrs, p= 0.0006). Emphysema of grade I (0-25%) was found in 52 cases, grade II (25-50%) in 15, and grade III (50-75%) in 2. Total emphysema score was paralleled to peritumoral emphysema score in 64.3%, while the remaining patients had a higher peritumoral emphysema score (grade II or III) than total emphysema score (grade 0 or I). There was no statistical correlation in the developmental location between the emphysema and the lung cancer (significant correlation was only noted in grade II group of total emphysema score). The incidence of non-small cell carcinoma tended to be higher than that of small cell carcinoma in the two groups. The possibility of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodule, coexisting emphysema, and especially in elderly patients having a history of smoking must be clarified on HRCT

  15. CT of pulmonary emphysema - current status, challenges, and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litmanovich, Diana; Boiselle, Phillip M.; Bankier, Alexander A.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is characterized by irreversible destruction of lung parenchyma. Emphysema is a major contributor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which by itself is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Computed tomography (CT) is an established method for the in-vivo analysis of emphysema. This review first details the pathological basis of emphysema and shows how the subtypes of emphysema can be characterized by CT. The review then shows how CT is used to quantify emphysema, and describes the requirements and foundations for quantification to be accurate. Finally, the review discusses new challenges and their potential solution, notably focused on multi-detector-row CT, and emphasizes the open questions that future research on CT of pulmonary emphysema will have to address. (orig.)

  16. The cytoprotective role of DJ-1 and p45 NFE2 against human primary alveolar type II cell injury and emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li Hui; Bahmed, Karim; Lin, Chih-Ru; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Bolla, Sudhir; Criner, Gerard J; Kelsen, Steven; Madesh, Muniswamy; Kosmider, Beata

    2018-02-23

    Emphysema is characterized by irreversibly enlarged airspaces and destruction of alveolar walls. One of the factors contributing to this disease pathogenesis is an elevation in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the lung. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells produce and secrete pulmonary surfactants and proliferate to restore the epithelium after damage. We isolated ATII cells from control non-smokers, smokers and patients with emphysema to determine the role of NFE2 (nuclear factor, erythroid-derived 2). NFE2 is a heterodimer composed of two subunits, a 45 kDa (p45 NFE2) and 18 kDa (p18 NFE2) polypeptides. Low expression of p45 NFE2 in patients with emphysema correlated with a high ECM degradation. Moreover, we found that NFE2 knockdown increased cell death induced by cigarette smoke extract. We also studied the cross talk between p45 NFE2 and DJ-1. DJ-1 protein is a redox-sensitive chaperone that protects cells from oxidative stress. We detected that cigarette smoke significantly increased p45 NFE2 levels in DJ-1 KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Our results indicate that p45 NFE2 expression is induced by exposure to cigarette smoke, has a cytoprotective activity against cell injury, and its downregulation in human primary ATII cells may contribute to emphysema pathogenesis.

  17. Case Report Pneumomediastinum and Subcutaneous Emphysema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxygen may enhance faster absorption of air from extra-pulmonary tissues while needle aspiration and/ or surgical decompression may be useful if mediastinal structures are compressed [2,9,]. Conclusion. Extra-pulmonary extravasations of air manifested as subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum.

  18. Emphysema. Imaging for endoscopic lung volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storbeck, B.; Oldigs, M.; Rabe, K.F.; Weber, C.; University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by two entities, the more airway-predominant type (''bronchitis'') on the one hand, and emphysema-predominant type on the other. Imaging via high-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in phenotyping COPD. For patients with advanced lung emphysema, new endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies (ELVR) have been developed. Proper selection of suitable patients requires thin-section reconstruction of volumetric CT image data sets also in coronal and sagittal orientation are required. In the current manuscript we will describe emphysema subtypes (centrilobular, paraseptal, panlobular), options for quantifying emphysema and this importance of regional distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous, target area) as this is crucial for patient selection. Analysis of the interlobular fissures is obligatory despite the lack of standardization, as incomplete fissures indicate collateral ventilation (CV) via parenchymal bridges, which is an important criterion in choosing endoscopic methods of LVR. Every radiologist should be familiar with modern LVR therapies such as valves and coils, and furthermore should know what a lung doctor expects from radiologic evaluation (before and after ELVR). Finally we present a checklist as a quick reference for all steps concerning imaging for ELVR.

  19. Subcutaneous emphysema, a different way to diagnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José da Costa Medeiros

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Subcutaneous emphysema (SE is a clinical condition that occurs when air gets into soft tissues under the skin. This can occur in any part of the body depending on the type of pathology. The most common site is under the skin that covers the chest wall or neck. It is characterized by painless swelling of tissues. The classic clinical sign is a crackling sensation upon touch, resembling that of touching a sponge beneath your fingers. Objective: To describe a new way to diagnose subcutaneous emphysema. Method: Our finding was a matter of serendipity while inspecting a patient with subcutaneous emphysema using a stethoscope. Instead only hearing the patient's chest, the stethoscope was gently pressed against the skin with SE and so we were able to detect a different sound. Results: This new way to diagnose subcutaneous emphysema consists in pressing the diaphragm part of stethoscope against the patient's skin where SE is supposed to be. Thus, we are able to hear a sound of small bubbles bursting. Crackle noise has an acoustic emission energy that varies between 750-1,200 Hz, considered high frequency. Conclusion: Although currently the use of imaging methods is widespread worldwide, we would like to strengthen the value of clinical examination. Auscultation is an essential diagnostic method that has become underestimated with the advances of healthcare and medicine as a whole. We therefore propose a different approach to diagnose SE.

  20. Congenital lobar emphysema: Is surgery routinely necessary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is a rare congenital abnormality characterised by overinflation of a pulmonary lobe. Its aetiology is unknown. The management of CLE has traditionally been surgical. A newborn boy with a birthweight of 2.5 kg was delivered at full-term by caesarian section due to food delivery.

  1. Characteristics of past smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I; Tominaga, S; Suzuki, T

    1989-06-01

    We studied characteristics of past smokers according to the duration of cessation of smoking based on data from a population-based survey. Lifestyle, prevalences of various symptoms and diseases and other factors were compared among current smokers (8507 males and 2012 females), past smokers (4423 males and 684 females) and non-smokers (2431 males and 12,859 females) aged 40 years and over. Compared to current smokers, past smokers consumed more bread, milk, vegetables, fruit and black tea, and less rice, pickles, instant noodles, coffee and alcohol, had lower prevalences of cough, sputum and anorexia, participated more in cancer screening tests, weighed more, included more professional and administrative workers and had more non-smoking spouses. These characteristics resembled those of non-smokers. But past smokers had high prevalences of several cardiovascular and respiratory diseases compared to current smokers. Daily intake of coffee was inversely associated and daily intakes of fruit and milk were positively associated with the duration of abstinence from smoking after adjusting for other factors in both sexes. These results suggest that lifestyle of past smokers may contribute to risk reduction for several diseases.

  2. Functional and prognostic effects when emphysema complicates idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Joseph; Bartholmai, Brian J; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Kokosi, Maria; Maher, Toby M; Nair, Arjun; Karwoski, Ronald; Renzoni, Elisabetta; Walsh, Simon L F; Hansell, David M; Wells, Athol U

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the combination of fibrosis and emphysema has a greater effect than the sum of its parts on functional indices and outcome in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), using visual and computer-based (CALIPER) computed tomography (CT) analysis.Consecutive patients (n=272) with a multidisciplinary IPF diagnosis had the extent of interstitial lung disease (ILD) scored visually and by CALIPER. Visually scored emphysema was subcategorised as isolated or mixed with fibrotic lung. The CT scores were evaluated against functional indices forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide ( D LCO ), transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide ( K CO ), composite physiologic index (CPI)) and mortality.The presence and extent of emphysema had no impact on survival. Results were maintained following correction for age, gender, smoking status and baseline severity using D LCO , and combined visual emphysema and ILD extent. Visual emphysema quantitation indicated that relative preservation of lung volumes (FVC) resulted from tractionally dilated airways within fibrotic lung, ventilating areas of admixed emphysema (pemphysema. Conversely, only isolated emphysema (pemphysema in IPF, beyond that explained by the additive extents of both fibrosis and emphysema. With respect to the location of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema distribution determines the functional effects of emphysema. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  3. Emphysema and soluble CD14 are associated with pulmonary nodules in HIV-infected patients: implications for lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplette, Matthew; Sigel, Keith M; Morris, Alison; Shahrir, Shahida; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Kong, Chung Y; Diaz, Phillip T; Petraglia, Alycia; Crothers, Kristina

    2017-07-31

    Lung cancer screening may benefit HIV-infected (HIV) smokers because of an elevated risk of lung cancer, but may have unique harms because of HIV-specific risk factors for false-positive screens. This study seeks to understand whether inflammatory biomarkers and markers of chronic lung disease are associated with noncalcified nodules at least 4 mm (NCN) in HIV compared with uninfected patients. This is a cohort study of Examinations of HIV-Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE), including 158 HIV and 133 HIV-uninfected participants. Participants underwent a laboratory assessment [including measurement of D-dimer, interleukin 6, and soluble CD14 (sCD14)], chest computed tomography (CT), and pulmonary function testing. We created multivariable logistic regression models to determine predictors of NCN in the participants stratified by HIV status, with attention to semiqualitative scoring of radiographic emphysema, markers of pulmonary function, and inflammatory biomarkers. Of the 291 participants, 69 had NCN on chest CT. As previously reported, there was no difference in prevalence of these nodules by HIV status. Emphysema and elevated sCD14 demonstrated an association with NCN in HIV participants independent of smoking status, CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, and pulmonary function. Emphysema and sCD14, a marker of immune activation, was associated with a higher prevalence of NCN on chest CT in HIV participants. Patients with chronic immune activation and emphysema may be at higher risk for both false-positive findings and incident lung cancer, thus screening in this group requires further study to understand the balance of benefits and harms.

  4. Coal Mine Dust Desquamative Chronic Interstitial Pneumonia: A Precursor of Dust-Related Diffuse Fibrosis and of Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav M Jelic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diseases associated with coal mine dust continue to affect coal miners. Elucidation of initial pathological changes as a precursor of coal dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema, may have a role in treatment and prevention. Objective: To identify the precursor of dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema. Methods: Birefringent silica/silicate particles were counted by standard microscope under polarized light in the alveolar macrophages and fibrous tissue in 25 consecutive autopsy cases of complicated coal worker's pneumoconiosis and in 21 patients with tobacco-related respiratory bronchiolitis. Results: Coal miners had 331 birefringent particles/high power field while smokers had 4 (p<0.001. Every coal miner had intra-alveolar macrophages with silica/silicate particles and interstitial fibrosis ranging from minimal to extreme. All coal miners, including those who never smoked, had emphysema. Fibrotic septa of centrilobular emphysema contained numerous silica/silicate particles while only a few were present in adjacent normal lung tissue. In coal miners who smoked, tobacco-associated interstitial fibrosis was replaced by fibrosis caused by silica/silicate particles. Conclusion: The presence of silica/silicate particles and anthracotic pigment-laden macrophages inside the alveoli with various degrees of interstitial fibrosis indicated a new disease: coal mine dust desquamative chronic interstitial pneumonia, a precursor of both dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema. In studied coal miners, fibrosis caused by smoking is insignificant in comparison with fibrosis caused by silica/silicate particles. Counting birefringent particles in the macrophages from bronchioalveolar lavage may help detect coal mine dust desquamative chronic interstitial pneumonia, and may initiate early therapy and preventive measures.

  5. Coal Mine Dust Desquamative Chronic Interstitial Pneumonia: A Precursor of Dust-Related Diffuse Fibrosis and of Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Estalilla, Oscar C; Sawyer-Kaplan, Phyllis R; Plata, Milton J; Powers, Jeremy T; Emmett, Mary; Kuenstner, John T

    2017-07-01

    Diseases associated with coal mine dust continue to affect coal miners. Elucidation of initial pathological changes as a precursor of coal dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema, may have a role in treatment and prevention. To identify the precursor of dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema. Birefringent silica/silicate particles were counted by standard microscope under polarized light in the alveolar macrophages and fibrous tissue in 25 consecutive autopsy cases of complicated coal worker's pneumoconiosis and in 21 patients with tobacco-related respiratory bronchiolitis. Coal miners had 331 birefringent particles/high power field while smokers had 4 (pcoal miner had intra-alveolar macrophages with silica/silicate particles and interstitial fibrosis ranging from minimal to extreme. All coal miners, including those who never smoked, had emphysema. Fibrotic septa of centrilobular emphysema contained numerous silica/silicate particles while only a few were present in adjacent normal lung tissue. In coal miners who smoked, tobacco-associated interstitial fibrosis was replaced by fibrosis caused by silica/silicate particles. The presence of silica/silicate particles and anthracotic pigment-laden macrophages inside the alveoli with various degrees of interstitial fibrosis indicated a new disease: coal mine dust desquamative chronic interstitial pneumonia, a precursor of both dust-related diffuse fibrosis and emphysema. In studied coal miners, fibrosis caused by smoking is insignificant in comparison with fibrosis caused by silica/silicate particles. Counting birefringent particles in the macrophages from bronchioalveolar lavage may help detect coal mine dust desquamative chronic interstitial pneumonia, and may initiate early therapy and preventive measures.

  6. Recurrent subcutaneous emphysema of the face: a challenging clinical problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjati, Hossein; Davani, Sam Zeraatian Nejad; Johari, Hamed Ghoddusi

    2007-01-01

    In the neck or face, there are different causes for subcutaneous emphysema such as injury to the sinuses, the hypopharynx, the laryngotracheal complex, the pulmonary parenchyma, the esophagus or the presence of gas-forming organisms. However, factitious subcutaneous emphysema, a rare cause, must be considered in the differential diagnosis. In this clinical report, we discuss a 20-year-old girl who was under follow-up because of recurrent subcutaneous emphysema of the face and periorbital area. After 2 years of work-ups, including a period of close observation in the intensive care unit, self air injection by syringe was found as the cause of recurrent subcutaneous emphysema of the face, and the patient was labeled as having factitious recurrent subcutaneous emphysema. Therefore, when a patient presents with unexplained recurrent subcutaneous emphysema, one should suspect self-infliction and examine for puncture marks.

  7. Assessment of regional progression of pulmonary emphysema with CT densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, M Els; Putter, Hein; Stolk, Jan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung densitometry is an effective method to assess overall progression of emphysema, but generally the location of the progression is not estimated. We hypothesized that progression of emphysema is the result of extension from affected areas toward less affected areas in the lung....... To test this hypothesis, a method was developed to assess emphysema severity at different levels in the lungs in order to estimate regional changes. METHODS: Fifty subjects with emphysema due to alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) [AATD deficiency of phenotype PiZZ (PiZ) group] and 16 subjects...... with general emphysema (general emphysema without phenotype PiZZ [non-PiZ] group) were scanned with CT at baseline and after 30 months. Densitometry was performed in 12 axial partitions of equal volumes. To indicate predominant location, craniocaudal locality was defined as the slope in the plot of densities...

  8. Automated quantification of emphysema in CT studies of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, D.C.; deKemp, R.A.; Coblentz, C.L.; Nahmias, C.

    1991-01-01

    Emphysema by definition is a pathologic diagnosis. Recently, in vivo quantification of emphysema from CT with point counting and with a GE 9800 CT scanner program called Density Mask has been described. These methods are laborious and time-consuming, making them unsuitable for screening. The propose of this paper is to create a screening test for emphysema. The authors developed a computer program that quantifies the amount of emphysema from standard CT-scans. The computer was programmed to recognize the lung edges on each section by identifying abrupt changes in CT numbers; grow regions within each lung to identify and separate the lungs from other structures; count regions of lung containing CT numbers measuring <-900 HU corresponding to areas of emphysema; and calculation the percentage of emphysema present from the volume of normal emphysematous lung. The programs were written in C and urn on a Sun 4/100 workstation

  9. Autoreactive T Cells in Human Smokers Is Predictive of Clinical Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang eXu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have suggested a role for activation of adaptive immunity in smokers with emphysema, but the clinical application of these findings has not been explored. Here we examined the utility of detecting autoreactive T cells as a screening tool for emphysema in an at-risk population of smokers. We followed 156 former and current (ever-smokers for two years to assess whether peripheral blood CD4 T cell cytokine responses to lung elastin fragments (EFs could discriminate between those with and without emphysema, and to evaluate the relevance of autoreactive T cells to predict changes during follow-up in lung physiological parameters. Volunteers underwent baseline complete phenotypic assessment with pulmonary function tests, quantitative chest CT, yearly six minutes walk distance (6MWD testing, and annual measurement of CD4 T cell cytokine responses to EFs. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict emphysema for interferon gamma (IFN-γ, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 responses to EFs were 0.81 (95% CI of 0.74 to 0.88 and 0.79 (95% CI of 0.72 to 0.86 respectively. We developed a dual cytokine enzyme-linked immunocell spot assay, the γ-6 Spot, using CD4 T cell IFN-γ and IL-6 responses and found that it discriminated emphysema with 90% sensitivity. After adjusting for potential confounders, the presence of autoreactive T cells was predictive of a decrease in 6MWD over two years (decline in 6MWD, -19 meters (m per fold change in IFN-γ; P=0.026, and -26 m per fold change in IL-6; P=0.003. These findings collectively suggest that the EF specific autoreactive CD4 T cell assay, γ-6 Spot, could provide a non-invasive diagnostic tool with potential application to large-scale screening to discriminate emphysema in ever-smokers, and predict early relevant physiological outcomes in those at risk.

  10. Diagnosis of chronic pulmonary emphysema with introduction of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Hiroaki

    1990-01-01

    Early or slight chronic pulmonary emphysema (CPE) may be difficult to diagnose. Therefore, this study examined local and overall lung CT densities, pulmonary function, and clinical features in 15 patients with selective alveolo-bronchography-proven CPE and 9 healthy volunteers to establish the method for diagnosing CPE early. Selective alveolo-bronchography revealed a ring shadow of 900 μm or more in all patients. CT densities in the whole lung, and all of the upper, horizontal middle, lower, anterior, frontal middle, and posterior regions were significantly lower in the CPE group than the control group. Mean CT density in the upper region was significantly lower than in the lower region in the CPE group, although there was no difference in CT densities between the upper and lower regions in the control group. In the control group, mean CT density in the anterior region was significantly lower than in the posterior region. Mean values of FVC, %FVC, FFV 1.0 , FFV 1.0 %, PEF, and V 50 /V 25 were significantly decreased in the CPE group. Mean lung CT densities were capable of detecting CPE in 12 patients. There was significant correlation between mean CT densities and both FEV 1.0 % and PEF. The discrepancy in CT density between the upper and lower regions showed a positive correlation to V 50 /V 25 . According to clinical features, patients having persistent cough and sputum had a larger diameter of ring shadow and a great difference in CT density between the upper and lower regions than those having dyspnea. The existence of both cough and sputum seemed to be associated with inhomogeneously destroyed alveoli. In conclusion, when FEV 1.0 % of 55%-80% and V 50 /V 25 of 3.2 or more are seen in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cigarette smokers aged 40 years or over, and when CT reveals mean lung density of -912 H.U. or less or the difference of 23 H.U. or more in the upper and lower regions, emphysema can be diagnosed clinically. (N.K.)

  11. Semi-automated scoring of pulmonary emphysema from X-ray CT: Trainee reproducibility and accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owrangi, Amir M., E-mail: aowrangi@robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Entwistle, Brandon, E-mail: Brandon.Entwistle@londonhospitals.ca; Lu, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.Lu@londonhospitals.ca; Chiu, Jack, E-mail: Jack.Chiu@londonhospitals.ca; Hussain, Nabil, E-mail: Nabil.Hussain@londonhospitals.ca; Etemad-Rezai, Roya, E-mail: Roya.EtemadRezai@lhsc.on.ca; Parraga, Grace, E-mail: gparraga@robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medical Imaging, Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: We developed a semi-automated tool to quantify emphysema from thoracic X-ray multi-detector (64-slice) computed tomography (CT) for training purposes and multi-reader studies. Materials and Methods: Thoracic X-ray CT was acquired in 93 ex-smokers, who were evaluated by six trainees with little or no expertise (trainees) and a single experienced thoracic radiologist (expert). A graphic user interface (GUI) was developed for emphysema quantification based on the percentile of lung where a score of 0 = no abnormalities, 1 = 1–25%, 2 = 26–50%, 3 = 51–75% and 4 = 76–100% for each lung side/slice. Trainees blinded to subject characteristics scored randomized images twice; accuracy was determined by comparison to expert scores, density histogram 15th percentile (HU{sub 15}), relative area at −950 HU (RA{sub 950}), low attenuation clusters at −950 HU (LAC{sub 950}), −856 HU (LAC{sub 856}) and the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO%pred}). Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was evaluated using coefficients-of-variation (COV), intra-class (ICC) and Pearson correlations. Results: Trainee–expert correlations were significant (r = 0.85–0.97, p < 0.0001) and a significant trainee bias (0.15 ± 0.22) was observed. Emphysema score was correlated with RA{sub 950} (r = 0.88, p < 0.0001), HU{sub 15} (r = −0.77, p < 0.0001), LAC{sub 950} (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001), LAC{sub 856} (r = 0.74, p = 0.0001) and DL{sub CO%pred} (r = −0.71, p < 0.0001). Intra-observer reproducibility (COV = 4–27%; ICC = 0.75–0.94) was moderate to high for trainees; intra- and inter-observer COV were negatively and non-linearly correlated with emphysema score. Conclusion: We developed a GUI for rapid and interactive emphysema scoring that allows for comparison of multiple readers with clinical and radiological standards.

  12. Reproducibility of scoring emphysema by HRCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinen, A.; Partanen, K.; Rytkoenen, H.; Vanninen, R.; Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the reproducibility of three visual scoring methods of emphysema and compared these methods with pulmonary function tests (VC, DLCO, FEV1 and FEV%) among farmer's lung patients and farmers. Material and Methods: Three radiologists examined high-resolution CT images of farmer's lung patients and their matched controls (n=70) for chronic interstitial lung diseases. Intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver variability were assessed for three methods: severity, Sanders' (extent) and Sakai. Pulmonary function tests as spirometry and diffusing capacity were measured. Results: Intraobserver -values for all three methods were good (0.51-0.74). Interobserver varied from 0.35 to 0.72. The Sanders' and the severity methods correlated strongly with pulmonary function tests, especially DLCO and FEV1. Conclusion: The Sanders' method proved to be reliable in evaluating emphysema, in terms of good consistency of interpretation and good correlation with pulmonary function tests

  13. Reproducibility of scoring emphysema by HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, A.; Partanen, K.; Rytkoenen, H.; Vanninen, R. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen, R. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Pulmonary Diseases

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the reproducibility of three visual scoring methods of emphysema and compared these methods with pulmonary function tests (VC, DLCO, FEV1 and FEV%) among farmer's lung patients and farmers. Material and Methods: Three radiologists examined high-resolution CT images of farmer's lung patients and their matched controls (n=70) for chronic interstitial lung diseases. Intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver variability were assessed for three methods: severity, Sanders' (extent) and Sakai. Pulmonary function tests as spirometry and diffusing capacity were measured. Results: Intraobserver -values for all three methods were good (0.51-0.74). Interobserver varied from 0.35 to 0.72. The Sanders' and the severity methods correlated strongly with pulmonary function tests, especially DLCO and FEV1. Conclusion: The Sanders' method proved to be reliable in evaluating emphysema, in terms of good consistency of interpretation and good correlation with pulmonary function tests.

  14. Computed tomography of post-traumatic orbito-palpebral emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nose, Harumi; Kohno, Keiko

    1981-01-01

    Two cases of orbito-palpebral emphysema are described. Both having a history of recent facial trauma, emphysema occurred after blowing the nose. They were studied by computed tomography and plain x-ray film, including tomograms of the orbit. The emphysema was revealed by computed tomography and x-ray film, but more clearly by the former technique. The fracture lines of the orbit were revealed in only one case by x-ray film, but in both cases by computed tomography. The authors stress that computed tomography is the best technique for the study of orbital emphysema. (author)

  15. Congenital lobar emphysema in neonates: Anaesthetic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridu Paban Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE is a potentially reversible, though possibly life-threatening, cause of respiratory distress in the neonate. It poses dilemma in diagnosis and management. We are presenting a 6-week-old baby who presented with a sudden onset of respiratory distress related to CLE affecting the left upper lobe. Lobectomy was performed under general anaesthesia with one lung ventilation. The details of anaesthetic challenges and management are described here.

  16. Cervicofacial subcutaneous air emphysema after dental extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznick, J B; Ardary, W C

    1990-04-01

    A patient was seen by a general practitioner for surgical removal of his third molar. A standard high-speed handpiece was used to remove the tooth. During the procedure, subcutaneous emphysema developed. Later the same day, the patient's swelling increased and his airway was compromised. The patient's condition, the differential diagnosis, etiological factors, and treatment of this condition are all detailed within this clinical report.

  17. Risk for COPD with Obstruction of Active Smokers with Normal Spirometry and Reduced Diffusion Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaner, Robert J.; Sanders, Abraham; Vincent, Thomas L.; Mezey, Jason G.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokers are assessed for COPD using spirometry, with COPD defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as airflow limitation not fully reversible with bronchodilators. There is a subset of smokers with normal spirometry (by GOLD criteria), who have a low diffusion capacity (DLCO), a parameter linked to emphysema and small airway disease. The natural history of these “normal spirometry/low DLCO” smokers is unknown. Methods From a cohort of 1570 smokers in the New York City metropolitian area, all of whom had normal spirometry, two groups were randomly selected for lung function follow-up: smokers with normal spirometry/normal DLCO (n=59) and smokers with normal spirometry/low DLCO (n=46). All had normal history, physical examination, CBC, urinalysis, HIV status, α1-antitrypsin level, chest X-ray, FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio and total lung capacity (TLC). Throughout the study, all continued to be active smokers. Findings In the normal spirometry/normal DLCO group assessed over 45 ± 20 months, 3% developed GOLD-defined COPD. In contrast, in the normal spirometry/low DLCO group, followed over 41 ± 31 months, 22% developed GOLD-defined COPD. Interpretation Despite appearing “normal” by GOLD, smokers with normal spirometry but low DLCO are at significant risk for developing COPD with obstruction to airflow. PMID:26541521

  18. Proportion and clinical characteristics of non-asthmatic non-smokers among adults with airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Hiroto; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Niimi, Kyoko; Tomomatsu, Hiromi; Tomomatsu, Katsuyoshi; Hayama, Naoki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Takuya; Urano, Tetsuya; Asai, Satomi; Miyachi, Hayato; Asano, Koichiro

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mainly develops after long-term exposure to cigarette or biomass fuel smoke, but also occurs in non-smokers with or without a history of asthma. We investigated the proportion and clinical characteristics of non-smokers among middle-aged to elderly subjects with airflow obstruction. We retrospectively analyzed 1,892 subjects aged 40-89 years who underwent routine preoperative spirometry at a tertiary university hospital in Japan. Airflow obstruction was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity non-asthmatic patients with airflow obstruction, 94 (34%) were non-smokers. A larger number of women than men with airflow obstruction had asthma (26% vs. 7.6%, p non-smokers among non-asthmatics (72% vs. 20%, p Non-asthmatic non-smokers, rather than non-asthmatic smokers, asthmatic non-smokers, and asthmatic smokers, exhibited better pulmonary function (median FEV1: 79% of predicted FEV1 vs. 73%, 69%, and 66%, respectively, p = 0.005) and less dyspnea on exertion (1% vs. 12%, 12%, and 28%, respectively, p = 0.001). Pulmonary emphysema on thoracic computed tomography was less common in non-smokers (p non-smokers with airflow obstruction compatible with COPD in Japan. In this study, airflow obstruction in non-smokers was more common in women and likelier to result in mild functional and pathological abnormalities than in smokers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the long-term prognosis and appropriate management of this population in developed countries, especially in women.

  19. Proportion and clinical characteristics of non-asthmatic non-smokers among adults with airflow obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Hiroto; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Niimi, Kyoko; Tomomatsu, Hiromi; Tomomatsu, Katsuyoshi; Hayama, Naoki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Urano, Tetsuya; Asai, Satomi; Miyachi, Hayato; Asano, Koichiro

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mainly develops after long-term exposure to cigarette or biomass fuel smoke, but also occurs in non-smokers with or without a history of asthma. We investigated the proportion and clinical characteristics of non-smokers among middle-aged to elderly subjects with airflow obstruction. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 1,892 subjects aged 40–89 years who underwent routine preoperative spirometry at a tertiary university hospital in Japan. Airflow obstruction was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity non-asthmatic patients with airflow obstruction, 94 (34%) were non-smokers. A larger number of women than men with airflow obstruction had asthma (26% vs. 7.6%, p non-smokers among non-asthmatics (72% vs. 20%, p Non-asthmatic non-smokers, rather than non-asthmatic smokers, asthmatic non-smokers, and asthmatic smokers, exhibited better pulmonary function (median FEV1: 79% of predicted FEV1 vs. 73%, 69%, and 66%, respectively, p = 0.005) and less dyspnea on exertion (1% vs. 12%, 12%, and 28%, respectively, p = 0.001). Pulmonary emphysema on thoracic computed tomography was less common in non-smokers (p non-smokers with airflow obstruction compatible with COPD in Japan. In this study, airflow obstruction in non-smokers was more common in women and likelier to result in mild functional and pathological abnormalities than in smokers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the long-term prognosis and appropriate management of this population in developed countries, especially in women. PMID:29742176

  20. Panlobular emphysema in young intravenous Ritalin abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.A.; Glenny, R.W.; Godwin, J.D.; Hampson, N.B.; Cantino, M.E.; Reichenbach, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    We studied a distinctive group of young intravenous Ritalin abusers with profound obstructive lung disease. Clinically, they seemed to have severe emphysema, but the pathologic basis of their symptoms had not been investigated previously. Seven patients have died and been autopsied: in four, the lungs were fixed, inflated, dried, and examined in detail radiologically, grossly, microscopically, and by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. All seven patients had severe panlobular (panacinar) emphysema that tended to be more severe in the lower lung zones and that was associated with microscopic talc granulomas. Vascular involvement by talc granulomas was variable, but significant interstitial fibrosis was not present. Five patients were tested for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and found to be normal, as were six similar living patients. These findings indicate that some intravenous drug abusers develop emphysema that clinically, radiologically, and pathologically resembles that caused by alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency but which must have a different pathogenesis. Talc from the Ritalin tablets may be important, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated

  1. Influence of experimental pulmonary emphysema on the toxicological effects from inhaled nitrogen dioxide and diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bice, D.E.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gillett, N.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    This project examined the influence of preexisting, experimentally induced pulmonary emphysema on the adverse health effects in rats of chronic inhalation exposure to either nitrogen dioxide or automotive diesel-engine exhaust. Previous reports indicated that humans with chronic lung disease were among those most severely affected by episodic exposures to high concentrations of airborne toxicants. There were no previous reports comparing the effects of chronic inhalation exposure to components of automotive emissions in emphysematous and normal animals. The hypothesis tested in this project was that rats with preexisting pulmonary emphysema were more susceptible than rats with normal lungs to the adverse effects of the toxicant exposures. Young adult rats were housed continuously in inhalation exposure chambers and exposed seven hours per day, five days per week, for 24 months to nitrogen dioxide at 9.5 parts per million (ppm)2, or to diesel exhaust at 3.5 mg soot/m3, or to clean air as control animals. These concentrations were selected to produce mild, but distinct, effects in rats with normal lungs. Pulmonary emphysema was induced in one-half of the rats by intratracheal instillation of the proteolytic enzyme elastase six weeks before the toxicant exposures began. Health effects were evaluated after 12, 18, and 24 months of exposure. The measurements included respiratory function, clearance of inhaled radiolabeled particles, pulmonary immune responses to instilled antigen, biochemistry and cytology of airway fluid, total lung collagen, histopathology, lung morphometry, and lung burdens of diesel soot. The significance of influences of emphysema and toxicant exposure, and interactions between influences of the two treatments, were evaluated by analysis of variance

  2. Subgingival bacterial recolonization after scaling and root planing in smokers with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feres, M; Bernal, Mac; Matarazzo, F; Faveri, M; Duarte, P M; Figueiredo, L C

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare subgingival bacterial recolonization patterns after scaling and root planing in current smokers and non-smokers. 15 smokers and 15 non-smokers with chronic periodontitis received scaling and root planing in six visits lasting one hour each, over a period of 21 days. Clinical monitoring was performed at baseline and 180 days, and microbiological monitoring was performed at baseline, immediately after scaling and root planing (Day 0) and at 42, 63 and 180 days post-therapy. Subgingival plaque samples were analysed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. An improvement in clinical condition was observed for smokers and non-smokers; however, non-smokers showed a greater reduction in mean clinical attachment level in intermediate sites in comparison with smokers (p < 0.05). At Day 0, there was a significant reduction in the mean counts of the three pathogens from the red complex, Eubacterium nodatum and Parvimonas micra only in non-smokers (p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in the proportion of host-compatible species in non-smokers and smokers from baseline to 180 days post-therapy (p < 0.05). However, a significant decrease in the pathogenic species was observed only in non-smokers. Smokers were more susceptible to the re-establishment of a pathogenic subgingival biofilm than non-smokers. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Comparison of efficacy of long-acting bronchodilators in emphysema dominant and emphysema nondominant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisaku Fujimoto1, Yoshiaki Kitaguchi2, Shintaro Kanda2, Kazuhisa Urushihata2, Masayuki Hanaoka2, Keishi Kubo21Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between morphological phenotypes according to the predominance of emphysema and efficacy of long-acting muscarinic antagonist and β2 agonist bronchodilators in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: Seventy-two patients with stable COPD treated with tiotropium (n = 41 or salmeterol (n = 31 were evaluated for pulmonary function, dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation, six-minute walking distance, and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ before and 2–3 months following treatment with tiotropium or salmeterol. They were then visually divided into an emphysema dominant phenotype (n = 25 in the tiotropium-treated group and n = 22 in the salmeterol-treated group and an emphysema nondominant phenotype on high-resolution computed tomography, and the efficacy of the two drugs in each phenotype was retrospectively analyzed.Results: Tiotropium significantly improved airflow limitation, oxygenation, and respiratory impedance in both the emphysema dominant and emphysema nondominant phenotypes, and improved dynamic hyperinflation, exercise capacity, and SGRQ in the emphysema dominant phenotype but not in the emphysema nondominant phenotype. Salmeterol significantly improved total score for SGRQ in the emphysema phenotype, but no significant effects on other parameters were found for either of the phenotypes.Conclusion: These findings suggest that tiotropium is more effective than salmeterol for airflow limitation regardless of emphysema dominance, and also can improve dynamic hyperinflation in the emphysema dominant phenotype, which results in further

  4. Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model. PMID:22882894

  5. Mortality by Level of Emphysema and Airway Wall Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Ane; Skorge, Trude Duelien; Bottai, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    There is limited knowledge of the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) on mortality.......There is limited knowledge of the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) on mortality....

  6. Cathepsin E promotes pulmonary emphysema via mitochondrial fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuchen; Shan, Peiying; Homer, Robert; Zhang, Yi; Petrache, Irina; Mannam, Praveen; Lee, Patty J

    2014-10-01

    Emphysema is characterized by loss of lung elasticity and irreversible air space enlargement, usually in the later decades of life. The molecular mechanisms of emphysema remain poorly defined. We identified a role for a novel cathepsin, cathepsin E, in promoting emphysema by inducing mitochondrial fission. Unlike previously reported cysteine cathepsins, which have been implicated in cigarette smoke-induced lung disease, cathepsin E is a nonlysosomal intracellular aspartic protease whose function has been described only in antigen processing. We examined lung tissue sections of persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a clinical entity that includes emphysematous change. Human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease lungs had markedly increased cathepsin E protein in the lung epithelium. We generated lung epithelial-targeted transgenic cathepsin E mice and found that they develop emphysema. Overexpression of cathepsin E resulted in increased E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin, mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1, caspase activation/apoptosis, and ultimately loss of lung parenchyma resembling emphysema. Inhibiting dynamin-related protein 1, using a small molecule inhibitor in vitro or in vivo, inhibited cathepsin E-induced apoptosis and emphysema. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to identify links between cathepsin E, mitochondrial fission, and caspase activation/apoptosis in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. Our data expand the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of emphysema development and may provide new therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cement dust exposure-related emphysema in a construction worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Karkhanis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although, smoking is considered the most important predisposing factor in development of emphysema; environmental exposures also play an important role. There have been several studies on work related respiratory symptoms and ventilatory disorders among employees of cement industry. We report a case of cement exposure related emphysema in 75 years old woman construction worker.

  8. Lung emphysema induced by cigarette smoke: Studies in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijl, Teunis Jan Ahasuerus van

    2006-01-01

    The experiments described in this thesis were designed to shed some more light on the mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema. We used elastase instillation to induce lung emphysema, and subsequently perfused the lungs ex-vivo with buffer at a range of flows to measure changes

  9. Bullae, Bronchiectasis and Nutritional Emphysema in Severe Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Cook

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary complications of anorexia nervosa are rarely documented. The case of a patient with anorexia nervosa and pulmonary disease is presented, a new quantitative computed tomography (CT method for the detection of emphysema is employed, the literature is reviewed and the concept of 'nutritional' emphysema is discussed.

  10. The extent of emphysema in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher Burhan; Stavngaard, Trine; Hestad, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The global initiative for COPD (GOLD) adopted the degree of airway obstruction as a measure of the severity of the disease. The objective of this study was to apply CT to assess the extent of emphysema in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and relate...... measurement and visual and quantitative assessment of CT, from which the relative area of emphysema below -910 Hounsfield units (RA-910) was extracted. RESULTS: Mean RA-910 was 7.4% (n = 5) in patients with GOLD stage I, 17.0% (n = 119) in stage II, 24.2% (n = 79) in stage III and 33.9% (n = 6) in stage IV....... Regression analysis showed a change in RA-910 of 7.8% with increasing severity according to GOLD stage (P emphysema, whereas 25 patients had no emphysema. CONCLUSION: The extent of emphysema...

  11. Surgical Outcomes of Lung Cancer Patients with Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema and Those with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis without Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Seijiro; Koike, Terumoto; Hashimoto, Takehisa; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Okada, Akira; Watanabe, Takehiro; Tsuchida, Masanori

    2016-08-23

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a unique disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical outcomes of lung cancer patients with CPFE and those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) without emphysema. A total of 1548 patients who underwent surgery for primary lung cancer between January 2001 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 1548 patients, 55 (3.6%) had CPFE on computed tomography (CT), and 45 (2.9%) had IPF without emphysema. The overall and disease-free 5-year survival rates for patients with CPFE were not significantly worse than those for patients with IPF without emphysema (24.9% vs. 36.8%, p = 0.814; 39.8% vs. 39.3%, p = 0.653, respectively). Overall, 21 (38.1%) patients with CPFE and nine patients (20.0%) with IPF without emphysema developed postoperative cardiopulmonary complications. Patients with CPFE had significantly more postoperative cardiopulmonary complications involving pulmonary air leakage for >6 days, hypoxemia, and arrhythmia than patients with IPF without emphysema (p = 0.048). There was no significant difference in survival after surgical treatment between CPFE patients and IPF patients without emphysema, but CPFE patients had significantly higher morbidity than IPF patients without emphysema.

  12. Lung volume reduction surgery for emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, K R; Martinez, F J

    2000-12-01

    Over the past decades, extensive literature has been published regarding surgical therapies for advanced COPD. Lung-volume reduction surgery would be an option for a significantly larger number of patients than classic bullectomy or lung transplantation. Unfortunately, the initial enthusiasm has been tempered by major questions regarding the optimal surgical approach, safety, firm selection criteria, and confirmation of long-term benefits. In fact, the long-term follow-up reported in patients undergoing classical bullectomy should serve to caution against unbridled enthusiasm for the indiscriminate application of LVRS. Those with the worst long-term outcome despite favourable short-term improvements after bullectomy have consistently been those with the lowest pulmonary function and significant emphysema in the remaining lung who appear remarkably similar to those being evaluated for LVRS. With this in mind, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute partnered with the Health Care Finance Administration to establish a multicenter, prospective, randomized study of intensive medical management, including pulmonary rehabilitation versus the same plus bilateral (by MS or VATS), known as the National Emphysema Treatment Trial. The primary objectives are to determine whether LVRS improves survival and exercise capacity. The secondary objectives will examine effects on pulmonary function and HRQL, compare surgical techniques, examine selection criteria for optimal response, identify criteria to determine those who are at prohibitive surgical risk, and examine long-term cost effectiveness. It is hoped that data collected from this novel, multicenter collaboration will place the role of LVRS in a clearer perspective for the physician caring for patients with advanced emphysema.

  13. The prognostic impact of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in patients with clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Tomoyoshi; Furuya, Kiyomi; Yamazaki, Koji; Miura, Naoko; Tsutsui, Kana; Takeo, Sadanori

    2018-02-01

    We evaluated the long-term outcomes of clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) who underwent lobectomy. We reviewed the chest computed tomography (CT) findings and divided the patients into normal, fibrosis, emphysema and CPFE groups. We evaluated the relationships among the CT findings, the clinicopathological findings and postoperative survival. The patients were classified into the following groups based on the preoperative chest CT findings: normal lung, n = 187; emphysema, n = 62; fibrosis, n = 8; and CPFE, n = 17. The patients with CPFE were significantly older, more likely to be men and smokers, had a higher KL-6 level and lower FEV 1.0% value and had a higher rate of squamous cell carcinoma. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival rates were as follows: normal group, 82.5 and 76.8%; emphysema group, 80.0 and 74.9%; fibrosis group, 46.9 and 50%; and CPFE group, 36.9 and 27.9%, respectively (p < 0.01). A univariate and multivariate analysis determined that the pathological stage and CT findings were associated with OS. CPFE is a significantly unfavorable prognostic factor after lobectomy, even in early-stage NSCLC patients with a preserved lung function.

  14. The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

  15. Comparison of native light daily smokers and light daily smokers who were former heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Laura J; Pollak, Kathryn I; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Mathur, Charu; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-05-01

    An increasing proportion of daily smokers are light smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day). Some light smokers have never smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day (native light smokers) and others smoked at higher levels but have cut down (converted light smokers). It is important that we expand our understanding of these distinct subgroups of light smokers in order to develop effective interventions. Data for this report come from a larger sample of smokers who completed a cross-sectional survey administered through an online panel survey service. The sample of 522 light smokers included 256 native light smokers and 266 as converted light smokers. The goal of the analysis was to examine demographic, smoking, and psychosocial factors that differentiate between native and converted light smokers. Multivariable logistic regression results showed 4 variables that differentiated between native and converted light smokers. Native light smokers were more likely to be Black than White, smoke fewer cigarettes per day, smoked fewer total years, and had higher perceived risk of heart disease than converted light smokers. Native and converted light smokers are similar in many ways and also differ on some important characteristics. Further exploration of group difference is needed and could help to inform for cessation strategies for daily light smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Pulmonary responses in current smokers and ex-smokers following a two hour exposure at rest to clean air and fine ambient air particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Increased susceptibility of smokers to ambient PM may potentially promote development of COPD and accelerate already present disease. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the acute and subacute lung function response and inflammatory effects of controlled chamber exposure t...

  17. Quantitative bronchial luminal volumetric assessment of pulmonary function loss by thin-section MDCT in pulmonary emphysema patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Hisanobu; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Yamazaki, Youichi; Onishi, Yumiko; Takenaka, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Nishio, Mizuho; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Murase, Kenya; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the capability of quantitative bronchial luminal volume to assess pulmonary function loss and disease severity in pulmonary emphysema patients. Methods: Thirty-seven smokers (mean age, 68.1 years) underwent CT examinations and pulmonary function tests. For the quantitative assessment, luminal voxels of trachea and bronchi were computationally counted and the ratio of the following luminal voxels to all luminal voxels was obtained: (1) the lobe bronchi and the peripheral bronchi (Ratio lobe ), and (2) the main bronchi and the peripheral bronchi (Ratio main ). To determine the capability of these assessments to predict pulmonary function loss, these ratios were correlated with pulmonary function tests. To determine the capability for predicting disease severity, these ratios were compared between clinical groups. Results: These ratios were no significant correlated with vital capacity and forced vital capacity (FVC) (p > 0.05), however significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (Ratio lobe : r = 0.61, p main : r = 0.58, p lobe : r = 0.36, p main : r = 0.33, p lobe of smokers without COPD was significantly different from those of moderate COPD and severe or very severe COPD (p main of severe or very severe COPD patients was significantly different from those of other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative bronchial luminal volumes were reflected the airflow limitation parameters and was corresponded to clinical groups in emphysema patients.

  18. Tobacco Marketing, E-cigarette Susceptibility, and Perceptions among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicksic, Nicole E; Snell, L Morgan; Rudy, Alyssa K; Cobb, Caroline O; Barnes, Andrew J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the impact of tobacco marketing on e-cigarette (EC) susceptibility and perceptions is essential to inform efforts to mitigate tobacco product burden on public health. Data were collected online in 2016 from 634 conventional cigarette (CC) smokers and 393 non-smokers using a convenience sample from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Logistic regression models, stratified by smoking status and adjusted for socio-demographics, examined the relationship among tobacco advertisements and coupons, EC and CC susceptibility, and EC perceptions. Among non-smokers, increased exposure to tobacco advertising and receiving tobacco coupons was significantly related to measures of EC and CC susceptibility (p marketing reduce EC use by decreasing susceptibility.

  19. Posttraumatic Orbital Emphysema: A Numerical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Skorek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features—thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall. The observation was made from 1·10-3 to 1·10-2 second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found.

  20. Lung volume reduction surgery for diffuse emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Agteren, Joseph Em; Carson, Kristin V; Tiong, Leong Ung; Smith, Brian J

    2016-10-14

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) performed to treat patients with severe diffuse emphysema was reintroduced in the nineties. Lung volume reduction surgery aims to resect damaged emphysematous lung tissue, thereby increasing elastic properties of the lung. This treatment is hypothesised to improve long-term daily functioning and quality of life, although it may be costly and may be associated with risks of morbidity and mortality. Ten years have passed since the last version of this review was prepared, prompting us to perform an update. The objective of this review was to gather all available evidence from randomised controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) versus non-surgical standard therapy in improving health outcomes for patients with severe diffuse emphysema. Secondary objectives included determining which subgroup of patients benefit from LVRS and for which patients LVRS is contraindicated, to establish the postoperative complications of LVRS and its morbidity and mortality, to determine which surgical approaches for LVRS are most effective and to calculate the cost-effectiveness of LVRS. We identified RCTs by using the Cochrane Airways Group Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) register, in addition to the online clinical trials registers. Searches are current to April 2016. We included RCTs that studied the safety and efficacy of LVRS in participants with diffuse emphysema. We excluded studies that investigated giant or bullous emphysema. Two independent review authors assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. When possible, we combined data from more than one study in a meta-analysis using RevMan 5 software. We identified two new studies (89 participants) in this updated review. A total of 11 studies (1760 participants) met the entry criteria of the review, one of which accounted for 68% of recruited participants. The quality of evidence ranged from low to moderate owing to an unclear risk

  1. Role of computed tomography in quantitative assessment of emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choromańska, Agnieszka; Macura, Katarzyna J.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema, together with chronic bronchitis is a part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is one of the leading causes of death in the United States and worldwide. There are many methods to diagnose emphysema. Unfortunately many of them, for example pulmonary function tests (PFTs), clinical signs and conventional radiology are able to detect emphysema usually in its late stages when a great portion of lung parenchyma has been already destroyed by the disease. Computed tomography (CT) allows for early detection of emphysema. CT also makes it possible to quantify the total amount of emphysema in the lungs which is important in order to precisely estimate the severity of the disease. Those abilities of CT are important in monitoring the course of the disease and in attempts to prevent its further progression. In this review we discuss currently available methods for imaging emphysema with emphasis on the quantitative assessment of emphysema. To date, quantitative methods have not been widely used clinically, however, the initial results of several research studies regarding this subject are very encouraging

  2. The extent of emphysema in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Saher Burhan; Stavngaard, Trine; Hestad, Marianne; Bach, Karen Skjoelstrup; Tonnesen, Philip; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    The global initiative for COPD (GOLD) adopted the degree of airway obstruction as a measure of the severity of the disease. The objective of this study was to apply CT to assess the extent of emphysema in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and relate this extent to the GOLD stage of airway obstruction. We included 209 patients with COPD. COPD was defined as FEV(1)/FVC or=20 pack-years. Patients were assessed by lung function measurement and visual and quantitative assessment of CT, from which the relative area of emphysema below -910 Hounsfield units (RA-910) was extracted. Mean RA-910 was 7.4% (n = 5) in patients with GOLD stage I, 17.0% (n = 119) in stage II, 24.2% (n = 79) in stage III and 33.9% (n = 6) in stage IV. Regression analysis showed a change in RA-910 of 7.8% with increasing severity according to GOLD stage (P < 0.001). Combined visual and quantitative assessment of CT showed that 184 patients had radiological evidence of emphysema, whereas 25 patients had no emphysema. The extent of emphysema increases with increasing severity of COPD and most patients with COPD have emphysema. Tissue destruction by emphysema is therefore an important determinant of disease severity in COPD.

  3. Classifying a smoker scale in adult daily and nondaily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvers, Kim; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Romero, Devan R; Basora, Brittany; Luo, Xianghua; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-05-01

    Smoker identity, or the strength of beliefs about oneself as a smoker, is a robust marker of smoking behavior. However, many nondaily smokers do not identify as smokers, underestimating their risk for tobacco-related disease and resulting in missed intervention opportunities. Assessing underlying beliefs about characteristics used to classify smokers may help explain the discrepancy between smoking behavior and smoker identity. This study examines the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Classifying a Smoker scale among a racially diverse sample of adult smokers. A cross-sectional survey was administered through an online panel survey service to 2,376 current smokers who were at least 25 years of age. The sample was stratified to obtain equal numbers of 3 racial/ethnic groups (African American, Latino, and White) across smoking level (nondaily and daily smoking). The Classifying a Smoker scale displayed a single factor structure and excellent internal consistency (α = .91). Classifying a Smoker scores significantly increased at each level of smoking, F(3,2375) = 23.68, p smoker identity, stronger dependence on cigarettes, greater health risk perceptions, more smoking friends, and were more likely to carry cigarettes. Classifying a Smoker scores explained unique variance in smoking variables above and beyond that explained by smoker identity. The present study supports the use of the Classifying a Smoker scale among diverse, experienced smokers. Stronger endorsement of characteristics used to classify a smoker (i.e., stricter criteria) was positively associated with heavier smoking and related characteristics. Prospective studies are needed to inform prevention and treatment efforts.

  4. Minimum intensity projection technique in the evaluation of pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Chikako; Tada, Shinpei; Fukuda, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Naganobu

    2000-01-01

    Clinically diagnosed 30 pulmonary emphysema patients were evaluated with helical CT. From 10 mm thickness and 10 mm/sec table speed helical CT date set, minimum intensity projection (Min-IP) were generated. Min-IP coronal images were well demonstrated distribution and degree of emphysema. Compared to the high resolution CT images (2 mm thickness), Min-IP images were as same as well evaluated the disease. Min-IP technique seem to be useful for evaluate distribution and degree of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  5. Pulmonary hyperinflation and emphysema in infants with the Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, R.; Weisgrau, R.A.; Santamaria, M.

    1987-01-01

    Little recognition has been given to the pulmonary manifestations of the Marfan syndrome especially in infants. We report four cases of Marfan's syndrome presenting in infancy with respiratory abnormalities and a common radiographic picture of emphysema. (orig./MG)

  6. Pulmonary hyperinflation and emphysema in infants with the Marfan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R; Weisgrau, R A; Santamaria, M

    1987-07-01

    Little recognition has been given to the pulmonary manifestations of the Marfan syndrome especially in infants. We report four cases of Marfan's syndrome presenting in infancy with respiratory abnormalities and a common radiographic picture of emphysema.

  7. Pulmonary hyperinflation and emphysema in infants with the Marfan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Weisgrau, R.A.; Santamaria, M.

    1987-07-01

    Little recognition has been given to the pulmonary manifestations of the Marfan syndrome especially in infants. We report four cases of Marfan's syndrome presenting in infancy with respiratory abnormalities and a common radiographic picture of emphysema.

  8. Reducing surgery of volume for the pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Juan Camilo

    1997-01-01

    The paper includes aspects as selection approaches, functional evaluation, imagenologic evaluation, cardiovascular evaluation, technical aspects and results among other topics related with the reducing surgery of volume of the pulmonary emphysema

  9. Emphysema and bronchiectasis secondary to alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahim, A.; Hart, S.P.; Wilmot, R.

    2013-01-01

    A 47-year-old Caucasian male presented to the chest clinic with a 4-week history of exertional dyspnea. A chest radiograph showed mild hyperinflation without any focal pathology and spirometry showed a mild obstructive defect. In view of symptoms being disproportionate to spirometric and radiologic abnormalities, a thoracic CT scan was obtained. It revealed that there was evidence of bronchiectasis and mild emphysema in basal distribution. Subsequently, he was confirmed to have severe 1-Antitrypsin deficiency. This case illustrates the importance of considering 1-Antitrypsin deficiency in patients with combination of emphysema and bronchiectasis in a basal distribution. Although basal emphysema is well recognized pulmonary manifestation of 1-Antitrypsin deficiency, it is extremely unusual to have bronchiectasis with very mild degree of emphysema. (author)

  10. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button NCHS Home Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook ... Percent of visits to office-based physicians with COPD indicated on the medical record: 3.2% Source: ...

  11. Pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema secondary to blunt chest injury

    OpenAIRE

    Porhomayon, Jahan; Doerr, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    This is the case of a patient with a history of blunt chest trauma associated with subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax. The patient complained of inspiratory stridor on presentation. Anatomical relationships can explain the pathophysiological process.

  12. Epithelial cells from smokers modify dendritic cell responses in the context of influenza infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for infection with influenza, but the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility remain unknown. To ascertain if airway epithelial cells from smokers demonstrate a decreased ability to orchestrate an influenza...

  13. Knowledge of risk tobacco in smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Determine in a population of non-smokers, smokers and former-smokers, the level of knowledge of the health risks that smoking generate. Material and Methods: An epidemiological, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional research, was conducted in September 2015 in the city of Lima and Callao. Asurvey of over 18 was applied. Participants were divided into three groups, smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers. Results: The study included 2270 subjects, 744 were smokers, 752 former-smokers and 774 non-smokers. The group that mostly associated the tobacco to many diseases was the group of former-smokers, 53.8% of them mentioned to lung cancer as the most common disease related to tobacco. The non-smokers was the group that knows less often the risks of smoking. In all three groups, the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, followed by myocardial infarction, while fertility was little associated. Television was the main means of dissemination about the dangers of smoking, while social networks do not have a leading role. For the former-smokers will hit more information about the risks of smoking (p<0.05. Conclusion: Former-smokers had more information on the risk of smoking. In the three groups the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, and there was very little information about fertility and cigarette consumption. Formersmokers do the impacted more risk information cigarette. Television remains the main instrument to fight against smoking.

  14. Knowledge of risk tobacco in smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Determine in a population of non-smokers, smokers and former-smokers, the level of knowledge of the health risks that smoking generate. Material and Methods: An epidemiological, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional research, was conducted in September 2015 in the city of Lima and Callao. Asurvey of over 18 was applied. Participants were divided into three groups, smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers. Results: The study included 2270 subjects, 744 were smokers, 752 former-smokers and 774 non-smokers. The group that mostly associated the tobacco to many diseases was the group of former-smokers, 53.8% of them mentioned to lung cancer as the most common disease related to tobacco. The non-smokers was the group that knows less often the risks of smoking. In all three groups, the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, followed by myocardial infarction, while fertility was little associated. Television was the main means of dissemination about the dangers of smoking, while social networks do not have a leading role. For the former-smokers will hit more information about the risks of smoking (p<0.05. Conclusion: Former-smokers had more information on the risk of smoking. In the three groups the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, and there was very little information about fertility and cigarette consumption. Formersmokers do the impacted more risk information cigarette. Television remains the main instrument to fight against smoking.

  15. Bullae, Bronchiectasis and Nutritional Emphysema in Severe Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Victoria J; Coxson, Harvey O; Mason, Andrew G; Bai, Tony R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary complications of anorexia nervosa are rarely documented. The case of a patient with anorexia nervosa and pulmonary disease is presented, a new quantitative computed tomography (CT) method for the detection of emphysema is employed, the literature is reviewed and the concept of 'nutritional' emphysema is discussed.RESULTS: The case of a 34-year-old, nonsmoking woman with long-standing severe anorexia nervosa who was evaluated for cough and progressive shortness of b...

  16. [Creation of experimental emphysema by the intratracheal administration of papain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmadzhieva, K; Kolev, K; Balabaeva, L

    1981-01-01

    The authors formed lung emphysema in white rats under experimental conditions by intratracheal application of various concentrations of papaine at different intervals. In the performed experiment the most suitable dose for formation of emphysema was two fold administration of 2 milligrams of papaine. The following indices were observed in the experimental and control animals: body weight, weight coefficient of the internal organs, indices of lipid and nucleinic metabolism in homogenates of lung as well as histomorphologic examination of lung.

  17. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjewar, Swapnil S; Chhabra, Lovely; Chaubey, Vinod K; Joshi, Saurabh; Kulkarni, Ganesh; Kothagundla, Chandrasekhar; Kaul, Sudesh; Spodick, David H

    2013-01-01

    The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration. We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were computed and compared between the two subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1) between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy. The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration.

  18. Quantifying the Extent of Emphysema : Factors Associated with Radiologists' Estimations and Quantitative Indices of Emphysema Severity Using the ECLIPSE Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietema, Hester A.; Mueller, Nestor L.; Fauerbach, Paola V. Nasute; Sharma, Sanjay; Edwards, Lisa D.; Camp, Pat G.; Coxson, Harvey O.

    Rationale and Objectives: This study investigated what factors radiologists take into account when estimating emphysema severity and assessed quantitative computed tomography (CT) measurements of low attenuation areas. Materials and Methods: CT scans and spirometry were obtained on 1519 chronic

  19. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and chronic bronchitis emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-09-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor, immunomodulator, and regulator of neurotransmitter/amino acid transport), dolichol (regulates N-glycosylation of proteins), and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). This was assessed in patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema. The pathway was also assessed in patients with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance to find the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis emphysema. All the 15 patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. In patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol, and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate levels of RBC membrane in patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema. The same biochemical patterns were obtained in individuals with right hemispheric dominance. Endogenous digoxin by activating the calcineurin signal transduction pathway of T-cell can contribute to immune activation in chronic bronchitis emphysema. Increased free radical generation can also lead to immune activation. Endogenous synthesis of nicotine can contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Altered glycoconjugate metabolism and membranogenesis can lead to defective lysosomal stability contributing to the disease process by increased release of lysosomal proteases. The role of an endogenous digoxin and hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis emphysema and in the regulation of lung structure/function is discussed. The biochemical patterns obtained in chronic bronchitis emphysema is similar to those obtained in left

  20. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanjewar SS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Swapnil S Lanjewar,1 Lovely Chhabra,1 Vinod K Chaubey,1 Saurabh Joshi,1 Ganesh Kulkarni,1 Chandrasekhar Kothagundla,1 Sudesh Kaul,1 David H Spodick21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Vincent Hospital, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration.Methods: We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 were computed and compared between the two subgroups.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1 between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy.Conclusion: The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration.Keywords: emphysema, electrocardiogram, left ventricular hypertrophy, chronic

  1. Induction and regulation of murine emphysema by elastin peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Mehdi; Meghraoui-Kheddar, Aïda; Terryn, Christine; Fichel, Caroline; Bouland, Nicole; Diebold, Marie-Daniele; Guenounou, Moncef; Héry-Huynh, Stéphanie; Le Naour, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Emphysema is the major component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). During emphysema, elastin breakdown in the lung tissue originates from the release of large amounts of elastase by inflammatory cells. Elevated levels of elastin-derived peptides (EP) reflect massive pulmonary elastin breakdown in COPD patients. Only the EP containing the GXXPG conformational motif with a type VIII β-turn are elastin receptor ligands inducing biological activities. In addition, the COOH-terminal glycine residue of the GXXPG motif seems a prerequisite to the biological activity. In this study, we endotracheally instilled C57BL/6J mice with GXXPG EP and/or COOH-terminal glycine deleted-EP whose sequences were designed by molecular dynamics and docking simulations. We investigated their effect on all criteria associated with the progression of murine emphysema. Bronchoalveolar lavages were recovered to analyze cell profiles by flow cytometry and lungs were prepared to allow morphological and histological analysis by immunostaining and confocal microscopy. We observed that exposure of mice to EP elicited hallmark features of emphysema with inflammatory cell accumulation associated with increased matrix metalloproteinases and desmosine expression and of remodeling of parenchymal tissue. We also identified an inactive COOH-terminal glycine deleted-EP that retains its binding-activity to EBP and that is able to inhibit the in vitro and in vivo activities of emphysema-inducing EP. This study demonstrates that EP are key actors in the development of emphysema and that they represent pharmacological targets for an alternative treatment of emphysema based on the identification of EP analogous antagonists by molecular modeling studies. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Risk of COPD with obstruction in active smokers with normal spirometry and reduced diffusion capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben-Gary; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Kaner, Robert J; Sanders, Abraham; Vincent, Thomas L; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G

    2015-12-01

    Smokers are assessed for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using spirometry, with COPD defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as airflow limitation that is not fully reversible with bronchodilators. There is a subset of smokers with normal spirometry (by GOLD criteria), who have a low diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), a parameter linked to emphysema and small airway disease. The natural history of these "normal spirometry/low DLCO" smokers is unknown.From a cohort of 1570 smokers in the New York City metropolitian area, all of whom had normal spirometry, two groups were randomly selected for lung function follow-up: smokers with normal spirometry/normal DLCO (n=59) and smokers with normal spirometry/low DLCO (n=46). All had normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, urinalysis, HIV status, α1-antitrypsin level, chest radiography, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio and total lung capacity. Throughout the study, all continued to be active smokers.In the normal spirometry/normal DLCO group assessed over 45±20 months, 3% developed GOLD-defined COPD. In contrast, in the normal spirometry/low DLCO group, followed over 41±31 months, 22% developed GOLD-defined COPD.Despite appearing "normal" according to GOLD, smokers with normal spirometry but low DLCO are at significant risk of developing COPD with obstruction to airflow. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  3. Spontaneous epidural emphysema and pneumomediastinum during an asthmatic attack in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caramella, D.; Bulleri, A.; Battolla, L.; Bartolozzi, C. [Department of Radiology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, I-56 100 Pisa (Italy); Pifferi, M.; Baldini, G. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    CT revealed the presence of epidural emphysema as an incidental finding in a 13-year-old boy in whom mild infrequent coughing during an asthmatic attack resulted in a pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. Epidural emphysema was not associated with neurological symptoms. The CT images demonstrated the pathway of air leakage from the posterior mediastinum through the intervertebral foramina into the epidural space. Repeat CT showed spontaneous resolution of the epidural emphysema. (orig.) With 2 figs., 9 refs.

  4. Spontaneous epidural emphysema and pneumomediastinum during an asthmatic attack in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramella, D.; Bulleri, A.; Battolla, L.; Bartolozzi, C.; Pifferi, M.; Baldini, G.

    1997-01-01

    CT revealed the presence of epidural emphysema as an incidental finding in a 13-year-old boy in whom mild infrequent coughing during an asthmatic attack resulted in a pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. Epidural emphysema was not associated with neurological symptoms. The CT images demonstrated the pathway of air leakage from the posterior mediastinum through the intervertebral foramina into the epidural space. Repeat CT showed spontaneous resolution of the epidural emphysema. (orig.)

  5. Lung cancer, pulmonary emphysema and pleural effusion: An autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marel, Miloslav; Koubkova, Leona; Kovarikova, Zuzana; Grandcourtova, Alzbeta; Petrik, Frantisek; Hroudova, Hana; Capkova, Linda; Kodet, Roman; Fila, Libor

    2015-12-01

    To determine the exact incidence of lung cancer, pulmonary emphysema and pleural effusion we decided to carry out an autopsy study. In this autopsy study carried out over two years, we compared the results of autopsy findings with the clinical data in accompanying records of the deceased. Among the 708 deceased subjects, there were 398 males and 310 females with a median age of 71 years. At autopsy, 55 cases of lung carcinoma (BCA) were found, of which 24 have not been identified during life (44%). Among the deceased with BCA, emphysema was also observed at autopsy in 40% of the cases. Pulmonary emphysema was described macroscopically in 28% of the full set of 708 deceased, whereas the accompanying records of the deceased described this condition in only 12% of the cases. Microscopic changes compatible with emphysema were identified in 54% of the examined lungs. Pleural effusions were described in the accompanying records of 13% of the deceased, while the autopsies showed this condition in 33% of the deceased. BCA was accompanied by effusion in 25% of the cases. The obtained results show that the studied conditions are present in more cases than are reported by clinicians. The study confirms the commonly accepted association between lung cancer and emphysema.

  6. Proportion and clinical characteristics of non-asthmatic non-smokers among adults with airflow obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Takiguchi

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD mainly develops after long-term exposure to cigarette or biomass fuel smoke, but also occurs in non-smokers with or without a history of asthma. We investigated the proportion and clinical characteristics of non-smokers among middle-aged to elderly subjects with airflow obstruction.We retrospectively analyzed 1,892 subjects aged 40-89 years who underwent routine preoperative spirometry at a tertiary university hospital in Japan. Airflow obstruction was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity < 0.7 or as the lower limit of the normal.Among 323 patients presenting with FEV1/forced vital capacity < 0.7, 43 had asthma and 280 did not. Among the non-asthmatic patients with airflow obstruction, 94 (34% were non-smokers. A larger number of women than men with airflow obstruction had asthma (26% vs. 7.6%, p < 0.001, or were non-smokers among non-asthmatics (72% vs. 20%, p < 0.001. Non-asthmatic non-smokers, rather than non-asthmatic smokers, asthmatic non-smokers, and asthmatic smokers, exhibited better pulmonary function (median FEV1: 79% of predicted FEV1 vs. 73%, 69%, and 66%, respectively, p = 0.005 and less dyspnea on exertion (1% vs. 12%, 12%, and 28%, respectively, p = 0.001. Pulmonary emphysema on thoracic computed tomography was less common in non-smokers (p < 0.001. Using the lower limit of the normal to define airflow obstruction yielded similar results.There are a substantial number of non-smokers with airflow obstruction compatible with COPD in Japan. In this study, airflow obstruction in non-smokers was more common in women and likelier to result in mild functional and pathological abnormalities than in smokers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the long-term prognosis and appropriate management of this population in developed countries, especially in women.

  7. Nicotine Dependence, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior among Adult Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F

    2015-03-01

    Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. A total of 851 adult (≥20 years) smokers wore an accelerometer for ≥4 days and completed the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scale. Regression models were used to examine the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity/sedentary behavior. After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, hypertension, emphysema, bronchitis, body mass index (BMI), cotinine, and accelerometer wear time, smokers 50 + years of age with greater nicotine dependence engaged in more sedentary behavior (β = 11.4, P = 0.02) and less light-intensity physical activity (β = -9.6, P = 0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; β = -0.14, P = 0.003) than their less nicotine dependent counterparts. Older adults who are more nicotine dependent engage in less physical activity (both MVPA and light-intensity) and more sedentary behavior than their less nicotine dependent counterparts.

  8. Subcutaneous emphysema as a complication of tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacić Aca

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous emphysema is a rare complication in dentistry, which may lead to diagnostic errors and inadequate therapy. A 17 years old female patient, in whom the separation of tooth roots was performed by the use of air-powered drill during the extraction of the first right lower molar, is presented in this paper. During the intervention, swelling of the right half of the face and the lower eyelid suddenly occurred, accompanied with simultaneous feeling of choking, and pressure in the neck and chest. Because of the suspicion of the allergic reaction, the patient was administered antihistaminic agent, together with parenteral corticosteroid, and was sent to an institution where she was treated as an in-patient. During hospitalization, subcutaneous emphysema of the face and neck was diagnosed by physical and x-ray examination. The emphysema completely disappeared after the use of oxygen and antibiotics.

  9. Value of cardiac catheterization and cineangiography in infantile lobar emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, N.; Peleg, H.; Naveh, Y.; Riss, E.

    1980-01-01

    Lobar emphysema is an uncommon cause of respiratory distress in infancy. Congenital heart disease is seen in about 20% of the patients with infantile (congenital) lobar emphysema. We described six infants with lobar emphysema. In three of them a congenital heart disease was demonstrated by cardiac catheterization and cineangiography; two had a tetralogy of Fallot with right aortic arch and the third infant a ventricular septal defect. The pulmonary angiography showed stretching of the arteries with very poor filling of the peripheral arteries and a characteristic smaller pulmonary vein in the affected lobe. In all the six patients the pulmonary artery pressure was normal. All the patients underwent lobectomy with good results. We feel that a preoperative cardiac catheterization and cineangiography is of value in this very sick group of infants.

  10. Pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema – cellular and molecular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Petta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary emphysema is a chronic obstructive disease, resulting fromimportant alterations in the whole distal structure of terminal bronchioles, either by enlargement of air spaces or by destruction of the alveolar wall, leading to loss of respiratory surface, decreased elastic recoil and lung hyperinflation. For many years, the hypothesis of protease-antiprotease unbalance prevailed as the central theme in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. According to this hypothesis, the release of active proteolytic enzymes, produced mainly by neutrophils and macrophages, degrades the extracellular matrix, affecting the integrity of its components, especially collagen and elastic fibers. However, new concepts involving cellular and molecular events were proposed, including oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, cellular senescence and failed lung tissue repair. The aim of this review paper was to evaluate the cellular and molecular mechanisms seen in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema.

  11. Clinicopathological characteristics of patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takafumi; Sugino, Keishi; Sakamoto, Susumu; Homma, Sakae; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Uekusa, Toshimasa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics and the prognostic factors of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), which is defined as pulmonary emphysema associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Of 92 IPF patients admitted to our hospital during the past 6 years, 35 were diagnosed as CPFE (Group E) and 57 as IPF without emphysema (Group F). We retrospectively compared the clinical features between these 2 groups. Furthermore, we investigated the histopathological localization and characteristic background parenchymal architecture of lung cancer in 6 patients with CPFE who had undergone surgical lung resection for complications of lung cancer. Lastly, we compared the histopathological differences in background lung structures of the origins of the lung cancers in the following 3 groups: Group E, Group F, and pulmonary emphysema. The smoking index values and the incidence of lung cancer were higher in patients in Group E than in Group F, but the survival times were significantly lower in Group E patients. The prognostic factors included emphysema, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, increased composite physiological index, and acute exacerbation. Histopathologically, the localization of lung cancer in Group E patients was adjacent to emphysematous lesions with or without associated fibrosis, which showed a more marked architectural distortion with less significant fibroblastic foci, collapse of alveoli, and subpleural fibrosis than in Group F patients. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the incidence of lung cancer was extremely high in patients with CPFE. However, the prognosis was unfavorable regardless of the presence of lung cancer, with the chief adverse prognostic factor being complications of pulmonary emphysema. Emphysematous lesions with fibrosis in Group E that are different from those seen in Group F may be background lung structures characteristic of the carcinogenesis of lung

  12. Obesity and extent of emphysema depicted at CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, S.; Li, R.; Leader, J.K.; Zheng, B.; Bon, J.; Gur, D.; Sciurba, F.; Jin, C.; Pu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the underlying relationship between obesity and the extent of emphysema depicted at CT. Methods and materials: A dataset of 477 CT examinations was retrospectively collected from a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The low attenuation areas (LAAs; ≤950 HU) of the lungs were identified. The extent of emphysema (denoted as %LAA) was defined as the percentage of LAA divided by the lung volume. The association between log-transformed %LAA and body mass index (BMI) adjusted for age, sex, the forced expiratory volume in one second as percent predicted value (FEV1% predicted), and smoking history (pack years) was assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: After adjusting for age, gender, smoking history, and FEV1% predicted, BMI was negatively associated with severe emphysema in patients with COPD. Specifically, one unit increase in BMI is associated with a 0.93-fold change (95% CI: 0.91–0.96, p < 0.001) in %LAA; the estimated %LAA for males was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.36–2.26, p < 0.001) times that of females; per 10% increase in FEV1% predicated is associated with a 0.72-fold change (95% CI: 0.69–0.76, p < 0.001) in %LAA. Conclusion: Increasing obesity is negatively associated with severity of emphysema independent of gender, age, and smoking history. - Highlights: • BMI is inversely associated with emphysema depicted on CT. • Emphysema severity in men was higher than that in women. • ∼50% of the subjects with COPD in our dataset were either overweight or obese. • Age and smoking status are not significantly associated with %LAA

  13. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema in neonates -reporting of 11 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, Beatriz Regina; Santos Mezzacappa, Maria Aparecida dos; Marba, Sergio Tadeu Martins

    1997-01-01

    The present paper relates the radiologic and clinical aspects of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in 11 infants submitted to assisted ventilation. The radiologic diagnosis was made using the classification of Boothroyd and Barson (levels I to III). A prevalence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema of levels II and III was observed in masculine premature infants with hyaline membrane disease and intrauterine pneumonia. Mortality was high and occurred in the infants with advanced levels of the disease. The authors emphasize the importance of early radiologic diagnosis of this condition during the treatment of premature infants submitted to assisted ventilation. (author)

  14. Orthorexia nervosa with hyponatremia, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastimum, pneumothorax, and pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Won; Kim, Jeong Yup; Go, Gang Ji; Jeon, Eun Sil; Pyo, Heui Jung; Kwon, Young Joo

    2011-06-01

    30-year-old male was admitted with general weakness and drowsy mental status. He had eaten only 3-4 spoons of brown rice and fresh vegetable without salt for 3 months to treat his tic disorder, and he had been in bed-ridden state. He has had weight loss of 14 kg in the last 3 months. We report a patient with orthorexia nervosa who developed hyponatremia, metabolic acidosis, subcutaneous emphysema, mediastinal emphysema, pneumothorax, and pancytopenia and we will review the literature. Also, we mention to prevent refeeding syndrome, and to start and maintain feeding in malnourished patients.

  15. Assessment of anatomic relation between pulmonary perfusion and morphology in pulmonary emphysema with breath-hold SPECT-CT fusion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Noriko; Seto, Akiko; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2008-01-01

    Anatomic relation between pulmonary perfusion and morphology in pulmonary emphysema was assessed on deep-inspiratory breath-hold (DIBrH) perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT fusion images. Subjects were 38 patients with pulmonary emphysema and 11 non-smoker controls, who successfully underwent DIBrH and non-BrH perfusion SPECT using a dual-headed SPECT system during the period between January 2004 and June 2006. DIBrH SPECT was three-dimensionally co-registered with DIBrH CT to comprehend the relationship between lung perfusion defects and CT low attenuation areas (LAA). By comparing the appearance of lung perfusion on DIBrH with non-BrH SPECT, the correlation with the rate constant for the alveolar-capillary transfer of carbon monoxide (DLCO/VA) was compared between perfusion abnormalities on these SPECTs and LAA on CT. DIBrH SPECT provided fairly uniform perfusion in controls, but significantly enhanced perfusion heterogeneity when compared with non-BrH SPECT in pulmonary emphysema patients (P<0.001). The reliable DIBrH SPECT-CT fusion images confirmed more extended perfusion defects than LAA on CT in majority (73%) of patients. Perfusion abnormalities on DIBrH SPECT were more closely correlated with DLCO/VA than LAA on CT (P<0.05). DIBrH SPECT identifies affected lungs with perfusion abnormality better than does non-BrH SPECT in pulmonary emphysema. DIBrH SPECT-CT fusion images are useful for more accurately localizing affected lungs than morphologic CT alone in this disease. (author)

  16. Risk Perceptions of Little Cigar and Cigarillo Smoking Among Adult Current Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Majeed, Ban A; Nyman, Amy; Eriksen, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Few studies have examined the perceptions of risk of little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) smoking among cigarette smokers, which is important for expanding regulatory policies and developing prevention programs. We examined current cigarette smokers' perceived harm of LCC smoking, and determined whether these perceptions were associated with susceptibility and intention to continue smoking LCCs. Data were from the 2014 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a probability sample of 5717 US adults. Data were analyzed for a subsample of 1191 current cigarette smokers who were stratified into three groups: (1) dual current cigarette smokers who had ever used LCCs, (2) current smokers susceptible to LCC smoking, and (3) current smokers who were not susceptible to LCC smoking. Overall, 47.2% of participants were dual smokers, 12.7% were susceptible to LCC smoking, and 40.1% were not susceptible. Perceptions of risk of LCCs varied across the groups. Dual smokers were more likely to perceive that daily LCC smoking is "very risky" (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.08, 2.41) while occasional LCC smoking is only "somewhat risky" (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.87). Of the dual smokers, 20.7% intended to continue smoking LCCs in the future. Perceptions of addiction and risk of daily LCC smoking significantly predicted intention to continue LCC smoking. Addiction perceptions also significantly predicted susceptibility to initiate LCC smoking. Perceptions about harms from and addiction to LCCs could predict future LCC smoking. Health communication campaigns need to address the harms of LCCs. Our data suggest that perceptions of risk about the addictiveness of LCCs and frequency of use are important determinants of the LCC smoking susceptibility among some cigarette smokers and intended continued use among cigarette smokers with a history of LCC use. Health communication campaigns should address misperceptions related to LCCs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on

  17. Quantitative analysis of pulmonary emphysema using local binary patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Shaker, S.B.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    .2% classification accuracy was achieved on a set of 168 manually annotated ROIs, comprising the three classes: normal tissue, centrilobular emphysema, and paraseptal emphysema. The measured emphysema severity was in good agreement with a pulmonary function test (PFT) achieving correlation coefficients of up to |r......We aim at improving quantitative measures of emphysema in computed tomography (CT) images of the lungs. Current standard measures, such as the relative area of emphysema (RA), rely on a single intensity threshold on individual pixels, thus ignoring any interrelations between pixels. Texture...... analysis allows for a much richer representation that also takes the local structure around pixels into account. This paper presents a texture classification-based system for emphysema quantification in CT images. Measures of emphysema severity are obtained by fusing pixel posterior probabilities output...

  18. Different histological subtypes of peripheral lung cancer based on emphysema distribution in patients with both airflow limitation and CT-determined emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Beomsu; Shin, Sumin; Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Hyun; Koh, Won-Jung; Kim, Hojoong; Park, Hye Yun

    2017-02-01

    The histological subtypes by peripheral tumor location remain uncharacterized in COPD patients with emphysema. We investigated histologic subtypes of peripheral lung cancers based on the context of heterogeneous emphysema distribution in patients with airflow limitation and CT-determined emphysema. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 754 patients with airflow limitation and newly-diagnosed primary lung cancers from February 2013 to February 2015. Of these, 230 patients had emphysema, as determined by computed tomography software designed to quantify emphysema. Among the 230 patients, the most common subtype in central lesions (n=84) was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n=64/84, 76%). Adenocarcinoma (ADC) was more frequently observed in peripheral lesions (n=146) than central lesions (58/146 [40%] vs. 4/84 [5%], pemphysema than emphysema areas (43/74 [58%] vs. 15/72 [21%], pemphysema areas than areas without emphysema (44/72 [61%] vs. 13/74 [18%], pemphysema, the main histological subtype of peripheral lung cancer was SCC in emphysema areas and ADC in areas without emphysema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non‐smokers seeking help for smokers: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S‐H; Nguyen, Q B; Cummins, S; Wong, S; Wightman, V

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine the phenomenon of non‐smokers spontaneously taking action to seek help for smokers; to provide profiles of non‐smoking helpers by language and ethnic groups. Setting A large, statewide tobacco quitline (California Smokers' Helpline) in operation since 1992 in California, providing free cessation services in English, Spanish, Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Subjects Callers between August 1992 and September 2005 who identified themselves as either white, black, Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian (n  =  349 110). A subset of these were “proxies”: callers seeking help for someone else. For more detailed analysis, n  =  2143 non‐smoking proxies calling from October 2004 through September 2005. Main outcome measures Proportions of proxies among all callers in each of seven language/ethnic groups; demographics of proxies; and proxies' relationships to smokers on whose behalf they called. Results Over 22 000 non‐smoking proxies called. Proportions differed dramatically across language/ethnic groups, from mean (±95% confidence interval) 2.7 (0.3)% among English‐speaking American Indians through 9.3 (0.3)% among English‐speaking Hispanics to 35.3 (0.7)% among Asian‐speaking Asians. Beyond the differences in proportion, however, remarkable similarities emerged across all groups. Proxies were primarily women (79.2 (1.7)%), living in the same household as the smokers (65.0 (2.1)%), and having either explicit or implicit understandings with the smokers that calling on their behalf was acceptable (90.0 (1.3)%). Conclusions The willingness of non‐smokers to seek help for smokers holds promise for tobacco cessation and may help address ethnic and language disparities. Non‐smoking women in smokers' households may be the first group to target. PMID:16565458

  20. The protective effect of PRMT6 overexpression on cigarette smoke extract-induced murine emphysema model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He X

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Xue He,1–3 Tiao Li,1–3 Naixin Kang,1–3 Huihui Zeng,1–3 Siying Ren,1–3 Dandan Zong,1–3 Jinhua Li,1–3 Shan Cai,1–3 Ping Chen,1–3 Yan Chen1–3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, 2Research Unit of Respiratory Disease, 3Diagnosis and Treatment Center of Respiratory Disease, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China Background: Cigarette smoke exposure is the most common risk factor for emphysema, which is one of the major pathologies of COPD. Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6 is a nuclear enzyme that specially catalyzes dimethylation of R2 in histone H3 (H3R2me2a. H3R2me2a prevents trimethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me3, which is located in the transcription start sites of genes in mammalian genomes. We attempted to determine the expression of PRMT6 in human samples, and investigate whether the upregulation of PRMT6 expression can attenuate the development of cigarette smoke extract (CSE-induced emphysema. Further experiments were performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved.Materials and methods: Human lung tissues were obtained from patients undergoing pneumonectomy for benign pulmonary lesions. BALB/c mice were treated with lentiviral vectors intratracheally and injected with CSE three times. The protein expression of PRMT6, H3R2me2a, and H3K4me3 in human and mouse samples, as well as B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in mice were detected in lung homogenates by Western blotting. The mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, Bcl-2, Bax, and eNOS in mice was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: The expression of PRMT6 was significantly downregulated in the pulmonary parenchyma in smokers with COPD as well as in mice treated with CSE. Overexpression of PRMT6 was detected in the CSE + Lenti-PRMT6 group of mice, which reversed the expression of H3R2me2a and H3K4me3

  1. Emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, L.H.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Coal mining remains a major industry that has workers at risk for developing chronic lung disease. Aside from simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis, the development of emphysema and obstructive lung disease independent of smoking may be underappreciated. This article reviews more recent studies that may help rectify this faulty view. Cumulative exposure to coal dust is a significant risk factor for the development of emphysema and has an additive effect to smoking. Increased coal dust exposure is associated with increased risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In newly employed coal miners, bronchitic symptoms are associated with a rapid decline in lung function within 2 years after starting work. In evaluating impairment, the chest radiograph may be helpful as a marker of exposure but the diffusing capacity is most correlated with dyspnea, whereas the emphysema computed tomography score has good association with expiratory flow limitation. Latest studies further support the association of emphysema and COPD with coal dust exposure. Increased cumulative exposure may also increase risk of death from these diseases.

  2. Multi-slice CT pulmonary function evaluation in emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Xiaojun; Zhang Guozhen; Zhu Yanping; Shan Lin; Mao Dingbiao; Ding Qiyong; Hua Yanqing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of evaluating the lung function by MSCT in emphysema. Methods: The MSCT scan and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were respectively performed in 147 receptors within one week. They were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A (120 receptors), including normal, mild, moderate and severe abnormal pulmonary function based on the PFT, for comparing the correlation between pulmonary quantitative indexes of MSCT pulmonary function and PFT and settingup the primary, grade criteria of abnormal pulmonary, function in emphysema, group B (27 receptors) for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy in group A. The total lung was respectively scanned at the full inspiration and full expiration with MSCT. The pulmonary quantitative indexes of MSCT were measured with Siemens Pulmo pulmonary quantitative software. Results: There was correlation between pulmonary quantitative indexes of MSCT and PFT. The Piex/in -910 showed best correlation with FEV 1 % (r= -0. 905, P -910 (χ 2 0.267, P=0.966, accuracy 81.5%), and the primary criteria for abnormal pulmonary, function of emphysema was normal (0-9.9), mild (10.0-34.9), moderate (35.0-74.9) and severe (≥75.0). Conclusion: It is feasible to evaluate the abnormal lung function of emphysema with pulmonary quantitative indexes of CT. The Piex/in 910 was the most effective one in various indexes. (authors)

  3. Pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment in primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Sano, Fumiho; Hayashi, Masataro; Nishimoto, Arata; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between the presence of pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment and their significance for the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of non-small cell lung cancer. The subjects included 48 patients with completely resected and pathologically confirmed stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Quantitative computed tomography was used to diagnose pulmonary emphysema, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression status in the intratumoral stromal cells as well as the microvessel density (MVD). Positive MMP-9 staining in the intratumoral stromal cells was confirmed in 17 (35%) of the 48 tumors. These 17 tumors were associated with a high MVD, frequent lymphovascular invasion, a high proliferative activity, and high postoperative recurrence rate (all, P pulmonary emphysema (P = 0.02). Lung cancers arising from pulmonary emphysema were also associated with a high MVD, proliferative activity, and postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). The MMP-9 expression in intratumoral stromal cells is associated with the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of lung cancer and is predominantly identified in tumors arising in emphysematous lungs. Further studies regarding the biological links between the intratumoral and extratumoral microenvironment will help to explain why lung cancers originating in emphysematous lung tissues are associated with a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between regional severity of emphysema and coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Michinobu; Sakai, Shinya; Yasuhara, Yoshifumi; Ikezoe, Junpei; Murase, Kenya; Ichiki, Taku

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between regional severity of emphysema, which was evaluated by three-dimensional fractal analysis (3D-FA) of Technegas SPECT images, and coronary heart disease (CHD). For 22 patients with emphysema who underwent Technegas SPECT, we followed up CHD events. The follow-up period was 5.4±0.5 (mean ±SD) years. We defined the upper-lung fractal dimension (U-FD) and lower-lung fractal dimension (L-FD) obtained with 3D-FA of Technegas SPECT images as the regional severity of emphysema. FD became greater with the progression of emphysematous change. During the follow-up period, CHD events occurred in 6 (27%) of the 22 patients. The ratio of U-FD to L-FD for patients with CHD events (0.87±0.22) was significantly smaller than for patients without CHD events (1.52±0.38) (p=0.0015). These findings suggest that severer emphysema in the lower lung indicates a higher risk of CHD than that in the upper lung. (author)

  5. Subcutaneous face and neck surgical emphysema secondary to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subcutaneous face and neck surgical emphysema secondary to presumed spider bite. W Mulwafu. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  6. Subcutaneous emphysema during third molar surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Umberto; Galanakis, Alexandros; Lerario, Francesco; Daniele, Gabriele Maria; Tenore, Gianluca; Palaia, Gaspare

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of third molars is the most common surgical procedure performed in oral surgery on a daily basis and, despite surgical skills and expertise, complications may occur. Complications observed during or after third molar removal may include pain, swelling, bleeding, infection, sinus perforation and nerve damage. Fortunately, with a proper management and a good surgical technique, the incidence of such events is low. Subcutaneous emphysema associated with dental extraction occurs when the air from the high-speed dental handpiece is forced into the soft tissue through the reflected flap and invades the adjacent tissues, leading to swelling, crepitus on palpation and occasionally spreading through the tissue spaces of the fascial planes. Although rare, iatrogenic subcutaneous emphysema can have serious and potentially life-threatening consequences. Care should be taken when using air-driven handpieces. The access of air into the facial tissues is not limited to tooth extractions, but may also occur through other portals of entrance, such as endodontically treated teeth, periodontium and lacerations of intraoral soft tissues. When subcutaneous emphysema occurs, it must be quickly diagnosed and properly managed to reduce the risk of further complications. This report presents a case of subcutaneous emphysema occurred during extraction of a mandibular third molar extraction with the use of an air turbine handpiece. Case management is described and issues relative to the diagnosis and prevention of this surgical complication are discussed.

  7. Aspiration, atelektasis, emphysema with special regard to children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reither, M.; Giessen Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The most important factors of acute respiratory diseases in childhood are reported. Above all the characteristic features of airway obstructions in chest films are presented: In newborn suffering from aspiration we find diffuse patchy and illdefined densities combined with atelectasis. In patients with aspiration of foreign bodies a unilaterally localized complete or partial emphysema of the lung in in- and particulary in exspiration followed by mediastinal shifting is pathognomonic. Chest films in in- and exspiration are therefore mandatory. Atelectases are not uncommon in ventilated and operated patients. Emphysemata arise also in such patients; a particular emphysema is the so-called congenital lobar emphysema due to an upper lobe obstruction in most patients. Finally children suffering from spastic bronchitis and asthma present pulmonary emphysema. Generally chest films in different projections and not only in inspiration but also in exspiration allow to establish the correct diagnosis of the most important airway obstructions in children and to give rapid and sure informations for treatment. (orig.) [de

  8. Pneumoperitoneum with Subcutaneous Emphysema after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Iscan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a safe way for enteral nutrition in selected patients. Generally, complications of this procedure are very rare but due to patients general health condition, delayed diagnosis and treatment of complications can be life threatening. In this study, we present a PEG-related massive pneumoperitoneum and subcutaneous emphysema in a patient with neuro-Behçet.

  9. Aspects of pulmonary emphysema on high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo Junior, J.R.L.; Castro Lessa Angelo, M.T. de; Silva, F.M.D.; Costa, N.S.S.; Kavakama, J.; Carvalho, C.R.R.; Cerri, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is an entity characterized by enlargement of the air-space with bronchiolar walls destruction with-out evident fibrosis. It is classified according to anatomic distribution of the areas of lung destruction into these types: centrilobular, panlobular, paraseptal, and paracicatricial. TCAR is superior to chest radiographs and conventional CT is detecting these areas of pulmonary destruction. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs

  10. Coupled Immunological and Biomechanical Model of Emphysema Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ceresa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a disabling respiratory pathology, with a high prevalence and a significant economic and social cost. It is characterized by different clinical phenotypes with different risk profiles. Detecting the correct phenotype, especially for the emphysema subtype, and predicting the risk of major exacerbations are key elements in order to deliver more effective treatments. However, emphysema onset and progression are influenced by a complex interaction between the immune system and the mechanical properties of biological tissue. The former causes chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling. The latter influences the effective resistance or appropriate mechanical response of the lung tissue to repeated breathing cycles. In this work we present a multi-scale model of both aspects, coupling Finite Element (FE and Agent Based (AB techniques that we would like to use to predict the onset and progression of emphysema in patients. The AB part is based on existing biological models of inflammation and immunological response as a set of coupled non-linear differential equations. The FE part simulates the biomechanical effects of repeated strain on the biological tissue. We devise a strategy to couple the discrete biological model at the molecular /cellular level and the biomechanical finite element simulations at the tissue level. We tested our implementation on a public emphysema image database and found that it can indeed simulate the evolution of clinical image biomarkers during disease progression.

  11. Race, gender, and nicotine metabolism in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Shiffman, Saul; Rait, Michelle A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-07-01

    Differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism between genders and different races have been hypothesized to contribute to disparities in smoking rate, susceptibility to addiction, and ability to quit smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of race and gender on the rate of nicotine metabolism as indicated by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) in adolescent smokers. One hundred and fifty-nine adolescent smokers aged 13-17 were given 2mg of deuterium-labeled cotinine (cotinine-d4). The NMR was calculated as the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3'-hydroxycotinine (ng/ml) to cotinine-d4 (ng/ml) in saliva and is a validated biomarker of the rate of nicotine metabolism. The sample was 67.3% female and racially mixed. On average, Whites had the fastest rates of metabolism compared with both Blacks/African Americans (p smokers, racial variations in rates of nicotine metabolism were similar to those that have been reported in adult smokers. In contrast to findings in adult smokers, the NMR did not vary significantly by gender or self-reported hormone use.

  12. Revisiting 'Respiratory Function in Emphysema in Relation to Prognosis'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V Bates

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 1956 paper by DV Bates, JMS Knott and RV Christie, "Respiratory function in emphysema in relation to prognosis" Quart J Med 1956;97:137-157 is largely reprinted with a commentary by the first author, Dr David Bates. Although the pathology of emphysema was well recognized at the time, the clinical diagnosis and assessment of its severity were known to be imprecise; physiological measurements assessing and following the clinical course had not been established. The study aimed to follow systematically a group of patients, selected by clinical criteria using standardized clinical and physiological techniques, over four years and correlate physiological and clinical changes in relation to prognosis and eventually to postmortem findings. Fifty-nine patients were recruited to an emphysema clinic at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, England. Inclusion criteria were dyspnea without other causes and no cor pulmonale present. Patients' symptoms were assessed by a standardized questionnaire, and measurements were taken of lung volumes, maximal ventilatory volume, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity at rest, exercise and oxygen saturation by oximetry.  During the four years of the study, 17 patients died (actuarial expected - four and 13 presented with signs of pulmonary heart failure. All postmortem examinations (n=9 showed advanced emphysema. A seasonal variation in dyspnea was established (the period included the infamous 1952 London smog. Four patients improved, and the remainder were unchanged or deteriorated. Close relationships were shown between dyspnea and function results, particularly for the diffusing capacity of lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO. A comparison among a group of patients with chronic bronchitis without dyspnea showed that the DLCO discriminated between them. A loss of the normal increase in DLCO during exercise was shown in emphysema.

  13. National Emphysema Treatment Trial redux: accentuating the positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Pablo Gerardo; Kucharczuk, John Charles; Su, Stacey; Kaiser, Larry Robert; Cooper, Joel David

    2010-09-01

    Under the Freedom of Information Act, we obtained the follow-up data of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) to determine the long-term outcome for "a heterogeneous distribution of emphysema with upper lobe predominance," postulated by the NETT hypothesis to be optimal candidates for lung volume reduction surgery. Using the NETT database, we identified patients with heterogeneous distribution of emphysema with upper lobe predominance and analyzed for the first time follow-up data for those receiving lung volume reduction surgery and those receiving medical management. Furthermore, we compared the results of the NETT reduction surgery group with a previously reported consecutive case series of 250 patients undergoing bilateral lung volume reduction surgery using similar selection criteria. Of the 1218 patients enrolled, 511 (42%) conformed to the NETT hypothesis selection criteria and received the randomly assigned surgical or medical treatment (surgical = 261; medical = 250). Lung volume reduction surgery resulted in a 5-year survival benefit (70% vs 60%; P = .02). Results at 3 years compared with baseline data favored surgical reduction in terms of residual volume reduction (25% vs 2%; P George Respiratory Questionnaire quality of life score (12 points vs 0 points; P < .001). For the 513 patients with a homogeneous pattern of emphysema randomized to surgical or medical treatment, lung volume reduction surgery produced no survival advantage and very limited functional benefit. Patients most likely to benefit from lung volume reduction surgery have heterogeneously distributed emphysema involving the upper lung zones predominantly. Such patients in the NETT trial had results nearly identical to those previously reported in a nonrandomized series of similar patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery. 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative 1H and hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging: Comparison in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy never-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owrangi, Amir M.; Wang, Jian X.; Wheatley, Andrew; McCormack, David G.; Parraga, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between short echo time pulmonary 1 H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity (SI) and 3 He MRI apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) measurements of emphysema, and pulmonary function measurements. Materials and methods: Nine healthy never-smokers and 11 COPD subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, short echo time ((TE) = 1.2 ms) 1 H and diffusion-weighted hyperpolarized 3 He MRI (b = 1.6 s/cm 2 ) at 3.0 T. In addition, for COPD subjects only, CT densitometry was also performed. Results: Mean 1 H SI was significantly greater for never-smokers (12.1 ± 1.1 arbitrary units (AU)) compared to COPD subjects (10.9 ± 1.3 AU, p = 0.04). The 1 H SI AP-gradient was also significantly greater for never-smokers (0.40 AU/cm, R 2 = 0.94) compared to COPD subjects (0.29 AU/cm, R 2 = 0.968, p = 0.05). There was a significant correlation between 1 H SI and 3 He ADC (r = −0.58, p = 0.008) and significant correlations between 1 H MR SI and CT measurements of emphysema (RA 950 , r = −0.69, p = 0.02 and HU 15 , r = 0.66, p = 0.03). Conclusions: The significant and moderately strong relationship between 1 H SI and 3 He ADC, as well as between 1 H SI and CT measurements of emphysema suggests that these imaging methods and measurements may be quantifying similar tissue changes in COPD and that pulmonary 1 H SI may be used to monitor emphysema as a complement to CT and noble gas MRI

  15. Quantitative {sup 1}H and hyperpolarized {sup 3}He magnetic resonance imaging: Comparison in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy never-smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owrangi, Amir M., E-mail: aowrangi@robats.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Canada N6A 5K8 (Canada); Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Wang, Jian X., E-mail: jxwang@robats.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Canada N6A 5K8 (Canada); Applied Science Laboratories, General Electric Healthcare (Canada); Wheatley, Andrew, E-mail: awheat@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Canada N6A 5K8 (Canada); McCormack, David G., E-mail: David.Mccormack@lhsc.on.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Canada N6A 5K8 (Canada); Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Parraga, Grace, E-mail: gparraga@robats.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Canada N6A 5K8 (Canada); Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between short echo time pulmonary {sup 1}H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity (SI) and {sup 3}He MRI apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) measurements of emphysema, and pulmonary function measurements. Materials and methods: Nine healthy never-smokers and 11 COPD subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, short echo time ((TE) = 1.2 ms) {sup 1}H and diffusion-weighted hyperpolarized {sup 3}He MRI (b = 1.6 s/cm{sup 2}) at 3.0 T. In addition, for COPD subjects only, CT densitometry was also performed. Results: Mean {sup 1}H SI was significantly greater for never-smokers (12.1 ± 1.1 arbitrary units (AU)) compared to COPD subjects (10.9 ± 1.3 AU, p = 0.04). The {sup 1}H SI AP-gradient was also significantly greater for never-smokers (0.40 AU/cm, R{sup 2} = 0.94) compared to COPD subjects (0.29 AU/cm, R{sup 2} = 0.968, p = 0.05). There was a significant correlation between {sup 1}H SI and {sup 3}He ADC (r = −0.58, p = 0.008) and significant correlations between {sup 1}H MR SI and CT measurements of emphysema (RA{sub 950}, r = −0.69, p = 0.02 and HU{sub 15}, r = 0.66, p = 0.03). Conclusions: The significant and moderately strong relationship between {sup 1}H SI and {sup 3}He ADC, as well as between {sup 1}H SI and CT measurements of emphysema suggests that these imaging methods and measurements may be quantifying similar tissue changes in COPD and that pulmonary {sup 1}H SI may be used to monitor emphysema as a complement to CT and noble gas MRI.

  16. Microbiological airway colonization in COPD patients with severe emphysema undergoing endoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudzinski FC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Franziska C Trudzinski,1 Frederik Seiler,1 Heinrike Wilkens,1 Carlos Metz,1 Annegret Kamp,1 Robert Bals,1 Barbara Gärtner,2 Philipp M Lepper,1 Sören L Becker2–4 1Department of Internal Medicine V – Pneumology, Allergology and Critical Care Medicine, ECLS Center Saar, University Medical Center Saarland and Saarland University, 2Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar, Germany; 3Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, 4University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Endoscopic lung volume reduction (eLVR is a therapeutic option for selected patients with COPD and severe emphysema. Infectious exacerbations are serious events in these vulnerable patients; hence, prophylactic antibiotics are often prescribed postinterventionally. However, data on the microbiological airway colonization at the time of eLVR are scarce, and there are no evidence-based recommendations regarding a rational antibiotic regimen.Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and microbiological analysis of COPD patients with advanced emphysema undergoing eLVR with endobronchial valves at a single German University hospital, 2012–2017.Patients and methods: Bronchial aspirates were obtained prior to eLVR and sent for microbiological analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates was performed, and pathogen colonization was retrospectively compared with clinical parameters.Results: At least one potential pathogen was found in 47% (30/64 of patients. Overall, Gram-negative bacteria constituted the most frequently detected pathogens. The single most prevalent species were Haemophilus influenzae (9%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (6%, and Staphylococcus aureus (6%. No multidrug resistance was observed, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurred in <5% of samples. Patients without microbiological airway colonization showed more severe airflow limitation, hyperinflation, and chronic hypercapnia compared

  17. A preliminary experimental investigation of peer influence on risk-taking among adolescent smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalca, Eleonora; Kong, Grace; Liss, Thomas; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Schepis, Ty S; Lejuez, C W; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2013-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that peer influence plays a significant role in a variety of adolescent risk-taking behaviors, including tobacco use. We attempted to establish this relationship in a controlled laboratory setting. We modified the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) task to include a peer component to investigate whether peer influences alter risk-taking behaviors. Thirty-nine adolescents (22 smokers, 17 non-smokers) completed one experimental session during which the standard and peer BART were presented in counterbalanced order, with the dependent measures being adjusted mean number of pumps and explosions. We also examined the relationship of changes in the BART (standard-peer) to personality measures of impulsivity (BIS-11) and resistance to peer influence (RPI). A significant interaction of BART type and smoking status was present (p=.05); specifically smokers had a greater increase in the number of explosions by 2.27 (SD=3.12) compared to an increase of .29 (SD=2.87) by non-smokers. BIS-11 scores were related to peer-influenced BART changes: those who were more impulsive experienced greater changes in risk-taking, but no similar relationships were observed for the RPI. These results suggest that peer influences enhance risk-taking among adolescents, and that smokers may be more susceptible to these influences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Differential Impact of Emphysema on Respiratory Symptoms and 6-Minute Walk Distance in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplette, Matthew; Attia, Engi; Akgün, Kathleen; Campo, Monica; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria; Pipavath, Sudhakar; Shahrir, Shahida; Wongtrakool, Cherry; Goetz, Matthew; Kim, Joon; Soo Hoo, Guy W; Brown, Sheldon T; Crothers, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Emphysema is more prevalent in HIV-infected (HIV+) patients independent of smoking behavior. Nonetheless, health effects of emphysema in this population are poorly understood. We determined whether emphysema is associated with a greater burden of pulmonary symptoms and a lower 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in HIV+ compared with HIV-uninfected (HIV-) subjects. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 170 HIV+ and 153 HIV- subjects in the Examinations of HIV-Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE) cohort study. Subjects completed a self-assessment of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function testing, and 6MWD testing as well as a chest computed tomography to determine emphysema severity. We used regression models to determine the association of emphysema with respiratory symptoms and 6MWD in HIV+ subjects and compared this to HIV- subjects. Models stratified by HIV status demonstrated an association between >10% radiographic emphysema and chronic cough and/or phlegm and 6MWD in HIV+ subjects. These associations persisted among the subset without airflow obstruction: those with emphysema had 4.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 14) times the odds of chronic cough and/or phlegm and walked 60 m (95% confidence interval: 26 to 93) less distance than those without emphysema. There was no association between >10% emphysema and symptoms or 6MWD in HIV- subjects. In our cohort, >10% radiographic emphysema was associated with chronic cough and/or phlegm and lower 6MWD in HIV+ but not HIV- subjects. These findings were robust even among HIV+ subjects with milder forms of emphysema and those without airflow obstruction, highlighting the clinical impact of emphysema in these patients.

  19. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yosuke; Tomaru, Utano; Ishizu, Akihiro; Ito, Tomoki; Kiuchi, Takayuki; Ono, Ayako; Miyajima, Syota; Nagai, Katsura; Higashi, Tsunehito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Miwa, Soichi; Kasahara, Masanori

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease common in elderly people, characterized by progressive destruction of lung parenchyma and chronic inflammation of the airways. The pathogenesis of COPD remains unclear, but recent studies suggest that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in alveolar cells contributes to emphysematous lung destruction. The proteasome is a multicatalytic enzyme complex that plays a critical role in proteostasis by rapidly destroying misfolded and modified proteins generated by oxidative and other stresses. Proteasome activity decreases with aging in many organs including lungs, and an age-related decline in proteasomal function has been implicated in various age-related pathologies. However, the role of the proteasome system in the pathogenesis of COPD has not been investigated. Recently, we have established a transgenic (Tg) mouse model with decreased proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity, showing age-related phenotypes. Using this model, we demonstrate here that decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke (CS)-induced pulmonary emphysema. CS-exposed Tg mice showed remarkable airspace enlargement and increased foci of inflammation compared with wild-type controls. Importantly, apoptotic cells were found in the alveolar walls of the affected lungs. Impaired proteasomal activity also enhanced apoptosis in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-exposed fibroblastic cells derived from mice and humans in vitro. Notably, aggresome formation and prominent nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor were observed in CSE-exposed fibroblastic cells isolated from Tg mice. Collective evidence suggests that CS exposure and impaired proteasomal activity coordinately enhance apoptotic cell death in the alveolar walls that may be involved in the development and progression of emphysema in susceptible individuals such as the elderly.

  1. Periodontal tissue damage in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutojo Djajakusuma

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is the primary etiological factor in periodontal diseases. However, there are many factors that can modify how an individual periodontal tissue will respond to the accumulation of dental plaque. Among such risk factors, there is increasing evidence that smoking tobacco products alters the expression and rate of progression of periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to find out the loss of periodontal tissue adhesion in smokers by measuring pocket depth using probe, and by measuring alveolar bone damage using Bone Loss Score (BLS radiographic methods on teeth 12, 11, 21, 22, 32, 31, 41, 42. Based on T Test statistical analysis, there were significant differences in pocket depth damage of alveolar bone in smokers and non smokers. In conclusion there were increasing pocket depth and alveolar bone damage in smokers.

  2. A comparative ultrastructural and molecular biological study on Chlamydia psittaci infection in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and non-alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema versus lung tissue of patients with hamartochondroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogilevski Grigori

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiales are familiar causes of acute and chronic infections in humans and animals. Human pulmonary emphysema is a component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and a condition in which chronic inflammation manifested as bronchiolitis and intra-alveolar accumulation of macrophages is common. It is generally presumed to be of infectious origin. Previous investigations based on serology and immunohistochemistry indicated Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in cases of COPD. Furthermore, immunofluorescence with genus-specific antibodies and electron microscopy suggested involvement of chlamydial infection in most cases of pulmonary emphysema, but these findings could not be verified by PCR. Therefore, we examined the possibility of other chlamydial species being present in these patients. Methods Tissue samples from patients having undergone lung volume reduction surgery for advanced alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD, n = 6 or non-alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema (n = 34 or wedge resection for hamartochondroma (n = 14 were examined by transmission electron microscopy and PCR. Results In all cases of AATD and 79.4% of non-AATD, persistent chlamydial infection was detected by ultrastructural examination. Intra-alveolar accumulation of macrophages and acute as well as chronic bronchiolitis were seen in all positive cases. The presence of Chlamydia psittaci was demonstrated by PCR in lung tissue of 66.7% AATD vs. 29.0% non-AATD emphysema patients. Partial DNA sequencing of four positive samples confirmed the identity of the agent as Chlamydophila psittaci. In contrast, Chlamydophila pneumoniae was detected only in one AATD patient. Lung tissue of the control group of non-smokers with hamartochondroma was completely negative for chlamydial bodies by TEM or chlamydial DNA by PCR. Conclusions These data indicate a role of Chlamydophila psittaci in pulmonary emphysema by linking this chronic inflammatory process

  3. Elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema: insights from experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Antunes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several distinct stimuli can be used to reproduce histological and functional features of human emphysema, a leading cause of disability and death. Since cigarette smoke is the main cause of emphysema in humans, experimental researches have attempted to reproduce this situation. However, this is an expensive and cumbersome method of emphysema induction, and simpler, more efficacious alternatives have been sought. Among these approaches, elastolytic enzymes have been widely used to reproduce some characteristics of human cigarette smoke-induced disease, such as: augmentation of airspaces, inflammatory cell influx into the lungs, and systemic inflammation. Nevertheless, the use of elastase-induced emphysema models is still controversial, since the disease pathways involved in elastase induction may differ from those occurring in smoke-induced emphysema. This indicates that the choice of an emphysema model may impact the results of new therapies or drugs being tested. The aim of this review is to compare the mechanisms of disease induction in smoke and elastase emphysema models, to describe the differences among various elastase models, and to establish the advantages and disadvantages of elastase-induced emphysema models. More studies are required to shed light on the mechanisms of elastase-induced emphysema.Diversos estímulos podem ser utilizados para reproduzir características histológicas e funcionais do enfisema humano, uma das principais causas de incapacidade e morte. Uma vez que a fumaça de cigarro é a principal causa de enfisema em humanos, estudos experimentais têm tentado reproduzir esta situação. No entanto, esse é um método dispendioso e complicado para a indução do enfisema e, alternativas mais simples e eficazes, têm sido pesquisadas. Entre essas abordagens, enzimas elastolíticas vêm sendo amplamente utilizadas para reproduzir algumas das características do enfisema humano, tais como: aumento dos espaços a

  4. Plasma pro-surfactant protein B and lung function decline in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janice M; Mayo, John; Tan, Wan; Tammemagi, C Martin; Liu, Geoffrey; Peacock, Stuart; Shepherd, Frances A; Goffin, John; Goss, Glenwood; Nicholas, Garth; Tremblay, Alain; Johnston, Michael; Martel, Simon; Laberge, Francis; Bhatia, Rick; Roberts, Heidi; Burrowes, Paul; Manos, Daria; Stewart, Lori; Seely, Jean M; Gingras, Michel; Pasian, Sergio; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Lam, Stephen; Sin, Don D

    2015-04-01

    Plasma pro-surfactant protein B (pro-SFTPB) levels have recently been shown to predict the development of lung cancer in current and ex-smokers, but the ability of pro-SFTPB to predict measures of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity is unknown. We evaluated the performance characteristics of pro-SFTPB as a biomarker of lung function decline in a population of current and ex-smokers. Plasma pro-SFTPB levels were measured in 2503 current and ex-smokers enrolled in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study. Linear regression was performed to determine the relationship of pro-SFTPB levels to changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) over a 2-year period as well as to baseline FEV1 and the burden of emphysema observed in computed tomography (CT) scans. Plasma pro-SFTPB levels were inversely related to both FEV1 % predicted (p=0.024) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (p<0.001), and were positively related to the burden of emphysema on CT scans (p<0.001). Higher plasma pro-SFTPB levels were also associated with a more rapid decline in FEV1 at 1 year (p=0.024) and over 2 years of follow-up (p=0.004). Higher plasma pro-SFTPB levels are associated with increased severity of airflow limitation and accelerated decline in lung function. Pro-SFTPB is a promising biomarker for COPD severity and progression. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms in antioxidative enzymes are associated to FEV(1) in smokers independently of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, T H; Sigsgaard, Torben; Andersen, Charlotte Brasch

    2012-01-01

    ), GSTT1 (gene copy number), and GSTM1 (gene copy number). We found no associations between these genotypes and the asthma phenotypes. For the 201 subjects identified as current smokers and recruited via random sampling, an association was seen between increasing number of genotypes coding for high...... of genotypes coding for low antioxidative enzyme activity. The present study does not support the hypothesis that asthma is associated with genotypes of these major antioxidative enzymes. However, we speculate that since we see an impact of these genotypes on lung function in young adult smokers, polymorphisms...... in antioxidative enzymes may contribute to the range of susceptibility of smokers have to COPD....

  6. Fenretinide causes emphysema, which is prevented by sphingosine 1-phoshate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Yasuo

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids play a role in the development of emphysema and ceramide levels are increased in experimental models of emphysema; however, the mechanisms of ceramide-related pulmonary emphysema are not fully understood. Here we examine mechanisms of ceramide-induced pulmonary emphysema. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with fenretinide (20 mg/kg BW, a synthetic derivative of retinoic acid that causes the formation of ceramide, and we postulated that the effects of fenretinide could be offset by administering sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P (100 µg/kg BW. Lung tissues were analyzed and mean alveolar airspace area, total length of the alveolar perimeter and the number of caspase-3 positive cells were measured. Hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and other related proteins were analyzed by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis of HIF-1α was also performed. Ceramide, dihydroceramide, S1P, and dihydro-S1P were measured by mass spectrometer. Chronic intraperitoneal injection of fenretinide increased the alveolar airspace surface area and increased the number of caspase-3 positive cells in rat lungs. Fenretinide also suppressed HIF-1α and VEGF protein expression in rat lungs. Concomitant injection of S1P prevented the decrease in the expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 protein expression in the lungs. S1P injection also increased phosphorylated sphingosine kinase 1. Dihydroceramide was significantly increased by fenretinide injection and S1P treatment prevented the increase in dihydroceramide levels in rat lungs. These data support the concept that increased de novo ceramide production causes alveolar septal cell apoptosis and causes emphysema via suppressing HIF-1α. Concomitant treatment with S1P normalizes the ceramide-S1P balance in the rat lungs and increases HIF-1α protein expression via activation of

  7. Large-image intensifier photofluorography and conventional radiography in pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, H.; Partanen, K.; Soimakallio, S.; Rytkoenen, H.

    1988-01-01

    Large-screen image intensifier (II) photofluorography was compared with full-size screen-film chest radiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in 84 patients. Photospot films and conventional radiographs were interpreted independently by three radiologists. Computed tomography (CT) was used as an independent reference technique, and diagnostic performance of chest radiography in various CT patterns of emphysema was evaluated. The difference in diagnostic sensitivity for emphysema in favor of conventional chest radiography over photofluorography (0.65 versus 0.56) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Specificity of the imaging modalities was equal: 0.78 in full-size films and 0.77 in photospot films. All CT patterns of emphysema had great false negative response rates in chest radiography, which is an inaccurate technique for the diagnosis of emphysema. CT is required for reliable radiologic evaluation of emphysema. (orig.)

  8. Capability of differentiating smokers with normal pulmonary function from COPD patients: a comparison of CT pulmonary volume analysis and MR perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Li; Xia, Yi; Guan, Yu; Yu, Hong; Liu, Shi-yuan [Changzheng Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Tie-feng; Li, Bing [Changzheng Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Department of Respiration Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2013-05-15

    To compare CT volume analysis with MR perfusion imaging in differentiating smokers with normal pulmonary function (controls) from COPD patients. Sixty-two COPD patients and 17 controls were included. The total lung volume (TLV), total emphysema volume (TEV) and emphysema index (EI) were quantified by CT. MR perfusion evaluated positive enhancement integral (PEI), maximum slope of increase (MSI), maximum slope of decrease (MSD), signal enhancement ratio (SER) and signal intensity ratio (R{sub SI}) of perfusion defects to normal lung. There were 19 class I, 17 class II, 14 class III and 12 class IV COPD patients. No differences were observed in TLV, TEV and EI between control and class I COPD. The control was different from class II, III and IV COPD in TEV and EI. The control was different from each class of COPD in R{sub SI,} MSI, PEI and MSD. Differences were found in R{sub SI} between class I and III, I and IV, and II and IV COPD. Amongst controls, MR detected perfusion defects more frequently than CT detected emphysema. Compared with CT, MR perfusion imaging shows higher potential to distinguish controls from mild COPD and appears more sensitive in identifying abnormalities amongst smokers with normal pulmonary function (controls). (orig.)

  9. Capability of differentiating smokers with normal pulmonary function from COPD patients: a comparison of CT pulmonary volume analysis and MR perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Li; Xia, Yi; Guan, Yu; Yu, Hong; Liu, Shi-yuan; Zhang, Tie-feng; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    To compare CT volume analysis with MR perfusion imaging in differentiating smokers with normal pulmonary function (controls) from COPD patients. Sixty-two COPD patients and 17 controls were included. The total lung volume (TLV), total emphysema volume (TEV) and emphysema index (EI) were quantified by CT. MR perfusion evaluated positive enhancement integral (PEI), maximum slope of increase (MSI), maximum slope of decrease (MSD), signal enhancement ratio (SER) and signal intensity ratio (R SI ) of perfusion defects to normal lung. There were 19 class I, 17 class II, 14 class III and 12 class IV COPD patients. No differences were observed in TLV, TEV and EI between control and class I COPD. The control was different from class II, III and IV COPD in TEV and EI. The control was different from each class of COPD in R SI, MSI, PEI and MSD. Differences were found in R SI between class I and III, I and IV, and II and IV COPD. Amongst controls, MR detected perfusion defects more frequently than CT detected emphysema. Compared with CT, MR perfusion imaging shows higher potential to distinguish controls from mild COPD and appears more sensitive in identifying abnormalities amongst smokers with normal pulmonary function (controls). (orig.)

  10. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayanju, Olatunde A; Rahamon, Sheu K; Joseph, Ijeboime O; Arinola, Olatunbosun G

    2012-10-26

    To determine the levels of salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis. Sixty-nine individuals were recruited into this study after obtaining informed consent. They were subdivided into three groups that consisted of 20 (aged 46 ± 11 years) cigarette smokers with periodontitis (S+P); 24 (40 ± 12 years) smokers without periodontitis (S-P); and 25 (53 ± 11 years) non-smokers with periodontitis (NS+P). An oral and maxillofacial surgeon used radiographs for periodontal probing for the diagnosis of periodontitis. The smokers included subjects who smoked at least six cigarettes per day and all the periodontitis patients were newly diagnosed. About 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was expectorated by each subject into plain sample bottles. Salivary immunoglobulin levels were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Student's t test was used to determine significant differences between the means. Values of P vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.000) and IgM (644.5 ± 160.0 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.000) were significantly lower in the S+P compared with NS+P group. Salivary IgA (570.4 ± 145.6 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.008) and IgM (703.1 ± 169.3 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.012) levels were significantly lower in the S-P compared with NS+P group. Only one (5%) periodontal patient had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.20 IU/mL). Similarly, only one smoker (4.17%) had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.04 IU/mL) and two non-smokers (9.52%) had detectable levels of IgE (0.24 IU/mL). Our study suggests that reduced salivary IgA and IgM levels in smokers with periodontitis could enhance increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

  11. [Analysis of clinical features in patients with pneumoconiosis complicated with pulmonary emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Dai, W R; Li, L; Liu, W F; Yang, Z X; Xie, L

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of pneumoconiosis complicated with pulmo-nary emphysema. Methods: selected 868 patients with pneumoconiosis were selected from December 2015 to December 2016 in Hunan occupational disease prevention and treatment hospital. Collected the results of high-resolution spiral CT, arterial blood gas, ECG, pulmonary function and MRC score. The subjects were divided into pneumoconiosis complicated with pulmonary emphysema group and simple pneumoconiosis group accord-ing to the results of HRCT. The smoking, MRC score, pulmonary function, blood gas and complications were compared. Results: A total of 868 patients were enrolled in the study. Emphysema 232 people, accounting for 26.73%. The incidence of emphysema in the first phase of pneumoconiosis was 12.69%, and the incidence rate of emphysema in pneumoconiosis was 17.03%, The incidence of three Stage pneumoconiosis was highest, up to 60.76%, the incidence of emphysema increased with the increase of stages of pneumoconiosis ( P =0.000) .The smoking index of pneumoconiosis combined with emphysema group was significantly higher than that of simple pneumoconiosis group ( P pulmonary em-physema group was higher than that of simple pneumoconiosis group ( P =0.000) . In pneumoconiosis complicat-ed with pulmonary emphysema group the FEV(1.0)%, FVC%, FEV(1.0)/FVC, DLCO%, oxygen partial pressure were significantly lower than that of simple pneumoconiosis group ( P ≤0.05) . The combined rate of Bullae of lung in pneumoconiosis complicated with pulmonary emphysema group was higher than that of simple pneumo-coniosis group ( P pulmonary emphysema had heavier breathing difficulties, more serious pulmonary function and active endurance, the degree of hypoxia is more serious, and had a higher incidence of complications. The pul-monary function of pneumoconiosis complicated with pulmonary emphysema is not consistent with the typical CPFE.

  12. Effect of Emphysema Extent on Serial Lung Function in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Vincent; Hansell, David M; Sverzellati, Nicola; Weycker, Derek; Antoniou, Katerina M; Atwood, Mark; Oster, Gerry; Kirchgaessler, Klaus-Uwe; Collard, Harold R; Wells, Athol U

    2017-11-01

    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema may have artificially preserved lung volumes. In this post hoc analysis, we investigated the relationship between baseline emphysema and fibrosis extents, as well as pulmonary function changes, over 48 weeks. Data were pooled from two phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of IFN-γ-1b in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (GIPF-001 [NCT00047645] and GIPF-007 [NCT00075998]). Patients with Week 48 data, baseline high-resolution computed tomographic images, and FEV 1 /FVC ratios less than 0.8 or greater than 0.9 (0.9 in GIPF-007), as well as randomly selected patients with ratios of 0.8-0.9 and 0.7-0.8, were included. Changes from baseline in pulmonary function at Week 48 were analyzed by emphysema extent. The relationship between emphysema and fibrosis extents and change in pulmonary function was assessed using multivariate linear regression. Emphysema was identified in 38% of patients. A negative correlation was observed between fibrosis and emphysema extents (r = -0.232; P emphysema extent (28 to 65%) showed the smallest FVC decline, with a difference of 3.32% at Week 48 versus patients with no emphysema (P = 0.047). In multivariate analyses, emphysema extent greater than or equal to 15% was associated with significantly reduced FVC decline over 48 weeks versus no emphysema or emphysema less than 15%. No such association was observed for diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide or composite physiologic index. FVC measurements may not be appropriate for monitoring disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema extent greater than or equal to 15%.

  13. Congenital Lobar Emphysema - a radiological diagnosis at first glance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, D.; Benz-Bohm, G.; Rietschel, E.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is a malformation of the lung of unknown etiology. The characteristic overdistension of the affected lobe leads to compression and displacement of adjacent normal lung tissue and mediastinum. In the majority of cases, symptoms appear during the neonatal period or in early childhood. Clinically, children present with signs of respiratory distress, frequently occurring with a superimposed lower respiratory tract infection that aggravates air trapping and renders the patient symptomatic. Rarely, CLE is diagnosed in adult patients who did not experience any symptoms during childhood. Knowledge of the disease is of importance because in the majority of cases a plain chest radiograph together with clinical signs is sufficient to diagnose the disease correctly. This article draws attention to this condition by presenting two children and one adult with congenitial lobar emphysema. Possible clinical symptoms and diagnostic strategies are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  14. Cell therapy with bone marrow mononuclear cells in elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhini-Dos-Santos, Nathalia; Barbosa-de-Oliveira, Valter Abraão; Kozma, Rodrigo Heras; Faria, Carolina Arruda de; Stessuk, Talita; Frei, Fernando; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2013-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by destruction of alveolar walls with loss of gas exchange surface and consequent progressive dyspnea. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of cell therapy with bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) in an animal model of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema. Emphysema was induced in C57Bl/J6 female mice by intranasal instillation of elastase. After 21 days, the mice received bone marrow mononuclear cells from EGFP male mice with C57Bl/J6 background. The groups were assessed by comparison and statistically significant differences (p pulmonary emphysema.

  15. Accuracy of measurement of pulmonary emphysema with computed tomography: relevant points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson; Oliveira, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Some technical aspects should be taken into consideration in order to guarantee the reliability of the assessment of pulmonary emphysema with lung computed tomography densitometry. Changes in lung density associated with variations in lungs inspiratory and expiratory levels, computed tomography slice thickness, reconstruction algorithm and type of computed tomography apparatus make tomographic comparisons more difficult in follow-up studies of pulmonary emphysema. Nevertheless, quantitative computed tomography has replaced the visual assessment competing with pulmonary function tests as a sensitive method to measure pulmonary emphysema. The present review discusses technical variables of lung computed tomography and their influence on measurements of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  16. Accuracy of measurement of pulmonary emphysema with computed tomography: relevant points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochhegger, Bruno, E-mail: brunohochhegger@googlemail.co [Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Irion, Klaus L. [Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Oliveira, Hugo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Some technical aspects should be taken into consideration in order to guarantee the reliability of the assessment of pulmonary emphysema with lung computed tomography densitometry. Changes in lung density associated with variations in lungs inspiratory and expiratory levels, computed tomography slice thickness, reconstruction algorithm and type of computed tomography apparatus make tomographic comparisons more difficult in follow-up studies of pulmonary emphysema. Nevertheless, quantitative computed tomography has replaced the visual assessment competing with pulmonary function tests as a sensitive method to measure pulmonary emphysema. The present review discusses technical variables of lung computed tomography and their influence on measurements of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  17. Contrast enhanced CT-scans are not comparable to non-enhanced scans in emphysema quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heussel, C.P.; Kappes, J.; Hantusch, R.; Hartlieb, S.; Weinheimer, O.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Eberhardt, R.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic, interventional and surgical treatments have gone new ways in treatment of emphysema. For longitudinal therapy monitoring and as end-points for clinical trials, quantification of the disease is necessary. Sensitive, easy to measure, as well as stable and reproducible parameters have to be characterized. One parameter that might affect emphysema quantification is IV contrast enhancement, which might also be indicated. Whether or not the contrast enhanced scan is also suited for emphysema quantification or an additional scan is necessary, a retrospective analysis of 12 adult patients undergoing clinically indicated both, a non-enhanced and enhanced thin section MSCT within a week (median 0 days, range 0-4 days) was done. The in-house YACTA software was used for automatic quantification of lung and emphysema volume, emphysema index, mean lung density, and 5th, 10th, 15th percentile. After IV contrast administration, the median CT derived lung volume decreased mild by 1.1%, while median emphysema volume decreased by relevant 11%. This results in a decrease of median emphysema index by 9%. The median lung density (15th percentile) increased after contrast application by 18 HU (9 HU). CT quantification delivers emphysema values that are clearly affected by IV contrast application. The detected changes after contrast application show the results of higher density in the lung parenchyma. Therefore the amount of quantified emphysema is reduced and the lung density increased after contrast enhancement. In longitudinal analyses, non-enhanced scans should be the reference, while enhanced scans cannot be used.

  18. Lower subcortical gray matter volume in both younger smokers and established smokers relative to non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Colleen A.; Owens, Max M.; Joseph, Jane E.; Zhu, Xun; George, Mark S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    Although established adult smokers with long histories of nicotine dependence have lower neural tissue volume than non-smokers, it is not clear if lower regional brain volume is also observed in younger, less established smokers. The primary goal of this study was to investigate neural tissue volume in a large group of smokers and non-smokers, with a secondary goal of measuring the impact of age on these effects. We used voxel-based morphometry to compare regional gray matter volume in 118 individuals (59 smokers, 59 age- and gender-matched non-smokers). Younger smokers had significantly lower gray matter volume in the left thalamus and the left amygdala than their non-smoking peers (family-wise error-corrected clusters, P smokers. Established smokers had significantly lower gray matter volume than age-matched non-smokers in the insula, parahippocampal gyrus and pallidum. Medial prefrontal cortex gray matter volume was negatively correlated with pack-years of smoking among the established smokers, but not the younger smokers. These data reveal that regional tissue volume differences are not limited exclusively to established smokers. Deficits in young adults indicate that cigarette smoking may either be deleterious to the thalamus and amygdala at an earlier age than previously reported, or that pre-existing differences in these areas may predispose individuals to the development of nicotine dependence. PMID:25125263

  19. Subcutaneous emphysema during third molar surgery: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo, Umberto; Galanakis, Alexandros; Lerario, Francesco; Daniele, Gabriele Maria; Tenore, Gianluca; Palaia, Gaspare

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of third molars is the most common surgical procedure performed in oral surgery on a daily basis and, despite surgical skills and expertise, complications may occur. Complications observed during or after third molar removal may include pain, swelling, bleeding, infection, sinus perforation and nerve damage. Fortunately, with a proper management and a good surgical technique, the incidence of such events is low. Subcutaneous emphysema associated with dental extraction occurs when t...

  20. Emphysema Is Common in Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Transplantation Patients: A Histopathological and Computed Tomography Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onno M Mets

    Full Text Available Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF involves excessive inflammation, repetitive infections and development of bronchiectasis. Recently, literature on emphysema in CF has emerged, which might become an increasingly important disease component due to the increased life expectancy. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence and extent of emphysema in endstage CF lungs.In explanted lungs of 20 CF patients emphysema was semi-quantitatively assessed on histology specimens. Also, emphysema was automatically quantified on pre-transplantation computed tomography (CT using the percentage of voxels below -950 Houndfield Units and was visually scored on CT. The relation between emphysema extent, pre-transplantation lung function and age was determined.All CF patients showed emphysema on histological examination: 3/20 (15% showed mild, 15/20 (75% moderate and 2/20 (10% severe emphysema, defined as 0-20% emphysema, 20-50% emphysema and >50% emphysema in residual lung tissue, respectively. Visually upper lobe bullous emphysema was identified in 13/20 and more diffuse non-bullous emphysema in 18/20. Histology showed a significant correlation to quantified CT emphysema (p = 0.03 and visual emphysema score (p = 0.001. CT and visual emphysema extent were positively correlated with age (p = 0.045 and p = 0.04, respectively.In conclusion, this study both pathologically and radiologically confirms that emphysema is common in end-stage CF lungs, and is age related. Emphysema might become an increasingly important disease component in the aging CF population.

  1. Lung volume reduction of pulmonary emphysema: the radiologist task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, Gianluca; Silva, Mario; Sverzellati, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Several lung volume reduction (LVR) techniques have been increasingly evaluated in patients with advanced pulmonary emphysema, especially in the last decade. Radiologist plays a pivotal role in the characterization of parenchymal damage and, thus, assessment of eligibility criteria. This review aims to discuss the most common LVR techniques, namely LVR surgery, endobronchial valves, and coils LVR, with emphasis on the role of computed tomography (CT). Several trials have recently highlighted the importance of regional quantification of emphysema by computerized CT-based segmentation of hyperlucent parenchyma, which is strongly recommended for candidates to any LVR treatment. In particular, emphysema distribution pattern and fissures integrity are evaluated to tailor the choice of the most appropriate LVR technique. Furthermore, a number of CT measures have been tested for the personalization of treatment, according to imaging detected heterogeneity of parenchymal disease. CT characterization of heterogeneous parenchymal abnormalities provides criteria for selection of the preferable treatment in each patient and improves outcome of LVR as reflected by better quality of life, higher exercise tolerance, and lower mortality.

  2. Evaluation of chronic pulmonary emphysema ultrafast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Fumihiro; Yagyu, Hisanaga; Ohishi, Shuji; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    We compared pulmonary ventilation dynamics between 41 patients with pulmonary emphysema and 11 healthy subjects with normal pulmonary function using ultrafast computed tomography (CT). Regions of interest (ROIs) for multislice scanning were selected from the anatomical levels of the carina in the right upper lung field. Several identical slices were selected from the inspiratory and expiratory scans. The average CT values in the ROIs (AvROI) were obtained during the inspiratory phase (inAvROI) and the expiratory phase (exAvROI. The ratio of change from inAvROI to exAvROI ((I-E)/E ratio) was also used for image analysis. Furthermore, possible correlations between the CT image parameters and pulmonary function test parameters were examined. The results showed that the exAvROI and inAvROI values and (I-E)/E ratio were lower in the emphysema group than in the normal pulmonary function group. Among the image data parameters, the exAvROI value correlated most closely with pulmonary function parameters, in particular, with the pulmonary diffusing capacity. These findings suggest that image data parameters of ventilation dynamics may be useful for evaluating the severity of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  3. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S.; Siar, C.H.; Ng, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. Patients and Methods: One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium, candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite candida species. Results: Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candida species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guillermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty-seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and sorsum of tongue. Conclusion: On this series C. albicans is the most common specie found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a prediliection for the ethnic Chinese group. (author)

  4. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, S; Siar, C H; Ng, K P

    2005-11-01

    To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Case-control study. This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium. Candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite Candida species. Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candidal species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and dorsum of tongue. On this series C. albicans is the most common species found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a predilection for the ethnic Chinese group.

  5. Social Smoking among Intermittent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Social smoking” - smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS. Methods 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥ 50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not. Results Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: Compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people’s homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically. Conclusions Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS. PMID:26205313

  6. Kinetic Tremor: Differences Between Smokers and Non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Elan D.

    2006-01-01

    Tremor is among the acute effects of nicotine exposure. Published studies have focused on smoking-related postural (static) hand tremor rather than kinetic tremor (tremor during hand use), and gender differences in smoking-related tremor have not been examined. In a group of adults who were sampled from a population (mean ± SD = 65.7 ± 11.5 years, range = 18 - 92 years), the investigator assessed whether the severity of postural and kinetic tremors differed in smokers versus non-smokers, and ...

  7. Computerised respiratory sounds can differentiate smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Sen, Ipek; Kahya, Yasemin P; Afreixo, Vera; Marques, Alda

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is often associated with the development of several respiratory diseases however, if diagnosed early, the changes in the lung tissue caused by smoking may be reversible. Computerised respiratory sounds have shown to be sensitive to detect changes within the lung tissue before any other measure, however it is unknown if it is able to detect changes in the lungs of healthy smokers. This study investigated the differences between computerised respiratory sounds of healthy smokers and non-smokers. Healthy smokers and non-smokers were recruited from a university campus. Respiratory sounds were recorded simultaneously at 6 chest locations (right and left anterior, lateral and posterior) using air-coupled electret microphones. Airflow (1.0-1.5 l/s) was recorded with a pneumotachograph. Breathing phases were detected using airflow signals and respiratory sounds with validated algorithms. Forty-four participants were enrolled: 18 smokers (mean age 26.2, SD = 7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 104.7, SD = 9) and 26 non-smokers (mean age 25.9, SD = 3.7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 96.8, SD = 20.2). Smokers presented significantly higher frequency at maximum sound intensity during inspiration [(M = 117, SD = 16.2 Hz vs. M = 106.4, SD = 21.6 Hz; t(43) = -2.62, p = 0.0081, d z  = 0.55)], lower expiratory sound intensities (maximum intensity: [(M = 48.2, SD = 3.8 dB vs. M = 50.9, SD = 3.2 dB; t(43) = 2.68, p = 0.001, d z  = -0.78)]; mean intensity: [(M = 31.2, SD = 3.6 dB vs. M = 33.7,SD = 3 dB; t(43) = 2.42, p = 0.001, d z  = 0.75)] and higher number of inspiratory crackles (median [interquartile range] 2.2 [1.7-3.7] vs. 1.5 [1.2-2.2], p = 0.081, U = 110, r = -0.41) than non-smokers. Significant differences between computerised respiratory sounds of smokers and non-smokers have been found. Changes in respiratory sounds are often the earliest sign of disease. Thus, computerised respiratory sounds

  8. Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients with Homogeneous Emphysema : A Prospective Feasibility Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Franz, Ina; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: In patients with heterogeneous emphysema, surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (LVR) treatments are available. However, for patients with homogeneous emphysema these treatments are hardly investigated and seem less effective. Bronchoscopic LVR coil treatment has been shown to

  9. DJ-1 Modulates Nuclear Erythroid 2-Related Factor-2-Mediated Protection in Human Primary Alveolar Type II Cells in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmed, Karim; Messier, Elise M; Zhou, Wenbo; Tuder, Rubin M; Freed, Curt R; Chu, Hong Wei; Kelsen, Steven G; Bowler, Russell P; Mason, Robert J; Kosmider, Beata

    2016-09-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a main source of oxidative stress and a key risk factor for emphysema, which consists of alveolar wall destruction. Alveolar type (AT) II cells are in the gas exchange regions of the lung. We isolated primary ATII cells from deidentified organ donors whose lungs were not suitable for transplantation. We analyzed the cell injury obtained from nonsmokers, moderate smokers, and heavy smokers. DJ-1 protects cells from oxidative stress and induces nuclear erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, which activates the antioxidant defense system. In ATII cells isolated from moderate smokers, we found DJ-1 expression by RT-PCR, and Nrf2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 translocation by Western blotting and immunocytofluorescence. In ATII cells isolated from heavy smokers, we detected Nrf2 and HO-1 cytoplasmic localization. Moreover, we found high oxidative stress, as detected by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) (immunoblotting), inflammation by IL-8 and IL-6 levels by ELISA, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay in ATII cells obtained from heavy smokers. Furthermore, we detected early DJ-1 and late Nrf2 expression after ATII cell treatment with CS extract. We also overexpressed DJ-1 by adenovirus construct and found that this restored Nrf2 and HO-1 expression and induced nuclear translocation in heavy smokers. Moreover, DJ-1 overexpression also decreased ATII cell apoptosis caused by CS extract in vitro. Our results indicate that DJ-1 activates the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense system. Furthermore, DJ-1 overexpression can restore the impaired Nrf2 pathway, leading to ATII cell protection in heavy smokers. This suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting DJ-1 in CS-related lung diseases.

  10. Serum Metabolite Biomarkers Discriminate Healthy Smokers from COPD Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuying; Deeb, Ruba S.; Ma, Yuliang; Staudt, Michelle R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Gross, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is defined by a fixed expiratory airflow obstruction associated with disordered airways and alveolar destruction. COPD is caused by cigarette smoking and is the third greatest cause of mortality in the US. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is the only validated clinical marker of COPD, but it correlates poorly with clinical features and is not sensitive enough to predict the early onset of disease. Using LC/MS global untargeted metabolite profiling of serum samples from a well-defined cohort of healthy smokers (n = 37), COPD smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 37), we sought to discover serum metabolic markers with known and/or unknown molecular identities that are associated with early-onset COPD. A total of 1,181 distinct molecular ions were detected in 95% of sera from all study subjects and 23 were found to be differentially-expressed in COPD-smokers vs. healthy-smokers. These 23 putative biomarkers were differentially-correlated with lung function parameters and used to generate a COPD prediction model possessing 87.8% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity. In an independent validation set, this model correctly predicted COPD in 8/10 individuals. These serum biomarkers included myoinositol, glycerophopshoinositol, fumarate, cysteinesulfonic acid, a modified version of fibrinogen peptide B (mFBP), and three doubly-charged peptides with undefined sequence that significantly and positively correlate with mFBP levels. Together, elevated levels of serum mFBP and additional disease-associated biomarkers point to a role for chronic inflammation, thrombosis, and oxidative stress in remodeling of the COPD airways. Serum metabolite biomarkers offer a promising and accessible window for recognition of early-stage COPD. PMID:26674646

  11. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  12. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea ... hours depending on the method used. There are commercial tests available that offer rapid susceptibility testing and ...

  13. Proteoglycan changes in the extracellular matrix of lung tissue from patients with pulmonary emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, JFM; Coers, W; Noordhoek, JA; Flipsen, JTM; Kauffman, HF; Timens, W; Postma, DS

    To characterize the changes in the extracellular matrix in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema, we undertook immunohistochemical studies in lung tissues from controls (n = 7), from patients with mild (n = 11) and severe (n = 8) emphysema, and from patients with lung fibrosis (n = 6). We studied

  14. Quantitative computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness are related to respiratory symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, Thomas B; Dirksen, Asger; Coxson, Harvey O

    2010-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the relationship between respiratory symptoms and quantitative high-resolution computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness.......There is limited knowledge about the relationship between respiratory symptoms and quantitative high-resolution computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness....

  15. The presence and progression of emphysema in COPD as determined by CT scanning and biomarker expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coxson, Harvey O; Dirksen, Asger; Edwards, Lisa D

    2013-01-01

    Emphysema is a key contributor to airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and can be quantified using CT scanning. We investigated the change in CT lung density in a longitudinal, international cohort of patients with COPD. We also explored the potential relation between...... emphysema and patient characteristics, and investigated if certain circulating biomarkers were associated with decline in CT lung density....

  16. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoedo, Mauricio Kauark, E-mail: mauricioamoedo@gmail.com [Interventional Radiology, Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, Luciana Volpon Soares; Souza, Antonio Soares [Instituto de Radiodiagnostico Rio Preto (Ultra-X), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Famerp), SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity. (author)

  17. Persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, Pooja; Narula, Mahender K.; Anand, Rama; Chandra, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 10-month-old boy with multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis showing thin-walled lung cysts along with computed tomography (CT) evidence of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PPIE), in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. Follow-up CT performed after 6 months demonstrated complete resolution of interstitial emphysema

  18. Quality of life before and after lung transplantation in patients with emphysema versus other indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TenVergert, EM; Vermeulen, KM; van Enckevort, PJ

    2001-01-01

    Whether lung transplantation improves Health-related Quality of Life in patients with emphysema and other end-stage lung diseases before and after lung transplantation was examined. Between 1992 and 1999, 23 patients with emphysema and 19 patients with other indications completed self-administered

  19. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Kauark Amoedo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity.

  20. Usefulness evaluation of low-dose for emphysema: Compared with high-resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Daejeon Health Institute of Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of low-dose CT (LDCT) for emphysema compared with high-resolution CT (HRCT). Measurements of radiation dose and noise were repeated 3 times in same exposure condition which was similar with obtaining HRCT and LDCT images. We analysed reading results of 146 subjects. Six images per participants selected for emphysema grading. Emphysema was graded for all 6 zones on the left and right sides of the lungs by the consensus reading of two chest radiologists using a 4-point scale. Between the HRCT and LDCT images, diagnostic differences and agreements for emphysema were analyzed by McNemar's and unweighted kappa tests, and radiation doses and noise by a Mann-Whitney U-test, using the SPSS 19.0 program. Radiation dose from HRCT was significantly higher than that of LDCT, but the noise was significantly lower in HRCT than in LDCT. Diagnostic agreement for emphysema between HRCT and LDCT images was excellent (k-value=0.88). Emphysema grading scores were not significantly different between HRCT and LDCT images for all six lung zones. Emphysema grading scores from LDCT images were significantly correlated with increased scores on HRCT images (r=0.599, p < 0.001). Considering the tradeoff between radiation dose and image noise, LDCT could be used as the gold standard method instead of HRCT for emphysema detection and grading.

  1. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema following surgical extraction of mandibular third molars: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, I; Hirshberg, A; Freedman, A

    1987-01-01

    Three cases of subcutaneous emphysema following surgical extraction of lower third molars are presented. In two of the cases, pneumomediastinum developed. The direct cause of these complications is the combination of the use of an air turbine dental handpiece and the flap design. The propagation of the emphysema and means for its prevention are discussed.

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among lung cancer-free smokers: The importance of healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, Michelle D; Eldridge, Ronald; Follis, Jack L; Etzel, Carol J; Shete, Sanjay; El-Zein, Randa A

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers enrolled as "healthy" controls in studies is 10-50%. The COPD status of ideal smoker populations for lung cancer case-control studies should be checked via spirometry; however, this is often not feasible, because no medical indications exist for asymptomatic smokers to undergo spirometry prior to study enrollment. Therefore, there is an unmet need for robust, cost effective assays for identifying undiagnosed lung disease among asymptomatic smokers. Such assays would help excluding unhealthy smokers from lung cancer case-control studies. We used the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay (a measure of genetic instability) to identify undiagnosed lung disease among asymptomatic smokers. We used a convenience population from an on-going lung cancer case-control study including smokers with lung cancer (n = 454), smoker controls (n = 797), and a self-reported COPD (n = 200) contingent within the smoker controls. Significant differences for all CBMN endpoints were observed when comparing lung cancer to All controls (which included COPD) and Healthy controls (with no COPD). The risk ratio (RR) was increased in the COPD group vs. Healthy controls for nuclear buds (RR 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.62), and marginally increased for micronuclei (RR 1.06, 0.98-1.89) and nucleoplasmic bridges (RR 1.07, 0.97-1.15). These findings highlight the importance of using truly healthy controls in studies geared toward assessment of lung cancer risk. Using genetic instability biomarkers would facilitate the identification of smokers susceptible to tobacco smoke carcinogens and therefore predisposed to either disease. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Transconjunctival orbital emphysema caused by compressed air injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sunu; Vasu, Usha; Francis, Febson; Nazareth, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Orbital emphysema following conjunctival tear in the absence of orbital wall fracture, caused by air under pressure is rare. Usually orbital emphysema is seen in facial trauma associated with damage to the adjacent paranasal sinuses or facial bones. To the best of our knowledge, there have been only eight reports of orbital emphysema following use of compressed air during industrial work. The air under pressure is pushed through the subconjunctival space into the subcutaneous and retrobulbar spaces. We present here a rare cause of orbital emphysema in a young man working with compressed air gun. Although the emphysema was severe, there were no orbital bone fracture and the visual recovery of the patient was complete without attendant complications.

  4. Subcutaneous Emphysema, Pneumomediastinum, Pneumoretroperitoneum, and Pneumoscrotum: Unusual Complications of Acute Perforated Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema usually result from spontaneous alveolar wall rupture and, far less commonly, from disruption of the upper airways or gastrointestinal tract. Subcutaneous neck emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and retropneumoperitoneum caused by nontraumatic perforations of the colon have been infrequently reported. The main symptoms of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema are swelling and crepitus over the involved site; further clinical findings in case of subcutaneous cervical and mediastinal emphysema can be neck and chest pain and dyspnea. Radiological imaging plays an important role to achieve the correct diagnosis and extension of the disease. We present a quite rare case of spontaneous subcutaneous cervical emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumoretroperitoneum due to perforation of an occult sigmoid diverticulum. Abdomen ultrasound, chest X-rays, and computer tomography (CT were performed to evaluate the free gas extension and to identify potential sources of extravasating gas. Radiological diagnosis was confirmed by the subsequent surgical exploration.

  5. Periodontal Inflammatory Conditions Among Smokers and Never-Smokers With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Salazar-Lazo, Karem; Yanez-Fontenla, Virginia; Aldosary, Khalid M; Alshehri, Mohammed; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    There is a dearth of studies regarding the influence of cigarette smoking on periodontal inflammatory conditions among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study is to assess periodontal inflammatory conditions among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. One hundred individuals (50 patients with T2DM [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers] and 50 controls [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers]) were included. Information regarding age, sex, duration and daily frequency of smoking, duration and treatment of diabetes, and oral hygiene was recorded using a questionnaire. Periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD], clinical attachment loss [AL], and marginal bone loss [MBL]) were measured. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were also recorded. Mean age, monthly income status, and education levels were comparable among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. Mean HbA1c levels were significantly higher among patients with T2DM (8.2% ± 0.1%) compared with controls (4.4% ± 0.3%) (P Smokers in the control group were smoking significantly greater numbers of cigarettes (15.5 ± 2.5 cigarettes daily) compared with smokers with T2DM (6.2 ± 2.1 cigarettes daily) (P smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal parameters (PI [P smokers than never-smokers. Never-smokers with T2DM had worse periodontal status than smokers and never-smokers in the control group (P smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal inflammation is worse among smokers than never-smokers.

  6. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn E. Brodar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants, word of mouth (23%, Facebook (16%, and flyers or postcards (14%. Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05. Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05. Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker. The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker. Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  7. A Low Peripheral Blood CD4/CD8 Ratio Is Associated with Pulmonary Emphysema in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplette, Matthew; Attia, Engi F; Akgün, Kathleen M; Soo Hoo, Guy W; Freiberg, Matthew S; Butt, Adeel A; Wongtrakool, Cherry; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Brown, Sheldon T; Graber, Christopher J; Huang, Laurence; Crothers, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of emphysema is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals compared to HIV-uninfected persons. While greater tobacco use contributes, HIV-related effects on immunity likely confer additional risk. Low peripheral blood CD4+ to CD8+ T-lymphocyte (CD4/CD8) ratio may reflect chronic inflammation in HIV and may be a marker of chronic lung disease in this population. Therefore, we sought to determine whether the CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly the emphysema subtype, in a cohort of HIV+ subjects. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 190 HIV+ subjects enrolled in the Examinations of HIV Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE) study. Subjects underwent baseline laboratory assessments, pulmonary function testing and chest computed tomography (CT) analyzed for emphysema severity and distribution. We determined the association between CD4/CD8 ratio and emphysema, and the association between CD4/CD8 ratio and pulmonary function markers of COPD. Mild or greater emphysema (>10% lung involvement) was present in 31% of subjects. Low CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with >10% emphysema in multivariable models, adjusting for risk factors including smoking, current and nadir CD4 count and HIV RNA level. Those with CD4/CD8 ratio 10% emphysema compared to those with a ratio >1.0 in fully adjusted models. A low CD4/CD8 ratio was also associated with reduced diffusion capacity (DLCO). A low CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with emphysema and low DLCO in HIV+ subjects, independent of other risk factors and clinical markers of HIV. The CD4/CD8 ratio may be a useful, clinically available, marker for risk of emphysema in HIV+ subjects in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era.

  8. Minimally invasive lung volume reduction treated with bronchi occlusion emphysema model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dayong; Shen Liming; Shen Junkang; Jin Yiqi; Chen Lei; Huang Xianchen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the coil-and-glue method for the reduction of lung volume in rabbit emphysema model. Methods: Sixteen rabbits of emphysema model were divided into the occlusion group(n=10), in which both anterior bronchi were occluded using the coil-and- glue method, and the control group (n=6). The maximal static pressure of airway (P max ), peak expiratory flow (PEF), end-expiratory volume (EEV) and pressure of oxygen (PO 2 ) were measured at ante- emphysema, post-emphysema, 1 week and 4 week after occlusion respectively. The expectoration (or migration) of coil and collapse of lung were also investigated. Results: P max was (20.0±1.3) and (17.1± 1.4) cm H 2 O (1 cm H 2 O=0.098 kPa) in the occlusion group at ante-emphysema and post-emphysema respectively. P max was (19.2±1.4) cm H 2 O in the occlusion group in the 1 week after the occlusion, while (17.1±1.5)cm H 2 O in the control group (F=6.68, P max was (19.2±1.4) cm H 2 O in the occlusion group, while (16.6±1.2) cm H 2 O in the control group (F=12.10, P max , in the 1 week and 4 week after occlusion were higher than those at post-emphysema (P<0.01, respectively); EEV at post-emphysema was higher than that at ante-emphysema (P<0.01). Conclusion: Coil-and-glue occlusion method for lung volume reduction in rabbit emphysema model can improve the pulmonary function, which can be relatively long lasting. (authors)

  9. Quantification of pulmonary emphysema in multislice-CT using different software tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heussel, C.P.; Achenbach, T.; Buschsieweke, C.; Weinheimer, O.; Dueber, C.; Kuhnig, J.; Hammer, G.; Kauczor, H.U.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: the data records of thin-section MSCT of the lung with approx. 300 images are difficult to use in manual evaluation. A computer-assisted pre-diagnosis can help with reporting. Furthermore, post-processing techniques, for instance, for quantification of emphysema on the basis of three-dimensional anatomical information might be improved and the workflow might be further automated. Materials and methods: the results of 4 programs (Pulmo registered , Volume registered , YACTA and PulmoFUNC) for the quantitative analysis of emphysema (lung and emphysema volume, mean lung density and emphysema index) of 30 consecutive thin-section MSCT datasets with different emphysema severity levels were compared. The classification result of the YACTA program for different types of emphysema was also analyzed. Results: Pulmo registered and Volume registered have a median operating time of 105 and 59 minutes respectively due to the necessity for extensive manual correction of the lung segmentation. The programs PulmoFUNC and YACTA, which are automated to a large extent, have a median runtime of 26 and 16 minutes, respectively. The evaluation with Pulmo registered and Volume registered using 2 different datasets resulted in implausible values. PulmoFUNC crashed with 2 other datasets in a reproducible manner. Only with YACTA could all graphic datasets be evaluated. The lung volume, emphysema volume, emphysema index and mean lung density determined by YACTA and PulmoFUNC are significantly larger than the corresponding values of Volume registered and Pulmo registered (differences: Volume registered : 119 cm 3 /65 cm 3 /1%/17 HU, Pulmo registered : 60 cm 3 /96 cm 3 /1 %/37 HU). Classification of the emphysema type was in agreement with that of the radiologist in 26 panlobular cases, in 22 paraseptalen cases and in 15 centrilobular emphysema cases. (orig.)

  10. Papain-induced experimental pulmonary emphysema in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mariana Nascimento; Figueirôa, Silviane Fernandes da Silva; Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Valença, Samuel dos Santos; Zin, Walter Araújo

    2014-08-15

    In papain-induced models of emphysema, despite the existing extensive description of the cellular and molecular aspects therein involved, sexual hormones may play a complex and still not fully understood role. Hence, we aimed at exploring the putative gender-related differences in lung mechanics, histology and oxidative stress in papain-exposed mice. Thirty adult BALB/c mice received intratracheally either saline (50 μL) or papain (10 U/50 μL saline) once a week for 2 weeks. In males papain increased lung resistive and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous pressures, static elastance, and viscoelastic component of elastance, while females showed higher static elastance and resistive pressure only. Both genders presented similar higher parenchymal cellularity and mean alveolar diameter, and less collagen-elastic fiber content and body weight gain than their respective controls. Increased functional residual capacity was more prominent in males. Female papain-treated mice were more susceptible to oxidative stress. Thus, male and female papain-exposed mice respond differently, which should be carefully considered to avoid confounding results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Severe obstructive disease: Similarities and differences between smoker and non-smoker patients with COPD and/or bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rezende Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poorly reversible airflow obstruction may or may not be related to smoking. Objectives: To describe patients with severe obstructive lung disease including etiology, imaging, functional aspects, systemic manifestations, and the pattern of bronchodilator response. Methods: Sixty-eight patients (age 55.9 ± 13.7 years, FEV1 [forced expiratory volume in one second] 31.9 ± 10.2% predicted underwent spirometry, evaluation of body mass composition, 6-minute walk test, X-ray, thorax high-resolution CT scanning, and clinical evaluation. Results: Of 68 patients enrolled, 37 had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and 31, extensive bronchiectasis. Among COPD patients the CT scans showed emphysema in 78.4%, and bronchiectasis in 48.6%. There were no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers, except for vital capacity, significantly smaller in non-smokers (p  1 = flow responder or 1= respondedor de fluxo, se > 1 respondedor de volume, e 20 RV pelos criterios da ATS/ERS. De acordo com os critérios de Paré et al., existiam 18 pacientes com FEV1< 30% previsto entre os 29 RV, e 12 com FEV1 < 30% previsto entre os 39 sem resposta a uma prova de volume (p = 0,0101. Conclusões: Em pacientes com obstrução grave, o tabagismo não parece ser relevante na determinação de diferenças funcionais ou sistémicas, e os critérios de Paré et al. podem detetar mais RV. A bronquiectasias é uma descoberta comum em DPOC grave. Keywords: Airway obstruction, Respiratory function tests, Bronchitis, Bronchiectasis, Bronchodilator tests, Computed tomography of the thorax, Palavras-chave: Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias, Testes de Função Respiratória, Bronquite, Bronquiectasias, Testes de Broncodilatador, Tomografia de tórax

  12. Severe obstructive disease: Similarities and differences between smoker and non-smoker patients with COPD and/or bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rezende Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poorly reversible airflow obstruction may or may not be related to smoking. Objectives: To describe patients with severe obstructive lung disease including etiology, imaging, functional aspects, systemic manifestations, and the pattern of bronchodilator response. Methods: Sixty-eight patients (age 55.9 ± 13.7 years, FEV1 [forced expiratory volume in one second] 31.9 ± 10.2% predicted underwent spirometry, evaluation of body mass composition, 6-minute walk test, X-ray, thorax high-resolution CT scanning, and clinical evaluation. Results: Of 68 patients enrolled, 37 had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and 31, extensive bronchiectasis. Among COPD patients the CT scans showed emphysema in 78.4%, and bronchiectasis in 48.6%. There were no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers, except for vital capacity, significantly smaller in non-smokers (p  1 = flow responder or 1= respondedor de fluxo, se > 1 respondedor de volume, e 20 RV pelos criterios da ATS/ERS. De acordo com os critérios de Paré et al., existiam 18 pacientes com FEV1< 30% previsto entre os 29 RV, e 12 com FEV1 < 30% previsto entre os 39 sem resposta a uma prova de volume (p = 0,0101. Conclusões: Em pacientes com obstrução grave, o tabagismo não parece ser relevante na determinação de diferenças funcionais ou sistémicas, e os critérios de Paré et al. podem detetar mais RV. A bronquietasia é uma descoberta comum em DPOC grave. Keywords: Airway obstruction, Respiratory function tests, Bronchitis, Bronchiectasis, Bronchodilator tests, Computed tomography of the thorax, Palavras-chave: Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias, Testes de Função Respiratória, Bronquite, Bronquiectasia, Testes de Broncodilatador, Tomografia de tórax

  13. Quantification of Emphysema with a Three-Dimensional Chest CT Scan: Correlation with the Visual Emphysema Scoring on Chest CT, Pulmonary Function Tests and Dyspnea Severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jeong; Hwang, Jung Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to prospectively evaluate the correlation between the quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry with the visual emphysema score, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the dyspnea score in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Non-enhanced chest CT with 3D reconstruction was performed in 28 men with COPD (age 54-88 years). With histogram analysis, the total lung volume, mean lung density and proportion of low attenuation lung volume below predetermined thresholds were measured. The CT parameters were compared with the visual emphysema score, the PFT and the dyspnea score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was well correlated with the DLco and FEV{sub 1}/FVC. A Low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU and -930 HU was correlated with visual the emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the dyspnea score, although the correlations between the other CT parameters and the dyspnea score were not significant. Objective quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry was correlated with the visual emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the DLco, the FEV{sub 1}/FVC and the dyspnea score.

  14. Quantification of Emphysema with a Three-Dimensional Chest CT Scan: Correlation with the Visual Emphysema Scoring on Chest CT, Pulmonary Function Tests and Dyspnea Severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Jeong; Hwang, Jung Hwa

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to prospectively evaluate the correlation between the quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry with the visual emphysema score, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the dyspnea score in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Non-enhanced chest CT with 3D reconstruction was performed in 28 men with COPD (age 54-88 years). With histogram analysis, the total lung volume, mean lung density and proportion of low attenuation lung volume below predetermined thresholds were measured. The CT parameters were compared with the visual emphysema score, the PFT and the dyspnea score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was well correlated with the DLco and FEV 1 /FVC. A Low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU and -930 HU was correlated with visual the emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the dyspnea score, although the correlations between the other CT parameters and the dyspnea score were not significant. Objective quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry was correlated with the visual emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the DLco, the FEV 1 /FVC and the dyspnea score.

  15. Tension Pneumothorax and Subcutaneous Emphysema Complicating Insertion of Nasogastric Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjis AL Saif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasogastric tube has a key role in the management of substantial number of hospitalized patients particularly the critically ill. In spite of the apparent simple insertion technique, nasogastric tube placement has its serious perhaps fatal complications which need to be carefully assessed. Pulmonary misplacement and associated complications are commonplace during nasogastric tube procedure. We present a case of tension pneumothorax and massive surgical emphysema in critically ill ventilated patient due to inadvertent nasogastric tube insertion and also discussed the risk factors, complication list, and arrays of techniques for safer tube placement.

  16. Towards local progression estimation of pulmonary emphysema using CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staring, M; Bakker, M E; Stolk, J; Shamonin, D P; Reiber, J H C; Stoel, B C

    2014-02-01

    Whole lung densitometry on chest CT images is an accepted method for measuring tissue destruction in patients with pulmonary emphysema in clinical trials. Progression measurement is required for evaluation of change in health condition and the effect of drug treatment. Information about the location of emphysema progression within the lung may be important for the correct interpretation of drug efficacy, or for determining a treatment plan. The purpose of this study is therefore to develop and validate methods that enable the local measurement of lung density changes, which requires proper modeling of the effect of respiration on density. Four methods, all based on registration of baseline and follow-up chest CT scans, are compared. The first naïve method subtracts registered images. The second employs the so-called dry sponge model, where volume correction is performed using the determinant of the Jacobian of the transformation. The third and the fourth introduce a novel adaptation of the dry sponge model that circumvents its constant-mass assumption, which is shown to be invalid. The latter two methods require a third CT scan at a different inspiration level to estimate the patient-specific density-volume slope, where one method employs a global and the other a local slope. The methods were validated on CT scans of a phantom mimicking the lung, where mass and volume could be controlled. In addition, validation was performed on data of 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema. The image registration method was optimized leaving a registration error below half the slice increment (median 1.0 mm). The phantom study showed that the locally adapted slope model most accurately measured local progression. The systematic error in estimating progression, as measured on the phantom data, was below 2 gr/l for a 70 ml (6%) volume difference, and 5 gr/l for a 210 ml (19%) difference, if volume correction was applied. On the patient data an underlying linearity assumption

  17. Towards local progression estimation of pulmonary emphysema using CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staring, M.; Bakker, M. E.; Shamonin, D. P.; Reiber, J. H. C.; Stoel, B. C.; Stolk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Whole lung densitometry on chest CT images is an accepted method for measuring tissue destruction in patients with pulmonary emphysema in clinical trials. Progression measurement is required for evaluation of change in health condition and the effect of drug treatment. Information about the location of emphysema progression within the lung may be important for the correct interpretation of drug efficacy, or for determining a treatment plan. The purpose of this study is therefore to develop and validate methods that enable the local measurement of lung density changes, which requires proper modeling of the effect of respiration on density. Methods: Four methods, all based on registration of baseline and follow-up chest CT scans, are compared. The first naïve method subtracts registered images. The second employs the so-called dry sponge model, where volume correction is performed using the determinant of the Jacobian of the transformation. The third and the fourth introduce a novel adaptation of the dry sponge model that circumvents its constant-mass assumption, which is shown to be invalid. The latter two methods require a third CT scan at a different inspiration level to estimate the patient-specific density-volume slope, where one method employs a global and the other a local slope. The methods were validated on CT scans of a phantom mimicking the lung, where mass and volume could be controlled. In addition, validation was performed on data of 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema. Results: The image registration method was optimized leaving a registration error below half the slice increment (median 1.0 mm). The phantom study showed that the locally adapted slope model most accurately measured local progression. The systematic error in estimating progression, as measured on the phantom data, was below 2 gr/l for a 70 ml (6%) volume difference, and 5 gr/l for a 210 ml (19%) difference, if volume correction was applied. On the patient data an underlying

  18. Cervical and mediastinal emphysema secondary to third molar extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, J W; Sercarz, J A; Wang, M B

    1994-01-01

    A dramatic case of infected emphysema involving multiple deep cervical and mediastinal fascial planes following surgical extraction of a lower third molar in an otherwise healthy man is presented. The differential diagnosis and management of this condition are discussed, specifically contrasting it to necrotizing fasciitis. The direct cause of this complication was the use of an air turbine handpiece and air syringe for the tooth extraction. It is advised that air turbine handpieces and air syringes not be used during minor oral surgical procedures.

  19. Cough response to citric acid aerosol in occasional smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Pounsford, J C; Saunders, K B

    1986-01-01

    Twenty two normal women volunteers underwent a standard cough provocation test by inhaling solutions of citric acid of progressively increasing concentration. Eight were non-smokers, eight moderate smokers, and six occasional smokers. All the non-smokers and moderate smokers coughed. Moderate smokers tended to cough more than non-smokers, but not significantly so. None of the occasional smokers coughed at all (p less than 0.001). Possibly the ability to smoke occasionally with enjoyment is a ...

  20. Behavior of Lung Health Parameters among Smokers and Secondhand Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ghanem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on a pool of undergraduate smokers and nonsmokers (n=200 was randomly selected from Notre Dame University, Lebanon. The study design is based on a questionnaire about the students’ smoking record exposure, cotinine saliva levels, and ventilatory lung function parameters. Despite the nonsmoking policies that have been recently established by universities, diffused smoking stations in proximity to classes and offices still exist, at least in the MENA region. Such an environment still imposes a remarkable effect on certain lung health parameters of nonsmokers exhibiting similar exhaled air per second (FEV1 to smokers with a P value = 0.558 and normal flow of air (TV with a P value = 0.153. However, the maximum amount of air held in the lungs remained different with respect to sex and smoking status. These results imply a poor performance of nonsmokers mimicking partially the lung health parameters of smokers. It remains a pressing issue to increase awareness concerning the debilitating effects of secondhand smoking.

  1. Signs of Gas Trapping in Normal Lung Density Regions in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodduluri, Sandeep; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Hoffman, Eric A; Newell, John D; Nath, Hrudaya; Dransfield, Mark T; Bhatt, Surya P

    2017-12-01

    A substantial proportion of subjects without overt airflow obstruction have significant respiratory morbidity and structural abnormalities as visualized by computed tomography. Whether regions of the lung that appear normal using traditional computed tomography criteria have mild disease is not known. To identify subthreshold structural disease in normal-appearing lung regions in smokers. We analyzed 8,034 subjects with complete inspiratory and expiratory computed tomographic data participating in the COPDGene Study, including 103 lifetime nonsmokers. The ratio of the mean lung density at end expiration (E) to end inspiration (I) was calculated in lung regions with normal density (ND) by traditional thresholds for mild emphysema (-910 Hounsfield units) and gas trapping (-856 Hounsfield units) to derive the ND-E/I ratio. Multivariable regression analysis was used to measure the associations between ND-E/I, lung function, and respiratory morbidity. The ND-E/I ratio was greater in smokers than in nonsmokers, and it progressively increased from mild to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity. A proportion of 26.3% of smokers without airflow obstruction had ND-E/I greater than the 90th percentile of normal. ND-E/I was independently associated with FEV 1 (adjusted β = -0.020; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.032 to -0.007; P = 0.001), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire scores (adjusted β = 0.952; 95% CI, 0.529 to 1.374; P smokers without airflow obstruction, and it is associated with respiratory morbidity. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00608764).

  2. Whole-lung densitometry versus visual assessment of emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavigli, Edoardo; Orlandi, Ilaria; Grassi, Luca; Farfalla, Carmela; Mascalchi, Mario; Camiciottoli, Gianna; Meoni, Eleonora; Pistolesi, Massimo; Diciotti, Stefano; Spinelli, Cheti; Falaschi, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    We compared whole-lung densitometry with visual evaluation of pulmonary emphysema. Thirty patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease underwent multi-detector CT (150 mAs and 0.75 collimation) with double reconstruction: thick (5-mm) slices with smooth filter for whole-lung densitometry and thin (1 mm) slices with sharp filter for visual assessment (one of every ten slices). Densitometry and visual assessment were performed by three operators each, and the time required for assessment, the inter-observer agreement and the correlation with the results of the diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DL CO ) in the same patients were computed. The average time for densitometry (8.49 ± 0.13 min) was significantly longer (p CO with relative area at -960 and -970 Hounsfield units (HU) (both r = -0.66) and of the first percentile point of lung density (r = 0.66) were slightly stronger than that of the visual score (r = -0.62). Densitometry should be preferred to visual assessment because it enables a more reproducible evaluation of the extent of pulmonary emphysema, which can be carried out on the entire lung in a reasonable amount of time. (orig.)

  3. [Lung volume reduction surgery for severe pulmonary emphysema in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir I; Johannsson, Kristinn B; Guðjónsdóttir, Marta; Jónsson, Steinn; Beck, Hans J; Magnusson, Bjorn; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2011-12-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) can benefit patients with severe emphysema. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of LVRS performed in Iceland. A prospective study of 16 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral LVRS through median sternotomy between January 1996 and December 2008. All patients had disabling dyspnea, lung hyperinflation, and emphysema with upper lobe predominance. Preoperatively all patients underwent pulmonary rehabilitation. Spirometry, lung volumes, arterial blood gases and exercise capacity were measured before and after surgery. Mean follow-up time was 8.7 years. Mean age was 59.2 ± 5.9 years. All patients had a history of heavy smoking. There was no perioperative mortality and survival was 100%, 93%, and 63% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) improved significantly after surgery by 35% (plung capacity, residual volume and partial pressure of CO2 also showed statistically significant improvements but exercise capacity, O2 consumption and diffusing capacity of the lung for CO did not change. Prolonged air leak (≥ 7 days) was the most common complication (n=7). Five patients required reoperation, most commonly for sternal dehiscence (n=4). In this small prospective study, FEV1 and FVC increased and lung volumes and PaCO2 improved after LVRS. Long term survival was satisfactory although complications such as reoperations for sternal dehiscence were common and hospital stay therefore often prolonged.

  4. Computerized tomography of chest in emphysema and interstitial diseases diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto Bayarri, M.; Malagari, K.; Ibarburen, C.; Arenas, G.; Correa Pombo, J.; Garcia Tahoces, P.; Tucker, D.; Barnes, G.T.; Luna, R.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Fraser, R.G.; Vidal Carrerira, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effect of increasing the spatial resolution on thin section (1.5 mm) computed tomography (CT) of the chest, we compared images reconstructed with the standard algorithm (SA) to three other images obtained with 1) a high spatial frequency algorithm, 2) retrospective targeting to a small field of view (FOV) reconstructed with the high spatial frequency algorithm, and 3) the same high spatial frequency algorithm with images acquired with the small (0.6 mm) rather the large (0.9 mm) focal spot. Examinations were performed on a phantom, on normal subjects, and on patients with emphysema and other diffuse lung diseases. Modulation transfer function (MTF) calculations revealed that higher resolution was achieved on the small focal spot and high spatial frequency algorithm than on the standard algorithm. Evaluation of the four images from 25 normal subjects, 16 patients with emphysema and 9 with interstitial disease was performed by means of an ROC study. Results from the areas under the ROC curves, sensitivity and specificity have shown that images reconstructed with the high spatial frequency algorithm were preferred. We conclude that the use of a high spatial frequency algorithm increases spatial resolution and improves visibility of lung parenchyma. Although more evaluation is needed, the potential of increasing spatial resolution further by using a smaller focal spot is currently limited by the mas Available per slice and the associated increased level of quantum noise. (Author)

  5. A Case of Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum with Subcutaneous Emphysema in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Benlamkaddem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is defined as free air or gas contained within the mediastinum, which almost invariably originates from the alveolar space or the conducting airways. It is rare in pediatric patients; however, occasional cases are reported to result from forced Valsalva’s maneuver due to cough, emesis, a first attack of wheeze, or asthma exacerbations. We report the case of a 7-year-old previously healthy girl, with a history of persistent dry cough one day before, who was brought to our unit with face, neck and chest swelling. The chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT scan showed subcutaneous emphysema with pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium without evidence of the origin of this air leak. Laboratory tests and the bronchoscopy were normal. The patient was admitted in the pediatric critical care and received noninvasive monitoring, analgesia, oxygen, and omeprazole as a prophylaxis for a gastric ulcer. The patient improved, subcutaneous emphysema resolved, and she was discharged on the third day.

  6. Pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema complicating MIS herniorrhaphy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Browne, J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Videoscopic herniorrhaphy is being performed more frequently with advantages claimed over the conventional open approach. This clinical report describes a pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema occurring at the end of an extraperitoneal videoscopic herniorrhaphy. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 25 yr old ASA I man presented for elective extraperitoneal videoscopic hernia repair. Following intravenous induction with fentanyl, midazolam and propofol a balanced anesthetic technique using enflurane in N2O and O2 was used. Apart from a prolonged operating time (195 min), the procedure and anesthetic was uneventful. At the conclusion of the operation, prior to reversal of neuromuscular blockade extensive subcutaneous emphysema was noted on removal of the surgical drapes. Chest radiography revealed a pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax. A 25 FG intercostal tube was inserted and connected to an underwater seal drain. Sedation and positive pressure ventilation was maintained overnight to permit resolution and avoid airway compromise. The clinical and radiological features had resolved by the next morning and the patient\\'s trachea was extubated. His subsequent recovery was uneventful. CONCLUSION: Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum are well recognised complications of laparoscopic techniques but have not been described following extraperitoneal herniorrhaphy. In this report we postulate possible mechanisms which may have contributed to their development, including inadvertent breach of the peritoneum and leakage of gas around the diaphragmatic herniae or tracking of gas retroperitoneally. The case alerts us to the possibility of this complication occurring in patients undergoing videoscopic herniorrhaphy.

  7. Online Feature Selection for Classifying Emphysema in HRCT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prasad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Feature subset selection, applied as a pre- processing step to machine learning, is valuable in dimensionality reduction, eliminating irrelevant data and improving classifier performance. In the classic formulation of the feature selection problem, it is assumed that all the features are available at the beginning. However, in many real world problems, there are scenarios where not all features are present initially and must be integrated as they become available. In such scenarios, online feature selection provides an efficient way to sort through a large space of features. It is in this context that we introduce online feature selection for the classification of emphysema, a smoking related disease that appears as low attenuation regions in High Resolution Computer Tomography (HRCT images. The technique was successfully evaluated on 61 HRCT scans and compared with different online feature selection approaches, including hill climbing, best first search, grafting, and correlation-based feature selection. The results were also compared against ldensity maskr, a standard approach used for emphysema detection in medical image analysis.

  8. Critical role of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masaki; Ouchi, Hiroshi; Ikegame, Satoshi; Harada, Eiji; Matsumoto, Takemasa; Uchino, Junji; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Watanabe, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    COPD is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Although tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has a critical role in the development of COPD, the role of different TNF receptors (TNFRs) in pulmonary emphysema has not been resolved. We aimed to clarify the role of TNFRs in the development of pulmonary emphysema. TNF-α transgenic mice, a murine model of COPD in which the mice spontaneously develop emphysema with a large increase in lung volume and pulmonary hypertension, were crossed with either TNFR1-deficient mice or TNFR2-deficient mice. After 6 months, the gross appearance of the lung, lung histology, and pulmonary and cardiac physiology were determined. In addition, the relationship between apoptosis and emphysema was investigated. Pulmonary emphysema-like changes disappeared with deletion of TNFR1. However, slight improvements were attained with deletion of TNFR2. Apoptotic cells in the interstitium of the lung were observed in TNF-α transgenic mice. The apoptotic signals through TNFR1 appear critical for the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. In contrast, the inflammatory process has a less important role for the development of emphysema.

  9. Adaptive Quantification and Longitudinal Analysis of Pulmonary Emphysema with a Hidden Markov Measure Field Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häme, Yrjö; Angelini, Elsa D.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Barr, R. Graham; Laine, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    The extent of pulmonary emphysema is commonly estimated from CT images by computing the proportional area of voxels below a predefined attenuation threshold. However, the reliability of this approach is limited by several factors that affect the CT intensity distributions in the lung. This work presents a novel method for emphysema quantification, based on parametric modeling of intensity distributions in the lung and a hidden Markov measure field model to segment emphysematous regions. The framework adapts to the characteristics of an image to ensure a robust quantification of emphysema under varying CT imaging protocols and differences in parenchymal intensity distributions due to factors such as inspiration level. Compared to standard approaches, the present model involves a larger number of parameters, most of which can be estimated from data, to handle the variability encountered in lung CT scans. The method was used to quantify emphysema on a cohort of 87 subjects, with repeated CT scans acquired over a time period of 8 years using different imaging protocols. The scans were acquired approximately annually, and the data set included a total of 365 scans. The results show that the emphysema estimates produced by the proposed method have very high intra-subject correlation values. By reducing sensitivity to changes in imaging protocol, the method provides a more robust estimate than standard approaches. In addition, the generated emphysema delineations promise great advantages for regional analysis of emphysema extent and progression, possibly advancing disease subtyping. PMID:24759984

  10. Correlation of lung surface area to apoptosis and proliferation in human emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K; Mercer, B A; Schulman, L L; Sonett, J R; D'Armiento, J M

    2005-02-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is associated with alterations in matrix proteins and protease activity. These alterations may be linked to programmed cell death by apoptosis, potentially influencing lung architecture and lung function. To evaluate apoptosis in emphysema, lung tissue was analysed from 10 emphysema patients and six individuals without emphysema (normal). Morphological analysis revealed alveolar cells in emphysematous lungs with convoluted nuclei characteristic of apoptosis. DNA fragmentation was detected using terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and gel electrophoresis. TUNEL revealed higher apoptosis in emphysematous than normal lungs. Markers of apoptosis, including active caspase-3, proteolytic fragment of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax and Bad, were detected in emphysematous lungs. Linear regression showed that apoptosis was inversely correlated with surface area. Emphysematous lungs demonstrated lower surface areas and increased cell proliferation. There was no correlation between apoptosis and proliferation, suggesting that, although both events increase during emphysema, they are not in equilibrium, potentially contributing to reduced lung surface area. In summary, cell-based mechanisms associated with emphysematous parenchymal damage include increased apoptosis and cell proliferation. Apoptosis correlated with airspace enlargement, supporting epidemiological evidence of the progressive nature of emphysema. These data extend the understanding of cell dynamics and structural changes within the lung during emphysema pathogenesis.

  11. Cluster analysis in severe emphysema subjects using phenotype and genotype data: an exploratory investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Fernando J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have demonstrated associations between genetic markers and COPD, but results have been inconsistent. One reason may be heterogeneity in disease definition. Unsupervised learning approaches may assist in understanding disease heterogeneity. Methods We selected 31 phenotypic variables and 12 SNPs from five candidate genes in 308 subjects in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT Genetics Ancillary Study cohort. We used factor analysis to select a subset of phenotypic variables, and then used cluster analysis to identify subtypes of severe emphysema. We examined the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of each cluster. Results We identified six factors accounting for 75% of the shared variability among our initial phenotypic variables. We selected four phenotypic variables from these factors for cluster analysis: 1 post-bronchodilator FEV1 percent predicted, 2 percent bronchodilator responsiveness, and quantitative CT measurements of 3 apical emphysema and 4 airway wall thickness. K-means cluster analysis revealed four clusters, though separation between clusters was modest: 1 emphysema predominant, 2 bronchodilator responsive, with higher FEV1; 3 discordant, with a lower FEV1 despite less severe emphysema and lower airway wall thickness, and 4 airway predominant. Of the genotypes examined, membership in cluster 1 (emphysema-predominant was associated with TGFB1 SNP rs1800470. Conclusions Cluster analysis may identify meaningful disease subtypes and/or groups of related phenotypic variables even in a highly selected group of severe emphysema subjects, and may be useful for genetic association studies.

  12. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 8 males), smokers (10 females and 8 males), and ex-smokers (10 females and 7 males). Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry of gray matter (GM), and tract-based spatial statistics of white matter (WM). First, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and ACC. No structural differences were found in GM or WM. The current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  13. Sex-effects on smoking cue perception in non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Zanchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRecent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers and ex-smokers. MethodsFirst, we compared 29 females (28.6±5.3 versus 23 males (31.5±6.4 regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post-hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 F, 8M, smokers (10F, 8M and ex-smokers (10F, 7M. Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry (VBM of gray matter, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS of white matter. ResultsFirst, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and anterior cingulate cortex. No structural differences were found in grey or white matter.ConclusionThe current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  14. Nicotine Intake in Pregnant Smokers and a General Population of Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Jacob, Nelly; Heishman, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether pregnant smokers have the same nicotine intake from cigarettes as a general population of smokers and whether the known lower daily cigarette consumption among pregnant smokers is associated with higher nicotine intake among pregnant smokers. The study was a cross-sectional comparison of pregnant smokers and a general population of smokers in smoking cessation clinics. Participants were treatment-seeking pregnant (n = 476), nonpregnant female (n = 116), and male (n = 195) smokers who participated in two independent smoking cessation trials. Nicotine intake was measured as saliva cotinine/ cigarette/kg body weight ratio. The mean saliva cotinine (μg/L)/ cigarette/kg body weight (0.21, SD = 0.15) of pregnant smokers was similar to that of nonpregnant female smokers (0.24, SD = 0.14) and higher than that of male smokers (0.18, SD = 0.12, p = .002) despite a substantially lower number of cigarettes per day (pregnant smokers: 12, SD = 6; nonpregnant female smokers: 26.6, SD = 11.7; male smokers: 23.5, SD = 9.5, p smokers, saliva cotinine, as expected, increased in parallel with the number of cigarettes per day, but nicotine intake (cotinine/cigarette/kg body weight) was inversely associated with daily cigarette consumption (p smokers (p = .43). This secondary analysis showed that pregnant smokers' nicotine intake was similar to that of a general population of smokers despite a lower cigarette consumption rate. Among pregnant smokers, lower daily cigarette consumption was associated with higher nicotine intake from cigarettes, suggesting compensatory smoking.

  15. Algorithm of pulmonary emphysema extraction using low dose thoracic 3D CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, S.; Kubo, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Omatsu, H.; Tominaga, K.; Eguchi, K.; Moriyama, N.

    2006-03-01

    Recently, due to aging and smoking, emphysema patients are increasing. The restoration of alveolus which was destroyed by emphysema is not possible, thus early detection of emphysema is desired. We describe a quantitative algorithm for extracting emphysematous lesions and quantitatively evaluate their distribution patterns using low dose thoracic 3-D CT images. The algorithm identified lung anatomies, and extracted low attenuation area (LAA) as emphysematous lesion candidates. Applying the algorithm to 100 thoracic 3-D CT images and then by follow-up 3-D CT images, we demonstrate its potential effectiveness to assist radiologists and physicians to quantitatively evaluate the emphysematous lesions distribution and their evolution in time interval changes.

  16. Algorithm of pulmonary emphysema extraction using thoracic 3D CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Shinsuke; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Nakano, Yasutaka; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Tominaga, Keigo; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2007-03-01

    Recently, due to aging and smoking, emphysema patients are increasing. The restoration of alveolus which was destroyed by emphysema is not possible, thus early detection of emphysema is desired. We describe a quantitative algorithm for extracting emphysematous lesions and quantitatively evaluate their distribution patterns using low dose thoracic 3-D CT images. The algorithm identified lung anatomies, and extracted low attenuation area (LAA) as emphysematous lesion candidates. Applying the algorithm to thoracic 3-D CT images and then by follow-up 3-D CT images, we demonstrate its potential effectiveness to assist radiologists and physicians to quantitatively evaluate the emphysematous lesions distribution and their evolution in time interval changes.

  17. Inhaled 239PuO2 in rats with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Mauderly, J.L.; Hahn, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    The modifying effects of a pre-existing lung disease (emphysema) on the deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 in the rat are being investigated. Preliminary observations indicated that the deposition and retention patterns for 239 Pu particles inhaled by rats with emphysema and control rats were similar, but the distribution of inhaled 239 Pu immediately after exposure was different. Respiratory function measured through one year after exposure to 239 Pu was consistent with emphysema and was not altered by the 239 Pu lung burden. Long-term observations are continuing. 4 references, 2 tables

  18. Persistence of ventilatory defect after resolution of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a preterm baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Luiz Vicente Ferreira da Silva; Rossi, Felipe De Souza; Deutsch, Alice d'Agostini; Yagui, Ana Cristina Zanon; Timenetsky, Karina; Rebello, Celso de Moura

    2010-07-01

    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a common complication of mechanical ventilation in preterm babies. We report a case of severe unilateral pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a premature newborn, treated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, lateral decubitus positioning and selective intubation. After complete radiological resolution of the pulmonary emphysema in the left lung, the patient was studied by electrical impedance tomography and a marked reduction of ventilation was identified in the left lung despite radiological resolution of the cysts. This finding indicates that functional abnormalities may persist for longer periods after radiologic resolution of such lesions.

  19. Chest X-ray and computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Porto, Nelson da Silva; Santana, Pablo Rydz

    2007-01-01

    Emphysema is a condition of the lung, characterized by the abnormal increase in the size of the airspace distal to the terminal bronchioles. Currently, emphysema is the fourth leading cause of death in the USA, affecting 14 million people. The present article describes the principal tools in the imaging diagnosis of emphysema, from the early days until the present. We describe traditional techniques, such as chest X-ray, together with the evolution of computed tomography (CT) to more advanced forms, such as high resolution CT, as well as three-dimensional CT densitometry and volumetric assessment. (author)

  20. Spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema of the scalp following hair coloring/treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjit O. Tewari, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous emphysema of the scalp is a process often attributed to secondary factors such as trauma, infection, or a myriad of iatrogenic etiologies. Here, we are presenting a case report of an adult patient with spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema of the scalp following a hair coloring/treatment. We performed an extensive review of literature on this topic, however, could not find a single case with similar presentation of subcutaneous emphysema. This case demonstrates an unreported etiology for this diagnosis and is thus being reported for its uniqueness and to raise clinical awareness.

  1. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280

  2. Comparison of HPRT mutant frequency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes of smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Mary Mohankumar, N.; Chatterjee, Indranil; Jeevanram, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    The mutant frequency of hypoxanthine guanine phospho ribosyl transferase (HPRT) has been studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes of six non-smokers and six smokers. The mutant frequency was studied by following a Uniform Operating Protocol (UOP). The mean lymphocyte cloning efficiency of non-smokers and smokers was about 31 %. The mean mutant frequency obtained in smokers showed a marginal increase compared to that of non-smokers, but they were not significantly different (P= 0.1416). This paper discusses the methodology adopted and the results obtained with the preliminary finding. (author)

  3. Comparison of peak expiratory flow rate and lipid profile in asymptomatic smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, F.; Abbasi, M.A.; Jadoon, J.; Sohail, M.; Shah, J.; Afridi, U.; Noor, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), other pulmonary diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of study was to determine the mean Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and serum lipid profile in apparently healthy male smokers and non-smokers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from 15th December, 2009 to 15th June, 2010. Apparently healthy smokers and non-smokers from population coming to Hospital as attendants of the patients or as employees of the hospital were inducted in the study. PEFR and lipid profile of all the subjects was accessed. Results: There were total of 300 male subjects, 150 smokers and 150 non-smokers. The mean age of study subjects was 26.60 ± 5.5 years. The mean PEFR of smokers was 450.62l/min and that of non-smokers was 494.81 L/min, the difference being statistically significant (p-value <0.05).The mean total cholesterol of smokers is 5.30 ± 0.86 mmol/l and it was 3.84 ± 0.54 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean serum Triacyl Glycerols (TAGs) and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol of smokers was 2.04 ± 0.38 and 3.5 ± 0.83 mmol/l whereas it was 1.44 ± 0.52 and 2.02 ± 0.66 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean High Density Lipo-protein (HDL) of smokers was 0.86 ± 0.30 mmol/l and of non-smokers is 1.20 ± 0.41 mmo/l. There was statistically significant difference between serum lipid profile of smokers and non-smokers (p<0.05). the mean serum Total Cholesterol (TC), TAGs and LDL were significantly higher in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However HDL was significantly lower in smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Conclusion: There was statistically significant difference between PEFR of smokers and non-smokers. Higher and significant mean values of TC, TAG and LDL-C was observed in smokers as compared to non-smokers. (author)

  4. Clinical Impact of Emphysema Evaluated by High-Resolution Computed Tomography on Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosed by Surgical Lung Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohashi, Yasuo; Arai, Toru; Sugimoto, Chikatoshi; Tachibana, Kazunobu; Akira, Masanori; Kitaichi, Masanori; Hayashi, Seiji; Inoue, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of combined cases of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema is unresolved partially because radiological differentiation between usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia is difficult in coexisting emphysema cases. The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical impact of emphysema on the survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). One hundred and seven patients with interstitial lung diseases were diagnosed by surgical lung biopsies between 2006 and 2012, and 47 patients were diagnosed with IPF through multidisciplinary discussion. Emphysema on high-resolution computed tomography scans was evaluated semiquantitatively by visual scoring. Eight out of the 47 IPF patients showed a higher emphysema score (>3) and were diagnosed to have IPF-emphysema. The median survival time of patients with IPF-emphysema (1,734 days) from the initial diagnosis was significantly shorter than that of patients with IPF alone (2,229 days) by Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.007, log-rank test). Univariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses revealed that a higher total emphysema score (>3.0) was a significantly poor prognostic factor in addition to Krebs von den Lungen-6, surfactant protein-D, arterial oxygen tension, percent forced vital capacity, and percent diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (%DLCO). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses with the stepwise method showed that higher total emphysema score (>3) and %DLCO were significantly poor prognostic factors. The prognosis of IPF-emphysema was significantly worse than that of IPF alone. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Novel therapeutic approach for pulmonary emphysema using gelatin microspheres releasing basic fibroblast growth factor in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sung Soo; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Matsuura, Natsumi; Gotoh, Masashi; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The prognosis of patients with emphysema is poor as there is no truly effective treatment. Our previous study showed that the alveolar space was smaller and the microvessel density was higher in a canine emphysema model after the intrapulmonary arterial administration of gelatin microspheres slowly releasing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF-GMS). In the present study, we evaluated the functional effect of injecting bFGF-GMS via the pulmonary artery in this canine pulmonary emphysema model. Using the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced total emphysema model, we approximated the value of lung compliance with a Power Lab System, and performed blood gas analysis in a control group, a total emphysema group, and a bFGF group in which bFGF-GMS were injected toward the whole pulmonary artery via the femoral vein. Each group comprised five dogs. Lung compliance was higher in the total emphysema group than in the control group (p = 0.031), and the bFGF group showed no significant improvement of lung compliance vs. the total emphysema group (p = 0.112). PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood) was improved by administering bFGF-GMS in the total emphysema model (p = 0.027). In the canine total emphysema model, blood gas parameters were improved by the whole pulmonary arterial administration of bFGF-GMS. This method has the potential to be an effective novel therapy for pulmonary emphysema.

  6. Therapeutic Targeting of the IL-6 Trans-Signaling/Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Axis in Pulmonary Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwanpura, Saleela M; McLeod, Louise; Dousha, Lovisa F; Seow, Huei J; Alhayyani, Sultan; Tate, Michelle D; Deswaerte, Virginie; Brooks, Gavin D; Bozinovski, Steven; MacDonald, Martin; Garbers, Christoph; King, Paul T; Bardin, Philip G; Vlahos, Ross; Rose-John, Stefan; Anderson, Gary P; Jenkins, Brendan J

    2016-12-15

    The potent immunomodulatory cytokine IL-6 is consistently up-regulated in human lungs with emphysema and in mouse emphysema models; however, the mechanisms by which IL-6 promotes emphysema remain obscure. IL-6 signals using two distinct modes: classical signaling via its membrane-bound IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), and trans-signaling via a naturally occurring soluble IL-6R. To identify whether IL-6 trans-signaling and/or classical signaling contribute to the pathogenesis of emphysema. We used the gp130 F/F genetic mouse model for spontaneous emphysema and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema models. Emphysema in mice was quantified by various methods including in vivo lung function and stereology, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay was used to assess alveolar cell apoptosis. In mouse and human lung tissues, the expression level and location of IL-6 signaling-related genes and proteins were measured, and the levels of IL-6 and related proteins in sera from emphysematous mice and patients were also assessed. Lung tissues from patients with emphysema, and from spontaneous and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema mouse models, were characterized by excessive production of soluble IL-6R. Genetic blockade of IL-6 trans-signaling in emphysema mouse models and therapy with the IL-6 trans-signaling antagonist sgp130Fc ameliorated emphysema by suppressing augmented alveolar type II cell apoptosis. Furthermore, IL-6 trans-signaling-driven emphysematous changes in the lung correlated with mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 hyperactivation, and treatment of emphysema mouse models with the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor rapamycin attenuated emphysematous changes. Collectively, our data reveal that specific targeting of IL-6 trans-signaling may represent a novel treatment strategy for emphysema.

  7. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  8. The case against a smoker's license.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Collin

    Full Text Available Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  9. The case for a smoker's license.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Chapman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  10. The case for a smoker's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  11. The case against a smoker's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  12. Eating pathology among Black and White smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A P; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Spring, Bonnie J

    2005-02-01

    Among White smokers, many females use smoking as a weight control strategy. Little is known about the relationship between eating pathology and smoking among Black females, and whether smokers who enroll in treatment differ in eating pathology from smokers who decline treatment. We examined eating pathology among Black and White smokers who enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment and those who declined treatment. Participants were 100 Black and 100 White female smokers (ages 18-65) who completed three measures of eating pathology. After controlling for BMI, Whites reported greater levels of overall eating pathology than Blacks [F(1,195)=4.1; pWhite than Black smokers. However, once females seek smoking cessation treatment, these ethnic differences are not apparent.

  13. Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoenzyme in Lung Tissue of Smokers with and without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ting Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been demonstrated that only 10%-20% cigarette smokers finally suffer chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The underlying mechanism of development remains uncertain so far. Nitric oxide (NO has been found to be closely associated with the pathogenesis of COPD, the alteration of NO synthase (NOS expression need to be revealed. The study aimed to investigate the alterations of NOS isoforms expressions between smokers with and without COPD, which might be helpful for identifying the susceptibility of smokers developing into COPD. Methods: Peripheral lung tissues were obtained from 10 nonsmoker control subjects, 15 non-COPD smokers, and 15 smokers with COPD. Neuronal NOS (nNOS, inducible NOS (iNOS, and endothelial NOS (eNOS mRNA and protein levels were measured in each sample by using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Results: INOS mRNA was significantly increased in patients with COPD compared with nonsmokers and smokers with normal lung function (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, respectively. iNOS protein was also higher in COPD patients than nonsmokers and smokers with normal lung function (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, expressions of nNOS and eNOS did not differ among nonsmokers, smokers with and without COPD. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between iNOS protein level and lung function parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 (% predicted (r = −0.549, P = 0.001 and FEV 1 /forced vital capacity (%, r = −0.535, P = 0.001. Conclusions: The expression of iNOS significantly increased in smokers with COPD compared with that in nonsmokers or smokers without COPD. The results suggest that iNOS might be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD, and may be a potential marker to identify the smokers who have more liability to suffer COPD.

  14. HRCT findings in the lungs of non-smokers with neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, Anastasia; Vadikolias, Konstantinos; Birbilis, Theodosios; Bouros, Demosthenes; Prassopoulos, Panos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Interstitial lung disease in neurofibromatosis (NF) has been disputed and attributed to smoking-related changes. The aim of this study was to describe HRCT findings in the lungs of non-smokers with NF. Materials and methods: Six never-smokers with NF underwent lung HRCT. Two radiologists evaluated the HRCT scans and a final decision was reached by consensus. The HRCT scans were analyzed with regard to the number, size, location (upper, middle or lower lung zone) and distribution (peripheral and central) of lung cysts and the presence of ground-glass density centrilobular micronodules. Results: All patients with NF had small (2–18 mm) thin wall cysts and upper-lobe predominant patchy areas of ground-glass density centrilobular micronodules. In five cases, there were 3–17 cysts and in one there were numerous (>100). Lung cysts were central (1), subpleural (1) and in both locations (4). Conclusion: Interstitial lung disease in NF is not associated with smoking and may be entirely asymptomatic. HRCT may reveal small cysts, with barely perceptible walls therefore not representing emphysema and occasionally a minimal micronodular pattern of ground glass opacity. There was no radiologic evidence of lung fibrosis, honeycombing or severe bullous disease.

  15. Quantifying emphysema extent from weakly labeled CT scans of the lungs using label proportions learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørting, Silas Nyboe; Petersen, Jens; Wille, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of emphysema extent is important in diagnosing and monitoring patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several studies have shown that emphysema quantification by supervised texture classification is more robust and accurate than traditional densitometry. Current...... techniques require highly time consuming manual annotations of patches or use only weak labels indicating overall disease status (e.g, COPD or healthy). We show how visual scoring of regional emphysema extent can be exploited in a learning with label proportions (LLP) framework to both predict presence...... of emphysema in smaller patches and estimate regional extent. We evaluate performance on 195 visually scored CT scans and achieve an intraclass correlation of 0.72 (0.65–0.78) between predicted region extent and expert raters. To our knowledge this is the first time that LLP methods have been applied...

  16. Quantitative CT: Associations between Emphysema, Airway Wall Thickness and Body Composition in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Erica P A; Grydeland, Thomas B; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the association between CT phenotypes-emphysema by low attenuation area and bronchitis by airway wall thickness-and body composition parameters in a large cohort of subjects with and without COPD. In 452 COPD subjects and 459 subjects without COPD......, CT scans were performed to determine emphysema (%LAA), airway wall thickness (AWT-Pi10), and lung mass. Muscle wasting based on FFMI was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. In both the men and women with COPD, FFMI was negatively associated with %LAA. FMI was positively associated with AWT-Pi10...... in both subjects with and without COPD. Among the subjects with muscle wasting, the percentage emphysema was high, but the predictive value was moderate. In conclusion, the present study strengthens the hypothesis that the subgroup of COPD cases with muscle wasting have emphysema. Airway wall thickness...

  17. Volume adjustment of lung density by computed tomography scans in patients with emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, S B; Dirksen, A; Laursen, Lars Christian

    2004-01-01

    of pulmonary emphysema derived from CT scans. These parameters are markedly influenced by changes in the level of inspiration. The variability of lung density due to within-subject variation in TLV was explored by plotting TLV against PD and RA. RESULTS: The coefficients for volume adjustment for PD were...... relatively stable over a wide range from the 10th to the 80th percentile, whereas for RA the coefficients showed large variability especially in the lower range, which is the most relevant for quantitation of pulmonary emphysema. CONCLUSION: Volume adjustment is mandatory in repeated CT densitometry......PURPOSE: To determine how to adjust lung density measurements for the volume of the lung calculated from computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with emphysema. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty patients with emphysema underwent 3 CT scans at 2-week intervals. The scans were analyzed with a software...

  18. High-density lipoproteins potentiate α1-antitrypsin therapy in elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan-Antonio; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Louedec, Liliane; Ho-Tin-Noé, Benoit; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Nicoletti, Antonino; Levoye, Angelique; Plantier, Laurent; Meilhac, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Several studies report that high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) can carry α1-antitrypsin (AAT; an elastase inhibitor). We aimed to determine whether injection of exogenous HDL, enriched or not in AAT, may have protective effects against pulmonary emphysema. After tracheal instillation of saline or elastase, mice were randomly treated intravenously with saline, human plasma HDL (75 mg apolipoprotein A1/kg), HDL-AAT (75 mg apolipoprotein A1-3.75 mg AAT/kg), or AAT alone (3.75 mg/kg) at 2, 24, 48, and 72 hours. We have shown that HDL-AAT reached the lung and prevented the development of pulmonary emphysema by 59.3% at 3 weeks (alveoli mean chord length, 22.9 ± 2.8 μm versus 30.7 ± 4.5 μm; P pulmonary emphysema than AAT alone, and may represent a significant development for the management of emphysema associated with AAT deficiency.

  19. Different proliferative capacity of lung fibroblasts obtained from control subjects and patients with emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhoek, JA; Postma, DS; Chong, LL; Vos, JTWM; Kauffman, HF; Timens, W; van Straaten, JFM

    2003-01-01

    To characterize the possible role of a dysregulated proliferative capacity of pulmonary fibroblasts in insufficient tissue repair in lungs from patients with pulmonary emphysema, the authors undertook in vitro proliferative studies with pulmonary fibroblasts obtained from lung tissue of patients

  20. Prediction of postoperative pulmonary complications in lung cancer surgery: Is proportion of emphysema important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Ilker Akcam

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSION: In view of these findings, Goddard's scoring for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-emphysema patients was considered likely to be an indicative parameter in the preoperative evaluation and postoperative follow-up of thoracic surgery patients.

  1. Inhaled 239PuO2 in rats with pulmonary emphysema. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Mauderly, J.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Hahn, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    The modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary emphysema on deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 in the rat were investigated. The presence of emphysema in the rats tested was indicated by respiratory function measurements and confirmed microscopically. Initial lung burdens of 239 Pu per kg body weight were less in rats with emphysema than in control rats; however, the retention of 239 Pu was similar in emphysematous and control rats. Survival and lung tumor occurrence were similar in emphysematous and control rats exposed to 239 PuO 2 . We concluded that rats with pre-existing pulmonary emphysema were not more sensitive to the effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 than control rats. (author)

  2. Visual quantification of diffuse emphysema with Sakal's method and high-resolution chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerstein, I.M.; McElvaney, N.G.; Simon, T.R.; Hubbard, R.C.; Crystal, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the accuracy and efficacy of visual quantitation for a diffuse form of pulmonary emphysema with high-resolution CT (HRCT). Twenty- five adults patients with symptomatic emphysema due to α-antitrypsin deficiency prospectively underwent HRCT with 1.5-mm sections, a high-spatial-resolution algorithm, and targeted reconstruction. Photography was performed with narrow lung windows to accentuate diffuse emphysema. Emphysema was then scored with use of a modification of Sakai's extent and severity scoring method. The scans were all scored by the same blinded observer. Pulmonary function testing (PFT), including diffusing capacity measurement, was performed in all patients. Results were statistically correlated with the use of regression analysis

  3. Contemporary surgical management of advanced end stage emphysema: an evidence based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachithanandan, Anand; Badmanaban, Balaji

    2012-06-01

    Emphysema is a progressive unrelenting component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a major source of mortality and morbidity globally. The prevalence of moderate to severe emphysema is approximately 5% in Malaysia and likely to increase in the future. Hence advanced emphysema will emerge as a leading cause of hospital admission and a major consumer of healthcare resources in this country in the future. Patients with advanced disease have a poor quality of life and reduced survival. Medical therapy has been largely ineffective for many patients however certain subgroups have disease amenable to surgical palliation. Effective surgical therapies include lung volume reduction surgery, lung transplantation and bullectomy. This article is a comprehensive evidence based review of the literature evaluating the rationale, efficacy, safety and limitations of surgery for advanced emphysema highlighting the importance of meticulous patient selection and local factors relevant to Malaysia.

  4. [Pediatric orbital emphysema caused by a compressed-air pistol shot: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mingorance, A; Reyes-Dominguez, S B; León-León, M C

    2014-09-01

    We report the case of a 2 year-old child with orbital emphysema secondary to a compressed-air gun shot in the malar region, with no evidence of orbital wall fracture. Conservative treatment was applied, and no complications were observed. Orbital emphysema in the absence of an orbital wall fracture is a rare situation. Orbital emphysema is usually seen in facial trauma associated with damage to the adjacent paranasal sinuses or facial bones. To our knowledge there have been very few reports of orbital emphysema caused by a compressed-air injury. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} in rats with pulmonary emphysema. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D L; Mauderly, J L; Carlton, W W; Hahn, F F

    1988-12-01

    The modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary emphysema on deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} in the rat were investigated. The presence of emphysema in the rats tested was indicated by respiratory function measurements and confirmed microscopically. Initial lung burdens of {sup 239}Pu per kg body weight were less in rats with emphysema than in control rats; however, the retention of {sup 239}Pu was similar in emphysematous and control rats. Survival and lung tumor occurrence were similar in emphysematous and control rats exposed to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. We concluded that rats with pre-existing pulmonary emphysema were not more sensitive to the effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} than control rats. (author)

  6. Effectiveness and efficacy of minimally invasive lung volume reduction surgery for emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertl, Daniela; Eisenmann, Alexander; Holzer, Ulrike; Renner, Anna-Theresa; Valipour, A

    2014-01-01

    Lung emphysema is a chronic, progressive and irreversible destruction of the lung tissue. Besides non-medical therapies and the well established medical treatment there are surgical and minimally invasive methods for lung volume reduction (LVR) to treat severe emphysema. This report deals with the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive methods compared to other treatments for LVR in patients with lung emphysema. Furthermore, legal and ethical aspects are discussed. No clear benefit of minimally invasive methods compared to surgical methods can be demonstrated based on the identified and included evidence. In order to assess the different methods for LVR regarding their relative effectiveness and safety in patients with lung emphysema direct comparative studies are necessary.

  7. Effectiveness and efficacy of minimally invasive lung volume reduction surgery for emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertl, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] Lung emphysema is a chronic, progressive and irreversible destruction of the lung tissue. Besides non-medical therapies and the well established medical treatment there are surgical and minimally invasive methods for lung volume reduction (LVR to treat severe emphysema. This report deals with the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive methods compared to other treatments for LVR in patients with lung emphysema. Furthermore, legal and ethical aspects are discussed. No clear benefit of minimally invasive methods compared to surgical methods can be demonstrated based on the identified and included evidence. In order to assess the different methods for LVR regarding their relative effectiveness and safety in patients with lung emphysema direct comparative studies are necessary.

  8. Variation compensation and analysis on diaphragm curvature analysis for emphysema quantification on whole lung CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Barr, R. Graham; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.

    2010-03-01

    CT scans allow for the quantitative evaluation of the anatomical bases of emphysema. Recently, a non-density based geometric measurement of lung diagphragm curvature has been proposed as a method for the quantification of emphysema from CT. This work analyzes variability of diaphragm curvature and evaluates the effectiveness of a compensation methodology for the reduction of this variability as compared to emphysema index. Using a dataset of 43 scan-pairs with less than a 100 day time-interval between scans, we find that the diaphragm curvature had a trend towards lower overall variability over emphysema index (95% CI:-9.7 to + 14.7 vs. -15.8 to +12.0), and that the variation of both measures was reduced after compensation. We conclude that the variation of the new measure can be considered comparable to the established measure and the compensation can reduce the apparent variation of quantitative measures successfully.

  9. Quantitative CT: Associations between Emphysema, Airway Wall Thickness and Body Composition in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Erica P A; Grydeland, Thomas B; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2011-01-01

    , CT scans were performed to determine emphysema (%LAA), airway wall thickness (AWT-Pi10), and lung mass. Muscle wasting based on FFMI was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. In both the men and women with COPD, FFMI was negatively associated with %LAA. FMI was positively associated with AWT-Pi10......The objective of the present study was to determine the association between CT phenotypes-emphysema by low attenuation area and bronchitis by airway wall thickness-and body composition parameters in a large cohort of subjects with and without COPD. In 452 COPD subjects and 459 subjects without COPD...... in both subjects with and without COPD. Among the subjects with muscle wasting, the percentage emphysema was high, but the predictive value was moderate. In conclusion, the present study strengthens the hypothesis that the subgroup of COPD cases with muscle wasting have emphysema. Airway wall thickness...

  10. β2-Microglobulin participates in development of lung emphysema by inducing lung epithelial cell senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Na; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Chun-Ming; Gao, Yan-Li; Li, Hui; Li, Yan; Fu, Ting-Ting; Xu, Li-Li; Wang, Wei; Ying, Sun; Huang, Kewu

    2017-05-01

    β 2 -Microglobulin (β 2 M), the light chain of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I), has been identified as a proaging factor and is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders by driving cognitive and regenerative impairments. However, little attention has focused on the effect of β 2 M in the development of lung emphysema. Here, we found that concentrations of β 2 M in plasma were significantly elevated in patients with lung emphysema than those in normal control subjects (1.89 ± 0.12 vs. 1.42 ± 0.06 mg/l, P lung tissue of emphysema (39.90 ± 1.97 vs. 23.94 ± 2.11%, P lung emphysema through induction of lung epithelial cell senescence and inhibition. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. [Prediction of the efficiency of endoscopic lung volume reduction by valves in severe emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquillon, V; Briault, A; Reymond, E; Arbib, F; Jankowski, A; Ferretti, G; Pison, C

    2016-11-01

    In severe emphysema, endoscopic lung volume reduction with valves is an alternative to surgery with less morbidity and mortality. In 2015, selection of patients who will respond to this technique is based on emphysema heterogeneity, a complete fissure visible on the CT-scan and absence of collateral ventilation between lobes. Our case report highlights that individualized prediction is possible. A 58-year-old woman had severe, disabling pulmonary emphysema. A high resolution thoracic computed tomography scan showed that the emphysema was heterogeneous, predominantly in the upper lobes, integrity of the left greater fissure and no collateral ventilation with the left lower lobe. A valve was inserted in the left upper lobe bronchus. At one year, clinical and functional benefits were significant with complete atelectasis of the treated lobe. The success of endoscopic lung volume reduction with a valve can be predicted, an example of personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of regional lung function in patients with emphysema using Xe 133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, P.; Vigne, J.; Poirier, R.; Aristote, A.; Feliciano, J.M.; Kleisbauer, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    In six patients with emphysema and one healthy man, the ventilation with 133 Xenon and circulation with sup(99m)Tc, labeled Albumin Microspheres were explored. Each lung is explored in the seated position by the way of gamma-camera. Three regions (upper-middle and lower), in the median side are choiced for other calculations. The curves of Xenon washout are studied by the mean of T 1/2. In order to appreciate V/Q ratios regional percentages of Xenon ventilation and percentages of MAT circulation were correlated. In diffuse emphysema, the results are very closed of normal subject; this is due to the fact that in emphysema the alterations of ventilation and perfusion are correlated and diffused. In cystic emphysema, there is no rule, results are related with ventilation of the cyst. However it must be in mind that the small capillaries ( [fr

  13. Iatrogenic Lower Extremity Subcutaneous Emphysema after Prolonged Robotic-Assisted Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Hagan Vetter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous emphysema is a known complication of carbon dioxide insufflation, an essential component of laparoscopy. The literature contains reports of hypercarbia, pneumothorax, or pneumomediastinum. However, isolated lower extremity subcutaneous emphysema remains a seldom-reported complication. We report a case of unilateral lower extremity subcutaneous emphysema following robotic-assisted hysterectomy, bilateral salpingooophorectomy, staging, and anterior/posterior colporrhaphy for carcinosarcoma and vaginal prolapse. On postoperative day 1, the patient developed tender crepitus and bruising of her right ankle. Radiography confirmed presence of subcutaneous air. Vital signs and laboratory findings were unremarkable. Her symptoms spontaneously improved over time, and she was discharged in good condition on day 2. In stable patients with postoperative extremity swelling or pain with crepitus on exam, the diagnosis of iatrogenic subcutaneous emphysema must be considered.

  14. Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis using a preclinical small-animal X-ray dark-field scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Bech, Martin; Tapfer, Arne; Velroyen, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Franz [Department of Physics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Meinel, Felix; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian [Institute of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Muenchen (Germany); Bohla, Alexander; Yildirim, Ali Oender; Eickelberg, Oliver [Institute of Lung Biology and Disease, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide that is difficult to detect using conventional x-ray radiographic methods. For emphysematous lungs with enlarged distal airspaces, x-ray scattering decreases and transmission increases, as has been demonstrated by the proof-of-principle experiments with brilliant x-rays from a synchrotron source. Therefore, combination of the transmission and dark-field signals leads to a novel diagnostic approach for pulmonary emphysema. In this study, images of excised murine lungs with pulmonary emphysema and control lungs were acquired using a compact phase- and dark-field scanner with a polychromatic source and a cone-beam geometry. The data analysis revealed a clear distinction between the two groups in the per-pixel scatter plot. The main difference was observed in the angle of the distribution to the vertical. The presented study reveals the high potential of the approach for the pulmonary emphysema diagnosis.

  15. Extensive Subcutaneous Emphysema After Extraction of a Mandibular Third Molar: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chang Kung

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical emphysema is an uncommon but potentially serious complication of third molar removal and other oral procedures. The purpose of this case report is to remind dentists of the risk of surgical emphysema. Surgical emphysema developed in a 32-year-old female after removal of a mandibular third molar using a high-speed dental hand-piece. Because of the extent of the swelling, the patient was admitted for observation. Because of progressive swelling, a submandibular surgical incision and drainage was performed, which led to rapid resolution. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of surgical emphysema are discussed to draw dentists' attention to the management and prevention of this complication.

  16. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE contributes to the progression of emphysema in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Sambamurthy

    Full Text Available Several recent clinical studies have implied a role for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE and its variants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In this study we have defined a role for RAGE in the pathogenesis of emphysema in mice. RAGE deficient mice (RAGE-/- exposed to chronic cigarette smoke were significantly protected from smoke induced emphysema as determined by airspace enlargement and had no significant reduction in lung tissue elastance when compared to their air exposed controls contrary to their wild type littermates. The progression of emphysema has been largely attributed to an increased inflammatory cell-mediated elastolysis. Acute cigarette smoke exposure in RAGE-/- mice revealed an impaired early recruitment of neutrophils, approximately a 6-fold decrease compared to wild type mice. Hence, impaired neutrophil recruitment with continued cigarette smoke exposure reduces elastolysis and consequent emphysema.

  17. Subcutaneous emphysema of the upper extremity following penetrating blackthorn injury to the wrist.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, W H C

    2009-02-01

    SUMMARY: Noninfective subcutaneous emphysema of the upper extremity, albeit rare, has to be borne in mind when treating patients with subcutaneous emphysema. The misdiagnosis of this condition as its serious infective counterpart often leads to unnecessary aggressive treatment. Noninfective subcutaneous emphysema often accompanies a patient who has no systemic symptoms of illness. Unfortunately, the distinction is not always easy especially when history of injury suggests involvement of an infective or reactive element. Penetrating blackthorn injury is common, especially in rural communities, and often occurs from farming or gardening activities. Blackthorn penetration can cause numerous tissue reactions once embedded under the skin and they are often contaminated with soil. Here we present, for the first time, a case where penetrating blackthorn injury to the wrist resulted in noninfective subcutaneous emphysema involving the whole upper limb and neck, and its subsequent management.

  18. Evaluation of Vibration Response Imaging (VRI) Technique and Difference in VRI Indices Among Non-Smokers, Active Smokers, and Passive Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongying; Chen, Jichao; Cao, Jinying; Mu, Lan; Hu, Zhenyu; He, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Vibration response imaging (VRI) is a new technology for lung imaging. Active smokers and non-smokers show differences in VRI findings, but no data are available for passive smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of VRI and to assess the differences in VRI findings among non-smokers, active smokers, and passive smokers. Material/Methods Healthy subjects (n=165: 63 non-smokers, 56 active smokers, and 46 passive smokers) with normal lung function were enrolled. Medical history, physical examination, lung function test, and VRI were performed for all subjects. Correlation between smoking index and VRI scores (VRIS) were performed. Results VRI images showed progressive and regressive stages representing the inspiratory and expiratory phases bilaterally in a vertical and synchronized manner in non-smokers. Vibration energy curves with low expiratory phase and plateau were present in 6.35% and 3.17%, respectively, of healthy non-smokers, 41.07% and 28.60% of smokers, and 39.13% and 30.43% of passive smokers, respectively. The massive energy peak in the non-smokers, smokers, and passive-smokers was 1.77±0.27, 1.57±0.29, and 1.66±0.33, respectively (all Psmokers and smokers. VRI revealed that passive smoking can also harm the lungs. VRI could be used to visually persuade smokers to give up smoking. PMID:26212715

  19. [Palliative surgical correction of respiratory insufficiency in diffusive pulmonary emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunkov, S D; Varlamov, V V; Cherny, S M; Lukina, O V; Kiryukhina, L D; Romanikhin, A I; Zinchenko, A V; Akopov, A L

    To analyze early postoperative period in patients with diffuse pulmonary emphysema after palliative surgical correction of respiratory failure. The study included 196 patients who underwent bullectomy (n=111) and surgical reduction of pulmonary volume (n=85). Overall morbidity and mortality were 40.8% and 12.2% respectively. Among patients older than 60 years these values were significantly higher (58.0% and 22.6% respectively). It was shown that age over 60 years is associated with high risk of complications and mortality after excision of large and giant bulls. In patients pulmonary volume. Selection of patients for palliative surgical correction of respiratory failure is generally corresponded to that for lung transplantation. However, these methods should be considered complementary rather competing.

  20. Towards local progression estimation of pulmonary emphysema using CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, M., E-mail: m.staring@lumc.nl; Bakker, M. E.; Shamonin, D. P.; Reiber, J. H. C.; Stoel, B. C. [Department of Radiology, Division of Image Processing, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Stolk, J. [Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Whole lung densitometry on chest CT images is an accepted method for measuring tissue destruction in patients with pulmonary emphysema in clinical trials. Progression measurement is required for evaluation of change in health condition and the effect of drug treatment. Information about the location of emphysema progression within the lung may be important for the correct interpretation of drug efficacy, or for determining a treatment plan. The purpose of this study is therefore to develop and validate methods that enable the local measurement of lung density changes, which requires proper modeling of the effect of respiration on density. Methods: Four methods, all based on registration of baseline and follow-up chest CT scans, are compared. The first naïve method subtracts registered images. The second employs the so-called dry sponge model, where volume correction is performed using the determinant of the Jacobian of the transformation. The third and the fourth introduce a novel adaptation of the dry sponge model that circumvents its constant-mass assumption, which is shown to be invalid. The latter two methods require a third CT scan at a different inspiration level to estimate the patient-specific density-volume slope, where one method employs a global and the other a local slope. The methods were validated on CT scans of a phantom mimicking the lung, where mass and volume could be controlled. In addition, validation was performed on data of 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema. Results: The image registration method was optimized leaving a registration error below half the slice increment (median 1.0 mm). The phantom study showed that the locally adapted slope model most accurately measured local progression. The systematic error in estimating progression, as measured on the phantom data, was below 2 gr/l for a 70 ml (6%) volume difference, and 5 gr/l for a 210 ml (19%) difference, if volume correction was applied. On the patient data an underlying

  1. Importance of computer tomography for diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Soejima, Kenzo; Koda, Eiichi

    1994-01-01

    The advent of diagnostic imaging, such as computed tomography (CT), has allowed the detection of an enlarged intralobular space and its localization in pulmonary emphysema (PE). This review describes the usefulness and limitations of CT in the clinical diagnosis of PE, focusing on the correlation between PE and both pulmonary function and biochemical markers of EP lesions. There are two CT methods for detecting PE lesions; one is the visualization method for PE lesions using high-resolution CT, and the other is the quantitative method of PE using pulmonary density. Pulmonary function is correlated with both CT and pathologically proven PE lesions. Finally, the importance of integrated evaluation, including conventional CT modality for morphological measurement of PE, pulmonary function test, and biochemical approaches, is mentioned to diagnose PE early. (N.K.) 55 refs

  2. Changes in transcutaneous oxygen tension during exercise in pulmonary emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, J A; Gray, B J; Hutchison, D C

    1984-01-01

    Continuous measurements of transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPO2) were made in 23 patients with radiological evidence of emphysema, at rest and during a maximal progressive exercise test. tcPO2 during the final phase of exercise was compared with tcPO2 at rest; the mean change (exercising minus resting value) in tcPO2 (delta tcPO2) was -0.8 mm Hg (SD 10.5, range -18 to +25) (-0.1 kPa (SD 1.4, range -2.4 to +3.3]. delta tcPO2 was correlated with: resting arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) (r = 0.60...

  3. Tobacco withdrawal among opioid-dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, Joanna M; Heil, Sarah H; Higgins, Stephen T; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2018-04-01

    Prevalence of cigarette smoking among opioid-dependent individuals is 6-fold that of the general U.S. adult population and their quit rates are notoriously poor. One possible reason for the modest cessation outcomes in opioid-dependent smokers may be that they experience more severe tobacco withdrawal upon quitting. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated tobacco withdrawal in opioid-dependent (OD) smokers versus smokers without co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 47 methadone- or buprenorphine-maintained smokers and 25 non-SUD smokers who completed 1 of several 2-week studies involving daily visits for biochemical monitoring, delivery of financial incentives contingent on smoking abstinence, and assessment of withdrawal via the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS). Prior to quitting smoking, OD smokers presented with higher baseline withdrawal scores than non-SUD smokers (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.2, respectively; F [1, 63] = 7.31, p non-SUD smokers, suggesting that elevated withdrawal severity following quitting may not be a major factor contributing to the poor cessation outcomes consistently observed among OD smokers. Further scientific efforts are needed to improve our understanding of the high smoking rates and modest cessation outcomes in this challenging population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Impulsiveness and venturesomeness in German smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernow, Nina; Kruck, Bernadette; Pfeifer, Philippe; Lieb, Klaus; Tüscher, Oliver; Fehr, Christoph

    2011-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior, which is influenced by genetic, demographic, and psychological factors. A large body of research has examined the association of cigarette smoking variables with individual differences in personality traits. The aim of the current study was to replicate the findings of higher self-reported impulsivity in smokers compared with never-smokers in a German sample using Eysenck´s construct of impulsivity. Furthermore, it was intended to further the knowledge about associations between different self-reported impulsivity components and different smoking variables. We used the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire (I7) to measure self-reported impulsiveness and venturesomeness and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to measure novelty seeking (NS) in a sample of 82 nicotine-dependent smokers and 119 never-smokers. Smokers scored higher on impulsiveness, venturesomeness, and NS than never-smokers independent of age, gender, and years of education. We found a significant association between venturesomeness, impulsiveness and smoking status in daily smokers. In summary, this study provides evidence that impulsiveness and venturesomeness as well as the novelty-seeking subscale extravagance are significantly associated with smoking status in a German sample of female and male smokers compared with never-smokers.

  5. Quantitative computed tomography measurements of emphysema for diagnosing asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mengshuang; Wang, Wei; Dou, Shuang; Cui, Liwei; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnostic criteria of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) are controversial. Emphysema is characteristic of COPD and usually does not exist in typical asthma patients. Emphysema in patients with asthma suggests the coexistence of COPD. Quantitative computed tomography (CT) allows repeated evaluation of emphysema noninvasively. We investigated the value of quantitative CT measurements of emphysema in the diagnosis of ACOS. Methods This study included 404 participants; 151 asthma patients, 125 COPD patients, and 128 normal control subjects. All the participants underwent pulmonary function tests and a high-resolution CT scan. Emphysema measurements were taken with an Airway Inspector software. The asthma patients were divided into high and low emphysema index (EI) groups based on the percentage of low attenuation areas less than −950 Hounsfield units. The characteristics of asthma patients with high EI were compared with those having low EI or COPD. Results The normal value of percentage of low attenuation areas less than −950 Hounsfield units in Chinese aged >40 years was 2.79%±2.37%. COPD patients indicated more severe emphysema and more upper-zone-predominant distribution of emphysema than asthma patients or controls. Thirty-two (21.2%) of the 151 asthma patients had high EI. Compared with asthma patients with low EI, those with high EI were significantly older, more likely to be male, had more pack-years of smoking, had more upper-zone-predominant distribution of emphysema, and had greater airflow limitation. There were no significant differences in sex ratios, pack-years of smoking, airflow limitation, or emphysema distribution between asthma patients with high EI and COPD patients. A greater number of acute exacerbations were seen in asthma patients with high EI compared with those with low EI or COPD. Conclusion Asthma patients with high EI fulfill the features of ACOS, as described in the Global Initiative for Asthma and Global

  6. Time to First Morning Cigarette and Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Smokers in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin A Guertin

    Full Text Available Time to first cigarette (TTFC after waking is an indicator of nicotine dependence. The association between TTFC and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the third leading cause of death in the United States, has not yet been reported.We investigated the cross-sectional association between TTFC and prevalent COPD among 6,108 current smokers in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO Cancer Screening Trial. COPD was defined as a self-reported diagnosis of emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or both. Current smokers in PLCO reported TTFC, the amount of time they typically waited before smoking their first cigarette of the day after waking, in four categories: ≤ 5, 6-30, 31-60, or > 60 minutes. We used logistic regression models to investigate the association between TTFC and prevalent COPD with adjustments for age, gender, race, education, and smoking (cigarettes/day, years smoked during lifetime, pack-years, age at smoking initiation, and prior lung cancer diagnosis.COPD was reported by 19% of these 6,108 smokers. Individuals with the shortest TTFC had the greatest risk of COPD; compared to those with the longest TTFC (> 60 minutes the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for COPD were 1.48 (95% CI, 1.15-1.91, 1.64 (95% CI, 1.29-2.08, 2.18 (95% CI, 1.65-2.87 for those with TTFC 31-60 minutes, 6-30 minutes, and ≤ 5 minutes, respectively (P-trend 60 minutes, the adjusted OR (95% CI was 2.29 (1.69-3.12 for emphysema and 2.99 (1.95-4.59 for chronic bronchitis.Current smokers with shorter TTFC have increased risk of COPD compared to those with longer TTFC, even after comprehensive adjustment for established smoking covariates. Future epidemiologic studies, including prospective designs, should incorporate TTFC to better assess disease risk and evaluate the potential utility of TTFC as a COPD screening tool for smokers in the clinical setting.

  7. Lung Volume Reduction in Pulmonary Emphysema from the Radiologist's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doellinger, F; Huebner, R H; Kuhnigk, J M; Poellinger, A

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary emphysema causes decrease in lung function due to irreversible dilatation of intrapulmonary air spaces, which is linked to high morbidity and mortality. Lung volume reduction (LVR) is an invasive therapeutical option for pulmonary emphysema in order to improve ventilation mechanics. LVR can be carried out by lung resection surgery or different minimally invasive endoscopical procedures. All LVR-options require mandatory preinterventional evaluation to detect hyperinflated dysfunctional lung areas as target structures for treatment. Quantitative computed tomography can determine the volume percentage of emphysematous lung and its topographical distribution based on the lung's radiodensity. Modern techniques allow for lobebased quantification that facilitates treatment planning. Clinical tests still play the most important role in post-interventional therapy monitoring, but CT is crucial in the detection of postoperative complications and foreshadows the method's high potential in sophisticated experimental studies. Within the last ten years, LVR with endobronchial valves has become an extensively researched minimally-invasive treatment option. However, this therapy is considerably complicated by the frequent occurrence of functional interlobar shunts. The presence of "collateral ventilation" has to be ruled out prior to valve implantations, as the presence of these extraanatomical connections between different lobes may jeopardize the success of therapy. Recent experimental studies evaluated the automatic detection of incomplete lobar fissures from CT scans, because they are considered to be a predictor for the existence of shunts. To date, these methods are yet to show acceptable results. Today, surgical and various minimal invasive methods of lung volume reduction are in use. Radiological and nuclear medical examinations are helpful in the evaluation of an appropriate lung area. Imaging can detect periinterventional complications. Reduction of lung

  8. Quantitative CT measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness are related to D(L)CO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, Thomas B; Thorsen, Einar; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on the relationship between diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D(L)CO) and quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness.......There is limited knowledge on the relationship between diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D(L)CO) and quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness....

  9. Difference in pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline in healthy smokers and non-smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Borgström, L; Wollmer, P

    1991-01-01

    Pathophysiological studies have shown that the alveolocapillary transfer of small solutes is much faster in healthy smokers than in non-smokers. The effects of smoking on the pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline were examined in normal subjects. Nine healthy smokers and 13 healthy non-smokers inhaled nebulised terbutaline and dry terbutaline powder on two study days. Plasma concentrations of terbutaline were measured up to 240 minutes after the inhalation. The plasma concentration of t...

  10. The influence of inspiratory effort and emphysema on pulmonary nodule volumetry reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J B; Mak, S M; McNulty, W H; Padley, S; Nair, A; Shah, P L; Devaraj, A

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of inspiratory effort and emphysema on reproducibility of pulmonary nodule volumetry. Eighty-eight nodules in 24 patients with emphysema were studied retrospectively. All patients had undergone volumetric inspiratory and end-expiratory thoracic computed tomography (CT) for consideration of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction. Inspiratory and expiratory nodule volumes were measured using commercially available software. Local emphysema extent was established by analysing a segmentation area extended circumferentially around each nodule (quantified as percent of lung with density of -950 HU or less). Lung volumes were established using the same software. Differences in inspiratory and expiratory nodule volumes were illustrated using the Bland-Altman test. The influences of percentage reduction in lung volume at expiration, local emphysema extent, and nodule size on nodule volume variability were tested with multiple linear regression. The majority of nodules (59/88 [67%]) showed an increased volume at expiration. Mean difference in nodule volume between expiration and inspiration was +7.5% (95% confidence interval: -24.1, 39.1%). No relationships were demonstrated between nodule volume variability and emphysema extent, degree of expiration, or nodule size. Expiration causes a modest increase in volumetry-derived nodule volumes; however, the effect is unpredictable. Local emphysema extent had no significant effect on volume variability in the present cohort. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Volume Adjustment of Lung Density by Computed Tomography Scans in Patients with Emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaker, S.B.; Dirksen, A.; Laursen, L.C.; Skovgaard, L.T.; Holstein-Rathlou, N.H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how to adjust lung density measurements for the volume of the lung calculated from computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with emphysema. Material and Methods: Fifty patients with emphysema underwent 3 CT scans at 2-week intervals. The scans were analyzed with a software package that detected the lung in contiguous images and subsequently generated a histogram of the pixel attenuation values. The total lung volume (TLV), lung weight, percentile density (PD), and relative area of emphysema (RA) were calculated from this histogram. RA and PD are commonly applied measures of pulmonary emphysema derived from CT scans. These parameters are markedly influenced by changes in the level of inspiration. The variability of lung density due to within-subject variation in TLV was explored by plotting TLV against PD and RA. Results: The coefficients for volume adjustment for PD were relatively stable over a wide range from the 10th to the 80th percentile, whereas for RA the coefficients showed large variability especially in the lower range, which is the most relevant for quantitation of pulmonary emphysema. Conclusion: Volume adjustment is mandatory in repeated CT densitometry and is more robust for PD than for RA. Therefore, PD seems more suitable for monitoring the progression of emphysema

  12. Classification of pulmonary emphysema from chest CT scans using integral geometry descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rikxoort, E. M.; Goldin, J. G.; Galperin-Aizenberg, M.; Brown, M. S.

    2011-03-01

    To gain insight into the underlying pathways of emphysema and monitor the effect of treatment, methods to quantify and phenotype the different types of emphysema from chest CT scans are of crucial importance. Current standard measures rely on density thresholds for individual voxels, which is influenced by inspiration level and does not take into account the spatial relationship between voxels. Measures based on texture analysis do take the interrelation between voxels into account and therefore might be useful for distinguishing different types of emphysema. In this study, we propose to use Minkowski functionals combined with rotation invariant Gaussian features to distinguish between healthy and emphysematous tissue and classify three different types of emphysema. Minkowski functionals characterize binary images in terms of geometry and topology. In 3D, four Minkowski functionals are defined. By varying the threshold and size of neighborhood around a voxel, a set of Minkowski functionals can be defined for each voxel. Ten chest CT scans with 1810 annotated regions were used to train the method. A set of 108 features was calculated for each training sample from which 10 features were selected to be most informative. A linear discriminant classifier was trained to classify each voxel in the lungs into a subtype of emphysema or normal lung. The method was applied to an independent test set of 30 chest CT scans with varying amounts and types of emphysema with 4347 annotated regions of interest. The method is shown to perform well, with an overall accuracy of 95%.

  13. Assessment of multislice CT to quantify pulmonary emphysema function and physiology in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minsong; Stantz, Keith M.; Liang, Yun; Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy; Presson, Robert G., Jr.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate multi-slice computed tomography technology to quantify functional and physiologic changes in rats with pulmonary emphysema. Method: Seven rats were scanned using a 16-slice CT (Philips MX8000 IDT) before and after artificial inducement of emphysema. Functional parameters i.e. lung volumes were measured by non-contrast spiral scan during forced breath-hold at inspiration and expiration followed by image segmentation based on attenuation threshold. Dynamic CT imaging was performed immediately following the contrast injection to estimate physiology changes. Pulmonary perfusion, fractional blood volume, and mean transit times (MTTs) were estimated by fitting the time-density curves of contrast material using a compartmental model. Results: The preliminary results indicated that the lung volumes of emphysema rats increased by 3.52+/-1.70mL (pemphysema rats decreased by 91.76+/-68.11HU (pemphysema rats were 0.25+/-0.04ml/s/ml and 0.32+/-0.09ml/s/ml respectively. The fractional blood volumes for normal and emphysema rats were 0.21+/-0.04 and 0.15+/-0.02. There was a trend toward faster MTTs for emphysema rats (0.42+/-0.08s) than normal rats (0.89+/-0.19s) with ppulmonary emphysema appears promising for small animals.

  14. Emphysema induced by elastase enhances acute inflammatory pulmonary response to intraperitoneal LPS in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Lídia Maria Carneiro; Reboredo, Maycon Moura; Lucinda, Leda Marília Fonseca; Fazza, Thaís Fernanda; Rabelo, Maria Aparecida Esteves; Fonseca, Adenilson Souza; de Paoli, Flavia; Pinheiro, Bruno Valle

    2016-12-01

    Abnormalities in lungs caused by emphysema might alter their response to sepsis and the occurrence of acute lung injury (ALI). This study compared the extension of ALI in response to intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in Wistar rats with and without emphysema induced by elastase. Adult male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: control, emphysema without sepsis, normal lung with sepsis and emphysema with sepsis. Sepsis was induced, and 24 h later the rats were euthanised. The following analysis was performed: blood gas measurements, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung permeability and histology. Animals that received LPS showed significant increase in a lung injury scoring system, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and IL-6, TNF-α and CXCL2 mRNA expression in lung tissue. Animals with emphysema and sepsis showed increased alveolocapillary membrane permeability, demonstrated by higher BAL/serum albumin ratio. In conclusion, the presence of emphysema induced by elastase increases the inflammatory response in the lungs to a systemic stimulus, represented in this model by the intraperitoneal injection of LPS. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  15. Visual grading of emphysema severity in candidates for lung volume reduction surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, K.; Bergstrand, L.; Hoegberg, S.; Rasmussen, E.; Svane, B.; Aspelin, P.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate which of three types of CT imaging yielded the best results in estimating the degree of emphysema in patients undergoing evaluation for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), whether there was any difference in this regard between the cranial and caudal part of the lung, and whether the degree of emphysema had an impact on the estimation. Material and Methods: Four radiologists visually classified different degrees of emphysema on three different types of CT images into four groups. The degree of emphysema was calculated by a computer. The three types of images were as follows: HRCT images (2-mm slice thickness); spiral CT images (10-mm slice thickness); and density-masked images (spiral CT images printed with pixels below 960 HU, depicted in white). Results: The conventionally presented images from HRCT and spiral CT yielded the same results (60% respective 62% correct classifications) in assessing the degree of emphysema irrespective of localisation. Significantly improved results were obtained when the spiral CT images were presented as density-masked images (74%). Conclusion: There was no difference between HRCT and spiral CT in assessing the degree of emphysema in candidates for LVRS. Improvement can be achieved by the use of density-masked images

  16. Palovarotene, a novel retinoic acid receptor gamma agonist for the treatment of emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Matthew; Stinchcombe, Sian

    2009-11-01

    Emphysema is characterized by the destruction of alveoli and alveolar ducts within the lungs. Retinoid signaling is believed to play a role in alveologenesis, with the retinoic acid receptor gamma thought to be required for alveolar formation. Based on this hypothesis, Roche Holding AG is developing palovarotene (R-667, RO-3300074), a selective retinoic acid receptor gamma agonist for the treatment of emphysema. In small animal studies, palovarotene was claimed to reverse the structural, functional and inflammatory features of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. Phase I clinical trials of palovarotene in patients with emphysema demonstrated that the drug is well tolerated, with improvements observed in markers of emphysema progression. Unlike all-trans retinoic acid, the pharmacokinetic profile of palovarotene appears to be dose-proportional. At the time of publication, a phase II, placebo-controlled trial was ongoing, and was expected to report prospective measurements of exercise, gas transfer and lung densitometry endpoints. The development of a selective retinoic acid receptor gamma agonist for the treatment of emphysema represents the first of a new class of small-molecule regenerative therapies that may prove useful for the treatment of destructive or age-related lung disease.

  17. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group C Deficiency Alters Cigarette Smoke DNA Damage Cell Fate and Accelerates Emphysema Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Catherine R; Zhou, Huaxin; Justice, Matthew J; Fisher, Amanda J; Saliba, Jacob; Lamb, Isaac; Wicker, Jessica; Schweitzer, Kelly S; Petrache, Irina

    2018-03-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is a major risk factor for the development of emphysema, a common disease characterized by loss of cells comprising the lung parenchyma. The mechanisms of cell injury leading to emphysema are not completely understood but are thought to involve persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic DNA damage induced by CS. Using complementary cell culture and mouse models of CS exposure, we investigated the role of the DNA repair protein, xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC), on CS-induced DNA damage repair and emphysema. Expression of XPC was decreased in mouse lungs after chronic CS exposure and XPC knockdown in cultured human lung epithelial cells decreased their survival after CS exposure due to activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Similarly, cell autophagy and apoptosis were increased in XPC-deficient mouse lungs and were further increased by CS exposure. XPC deficiency was associated with structural and functional changes characteristic of emphysema, which were worsened by age, similar to levels observed with chronic CS exposure. Taken together, these findings suggest that repair of DNA damage by XPC plays an important and previously unrecognized role in the maintenance of alveolar structures. These findings support that loss of XPC, possibly due to chronic CS exposure, promotes emphysema development and further supports a link between DNA damage, impaired DNA repair, and development of emphysema.

  18. Management of extensive surgical emphysema with subcutaneous drain: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quoc Tran

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subcutaneous emphysema (SE is a frequent and often self-limiting complication of tube thoracostomy or other cardiothoracic procedures. On rare occasions, severe and extensive surgical emphysema marked by palpable cutaneous tension, dysphagia, dysphonia, palpebral closure or associated with pneumoperitoneum, airway compromise, “tension phenomenon” and respiratory failure require treatment. Presentation of case: A 67 year old lady presented with a large spontaneous pneumothorax on the background of end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and newly diagnosed lung cancer, developed extensive surgical emphysema following insertion of a chest drain. Immediate improvement was observed after insertion of a large-bore, 26 French (Fr. intercostal catheter, subcutaneous drain which was maintained under low suction (−5 cm H2O for a further 24 h. Discussion: Several methods have been described in the literature for the treatment of extensive subcutaneous emphysema, including: emergency tracheostomy, multisite subcutaneous drainage, infraclavicular “blow holes” incisions and subcutaneous drains or simply increasing suction on an in situ chest drain. Here a large-bore, fenestrated, subcutaneous drain maintained on low negative pressure also provided the necessary decompression. Conclusion: In the absence of a comparative study to identify the most effective method to manage extensive subcutaneous emphysema, this case highlights an effective, simple and safe management option. Keywords: Pneumothorax, Subcutaneous emphysema, Drain, Low suction, Intercostal catheter, Case report

  19. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Devadasan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned. Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9 with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6% reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker. Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go

  20. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra M; Elias, Maya A; Devadasan, N

    2011-07-14

    Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned). Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9) with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6%) reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions) for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker). Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go beyond providing knowledge on harmful effects of smoking to

  1. DJ-1 Modulates Nuclear Erythroid 2–Related Factor-2–Mediated Protection in Human Primary Alveolar Type II Cells in Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmed, Karim; Messier, Elise M.; Zhou, Wenbo; Tuder, Rubin M.; Freed, Curt R.; Chu, Hong Wei; Kelsen, Steven G.; Bowler, Russell P.; Mason, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a main source of oxidative stress and a key risk factor for emphysema, which consists of alveolar wall destruction. Alveolar type (AT) II cells are in the gas exchange regions of the lung. We isolated primary ATII cells from deidentified organ donors whose lungs were not suitable for transplantation. We analyzed the cell injury obtained from nonsmokers, moderate smokers, and heavy smokers. DJ-1 protects cells from oxidative stress and induces nuclear erythroid 2–related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, which activates the antioxidant defense system. In ATII cells isolated from moderate smokers, we found DJ-1 expression by RT-PCR, and Nrf2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 translocation by Western blotting and immunocytofluorescence. In ATII cells isolated from heavy smokers, we detected Nrf2 and HO-1 cytoplasmic localization. Moreover, we found high oxidative stress, as detected by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) (immunoblotting), inflammation by IL-8 and IL-6 levels by ELISA, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay in ATII cells obtained from heavy smokers. Furthermore, we detected early DJ-1 and late Nrf2 expression after ATII cell treatment with CS extract. We also overexpressed DJ-1 by adenovirus construct and found that this restored Nrf2 and HO-1 expression and induced nuclear translocation in heavy smokers. Moreover, DJ-1 overexpression also decreased ATII cell apoptosis caused by CS extract in vitro. Our results indicate that DJ-1 activates the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense system. Furthermore, DJ-1 overexpression can restore the impaired Nrf2 pathway, leading to ATII cell protection in heavy smokers. This suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting DJ-1 in CS-related lung diseases. PMID:27093578

  2. Emphysema Is Common in Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Transplantation Patients: A Histopathological and Computed Tomography Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mets, Onno M.; Roothaan, Suzan M.; Bronsveld, Inez; Luijk, Bart; van de Graaf, Ed A.; Vink, Aryan; de Jong, Pim A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) involves excessive inflammation, repetitive infections and development of bronchiectasis. Recently, literature on emphysema in CF has emerged, which might become an increasingly important disease component due to the increased life expectancy. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence and extent of emphysema in endstage CF lungs. Methods In explanted lungs of 20 CF patients emphysema was semi-quantitatively assessed on histology speci...

  3. Comparison of distinctive models for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index in patients prior to endoscopic lung volume reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilig, Dorothea; Doellinger, Felix; Poellinger, Alexander; Schreiter, Vera; Neumann, Konrad; Hubner, Ralf-Harto

    2017-01-01

    The degree of interlobar emphysema heterogeneity is thought to play an important role in the outcome of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) therapy of patients with advanced COPD. There are multiple ways one could possibly define interlobar emphysema heterogeneity, and there is no standardized definition. The aim of this study was to derive a formula for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index (HI) when evaluating a patient for ELVR. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify a threshold for relevant interlobar emphysema heterogeneity with regard to ELVR. We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients who had undergone technically successful ELVR with placement of one-way valves at our institution and had received lung function tests and computed tomography scans before and after treatment. Predictive accuracy of the different methods for HI calculation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, assuming a minimum difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 100 mL to indicate a clinically important change. The HI defined as emphysema score of the targeted lobe (TL) minus emphysema score of the ipsilateral nontargeted lobe disregarding the middle lobe yielded the best predicative accuracy (AUC =0.73, P =0.008). The HI defined as emphysema score of the TL minus emphysema score of the lung without the TL showed a similarly good predictive accuracy (AUC =0.72, P =0.009). Subgroup analysis suggests that the impact of interlobar emphysema heterogeneity is of greater importance in patients with upper lobe predominant emphysema than in patients with lower lobe predominant emphysema. This study reveals the most appropriate ways of calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity with regard to ELVR.

  4. [Cardiovascular risk in Spanish smokers compared to non-smokers: RETRATOS study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Bobadilla, Jaime; Sanz de Burgoa, Verónica; Garrido Morales, Patricio; López de Sá, Esteban

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the level of cardiovascular risk in smokers seenin Primary Care clinics. Epidemiologic, cross-sectional and multicentre study. Primary Care. Every investigator included 4 consecutive patients (3 smokers, 1 non-smoker) aged 35-50 years, who came to the clinic for any reason. A total of 2,184 patients were included; 2,124 (1,597 smokers; 527 non-smokers) were evaluated and 60 patients were excluded because they did not meet with selection criteria. The 10-year risk of suffering from a fatal cardiovascular disease (CVDR) was calculated according to the SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation) model. The 10-year lethal CVR according SCORE model, was classified as: very high (> 15%), high (10-14%), slightly high (5-9%), average (3-4%), low (2%), very low (1%) and negligible (smokers (40±5.3) vs. non-smokers (1.9±2.5) (Pnon-smokers vs. 60.7% smokers (Pnon-smokers vs. 12.6% smokers (P 5%) [10.9% non-smokers vs. 26.7% smokers (Pnon-smokers vs. smokers had less probability of suffering myocardial infarction (OR 0.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.1-0.8; P<.0001), peripheral vascular disease (OR 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-1.0; P=.0180) and chronic obstructive lung disease (OR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.1-0.2; P=.0507). Smoking is related to a high risk of fatal cardiovascular disease. Active promotion in Primary Care clinics of measures aimed at reducing the prevalence of the smoking habit would lead to a lowering of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussan, Thomas E; Shahzad, Fatima G; Tabassum, Eefa; Cohen, Joanna E; Wise, Robert A; Blaha, Michael J; Holbrook, Janet T; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-09-08

    The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Our survey respondents were predominantly young, Caucasian males, 74% of whom identified themselves as former smokers, while 20% identified as current smokers and 6% were never smokers. Former smokers reported a longer history of EC use and higher nicotine concentrations than current smokers. For former and current smokers, the primary motivation for EC use was assistance to quit smoking, and nearly half indicated that they plan to reduce their nicotine concentration and eventually quit using ECs. Among former smokers, self-reports on use and measures of dependence were consistent with nicotine replacement as their primary motivation. The majority of former and current smokers also reported that their respiratory health had improved as a result of EC use, although this effect was stronger for former smokers. Never smokers reported less frequent EC use and dependence compared to former and current smokers. Their motivations for use were more commonly for enjoyment and popularity, and they displayed a reduced desire to eventually quit using ECs. These responses provide insight into the underlying thoughts and behaviors of smoking and non-smoking EC users and also suggest that never smoking EC users are an emerging demographic with different motivations and perceptions than those of current and former smokers.

  6. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Sussan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of electronic cigarettes (EC has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. Methods We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Results Our survey respondents were predominantly young, Caucasian males, 74% of whom identified themselves as former smokers, while 20% identified as current smokers and 6% were never smokers. Former smokers reported a longer history of EC use and higher nicotine concentrations than current smokers. For former and current smokers, the primary motivation for EC use was assistance to quit smoking, and nearly half indicated that they plan to reduce their nicotine concentration and eventually quit using ECs. Among former smokers, self-reports on use and measures of dependence were consistent with nicotine replacement as their primary motivation. The majority of former and current smokers also reported that their respiratory health had improved as a result of EC use, although this effect was stronger for former smokers. Never smokers reported less frequent EC use and dependence compared to former and current smokers. Their motivations for use were more commonly for enjoyment and popularity, and they displayed a reduced desire to eventually quit using ECs. Conclusions These responses provide insight into the underlying thoughts and behaviors of smoking and non-smoking EC users and also suggest that never smoking EC users are an emerging demographic with different motivations and perceptions than those of current and former smokers.

  7. Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Douglas E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with increased morbidity. We estimated Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers compared to those living with no smokers in the United States. Methods Data were overall and service-specific (i.e., inpatient, ambulatory, emergency department, prescription drug, and dental annual Medicaid expenditures for children 0-11 years old from the 2000-2007 Medical Expenditures Panel Surveys. Smokers' presence in households was determined by adult respondents' self reports. There were 25,835 person-years of observation. We used multivariate analyses to adjust for child, parent, and geographic characteristics. Results Children with Medicaid expenditures were nearly twice as likely to live with a smoker as other children in the U.S. population. Adjusted analyses revealed no detectable differences in children's overall Medicaid expenditures by presence of smokers in the household. Medicaid children who lived with smokers on average had $10 (95% CI $3, $18 higher emergency department expenditures per year than those living with no smokers. Conclusions Living with at least one smoker (a proxy for secondhand smoke exposure is unrelated to children's overall short-term Medicaid expenditures, but has a modest impact on emergency department expenditures. Additional research is necessary to understand the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and long-term health and economic outcomes.

  8. Working memory in cigarette smokers: Comparison to non-smokers and effects of abstinence☆

    OpenAIRE

    Mendrek, Adrianna; Monterosso, John; Simon, Sara L.; Jarvik, Murray; Brody, Arthur; Olmstead, Richard; Domier, Catherine P.; Cohen, Mark S.; Ernst, Monique; London, Edythe D.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of cigarette smoking and withdrawal on working memory. Participants included 15 smokers and 22 matched non-smokers. For both groups the N-Back Task (of working memory) was administered in two test blocks on each of two days. On one day, smokers were tested after ≥13 h abstinence; on the other day, testing began ≤1 h after smoking. Smokers inhaled one cigarette between the blocks on each test day. Results indicated that performance of smoker...

  9. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  10. Health education pamphlets about smoking-their benefit to smokers and non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Osler, M; Sabroe, Svend

    1999-01-01

    in 1994. Of these 71% also participated in a telephone interview enquiring about the use of health education material, smoking status and socio-demographic variables, 39% of readers of household-delivered anti-smoking pamphlets reported having gained information from them and 22% reported having made...... health education materials from other places. Non-smokers received (3 49%) and read pamphlets about smoking as frequently as did smokers who did not intend to quit. In conclusion, written health education material was well received by readers, but, when distributed in a more open setting it needs...... to be targeted towards smokers who are considering stopping smoking. In general practice, smokers not thinking of stopping were open to health education, and pamphlets used in this setting should also target this group. Non-smokers contribute indirectly to smokers quitting by providing support to smokers...

  11. Impact of periodontitis on chemokines in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytural, O; Yaman, D; Ural, E C; Kantarci, A; Demirel, Korkud

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemokine expression profiles in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in patients with advanced chronic periodontitis and to assess the impact of smoking on local and systemic levels of chemokines. Thirty patients with chronic periodontitis (CP; 20 smokers and 10 non-smokers) and 20 periodontally healthy subjects (10 smokers and 10 non-smokers) were recruited. Clinical parameters included the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted chemokine (RANTES) were measured in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum using a multiplex immunoassay. MIP-1α levels were significantly lower (10.15 ± 1.48; p = 0.039) while MIP-1β levels were significantly higher (42.05 ± 8.21; p = 0.005) in sera from non-smoker patients with CP compared to non-smoker healthy subjects. MCP-1 concentration in sera was significantly higher in smoker periodontitis patients (8.89 ± 1.65) compared to non-smoker patients with periodontitis (8.14 ± 0.97; p = 0.004). MIP-1α and RANTES were significantly higher in GCF of the patients with CP (p = 0.001) while there were no statistically significant correlations between the GCF levels of these analytes and the smoking status. Periodontal inflammation increases the chemokine concentrations in the GCF while smoking suppresses chemokine levels in serum suggesting that different local and systemic mechanisms are involved during the response to periodontitis in smokers. Understanding the local and systemic chemokine responses in smokers will enable the development of biologically-based treatment methods for chronic periodontitis.

  12. Comparative study of two models of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Guang; Wu, Si-Si; He, Li; Yang, Qun; Feng, Yi-Kuan; Chen, Yue-Tao; Zhen, Guo-Hua; Xu, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Xiang; Zhao, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Hui-Lan

    2017-04-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is an "umbrella term" encompassing emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis, but its pathogenesis is not known. We established two models of CPFE in mice using tracheal instillation with bleomycin (BLM) or murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68). Experimental mice were divided randomly into four groups: A (normal control, n=6), B (emphysema, n=6), C (emphysema+MHV-68, n=24), D (emphysema+BLM, n=6). Group C was subdivided into four groups: C1 (sacrificed on day 367, 7 days after tracheal instillation of MHV-68); C2 (day 374; 14days); C3 (day 381; 21days); C4 (day 388; 28days). Conspicuous emphysema and interstitial fibrosis were observed in BLM and MHV-68 CPFE mouse models. However, BLM induced diffuse pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with severely diffuse pulmonary inflammation; MHV-68 induced relatively modest inflammation and fibrosis, and the inflammation and fibrosis were not diffuse, but instead around bronchioles. Inflammation and fibrosis were detectable in the day-7 subgroup and reached a peak in the day-28 subgroup in the emphysema + MHV-68 group. Levels of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, interleukin-13, and transforming growth factor-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were increased significantly in both models. Percentage of apoptotic type-2 lung epithelial cells was significantly higher; however, all four types of cytokine and number of macrophages were significantly lower in the emphysema+MHV-68 group compared with the emphysema +BLM group. The different changes in pathology between BLM and MHV-68 mice models demonstrated different pathology subtypes of CPFE: macrophage infiltration and apoptosis of type-II lung epithelial cells increased with increasing pathology score for pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of factors responsible for the image in early stage emphysema and research concerning the diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Hirotaka

    1998-01-01

    To clarify the utility of the CT image to a clinical diagnosis of the early stage emphysema, the relation of CT value to the level of the lung destruction, the change in the lung density and pulmonary function was examined. Experimental pulmonary emphysema model in canine was produced by inhalation of aerosolized papain solution. In this model, the relationship between the destruction in lung tissues and the analysis of CT images was investigated. Changes in the alveolar surface area per unit lung volume well reflected those in mean CT value in the lung parenchyma. Also, it was clarified that the degree of the lung destruction in this model corresponded to that in patients with the early stage emphysema. Mean CT value in the area that formed lowest 5th percentile of the CT value histogram (mCT (5%ile)) was developed to analyze CT images in emphysema. To develop this study, changes of the mCT (5%ile) at the respiratory level from 5% to 95% inspiratory vital capacity (mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC))) was examined. In experimental studies, there was statistical significance between control and emphysema model. In clinical study using 14 patients with emphysema, the mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC)) reflected well the values of pulmonary function tests which indicated air flow limitation such as %pred. FEV 1.0 and MMF. The present studies demonstrated that it might be useful to detect the pathological and functional impairment in the early stage emphysema by using mCT (5%ile (5-95%VC)). (author)

  14. Resolvin D1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kang-Hyun; Park, Tai Sun; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Sei Won

    2016-01-01

    Emphysema is an irreversible disease that is characterized by destruction of lung tissue as a result of inflammation caused by smoking. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), derived from docosahexaenoic acid, is a novel lipid that resolves inflammation. The present study tested whether RvD1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration. C57BL/6 mice, 8 weeks of age, were randomly divided into four groups: control, RvD1 only, smoking only, and smoking with RvD1 administration. Four different protocols were used to induce emphysema and administer RvD1: mice were exposed to smoking for 4 weeks with poly(I:C) or to smoking only for 24 weeks, and RvD1 was injected within the smoking exposure period to prevent regeneration or after completion of smoking exposure to assess regeneration. The mean linear intercept and inflammation scores were measured in the lung tissue, and inflammatory cells and cytokines were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Measurements of mean linear intercept showed that RvD1 significantly attenuated smoking-induced lung destruction in all emphysema models. RvD1 also reduced smoking-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, which causes the structural derangements observed in emphysema. In the 4-week prevention model, RvD1 reduced the smoking-induced increase in eosinophils and interleukin-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In the 24-week prevention model, RvD1 also reduced the increased neutrophils and total cell counts induced by smoking. RvD1 attenuated smoking-induced emphysema in vivo by reducing inflammation and promoting tissue regeneration. This result suggests that RvD1 may be useful in the prevention and treatment of emphysema.

  15. Emphysema distribution and annual changes in pulmonary function in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Naoya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD considerably varies among patients. Those with emphysema identified by quantitative computed tomography (CT are associated with the rapid progression assessed by forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1. However, whether the rate of the decline in lung function is independently affected by the regional distribution or the severity of emphysema in the whole lung is unclear. Methods We followed up 131 male patients with COPD for a median of 3.7 years. We measured wall area percent (WA% in right apical segmental bronchus, total lung volume, percent low attenuation volume (LAV%, and the standard deviation (SD of LAV% values from CT images of 10 isovolumetric partitions (SD-LAV as an index of cranial-caudal emphysema heterogeneity. Annual changes in FEV1 were then determined using a random coefficient model and relative contribution of baseline clinical parameters, pulmonary function, and CT indexes including LAV%, SD-LAV, and WA% to annual changes in FEV1 were examined. Results The mean (SD annual change in FEV1 was −44.4 (10.8 mL. Multivariate random coefficient model showed that higher baseline FEV1, higher LAV%, current smoking, and lower SD-LAV independently contributed to an excessive decline in FEV1, whereas ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity, ratio of diffusing capacity to alveolar ventilation, and WA% did not, after adjusting for age, height, weight, and ratio of CT-measured total lung volume to physiologically-measured total lung capacity. Conclusions A more homogeneous distribution of emphysema contributed to an accelerated decline in FEV1 independently of baseline pulmonary function, whole-lung emphysema severity, and smoking status. In addition to whole-lung analysis of emphysema, CT assessment of the cranial-caudal distribution of emphysema might be useful for predicting rapid, progressive disease and for developing a targeted

  16. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. Methods First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of...

  17. Genome-wide study of percent emphysema on computed tomography in the general population. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Lung/SNP Health Association Resource Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manichaikul, Ani; Hoffman, Eric A.; Smolonska, Joanna; Gao, Wei; Cho, Michael H.; Baumhauer, Heather; Budoff, Matthew; Austin, John H. M.; Washko, George R.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Kaufman, Joel D.; Pottinger, Tess; Powell, Charles A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zanen, Pieter; Groen, Harry J.M.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Wanner, Adam; Rouhani, Farshid N.; Brantly, Mark L.; Powell, Rhea; Smith, Benjamin M.; Rabinowitz, Dan; Raffel, Leslie J.; Stukovsky, Karen D. Hinckley; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hokanson, John E.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Dupuis, Josee; O'Connor, George T.; Boezen, Hendrika; Rich, Stephen S.; Barr, R. Graham

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary emphysema overlaps partially with spirometrically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is heritable, with moderately high familial clustering. Objectives: To complete a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the percentage of emphysema-like lung on computed

  18. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    L?dicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations ? lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count ? both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-...

  19. Infrequent and Frequent Nondaily Smokers and Daily Smokers: Their Characteristics and Other Tobacco Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2018-05-03

    The proportion of smokers who do not smoke daily has increased over time, but nondaily smokers are a heterogeneous group. We compare characteristics and other tobacco product use of infrequent nondaily, frequent nondaily, and daily US adult smokers. We analyzed data from the 1998, 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. Current smokers were categorized as daily, infrequent nondaily (smoked 1-12 days in the past 30 days), and frequent nondaily (smoked 13-29 days in the past 30 days) smokers. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the correlates of infrequent nondaily, frequent nondaily, and daily smoking. Among current smokers, 8.3% were infrequent nondaily, 8.1% were frequent nondaily, and 83.6% were daily smokers. The prevalence of infrequent versus daily smoking increased over time, with a smaller increase among non-Hispanic Blacks than non-Hispanic Whites. The adjusted odds of both infrequent and frequent smoking versus daily smoking differed by age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, region, quit attempts in the past 12 months, and binge drinking. Snuff users (vs. non-snuff users) were 2.4 times as likely to be infrequent than daily smokers. There were also differences in race/ethnicity, education, marital status, region, quit attempts, and snuff use between infrequent versus frequent smokers. Infrequent smokers differ from both frequent and daily smokers in socio-demographics, quit attempts, and snuff use. The heterogeneity of nondaily smokers should be considered in developing targeted tobacco control and smoking cessation programs. Infrequent and frequent nondaily smokers were found to differ from daily smokers in age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, region, and quit attempts and they were different from each other in race/ethnicity, education, marital status, region, and quit attempts. Binge drinkers were more likely to be infrequent smokers and frequent smokers versus

  20. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschandreas, J.; Vissers, M.N.; Wiseman, S.; Putte, van K.P.; Kafatos, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Design: Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. Setting: The Medical School and University

  1. Association of incidental emphysema with annual lung function decline and future development of airflow limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo HK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyeon-Kyoung Koo,1 Kwang Nam Jin,2 Deog Kyeom Kim,3 Hee Soon Chung,3 Chang-Hoon Lee3,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, College of Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-Do, 2Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government – Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objectives: Emphysema is one of the prognostic factors for rapid lung function decline in patients with COPD, but the impact of incidentally detected emphysema on population without spirometric abnormalities has not been evaluated. This study aimed to determine whether emphysema detected upon computed tomography (CT screening would accelerate the rate of lung function decline and influence the possibility of future development of airflow limitation in a population without spirometric abnormalities.Materials and methods: Subjects who participated in a routine screening for health checkup and follow-up pulmonary function tests for at least 3 years between 2004 and 2010 were retrospectively enrolled. The percentage of low-attenuation area below −950 Hounsfield units (%LAA−950 was calculated automatically. A calculated value of %LAA−950 that exceeded 10% was defined as emphysema. Adjusted annual lung function decline was analyzed using random-slope, random-intercept mixed linear regression models.Results: A total of 628 healthy subjects within the normal range of spriometric values were included. Multivariable analysis showed that the emphysema group exhibited a faster decline in forced vital capacity (−33.9 versus −18.8

  2. In Vivo Dark-Field Radiography for Early Diagnosis and Staging of Pulmonary Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellbach, Katharina; Yaroshenko, Andre; Meinel, Felix G; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Conlon, Thomas M; Bech, Martin; Mueller, Mark; Velroyen, Astrid; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Bamberg, Fabian; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of in vivo x-ray dark-field radiography for early-stage diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in mice. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze how the dark-field signal correlates with morphological changes of lung architecture at distinct stages of emphysema. Female 8- to 10-week-old C57Bl/6N mice were used throughout all experiments. Pulmonary emphysema was induced by orotracheal injection of porcine pancreatic elastase (80-U/kg body weight) (n = 30). Control mice (n = 11) received orotracheal injection of phosphate-buffered saline. To monitor the temporal patterns of emphysema development over time, the mice were imaged 7, 14, or 21 days after the application of elastase or phosphate-buffered saline. X-ray transmission and dark-field images were acquired with a prototype grating-based small-animal scanner. In vivo pulmonary function tests were performed before killing the animals. In addition, lungs were obtained for detailed histopathological analysis, including mean cord length (MCL) quantification as a parameter for the assessment of emphysema. Three blinded readers, all of them experienced radiologists and familiar with dark-field imaging, were asked to grade the severity of emphysema for both dark-field and transmission images. Histopathology and MCL quantification confirmed the introduction of different stages of emphysema, which could be clearly visualized and differentiated on the dark-field radiograms, whereas early stages were not detected on transmission images. The correlation between MCL and dark-field signal intensities (r = 0.85) was significantly higher than the correlation between MCL and transmission signal intensities (r = 0.37). The readers' visual ratings for dark-field images correlated significantly better with MCL (r = 0.85) than visual ratings for transmission images (r = 0.36). Interreader agreement and the diagnostic accuracy of both quantitative and visual assessment were significantly higher

  3. An autopsy study of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: correlations among clinical, radiological, and pathological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical evaluation to differentiate the characteristic features of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema is often difficult in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), but diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis is important for evaluating treatment options and the risk of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia of such patients. As far as we know, it is the first report describing a correlation among clinical, radiological, and whole-lung pathological features in an autopsy cases of CPFE patients. Methods Experts retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts and examined chest computed tomography (CT) images and pathological findings of an autopsy series of 22 CPFE patients, and compared these with findings from 8 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients and 17 emphysema-alone patients. Results All patients had a history of heavy smoking. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%) was significantly lower in the emphysema-alone group than the CPFE and IPF-alone groups. The percent predicted diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO%) was significantly lower in the CPFE group than the IPF- and emphysema-alone groups. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern was observed radiologically in 15 (68.2%) CPFE and 8 (100%) IPF-alone patients and was pathologically observed in all patients from both groups. Pathologically thick-cystic lesions involving one or more acini with dense wall fibrosis and occasional fibroblastic foci surrounded by honeycombing and normal alveoli were confirmed by post-mortem observation as thick-walled cystic lesions (TWCLs). Emphysematous destruction and enlargement of membranous and respiratory bronchioles with fibrosis were observed in the TWCLs. The cystic lesions were always larger than the cysts of honeycombing. The prevalence of both radiological and pathological TWCLs was 72.7% among CPFE patients, but no such lesions were observed in patients with IPF or emphysema

  4. Active relearning for robust supervised classification of pulmonary emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2012-03-01

    Radiologists are adept at recognizing the appearance of lung parenchymal abnormalities in CT scans. However, the inconsistent differential diagnosis, due to subjective aggregation, mandates supervised classification. Towards optimizing Emphysema classification, we introduce a physician-in-the-loop feedback approach in order to minimize uncertainty in the selected training samples. Using multi-view inductive learning with the training samples, an ensemble of Support Vector Machine (SVM) models, each based on a specific pair-wise dissimilarity metric, was constructed in less than six seconds. In the active relearning phase, the ensemble-expert label conflicts were resolved by an expert. This just-in-time feedback with unoptimized SVMs yielded 15% increase in classification accuracy and 25% reduction in the number of support vectors. The generality of relearning was assessed in the optimized parameter space of six different classifiers across seven dissimilarity metrics. The resultant average accuracy improved to 21%. The co-operative feedback method proposed here could enhance both diagnostic and staging throughput efficiency in chest radiology practice.

  5. Pulmonary Emphysema in Cystic Fibrosis Detected by Densitometry on Chest Multidetector Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielpütz, Mark O.; Weinheimer, Oliver; Eichinger, Monika; Wiebel, Matthias; Biederer, Jürgen; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Heußel, Claus P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Histopathological studies on lung specimens from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and recent results from a mouse model indicate that emphysema may contribute to CF lung disease. However, little is known about the relevance of emphysema in patients with CF. In the present study, we used computationally generated density masks based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the chest for non-invasive characterization and quantification of emphysema in CF. Methods Volumetric MDCT scans were acquired in parallel to pulmonary function testing in 41 patients with CF (median age 20.1 years; range 7-66 years) and 21 non-CF controls (median age 30.4 years; range 4-68 years), and subjected to dedicated software. The lung was segmented, low attenuation volumes below a threshold of -950 Hounsfield units were assigned to emphysema volume (EV), and the emphysema index was computed (EI). Results were correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s percent predicted (FEV1%), residual volume (RV), and RV/total lung capacity (RV/TLC). Results We show that EV was increased in CF (457±530 ml) compared to non-CF controls (78±90 ml) (PEmphysema in CF was detected from early adolescence (~13 years) and increased with age (rs=0.67, Pemphysema detected by densitometry on chest MDCT is a characteristic pathology that contributes to airflow limitation and may serve as a novel endpoint for monitoring lung disease in CF. PMID:23991177

  6. Comparison between high-resolution computed tomography and 99mTc-technegas SPECT pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Satoru; Satoh, Katashi; Takahashi, Kazue

    1996-01-01

    Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-technegas was recently introduced for clinical imaging of lung ventilation. This method has been found to be useful in emergencies, to be more suitable for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) than other agents used in ventilation scintigraphy, and could reveal abnormalities in ventilation more easily than high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in pulmonary emphysema. We compared 99m Tc-technegas SPECT with HRCT in six regions: the right upper, middle, and lower lobes, the left upper lobe, the lingula, and the left lower lobe, in 15 patients with pulmonary emphysema. Patients with centrilobular emphysema tended to show stronger changes in upper lobes than in lower lobes on both 99m Tc-technegas SPECT and HRCT. Some regions showed no change on HRCT but various changes on 99m Tc-SPECT. Patients with panlobular emphysema showed severe changes on 99m Tc-SPECT in lower lung fields in which well-demarcated areas of low attenuation were not seen on HRCT. We conclude that 99m Tc-SPECT is useful for detecting early changes and panlobular changes in pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  7. Pulmonary emphysema classification based on an improved texton learning model by sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhou, Xiangrong; Goshima, Satoshi; Chen, Huayue; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a texture classification method based on texton learned via sparse representation (SR) with new feature histogram maps in the classification of emphysema. First, an overcomplete dictionary of textons is learned via KSVD learning on every class image patches in the training dataset. In this stage, high-pass filter is introduced to exclude patches in smooth area to speed up the dictionary learning process. Second, 3D joint-SR coefficients and intensity histograms of the test images are used for characterizing regions of interest (ROIs) instead of conventional feature histograms constructed from SR coefficients of the test images over the dictionary. Classification is then performed using a classifier with distance as a histogram dissimilarity measure. Four hundreds and seventy annotated ROIs extracted from 14 test subjects, including 6 paraseptal emphysema (PSE) subjects, 5 centrilobular emphysema (CLE) subjects and 3 panlobular emphysema (PLE) subjects, are used to evaluate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method is tested on 167 PSE, 240 CLE and 63 PLE ROIs consisting of mild, moderate and severe pulmonary emphysema. The accuracy of the proposed system is around 74%, 88% and 89% for PSE, CLE and PLE, respectively.

  8. Correlation between CT review findings and pulmonary function in pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaki; Fukuda, Kiyoshi; Homma, Toshiaki

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between CT and pulmonary function test results in five normal controls and ten patients with severe pulmonary emphysema. We used mean lung attenuation values (MLAV) and ΔEMP as the index of emphysematous change in CT. ΔEMP was defined as the ratio of the area (-960 Hounsfield Units ∼ -1024 HU) to the area (-774 HU ∼ -1024 HU). MLAV and ΔEMP were measured from histograms of the CT review. Mean MLAV in pulmonary emphysema was -947.1 ± 9.3 HU, and that in normal controls was -906.6 ± 23.6 HU. Mean ΔEMP in pulmonary emphysema was 50.0 ± 9.9 %, and that in normal controls was 18.8 ± 13.0 %. The data in pulmonary emphysema cases differed significantly from those in normal controls. Furthermore MLAV and ΔEMP had good correlation to VC, %VC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC, RV/TLC, %V 25 and Raw. CT is an easier examination than pulmonary function test for patients, and can show the extent and the distribution of emphysematous area. In this study it is suggested that CT is a useful examination in severe pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  9. IL-23 Is Essential for the Development of Elastase-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Utako; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Akihiko; Waseda, Koichi; Morichika, Daisuke; Kurimoto, Etsuko; Koga, Hikari; Kataoka, Mikio; Gelfand, Erwin W; Cua, Daniel J; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kanehiro, Arihiko

    2016-11-01

    We recently reported that IL-17A plays a critical role in the development of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema. The proliferation of T-helper type 17 (Th17) cells was induced by IL-23. To determine the contribution of IL-23 to the development of pulmonary emphysema, a mouse model of PPE-induced emphysema was used in which responses of IL-23p19-deficient (IL-23 -/- ) and wild-type (WT) mice were compared. Intratracheal instillation of PPE induced emphysematous changes in the lungs and was associated with increased levels of IL-23 in lung homogenates. Compared with WT mice, IL-23 -/- mice developed significantly lower static compliance values and markedly reduced emphysematous changes on histological analyses after PPE instillation. These changes were associated with lower levels of IL-17A and fewer Th17 cells in the lung. The neutrophilia seen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of WT mice was attenuated in IL-23 -/- mice, and the reduction was associated with decreased levels of keratinocyte-derived cytokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment with anti-IL-23p40 monoclonal antibody significantly attenuated PPE-induced emphysematous changes in the lungs of WT mice. These data identify the important contributions of IL-23 to the development of elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation and emphysema, mediated through an IL-23/IL-17 pathway. Targeting IL-23 in emphysema is a potential therapeutic strategy for delaying disease progression.

  10. Comparison of high resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function tests in diagnosis of mild emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Matsuba, Kenichi; Ikeda, Togo

    1989-01-01

    To assess the ability of high resolution CT scan and pulmonary function tests in detecting and grading mild emphysema, we correlated the high resolution CT scan and pulmonary function tests with the pathologic grade of emphysema and the destructive index of lung specimens from 42 patients undergoing thoracotomy for solitary pulmonary nodules. Using the high resolution CT scan, we could identify the pathologic grade of mild and moderate emphysema. By measuring diffusing capacity per unit alveolar gas volume (DLco/VA), it seemed to be possible to detect the mildest degree of alveolar destruction assessed by the destructive index, which was not detected by high resolution CT scan. The reason for these results seemed to be that we assessed the severity of emphysema by detecting the air space enlargement on high resolution CT scan images caused by the destruction of alveolar walls, which were detectable by measuring DLco/VA. We conclude that it is possible to detect mild emphysema using the combination of high resolution CT scan and pulmomary function tests. (author)

  11. Impact of iterative reconstructions on objective and subjective emphysema assessment with computed tomography: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steve P.; Gariani, Joanna; Hachulla, Anne-Lise; Botsikas, Diomidis; Becker, Christoph D.; Montet, Xavier [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Radiology, Department of Imaging and Medical Information Sciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Adler, Dan [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Pneumology, Department of Internal Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Karenovics, Wolfram [Geneva University Hospitals, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-07-15

    To prospectively evaluate the impact of iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on pulmonary emphysema assessment as compared to filtered back projection (FBP). One hundred ten unenhanced chest CT examinations were obtained on two different scanners. Image reconstructions from a single acquisition were done with different levels of IR and compared with FBP on the basis of the emphysema index (EI), lung volume and voxel densities. Objective emphysema assessment was performed with 3D software provided by each manufacturer. Subjective assessment of emphysema was performed as a blinded evaluation. Quantitative and subjective values were compared using repeated ANOVA analysis, Bland-Altman analysis and Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W). Lung volumes are stable on both units, throughout all IR levels (P ≥ 0.057). EI significantly decreases on both units with the use of any level of IR (P < 0.001). The highest levels of IR are responsible for a decrease of 33-36 % of EI. Significant differences in minimal lung density are found between the different algorithms (P < 0.003). Intra- and inter-reader concordance for emphysema characterisation is generally good (W ≥ 0.77 and W ≥ 0.86, respectively). Both commercially available IR algorithms used in this study significantly changed EI but did not alter visual assessment compared to standard FBP reconstruction at identical radiation exposure. (orig.)

  12. Studies on diagnosis of lung emphysema by CT image using experimental models and clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Seiki

    1998-01-01

    Since the detailed report between the degree of functional disorder in lung emphysema and the analysis of CT image is quite unknown, the present study was attempted to produce the experimental model of lung emphysema with various stages by the administration of papain to the focal lobe in canine lung. Using this model or clinical lung emphysema, the relationship between the degree of destruction of alveolar walls, clinical pulmonary functions and CT images was investigated. CT scan was performed at the level of 50% vital capacity in both experimental models and clinical subjects by using spirometric gating CT. CT density histogram was obtained from CT image which was produced by using the developed software for this purpose. Densitometric parameters, such as mean CT value, %LAA, the peak in the histogram and 5% tile were selected from CT image. Papain solution of 5 mg/kg body weight was cumulatively administered to the left lower lobe in canine lung, resulting in the destruction of lung alveolar walls in parallel to the increasing dosage of papain. There was a significant correlation between not only the increasing dosage of papain, but also %FEV 1.0 and CT densitometric parameters, indicating that the histological changes of alveolar walls and the lung function in lung emphysema could be estimated by analysis of CT image. These experimental and clinical studies suggest that the analysis of CT image can reflect the pathophysiological changes in the lung and be useful for precise clinical diagnosis of lung emphysema. (author)

  13. Macrophages in lung tissue from patients with pulmonary emphysema express both inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, JFM; Postma, DS; Coers, W; Noordhoek, JA; Kauffman, HF; Timens, W

    To provide information concerning a possible biologic role of nitric oxide (NO) in smoking-related emphysema, we performed immunohistochemical studies in lung tissue from control subjects and patients with mild and severe emphysema We studied the presence of inducible and endothelial NO synthases

  14. Visual computed tomographic scoring of emphysema and its correlation with its diagnostic electrocardiographic sign: the frontal P vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Lovely; Sareen, Pooja; Gandagule, Amit; Spodick, David H

    2012-03-01

    Verticalization of the frontal P vector in patients older than 45 years is virtually diagnostic of pulmonary emphysema (sensitivity, 96%; specificity, 87%). We investigated the correlation of P vector and the computed tomographic visual score of emphysema (VSE) in patients with established diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema. High-resolution computed tomographic scans of 26 patients with emphysema (age, >45 years) were reviewed to assess the type and extent of emphysema using the subjective visual scoring. Electrocardiograms were independently reviewed to determine the frontal P vector. The P vector and VSE were compared for statistical correlation. Both P vector and VSE were also directly compared with the forced expiratory volume at 1 second. The VSE and the orientation of the P vector (ÂP) had an overall significant positive correlation (r = +0.68; P = .0001) in all patients, but the correlation was very strong in patients with predominant lower-lobe emphysema (r = +0.88; P = .0004). Forced expiratory volume at 1 second and ÂP had almost a linear inverse correlation in predominant lower-lobe emphysema (r = -0.92; P vertical ÂP and predominant lower-lobe emphysema reflects severe obstructive lung dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Randomised controlled trial for emphysema with a selective agonist of the γ-type retinoic acid receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Stockley, Robert A; Stoel, Berend C

    2012-01-01

    Palovarotene is an oral γ-selective retinoid agonist. In animal emphysema models, palovarotene reduced inflammation, promoted structural repair and functional improvement. REPAIR (Retinoid treatment of Emphysema in Patients on the α(1)-antitrypsin International Registry), was an investigator-init...

  16. Anti-p-benzoquinone antibody level as a prospective biomarker to identify smokers at risk for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Santanu Banerjee,1 Parthasarathi Bhattacharyya,2 Subhra Mitra,3 Somenath Kundu,4 Samiran Panda,5 Indu B Chatterjee1 1Department of Biotechnology and Dr B C Guha Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University College of Science and Technology, University of Calcutta, 2Institute of Pulmocare and Research, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Calcutta National Medical College, 4Department of Chest Medicine, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, 5National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India Background and objective: Identification of smokers having predisposition to COPD is important for early intervention to reduce the huge global burden of the disease. Using a guinea pig model, we have shown that p-benzoquinone (p-BQ derived from cigarette smoke (CS in the lung is a causative factor for CS-induced emphysema. p-BQ is also derived from CS in smokers and it elicits the production of anti-p-BQ antibody in humans. We therefore hypothesized that anti-p-BQ antibody might have a protective role against COPD and could be used as a predictive biomarker for COPD in smokers. The objective of this study was to compare the serum anti-p-BQ antibody level between smokers with and without COPD for the evaluation of the hypothesis. Methods: Serum anti-p-BQ antibody concentrations of current male smokers with (n=227 or without (n=308 COPD were measured by an indirect enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA developed in our laboratory. COPD was diagnosed by spirometry according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines.Results and discussion: A significant difference was observed in the serum anti-p-BQ antibody level between smokers with and without COPD (Mann–Whitney U-test =4,632.5, P=0.000. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis indicated that the ELISA had significant precision (area under the curve [AUC] =0.934, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.913–0

  17. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas E. Sussan; Fatima G. Shahzad; Eefa Tabassum; Joanna E. Cohen; Robert A. Wise; Michael J. Blaha; Janet T. Holbrook; Shyam Biswal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. Methods We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determi...

  18. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Abe, Takayuki; Ogawa, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA -950 ) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P -950 . The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA -950 . (orig.)

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of Lung Tissue from Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema Murine Models and Human Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Show Shared and Distinct Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jeong H; Morrow, Jarrett; Owen, Caroline A; Qiu, Weiliang; Glass, Kimberly; Lao, Taotao; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Perrella, Mark A; Silverman, Edwin K; Zhou, Xiaobo; Hersh, Craig P

    2017-07-01

    Although cigarette smoke (CS) is the primary risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the underlying molecular mechanisms for the significant variability in developing COPD in response to CS are incompletely understood. We performed lung gene expression profiling of two different wild-type murine strains (C57BL/6 and NZW/LacJ) and two genetic models with mutations in COPD genome-wide association study genes (HHIP and FAM13A) after 6 months of chronic CS exposure and compared the results to human COPD lung tissues. We identified gene expression patterns that correlate with severity of emphysema in murine and human lungs. Xenobiotic metabolism and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated oxidative stress response were commonly regulated molecular response patterns in C57BL/6, Hhip +/- , and Fam13a -/- murine strains exposed chronically to CS. The CS-resistant Fam13a -/- mouse and NZW/LacJ strain revealed gene expression response pattern differences. The Fam13a -/- strain diverged in gene expression compared with C57BL/6 control only after CS exposure. However, the NZW/LacJ strain had a unique baseline expression pattern, enriched for nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated oxidative stress response and xenobiotic metabolism, and converged to a gene expression pattern similar to the more susceptible wild-type C57BL/6 after CS exposure. These results suggest that distinct molecular pathways may account for resistance to emphysema. Surprisingly, there were few genes commonly modulated in mice and humans. Our study suggests that gene expression responses to CS may be largely species and model dependent, yet shared pathways could provide biologically significant insights underlying individual susceptibility to CS.

  20. Basal gene expression by lung CD4+ T cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease identifies independent molecular correlates of airflow obstruction and emphysema extent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Freeman

    Full Text Available Lung CD4+ T cells accumulate as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD progresses, but their role in pathogenesis remains controversial. To address this controversy, we studied lung tissue from 53 subjects undergoing clinically-indicated resections, lung volume reduction, or transplant. Viable single-cell suspensions were analyzed by flow cytometry or underwent CD4+ T cell isolation, followed either by stimulation with anti-CD3 and cytokine/chemokine measurement, or by real-time PCR analysis. In lung CD4+ T cells of most COPD subjects, relative to lung CD4+ T cells in smokers with normal spirometry: (a stimulation induced minimal IFN-γ or other inflammatory mediators, but many subjects produced more CCL2; (b the T effector memory subset was less uniformly predominant, without correlation with decreased IFN-γ production. Analysis of unstimulated lung CD4+ T cells of all subjects identified a molecular phenotype, mainly in COPD, characterized by markedly reduced mRNA transcripts for the transcription factors controlling TH1, TH2, TH17 and FOXP3+ T regulatory subsets and their signature cytokines. This mRNA-defined CD4+ T cell phenotype did not result from global inability to elaborate mRNA; increased transcripts for inhibitory CD28 family members or markers of anergy; or reduced telomerase length. As a group, these subjects had significantly worse spirometry, but not DLCO, relative to subjects whose lung CD4+ T cells expressed a variety of transcripts. Analysis of mRNA transcripts of unstimulated lung CD4+ T cell among all subjects identified two distinct molecular correlates of classical COPD clinical phenotypes: basal IL-10 transcripts correlated independently and inversely with emphysema extent (but not spirometry; by contrast, unstimulated IFN-γ transcripts correlated independently and inversely with reduced spirometry (but not reduced DLCO or emphysema extent. Aberrant lung CD4+ T cells polarization appears to be common in advanced

  1. The Case against a Smoker's License

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers desig...

  2. The Case against a Smoker's License

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background to the debate: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers desig...

  3. Early supra- and subgingival plaque formation in experimental gingivitis in smokers and never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paula; Weidlich, Patricia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate supragingival and subgingival plaque formation on the dentogingival area in smokers and never smokers using the experimental gingivitis model and a plaque scoring system that considers the presence of an area free of plaque between plaque and the gingival sulcus called the plaque free zone (PFZ). Male volunteers, 9 current smokers and 10 never-smokers, refrained from oral hygiene procedures in the maxillary incisors and canines (test teeth) for 25 days. Under conditions of clinically healthy gingiva (phase 1) and gingival inflammation (phase 2), the supragingival plaque formation pattern was observed for 4 days in the dentogingival area. Gingival crevicular fluid was also measured. Plaque was dyed with fucsine and its presence was recorded by a calibrated examiner based on a 3-criteria scoring system: 0 - absence of stained plaque; 1 - presence of stained plaque and supragingival PFZ; 2 - presence of stained plaque and absence of PFZ, indicating that subgingival plaque formation has taken place. In both phases, smokers presented a significantly lower relative frequency of sites with subgingival plaque compared to never-smokers (P smokers demonstrated a significantly lower frequency of gingival bleeding than did non-smokers (23.6% vs 66.1%; P Smokers presented significantly lower percentages of sites with subgingival plaque in all experimental periods and presented less gingival inflammation as shown by GBI and gingival crevicular fluid quantification.

  4. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víviam Vargas Barros

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is defined as "paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally". Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB.

  5. Incidental lung volume reduction following fulminant pulmonary hemorrhage in a patient with severe emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Juergen; Spengler, Werner; Horger, Marius; Boeckeler, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopic lung volume reduction is an emerging technique meant to improve lung function parameters, quality of life, and exercise tolerance in patients with severe lung emphysema. This is the first report of lung volume reduction by autologous blood in a patient with non-bullous lung emphysema. A 74-year-old woman with heterogeneous lung emphysema developed accidentally diffuse lobar bleeding immediately after valve placement. Due to persistent hemorrhage, the valves had to be removed shortly thereafter. Despite extraction of the valves, respiratory function of the patient improved rapidly indicated also by a drop in the COPD assessment test questionnaire, 3 months later. This was consistent with both improvement of lung function tests and six-minute walking test.

  6. Airway wall thickening and emphysema show independent familial aggregation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bipen D; Coxson, Harvey O; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: It is unclear whether airway wall thickening and emphysema make independent contributions to airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and whether these phenotypes cluster within families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether airway wall thickening and emphysema (1...... to airflow obstruction in COPD. These phenotypes show independent aggregation within families of individuals with COPD, suggesting that different genetic factors influence these disease processes....... the severity of airway wall thickening and emphysema. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 3,096 individuals were recruited to the study, of whom 1,159 (519 probands and 640 siblings) had technically adequate high-resolution computed tomography scans without significant non-COPD-related thoracic disease...

  7. The value of cardiac catheterization and cineangiography in infantile lobar emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roguin, N.; Peleg, H.; Naveh, Y.; Riss, E.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Cardiothoraic Surgery; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Dept. of Pediatrics)

    1980-01-01

    Lobar emphysema is an uncommon cause of respiratory distress in infancy. Congenital heart disease is seen in about 20% of the patients with infantile (congenital) lobar emphysema. We described six infants with lobar emphysema. In three of them a congenital heart disease was demonstrated by cardiac catheterization and cineangiography; two had a tetralogy of Fallot with right aortic arch and the third infant a ventricular septal defect. The pulmonary angiography showed stretching of the arteries with very poor filling of the peripheral arteries and a characteristic smaller pulmonary vein in the affected lobe. In all the six patients the pulmonary artery pressure was normal. All the patients underwent lobectomy with good results. We feel that a preoperative cardiac catheterization and cineangiography is of value in this very sick group of infants. (orig.) [de

  8. Nitric oxide prevents alveolar senescence and emphysema in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Boe

    Full Text Available Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME treatment induces arteriosclerosis and vascular senescence. Here, we report that the systemic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO production by L-NAME causes pulmonary emphysema. L-NAME-treated lungs exhibited both the structural (alveolar tissue destruction and functional (increased compliance and reduced elastance characteristics of emphysema development. Furthermore, we found that L-NAME-induced emphysema could be attenuated through both genetic deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Because PAI-1 is an important contributor to the development of senescence both in vitro and in vivo, we investigated whether L-NAME-induced senescence led to the observed emphysematous changes. We found that L-NAME treatment was associated with molecular and cellular evidence of premature senescence in mice, and that PAI-1 inhibition attenuated these increases. These findings indicate that NO serves to protect and defend lung tissue from physiological aging.

  9. Gastric Emphysema a Spectrum of Pneumatosis Intestinalis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo López-Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of gas within the gastric wall is not a disease by itself, rather than a sign of an underlying condition which could be systemic or gastric. We present the case of a woman identified with gastric emphysema secondary to the administration of high doses of steroids, with the purpose of differentiating emphysematous gastritis versus gastric emphysema due to the divergent prognostic implications. Gastric emphysema entails a more benign course, opposed to emphysematous gastritis which often presents as an acute abdomen and carries a worse prognosis. Owing to the lack of established diagnostic criteria, computed tomography is the assessment method of choice. Currently no guidelines are available for the management of this entity, since the evidence is limited to a few case series and a considerable number of single case reports.

  10. Gastric Emphysema a Spectrum of Pneumatosis Intestinalis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Medina, Guillermo; Castillo Díaz de León, Roxana; Heredia-Salazar, Alberto Carlos; Hernández-Salcedo, Daniel Ramón

    2014-01-01

    The finding of gas within the gastric wall is not a disease by itself, rather than a sign of an underlying condition which could be systemic or gastric. We present the case of a woman identified with gastric emphysema secondary to the administration of high doses of steroids, with the purpose of differentiating emphysematous gastritis versus gastric emphysema due to the divergent prognostic implications. Gastric emphysema entails a more benign course, opposed to emphysematous gastritis which often presents as an acute abdomen and carries a worse prognosis. Owing to the lack of established diagnostic criteria, computed tomography is the assessment method of choice. Currently no guidelines are available for the management of this entity, since the evidence is limited to a few case series and a considerable number of single case reports. PMID:25093129

  11. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate In Cigarette Smokers | Ukoli | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare lung function between smokers and non-smokers using Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Methods: This study examines the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of three hundred and forty cigarette smokers, age and sex-matched with PEFR of equal number of non-smokers. Results: The mean PEFR of ...

  12. Cytogenetical analysis in blood lymphocytes of cigarette smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comet assay showed increased percentage of abnormalities in smokers (light, medium and heavy) than non-smokers. Conclusion: The frequencies of MN in buccal epithelial and blood lymphocytes are high in smokers; particularly heavy smoker group showed significantly increased results. Among them, the lymphocytic ...

  13. Protective effect of Galectin-9 in murine model of lung emphysema: Involvement of neutrophil migration and MMP-9 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Yuko; Ichiyasu, Hidenori; Kojima, Keisuke; Saita, Naoki; Migiyama, Yohei; Iriki, Toyohisa; Fujii, Kazuhiko; Niki, Toshiro; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and pulmonary emphysema. Persistent inflammation and remodeling of the lungs and airways result in reduced lung function and a lower quality of life. Galectin (Gal)-9 plays a crucial role as an immune modulator in various diseases. However, its role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema is unknown. This study investigates whether Gal-9 is involved in pulmonary inflammation and changes in emphysema in a porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema model. Materials and methods Gal-9 was administered to mice subcutaneously once daily from 1 day before PPE instillation to day 5. During the development of emphysema, lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. Histological and cytological findings, concentrations of chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the BALF, and the influence of Gal-9 treatment on neutrophils were analyzed. Results Gal-9 suppressed the pathological changes of PPE-induced emphysema. The mean linear intercept (Lm) of Gal-9-treated emphysema mice was significantly lower than that of PBS-treated emphysema mice (66.1 ± 3.3 μm vs. 118.8 ± 14.8 μm, respectively; p emphysema progressed significantly compared with that in wild–type (WT) mice (108.7 ± 6.58 μm vs. 77.19 ± 6.97 μm, respectively; p emphysema by inhibiting the infiltration of neutrophils and decreasing MMPs levels. Exogenous Gal-9 could be a potential therapeutic agent for COPD. PMID:28704475

  14. Low agreement of visual rating for detailed quantification of pulmonary emphysema in whole-lung CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascalchi, Mario; Diciotti, Stefano; Sverzellati, Nicola; Camiciottoli, Gianna; Ciccotosto, Cesareo; Falaschi, Fabio; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Background. Multidetector spiral computed tomography (CT) has opened the possibility of quantitative evaluation of emphysema extent in the whole lung. Visual assessment can be used for such a purpose, but its reproducibility has not been established. Purpose. To assess agreement of detailed assessment of pulmonary emphysema on whole-lung CT using a visual scale. Material and Methods. Thirty patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease underwent whole-lung inspiratory CT. Four chest radiologists rated the same 22 ± 2 thin sections using a visual scale which defines a range of emphysema extent between 0 and 100. Two of them repeated the rating two months later. Inter- and intra-operator agreement was evaluated with the Bland and Altman method. In addition, the percentage of emphysema at -950 Hounsfield units in the whole lung was determined using fully automated commercially available software for 3D densitometry. Results. In three of six operator pairs and in one of two intra-operator pairs the Kendall t test showed a significant correlation between the difference and the average magnitude of visual scores. Among different operators the half-width of 95% limits of agreement (95% LoA) was wide ranging between a score of 14.2-27.7 for an average visual score of 20 and between 18.5-36.8 for an average visual score of 80. Within the same operator the half-width of 95% LoA ranged between a score of 10.9-21.0 for an average visual score of 20 and between 25.1-30.1 for an average visual score of 80. The visual scores of the four radiologists were correlated with the results of densitometry (P < 0.001; r = 0.65-0.81). Conclusion. The inter- and intra-operator agreement of detailed assessment of emphysema in the whole lung using a visual scale is low and decreases with increasing emphysema extent

  15. Oxidative stress and nitrosative stress are involved in different stages of proteolytic pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzetti, Manuella; da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; Barroso, Marina Valente; Martins, Vanessa; Victoni, Tatiana; Lagente, Vincent; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; e Silva, Patrícia Machado Rodrigues; Resende, Angela Castro; Porto, Luis Cristóvão; Benjamim, Cláudia Farias; Valença, Samuel Santos

    2012-12-01

    Our aim was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to pancreatic porcine elastase (PPE) instillation (0.05 or 0.5 U per mouse, i.t.) to induce pulmonary emphysema. Lungs were collected on days 7, 14, and 21 after PPE instillation. The control group was sham injected. Also, mice treated with 1% aminoguanidine (AMG) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) knockout mice received 0.5 U PPE (i.t.), and lungs were analyzed 21 days after. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage, biochemical analyses of oxidative stress, and lung stereology and morphometry assays. Emphysema was observed histologically at 21 days after 0.5 U PPE treatment; tissues from these mice exhibited increased alveolar linear intercept and air-space volume density in comparison with the control group. TNF-α was elevated at 7 and 14 days after 0.5 U PPE treatment, concomitant with a reduction in the IL-10 levels at the same time points. Myeloperoxidase was elevated in all groups treated with 0.5 U PPE. Oxidative stress was observed during early stages of emphysema, with increased nitrite levels and malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity at 7 days after 0.5 U PPE treatment. Glutathione peroxidase activity was increased in all groups treated with 0.5 U PPE. The emphysema was attenuated when iNOS was inhibited using 1% AMG and in iNOS knockout mice. Furthermore, proteolytic stimulation by PPE enhanced the expression of nitrotyrosine and iNOS, whereas the PPE+AMG group showed low expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine. PPE stimulus also induced endothelial (e) NOS expression, whereas AMG reduced eNOS. Our results suggest that the oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways are triggered by nitric oxide production via iNOS expression in pulmonary emphysema. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Low agreement of visual rating for detailed quantification of pulmonary emphysema in whole-lung CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalchi, Mario; Diciotti, Stefano; Sverzellati, Nicola; Camiciottoli, Gianna; Ciccotosto, Cesareo; Falaschi, Fabio; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2012-02-01

    Multidetector spiral computed tomography (CT) has opened the possibility of quantitative evaluation of emphysema extent in the whole lung. Visual assessment can be used for such a purpose, but its reproducibility has not been established. To assess agreement of detailed assessment of pulmonary emphysema on whole-lung CT using a visual scale. Thirty patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease underwent whole-lung inspiratory CT. Four chest radiologists rated the same 22 ± 2 thin sections using a visual scale which defines a range of emphysema extent between 0 and 100. Two of them repeated the rating two months later. Inter- and intra-operator agreement was evaluated with the Bland and Altman method. In addition, the percentage of emphysema at -950 Hounsfield units in the whole lung was determined using fully automated commercially available software for 3D densitometry. In three of six operator pairs and in one of two intra-operator pairs the Kendall τ test showed a significant correlation between the difference and the average magnitude of visual scores. Among different operators the half-width of 95% limits of agreement (95% LoA) was wide ranging between a score of 14.2-27.7 for an average visual score of 20 and between 18.5-36.8 for an average visual score of 80. Within the same operator the half-width of 95% LoA ranged between a score of 10.9-21.0 for an average visual score of 20 and between 25.1-30.1 for an average visual score of 80. The visual scores of the four radiologists were correlated with the results of densitometry (P emphysema in the whole lung using a visual scale is low and decreases with increasing emphysema extent.

  17. Low agreement of visual rating for detailed quantification of pulmonary emphysema in whole-lung CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascalchi, Mario; Diciotti, Stefano (Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)), Email: m.mascalchi@dfc.unifi.it; Sverzellati, Nicola (Department of Radiology, University of Parma, Parma (Italy)); Camiciottoli, Gianna (Department of Critical Care, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)); Ciccotosto, Cesareo (Division of Radiology, Arezzo Hospital, Arezzo (Italy)); Falaschi, Fabio (Second Division of Radiology, Cisanello Hospital, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Pisa (Italy)); Zompatori, Maurizio (Department of Radiology, S Orsola Hospital of Bologna, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy))

    2012-02-15

    Background. Multidetector spiral computed tomography (CT) has opened the possibility of quantitative evaluation of emphysema extent in the whole lung. Visual assessment can be used for such a purpose, but its reproducibility has not been established. Purpose. To assess agreement of detailed assessment of pulmonary emphysema on whole-lung CT using a visual scale. Material and Methods. Thirty patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease underwent whole-lung inspiratory CT. Four chest radiologists rated the same 22 +- 2 thin sections using a visual scale which defines a range of emphysema extent between 0 and 100. Two of them repeated the rating two months later. Inter- and intra-operator agreement was evaluated with the Bland and Altman method. In addition, the percentage of emphysema at -950 Hounsfield units in the whole lung was determined using fully automated commercially available software for 3D densitometry. Results. In three of six operator pairs and in one of two intra-operator pairs the Kendall t test showed a significant correlation between the difference and the average magnitude of visual scores. Among different operators the half-width of 95% limits of agreement (95% LoA) was wide ranging between a score of 14.2-27.7 for an average visual score of 20 and between 18.5-36.8 for an average visual score of 80. Within the same operator the half-width of 95% LoA ranged between a score of 10.9-21.0 for an average visual score of 20 and between 25.1-30.1 for an average visual score of 80. The visual scores of the four radiologists were correlated with the results of densitometry (P < 0.001; r = 0.65-0.81). Conclusion. The inter- and intra-operator agreement of detailed assessment of emphysema in the whole lung using a visual scale is low and decreases with increasing emphysema extent

  18. Lung ventilation-perfusion imbalance in pulmonary emphysema: assessment with automated V/Q quotient SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Koike, Hiroaki; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Tokuda, Osamu; Okada, Munemasa; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2010-05-01

    Tc-99m-Technegas-MAA single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-derived ventilation (V)/perfusion (Q) quotient SPECT was used to assess lung V-Q imbalance in patients with pulmonary emphysema. V/Q quotient SPECT and V/Q profile were automatically built in 38 patients with pulmonary emphysema and 12 controls, and V/Q distribution and V/Q profile parameters were compared. V/Q distribution on V/Q quotient SPECT was correlated with low attenuation areas (LAA) on density-mask computed tomography (CT). Parameters of V/Q profile such as the median, standard deviation (SD), kurtosis and skewness were proposed to objectively evaluate the severity of lung V-Q imbalance. In contrast to uniform V/Q distribution on V/Q quotient SPECT and a sharp peak with symmetrical V/Q distribution on V/Q profile in controls, lung areas showing heterogeneously high or low V/Q and flattened peaks with broadened V/Q distribution were frequently seen in patients with emphysema, including lung areas with only slight LAA. V/Q distribution was also often asymmetric regardless of symmetric LAA. All the proposed parameters of V/Q profile in entire lungs of patients with emphysema showed large variations compared with controls; SD and kurtosis were significantly different from controls (P emphysema. SD and kurtosis of V/Q profile can be adequate parameters to assess the severity of lung V-Q imbalance causing gas-exchange impairment in patients with emphysema.

  19. Lung ventilation-perfusion imbalance in pulmonary emphysema. Assessment with automated V/Q quotient SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Koike, Hiroaki; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Tokuda, Osamu; Okada, Munemasa; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    Tc-99m-Technegas-macro-aggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-derived ventilation (V)/perfusion (Q) quotient SPECT was used to assess lung V-Q imbalance in patients with pulmonary emphysema. V/Q quotient SPECT and V/Q profile were automatically built in 38 patients with pulmonary emphysema and 12 controls, and V/Q distribution and V/Q profile parameters were compared. V/Q distribution on V/Q quotient SPECT was correlated with low attenuation areas (LAA) on density-mask computed tomography (CT). Parameters of V/Q profile such as the median, standard deviation (SD), kurtosis and skewness were proposed to objectively evaluate the severity of lung V-Q imbalance. In contrast to uniform V/Q distribution on V/Q quotient SPECT and a sharp peak with symmetrical V/Q distribution on V/Q profile in controls, lung areas showing heterogeneously high or low V/Q and flattened peaks with broadened V/Q distribution were frequently seen in patients with emphysema, including lung areas with only slight LAA. V/Q distribution was also often asymmetric regardless of symmetric LAA. All the proposed parameters of V/Q profile in entire lungs of patients with emphysema showed large variations compared with controls; SD and kurtosis were significantly different from controls (P<0.0001 and P<0.001, respectively), and a significant correlation was found between SD and A-aDO2 (P<0.0001). V/Q quotient SPECT appears to be more sensitive to detect emphysematous lungs compared with morphologic CT in patients with emphysema. SD and kurtosis of V/Q profile can be adequate parameters to assess the severity of lung V-Q imbalance causing gas-exchange impairment in patients with emphysema. (author)

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema in a general population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hua-Ming, E-mail: moyercheng@gmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Chi-Mei Medical Center, No. 901, Chung Hwa Road, Yong-Kang, Tainan 710, Taiwan (China); Chang, Pau-Yang, E-mail: pausheng@gmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Kuo-Hsien, E-mail: moyer20361@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsin-Wen, E-mail: hwhuang660@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mennonite Christian Hospital, 44 Min-chuan Road, Hualien 970, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chau-Chin, E-mail: moyermiming@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-15

    Background: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema and gender in a general population using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest. Materials and methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 924 patients (584 women, 340 men; mean age, 59.73 years; range, 37–89 years) who had received low-dose computed tomography scanning for health examination during the period January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2010. Computed tomographic images were evaluated for the presence of paratracheal air cysts. If paratracheal air cysts were identified, the lungs were reconstructed as a three-dimensional model on a commercial workstation. An emphysema index, an objective quantification of the extent of emphysematous changes on CT imaging, was defined as the percentage area of lung with attenuation values below −950 Hounsfield units. Results: A total of 60 patients with paratracheal air cysts were included in this study (estimated prevalence, 6.5%; 12 men, 48 women; mean age, 59.85; range 45–89 years). Emphysema index differed significantly between genders (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of paratracheal air cysts in men was significantly lower than that in women (P = 0.005); however, the emphysema index in patients of both genders showed no evidence of emphysema. The majority (95%) of paratracheal air cysts were at the level of the seventh cervical to the second thoracic vertebrae. Conclusion: The presence of paratracheal air cysts is a common condition in general populations and should not be misdiagnosed as abnormal paratracheal free air. Paratracheal air cysts are more common in woman than in man. In our study, there is no patient with paratracheal air cysts has CT evidence of emphysema.

  1. CT-derived Biomechanical Metrics Improve Agreement Between Spirometry and Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Surya P; Bodduluri, Sandeep; Newell, John D; Hoffman, Eric A; Sieren, Jessica C; Han, Meilan K; Dransfield, Mark T; Reinhardt, Joseph M

    2016-10-01

    Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have marked discordance between forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and degree of emphysema on computed tomography (CT). Biomechanical differences between these patients have not been studied. We aimed to identify reasons for the discordance between CT and spirometry in some patients with COPD. Subjects with Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I-IV from a large multicenter study (The Genetic Epidemiology of COPD) were arranged by percentiles of %predicted FEV1 and emphysema on CT. Three categories were created using differences in percentiles: Catspir with predominant airflow obstruction/minimal emphysema, CatCT with predominant emphysema/minimal airflow obstruction, and Catmatched with matched FEV1 and emphysema. Image registration was used to derive Jacobian determinants, a measure of lung elasticity, anisotropy, and strain tensors, to assess biomechanical differences between groups. Regression models were created with the previously mentioned categories as outcome variable, adjusting for demographics, scanner type, quantitative CT-derived emphysema, gas trapping, and airway thickness (model 1), and after adding biomechanical CT metrics (model 2). Jacobian determinants, anisotropy, and strain tensors were strongly associated with FEV1. With Catmatched as control, model 2 predicted Catspir and CatCT better than model 1 (Akaike information criterion 255.8 vs. 320.8). In addition to demographics, the strongest independent predictors of FEV1 were Jacobian mean (β = 1.60,95%confidence intervals [CI] = 1.16 to 1.98; P spirometry, offering the potential for new insights into the linkage between regional parenchymal destruction and global decrement in lung function in patients with COPD. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema in a general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hua-Ming; Chang, Pau-Yang; Chiang, Kuo-Hsien; Huang, Hsin-Wen; Lee, Chau-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema and gender in a general population using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest. Materials and methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 924 patients (584 women, 340 men; mean age, 59.73 years; range, 37–89 years) who had received low-dose computed tomography scanning for health examination during the period January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2010. Computed tomographic images were evaluated for the presence of paratracheal air cysts. If paratracheal air cysts were identified, the lungs were reconstructed as a three-dimensional model on a commercial workstation. An emphysema index, an objective quantification of the extent of emphysematous changes on CT imaging, was defined as the percentage area of lung with attenuation values below −950 Hounsfield units. Results: A total of 60 patients with paratracheal air cysts were included in this study (estimated prevalence, 6.5%; 12 men, 48 women; mean age, 59.85; range 45–89 years). Emphysema index differed significantly between genders (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of paratracheal air cysts in men was significantly lower than that in women (P = 0.005); however, the emphysema index in patients of both genders showed no evidence of emphysema. The majority (95%) of paratracheal air cysts were at the level of the seventh cervical to the second thoracic vertebrae. Conclusion: The presence of paratracheal air cysts is a common condition in general populations and should not be misdiagnosed as abnormal paratracheal free air. Paratracheal air cysts are more common in woman than in man. In our study, there is no patient with paratracheal air cysts has CT evidence of emphysema

  3. CT-derived Biomechanical Metrics Improve Agreement Between Spirometry and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Surya P.; Bodduluri, Sandeep; Newell, John D.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Sieren, Jessica C.; Han, Meilan K.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Many COPD patients have marked discordance between FEV1 and degree of emphysema on CT. Biomechanical differences between these patients have not been studied. We aimed to identify reasons for the discordance between CT and spirometry in some patients with COPD. Materials and Methods Subjects with GOLD stage I–IV from a large multicenter study (COPDGene) were arranged by percentiles of %predicted FEV1 and emphysema on CT. Three categories were created using differences in percentiles: Catspir with predominant airflow obstruction/minimal emphysema, CatCT with predominant emphysema/minimal airflow obstruction, and Catmatched with matched FEV1 and emphysema. Image registration was used to derive Jacobian determinants, a measure of lung elasticity, anisotropy and strain tensors, to assess biomechanical differences between groups. Regression models were created with the above categories as outcome variable, adjusting for demographics, scanner type, quantitative CT-derived emphysema, gas trapping, and airway thickness (Model 1), and after adding biomechanical CT metrics (Model 2). Results Jacobian determinants, anisotropy and strain tensors were strongly associated with FEV1. With Catmatched as control, Model 2 predicted Catspir and CatCT better than Model 1 (Akaike Information Criterion, AIC 255.8 vs. 320.8). In addition to demographics, the strongest independent predictors of FEV1 were Jacobian mean (β= 1.60,95%CI = 1.16 to 1.98; p<0.001), coefficient of variation (CV) of Jacobian (β= 1.45,95%CI = 0.86 to 2.03; p<0.001) and CV strain (β= 1.82,95%CI = 0.68 to 2.95; p = 0.001). CVs of Jacobian and strain are both potential markers of biomechanical lung heterogeneity. Conclusions CT-derived measures of lung mechanics improve the link between quantitative CT and spirometry, offering the potential for new insights into the linkage between regional parenchymal destruction and global decrement in lung function in COPD patients. PMID:27055745

  4. Grading of Emphysema Is Indispensable for Predicting Prolonged Air Leak After Lung Lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Kobayashi, Taiga; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the utility of quantitative computed tomography-based grading of emphysema for predicting prolonged air leak after thoracoscopic lobectomy. A consecutive series of 284 patients undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer was retrospectively reviewed. Prolonged air leak was defined as air leaks lasting 7 days or longer. The grade of emphysema (emphysema index) was defined by the proportion of the emphysematous lung volume (less than -910 HU) to the total lung volume (-600 to -1,024 HU) by a computer-assisted histogram analysis of whole-lung computed tomography scans. The mean length of chest tube drainage was 1.5 days. Fifteen patients (5.3%) presented with prolonged air leak. According to a receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis, the emphysema index was the best predictor of prolonged air leak, with an area under the curve of 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 0.98). An emphysema index of 35% or greater was the best cutoff value for predicting prolonged air leak, with a negative predictive value of 0.99. The emphysema index was the only significant predictor for the length of postoperative chest tube drainage among conventional variables, including the pulmonary function and resected lobe, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Prolonged air leak resulted in an increased duration of hospitalization (p leak that adversely influences early postoperative outcomes. We must take new measures against prolonged air leak in quantitative computed tomography-based high-risk patients. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative analysis of emphysema in 3D using MDCT: Influence of different reconstruction algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Weinheimer, Oliver; Iliyushenko, Svitlana; Erdugan, Serap; Eberhardt, Ralf; Fuxa, Adelheid; Mews, Juergen; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare the influence of different reconstruction algorithms on quantitative emphysema analysis in patients with severe emphysema. Material and methods: Twenty-five patients suffering from severe emphysema were included in the study. All patients underwent inspiratory MDCT (Aquilion-16, slice thickness 1/0.8 mm). The raw data were reconstructed using six different algorithms: bone kernel with beam hardening correction (BHC), soft tissue kernel with BHC; standard soft tissue kernel, smooth soft tissue kernel (internal reference standard), standard lung kernel, and high-convolution kernel. The only difference between image data sets was the algorithm employed to reconstruct the raw data, no additional radiation was required. CT data were analysed using self-written emphysema detection and quantification software providing lung volume, emphysema volume (EV), emphysema index (EI) and mean lung density (MLD). Results: The use of kernels with BHC led to a significant decrease in MLD (5%) and EI (61-79%) in comparison with kernels without BHC. The absolute difference (from smooth soft tissue kernel) in MLD ranged from -0.6 to -6.1 HU and were significant different for all kernels. The EV showed absolute differences between -0.05 and -0.4 L and was significantly different for all kernels. The EI showed absolute differences between -0.8 and -5.1 and was significantly different for all kernels. Conclusion: The use of kernels with BHC led to a significant decrease in MLD and EI. The absolute differences between different kernels without BHC were small but they were larger than the known interscan variation in patients. Thus, for follow-up examinations the same reconstruction algorithm has to be used and use of BHC has to be avoided

  6. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L.; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W.; Becker, Eni S.; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  7. Quantitative computed tomography: emphysema and airway wall thickness by sex, age and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, T B; Dirksen, A; Coxson, H O

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how quantitative high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) vary with sex, age and smoking history. We included 463 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases and 431 controls. All included subjects were current or ex...... cases, respectively, and 0.488+/-0.028 and 0.463+/-0.025 in male and female controls, respectively. AWT decreased with increasing age in cases, and increased with the degree of current smoking in all subjects. We found significant differences in quantitative HRCT measures of emphysema and AWT between...

  8. Influence of radiological emphysema on lung function test in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodlet, Aline; Maury, Gisèle; Jamart, Jacques; Dahlqvist, Caroline

    2013-11-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is one of the most frequent interstitial lung disease. Emphysema can be associated with IPF as described in the «Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema» syndrome. The primary endpoint of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the impact of the association of IPF and emphysema on lung function tests parameters (FVC, TLC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and DLCO). The secondary endpoint was to assess the impact of the associated radiological emphysema on lung function parameters used in the du Bois prognostic score recently developed by Ron du Bois et al. We retrospectively reviewed the medical files of 98 patients with lung fibrosis who were followed in our University Hospital with access to pharmacological studies and lung transplantation from 1981 to 2011. Fifty six patients were considered for analysis. The collected data included gender, age, smoking history and respiratory hospitalizations. We also analysed their pulmonary functional parameters along with radiological characteristics, in particular the presence of emphysema which was assessed on thoracic high resolution CT scan. The du Bois score was retrospectively calculated from these data. TLC and FVC at diagnosis were significantly higher in the IPF-E group compared to the IPF group (respectively 86.6 ± 17.2% pv versus 72.0 ± 15.0% pv; p: 0.004 and 86.8 ± 18.4% pv versus 72.6 ± 20.6% pv; p: 0.020). The [Formula: see text] used in the calculation of the du Bois prognostic score was significantly higher in the IPF-E group. By cons, [Formula: see text] was not statistically different between the two groups. Radiological emphysema associated with IPF had an impact on pulmonary function tests. Despite this difference, the du Bois score was not statistically different between these two groups. Nevertheless, after one year of follow up, the patients with emphysema were in a subclass with a lower mortality rate than those without emphysema. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  9. Evaluation of pulmonary emphysema by the fused image of CT image and ventilation SPECT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Ituko; Maruno, Hiromasa; Mori, Kazuaki; Kohno, Tadashi; Kokubo, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated pulmonary emphysema using a diagnostic device that could obtain a CT image, a ventilation single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image and a lung perfusion SPECT image in one examination. The fused image made from the CT image and SPECT image had very little position gap between images, and the precision was high. From the fused image, we were able to detect the areas in which emphysematous change was the most marked in the CT image, while the accumulation decrease was most remarkable in the ventilation SPECT image. Thus it was possible to obtain an accurate status of pulmonary emphysema, and our method was regarded as a useful technique. (author)

  10. Automated detection system for pulmonary emphysema on 3D chest CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Zhou, Xiangrong; Iwano, Shingo; Itoh, Shigeki; Fujita, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2004-05-01

    An automatic extraction of pulmonary emphysema area on 3-D chest CT images was performed using an adaptive thresholding technique. We proposed a method to estimate the ratio of the emphysema area to the whole lung volume. We employed 32 cases (15 normal and 17 abnormal) which had been already diagnosed by radiologists prior to the study. The ratio in all the normal cases was less than 0.02, and in abnormal cases, it ranged from 0.01 to 0.26. The effectiveness of our approach was confirmed through the results of the present study.

  11. Ventilation-perfusion scans in neonatal regional pulmonary emphysema complicating ventilatory assistance