Fawver, Bradley; Hass, Chris J; Park, Kyoungshin D; Janelle, Christopher M
The impact of self-generated affective states on self-initiated motor behavior remains unspecified. The purpose of the current study was to determine how self-generated emotional states impact forward gait initiation. Participants recalled past emotional experiences (anger, fear, happy, sad, and neutral), "relived" those emotional memories before gait initiation (GI), and then walked ∼4 m across the laboratory floor. Kinetic and kinematic data revealed GI characteristics consistent with a motivational direction hypothesis. Specifically, participants produced greater posterior-lateral displacement and velocity of their center of pressure (COP) during the initial phase of GI after self-generation of happy and anger emotional states relative to sad ones. During the second phase of GI, greater medial displacement of COP was found during the happy condition compared with sad, greater velocity was occasioned during happy and angry trials compared with sad, and greater velocity was exhibited after happy compared with fear memories. Finally, greater anterior velocity was produced by participants during the final phase of GI for happy and angry memories compared with sad ones. Steady state kinetic and kinematic data when recalling happy and angry memories (longer, faster, and more forceful stepping behavior) followed the anticipatory postural adjustments noted during GI. Together the results from GI and steady state gait provide robust evidence that self-generated emotional states impact forward gait behavior based on motivational direction. Endogenous manipulations of emotional states hold promise for clinical and performance interventions aimed at improving self-initiated movement.
Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.
This chapter examines the relationship between emotions and level generation. Grounded in the experience-driven procedural content generation framework we focus on levels and introduce a taxonomy of approaches for emotion-driven level generation. We then review four characteristic level generators of our earlier work that exemplify each one of the approaches introduced. We conclude the chapter with our vision on the future of emotion-driven level generation.
Emotional Intelligence has been a hot topic in leadership training since Dan Goleman published his book on the subject in 1995. Emotional intelligence competencies are typically focused on recognition and regulation of emotions in one's self and social situations, yielding four categories: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship...
Full Text Available This article presents implementation of an online gait generator on a quadruped robot. Firstly, the design of a quadruped robot is presented. The robot contains four leg modules each of which is constructed by a 2 degrees of freedom (2-DOF five-bar parallel linkage mechanism. Together with other two rotational DOF, the leg module is able to perform 4-DOF movement. The parallel mechanism of the robot allows all the servos attached on the body frame, so that the leg mass is decreased and motor load can be balanced. Secondly, an online gait generator based on dynamic movement primitives for the walking control is presented. Dynamic movement primitives provide an approach to generate periodic trajectories and they can be modulated in real time, which makes the online adjustment of walking gaits possible. This gait controller is tested by the quadruped robot in regulating walking speed, switching between forward\\backward movements and steering. The controller is easy to apply, expand and is quite effective on phase coordination and online trajectory modulation. Results of simulated experiments are presented.
As a kind of subjective psychological activity, emotion can only be known and perceived by a certain expressive form. Varies as the different main bodies, difference of emotional expression can be reflected not only among individuals but between generations. The old conceals their emotions inside, the young express their emotions boldly, and the middle-aged are rational and deep in their expressions. Facing and understanding such differences is the premise and foundation of the con-struction of a harmonious relationship between different generations.
Rizzo, John-Ross; Raghavan, Preeti; McCrery, J R; Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Verghese, Joe
To evaluate the effect of a novel divided attention task-walking under auditory constraints-on gait performance in older adults and to determine whether this effect was moderated by cognitive status. Validation cohort. General community. Ambulatory older adults without dementia (N=104). Not applicable. In this pilot study, we evaluated walking under auditory constraints in 104 older adults who completed 3 pairs of walking trials on a gait mat under 1 of 3 randomly assigned conditions: 1 pair without auditory stimulation and 2 pairs with emotionally charged auditory stimulation with happy or sad sounds. The mean age of subjects was 80.6±4.9 years, and 63% (n=66) were women. The mean velocity during normal walking was 97.9±20.6cm/s, and the mean cadence was 105.1±9.9 steps/min. The effect of walking under auditory constraints on gait characteristics was analyzed using a 2-factorial analysis of variance with a 1-between factor (cognitively intact and minimal cognitive impairment groups) and a 1-within factor (type of auditory stimuli). In both happy and sad auditory stimulation trials, cognitively intact older adults (n=96) showed an average increase of 2.68cm/s in gait velocity (F1.86,191.71=3.99; P=.02) and an average increase of 2.41 steps/min in cadence (F1.75,180.42=10.12; Pactivities of daily living accounted for these differences. Our results provide preliminary evidence of the differentiating effect of emotionally charged auditory stimuli on gait performance in older individuals with minimal cognitive impairment compared with those without minimal cognitive impairment. A divided attention task using emotionally charged auditory stimuli might be able to elicit compensatory improvement in gait performance in cognitively intact older individuals, but lead to decompensation in those with minimal cognitive impairment. Further investigation is needed to compare gait performance under this task to gait on other dual-task paradigms and to separately examine the
Full Text Available Here, we use a three-dimensional, neuro-musculo-mechanical model of a salamander with realistic physical parameters in order to investigate the role of sensory feedback in gait generation and transition. Activation of limb and axial muscles were driven by neural output patterns obtained from a central pattern generator (CPG which is composed of simulated spiking neurons with adaptation. The CPG consists of a body CPG and four limb CPGs that are interconnected via synapses both ipsilateraly and contralaterally. We use the model both with and without sensory modulation and for different combinations of ipsilateral and contralateral coupling between the limb CPGs. We found that the proprioceptive sensory inputs are essential in obtaining a coordinated walking gait. The sensory feedback includes the signals coming from the stretch receptor like intraspinal neurons located in the girdle regions and the limb stretch receptors residing in the hip and scapula regions of the salamander. On the other hand, coordinated motor output patterns for the trotting gait were obtainable without the sensory inputs. We found that the gait transition from walking to trotting can be induced by increased activity of the descending drive coming from the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR and is helped by the sensory inputs at the hip and scapula regions detecting the late stance phase. More neurophysiological experiments are required to identify the precise type of mechanoreceptors in the salamander and the neural mechanisms mediating the sensory modulation.
Wang, Letian; van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; van der Kooij, Herman
This paper introduces a new method for controlling wearable exoskeletons that do not need predefined joint trajectories. Instead, it only needs basic gait descriptors such as step length, swing duration, and walking speed. End point Model Predictive Control (MPC) is used to generate the online joint trajectories based on these gait parameters. Real-time ability and control performance of the method during the swing phase of gait cycle is studied in this paper. Experiments are performed by helping a human subject swing his leg with different patterns in the LOPES gait trainer. Results show that the method is able to assist subjects to make steps with different step length and step duration without predefined joint trajectories and is fast enough for real-time implementation. Future study of the method will focus on controlling the exoskeletons in the entire gait cycle. © 2011 IEEE
Emotional intelligence has been a hot topic in leadership training since Dan Goleman published his book on the subject in 1995. Emotional intelligence competencies are typically focused on recognition and regulation of emotions in one's self and social situations, yielding four categories: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship...
legged robot moving up and down through the sloping surface is presented. The gait of the lower links during locomotion is obtained after assuming suitable trajectories for the swing leg and hip joint. The trunk motion is initially generated based on ...
Krasny, Darren P; Orin, David E
Over the past several decades, there has been a considerable interest in investigating high-speed dynamic gaits for legged robots. While much research has been published, both in the biomechanics and engineering fields regarding the analysis of these gaits, no single study has adequately characterized the dynamics of high-speed running as can be achieved in a realistic, yet simple, robotic system. The goal of this paper is to find the most energy-efficient, natural, and unconstrained gallop that can be achieved using a simulated quadrupedal robot with articulated legs, asymmetric mass distribution, and compliant legs. For comparison purposes, we also implement the bound and canter. The model used here is planar, although we will show that it captures much of the predominant dynamic characteristics observed in animals. While it is not our goal to prove anything about biological locomotion, the dynamic similarities between the gaits we produce and those found in animals does indicate a similar underlying dynamic mechanism. Thus, we will show that achieving natural, efficient high-speed locomotion is possible even with a fairly simple robotic system. To generate the high-speed gaits, we use an efficient evolutionary algorithm called set-based stochastic optimization. This algorithm finds open-loop control parameters to generate periodic trajectories for the body. Several alternative methods are tested to generate periodic trajectories for the legs. The combined solutions found by the evolutionary search and the periodic-leg methods, over a range of speeds up to 10.0 m/s, reveal "biological" characteristics that are emergent properties of the underlying gaits.
Gross, James J.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
Emotion regulation has the odd distinction of being a wildly popular construct whose scientific existence is in considerable doubt. In this article, we discuss the confusion about whether emotion generation and emotion regulation can and should be distinguished from one another. We describe a continuum of perspectives on emotion, and highlight how different (often mutually incompatible) perspectives on emotion lead to different views about whether emotion generation and emotion regulation can...
This paper proposes a novel method for generating a dynamic gait based on anterior-posterior asymmetric impact posture tilting the robo's center of mass forward. The primary purpose of this method is to asymmetrize the impact posture by actuating the robot's telescopic-legs to make overcoming the potential barrier at mid-stance easy, and the mechanical energy is accordingly restored. First, we introduce a planar rimless wheel model with telescopic legs, and investigate the validity of the sta...
Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya K.; Pereira, Sean C.; Gross, James J.
Emotion regulation plays a crucial role in adaptive functioning and mounting evidence suggests that some emotion regulation strategies are often more effective than others. However, little attention has been paid to the different ways emotions can be generated: from the ‘bottom-up’ (in response to inherently emotional perceptual properties of the stimulus) or ‘top-down’ (in response to cognitive evaluations). Based on a process priming principle, we hypothesized that mode of emotion generation would interact with subsequent emotion regulation. Specifically, we predicted that top-down emotions would be more successfully regulated by a top-down regulation strategy than bottom-up emotions. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up and top-down emotions, and asked participants to decrease the negative impact of these emotions using cognitive reappraisal. We observed the predicted interaction between generation and regulation in two measures of emotional responding. As measured by self-reported affect, cognitive reappraisal was more successful on top-down generated emotions than bottom-up generated emotions. Neurally, reappraisal of bottom-up generated emotions resulted in a paradoxical increase of amygdala activity. This interaction between mode of emotion generation and subsequent regulation should be taken into account when comparing of the efficacy of different types of emotion regulation, as well as when reappraisal is used to treat different types of clinical disorders. PMID:21296865
Full Text Available In the case of dynamic motion such as jumping, an important fact in sEMG (surface Electromyogram signal based control on exoskeletons, myoelectric prostheses, and rehabilitation gait is that multichannel sEMG signals contain mass data and vary greatly with time, which makes it difficult to generate compliant gait. Inspired by the fact that muscle synergies leading to dimensionality reduction may simplify motor control and learning, this paper proposes a new approach to generate flexible gait based on muscle synergies extracted from sEMG signal. Two questions were discussed and solved, the first one concerning whether the same set of muscle synergies can explain the different phases of hopping movement with various velocities. The second one is about how to generate self-adapted gait with muscle synergies while alleviating model sensitivity to sEMG transient changes. From the experimental results, the proposed method shows good performance both in accuracy and in robustness for producing velocity-adapted vertical jumping gait. The method discussed in this paper provides a valuable reference for the sEMG-based control of bionic robot leg to generate human-like dynamic gait.
Jasni, F; Shafie, A A
The earth, in many areas is hardly reachable by the wheeled or tracked locomotion system. Thus, walking locomotion system is becoming a favourite option for mobile robot these days. This is because of the ability of walking locomotion to move on the rugged and unlevel terrains. However, to develop a walking locomotion gait for a robot is not a simple task. Central Pattern Generator (CPGs) method is a biological inspired method that is introduced as a method to develop the gait for the walking robot recently to tackle the issue faced by the conventional method of pre-designed trajectory based method. However, research shows that even the CPG method do have some limitations. Thus, in this paper, a hybrid method that combines CPG and the pre-designed trajectory based method is introduced to develop a walking gait for quadruped walking robot. The 3-D foot trajectories and the joint angle trajectories developed using the proposed method are compared with the data obtained via the conventional method of pre-designed trajectory to confirm the performance
Tsujimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Yasutake; Takeuchi, Shouhei; Yoichiro Maeda,
Interactive Emotion Communication (IEC) has been proposed and studied so far. IEC consists of three processes,recognition of human emotion, generation of robot emotion, and expression of robot emotion. Conventional studies designed those processes by hand one by one. This report proposes a comprehensive system that learns human emotion recognitionand robot emotion expression both. The proposed system is a recurrent neural network introducing Russell’s circumplex model explicitly and learns...
Buitinck, L.; van Amerongen, J.; Tan, E.; de Rijke, M.; Hanbury, A.; Kazai, G.; Rauber, A.; Fuhr, N.
Expressions of emotion abound in user-generated content, whether it be in blogs, reviews, or on social media. Much work has been devoted to detecting and classifying these emotions, but little of it has acknowledged the fact that emotionally charged text may express multiple emotions at the same
Schneider, Sabrina; Christensen, Andrea; Häußinger, Florian B; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Giese, Martin A; Ehlis, Ann-Christine
The ability to recognize and adequately interpret emotional states in others plays a fundamental role in regulating social interaction. Body language presents an essential element of nonverbal communication which is often perceived prior to mimic expression. However, the neural networks that underlie the processing of emotionally expressive body movement and body posture are poorly understood. 33 healthy subjects have been investigated using the optically based imaging method functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during the performance of a newly developed emotion discrimination paradigm consisting of faceless avatars expressing fearful, angry, sad, happy or neutral gait patterns. Participants were instructed to judge (a) the presented emotional state (emotion task) and (b) the observed walking speed of the respective avatar (speed task). We measured increases in cortical oxygenated haemoglobin (O2HB) in response to visual stimulation during emotion discrimination. These O2HB concentration changes were enhanced for negative emotions in contrast to neutral gait sequences in right occipito-temporal and left temporal and temporo-parietal brain regions. Moreover, fearful and angry bodies elicited higher activation increases during the emotion task compared to the speed task. Haemodynamic responses were correlated with a number of behavioural measures, whereby a positive relationship between emotion regulation strategy preference and O2HB concentration increases after sad walks was mediated by the ability to accurately categorize sad walks. Our results support the idea of a distributed brain network involved in the recognition of bodily emotion expression that comprises visual association areas as well as body/movement perception specific cortical regions that are also sensitive to emotion. This network is activated less when the emotion is not intentionally processed (i.e. during the speed task). Furthermore, activity of this perceptive network is, mediated by
Research Question: What are the differences and similarities between employees of Generation X and Gen-eration Y and do these generations prefer different emotional leadership styles? Methods: Empirical study across different organizations using an online survey to examine potential dif-ferences in the emotional leadership style preferences of Generation X and Y. Results: The results of the theoretical part demonstrate an increasing tendency of similarities between Generation X and Y with res...
Mori, Hiroki; Ohshima, Koh
A framework for generating facial expressions from emotional states in daily conversation is described. It provides a mapping between emotional states and facial expressions, where the former is represented by vectors with psychologically-defined abstract dimensions, and the latter is coded by the Facial Action Coding System. In order to obtain the mapping, parallel data with rated emotional states and facial expressions were collected for utterances of a female speaker, and a neural network was trained with the data. The effectiveness of proposed method is verified by a subjective evaluation test. As the result, the Mean Opinion Score with respect to the suitability of generated facial expression was 3.86 for the speaker, which was close to that of hand-made facial expressions.
Salas, Christian E; Radovic, Darinka; Turnbull, Oliver H
A considerable number of mood induction (MI) procedures have been developed to elicit emotion in normal and clinical populations. Although external procedures (e.g., film clips, pictures) are widely used, a number of experiments elicit emotion by using self-generated procedures (e.g., recalling an emotional personal episode). However, no study has directly compared the effectiveness of two types of internal versus external MI across multiple discrete emotions. In the present experiment, 40 undergraduate students watched film clips (external procedure) and recalled personal events (internal procedure) inducing 4 basic emotions (fear, anger, joy, sadness) and later completed a self-report questionnaire. Remarkably, both internal and external procedures elicited target emotions selectively, compared with nontarget emotions. When contrasting the intensity of target emotions, both techniques showed no significant differences, with the exception of Joy, which was more intensely elicited by the internal procedure. Importantly, when considering the overall level of intensity, it was always greater in the internal procedure, for each stimulus. A more detailed investigation of the data suggest that recalling personal events (a type of internal procedure) generates more negative and mixed blends of emotions, which might account for the overall higher intensity of the internal mood induction.
Espinal, Andres; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Carpio, Martin; Guerra-Hernandez, Erick I; Ornelas-Rodriguez, Manuel; Sotelo-Figueroa, Marco
This paper presents a method to design Spiking Central Pattern Generators (SCPGs) to achieve locomotion at different frequencies on legged robots. It is validated through embedding its designs into a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and implemented on a real hexapod robot. The SCPGs are automatically designed by means of a Christiansen Grammar Evolution (CGE)-based methodology. The CGE performs a solution for the configuration (synaptic weights and connections) for each neuron in the SCPG. This is carried out through the indirect representation of candidate solutions that evolve to replicate a specific spike train according to a locomotion pattern (gait) by measuring the similarity between the spike trains and the SPIKE distance to lead the search to a correct configuration. By using this evolutionary approach, several SCPG design specifications can be explicitly added into the SPIKE distance-based fitness function, such as looking for Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) with minimal connectivity or a Central Pattern Generator (CPG) able to generate different locomotion gaits only by changing the initial input stimuli. The SCPG designs have been successfully implemented on a Spartan 6 FPGA board and a real time validation on a 12 Degrees Of Freedom (DOFs) hexapod robot is presented.
Narchi, I; Walrand, S; Boirie, Y; Rousset, S
Eating behaviour depends partly on food preference, which may be determined by different types of emotions. Among the emotions generated by food, disgust and pleasure are common and can lead to increased and reduced food consumption. We tested the hypothesis that (1) elderly men and women felt different emotions towards food, and (2) low energy intake is related to negative emotions towards food. In February 2004, a convenience sample of elderly participants was recruited locally by telephone. Food intake of 52 elderly people, aged 63-80 years, was monitored throughout each day for one week and made it possible to assign the elderly people to two groups (low and high energy intake from food consumption data). One month later, each of them assessed their likes or dislikes towards 30 food pictures (vegetables, cheeses, fruits, starchy foods, sweets, meat, fish, offal and eggs) using 19 emotional words (eight words with a positive valence: 'to like', 'thrilled', 'satisfaction', 'surprise', 'serene', 'amused', 'pride', 'interest', and 11 other words with a negative valence: 'disgust', 'indifference', 'guilt', 'uneasiness', 'nostalgia', 'impatience', 'doubt', 'frustration', 'embarrassment', 'disappointment' and 'lassitude'. The emotional intensities experienced with the different pictures were analysed by ANOVA for each group (men and women, small and big eaters). There were differences in likes and dislikes between men and women. Both guilty and liking scores towards food were generally higher in women than in men. Small eaters felt more doubt, unease, disappointment and indifference towards food than big eaters. In conclusion, the report of low food intake was related to more negative emotions towards foods that might be associated with the willingness to restrict food intake or to undernutrition.
Otto, Benjamin; Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya; McRae, Kateri
One factor that influences the success of emotion regulation is the manner in which the regulated emotion was generated. Recent research has suggested that reappraisal, a top-down emotion regulation strategy, is more effective in decreasing self-reported negative affect when emotions were generated from the top-down, versus the bottom-up. On the basis of a process overlap framework, we hypothesized that the neural regions active during reappraisal would overlap more with emotions that were generated from the top-down, rather than from the bottom-up. In addition, we hypothesized that increased neural overlap between reappraisal and the history effects of top-down emotion generation would be associated with increased reappraisal success. The results of several analyses suggested that reappraisal and emotions that were generated from the top-down share a core network of prefrontal, temporal, and cingulate regions. This overlap is specific; no such overlap was observed between reappraisal and emotions that were generated in a bottom-up fashion. This network consists of regions previously implicated in linguistic processing, cognitive control, and self-relevant appraisals, which are processes thought to be crucial to both reappraisal and top-down emotion generation. Furthermore, individuals with high reappraisal success demonstrated greater neural overlap between reappraisal and the history of top-down emotion generation than did those with low reappraisal success. The overlap of these key regions, reflecting overlapping processes, provides an initial insight into the mechanism by which generation history may facilitate emotion regulation.
Still, Susanne; Hepp, Klaus; Douglas, Rodney J
We present a neuromorphic pattern generator for controlling the walking gaits of four-legged robots which is inspired by central pattern generators found in the nervous system and which is implemented as a very large scale integrated (VLSI) chip. The chip contains oscillator circuits that mimic the output of motor neurons in a strongly simplified way. We show that four coupled oscillators can produce rhythmic patterns with phase relationships that are appropriate to generate all four-legged animal walking gaits. These phase relationships together with frequency and duty cycle of the oscillators determine the walking behavior of a robot driven by the chip, and they depend on a small set of stationary bias voltages. We give analytic expressions for these dependencies. This chip reduces the complex, dynamic inter-leg control problem associated with walking gait generation to the problem of setting a few stationary parameters. It provides a compact and low power solution for walking gait control in robots.
Martin-Fernandez, Laura; Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Carrasco, Marina; Millon, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Perez, Angel; Vilalta, Noelia; Brunel, Helena; Font, Montserrat; Hamsten, Anders; Souto, Juan Carlos; Soria, José Manuel
Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease where known genetic risk factors explain only a small portion of the genetic variance. Then, the analysis of intermediate phenotypes, such as thrombin generation assay, can be used to identify novel genetic risk factors that contribute to VTE. Objectives To investigate the genetic basis of distinct quantitative phenotypes of thrombin generation and its relationship to the risk of VTE. Patients/Methods Lag time, thrombin peak and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) were measured in the families of the Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia 2 (GAIT-2) Project. This sample consisted of 935 individuals in 35 extended families selected through a proband with idiopathic thrombophilia. We performed also genome wide association studies (GWAS) with thrombin generation phenotypes. Results The results showed that 67% of the variation in the risk of VTE is attributable to genetic factors. The heritabilities of lag time, thrombin peak and ETP were 49%, 54% and 52%, respectively. More importantly, we demonstrated also the existence of positive genetic correlations between thrombin peak or ETP and the risk of VTE. Moreover, the major genetic determinant of thrombin generation was the F2 gene. However, other suggestive signals were observed. Conclusions The thrombin generation phenotypes are strongly genetically determined. The thrombin peak and ETP are significantly genetically correlated with the risk of VTE. In addition, F2 was identified as a major determinant of thrombin generation. We reported suggestive signals that might increase our knowledge to explain the variability of this important phenotype. Validation and functional studies are required to confirm GWAS results. PMID:26784699
Dunn, Julie; Bundy, Penny; Stinson, Madonna
Emotion is a complex and important aspect of participatory drama experience. This is because drama work of this kind provokes emotional responses to both actual and dramatic worlds. This paper identifies two key features of participatory drama that influence the generation and experience of emotion: commitment and connection. These features are…
McEvoy, P; Baker, D; Plant, R; Hylton, K; Mansell, W
The quality of the therapeutic alliance between therapist and client is consistently identified as a key component of cognitive behavioural interventions. However, relatively little is known about the causal mechanisms that generate the effects that are ascribed to the therapeutic alliance. This paper outlines how one such causal mechanism, empathic curiosity, may operate. The explanation is rooted in control theory, a theory that explains the link between our experiences and our goal-directed behaviour. Empathic curiosity is underpinned by the core skills of empathic listening and maintaining a curious attitude. From a control theory perspective, the value of this type of listening may be reinforced when speak to people about their salient concerns, as they perceive them in the current flow of their conscious thoughts. This can be facilitated by linking curious questions to the non-verbal disruptions in their body posture and conversational flow. The approach is illustrated using three case examples. In all three examples, the clients involved were able to reflect upon and re-organize conflicting goals that had been a source of significant emotional distress. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.
Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.
The authors assessed whether parafoveal perception of emotional content influences saccade programming. In Experiment 1, paired emotional and neutral scenes were presented to parafoveal vision. Participants performed voluntary saccades toward either of the scenes according to an imperative signal (color cue). Saccadic reaction times were faster…
Kobluk, C N; Schnurr, D; Horney, F D; Sumner-Smith, G; Willoughby, R A; Dekleer, V; Hearn, T C
High-speed cinematography with computer aided analysis was used to study equine hindlimb kinematics. Eight horses were filmed at the trot or the pace. Filming was done from the side (lateral) and the back (caudal). Parameters measured from the lateral filming included the heights of the tuber coxae and tailhead, protraction and retraction of the hoof and angular changes of the tarsus and stifle. Abduction and adduction of the limb and tarsal height changes were measured from the caudal filming. The maximum and minimum values plus the standard deviations and coefficients of variations are presented in tabular form. Three gait diagrams were constructed to represent stifle angle versus tarsal angle, metatarsophalangeal height versus protraction-retraction (fetlock height diagram) and tuber coxae and tailhead height versus stride (pelvic height diagram). Application of the technique to the group of horses revealed good repeatability of the gait diagrams within a limb and the diagrams appeared to be sensitive indicators of left/right asymmetries.
Full Text Available Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009. In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke ‘specific’ emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective ‘context’ is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., ‘sadness’, ‘anger’, Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a. We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009. In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1. Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or ‘typical’, action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical and labels were paired e.g., “If you are feeling ‘sad’ how likely would you be to act in the following way?” … ‘cry.’ Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence, and (b the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When
Portch, Emma; Havelka, Jelena; Brown, Charity; Giner-Sorolla, Roger
Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009). In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke 'specific' emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective 'context' is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., 'sadness', 'anger', Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a). We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009). In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1). Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or 'typical', action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical) and labels were paired e.g., "If you are feeling 'sad' how likely would you be to act in the following way?" … 'cry.' Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a) rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence), and (b) the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When measuring affective grounding, it may then be
Kaneda, Takumi; Shigemune, Yayoi; Tsukiura, Takashi
Memories for emotion-laden stimuli are remembered more accurately than those for neutral stimuli. Although this enhancement reflects stimulus-driven modulation of memory by emotions, functional neuroimaging evidence of the interacting mechanisms between emotions generated by intentional processes, such as semantic elaboration, and memory is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated how encoding-related activation is modulated by emotions generated during the process of semantic elaboration. During encoding with fMRI, healthy young adults viewed neutral (target) pictures either passively or with semantic elaboration. In semantic elaboration, participants imagined background stories related to the pictures. Encoding trials with semantic elaboration were subdivided into conditions in which participants imagined negative, positive, or neutral stories. One week later, memories for target pictures were tested. In behavioral results, memories for target pictures were significantly enhanced by semantic elaboration, compared to passive viewing, and the memory enhancement was more remarkable when negative or positive stories were imagined. fMRI results demonstrated that activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) were greater during the encoding of target pictures with semantic elaboration than those with passive viewing, and that these activations further increased during encoding with semantic elaboration of emotional stories than of neutral stories. Functional connectivity between the left inferior frontal gyrus and dmPFC/hippocampus during encoding significantly predicted retrieval accuracies of memories encoded with self-generated emotional stories. These findings suggest that networks including the left inferior frontal region, dmPFC, and hippocampus could contribute to the modulation of memories encoded with the emotion generation.
Hesse, S; Uhlenbrock, D; Werner, C; Bardeleben, A
To construct an advanced mechanized gait trainer to enable patients the repetitive practice of a gaitlike movement without overstraining therapists. DEVICE: Prototype gait trainer that simulates the phases of gait (by generating a ratio of 40% to 60% between swing and stance phases), supports the subjects according to their ability (lifts the foot during swing phase), and controls the center of mass in the vertical and horizontal directions. Two nonambulatory, hemiparetic patients who regained their walking ability after 4 weeks of daily training on the gait trainer, a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old man, both of whom had a first-time ischemic stroke. Four weeks of training, five times a week, each session 20 minutes long. Functional ambulation category (FAC, levels 0-5) to assess gait ability and ground level walking velocity. Rivermead motor assessment score (RMAS, 0-13) to assess gross motor function. Patient 1: At the end of treatment, she was able to walk independently on level ground with use of a walking stick. Her walking velocity had improved from .29m/sec to .59m/sec. Her RMAS score increased from 4 to 10, meaning she could walk at least 40 meters outside, pick up objects from floor, and climb stairs independently. Patient 2: At end of 4-week training, he could walk independently on even surfaces (FAC level 4), using an ankle-foot orthosis and a walking stick. His walking velocity improved from .14m/sec to .63m/sec. His RMAS increased from 3 to 10. The gait trainer enabled severely affected patients the repetitive practice of a gaitlike movement. Future studies may elucidate its value in gait rehabilitation of nonambulatory subjects.
Schrauf, Robert W.; Sanchez, Julia
The "working emotion vocabulary" typically shows a preponderance of words for negative emotions (50%) over positive (30%) and neutral (20%) emotions. The theory of affect-as-information suggests that negative emotions signal problems or threat in the environment and are accompanied by detailed and systematic cognitive processing, while…
Van Gestel, Leen; De Laet, Tinne; Di Lello, Enrico; Bruyninckx, Herman; Molenaers, Guy; Van Campenhout, Anja; Aertbelien, Erwin; Schwartz, Mike; Wambacq, Hans; De Cock, Paul; Desloovere, Kaat
Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) generates a wealth of highly variable data. Gait classifications help to reduce, simplify and interpret this vast amount of 3DGA data and thereby assist and facilitate clinical decision making in the treatment of CP. CP gait is often a mix of several clinically accepted distinct gait patterns. Therefore,…
Kristensen, Liv Kondrup; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin
Observing science classroom activities presents an opportunity to observe the emotional aspect of interactions, and this chapter presents how this can be done and why. Drawing on ideas proposed by French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, emotions are theorized as publicly embodied enactments......, where differences in behavior between people shape emotional responses. Merleau-Ponty’s theorization of the body and feelings is connected to embodiment while examining central concepts such as consciousness and perception. Merleau-Ponty describes what he calls the emotional atmosphere and how it shapes...... the ways we experience events and activities. We use our interpretation of his understanding of emotions to examine an example of a group of year 8 science students who were engaged in a physics activity. Using the analytical framework of analyzing bodily stance by Goodwin, Cekaite, and Goodwin...
Full Text Available Human gait, as a soft biometric, helps to recognize people through their walking. To further improve the recognition performance, we propose a novel video sensor-based gait representation, DeepGait, using deep convolutional features and introduce Joint Bayesian to model view variance. DeepGait is generated by using a pre-trained “very deep” network “D-Net” (VGG-D without any fine-tuning. For non-view setting, DeepGait outperforms hand-crafted representations (e.g., Gait Energy Image, Frequency-Domain Feature and Gait Flow Image, etc.. Furthermore, for cross-view setting, 256-dimensional DeepGait after PCA significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the OU-ISR large population (OULP dataset. The OULP dataset, which includes 4007 subjects, makes our result reliable in a statistically reliable way.
Dapelo, Marcela Marin; Bodas, Sergio; Morris, Robin; Tchanturia, Kate
People with eating disorders have difficulties in socio emotional functioning that could contribute to maintaining the functional consequences of the disorder. This study aimed to explore the ability to deliberately generate (i.e., pose) and imitate facial expressions of emotions in women with anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), compared to healthy controls (HC). One hundred and three participants (36 AN, 25 BN, and 42 HC) were asked to pose and imitate facial expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness. Their facial expressions were recorded and coded. Participants with eating disorders (both AN and BN) were less accurate than HC when posing facial expressions of emotions. Participants with AN were less accurate compared to HC imitating facial expressions, whilst BN participants had a middle range performance. All results remained significant after controlling for anxiety, depression and autistic features. The relatively small number of BN participants recruited for this study. The study findings suggest that people with eating disorders, particularly those with AN, have difficulties posing and imitating facial expressions of emotions. These difficulties could have an impact in social communication and social functioning. This is the first study to investigate the ability to pose and imitate facial expressions of emotions in people with eating disorders, and the findings suggest this area should be further explored in future studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI, AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition.
It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial
Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael
En emotion er en evaluerende respons på en betydningsfuld hændelse, som har affektiv valens og motiverer organismen i forhold til objektverdenen (omverden). Emotioner fører til affekt: til smerte (negativ) eller glæde (positiv affekt). Både positive og negative emotioner påvirker organismens...
Hausdorff Jeffrey M
Full Text Available Abstract The study of gait variability, the stride-to-stride fluctuations in walking, offers a complementary way of quantifying locomotion and its changes with aging and disease as well as a means of monitoring the effects of therapeutic interventions and rehabilitation. Previous work has suggested that measures of gait variability may be more closely related to falls, a serious consequence of many gait disorders, than are measures based on the mean values of other walking parameters. The Current JNER series presents nine reports on the results of recent investigations into gait variability. One novel method for collecting unconstrained, ambulatory data is reviewed, and a primer on analysis methods is presented along with a heuristic approach to summarizing variability measures. In addition, the first studies of gait variability in animal models of neurodegenerative disease are described, as is a mathematical model of human walking that characterizes certain complex (multifractal features of the motor control's pattern generator. Another investigation demonstrates that, whereas both healthy older controls and patients with a higher-level gait disorder walk more slowly in reduced lighting, only the latter's stride variability increases. Studies of the effects of dual tasks suggest that the regulation of the stride-to-stride fluctuations in stride width and stride time may be influenced by attention loading and may require cognitive input. Finally, a report of gait variability in over 500 subjects, probably the largest study of this kind, suggests how step width variability may relate to fall risk. Together, these studies provide new insights into the factors that regulate the stride-to-stride fluctuations in walking and pave the way for expanded research into the control of gait and the practical application of measures of gait variability in the clinical setting.
Full Text Available Most of the existing gait recognition methods rely on a single view, usually the side view, of the walking person. This paper investigates the case in which several views are available for gait recognition. It is shown that each view has unequal discrimination power and, therefore, should have unequal contribution in the recognition process. In order to exploit the availability of multiple views, several methods for the combination of the results that are obtained from the individual views are tested and evaluated. A novel approach for the combination of the results from several views is also proposed based on the relative importance of each view. The proposed approach generates superior results, compared to those obtained by using individual views or by using multiple views that are combined using other combination methods.
Rathschlag, Marco; Memmert, Daniel
The present study examined the relationship between self-generated emotions and physical performance. All participants took part in five emotion induction conditions (happiness, anger, anxiety, sadness, and an emotion-neutral state) and we investigated their influence on the force of the finger musculature (Experiment 1), the jump height of a counter-movement jump (Experiment 2), and the velocity of a thrown ball (Experiment 3). All experiments showed that participants could produce significantly better physical performances when recalling anger or happiness emotions in contrast to the emotion-neutral state. Experiments 1 and 2 also revealed that physical performance in the anger and the happiness conditions was significantly enhanced compared with the anxiety and the sadness conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the Lazarus (1991, 2000a) cognitive-motivational-relational (CMR) theory framework.
Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand
This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...
Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Stange, Jonathan P; Kleiman, Evan M; Rubenstein, Liza M; Scopelliti, Kate A; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
Positive and negative trait affect and emotion regulatory strategies have received considerable attention in the literature as predictors of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear whether individuals' trait affect is associated with responses to state positive affect (positive rumination and dampening) or negative affect (ruminative brooding), or whether these affective experiences contribute to negative or positive interpersonal event generation. Among 304 late adolescents, path analyses indicated that individuals with higher trait negative affect utilized dampening and brooding rumination responses, whereas those with higher trait positive affect engaged in rumination on positive affect. Further, there were indirect relationships between trait negative affect and fewer positive and negative interpersonal events via dampening, and between trait positive affect and greater positive and negative interpersonal events via positive rumination. These findings suggest that individuals' trait negative and positive affect may be associated with increased utilization of emotion regulation strategies for managing these affects, which may contribute to the occurrence of positive and negative events in interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Luu, Trieu Phat; Low, Kin Huat; Qu, Xingda; Lim, Hup Boon; Hoon, Kay Hiang
Therapist-assisted body weight supported (TABWS) gait rehabilitation was introduced two decades ago. The benefit of TABWS in functional recovery of walking in spinal cord injury and stroke patients has been demonstrated and reported. However, shortage of therapists, labor-intensiveness, and short duration of training are some limitations of this approach. To overcome these deficiencies, robotic-assisted gait rehabilitation systems have been suggested. These systems have gained attentions from researchers and clinical practitioner in recent years. To achieve the same objective, an over-ground gait rehabilitation system, NaTUre-gaits, was developed at the Nanyang Technological University. The design was based on a clinical approach to provide four main features, which are pelvic motion, body weight support, over-ground walking experience, and lower limb assistance. These features can be achieved by three main modules of NaTUre-gaits: 1) pelvic assistance mechanism, mobile platform, and robotic orthosis. Predefined gait patterns are required for a robotic assisted system to follow. In this paper, the gait pattern planning for NaTUre-gaits was accomplished by an individual-specific gait pattern prediction model. The model generates gait patterns that resemble natural gait patterns of the targeted subjects. The features of NaTUre-gaits have been demonstrated by walking trials with several subjects. The trials have been evaluated by therapists and doctors. The results show that 10-m walking trial with a reduction in manpower. The task-specific repetitive training approach and natural walking gait patterns were also successfully achieved.
This study describes the recognition of human gait in the oblique and frontal views using novel gait features derived from the skeleton joints provided by Kinect. In D-joint, the skeleton joints were extracted directly from the Kinect, which generates the gait feature. On the other hand, H-joint distance is a feature of distance ...
J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien); S.J. Roza (Sabine); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)
textabstractBackground: Maternal prenatal folate status has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, but the association with child emotional and behavioral problems is unclear. Objectives: We assessed the association of maternal folate status during pregnancy with child emotional and behavioral
Full Text Available Background: Gait disorders, a highly prevalent condition in older adults, are associated with several adverse health consequences. Gait analysis allows qualitative and quantitative assessments of gait that improves the understanding of mechanisms of gait disorders and the choice of interventions. This manuscript aims (1 to give consensus guidance for clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls in older adults aged 65 years and over, and (2 to provide reference values for spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded footfalls in healthy older adults free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities.Methods: International experts working in a network of two different consortiums (i.e., Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortium participated in this initiative. First, they identified items of standardized information following the usual procedure of formulation of consensus findings. Second, they merged databases including spatiotemporal gait assessments with GAITRite® system and clinical information from the “Gait, cOgnitiOn & Decline” (GOOD initiative and the Generation 100 (Gen 100 study. Only healthy—free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities (i.e., ≤ 3 therapeutics taken daily—participants aged 65 and older were selected. Age, sex, body mass index, mean values, and coefficients of variation (CoV of gait parameters were used for the analyses.Results: Standardized systematic assessment of three categories of items, which were demographics and clinical information, and gait characteristics (clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls, were selected for the proposed guidelines. Two complementary sets of items were distinguished: a minimal data set and a full data set. In addition, a total of 954 participants (mean age 72.8 ± 4.8 years, 45.8% women were recruited to establish the reference values. Performance of spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded
Liu, Du-Xin; Wu, Xinyu; Du, Wenbin; Wang, Can; Xu, Tiantian
Gait phase is widely used for gait trajectory generation, gait control and gait evaluation on lower-limb exoskeletons. So far, a variety of methods have been developed to identify the gait phase for lower-limb exoskeletons. Angular sensors on lower-limb exoskeletons are essential for joint closed-loop controlling; however, other types of sensors, such as plantar pressure, attitude or inertial measurement unit, are not indispensable.Therefore, to make full use of existing sensors, we propose a novel gait phase recognition method for lower-limb exoskeletons using only joint angular sensors. The method consists of two procedures. Firstly, the gait deviation distances during walking are calculated and classified by Fisher’s linear discriminant method, and one gait cycle is divided into eight gait phases. The validity of the classification results is also verified based on large gait samples. Secondly, we build a gait phase recognition model based on multilayer perceptron and train it with the phase-labeled gait data. The experimental result of cross-validation shows that the model has a 94.45% average correct rate of set (CRS) and an 87.22% average correct rate of phase (CRP) on the testing set, and it can predict the gait phase accurately. The novel method avoids installing additional sensors on the exoskeleton or human body and simplifies the sensory system of the lower-limb exoskeleton. PMID:27690023
Full Text Available Gait phase is widely used for gait trajectory generation, gait control and gait evaluation on lower-limb exoskeletons. So far, a variety of methods have been developed to identify the gait phase for lower-limb exoskeletons. Angular sensors on lower-limb exoskeletons are essential for joint closed-loop controlling; however, other types of sensors, such as plantar pressure, attitude or inertial measurement unit, are not indispensable.Therefore, to make full use of existing sensors, we propose a novel gait phase recognition method for lower-limb exoskeletons using only joint angular sensors. The method consists of two procedures. Firstly, the gait deviation distances during walking are calculated and classified by Fisher’s linear discriminant method, and one gait cycle is divided into eight gait phases. The validity of the classification results is also verified based on large gait samples. Secondly, we build a gait phase recognition model based on multilayer perceptron and train it with the phase-labeled gait data. The experimental result of cross-validation shows that the model has a 94.45% average correct rate of set (CRS and an 87.22% average correct rate of phase (CRP on the testing set, and it can predict the gait phase accurately. The novel method avoids installing additional sensors on the exoskeleton or human body and simplifies the sensory system of the lower-limb exoskeleton.
Scivoletto, Giorgio; Ivanenko, Yuri; Morganti, Barbara; Grasso, Renato; Zago, Mirka; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ditunno, John; Molinari, Marco
Recent data on spinal cord plasticity after spinal cord injury (SCI) were reviewed to analyze the influence of training on the neurophysiological organization of locomotor spinal circuits in SCI patients. In particular, the authors studied the relationship between central pattern generators (CPGs) and motor neuron pool activation during gait. An analysis of the relations between locomotor recovery and compensatory mechanisms focuses on the hierarchical organization of gait parameters and allows characterizing kinematic parameters that are highly stable during different gait conditions and in recovered gait after SCI. The importance of training characteristics and the use of robotic/automated devices in gait recovery is analyzed and discussed. The role of CPG in defining kinematic gait parameters is summarized, and spatio-temporal maps of EMG activity during gait are used to clarify the role of CPG plasticity in sustaining gait recovery.
Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian
Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications. PMID:22438763
Full Text Available Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications.
Abstract This research draws on ideas about emotion-related appraisal tendencies to generate and test novel propositions about intergroup emotions. First, emotion elicited by outgroup category activation can be transferred to an unrelated stimulus (incidental emotion effects). Second, people predisposed toward an emotion are more prejudiced toward groups that are likely to be associated with that emotion. D...
Full Text Available Upright gait is a peculiar characteristic of humans that requires the ability to manage upper body dynamic balance while walking, despite the perturbations that are generated by movements of the lower limbs. Most of the studies on upright gait stability have compared young adults and the elderly to determine the effects of aging. In other studies the comparison was between healthy subjects and patients to examine specific pathologies. Fewer researches have also investigated the development of upright gait stability in children.This review discusses these studies in order to provide an overview of this relevant aspect of human locomotion. A clear trend from development to decline of upright gait stability has been depicted across the entire lifespan, from toddlers at first steps to elderly. In old individuals, even if healthy, the deterioration of skeletal muscle, combined with sensorial and cognitive performance, reduces the ability to maintain an upright trunk during walking, increasing the instability and the risk of falls. Further, the pathological causes of altered development or of a sudden loss of gait stability, as well as the environmental influence are investigated. The last part of this review is focused on the control of upper body accelerations during walking, a particularly interesting topic for the recent development of low-cost wearable accelerometers.
Romero, Mónica; Atehortúa, Angélica; Romero, Eduardo
Parkinson's disease (PD) is constituted by a set of motor symptoms, namely tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, which are usually described but not quantified. This work proposes an objective characterization of PD gait patterns by approximating the single stance phase a single grounded pendulum. This model estimates the force generated by the gait during the single support from gait data. This force describes the motion pattern for different stages of the disease. The model was validated using recorded videos of 8 young control subjects, 10 old control subjects and 10 subjects with Parkinson's disease in different stages. The estimated force showed differences among stages of Parkinson disease, observing a decrease of the estimated force for the advanced stages of this illness.
Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim
psychosomatic symptoms than native adolescents. Effect sizes varied considerable for the different outcomes, and similar effects were found for first- and second-generation immigrant adolescents. Differences in these indicators of emotional and behavioral problems between immigrant and native adolescents did......PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral...... not vary significantly with the receiving country. With two exceptions, effects of immigrant status were similar for boys and girls. Although no differences in psychosomatic symptoms were found between first-generation immigrant and native girls, first-generation immigrant boys reported less psychosomatic...
Sanders, Richard D.; Gillig, Paulette Marie
Gait reflects all levels of nervous system function. In psychiatry, gait disturbances reflecting cortical and subcortical dysfunction are often seen. Observing spontaneous gait, sometimes augmented by a few brief tests, can be highly informative. The authors briefly review the neuroanatomy of gait, review gait abnormalities seen in psychiatric and neurologic disorders, and describe the assessment of gait.
Full Text Available In this article a novel breed of snake-like climber robots has been introduced. Structure and operation of the first generation of snake-like climber robot "Marak I" has been discussed. The gait planning for two dimensional locomotion of a novel snake-like climber robot "Marak I" is presented. The types of locomotion investigated were rectilinear and wheeling gaits. The gaits of locomotion were experimented and their suitability for various applications has been mentioned. Some encountered practical problems plus solutions were addressed. Finally we found out that: the vertical motion was producing more fault than horizontal locomotion, and notably the fastest gait of locomotion was the wheeling gait
Bui, T.D.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Stumptner, Markus; Corbett, Dan; Brooks, Mike
We propose a fuzzy rule-based system to map representations of the emotional state of an animated agent onto muscle contraction values for the appropriate facial expressions. Our implementation pays special attention to the way in which continuous changes in the intensity of emotions can be
... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...
Xanthopoulou, D.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Schaufeli, W.B.
This diary study tests the broaden-and-build theory in the work context and expands it by examining job resources as potential antecedents of positive emotions on a daily basis. We hypothesized that general perceptions of job resources (autonomy, supervisory coaching, and the psychological climate
Full Text Available Collecting large datasets of amputee gait data is notoriously difficult. Additionally, collecting data on less prevalent amputations or on gait activities other than level walking and running on hard surfaces is rarely attempted. However, with the wealth of user-generated content on the Internet, the scope for collecting amputee gait data from alternative sources other than traditional gait labs is intriguing. Here we investigate the potential of YouTube videos to provide gait data on amputee walking. We use an example dataset of trans-femoral amputees level walking at self-selected speeds to collect temporal gait parameters and calculate gait asymmetry. We compare our YouTube data with typical literature values, and show that our methodology produces results that are highly comparable to data collected in a traditional manner. The similarity between the results of our novel methodology and literature values lends confidence to our technique. Nevertheless, clear challenges with the collection and interpretation of crowd-sourced gait data remain, including long term access to datasets, and a lack of validity and reliability studies in this area.
Gardiner, James; Gunarathne, Nuwan; Howard, David; Kenney, Laurence
Collecting large datasets of amputee gait data is notoriously difficult. Additionally, collecting data on less prevalent amputations or on gait activities other than level walking and running on hard surfaces is rarely attempted. However, with the wealth of user-generated content on the Internet, the scope for collecting amputee gait data from alternative sources other than traditional gait labs is intriguing. Here we investigate the potential of YouTube videos to provide gait data on amputee walking. We use an example dataset of trans-femoral amputees level walking at self-selected speeds to collect temporal gait parameters and calculate gait asymmetry. We compare our YouTube data with typical literature values, and show that our methodology produces results that are highly comparable to data collected in a traditional manner. The similarity between the results of our novel methodology and literature values lends confidence to our technique. Nevertheless, clear challenges with the collection and interpretation of crowd-sourced gait data remain, including long term access to datasets, and a lack of validity and reliability studies in this area.
Vrieling, Aline H.; van Keeken, Helco G.; Schoppen, Tanneke; Hof, At L.; Otten, Bert; Halbertsma, Jan P. K.; Postema, Klaas
Objective: To describe the adjustments in gait characteristics of obstacle crossing, gait initiation and gait termination that occur in subjects with a recent lower limb amputation during the rehabilitation process. Design: Prospective and descriptive study. Subjects: Fourteen subjects with a recent
Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an adaptive gait in a six-legged walking robot that is capable of generating reactive stepping actions with the same underlying control methodology as an insect for stable walking over uneven terrains. The proposed method of gait generation uses feedback data from onboard sensors to generate an adaptive gait in order to surmount obstacles, gaps and perform stable walking. The paper addresses its implementation through simulations in a visual dynamic simulation environment. Finally the paper draws conclusions about the significance and performance of the proposed gait in terms of tracking errors while navigating in difficult terrains.
Pliskin, Ruthie; Halperin, Eran; Bar-Tal, Daniel; Sheppes, Gal
Do rightists and leftists experience information about suffering and harm with differing emotional intensities, depending on the identity of target depicted? Do they consequently choose differently how to regulate or cope with these emotions? Research has identified ideological differences in emotional processes, but it has yet to identify what types of content lead to ideological differences in emotional intensity or whether these content-dependent differences relate to differing preferences for engaging versus disengaging emotion-regulation strategies. We posited that right-left differences in experienced emotional intensity would be context-dependent, emerging mostly in response to depictions of harm to the outgroup, in accordance with the centrality of intergroup attitudes to ideological self-placement in conflict. Study 1 (N = 83) supported this hypothesis, with leftists (vs. rightists) experiencing outgroup harm (but not ingroup harm or conflict-irrelevant harm) with greater emotional intensity. Study 2 (N = 101), which replicated this finding, additionally examined whether behavioral differences in regulatory choice consequently emerge mostly regarding outgroup harm. We tested 2 competing hypotheses as to the nature of these differences: (a) the intensity hypothesis, positing that leftists (more than rightists) would regulate their intensified reactions to outgroup harm through disengagement-distraction (vs. engagement-reappraisal) due to a documented greater preference for disengaging coping strategies as intensity increases, and (b) the motivation hypothesis, positing that leftists (more than rightists) would prefer engagement-reappraisal (vs. disengagement-distraction), consistent with leftists' documented greater preference for intergroup empathy. Results exclusively supported the intensity hypothesis, and the significance of both studies is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
McGinley, Jennifer L; Goldie, Patricia A; Greenwood, Kenneth M; Olney, Sandra J
Physical therapists routinely observe gait in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of observational assessments of push-off in gait after stroke. Eighteen physical therapists and 11 subjects with hemiplegia following a stroke participated in the study. Measurements of ankle power generation were obtained from subjects following stroke using a gait analysis system. Concurrent videotaped gait performances were observed by the physical therapists on 2 occasions. Ankle power generation at push-off was scored as either normal or abnormal using two 11-point rating scales. These observational ratings were correlated with the measurements of peak ankle power generation. A high correlation was obtained between the observational ratings and the measurements of ankle power generation (mean Pearson r=.84). Interobserver reliability was moderately high (mean intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC (2,1)]=.76). Intraobserver reliability also was high, with a mean ICC (2,1) of.89 obtained. Physical therapists were able to make accurate and reliable judgments of push-off in videotaped gait of subjects following stroke using observational assessment. Further research is indicated to explore the accuracy and reliability of data obtained with observational gait analysis as it occurs in clinical practice.
Song, Sung-Hyuk; Kim, Min-Soo; Rodrigue, Hugo; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Shim, Jae-Eul; Kim, Min-Cheol; Chu, Won-Shik; Ahn, Sung-Hoon
This paper presents a biomimetic turtle flipper actuator consisting of a shape memory alloy composite structure for implementation in a turtle-inspired autonomous underwater vehicle. Based on the analysis of the Chelonia mydas, the flipper actuator was divided into three segments containing a scaffold structure fabricated using a 3D printer. According to the filament stacking sequence of the scaffold structure in the actuator, different actuating motions can be realized and three different types of scaffold structures were proposed to replicate the motion of the different segments of the flipper of the Chelonia mydas. This flipper actuator can mimic the continuous deformation of the forelimb of Chelonia mydas which could not be realized in previous motor based robot. This actuator can also produce two distinct motions that correspond to the two different swimming gaits of the Chelonia mydas, which are the routine and vigorous swimming gaits, by changing the applied current sequence of the SMA wires embedded in the flipper actuator. The generated thrust and the swimming efficiency in each swimming gait of the flipper actuator were measured and the results show that the vigorous gait has a higher thrust but a relatively lower swimming efficiency than the routine gait. The flipper actuator was implemented in a biomimetic turtle robot, and its average swimming speed in the routine and vigorous gaits were measured with the vigorous gait being capable of reaching a maximum speed of 11.5 mm s(-1).
Stack, Dale M.; Serbin, Lisa A.; Enns, Leah N.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Barrieau, Lindsey
Principal tasks of the early childhood years, including attaining self-efficacy, self-control, social integration, and preparedness for education, require the development of adaptive and competent emotional development. Results from longitudinal and intergenerational studies examining the effect of parenting behaviors on children's emotional…
Cassibba, R; van IJzendoorn, M H; Coppola, G
The presence of limits or distortions in the children's communicative behaviours (due to a chronic illness) may interfere with the possibility to build secure attachment relationships. Moreover, the distress that the atypical chronic illness condition brings to family life may interfere the intergenerational transmission of attachment. This study evaluated the associations between maternal attachment representations, emotional availability and mother-child attachment in a clinical and in a comparison group. Forty infants (23 female) in their 14th month of life and their mothers participated in this study, 20 dyads with clinical infants (10 premature infants and 10 infants affected by atopic dermatitis) and 20 full-term and healthy comparison infants. The Adult Attachment Interview, the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS) and the Strange Situation Procedure were used to assess, respectively, the security of mothers' attachment representations, the emotional availability and the quality of mother-child attachment. We found that the two groups (clinical vs. comparison) did not differ with respect to the Adult Attachment Interview and the Emotional Availability Scales measures. A significant difference was found in the distribution of the infant-mother attachment patterns, with a higher incidence of insecure infants in the clinical group. In the typically developing group, more secure maternal attachment representations predicted more emotional availability in mother-infant interactions, which predicted more secure infant-mother attachments. However, we did not find similar support for intergenerational transmission of attachment in the clinical group. We speculate that constant concerns about the child's health condition and communicative difficulties of clinical infants may hamper or even mitigate the intergenerational transmission of attachment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
modules to train individuals to distinguish gait deviations (trunk motion and lower-limb motion). Each of these modules help trainers improve their...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0870 TITLE: Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Karim Abdel-Malek CONTRACTING...study is to produce a computer-based Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool to aid in the training of clinicians at military treatment facilities
Sellers, William I; Dennis, Louise A; W -J, Wang; Crompton, Robin H
Evolutionary robotics is a branch of artificial intelligence concerned with the automatic generation of autonomous robots. Usually the form of the robot is predefined and various computational techniques are used to control the machine's behaviour. One aspect is the spontaneous generation of walking in legged robots and this can be used to investigate the mechanical requirements for efficient walking in bipeds. This paper demonstrates a bipedal simulator that spontaneously generates walking and running gaits. The model can be customized to represent a range of hominoid morphologies and used to predict performance parameters such as preferred speed and metabolic energy cost. Because it does not require any motion capture data it is particularly suitable for investigating locomotion in fossil animals. The predictions for modern humans are highly accurate in terms of energy cost for a given speed and thus the values predicted for other bipeds are likely to be good estimates. To illustrate this the cost of transport is calculated for Australopithecus afarensis. The model allows the degree of maximum extension at the knee to be varied causing the model to adopt walking gaits varying from chimpanzee-like to human-like. The energy costs associated with these gait choices can thus be calculated and this information used to evaluate possible locomotor strategies in early hominids.
Collado-Vázquez, S; Carrillo, J M
People have been interested in movement analysis in general, and gait analysis in particular, since ancient times. Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen, Leonardo da Vinci and Honoré de Balzac all used observation to analyse the gait of human beings. The purpose of this study is to compare Honoré de Balzac's writings with a scientific analysis of human gait. Honoré de Balzac's Theory of walking and other works by that author referring to gait. Honoré de Balzac had an interest in gait analysis, as demonstrated by his descriptions of characters which often include references to their way of walking. He also wrote a treatise entitled Theory of walking (Théorie de la demarche) in which he employed his keen observation skills to define gait using a literary style. He stated that the walking process is divided into phases and listed the factors that influence gait, such as personality, mood, height, weight, profession and social class, and also provided a description of the correct way of walking. Balzac considered gait analysis to be very important and this is reflected in both his character descriptions and Theory of walking, his analytical observation of gait. In our own technology-dominated times, this serves as a reminder of the importance of observation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Second-generation cultural-historical activity theory, which drew its inspiration from Leont'ev's work, constituted an advance over Vygotsky's first-generation theory by explicitly articulating the dialectical relation between individual and collective. As part of an effort to develop third-generation-historical activity theory, I propose in this…
Nur Demirbas Celik
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the effect of online device usage habit of high school students on their emotional well-being, using a sample 308 Turkish high school students who aged from 15 to 19 in Istanbul in 2014 participated in this research. PIF is applied in order to determine the aims of students in using online devices. There are questions in PIF upon the gender of the students, online devices they own, time they on these online devices, the usage aims of these devices. PANAS is used in order to measure the emotional well-being of the students. PANAS has got two sub-dimensions as positive affect and negative affect. Usage time of the online devices creates a significant difference on negative affect score. The usage of this devices with the aim of homework/project creates a significant difference in positive and negative affect scores; usage of these devices with the aim of game and entertainment creates a significant difference in negative affect score and the usage of these devices with the aim of news/newspaper creates a significant difference in positive affect score. The result of the research discovered that the time and aim of online device use are significant indicators for high school students’ emotional well-being. The result of this research shows that high school students mostly use smart phones among online devices. If the future researches are carried out upon smart phones, this may provide information upon how are the adolescents affected from being grown up with the technology. On the other hand as online devices have become widespread rapidly, their usage aims are versatile, children grow up with technology show that more researches are needed in this field.
Fasano, A.; Ruzicka, E.; Bloem, B.R.
BACKGROUND: Many neurological disorders impair gait, but only a few of them are episodic or paroxysmal, the most important ones being freezing of gait and paroxysmal dyskinesias. METHODS: We describe 4 patients with tic disorders (3 with Tourette syndrome, and 1 with a tic disorder secondary to
Larsen, Peter K; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels
Recordings from video surveillance systems are used as evidence from crime scenes. It would be useful to perform comparisons between disguised perpetrators and suspects based on their gait. We applied functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge to analyze the gait of perpetrators, as record...
Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.
Flink, Ilse J. E.; Prins, Rick G.; Mackenbach, Johan J. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning; Raat, Hein
Background Studies suggest that neighborhood ethnic diversity may be important when it comes to understanding ethnic inequalities in mental health. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether neighborhood ethnic diversity moderated the association between the ethnic minority status and child behavioral and emotional problems. Methods We included 3076 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. At child age 3-years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5). Individual-level data, assessed with questionnaires, was combined with neighborhood-level data. Multi-level logistic regression models predicted the Odds Ratios for the CBCL total problems score as a function of maternal ethnic background and neighborhood ethnic diversity, computed with the Racial Diversity Index and categorized into tertiles. Interaction on the additive scale was assessed using Relative Access Risk due to Interaction. Results Being from an ethnic minority was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.88–4.04) and adjusted models (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.79–3.92). Residing in a high diversity neighborhood was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.13–3.64) but not in adjusted models (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.51–1.57). When stratifying by the three levels of neighborhood ethnic diversity, ethnic inequalities in behavioral and emotional problems were greatest in low diversity neighborhoods (OR 5.24, 95%CI 2.47–11.14), smaller in high diversity neighborhoods (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.66–5.99) and smallest in medium diversity neighborhoods (OR 1.59, 95% CI 0.90–2.82). Tests for interaction (when comparing medium to low diversity neighborhoods) trended towards negative on both the additive and multiplicative scale for the maternal-report (RERI: −3.22, 95% CI −0.70–0.59; Ratio of ORs: 0.30, 95% CI 0.12–0
Christensen, David Johan; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Stoy, Kasper
This paper presents experiments with a morphologyindependent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits, performed on a quadruped robot constructed from the LocoKit modular robot. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to optimize eight open parameters...... of a central pattern generator based gait implementation. We observe that the strategy converges in roughly ten minutes to gaits of similar or higher velocity than a manually designed gait and that the strategy readapts in the event of failed actuators. In future work we plan to study co-learning...
Pietrusinski, Maciej; Severini, Giacomo; Cajigas, Iahn; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Bonato, Paolo
This paper presents the design and testing of a novel device for the control of pelvic obliquity during gait. The device, called the Robotic Gait Rehabilitation (RGR) Trainer, consists of a single actuator system designed to target secondary gait deviations, such as hip-hiking, affecting the movement of the pelvis. Secondary gait deviations affecting the pelvis are generated in response to primary gait deviations (e.g. limited knee flexion during the swing phase) in stroke survivors and contribute to the overall asymmetrical gait pattern often observed in these patients. The proposed device generates a force field able to affect the obliquity of the pelvis (i.e. the rotation of the pelvis around the anteroposterior axis) by using an impedance controlled single linear actuator acting on a hip orthosis. Tests showed that the RGR Trainer is able to induce changes in pelvic obliquity trajectories (hip-hiking) in healthy subjects. These results suggest that the RGR Trainer is suitable to test the hypothesis that has motivated our efforts toward developing the system, namely that addressing both primary and secondary gait deviations during robotic-assisted gait training may help promote a physiologically-sound gait behavior more effectively than when only primary deviations are addressed.
Hesse, S; Uhlenbrock, D
The newly developed gait trainer allows wheel-chair-bound subjects the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overstressing therapists. The device simulates the phases of gait, supports the subjects according to their abilities, and controls the center of mass (CoM) in the vertical and horizontal directions. The patterns of sagittal lower limb joint kinematics and of muscle activation for a normal subject were similar when using the mechanized trainer and when walking on a treadmill. A non-ambulatory hemiparetic subject required little help from one therapist on the gait trainer, while two therapists were required to support treadmill walking. Gait movements on the trainer were highly symmetrical, impact free, and less spastic. The vertical displacement of the CoM was bi-phasic instead of mono-phasic during each gait cycle on the new device. Two cases of non-ambulatory patients, who regained their walking ability after 4 weeks of daily training on the gait trainer, are reported.
Chen, Xian-Bao; Gao, Feng
Robots driven by batteries are clean, quiet, and can work indoors or in space. However, the battery endurance is a great problem. A new gait parameter design energy saving strategy to extend the working hours of the quadruped robot is proposed. A dynamic model of the robot is established to estimate and analyze the energy expenditures during trotting. Given a trotting speed, optimal stride frequency and stride length can minimize the energy expenditure. However, the relationship between the speed and the optimal gait parameters is nonlinear, which is difficult for practical application. Therefore, a simplified gait parameter design method for energy saving is proposed. A critical trotting speed of the quadruped robot is found and can be used to decide the gait parameters. When the robot is travelling lower than this speed, it is better to keep a constant stride length and change the cycle period. When the robot is travelling higher than this speed, it is better to keep a constant cycle period and change the stride length. Simulations and experiments on the quadruped robot show that by using the proposed gait parameter design approach, the energy expenditure can be reduced by about 54% compared with the 100 mm stride length under 500 mm/s speed. In general, an energy expenditure model based on the gait parameter of the quadruped robot is built and the trotting gait parameters design approach for energy saving is proposed.
Iersel, M.B. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Borm, G.F.
Many gait and balance variables depend on gait velocity, which seriously hinders the interpretation of gait and balance data derived from walks at different velocities. However, as far as we know there is no widely accepted method to correct for effects of gait velocity on other gait and balance
de Melo Roiz, Roberta; Azevedo Cacho, Enio Walker; Cliquet, Alberto, Jr.; Barasnevicius Quagliato, Elizabeth Maria Aparecida
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) has been defined as a chronic progressive neurological disorder with characteristics that generate changes in gait pattern. Several studies have reported that appropriate external influences, such as visual or auditory cues may improve the gait pattern of patients with IPD. Therefore, the objective of this…
Yang, Zhijun; Karamanoglu, Mehmet; Rocha, Marlon V; França, Felipe M G; Lima, Priscila M V
In this work, a generalised central pattern generator (CPG) model is formulated to generate a full range of gait patterns for a hexapod insect. To this end, a recurrent neuronal network module, as the building block for rhythmic patterns, is proposed to extend the concept of oscillatory building blocks (OBB) for constructing a CPG model. The model is able to make transitions between different gait patterns by simply adjusting one model parameter. Simulation results are further presented to show the effectiveness and performance of the CPG network
Full Text Available Variability raises considerable interest as a promising and sensitive marker of dysfunction in physiology, in particular in neurosciences. Both internally (e.g., pathology and/or externally (e.g., environment generated perturbations and the neuro-mechanical responses to them contribute to the fluctuating dynamics of locomotion. Defective internal gait control in Parkinson's disease (PD, resulting in typical timing gait disorders, is characterized by the breakdown of the temporal organization of stride duration variability. Influence of external cue on gait pattern could be detrimental or advantageous depending on situations (healthy or pathological gait pattern, respectively. As well as being an interesting rehabilitative approach in PD, treadmills are usually implemented in laboratory settings to perform instrumented gait analysis including gait variability assessment. However, possibly acting as an external pacemaker, treadmill could modulate the temporal organization of gait variability of PD patients which could invalidate any gait variability assessment. This study aimed to investigate the immediate influence of treadmill walking (TW on the temporal organization of stride duration variability in PD and healthy population. Here, we analyzed the gait pattern of 20 PD patients and 15 healthy age-matched subjects walking on overground and on a motorized-treadmill (randomized order at a self-selected speed. The temporal organization and regularity of time series of walking were assessed on 512 consecutive strides and assessed by the application of non-linear mathematical methods (i.e., the detrended fluctuation analysis and power spectral density; and sample entropy, for the temporal organization and regularity of gait variability, respectively. A more temporally organized and regular gait pattern seems to emerge from TW in PD while no influence was observed on healthy gait pattern. Treadmill could afford the necessary framework to regulate gait
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP. Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA, in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP (OLG; age: 40.5 ± 10.1 years; BMI: 42.39 ± 5.47 Kg/m2, 10 obese females (OG; age: 33.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI: 39.26 ± 2.39 Kg/m2 and 10 healthy female subjects (CG; age: 33.4 ± 9.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 3.2 Kg/m2, were enrolled in this study and assessed with video recording and GA. Results and Discussion OLG showed longer stance duration and shorter step length when compared to OG and CG. They also had a low pelvis and hip ROM on the frontal plane, a low knee flexion in the swing phase and knee range of motion, a low dorsiflexion in stance and swing as compared to OG. No statistically significant differences were found in ankle power generation at push-off between OLG and OG, which appeared lower if compared to CG. At hip level, both OLG and OG exhibited high power generation levels during stance, with OLG showing the highest values. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the association of obesity and LBP affects more the gait pattern than obesity alone. OLG were in fact characterised by an altered knee and ankle strategy during gait as compared to OG and CG. These elements may help optimizing rehabilitation planning and treatment in these patients.
Gschwind, Yves Josef
My doctoral thesis contributes to the understanding of gait, mobility, and falls in older people. All presented projects investigated the most prominent and sensitive markers for fall-related gait changes, that is gait velocity and gait variability. Based on the measurement of these spatio-temporal gait parameters, particularly when using a change-sensitive dual task paradigm, it is possible to make conclusions regarding walking, balance, activities of daily living, and falls in o...
Zimbelman, Janice; Daly, Janis J; Roenigk, Kristen L; Butler, Kristi; Burdsall, Richard; Holcomb, John P
To characterize the performance of 2 observational gait measures, the Tinetti Gait Scale (TGS) and the Gait Assessment and Intervention Tool (G.A.I.T.), in identifying improvement in gait in response to gait training. In secondary analysis from a larger study of multimodal gait training for stroke survivors, we measured gait at pre-, mid-, and posttreatment according to G.A.I.T. and TGS, assessing their capability to capture recovery of coordinated gait components. Large medical center. Cohort of stroke survivors (N=44) greater than 6 months after stroke. All subjects received 48 sessions of a multimodal gait-training protocol. Treatment consisted of 1.5 hours per session, 4 sessions per week for 12 weeks, receiving these 3 treatment aspects: (1) coordination exercise, (2) body weight-supported treadmill training, and (3) overground gait training, with 46% of subjects receiving functional electrical stimulation. All subjects were evaluated with the G.A.I.T. and TGS before and after completing the 48-session intervention. An additional evaluation was performed at midtreatment (after session 24). For the total subject sample, there were significant pre-/post-, pre-/mid-, and mid-/posttreatment gains for both the G.A.I.T. and the TGS. According to the G.A.I.T., 40 subjects (91%) showed improved scores, 2 (4%) no change, and 2 (4%) a worsening score. According to the TGS, only 26 subjects (59%) showed improved scores, 16 (36%) no change, and 1 (2%) a worsening score. For 1 treatment group of chronic stroke survivors, the TGS failed to identify a significant treatment response to gait training, whereas the G.A.I.T. measure was successful. The G.A.I.T. is more sensitive than the TGS for individual patients and group treatment response in identifying recovery of volitional control of gait components in response to gait training. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Junseok Ham; Chansun Jung; Junhyung Park; Jihye Ryeo; Ilju Ko
It is hard to express emotion through only speech when we watch a character in a movie or a play because we cannot estimate the size, kind, and quantity of emotion. So this paper proposes an artificial emotion model for visualizing current emotion with color and location in emotion model. The artificial emotion model is designed considering causality of generated emotion, difference of personality, difference of continual emotional stimulus, and co-relation of various emo...
Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech
Abstract The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Profile Score (GPS) are the most used summary measures of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the reliability and agreement of these indices have not been investigated, limiting their clinimetric quality for research and clinical...... to good reliability with ICCs of 0.4–0.7. The agreement for the GDI and the logarithmically transformed GPS, in terms of the standard error of measurement as a percentage of the grand mean (SEM%) varied from 4.1 to 6.7%, whilst the smallest detectable change in percent (SDC%) ranged from 11.3 to 18...
Aoi, Shinya; Nachstedt, Timo; Manoonpong, Poramate; Wörgötter, Florentin; Matsuno, Fumitoshi
Insects have various gaits with specific characteristics and can change their gaits smoothly in accordance with their speed. These gaits emerge from the embodied sensorimotor interactions that occur between the insect’s neural control and body dynamic systems through sensory feedback. Sensory feedback plays a critical role in coordinated movements such as locomotion, particularly in stick insects. While many previously developed insect models can generate different insect gaits, the functional role of embodied sensorimotor interactions in the interlimb coordination of insects remains unclear because of their complexity. In this study, we propose a simple physical model that is amenable to mathematical analysis to explain the functional role of these interactions clearly. We focus on a foot contact sensory feedback called phase resetting, which regulates leg retraction timing based on touchdown information. First, we used a hexapod robot to determine whether the distributed decoupled oscillators used for legs with the sensory feedback generate insect-like gaits through embodied sensorimotor interactions. The robot generated two different gaits and one had similar characteristics to insect gaits. Next, we proposed the simple model as a minimal model that allowed us to analyze and explain the gait mechanism through the embodied sensorimotor interactions. The simple model consists of a rigid body with massless springs acting as legs, where the legs are controlled using oscillator phases with phase resetting, and the governed equations are reduced such that they can be explained using only the oscillator phases with some approximations. This simplicity leads to analytical solutions for the hexapod gaits via perturbation analysis, despite the complexity of the embodied sensorimotor interactions. This is the first study to provide an analytical model for insect gaits under these interaction conditions. Our results clarified how this specific foot contact sensory
Sun, Jun; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Yan, Song-Hua; Wang, Sha-Sha; Lester, D Kevin; Zeng, Ji-Zhou; Miao, Jun; Zhang, Kuan
The third generation Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA3, MiniSun, CA) has been developed for clinical gait evaluation, and this study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of IDEEA3 for the gait measurement of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patients. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited to compare gait cycle, cadence, step length, velocity, and number of steps between a motion analysis system and a high-speed video camera. Twenty hospitalized LSS patients were recruited for the comparison of the five parameters between the IDEEA3 and GoPro camera. Paired t-test, intraclass correlation coefficient, concordance correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman plots were used for the data analysis. The ratios of GoPro camera results to motion analysis system results, and the ratios of IDEEA3 results to GoPro camera results were all around 1.00. All P-values of paired t-tests for gait cycle, cadence, step length, and velocity were greater than 0.05, while all the ICC and CCC results were above 0.950 with P GoPro camera are highly consistent with the measurements with the motion analysis system. The measurements for IDEEA3 are consistent with those for the GoPro camera. IDEEA3 can be effectively used in the gait measurement of LSS patients. © 2018 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate abnormalities of the first three steps of gait initiation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD with freezing of gait (FOG. Ten PD patients with FOG and 10 age-matched healthy controls performed self-generated gait initiation. The center of pressure (COP, heel contact positions, and spatiotemporal parameters were estimated from the vertical pressures on the surface of the force platform. The initial swing side of gait initiation was consistent among the trials in healthy controls but not among the trials in PD patients. The COP and the heel contact position deviated to the initial swing side during the first step, and the COP passed medial to each heel contact position during the first two steps in PD patients. Medial deviation of the COP from the first heel contact position had significant correlation with FOG questionnaire item 5. These findings indicate that weight shifting between the legs is abnormal and that medial deviation of the COP from the first heel contact position sensitively reflects the severity of FOG during the first three steps of gait initiation in PD patients with FOG.
Tang, Jin; Luo, Jian; Tjahjadi, Tardi; Gao, Yan
This paper presents a method for modeling a 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) human body and extracting the gait features for identifying the human subject. To achieve view-invariant gait recognition, a multi-view synthesizing method based on point cloud registration (MVSM) to generate multi-view training galleries is proposed. The concept of a density and curvature-based Color Gait Curvature Image is introduced to map 2.5D data onto a 2D space to enable data dimension reduction by discrete cosine transform and 2D principle component analysis. Gait recognition is achieved via a 2.5D view-invariant gait recognition method based on point cloud registration. Experimental results on the in-house database captured by a Microsoft Kinect camera show a significant performance gain when using MVSM. PMID:24686727
Winter, D A
The biomechanical (kinetic) analysis of human gait reveals the integrated and detailed motor patterns that are essential in pinpointing the abnormal patterns in pathological gait. In a similar manner, these motor patterns (moments, powers, and EMGs) can be used to identify synergies and to validate theories of CNS control. Based on kinetic and EMG patterns for a wide range of normal subjects and cadences, evidence is presented that both supports and negates the central pattern generator theory of locomotion. Adaptive motor patterns that are evident in peripheral gait pathologies reinforce a strong peripheral rather than a central control. Finally, a three-component subtask theory of human gait is presented and is supported by reference to the motor patterns seen in a normal gait. The identified subtasks are (a) support (against collapse during stance); (b) dynamic balance of the upper body, also during stance; and (c) feedforward control of the foot trajectory to achieve safe ground clearance and a gentle heel contact.
Mario I. Chacon-Murguia
Full Text Available The present work proposes a method for human gait and kinematic analysis. Gait analysis consists of the determination of hip, knee and ankle positions through video analysis. Gait kinematic for the thigh and knee is then generated from this data. Evaluations of the gait analysis method indicate an acceptable performance of 86.66% for hip and knee position estimation, and comparable findings with other reported works for gait kinematic. A coordinate systems assignment is performed according to the DH algorithm and a direct kinematic model of the legs is obtained. The legs' angles obtained from the video analysis are applied to the kinematic model in order to revise the application of this model to robotic legs in a power assisted system.
Full Text Available It is understood gait has the potential to be used as a window into neurodegenerative disorders, identify markers of subclinical pathology, inform diagnostic algorithms of disease progression and measure the efficacy of interventions. Dogs’ gaits are frequently assessed in a veterinary setting to detect signs of lameness. Despite this, a reliable, affordable and objective method to assess lameness in dogs is lacking. Most described canine lameness assessments are subjective, unvalidated and at high risk of bias. This means reliable, early detection of canine gait abnormalities is challenging, which may have detrimental implications for dogs’ welfare. In this paper, we draw from approaches and technologies used in human movement science and describe a system for objectively measuring temporal gait characteristics in dogs (step-time, swing-time, stance-time. Asymmetries and variabilities in these characteristics are of known clinical significance when assessing lameness but presently may only be assessed on coarse scales or under highly instrumented environments. The system consists an inertial measurement unit, containing a 3-axis accelerometer and gyroscope coupled with a standardized walking course. The measurement unit is attached to each leg of the dog under assessment before it is walked around the course. The data by the measurement unit is then processed to identify steps and subsequently, micro-gait characteristics. This method has been tested on a cohort of 19 healthy dogs of various breeds ranging in height from 34.2 cm to 84.9 cm. We report the system as capable of making precise step delineations with detections of initial and final contact times of foot-to-floor to a mean precision of 0.011 s and 0.048 s, respectively. Results are based on analysis of 12,678 foot falls and we report a sensitivity, positive predictive value and F-score of 0.81, 0.83 and 0.82 respectively. To investigate the effect of gait on system performance
Kosse, Nienke; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claude
Introduction Normative data of how natural aging affects gait can serve as a frame of reference for changes in gait dynamics due to pathologies. Therefore, the present study aims (1) to identify gait variables sensitive to age-related changes in gait over the adult life span using the iPod and (2)
Michael J Hove
Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD and basal ganglia dysfunction impair movement timing, which leads to gait instability and falls. Parkinsonian gait consists of random, disconnected stride times--rather than the 1/f structure observed in healthy gait--and this randomness of stride times (low fractal scaling predicts falling. Walking with fixed-tempo Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS can improve many aspects of gait timing; however, it lowers fractal scaling (away from healthy 1/f structure and requires attention. Here we show that interactive rhythmic auditory stimulation reestablishes healthy gait dynamics in PD patients. In the experiment, PD patients and healthy participants walked with a no auditory stimulation, b fixed-tempo RAS, and c interactive rhythmic auditory stimulation. The interactive system used foot sensors and nonlinear oscillators to track and mutually entrain with the human's step timing. Patients consistently synchronized with the interactive system, their fractal scaling returned to levels of healthy participants, and their gait felt more stable to them. Patients and healthy participants rarely synchronized with fixed-tempo RAS, and when they did synchronize their fractal scaling declined from healthy 1/f levels. Five minutes after removing the interactive rhythmic stimulation, the PD patients' gait retained high fractal scaling, suggesting that the interaction stabilized the internal rhythm generating system and reintegrated timing networks. The experiment demonstrates that complex interaction is important in the (reemergence of 1/f structure in human behavior and that interactive rhythmic auditory stimulation is a promising therapeutic tool for improving gait of PD patients.
Uhlenbrock, D; Sarkodie-Gyan, T; Reiter, F; Konrad, M; Hesse, S
The aim of the present study was to develop a new gait trainer for the rehabilitation of non-ambulatory patients. For the simulation of the gait phase, we used a commercially available fitness trainer (Fast Track) with two foot plates moving in an alternating fashion and connected to a servo-controlled propulsion system providing the necessary support for the movement depending on the patient's impairment level. To compensate deficient equilibrium reflexes, the patient was suspended in a harness capable of supporting some of his/her weight. Video analysis of gait and the kinesiological EMG were used to assess the pattern of movement and the corresponding muscle activity, which were then evaluated in healthy subjects, spinal cord injured and stroke patients and compared with walking on the flat or on a treadmill. Walking on the gait trainer was characterised by a symmetrical, sinusoidal movement of lower amplitude than in normal gait. The EMG showed a low activity of the tibialis anterior muscle, while the antigravity muscles were clearly activated by the gait trainer during the stance phase. In summary, the new gait trainer generates a symmetrical gait-like movement, promoting weight acceptance in the stance phase, which is important for the restoration of walking ability.
Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.
Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat
Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as…
Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.
The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.
Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Clochon, Patrice; Giffard, Bénédicte; Viard, Armelle; Egler, Pierre-Jean; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Eustache, Francis; Dayan, Jacques
"Travelling in time," a central feature of episodic memory is severely affected among individuals with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with two opposite effects: vivid traumatic memories are unorganized in temporality (bottom-up processes), non-traumatic personal memories tend to lack spatio-temporal details and false recognitions occur more frequently that in the general population (top-down processes). To test the effect of these two types of processes (i.e. bottom-up and top-down) on emotional memory, we conducted two studies in healthy and traumatized adolescents, a period of life in which vulnerability to emotion is particularly high. Using negative and neutral images selected from the international affective picture system (IAPS), stimuli were divided into perceptual images (emotion generated by perceptual details) and conceptual images (emotion generated by the general meaning of the material). Both categories of stimuli were then used, along with neutral pictures, in a memory task with two phases (encoding and recognition). In both populations, we reported a differential effect of the emotional material on encoding and recognition. Negative perceptual scenes induced an attentional capture effect during encoding and enhanced the recollective distinctiveness. Conversely, the encoding of conceptual scenes was similar to neutral ones, but the conceptual relatedness induced false memories at retrieval. However, among individuals with PTSD, two subgroups of patients were identified. The first subgroup processed the scenes faster than controls, except for the perceptual scenes, and obtained similar performances to controls in the recognition task. The second subgroup group desmonstrated an attentional deficit in the encoding task with no benefit from the distinctiveness associated with negative perceptual scenes on memory performances. These findings provide a new perspective on how negative emotional information may have opposite influences on memory in
McGinley, Jennifer L; Morris, Meg E; Greenwood, Ken M; Goldie, Patricia A; Olney, Sandra J
To determine the accuracy (criterion-related validity) of real-time clinical observations of push-off in gait after stroke. Criterion-related validity study of gait observations. Rehabilitation hospital in Australia. Eleven participants with stroke and 8 treating physical therapists. Not applicable. Pearson product-moment correlation between physical therapists' observations of push-off during gait and criterion measures of peak ankle power generation from a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. A high correlation was obtained between the observational ratings and the measurements of peak ankle power generation (Pearson r =.98). The standard error of estimation of ankle power generation was .32W/kg. Physical therapists can make accurate real-time clinical observations of push-off during gait following stroke.
Sun, Jun; Liu, Yancheng; Yan, Songhua; Cao, Guanglei; Wang, Shasha; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan
Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is the most common osteoarthritis in lower limbs, and gait measurement is important to evaluate walking function of KOA patients before and after treatment. The third generation Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA3) is a portable gait analysis system to evaluate gaits. This study is to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of IDEEA3 for gait measurement of KOA patients. Meanwhile, gait differences between KOA patients and healthy subjects are examined. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited for measurement comparison of gait cycle (GC), cadence, step length, velocity and step counts between a motion analysis system and a high-speed camera (GoPro Hero3). Twenty-three KOA patients were recruited for measurement comparison of former five parameters between GoPro Hero3 and IDEEA3. Paired t-test, Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC) and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were used for data analysis. All p-values of paired t-tests for GC, cadence, step length and velocity were greater than 0.05 while all CCC and ICC results were above 0.95. The measurements of GC, cadence, step length, velocity and step counts by motion analysis system are highly consistent with the measurements by GoPro Hero3. The measurements of former parameters by GoPro Hero3 are not statistically different from the measurements by IDEEA3. IDEEA3 can be effectively used for the measurement of GC, cadence, step length, velocity and step counts in KOA patients. The KOA patients walk with longer GC, lower cadence, shorter step length and slower speed compared with healthy subjects in natural speed with flat shoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Peurala, Sinikka H; Titianova, Ekaterina B; Mateev, Plamen; Pitkänen, Kauko; Sivenius, Juhani; Tarkka, Ina M
To assess the effects of rehabilitation in thirty-seven ambulatory patients with chronic stroke during three weeks in-patient rehabilitation period. In the intervention group, each patient received 75 min physiotherapy daily every workday including 20 minutes in the electromechanical gait trainer with body-weight support (BWS). In the control group, each patient participated in 45 min conventional physiotherapy daily. Motor ability was assessed with the first five items of the Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS1-5) and ten meters walking speed. Spatio-temporal gait characteristics were recorded with an electrical walkway. The MMAS1-5 (pgait characteristics improved only in the intervention group, as seen in increased Functional Ambulation Profile score (p=0.023), velocity (p=0.023), the step lengths (affected side, p=0.011, non-affected side p=0.040), the stride lengths (p=0.018, p=0.006) and decreased step-time differential (p=0.043). Furthermore, all gait characteristics and other motor abilities remained in the discharge level at the six months in the intervention group. It appears that BWS training gives a long-lasting benefit in gait qualities even in chronic stroke patients.
Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cédric; Callisaya, Michele L; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Kressig, Reto W; Srikanth, Velandai; Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Blumen, Helena M; Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles
Poor gait performance predicts risk of developing dementia. No structured critical evaluation has been conducted to study this association yet. The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically examine the association of poor gait performance with incidence of dementia. An English and French Medline search was conducted in June 2015, with no limit of date, using the medical subject headings terms "Gait" OR "Gait Disorders, Neurologic" OR "Gait Apraxia" OR "Gait Ataxia" AND "Dementia" OR "Frontotemporal Dementia" OR "Dementia, Multi-Infarct" OR "Dementia, Vascular" OR "Alzheimer Disease" OR "Lewy Body Disease" OR "Frontotemporal Dementia With Motor Neuron Disease" (Supplementary Concept). Poor gait performance was defined by standardized tests of walking, and dementia was diagnosed according to international consensus criteria. Four etiologies of dementia were identified: any dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and non-AD (ie, pooling VaD, mixed dementias, and other dementias). Fixed effects meta-analyses were performed on the estimates in order to generate summary values. Of the 796 identified abstracts, 12 (1.5%) were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Poor gait performance predicted dementia [pooled hazard ratio (HR) combined with relative risk and odds ratio = 1.53 with P analysis provides evidence that poor gait performance predicts dementia. This association depends on the type of dementia; poor gait performance is a stronger predictor of non-AD dementias than AD. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.
. Input silhouettes are matched to the database using the Hungarian method. A classifier is defined based on the dissimilarity between the input silhouettes and the gait actions of the database. The overall recognition rate is 88.2% on a large and diverse test set. The recognition rate is better than...
Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K
Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.
Hesse, S; Werner, C; Uhlenbrock, D; von Frankenberg, S; Bardeleben, A; Brandl-Hesse, B
Modern concepts of gait rehabilitation after stroke favor a task-specific repetitive approach. In practice, the required physical effort of the therapists limits the realization of this approach. Therefore, a mechanized gait trainer enabling nonambulatory patients to have the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overstraining therapists was constructed. This preliminary study investigated whether an additional 4-week daily therapy on the gait trainer could improve gait ability in 14 chronic wheelchair-bound hemiparetic subjects. The 4 weeks of physiotherapy and gait-trainer therapy resulted in a relevant improvement of gait ability in all subjects. Velocity, cadence, and stride length improved significantly (p gait trainer seems feasible as an adjunctive tool in gait rehabilitation after stroke; further studies are needed.
Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim; Maes, Marlies; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Cavallo, Franco; Molcho, Michal
PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral
Fasano, Alfonso; Laganiere, Simon E.; Lam, Susy; Fox, Michael D.
Objective Freezing of gait is a disabling symptom in Parkinson’s disease and related disorders, but the brain regions involved in symptom generation remain unclear. Here we analyze brain lesions causing acute onset freezing of gait to identify regions causally involved in symptom generation. Methods Fourteen cases of lesion-induced freezing of gait were identified from the literature and lesions were mapped to a common brain atlas. Because lesion-induced symptoms can come from sites connected to the lesion location, not just the lesion location itself, we also identified brain regions functionally connected to each lesion location. This technique, termed lesion network mapping, has been recently shown to identify regions involved in symptom generation across a variety of lesion-induced disorders. Results Lesion location was heterogeneous and no single region could be considered necessary for symptom generation. However, over 90% (13/14) of lesions were functionally connected to a focal area in the dorsal medial cerebellum. This cerebellar area overlapped previously recognized regions that are activated by locomotor tasks, termed the cerebellar locomotor region. Connectivity to this region was specific to lesions causing freezing of gait compared to lesions causing other movement disorders (hemichorea or asterixis). Interpretation Lesions causing freezing of gait are located within a common functional network characterized by connectivity to the cerebellar locomotor region. These results based on causal brain lesions complement prior neuroimaging studies in Parkinson’s disease patients, advancing our understanding of the brain regions involved in freezing of gait. PMID:28009063
Friedman Joseph H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease is a chronic, neurodegenerative disease characterized by gait abnormalities. Freezing of gait (FOG, an episodic inability to generate effective stepping, is reported as one of the most disabling and distressing parkinsonian symptoms. While there are no specific therapies to treat FOG, some external physical cues may alleviate these types of motor disruptions. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effect of continuous physical cueing using robot-assisted sensorimotor gait training on reducing FOG episodes and improving gait. Methods Four individuals with Parkinson's disease and FOG symptoms received ten 30-minute sessions of robot-assisted gait training (Lokomat to facilitate repetitive, rhythmic, and alternating bilateral lower extremity movements. Outcomes included the FOG-Questionnaire, a clinician-rated video FOG score, spatiotemporal measures of gait, and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 quality of life measure. Results All participants showed a reduction in FOG both by self-report and clinician-rated scoring upon completion of training. Improvements were also observed in gait velocity, stride length, rhythmicity, and coordination. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that robot-assisted gait training may be a feasible and effective method of reducing FOG and improving gait. Videotaped scoring of FOG has the potential advantage of providing additional data to complement FOG self-report.
Wentink, E C; Beijen, S I; Hermens, H J; Rietman, J S; Veltink, P H
Gait initiation in transfemoral amputees (TFA) is different from non-amputees. This is mainly caused by the lack of stability and push-off from the prosthetic leg. Adding control and artificial push-off to the prosthesis may therefore be beneficial to TFA. In this study the feasibility of real-time intention detection of gait initiation was determined by mimicking the TFA situation in non-amputees. EMG and inertial sensor data was measured in 10 non-amputees. Only data available in TFA was used to determine if gait initiation can be predicted in time to control a transfemoral prosthesis to generate push-off and stability. Toe-off and heel-strike of the leading limb are important parameters to be detected, to control a prosthesis and to time push-off. The results show that toe-off and heel-strike of the leading limb can be detected using EMG and kinematic data in non-amputees 130-260 ms in advance. This leaves enough time to control a prosthesis. Based on these results we hypothesize that similar results can be found in TFA, allowing for adequate control of a prosthesis during gait initiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Klum, E; Streicher, H; Böhm, H; Wagner, P; Döderlein, L
Adolescents with cerebral palsy often complain about a Duchenne gait, which increases the load on the spine, the energy consumption and therefore decreases gait efficiency. However the underlying causes of a Duchenne gait in patients with CP are not clearly researched yet. Nevertheless there is an assumption that excessive trunk lean might assist foot clearance to compensate for muscle weakness or contractures of the legs. In particular weakness, secondary to surgical soft tissue muscle tendon lengthening in childhood, might predispose patients to greater compensatory movements of the trunk. Therefore the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, underlying causes and calculated predictors for a Duchenne gait on CP patients with and without previous muscle tendon lengthening. 50 CP patients between 12 and 22 years with diplegia and GMFCS II (GMFCS: Gross Motor Function Classification System) participated in this study. 25 patients had no previous surgeries (CP-0). 25 patients had previous calf, hamstrings and/or adductor muscle tendon lengthening surgeries (CP-1). Data of 20 typically developed adolescents served as controls (TD). Gait was analysed using an instrumented gait analysis system (Vicon, Oxford, UK) The parameter "thorax obliquity range" (TOR) investigated the dimension of Duchenne gait. CP-0 showed a prevalence of 72 %, CP-1 of 66 % for Duchenne gait. TOR was 5 ± 2°, 16 ± 8° and 16 ± 8°, for TD, CP-0 and CP-1, respectively. CP-0 and CP-1 showed significant differences in TOR between TD (both p Duchenne gait is a serious gait pathology in CP. Neither the hypothesis that previous muscle tendon lengthening nor that hip adductor contractures increase Duchenne gait could be confirmed in this study. Weak hip abductor muscle strength only showed a small correlation in CP-0. Best predictor in both groups was hip generation work (st). Certain hip abductors (M. gluteus medius ventral; M. gluteus minimus; M. tensor fasciae latae
Full Text Available Abstract Background Development and increasing acceptance of rehabilitation robots as well as advances in technology allow new forms of therapy for patients with neurological disorders. Robot-assisted gait therapy can increase the training duration and the intensity for the patients while reducing the physical strain for the therapist. Optimal training effects during gait therapy generally depend on appropriate feedback about performance. Compared to manual treadmill therapy, there is a loss of physical interaction between therapist and patient with robotic gait retraining. Thus, it is difficult for the therapist to assess the necessary feedback and instructions. The aim of this study was to define a biofeedback system for a gait training robot and test its usability in subjects without neurological disorders. Methods To provide an overview of biofeedback and motivation methods applied in gait rehabilitation, previous publications and results from our own research are reviewed. A biofeedback method is presented showing how a rehabilitation robot can assess the patients' performance and deliver augmented feedback. For validation, three subjects without neurological disorders walked in a rehabilitation robot for treadmill training. Several training parameters, such as body weight support and treadmill speed, were varied to assess the robustness of the biofeedback calculation to confounding factors. Results The biofeedback values correlated well with the different activity levels of the subjects. Changes in body weight support and treadmill velocity had a minor effect on the biofeedback values. The synchronization of the robot and the treadmill affected the biofeedback values describing the stance phase. Conclusion Robot-aided assessment and feedback can extend and improve robot-aided training devices. The presented method estimates the patients' gait performance with the use of the robot's existing sensors, and displays the resulting biofeedback
Genthe, Katlin; Schenck, Christopher; Eicholtz, Steven; Zajac-Cox, Laura; Wolf, Steven; Kesar, Trisha M
Objectives Gait training interventions that target paretic propulsion induce improvements in walking speed and function in individuals post-stroke. Previously, we demonstrated that able-bodied individuals increase propulsion unilaterally when provided real-time biofeedback targeting anterior ground reaction forces (AGRF). The purpose of this study was to, for the first time, investigate short-term effects of real-time AGRF gait biofeedback training on post-stroke gait. Methods Nine individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis (6 females, age = 54 ± 12.4 years 39.2 ± 24.4 months post-stroke) completed three 6-minute training bouts on an instrumented treadmill. During training, visual and auditory biofeedback were provided to increase paretic AGRF during terminal stance. Gait biomechanics were evaluated before training, and during retention tests conducted 2, 15, and 30 minutes post-training. Primary dependent variables were paretic and non-paretic peak AGRF; secondary variables included paretic and non-paretic peak trailing limb angle, plantarflexor moment, and step length. In addition to evaluating the effects of biofeedback training on these dependent variables, we compared effects of a 6-minute biofeedback training bout to a non-biofeedback control condition. Results Compared to pre-training, significantly greater paretic peak AGRFs were generated during the 2, 15, and 30-minute retention tests conducted after the 18-minute biofeedback training session. Biofeedback training induced no significant effects on the non-paretic leg. Comparison of a 6-minute biofeedback training bout with a speed-matched control bout without biofeedback demonstrated a main effect for training type, with greater peak AGRF generation during biofeedback. Discussion Our results suggest that AGRF biofeedback may be a feasible and promising gait training strategy to target propulsive deficits in individuals post-stroke.
Fukuoka, Yasuhiro; Fukino, Kota; Habu, Yasushi; Mori, Yoshikazu
We have proposed a bio-inspired gait modulation method, by means of which a simulated quadruped model can successfully perform smooth, autonomous gait transitions from a walk to a trot to a gallop, as observed in animals. The model is equipped with a rhythm generator called a central pattern generator (CPG) for each leg. The lateral neighbouring CPGs are mutually and inhibitorily coupled, and the CPG network is hardwired to produce a trot. Adding only the simple feedback of body tilt to each CPG, which was based on input from the postural reflex, led to the emergence of un-programmed walking and galloping at low and high speeds, respectively. Although this autonomous gait transition was a consequence of postural adaptation, it coincidentally also resulted in the minimization of energy consumption, as observed in real animals. In simulations at a variety of constant speeds the energy cost was lower for walking at low speeds and for galloping at high speeds than it was for trotting. Moreover, each gait transition occurred at the optimal speed, such that the model minimised its energy consumption. Thus, gait transitions in simulations that included the bio-inspired gait modulation method were similar to those observed in animals, even from the perspective of energy consumption. This method should therefore be a preferred choice for motion generation and control in biomimetic quadrupedal locomotion.
Amato, Paul R.
How have recent changes in U.S. family structure affected the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the nation's children? Paul Amato examines the effects of family formation on children and evaluates whether current marriage-promotion programs are likely to meet children's needs. Amato begins by investigating how children in households…
Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Chen, Janini; Freitag, Fernanda; Valente, Debora; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Voos, Mariana Callil; Chien, Hsin Fen
ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do n...
Michela Goffredo; Imed Bouchrika; John Carter; Mark Nixon
This paper deploys gait analysis for subject identification in multi-camera surveillance scenarios. We present a new method for viewpoint independent markerless gait analysis that does not require camera calibration and works with a wide range of directions of walking. These properties make the proposed method particularly suitable for gait identification in real surveillance scenarios where people and their behaviour need to be tracked across a set of cameras. Tests on 300 synthetic and real...
Timing in peak gait values shifts slightly between gait trials. When gait data are averaged, some of the standard deviation can be associated to this inter-trial variability unless normalization is carried out beforehand...
Snijders, A.H.; Leunissen, H.P.; Bakker, M.; Overeem, S.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.
Freezing of gait is a common, debilitating feature of Parkinson’s disease. We have studied gait planning in patients with freezing of gait, using motor imagery of walking in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging. This approach exploits the large neural overlap that exists between
Snijders, A.H.; Leunissen, I.; Bakker, M.; Overeem, S.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.
Freezing of gait is a common, debilitating feature of Parkinson's disease. We have studied gait planning in patients with freezing of gait, using motor imagery of walking in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging. This approach exploits the large neural overlap that exists between
Ming, Guan; Fang, Lv
Biometric identification technology replaces traditional security technology, which has become a trend, and gait recognition also has become a hot spot of research because its feature is difficult to imitate and theft. This paper presents a gait recognition system based on integral outline of human body. The system has three important aspects: the preprocessing of gait image, feature extraction and classification. Finally, using a method of polling to evaluate the performance of the system, and summarizing the problems existing in the gait recognition and the direction of development in the future.
Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD. Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do not improve gait and posture in PD.
Stone, Erik E; Skubic, Marjorie; Back, Jessica
A method for automatically generating alerts to clinicians in response to changes in in-home gait parameters is investigated. Kinect-based gait measurement systems were installed in apartments in a senior living facility. The systems continuously monitored the walking speed, stride time, and stride length of apartment residents. A framework for modeling uncertainty in the residents' gait parameter estimates, which is critical for robust change detection, is developed; along with an algorithm for detecting changes that may be clinically relevant. Three retrospective case studies, of individuals who had their gait monitored for periods ranging from 12 to 29 months, are presented to illustrate use of the alert method. Evidence suggests that clinicians could be alerted to health changes at an early stage, while they are still small and interventions may be most successful. Additional potential uses are also discussed.
Basu, Anamitra; Mermillod, Martial
The term "EI (emotional intelligence)" was first used in 1990 by Salovey and Mayer. EI involves: (1) the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; (2) the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; (3) the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and (4) the ability to regulate…
Yao, Peng; Potdar, Alka A.; Arif, Abul; Ray, Partho Sarothi; Mukhopadhyay, Rupak; Willard, Belinda; Xu, Yichi; Yan, Jun; Saidel, Gerald M.; Fox, Paul L.
SUMMARY Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms superimpose “fine-tuning” control upon “on-off” switches characteristic of gene transcription. We have exploited computational modeling with experimental validation to resolve an anomalous relationship between mRNA expression and protein synthesis. Differential GAIT (Gamma-interferon Activated Inhibitor of Translation) complex activation repressed VEGF-A synthesis to a low, constant rate despite high, variable VEGFA mRNA expression. Dynamic model simulations indicated the presence of an unidentified, inhibitory GAIT element-interacting factor. We discovered a truncated form of glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase (EPRS), the GAIT constituent that binds the 3’-UTR GAIT element in target transcripts. The truncated protein, EPRSN1, prevents binding of functional GAIT complex. EPRSN1 mRNA is generated by a remarkable polyadenylation-directed conversion of a Tyr codon in the EPRS coding sequence to a stop codon (PAY*). By low-level protection of GAIT element-bearing transcripts, EPRSN1 imposes a robust “translational trickle” of target protein expression. Genome-wide analysis shows PAY* generates multiple truncated transcripts thereby contributing to transcriptome expansion. PMID:22386318
Ivanenko, Y P; Cappellini, G; Poppele, R E; Lacquaniti, F
Here we studied the spatiotemporal organization of motoneuron (MN) activity during different human gaits. We recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity patterns in 32 ipsilateral limb and trunk muscles from normal subjects while running and walking on a treadmill (3-12 km/h). In addition, we recorded backward walking and skipping, a distinct human gait that comprises the features of both walking and running. We mapped the recorded EMG activity patterns onto the spinal cord in approximate rostrocaudal locations of the MN pools. The activation of MNs tends to occur in bursts and be segregated by spinal segment in a gait-specific manner. In particular, sacral and cervical activation timings were clearly gait-dependent. Swing-related activity constituted an appreciable fraction (> 30%) of the total MN activity of leg muscles. Locomoting at non-preferred speeds (running and walking at 5 and 9 km/h, respectively) showed clear differences relative to preferred speeds. Running at low speeds was characterized by wider sacral activation. Walking at high non-preferred speeds was accompanied by an 'atypical' locus of activation in the upper lumbar spinal cord during late stance and by a drastically increased activation of lumbosacral segments. The latter findings suggest that the optimal speed of gait transitions may be related to an optimal intensity of the total MN activity, in addition to other factors previously described. The results overall support the idea of flexibility and adaptability of spatiotemporal activity in the spinal circuitry with constraints on the temporal functional connectivity of hypothetical pulsatile burst generators.
Rebecca K MacAulay
Full Text Available Neuropsychological abilities have found to explain a large proportion of variance in objective measures of walking gait that predict both dementia and falling within the elderly. However, to this date there has been little research on the interplay between changes in these neuropsychological processes and walking gait overtime. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate intra-individual changes in neurocognitive test performance and gait step time at two-time points across a one-year span. Neuropsychological test scores from 440 elderly individuals deemed cognitively normal at Year One were analyzed via repeated measures t-tests to assess for decline in cognitive performance at Year Two. 34 of these 440 individuals neuropsychological test performance significantly declined at Year Two; whereas the "non-decliners" displayed improved memory, working memory, attention/processing speed test performance. Neuropsychological test scores were also submitted to factor analysis at both time points for data reduction purposes and to assess the factor stability overtime. Results at Year One yielded a three-factor solution: Language/Memory, Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Working Memory. Year Two's test scores also generated a three-factor solution (Working Memory, Language/Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Memory. Notably, language measures loaded on Executive Attention/Processing Speed rather than on the Memory factor at Year Two. Hierarchal multiple regression revealed that both Executive Attention/Processing Speed and sex significantly predicted variance in dual task step time at both time points. Remarkably, in the "decliners", the magnitude of the contribution of the neuropsychological characteristics to gait variance significantly increased at Year Two. In summary, this study provides longitudinal evidence of the dynamic relationship between intra-individual cognitive change and its influence on dual task gait
Lee, Su-Hyun; Lee, Hwang-Jae; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Byung-Ok; Lee, Jusuk; Kim, Jeonghun; Ryu, Gyu-Ha; Kim, Yun-Hee
A robotic exoskeleton device is an intelligent system designed to improve gait performance and quality of life for the wearer. Robotic technology has developed rapidly in recent years, and several robot-assisted gait devices were developed to enhance gait function and activities of daily living in elderly adults and patients with gait disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of the Gait-enhancing Mechatronic System (GEMS), a new wearable robotic hip-assist device developed by Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd., Korea, on gait performance and foot pressure distribution in elderly adults. Thirty elderly adults who had no neurological or musculoskeletal abnormalities affecting gait participated in this study. A three-dimensional (3D) motion capture system, surface electromyography and the F-Scan system were used to collect data on spatiotemporal gait parameters, muscle activity and foot pressure distribution under three conditions: free gait without robot assistance (FG), robot-assisted gait with zero torque (RAG-Z) and robot-assisted gait (RAG). We found increased gait speed, cadence, stride length and single support time in the RAG condition. Reduced rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius muscle activity throughout the terminal stance phase and reduced effort of the medial gastrocnemius muscle throughout the pre-swing phase were also observed in the RAG condition. In addition, walking with the assistance of GEMS resulted in a significant increase in foot pressure distribution, specifically in maximum force and peak pressure of the total foot, medial masks, anterior masks and posterior masks. The results of the present study reveal that GEMS may present an alternative way of restoring age-related changes in gait such as gait instability with muscle weakness, reduced step force and lower foot pressure in elderly adults. In addition, GEMS improved gait performance by improving push-off power and walking speed and reducing muscle activity in the lower
Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Wiszomirska, Ida; Błażkiewicz, Michalina; Wychowański, Michał; Wit, Andrzej
The aims of this study have been twofold: to attempt to reduce the number of spatiotemporal parameters used for describing gait through the factor analysis and component analysis; and to explore the critical age of decline for other gait parameters for healthy women. A total of 106 women (aged ≥ 40 years old (N = 76) and ≤ 31 years old (N = 30)) were evaluated using a pressure-sensitive mat (Zebris Medical System, Tübingen, Germany) for collecting spatiotemporal gait parameters. The factor analysis identified 2 factors - labelled Time and Rhythm - that accounted for 72% of the variation in significant free-gait parameters; the principal component analysis identified 4 of these parameters that permit full clinical evaluation of gait quality. No difference was found between the groups in terms of the values of parameters reflecting the temporal nature of gait (Rhythm), namely step time, stride time and cadence, whereas significant differences were found for total double support phase (p gait, we selected 3 parameters: total double support, stride time and velocity. We concluded that the women taking part in the experiment manifested significant signs of senile gait after the age of 60 years old, with the first symptoms thereof already manifesting themselves after 50 years of age. We show that among 26 spatiotemporal parameters that may be used for characterizing gait, at least a half of them may be omitted in the assessment of gait correctness; a finding that may be useful in clinical practice. The finding that the onset of senile gait occurs in the case of women after the age of 60 years old, in turn, may be useful in evaluating the ability for performing types of physical work that mainly require ambulation. Med Pr 2017;68(4):441-448. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Bryan D. Fantie
Full Text Available Regarding the notion of putative “best” practices in social neuroscience and science in general, we contend that following established procedures has advantages, but prescriptive uniformity in methodology can obscure flaws, bias thinking, stifle creativity, and restrict exploration. Generating hypotheses is at least as important as testing hypotheses. To illustrate this process, we describe the following exploratory study. Psychiatric patients have difficulties with social functioning that affect their quality of life adversely. To investigate these impediments, we compared the performances of patients with schizophrenia and those with bipolar disorder to healthy controls on a task that involved matching photographs of facial expressions to a faceless protagonist in each of a series of drawn cartoon emotion-related situations. These scenarios involved either a single character (Nonsocial or multiple characters (Social. The Social scenarios were also Congruent, with everyone in the cartoon displaying the same emotion, or Noncongruent (with everyone displaying a different emotion than the protagonist should. In this preliminary study, both patient groups produced lower scores than controls (p < 0.001, but did not perform differently from each other. All groups performed best on the social-congruent items and worst on the social-noncongruent items (p < 0.001. Performance varied inversely with illness duration, but not symptom severity. Complete emotional, social, cognitive, or perceptual inability is unlikely because these patient groups could still do this task. Nevertheless, the differences we saw could be meaningful functionally and clinically significant and deserve further exploration. Therefore, we stress the need to continue developing novel, alternative ways to explore social cognition in patients with psychiatric disorders and to clarify which elements of the multidimensional process contribute to difficulties in daily functioning.
Kaptein, Ronald G.; Wezenberg, Daphne; IJmker, Trienke; Houdijk, Han; Beek, Peter J.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; Daffertshofer, Andreas
Background: Identifying features for gait classification is a formidable problem. The number of candidate measures is legion. This calls for proper, objective criteria when ranking their relevance. Methods: Following a shotgun approach we determined a plenitude of kinematic and physiological gait
Hirsch, Theresa; Lampe, Jasmin; Michalk, Katrin; Röder, Lotte; Munsch, Karoline; Marquardt, Jonas
It can be assumed that the feeling of gait stability or gait instability in the elderly may be independent of a possible fear of falling or a history of falling when walking. Up to now, there has been a lack of spatiotemporal gait parameters for older people who subjectively feel secure when walking. The aim of the study is to analyse the distribution of various gait parameters for older people who subjectively feel secure when walking. In a cross-sectional study, the gait parameters stride time, step time, stride length, step length, double support, single support, and walking speed were measured using a Vicon three-dimensional motion capture system (Plug-In Gait Lower-Body Marker Set) in 31 healthy people aged 65 years and older (mean age 72 ± 3.54 years) who subjectively feel secure when walking. There was a homogeneous distribution in the gait parameters examined, with no abnormalities. The mean values have a low variance with narrow confidence intervals. This study provides evidence that people who subjectively feel secure when walking demonstrate similarly objective gait parameters..
Heck, A.; van Dongen, C.
Human walking is a complicated motion. Movement scientists have developed various research methods to study gait. This article describes how a high school student collected and analysed high quality gait data in much the same way that movement scientists do, via the recording and measurement of
Full Text Available Most motion recognition research has required tight-fitting suits for precise sensing. However, tight-suit systems have difficulty adapting to real applications, because people normally wear loose clothes. In this paper, we propose a gait recognition system with flexible piezoelectric sensors in loose clothing. The gait recognition system does not directly sense lower-body angles. It does, however, detect the transition between standing and walking. Specifically, we use the signals from the flexible sensors attached to the knee and hip parts on loose pants. We detect the periodic motion component using the discrete time Fourier series from the signal during walking. We adapt the gait detection method to a real-time patient motion and posture monitoring system. In the monitoring system, the gait recognition operates well. Finally, we test the gait recognition system with 10 subjects, for which the proposed system successfully detects walking with a success rate over 93 %.
Full Text Available Walking, more specifically gait, is an essential component of daily living. Walking is a very different activity for individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI of 40 or more (Class III obesity compared with those who are overweight or obese with a BMI between 26–35. Yet all obesity weight classes receive the same physical activity guidelines and recommendations. This observational study examined the components of function and disability in a group with Class III obesity and a group that is overweight or has Class I obesity. Significant differences were found between the groups in the areas of gait, body size, health condition, and activity capacity and participation. The Timed Up and Go test, gait velocity, hip circumference, and stance width appear to be most predictive of activity capacity as observed during gait assessment. The findings indicate that Class III-related gait is pathologic and not a normal adaptation.
Catherine A Macleod
Full Text Available Control of human walking is not thoroughly understood, which has implications in developing suitable strategies for the retraining of a functional gait following neurological injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI. Bipedal robots allow us to investigate simple elements of the complex nervous system to quantify their contribution to motor control. RunBot is a bipedal robot which operates through reflexes without using central pattern generators or trajectory planning algorithms. Ground contact information from the feet is used to activate motors in the legs, generating a gait cycle visually similar to that of humans. Rather than developing a more complicated biologically realistic neural system to control the robot's stepping, we have instead further simplified our model by measuring the correlation between heel contact and leg muscle activity (EMG in human subjects during walking and from this data created filter functions transferring the sensory data into motor actions. Adaptive filtering was used to identify the unknown transfer functions which translate the contact information into muscle activation signals. Our results show a causal relationship between ground contact information from the heel and EMG, which allows us to create a minimal, linear, analogue control system for controlling walking. The derived transfer functions were applied to RunBot II as a proof of concept. The gait cycle produced was stable and controlled, which is a positive indication that the transfer functions have potential for use in the control of assistive devices for the retraining of an efficient and effective gait with potential applications in SCI rehabilitation.
Juan Pablo Barreyro
Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue examinar si los lectores generan inferencias emocionales durante la lectura de narraciones. Con este objetivo, se llevaron a cabo dos experimentos. En el Experimento 1, 24 participantes leyeron dos cuentos populares alemanes, y realizaron una tarea de decisión léxica. Para realizar esta tarea, la lectura fue interrumpida en puntos predeterminados, y se presentaron palabras de prueba que representaban inferencias emocionales en dos condiciones: inmediatamente antes o inmediatamente después de las oraciones que requerían que el lector activase ese concepto. En el Experimento 2, 16 participantes leyeron las mismas oraciones utilizadas en el Experimento 1, pero en forma aislada. Luego de leer cada oración, los participantes realizaron la tarea de decisión léxica. Los resultados de ambos experimentos indicaron que los lectores generan inferencias emocionales, accediendo a su conocimiento previo general, cuando el texto lo requiere para proveer explicación suficiente a los acontecimientos descritos.The purpose of this study was to examine the generation of emotional inferences during the reading of narratives. Two experiments were run with this purpose. In Experiment 1, 24 participants read two German fables, and performed a lexical decision task. In order to perform this task, the texts were interrupted at predetermined points, and participants were presented with target words that represented emotional inferences in two conditions: immediately before or immediately after the sentences that required the reader to activate this concept. In Experiment 2, 16 participants read the same sentences used in Experiment 1, but in isolation. After reading each isolated sentence, participants performed the lexical decision task. Results from both experiments indicated that readers do generate emotional inferences, activating their background knowledge when the text demands it to obtain sufficient explanation for
Rodger, Matthew W M; Young, William R; Craig, Cathy M
Managing gait disturbances in people with Parkinson's disease is a pressing challenge, as symptoms can contribute to injury and morbidity through an increased risk of falls. While drug-based interventions have limited efficacy in alleviating gait impairments, certain nonpharmacological methods, such as cueing, can also induce transient improvements to gait. The approach adopted here is to use computationally-generated sounds to help guide and improve walking actions. The first method described uses recordings of force data taken from the steps of a healthy adult which in turn were used to synthesize realistic gravel-footstep sounds that represented different spatio-temporal parameters of gait, such as step duration and step length. The second method described involves a novel method of sonifying, in real time, the swing phase of gait using real-time motion-capture data to control a sound synthesis engine. Both approaches explore how simple but rich auditory representations of action based events can be used by people with Parkinson's to guide and improve the quality of their walking, reducing the risk of falls and injury. Studies with Parkinson's disease patients are reported which show positive results for both techniques in reducing step length variability. Potential future directions for how these sound approaches can be used to manage gait disturbances in Parkinson's are also discussed.
Ashoori, Aidin; Eagleman, David M; Jankovic, Joseph
Gait abnormalities, such as shuffling steps, start hesitation, and freezing, are common and often incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other parkinsonian disorders. Pharmacological and surgical approaches have only limited efficacy in treating these gait disorders. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS), such as playing marching music and dance therapy, has been shown to be a safe, inexpensive, and an effective method in improving gait in PD patients. However, RAS that adapts to patients' movements may be more effective than rigid, fixed-tempo RAS used in most studies. In addition to auditory cueing, immersive virtual reality technologies that utilize interactive computer-generated systems through wearable devices are increasingly used for improving brain-body interaction and sensory-motor integration. Using multisensory cues, these therapies may be particularly suitable for the treatment of parkinsonian freezing and other gait disorders. In this review, we examine the affected neurological circuits underlying gait and temporal processing in PD patients and summarize the current studies demonstrating the effects of RAS on improving these gait deficits.
Full Text Available Gait abnormalities such as shuffling steps, start hesitation, and freezing are common and often incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD and other parkinsonian disorders. Pharmacological and surgical approaches have only limited efficacy in treating these gait disorders. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS, such as playing marching music or dance therapy, has been shown to be a safe, inexpensive, and an effective method in improving gait in PD patients. However, RAS that adapts to patients’ movements may be more effective than rigid, fixed-tempo RAS used in most studies. In addition to auditory cueing, immersive virtual reality technologies that utilize interactive computer-generated systems through wearable devices are increasingly used for improving brain-body interaction and sensory-motor integration. Using multisensory cues, these therapies may be particularly suitable for the treatment of parkinsonian freezing and other gait disorders. In this review, we examine the affected neurological circuits underlying gait and temporal processing in PD patients and summarize the current studies demonstrating the effects of RAS on improving these gait deficits.
Solomonow-Avnon, Deborah; Herman, Amir; Levin, Daniel; Rozen, Nimrod; Peled, Eli; Wolf, Alon
Footwear-generated biomechanical manipulation of lower-limb joints was shown to beneficially impact gait and quality of life in knee osteoarthritis patients, but has not been tested in hip osteoarthritis patients. We examined a customized gait treatment program using a biomechanical device shown in previous investigations to be capable of manipulating hip biomechanics via foot center of pressure (COP) modulation. The objective of this study was to assess the treatment program for hip osteoarthritis patients, enrolled in a 1-year prospective investigation, by means of objective gait and spatiotemporal parameters, and subjective quality of life measures. Gait analysis and completion of questionnaires were performed at the start of the treatment (baseline), and after 3, 6, and 12 months. Outcome parameters were evaluated over time using linear mixed effects models, and association between improvement in quality of life measures and change in objective outcomes was tested using mixed effect linear regression models. Quality of life measures improved compared to baseline, accompanied by increased gait speed and cadence. Sagittal-plane hip joint kinetics, kinematics, and spatiotemporal parameters changed throughout the study compared to baseline, in a manner suggesting improvement of gait. The most substantial improvement occurred within 3 months after treatment initiation, after which improvement approximately plateaued, but was sustained at 12 months. Speed and cadence, as well as several sagittal-plane gait parameters, were significant predictors of improvement in quality of life. Evidence suggests that a biomechanical gait therapy program improves subjective and objective outcomes measures and is a valid treatment option for hip osteoarthritis. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2222-2232, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Christian, Josef; Kröll, Josef; Schwameder, Hermann
Common summary measures of gait quality such as the Gait Profile Score (GPS) are based on the principle of measuring a distance from the mean pattern of a healthy reference group in a gait pattern vector space. The recently introduced Classifier Oriented Gait Score (COGS) is a pathology specific score that measures this distance in a unique direction, which is indicated by a linear classifier. This approach has potentially improved the discriminatory power to detect subtle changes in gait patterns but does not incorporate a profile of interpretable sub-scores like the GPS. The main aims of this study were to extend the COGS by decomposing it into interpretable sub-scores as realized in the GPS and to compare the discriminative power of the GPS and COGS. Two types of gait impairments were imitated to enable a high level of control of the gait patterns. Imitated impairments were realized by restricting knee extension and inducing leg length discrepancy. The results showed increased discriminatory power of the COGS for differentiating diverse levels of impairment. Comparison of the GPS and COGS sub-scores and their ability to indicate changes in specific variables supports the validity of both scores. The COGS is an overall measure of gait quality with increased power to detect subtle changes in gait patterns and might be well suited for tracing the effect of a therapeutic treatment over time. The newly introduced sub-scores improved the interpretability of the COGS, which is helpful for practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique
During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpartum women, and 23 healthy nonpregnant women (control group) performed gait trials on an electronic walkway at preferred speeds. The results for the three groups were compared using analysis of variance. During pregnancy, peak pressure and contact area decreased for the forefoot and rearfoot. These parameters increased significantly for the midfoot. The gait strategy seemed to be lateralization of gait with an increased contact area of the lateral midfoot and both reduced pressure and a later peak time on the medial forefoot. In the postpartum group, footprint parameters were modified compared with the pregnant group, indicating a trend toward partial return to control values, although differences persisted between the postpartum and control groups. Pregnant women had altered plantar pressures during gait. These findings could define a specific pattern of gait footprints in late pregnancy because plantar pressures had characteristics that could maintain a stable and safe gait.
Gentsch, Kornelia; Grandjean, Didier; Scherer, Klaus R
Scherer's Component Process Model provides a theoretical framework for research on the production mechanism of emotion and facial emotional expression. The model predicts that appraisal results drive facial expressions, which unfold sequentially and cumulatively over time. In two experiments, we examined facial muscle activity changes (via facial electromyography recordings over the corrugator, cheek, and frontalis regions) in response to events in a gambling task. These events were experimentally manipulated feedback stimuli which presented simultaneous information directly affecting goal conduciveness (gambling outcome: win, loss, or break-even) and power appraisals (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as control appraisal (Experiment 2). We repeatedly found main effects of goal conduciveness (starting ~600 ms), and power appraisals (starting ~800 ms after feedback onset). Control appraisal main effects were inconclusive. Interaction effects of goal conduciveness and power appraisals were obtained in both experiments (Experiment 1: over the corrugator and cheek regions; Experiment 2: over the frontalis region) suggesting amplified goal conduciveness effects when power was high in contrast to invariant goal conduciveness effects when power was low. Also an interaction of goal conduciveness and control appraisals was found over the cheek region, showing differential goal conduciveness effects when control was high and invariant effects when control was low. These interaction effects suggest that the appraisal of having sufficient control or power affects facial responses towards gambling outcomes. The result pattern suggests that corrugator and frontalis regions are primarily related to cognitive operations that process motivational pertinence, whereas the cheek region would be more influenced by coping implications. Our results provide first evidence demonstrating that cognitive-evaluative mechanisms related to goal conduciveness, control, and power appraisals affect
Weijer, R H A; Hoozemans, M J M; van Dieën, J H; Pijnappels, M
BACKGROUND: Quality of gait during daily life activities and perceived gait stability are both independent risk factors for future falls in older adults. RESEARCH QUESTION: We investigated whether perceived gait stability modulates the association between gait quality and falling in older adults.
Papadakis, N C; Christakis, D G; Tzagarakis, G N; Chlouverakis, G I; Kampanis, N A; Stergiopoulos, K N; Katonis, P G
The objective of this study was to assess the gait variability of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patients and to evaluate its postoperative progression. The hypothesis was that LSS patients' preoperative gait variability in the frequency domain was higher than the corresponding postoperative. A tri-axial accelerometer sensor was used for the gait measurement and a spectral differential entropy algorithm was used to measure the gait variability. Twelve subjects with LSS were measured before and after surgery. Preoperative measurements were performed 2 days before surgery. Postoperative measurements were performed 6 and 12 months after surgery. Preoperative gait variability was higher than the corresponding postoperative. Also, in most cases, gait variability appeared to decrease throughout the year
Park, Jin; Yoo, Ingyu
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of gait parameters with fear of falling in stroke survivors. [Subjects] In total, 12 patients with stroke participated. [Methods] The subjects performed on a Biodex Gait Trainer 2 for 5 min to evaluate characteristic gait parameters. The kinematic gait parameters measured were gait speed, step cycle, step length, and time on each foot (step symmetry). All the subjects also completed a fall anxiety survey. [Results] Correlations...
Hiraoka, Koichi; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nikaido, Yasutaka; Jono, Yasutomo; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta
The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the...
Holmes, Emily A; Mathews, Andrew
Mental imagery has been considered relevant to psychopathology due to its supposed special relationship with emotion, although evidence for this assumption has been conspicuously lacking. The present review is divided into four main sections: (1) First, we review evidence that imagery can evoke emotion in at least three ways: a direct influence on emotional systems in the brain that are responsive to sensory signals; overlap between processes involved in mental imagery and perception which can lead to responding "as if" to real emotion-arousing events; and the capacity of images to make contact with memories for emotional episodes in the past. (2) Second, we describe new evidence confirming that imagery does indeed evoke greater emotional responses than verbal representation, although the extent of emotional response depends on the image perspective adopted. (3) Third, a heuristic model is presented that contrasts the generation of language-based representations with imagery and offers an account of their differing effects on emotion, beliefs and behavior. (4) Finally, based on the foregoing review, we discuss the role of imagery in maintaining emotional disorders, and its uses in psychological treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Monitoring gait quality in daily activities through wearable sensors has the potential to improve medical assessment in Parkinson’s Disease (PD. In this study, four gait partitioning methods, two based on thresholds and two based on a machine learning approach, considering the four-phase model, were compared. The methods were tested on 26 PD patients, both in OFF and ON levodopa conditions, and 11 healthy subjects, during walking tasks. All subjects were equipped with inertial sensors placed on feet. Force resistive sensors were used to assess reference time sequence of gait phases. Goodness Index (G was evaluated to assess accuracy in gait phases estimation. A novel synthetic index called Gait Phase Quality Index (GPQI was proposed for gait quality assessment. Results revealed optimum performance (G < 0.25 for three tested methods and good performance (0.25 < G < 0.70 for one threshold method. The GPQI resulted significantly higher in PD patients than in healthy subjects, showing a moderate correlation with clinical scales score. Furthermore, in patients with severe gait impairment, GPQI was found higher in OFF than in ON state. Our results unveil the possibility of monitoring gait quality in PD through real-time gait partitioning based on wearable sensors.
Estremera, Joaquín; Cobano, José A.; González de Santos, Pablo
Autonomous robots are leaving the laboratories to master new outdoor applications, and walking robots in particular have already shown their potential advantages in these environments, especially on a natural terrain. Gait generation is the key to success in the negotiation of natural terrain with legged robots; however, most of the algorithms devised for hexapods have been tested under laboratory conditions. This paper presents the development of crab and turning gaits for hexapod robots on ...
Emotion carries crucial qualities of the human condition, representing one of the major challenges in artificial intelligence. Re-search in psychology and neuroscience in the past two to three decades has generated rich insights into the processes underlying human emotion. Cognition and emotion represent the two main pillars of the human psyche and human intelligence. While the hu-man cognitive system and cognitive brain has inspired and informed computer science and artificial intelligence, the future is ripe for the human emotion system to be integrated into artificial intelligence and robotic systems. Here, we review behavioral and neu-ral findings in human emotion perception, including facial emotion perception, olfactory emotion perception, multimodal emotion perception, and the time course of emotion perception. It is our hope that knowledge of how humans perceive emotion will help bring artificial intelligence strides closer to human intelligence.
Austin, Daniel; Hayes, Tamara L; Kaye, Jeffrey; Mattek, Nora; Pavel, Misha
In-home monitoring of gait velocity with passive PIR sensors in a smart home has been shown to be an effective method of continuously and unobtrusively measuring this important predictor of cognitive function and mobility. However, passive measurements of velocity are nonspecific with regard to who generated each measurement or walking event. As a result, this method is not suitable for multi-person homes without additional information to aid in the disambiguation of gait velocities. In this paper we propose a method based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) combined with infrequent clinical assessments of gait velocity to model in-home walking speeds of two or more residents. Modeling the gait parameters directly allows us to avoid the more difficult problem of assigning each measured velocity individually to the correct resident. We show that if the clinically measured gait velocities of residents are separated by at least 15 cm/s a GMM can be accurately fit to the in-home gait velocity data. We demonstrate the accuracy of this method by showing that the correlation between the means of the GMMs and the clinically measured gait velocities is 0.877 (p value < 0.0001) with bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of (0.79, 0.94) for 54 measurements of 20 subjects living in multi-person homes. Example applications of using this method to track in-home mean velocities over time are also given.
Peruzzi, Agnese; Zarbo, Ignazio Roberto; Cereatti, Andrea; Della Croce, Ugo; Mirelman, Anat
In this single blind randomized controlled trial, we examined the effect of a virtual reality-based training on gait of people with multiple sclerosis. Twenty-five individuals with multiple sclerosis with mild to moderate disability were randomly assigned to either the control group (n = 11) or the experimental group (n = 14). The subjects in the control group received treadmill training. Subjects in the experimental group received virtual reality based treadmill training. Clinical measures and gait parameters were evaluated. Subjects in both the groups significantly improved the walking endurance and speed, cadence and stride length, lower limb joint ranges of motion and powers, during single and dual task gait. Moreover, subjects in the experimental group also improved balance, as indicated by the results of the clinical motor tests (p virtual reality to improve gait measures in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Implication of rehabilitation Gait deficits are common in multiple sclerosis (85%) and worsen during dual task activities. Intensive and progressive treadmill training, with and without virtual reality, is effective on dual task gait in persons with multiple sclerosis. Virtual reality-based treadmill training requiring obstacle negotiation increases the range of motion and the power generated at the hip, consequently allowing longer stride length and, consequently, higher gait speed.
Shaikh, Muhammad Faraz; Salcic, Zoran; Wang, Kevin I-Kai; Hu, Aiguo Patrick
Electrical stimulators are often prescribed to correct foot drop walking. However, commercial foot drop stimulators trigger inappropriately under certain non-gait scenarios. Past researches addressed this limitation by defining stimulation control based on automaton of a gait cycle executed by foot drop of affected limb/foot only. Since gait is a collaborative activity of both feet, this research highlights the role of normal foot for robust gait detection and stimulation triggering. A novel bipedal gait model is proposed where gait cycle is realized as an automaton based on concurrent gait sub-phases (states) from each foot. The input for state transition is fused information from feet-worn pressure and inertial sensors. Thereafter, a bipedal gait model-based stimulation control algorithm is developed. As a feasibility study, bipedal gait model and stimulation control are evaluated in real-time simulation manner on normal and simulated foot drop gait measurements from 16 able-bodied participants with three speed variations, under inappropriate triggering scenarios and with foot drop rehabilitation exercises. Also, the stimulation control employed in commercial foot drop stimulators and single foot gait-based foot drop stimulators are compared alongside. Gait detection accuracy (98.9%) and precise triggering under all investigations prove bipedal gait model reliability. This infers that gait detection leveraging bipedal periodicity is a promising strategy to rectify prevalent stimulation triggering deficiencies in commercial foot drop stimulators. Graphical abstract Bipedal information-based gait recognition and stimulation triggering.
Full Text Available The wide spread usage of wearable sensors such as in smart watches has provided continuous access to valuable user generated data such as human motion that could be used to identify an individual based on his/her motion patterns such as, gait. Several methods have been suggested to extract various heuristic and high-level features from gait motion data to identify discriminative gait signatures and distinguish the target individual from others. However, the manual and hand crafted feature extraction is error prone and subjective. Furthermore, the motion data collected from inertial sensors have complex structure and the detachment between manual feature extraction module and the predictive learning models might limit the generalization capabilities. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for human gait identification using time-frequency (TF expansion of human gait cycles in order to capture joint 2 dimensional (2D spectral and temporal patterns of gait cycles. Then, we design a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN learning to extract discriminative features from the 2D expanded gait cycles and jointly optimize the identification model and the spectro-temporal features in a discriminative fashion. We collect raw motion data from five inertial sensors placed at the chest, lower-back, right hand wrist, right knee, and right ankle of each human subject synchronously in order to investigate the impact of sensor location on the gait identification performance. We then present two methods for early (input level and late (decision score level multi-sensor fusion to improve the gait identification generalization performance. We specifically propose the minimum error score fusion (MESF method that discriminatively learns the linear fusion weights of individual DCNN scores at the decision level by minimizing the error rate on the training data in an iterative manner. 10 subjects participated in this study and hence, the problem is a 10-class
by overuse. Common overuse injuries include stress fractures , tendinitis, bursitis, fasciitis, and medial tibial stress syndrome (shin splints) [11...magnitude feature values for subject 1 are shown in (a), before and after repetitive stress injury. Magnitude and pattern features are plotted in...Dudziñski, A. Lees, M. Lake, and M. Wychowañski, “Adjustments in gait symmetry with walking speed in trans-femoral and trans- tibial amputees,” Gait
Silva, Gabriela C.A.; Cardoso, Mariana Trés; Gaiad, Thais P.; Brolio, Marina P.; Oliveira, Vanessa C.; Assis Neto, Antonio; Martins, Daniele S.; Ambrósio, Carlos E.
Kinematic analysis relates to the relative movement between rigid bodies and finds application in gait analysis and other body movements, interpretation of their data when there is change, determines the choice of treatment to be instituted. The objective of this study was to standardize the march of Dog Golden Retriever Healthy to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. We used a kinematic analysis system to analyse the gait of seven dogs Golden Retriever, female,...
Taborri, Juri; Palermo, Eduardo; Rossi, Stefano; Cappa, Paolo
In the last years, gait phase partitioning has come to be a challenging research topic due to its impact on several applications related to gait technologies. A variety of sensors can be used to feed algorithms for gait phase partitioning, mainly classifiable as wearable or non-wearable. Among wearable sensors, footswitches or foot pressure insoles are generally considered as the gold standard; however, to overcome some inherent limitations of the former, inertial measurement units have become popular in recent decades. Valuable results have been achieved also though electromyography, electroneurography, and ultrasonic sensors. Non-wearable sensors, such as opto-electronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate system to perform gait analysis in an indoor environment. In the present paper we identify, select, and categorize the available methodologies for gait phase detection, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Finally, we comparatively examine the obtainable gait phase granularities, the usable computational methodologies and the optimal sensor placements on the targeted body segments. PMID:26751449
Full Text Available Evaluation of the gait of patients after polytrauma is important, as it indicates the ability of patients to the previous activities and work. The aim of our study was to evaluate the gait of patients with lower limb injuries in the medium-term after polytrauma. Three-dimensional instrumental gait analysis was performed in 26 polytrauma patients (16 women and 10 men; mean age 38.6 years, 14 to 41 months after the trauma. Spatio-temporal parameters, motions in pelvis and lower extremities joints in sagittal plane and vertical load ground reaction force were analysed. Gait parameters in polytrauma patients were compared with a healthy control group. Polytrauma patients in the injured side had decreased step length, cadence, hip extension, maximum knee flexion, vertical load ground reaction force, and increased stance time and pelvic anterior tilt; in the uninjured side they had decreased step length, cadence, maximum knee flexion, vertical load ground reaction force and increased stance time (p < 0.05. The use of the three-dimensional instrumental gait analysis in the evaluation of polytrauma patients with lower limb injuries consequences makes it possible to identify the gait disorders not only in the injured, but also in the uninjured side.
Full Text Available In the last years, gait phase partitioning has come to be a challenging research topic due to its impact on several applications related to gait technologies. A variety of sensors can be used to feed algorithms for gait phase partitioning, mainly classifiable as wearable or non-wearable. Among wearable sensors, footswitches or foot pressure insoles are generally considered as the gold standard; however, to overcome some inherent limitations of the former, inertial measurement units have become popular in recent decades. Valuable results have been achieved also though electromyography, electroneurography, and ultrasonic sensors. Non-wearable sensors, such as opto-electronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate system to perform gait analysis in an indoor environment. In the present paper we identify, select, and categorize the available methodologies for gait phase detection, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Finally, we comparatively examine the obtainable gait phase granularities, the usable computational methodologies and the optimal sensor placements on the targeted body segments.
Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.
Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Hesseberg, Karin; Sletvold, Olav
This study assessed the effects of dim light and four experimentally induced changes in vision on gait speed and footfall and trunk parameters in older persons walking on level ground. Using a quasi-experimental design, gait characteristics were assessed in full light, dim light, and in dim light combined with manipulations resulting in reduced depth vision, double vision, blurred vision, and tunnel vision, respectively. A convenience sample of 24 home-dwelling older women and men (mean age 78.5 years, SD 3.4) with normal vision for their age and able to walk at least 10 m without assistance participated. Outcome measures were gait speed and spatial and temporal parameters of footfall and trunk acceleration, derived from an electronic gait mat and accelerometers. Dim light alone had no effect. Vision manipulations combined with dim light had effect on most footfall parameters but few trunk parameters. The largest effects were found regarding double and tunnel vision. Men increased and women decreased gait speed following manipulations (p=0.017), with gender differences also in stride velocity variability (p=0.017) and inter-stride medio-lateral trunk acceleration variability (p=0.014). Gender effects were related to differences in body height and physical functioning. Results indicate that visual problems lead to a more cautious and unstable gait pattern even under relatively simple conditions. This points to the importance of assessing vision in older persons and correcting visual impairments where possible.
Cristina Elena Prado Teles Fregonesi
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that results in sensorimotor alterations. These changes affect balance and walking and predispose affected patients to falls. The aim of this review was to identify studies in the recent literature that assess gait parameters and aspects involved in walking. The MEDLINE, SciELO, LILACS and PEDro databases were searched using the following combination of keywords: diabetic neuropathies x gait; diabetes mellitus x gait, and diabetic foot x gait. After the application of selection criteria, 15 articles were retrieved, summarized, discussed, and are included in this review. Diabetic neuropathy was found to lead to deficits in step amplitude, gait velocity and gait cadence on flat surfaces, without sudden changes in direction or stops, and to balance and coordination deficits on inclined and uneven terrain. Diabetic neuropathies also increase plantar pressure rates and lead to difficulties in the terminal stance phase and pre-swing phase due to changes in triceps surae activation. Thus, the next initial contact occurs in an inadequate manner, with the forefoot and without absorption of shocks.
Boone, Anna E; Foreman, Matthew H; Engsberg, Jack R
Improving gait speed and kinematics can be a time consuming and tiresome process. We hypothesize that incorporating virtual reality videogame play into variable improvement goals will improve levels of enjoyment and motivation and lead to improved gait performance. To develop a feasible, engaging, VR gait intervention for improving gait variables. Completing this investigation involved four steps: 1) identify gait variables that could be manipulated to improve gait speed and kinematics using the Microsoft Kinect and free software, 2) identify free internet videogames that could successfully manipulate the chosen gait variables, 3) experimentally evaluate the ability of the videogames and software to manipulate the gait variables, and 4) evaluate the enjoyment and motivation from a small sample of persons without disability. The Kinect sensor was able to detect stride length, cadence, and joint angles. FAAST software was able to identify predetermined gait variable thresholds and use the thresholds to play free online videogames. Videogames that involved continuous pressing of a keyboard key were found to be most appropriate for manipulating the gait variables. Five participants without disability evaluated the effectiveness for modifying the gait variables and enjoyment and motivation during play. Participants were able to modify gait variables to permit successful videogame play. Motivation and enjoyment were high. A clinically feasible and engaging virtual intervention for improving gait speed and kinematics has been developed and initially tested. It may provide an engaging avenue for achieving thousands of repetitions necessary for neural plastic changes and improved gait. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Lummel Rob C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple aspects of gait are typically impaired post-stroke. Asymmetric gait is common as a consequence of unilateral brain lesions. The relationship between the resulting asymmetric gait and impairments in the ability to properly coordinate the reciprocal stepping activation of the legs is not clear. The objective of this exploratory study is to quantify the effects of hemiparesis on two putatively independent aspects of the bilateral coordination of gait to gain insight into mechanisms and their relationship and to assess their potential as clinical markers. Methods Twelve ambulatory stroke patients and age-matched healthy adults wore a tri-axial piezo-resistive accelerometer and walked back and forth along a straight path in a hall at a comfortable walking speed during 2 minutes. Gait speed, gait asymmetry (GA, and aspects of the bilateral coordination of gait (BCG were determined. Bilateral coordination measures included the left-right stepping phase for each stride φi, consistency in the phase generation φ_CV, accuracy in the phase generation φ_ABS, and Phase Coordination Index (PCI, a combination of accuracy and consistency of the phase generation. Results Group differences (p Conclusions In ambulatory post-stroke patients, two gait coordination properties, GA and PCI, are markedly impaired. Although these features are not related to each other in healthy controls, they are strongly related in stroke patients, which is a novel finding. A measurement approach based on body-fixed sensors apparently may provide sensitive markers that can be used for clinical assessment and for enhancing rehabilitation targeting in post-stroke patients.
Background Multiple aspects of gait are typically impaired post-stroke. Asymmetric gait is common as a consequence of unilateral brain lesions. The relationship between the resulting asymmetric gait and impairments in the ability to properly coordinate the reciprocal stepping activation of the legs is not clear. The objective of this exploratory study is to quantify the effects of hemiparesis on two putatively independent aspects of the bilateral coordination of gait to gain insight into mechanisms and their relationship and to assess their potential as clinical markers. Methods Twelve ambulatory stroke patients and age-matched healthy adults wore a tri-axial piezo-resistive accelerometer and walked back and forth along a straight path in a hall at a comfortable walking speed during 2 minutes. Gait speed, gait asymmetry (GA), and aspects of the bilateral coordination of gait (BCG) were determined. Bilateral coordination measures included the left-right stepping phase for each stride φi, consistency in the phase generation φ_CV, accuracy in the phase generation φ_ABS, and Phase Coordination Index (PCI), a combination of accuracy and consistency of the phase generation. Results Group differences (p stroke patients (r = 0.94; p stroke patients, two gait coordination properties, GA and PCI, are markedly impaired. Although these features are not related to each other in healthy controls, they are strongly related in stroke patients, which is a novel finding. A measurement approach based on body-fixed sensors apparently may provide sensitive markers that can be used for clinical assessment and for enhancing rehabilitation targeting in post-stroke patients. PMID:21545703
Ekkelenkamp, R.; Veneman, J.F.; van der Kooij, Herman
LOPES aims for an active role of the patient by selective and partial support of gait functions during robotic treadmill training sessions. Virtual model control (VMC) was applied to the robot as an intuitive method for translating current treadmill gait rehabilitation therapy programs into robotic
Plotnik, Meir; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.
Several gait impairments have been associated with freezing of gait (FOG) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These include deteriorations in rhythm control, gait symmetry, bilateral coordination of gait, dynamic postural control and step scaling. We suggest that these seemingly independent gait features may have mutual interactions which, during certain circumstances, jointly drive the predisposed locomotion system into a FOG episode. This new theoretical framework is illustrated by the evaluation of the potential relationships between the so-called “sequence effect”, that is, impairments in step scaling, and gait asymmetry just prior to FOG. We further discuss what factors influence gait control to maintain functional gait. “Triggers”, for example, such as attention shifts or trajectory transitions, may precede FOG. We propose distinct categories of interventions and describe examples of existing work that support this idea: (a) interventions which aim to maintain a good level of locomotion control especially with respect to aspects related to FOG; (b) those that aim at avoiding FOG “triggers”; and (c) those that merely aim to escape from FOG once it occurs. The proposed theoretical framework sets the stage for testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms that lead to FOG and may also lead to new treatment ideas. PMID:22288021
Hesse, S; Schattat, N; Mehrholz, J; Werner, C
A task-specific repetitive approach in gait rehabilitation after CNS lesion is well accepted nowadays. To ease the therapists' and patients' physical effort, the past two decades have seen the introduction of gait machines to intensify the amount of gait practice. Two principles have emerged, an exoskeleton- and an endeffector-based approach. Both systems share the harness and the body weight support. With the end-effector-based devices, the patients' feet are positioned on two foot plates, whose movements simulate stance and swing phase. This article provides an overview on the end-effector based machine's effectiveness regarding the restoration of gait. For the electromechanical gait trainer GT I, a meta analysis identified nine controlled trials (RCT) in stroke subjects (n = 568) and were analyzed to detect differences between end-effector-based locomotion + physiotherapy and physiotherapy alone. Patients practising with the machine effected in a superior gait ability (210 out of 319 patients, 65.8% vs. 96 out of 249 patients, 38.6%, respectively, Z = 2.29, p = 0.020), due to a larger training intensity. Only single RCTs have been reported for other devices and etiologies. The introduction of end-effector based gait machines has opened a new succesful chapter in gait rehabilitation after CNS lesion.
Hak, L.; Houdijk, J.H.P.; Steenbrink, F.; van der Wurff, P.; Beek, P.J.; van Dieen, J.H.
It has frequently been proposed that lowering walking speed is a strategy to enhance gait stability and to decrease the probability of falling. However, previous studies have not been able to establish a clear relation between walking speed and gait stability. We investigated whether people do
Liu, Yan-Ci; Yang, Yea-Ru; Tsai, Yun-An; Wang, Ray-Yau
This study investigated effects of cognitive and motor dual task gait training on dual task gait performance in stroke. Participants (n = 28) were randomly assigned to cognitive dual task gait training (CDTT), motor dual task gait training (MDTT), or conventional physical therapy (CPT) group. Participants in CDTT or MDTT group practiced the cognitive or motor tasks respectively during walking. Participants in CPT group received strengthening, balance, and gait training. The intervention was 30 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks. Three test conditions to evaluate the training effects were single walking, walking while performing cognitive task (serial subtraction), and walking while performing motor task (tray-carrying). Parameters included gait speed, dual task cost of gait speed (DTC-speed), cadence, stride time, and stride length. After CDTT, cognitive-motor dual task gait performance (stride length and DTC-speed) was improved (p = 0.021; p = 0.015). After MDTT, motor dual task gait performance (gait speed, stride length, and DTC-speed) was improved (p = 0.008; p = 0.008; p = 0.008 respectively). It seems that CDTT improved cognitive dual task gait performance and MDTT improved motor dual task gait performance although such improvements did not reach significant group difference. Therefore, different types of dual task gait training can be adopted to enhance different dual task gait performance in stroke.
O'Connell, Elaine Finbarr
I argue that emotion is an ontologically emergent and sui generis. I argue that emotion meets both of two individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for ontological emergence. These are, (i) that emotion necessarily has constituent parts to which it cannot be reduced, and (ii) that emotion has a causal effect on its constituent parts (i.e. emotion demonstrates downward causation).\\ud \\ud I argue that emotion is partly cognitive, partly constituted by feelings and partly perceptu...
Full Text Available A four-fold classification of emotions with respect to their functions in decision making is proposed. It is argued that emotions are not homogenous concerning their role in decision making, but that four distinct functions can be distinguished concerning emotional phenomena. One function is to provide information about pleasure and pain for preference construction, a second function is to enable rapid choices under time pressure, a third function is to focus attention on relevant aspects of a decision problem, and a fourth function is to generate commitment concerning morally and socially significant decisions. The pertinent literature on the relationship between emotion and decision making is reviewed, and it is concluded that most approaches fit into the proposed framework. We argue that a precise conceptualization of emotional phenomena is required to advance our understanding of the complex role of emotions in decision making.
Full Text Available Excessive heat at the foot-shoe sole interface negatively affects a human’s thermal comfort. An understanding of the thermal behavior at this interface is important for alleviating this discomfort. During gait motion, a human’s body weight cyclically compresses a shoe sole (commonly constructed of viscoelastic materials, generating heat during loading. To evaluate the thermal effects of this internal heat generation on foot comfort, we developed and empirically validated a thermal analysis model during gait motion. A simple, one-dimensional prediction model for heat conduction with heat generation during compressive loading was used. Heat generation was estimated as a function of the shoe sole’s material properties (e.g., elastic modulus and various gait parameters. When compared with experimental results, the proposed model proved effective in predicting thermal behavior at the foot-shoe sole interface under various conditions and shows potential for improving a human’s thermal comfort during gait motion through informed footwear design.
Larsen, Birgit Tine; Partriciu, Andrei
application of the ActiGait® during market introduction, additional monitoring tools were applied and developed such as preoperative and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraoperative fluoroscopy, and surface recordings of the artifacts generated by the electrical stimulation of the nerve...
Gross, R; Leboeuf, F; Rémy-Néris, O; Perrouin-Verbe, B
We present the case of a 54 year-old man presenting with a right Brown-Séquard plus syndrome (BSPS) after a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury. After being operated on with selective tibial neurotomy and triceps surae lengthening because of a right spastic equinus foot, he developed a gait disorder at high speed. The patient complained about an instability of the right knee. Observational gait analysis exhibited an oscillating, flexion/extension motion of the right knee during stance, which was confirmed by gait analysis. Dynamic electromyographic recordings exhibited a clonus of the right rectus femoris (RF) during stance. The spastic activity of the RF and the abnormal knee motion totally reversed after a motor nerve block of the RF, as well as after botulinum toxin type A injection into the RF. We emphasize that complex, spastic gait disorders can benefit from a comprehensive assessment including gait analysis and nerve blocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Saner, Robert J; Washabaugh, Edward P; Krishnan, Chandramouli
Three-dimensional (3-D) motion capture systems are commonly used for gait analysis because they provide reliable and accurate measurements. However, the downside of this approach is that it is expensive and requires technical expertise; thus making it less feasible in the clinic. To address this limitation, we recently developed and validated (using a high-precision walking robot) a low-cost, two-dimensional (2-D) real-time motion tracking approach using a simple webcam and LabVIEW Vision Assistant. The purpose of this study was to establish the repeatability and minimal detectable change values of hip and knee sagittal plane gait kinematics recorded using this system. Twenty-one healthy subjects underwent two kinematic assessments while walking on a treadmill at a range of gait velocities. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and minimal detectable change (MDC) values were calculated for commonly used hip and knee kinematic parameters to demonstrate the reliability of the system. Additionally, Bland-Altman plots were generated to examine the agreement between the measurements recorded on two different days. The system demonstrated good to excellent reliability (ICC>0.75) for all the gait parameters tested on this study. The MDC values were typically low (gait assessments using webcam technology can be reliably used for clinical and research purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We present the Time-Pose control method for the trotting gait of a quadruped robot on flat ground and up a slope. The method, with brief control structure, real-time operation ability and high adaptability, divides quadruped robot control into gait control and pose control. Virtual leg and intuitive controllers are introduced to simplify the model and generate the trajectory of mass centre and location of supporting legs in gait control, while redundancy optimization is used for solving the inverse kinematics in pose control. The models both on flat ground and up a slope are fully analysed, and different kinds of optimization methods are compared using the manipulability measure in order to select the best option. Simulations are performed, which prove that the Time-Pose control method is realizable for these two kinds of environment.
Full Text Available To understand the role of trunk muscles in maintenance of dynamic postural equilibrium we investigate trunk movements during gait initiation and walking, performing trunk kinematics analysis, Erector spinae muscle (ES recordings and dynamic analysis. ES muscle expressed a metachronal descending pattern of activity during walking and gait initiation. In the frontal and horizontal planes, lateroflexion and rotation occur before in the upper trunk and after in the lower trunk. Comparison of ES muscle EMGs and trunk kinematics showed that trunk muscle activity precedes corresponding kinematics activity, indicating that the ES drive trunk movement during locomotion and thereby allowing a better pelvis mobilization. EMG data showed that ES activity anticipates propulsive phases in walking with a repetitive pattern, suggesting a programmed control by a central pattern generator. Our findings also suggest that the programs for gait initiation and walking overlap with the latter beginning before the first has ended.
Robert J Ellis
Full Text Available A well-established connection exists between increased gait variability and greater fall likelihood in Parkinson's disease (PD; however, a portable, validated means of quantifying gait variability (and testing the efficacy of any intervention remains lacking. Furthermore, although rhythmic auditory cueing continues to receive attention as a promising gait therapy for PD, its widespread delivery remains bottlenecked. The present paper describes a smartphone-based mobile application ("SmartMOVE" to address both needs.The accuracy of smartphone-based gait analysis (utilizing the smartphone's built-in tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope to calculate successive step times and step lengths was validated against two heel contact-based measurement devices: heel-mounted footswitch sensors (to capture step times and an instrumented pressure sensor mat (to capture step lengths. 12 PD patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls walked along a 26-m path during self-paced and metronome-cued conditions, with all three devices recording simultaneously.Four outcome measures of gait and gait variability were calculated. Mixed-factorial analysis of variance revealed several instances in which between-group differences (e.g., increased gait variability in PD patients relative to healthy controls yielded medium-to-large effect sizes (eta-squared values, and cueing-mediated changes (e.g., decreased gait variability when PD patients walked with auditory cues yielded small-to-medium effect sizes-while at the same time, device-related measurement error yielded small-to-negligible effect sizes.These findings highlight specific opportunities for smartphone-based gait analysis to serve as an alternative to conventional gait analysis methods (e.g., footswitch systems or sensor-embedded walkways, particularly when those methods are cost-prohibitive, cumbersome, or inconvenient.
Luengas, Lely A.; Camargo, Esperanza; Sanchez, Giovanni
Gait is the collective term for the two types of bipedal locomotion, walking and running. This paper is focused on walking. The analysis of human gait is of interest to many different disciplines, including biomechanics, human-movement science, rehabilitation and medicine in general. Here we present a new model that is capable of reproducing the properties of walking, normal and pathological. The aim of this paper is to establish the biomechanical principles that underlie human walking by using Lagrange method. The constraint forces of Rayleigh dissipation function, through which to consider the effect on the tissues in the gait, are included. Depending on the value of the factor present in the Rayleigh dissipation function, both normal and pathological gait can be simulated. First of all, we apply it in the normal gait and then in the permanent hemiparetic gait. Anthropometric data of adult person are used by simulation, and it is possible to use anthropometric data for children but is necessary to consider existing table of anthropometric data. Validation of these models includes simulations of passive dynamic gait that walk on level ground. The dynamic walking approach provides a new perspective of gait analysis, focusing on the kinematics and kinetics of gait. There have been studies and simulations to show normal human gait, but few of them have focused on abnormal, especially hemiparetic gait. Quantitative comparisons of the model predictions with gait measurements show that the model can reproduce the significant characteristics of normal gait.
Ravera, Emiliano Pablo; Catalfamo Formento, Paola Andrea; José Crespo, Marcos; Andrés Braidot, Ariel
Cerebral Palsy represents the most common cause of physical disability in modern world and within the pediatrics orthopedics units. The gait analysis provides great contributions to the understanding of gait disorders in CP. Giving a more comprehensive treatment plan, including or excluding surgical procedures that can potentially decrease the number of surgical interventions in the life of these patients. Recommendations for orthopedic surgery may be based on a quantitative description of how to alter the properties probably muscle force generation, and how this affects the action of the muscle to determine how these muscles, impaired by disease or surgery, contributing to the movement of the segments of the limb during crouch gait. So the causes and appropriate treatment of gait abnormalities are difficult to determine because the movements generated by the muscular forces of these patients are not clearly understood. A correct determination of the etiology of abnormal patterns of the knee is the key to select the appropriate therapy, presenting a major challenge at present since there is no theoretical basis to determine the biomechanical causes of abnormal gait of these patients. The potential and necessity of using correct biomechanical models that consistently study the abnormalities becomes clear. Reinforcing and correcting a simple gait analysis and eliminating the unknowns when selecting the appropriate treatment is crucial in clinical settings. In this paper a computer muscle-skeletal model is proposed. The model represents a person's thigh simulating the six most representative muscles and joints of the hip and knee. In this way you can have a better understanding of gait abnormalities present in these patients. So the quality of these estimates of individual muscle dynamics facilitate better understanding of the biomechanics of gait pathologies helping to reach better diagnosis prior to surgery and rehabilitation treatments.
Ravera, Emiliano Pablo; Catalfamo Formento, Paola Andrea; Crespo, Marcos José; Braidot, Ariel Andrés
Cerebral Palsy represents the most common cause of physical disability in modern world and within the pediatrics orthopedics units. The gait analysis provides great contributions to the understanding of gait disorders in CP. Giving a more comprehensive treatment plan, including or excluding surgical procedures that can potentially decrease the number of surgical interventions in the life of these patients. Recommendations for orthopedic surgery may be based on a quantitative description of how to alter the properties probably muscle force generation, and how this affects the action of the muscle to determine how these muscles, impaired by disease or surgery, contributing to the movement of the segments of the limb during crouch gait. So the causes and appropriate treatment of gait abnormalities are difficult to determine because the movements generated by the muscular forces of these patients are not clearly understood. A correct determination of the etiology of abnormal patterns of the knee is the key to select the appropriate therapy, presenting a major challenge at present since there is no theoretical basis to determine the biomechanical causes of abnormal gait of these patients. The potential and necessity of using correct biomechanical models that consistently study the abnormalities becomes clear. Reinforcing and correcting a simple gait analysis and eliminating the unknowns when selecting the appropriate treatment is crucial in clinical settings. In this paper a computer muscle-skeletal model is proposed. The model represents a person's thigh simulating the six most representative muscles and joints of the hip and knee. In this way you can have a better understanding of gait abnormalities present in these patients. So the quality of these estimates of individual muscle dynamics facilitate better understanding of the biomechanics of gait pathologies helping to reach better diagnosis prior to surgery and rehabilitation treatments.
Schenck, Christopher; Kesar, Trisha M
In individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis, reduced push-off force generation in the paretic leg negatively impacts walking function. Gait training interventions that increase paretic push-off can improve walking function in individuals with neurologic impairment. During normal locomotion, push-off forces are modulated with variations in gait speed and slope. However, it is unknown whether able-bodied individuals can selectively modulate push-off forces from one leg in response to biofeedback. Here, in a group of young, neurologically-unimpaired individuals, we determined the effects of a real-time visual and auditory biofeedback gait training paradigm aimed at unilaterally increasing anteriorly-directed ground reaction force (AGRF) in the targeted leg. Ground reaction force data during were collected from 7 able-bodied individuals as they walked at a self-selected pace on a dual-belt treadmill instrumented with force platforms. During 11-min of gait training, study participants were provided real-time AGRF biofeedback encouraging a 20-30% increase in peak AGRF generated by their right (targeted) leg compared to their baseline (pre-training) AGRF. AGRF data were collected before, during, and after the biofeedback training period, as well as during two retention tests performed without biofeedback and after standing breaks. Compared to AGRFs generated during the pre-training gait trials, participants demonstrated a significantly greater AGRF in the targeted leg during and immediately after training, indicating that biofeedback training was successful at inducing increased AGRF production in the targeted leg. Additionally, participants continued to demonstrate greater AGRF production in the targeted leg after two standing breaks, showing short-term recall of the gait pattern learned during the biofeedback training. No significant effects of training were observed on the AGRF in the non-targeted limb, showing the specificity of the effects of biofeedback toward the
Schmidt, Henning; Werner, Cordula; Bernhardt, Rolf; Hesse, Stefan; Krüger, Jörg
Gait restoration is an integral part of rehabilitation of brain lesioned patients. Modern concepts favour a task-specific repetitive approach, i.e. who wants to regain walking has to walk, while tone-inhibiting and gait preparatory manoeuvres had dominated therapy before. Following the first mobilization out of the bed, the wheelchair-bound patient should have the possibility to practise complex gait cycles as soon as possible. Steps in this direction were treadmill training with partial body weight support and most recently gait machines enabling the repetitive training of even surface gait and even of stair climbing. With treadmill training harness-secured and partially relieved wheelchair-mobilised patients could practise up to 1000 steps per session for the first time. Controlled trials in stroke and SCI patients, however, failed to show a superior result when compared to walking exercise on the floor. Most likely explanation was the effort for the therapists, e.g. manually setting the paretic limbs during the swing phase resulting in a too little gait intensity. The next steps were gait machines, either consisting of a powered exoskeleton and a treadmill (Lokomat, AutoAmbulator) or an electromechanical solution with the harness secured patient placed on movable foot plates (Gait Trainer GT I). For the latter, a large multi-centre trial with 155 non-ambulatory stroke patients (DEGAS) revealed a superior gait ability and competence in basic activities of living in the experimental group. The HapticWalker continued the end effector concept of movable foot plates, now fully programmable and equipped with 6 DOF force sensors. This device for the first time enables training of arbitrary walking situations, hence not only the simulation of floor walking but also for example of stair climbing and perturbations. Locomotor therapy is a fascinating new tool in rehabilitation, which is in line with modern principles of motor relearning promoting a task-specific repetitive
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait restoration is an integral part of rehabilitation of brain lesioned patients. Modern concepts favour a task-specific repetitive approach, i.e. who wants to regain walking has to walk, while tone-inhibiting and gait preparatory manoeuvres had dominated therapy before. Following the first mobilization out of the bed, the wheelchair-bound patient should have the possibility to practise complex gait cycles as soon as possible. Steps in this direction were treadmill training with partial body weight support and most recently gait machines enabling the repetitive training of even surface gait and even of stair climbing. Results With treadmill training harness-secured and partially relieved wheelchair-mobilised patients could practise up to 1000 steps per session for the first time. Controlled trials in stroke and SCI patients, however, failed to show a superior result when compared to walking exercise on the floor. Most likely explanation was the effort for the therapists, e.g. manually setting the paretic limbs during the swing phase resulting in a too little gait intensity. The next steps were gait machines, either consisting of a powered exoskeleton and a treadmill (Lokomat, AutoAmbulator or an electromechanical solution with the harness secured patient placed on movable foot plates (Gait Trainer GT I. For the latter, a large multi-centre trial with 155 non-ambulatory stroke patients (DEGAS revealed a superior gait ability and competence in basic activities of living in the experimental group. The HapticWalker continued the end effector concept of movable foot plates, now fully programmable and equipped with 6 DOF force sensors. This device for the first time enables training of arbitrary walking situations, hence not only the simulation of floor walking but also for example of stair climbing and perturbations. Conclusion Locomotor therapy is a fascinating new tool in rehabilitation, which is in line with modern principles
Full Text Available Gait is one of the few biometrics that can be measured at a distance, and is hence useful for passive surveillance as well as biometric applications. Gait recognition research is still at its infancy, however, and we have yet to solve the fundamental issue of finding gait features which at once have sufficient discrimination power and can be extracted robustly and accurately from low-resolution video. This paper describes a novel gait recognition technique based on the image self-similarity of a walking person. We contend that the similarity plot encodes a projection of gait dynamics. It is also correspondence-free, robust to segmentation noise, and works well with low-resolution video. The method is tested on multiple data sets of varying sizes and degrees of difficulty. Performance is best for fronto-parallel viewpoints, whereby a recognition rate of 98% is achieved for a data set of 6 people, and 70% for a data set of 54 people.
Full Text Available Gait recognition aims to identify people by the way they walk. In this paper, a simple but e ective gait recognition method based on Outermost Contour is proposed. For each gait image sequence, an adaptive silhouette extraction algorithm is firstly used to segment the frames of the sequence and a series of postprocessing is applied to obtain the normalized silhouette images with less noise. Then a novel feature extraction method based on Outermost Contour is performed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA is adopted to reduce the dimensionality of the distance signals derived from the Outermost Contours of silhouette images. Then Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA is used to optimize the separability of gait features belonging to di erent classes. Nearest Neighbor (NN classifier and Nearest Neighbor classifier with respect to class Exemplars (ENN are used to classify the final feature vectors produced by MDA. In order to verify the e ectiveness and robustness of our feature extraction algorithm, we also use two other classifiers: Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN and Support Vector Machine (SVM for recognition. Experimental results on a gait database of 100 people show that the accuracy of using MDA, BPNN and SVM can achieve 97.67%, 94.33% and 94.67%, respectively.
Kalron, Alon; Frid, Lior; Menascu, Shay
Multiple sclerosis is a progressive autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. A presentation of multiple sclerosis before age18 years has traditionally been thought to be rare. However, during the past decade, more cases have been reported. We examined gait characteristics in 24 adolescents with multiple sclerosis (12 girls, 12 boys). Mean disease duration was 20.4 (S.D. = 24.9) months and mean age was 15.5 (S.D. = 1.1) years. The mean expanded disability status scale score was 1.7 (S.D. = 0.7) indicating minimal disability. Outcomes were compared with gait and the gait variability index value of healthy age-matched adolescents. Adolescents with multiple sclerosis walked slower with a wider base of support compared with age-matched healthy control subjects. Moreover, the gait variability index was lower in the multiple sclerosis group compared with the values in the healthy adolescents: 85.4 (S.D. = 8.1) versus 96.5 (S.D. = 7.4). We present gait parameters of adolescents with multiple sclerosis. From a clinical standpoint, our data could improve management of walking dysfunction in this relatively young population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper presents a new statically balanced walking technique for a robot-crawler. The gait design and the control of the robot crawler aim to achieve stability while walking. This statically balanced gait has to be designed in a different fashion to a wheeled robot, as there are discrete changes in the support of the robot when its legs are lifted or placed on the ground. The stability of the robot depends on how the legs are positioned relative to the body and also on the sequence and timing with which the legs are lifted and placed. In order to reduce the risk of stability loss while walking, a measure for the robot stability (so-called stability margin is typically used in the gait and motion planning. In this paper different biological behaviours of four-legged animals are studied and mapped on a quad-legrobot-crawler. Experiments were carried out on the forward walking gaits of lizards and horses. Based on these results, the stability margins of different gaits are discussed and compared.
Full Text Available Legged robots based on one degree-of-freedom reconfigurable planar leg mechanisms, that are capable of generating multiple useful gaits, are highly desired due to the possibility of handling environments and tasks of high complexity while maintaining simple control schemes. An essential consideration in these reconfigurable legged robots is to attain stability in motion, at rest as well as while transforming from one configuration to another with the minimum number of legs as long as the full range of their walking patterns, resulting from the different gait cycles of their legs, is achieved. To this end, in this paper, we present a method for the generation of input joint trajectories to properly synchronize the movement of quadruped robots with reconfigurable legs. The approach is exemplified in a four-legged robot with reconfigurable Jansen legs capable of generating up to six useful different gait cycles. The proposed technique is validated through simulated results that show the platform׳s stability across its six feasible walking patterns and during gait transition phases, thus considerably extending the capabilities of the non-reconfigurable design.
Park, Jin; Yoo, Ingyu
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of gait parameters with fear of falling in stroke survivors. [Subjects] In total, 12 patients with stroke participated. [Methods] The subjects performed on a Biodex Gait Trainer 2 for 5 min to evaluate characteristic gait parameters. The kinematic gait parameters measured were gait speed, step cycle, step length, and time on each foot (step symmetry). All the subjects also completed a fall anxiety survey. [Results] Correlations between gait parameters and fear of falling scores were calculated. There was a moderate degree of correlation between fear of falling scores and the step cycle item of gait parameters. [Conclusions] According to our results, the step cycle gait parameter may be related to increased fall anxiety.
Ludmylla Teixeira Soares
Full Text Available Introduction Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder, which triggers limitations and disability in people. Therefore, rehabilitation therapy is widely recommended in patients with PD, especially those who do not respond to pharmacological treatment.Objective Evaluate the effect of a protocol of Whole-body Vibration (WBV in balance, gait and Quality of Life (QOL of patients with PD, who do not respond to pharmacological treatment.Methods It was performed 12 sessions of a protocol WBV (squat, plantar flexion, isometric contraction of members and single-leg balance, with three sets each, at a vibrating platform (2mm and 35Hz in 10 PD patients. By the first 3 sessions, patients underwent 20 seconds of exercise and 20 seconds of rest. After the third session, the treatment was 40 seconds of exercise and 20 seconds of rest. The Tinetti Test was applied before and after treatment to assess balance and gait, and the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life-questionnaire (PDQL-BR, to evaluate the PDQL-BR and its subcategories: Parkinson, Systemic, Social and Emotional.Results Treatment did not significantly change the balance (p = 0.438, QOL issue in Emotional (p = 0.450 and Social (p = 0.171, but improved gait (p = 0.003, the Tinetti (p ≤ 0.001, the quality of life in items Parkinson (p ≤ 0.001, Systemic (p ≤ 0.001 and PDQL-BR (p ≤ 0.001.Conclusions WBV exercises on the vibrating platform, according to the parameters used, showed promising results that encourage its use to improve the clinical conditions related to disorders of gait, balance and QOL in patients with PD.
robotic exoskeletons to enable gait in individuals with a complete spinal cord injury, the health benefits of exoskeleton -assisted gait have not been...for the use of robotic exoskeletons to enable gait in individuals with a complete spinal cord injury, clinical teams are not provided with...appropriate tools to estimate or predict potential health benefits (e.g. bone health) associated with exoskeleton -assisted gait. What was the impact on other
Simonov, P V
At the 23rd International Congress of Physiology Sciences (Tokyo, 1965) the results of experiment led us to the conclusion that emotions were determined by the actual need and estimation of probability (possibility) of its satisfaction. Low probability of need satisfaction leads to negative emotions actively minimized by the subject. Increased probability of satisfaction, as compared to the earlier forecast, generates positive emotions which the subject tries to maximize, that is, to enhance, to prolong, to repeat. We named our concept the Need-Informational Theory of Emotions. According to this theory, motivation, emotion, and estimation of probability have different neuromorphological substrates. Activation through the hypothalamic motivatiogenic structures of the frontal parts of the neocortex orients the behavior to signals with a high probability of their reinforcement. At the same time the hippocampus is necessary for reactions to signals of low probability events, which are typical for the emotionally excited brain. By comparison of motivational excitation with available stimuli or their engrams, the amygdala selects a dominant motivation, destined to be satisfied in the first instance. In the cases of classical conditioning and escape reaction the reinforcement was related to involvement of the negative emotion's hypothalamic neurons, while in the course of avoidance reaction the positive emotion's neurons were involved. The role of the left and right frontal neocortex in the appearance or positive or negative emotions depends on these informational (cognitive) functions.
Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg
Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study investig......Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study...... relevance: given the increasing use of neuroimaging, incidental white matter pathology is common; being able to delineate natural trajectories of balance and gait function given ARWMC may improve patient advice and help optimize allocation of care....
Heredia-Jimenez, Jose M; Soto-Hermoso, Victor M
The aim of this study was to assess the kinematics disorder of gait in men with fibromyalgia. We studied 12 male with fibromyalgia and 14 healthy men. Each participant of the study walked five trials along a 18.6-m walkway. Fibromyalgia patients completed a Spanish version of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Significant differences between fibromyalgia and control groups were found in velocity, stride length, and cadence. Gait parameters of men affected by fibromyalgia were impaired when compared to those of healthy group due to bradykinesia. According to previous studies to assess gait variables in female patients, the male with fibromyalgia also showed lower values of velocity, cadence, and stride length than healthy group but not reported significant differences in swing, stance, single, or double support phase.
Auvinet, Bernard; Bileckot, Richard; Alix, Anne-Sophie; Chaleil, Denis; Barrey, Eric
The objective of this study was to compare gait in patients with fibromyalgia and in matched controls. Measurements must be obtained in patients with fibromyalgia, as the evaluation scales for this disorder are semi-quantitative. We used a patented gait analysis system (Locometrix Centaure Metrix, France) developed by the French National Institute for Agricultural Research. Relaxed walking was evaluated in 14 women (mean age 50+/-5 years; mean height 162+/-5 cm; and mean body weight 68+/-13 kg) meeting American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia and in 14 controls matched on sex, age, height, and body weight. Gait during stable walking was severely altered in the patients. Walking speed was significantly diminished (Pfibromyalgia.
Goto, Kanako; Abe, Kaoru
Although workers in Japan are required to wear safety footwear, there is concern about occupational accidents that occur when wearing safety shoes. This study aimed to analyze the effect of wearing hardsoled safety shoes on both spatiotemporal gait characteristics and the muscle activity in the lower extremities. Seventeen young women participated in this study. A 5-m gait trial and a surface electromyography trial were conducted while the women walked in either safety shoes or sports shoes. Paired t-tests were performed to analyze the differences in gait characteristics when walking in the two different pairs of shoes. Walking in safety shoes was associated with a significant increase in vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and tibialis anterior activity. This increased muscle activity in the lower extremities is likely compensating for the lower flexibility of the safety shoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the asymmetry of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA during gait initiation and to determine whether the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The participants initiated gait with the leg indicated by a start tone or initiated gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. The dependent variables of APA were not significantly different among the condition of initiating gait with the preferred leg indicated by the start tone, the condition of initiating gait with the non-preferred leg indicated by the start tone, and the condition of initiating gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. These findings fail to support the view that the process of choosing the initial swing leg affects APA during gait initiation. The lateral displacement of the center of pressure in the period in which shifting the center of pressure to the initial swing phase before initiating gait with the left leg indicated by the external cue was significantly larger than that when initiating gait with the right leg indicated by the external cue, and significantly larger than that when initiating gait with the leg spontaneously chosen. Weight shift to the initial swing side during APA during gait initiation was found to be asymmetrical when choosing the leg in response to an external cue
Wang, Fang; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E.
In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the ot...
Jensen, Karsten; Juhl, Jens
The project presented in this article aims to develop software so that close-range photogrammetry with sufficient accuracy can be used to point out the most frequent foot mal positions and monitor the effect of the traditional treatment. The project is carried out as a cooperation between...... and the calcaneus angle during gait. In the introductory phase of the project the task has been to select, purchase and draw up hardware, select and purchase software concerning video streaming and to develop special software concerning automated registration of the position of the foot during gait by Multi Video...
Dwivedi, Suren N.; Mahalingam, Swaminathan
The configuration of the Carnegie-Mellon University Ambler, a six-legged autonomous walking vehicle for exploring Mars, enables the recovery of a trailing leg past the leading leg to reduce the energy expenditure in terrain interactions. In this article, gaits developed for this unprecedented configuration are described. A stability criterion has been developed that ensures stability of the vehicle in the event of failure of any one of the supporting legs. Periodic gaits developed for the Ambler utilize the Ambler's unique abilities and continuously satisfy the stability criterion.
Lynnerup, Niels; Vedel, Jens
Surveillance images from a bank robbery were analyzed and compared with images of a suspect. Based on general bodily features, gait and anthropometric measurements, we were able to conclude that one of the perpetrators showed strong resemblance to the suspect. Both exhibited a gait characterized...... by hyperextension of the leg joints, and bodily measurements did not differ by more than 6 mm on average. The latter was quantified by photogrammetry: i.e., measuring by using images of the perpetrator as captured by surveillance cameras. Using the computer software Photomodeler Pro, synchronous images from...
Yamauchi, Takashi; Xiao, Kunchen
Affective computing research has advanced emotion recognition systems using facial expressions, voices, gaits, and physiological signals, yet these methods are often impractical. This study integrates mouse cursor motion analysis into affective computing and investigates the idea that movements of the computer cursor can provide information about emotion of the computer user. We extracted 16-26 trajectory features during a choice-reaching task and examined the link between emotion and cursor motions. Participants were induced for positive or negative emotions by music, film clips, or emotional pictures, and they indicated their emotions with questionnaires. Our 10-fold cross-validation analysis shows that statistical models formed from "known" participants (training data) could predict nearly 10%-20% of the variance of positive affect and attentiveness ratings of "unknown" participants, suggesting that cursor movement patterns such as the area under curve and direction change help infer emotions of computer users. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Wuehr, M; Schniepp, R; Pradhan, C; Ilmberger, J; Strupp, M; Brandt, T; Jahn, K
Healthy persons exhibit relatively small temporal and spatial gait variability when walking unimpeded. In contrast, patients with a sensory deficit (e.g., polyneuropathy) show an increased gait variability that depends on speed and is associated with an increased fall risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of vision in gait stabilization by determining the effects of withdrawing visual information (eyes closed) on gait variability at different locomotion speeds. Ten healthy subjects (32.2 ± 7.9 years, 5 women) walked on a treadmill for 5-min periods at their preferred walking speed and at 20, 40, 70, and 80 % of maximal walking speed during the conditions of walking with eyes open (EO) and with eyes closed (EC). The coefficient of variation (CV) and fractal dimension (α) of the fluctuations in stride time, stride length, and base width were computed and analyzed. Withdrawing visual information increased the base width CV for all walking velocities (p < 0.001). The effects of absent visual information on CV and α of stride time and stride length were most pronounced during slow locomotion (p < 0.001) and declined during fast walking speeds. The results indicate that visual feedback control is used to stabilize the medio-lateral (i.e., base width) gait parameters at all speed sections. In contrast, sensory feedback control in the fore-aft direction (i.e., stride time and stride length) depends on speed. Sensory feedback contributes most to fore-aft gait stabilization during slow locomotion, whereas passive biomechanical mechanisms and an automated central pattern generation appear to control fast locomotion.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. Methods A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Results Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Conclusion Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate
Eckhardt, Martine M.; Mulder, Mascha C. Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L.; van der Woude, Luc H.; Ribbers, Gerard M.
Objective: To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. Design: Clinical experimental
Eckhardt, Martine M; Mulder, Mascha C Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L; van der Woude, Lucas; Ribbers, Gerard M
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. DESIGN: Clinical experimental
John S. Palmisano
Full Text Available A method was devised to vector propulsion of a robotic pectoral fin by means of actively controlling fin surface curvature. Separate flapping fin gaits were designed to maximize thrust for each of three different thrust vectors: forward, reverse, and lift. By using weighted combinations of these three pre-determined main gaits, new intermediate hybrid gaits for any desired propulsion vector can be created with smooth transitioning between these gaits. This weighted gait combination (WGC method is applicable to other difficult-to-model actuators. Both 3D unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD and experimental results are presented.
Cimolin, Veronica; Vismara, Luca; Galli, Manuela; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano; Capodaglio, Paolo
Abstract Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP). Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA), in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP ...
Schlenstedt, Christian; Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Witt, Karsten; Weisser, Burkhard; Fasano, Alfonso; Deuschl, Günther
The relationship between freezing of gait (FOG) and postural instability in Parkinson's disease (PD) is unclear. We analyzed the impact of FOG on postural control. 31 PD patients with FOG (PD+FOG), 27 PD patients without FOG (PD-FOG) and 22 healthy control (HC) were assessed in the ON state. Postural control was measured with the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale and with center of pressure (COP) analysis during quiet stance and maximal voluntary forward/backward leaning. The groups were balanced concerning age, disease duration and disease severity. PD+FOG performed significantly worse in the FAB scale (21.8 ± 5.8) compared to PD-FOG (25.6 ± 5.0) and HC (34.9 ± 2.4) (mean ± SD, p postural control asymmetry. PD+FOG have reduced postural control compared to PD-FOG and HC. Our results show a relationship between the anterior-posterior COP position during quiet stance and FOG. The COP shift towards posterior in PD+FOG leads to a restricted precondition to generate forward progression during gait initiation. This may contribute to the occurrence of FOG or might be a compensatory strategy to avoid forward falls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mohapatra, Subasish; Swain, Anisha; Das, Manaswini; Mohanty, Subhadarshini
Bio metric surveillance has become indispensable for every system in the recent years. The contribution of bio metric authentication, identification, and screening purposes are widely used in various domains for preventing unauthorized access. A large amount of data needs to be updated, segregated and safeguarded from malicious software and misuse. Bio metrics is the intrinsic characteristics of each individual. Recently fingerprints, iris, passwords, unique keys, and cards are commonly used for authentication purposes. These methods have various issues related to security and confidentiality. These systems are not yet automated to provide the safety and security. The gait recognition system is the alternative for overcoming the drawbacks of the recent bio metric based authentication systems. Gait recognition is newer as it hasn't been implemented in the real-world scenario so far. This is an un-intrusive system that requires no knowledge or co-operation of the subject. Gait is a unique behavioral characteristic of every human being which is hard to imitate. The walking style of an individual teamed with the orientation of joints in the skeletal structure and inclinations between them imparts the unique characteristic. A person can alter one's own external appearance but not skeletal structure. These are real-time, automatic systems that can even process low-resolution images and video frames. In this paper, we have proposed a gait recognition system and compared the performance with conventional bio metric identification systems.
Barthel, C.; Mallia, E.; Debu, B.; Bloem, B.R.; Ferraye, M.U.
BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a mysterious, complex and debilitating phenomenon in Parkinson's disease. Adequate assessment is a pre-requisite for managing FOG, as well as for assigning participants in FOG research. The episodic nature of FOG, as well as its multiple clinical expressions
Full Text Available Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture- gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture- gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.
Cestari, Manuel; Sanz-Merodio, Daniel; Garcia, Elena
Current commercial wearable gait exoskeletons contain joints with stiff actuators that cannot adapt to unpredictable environments. These actuators consume a significant amount of energy, and their stiffness may not be appropriate for safe human-machine interactions. Adjustable compliant actuators are being designed and implemented because of their ability to minimize large forces due to shocks, to safely interact with the user, and to store and release energy in passive elastic elements. Introduction of such compliant actuation in gait exoskeletons, however, has been limited by the larger power-to-weight and volume ratio requirement. This article presents a preliminary assessment of the first compliant exoskeleton for children. Compliant actuation systems developed by our research group were integrated into the ATLAS exoskeleton prototype. The resulting device is a compliant exoskeleton, the ATLAS-C prototype. The exoskeleton is coupled with a special standing frame to provide balance while allowing a semi-natural gait. Experiments show that when comparing the behavior of the joints under different stiffness conditions, the inherent compliance of the implemented actuators showed natural adaptability during the gait cycle and in regions of shock absorption. Torque tracking of the joint is achieved, identifying the areas of loading response. The implementation of a state machine in the control of knee motion allowed reutilization of the stored energy during deflection at the end of the support phase to partially propel the leg and achieve a more natural and free swing.
Duysens, J.; Beerepoot, V.P.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Weerdesteyn, V.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.
Through recent studies, the role of proprioceptors in reactions to perturbations during gait has been finally somewhat better understood. The input from spindle afferents has been investigated with tendon taps, vibration and other forms of muscle stretches, including some resembling natural
Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of both conventional overground gait training (CGT) and a gait trainer with partial body weight support (GTBWS) on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients with hemiparesis following chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were alternately assigned to one of two treatment groups, and both groups underwent CGT and GTBWS. [Results] The functional ambulation classification on the affected side improved signifi...
Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Vismara, Luca; Vimercati, Sara Laura; Precilios, Helmer; Cattani, Laila; Fabris De Souza, Shirley; Petroni, Maria Letizia; Capodaglio, Paolo
Anorexia (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) are two common eating disorders, which appear to share some reduced motor capacities, such as a reduced balance. The presence and the extent of other motor disorders have not been investigated in a comprehensive way. The aim of this study was to quantify gait pattern in AN and BN individuals in order to ascertain possible differences from the normality range and provide novel data for developing some evidence-based rehabilitation strategies. Nineteen AN patients (age 30.16+9.73) and 20 BN patients (age 26.8+8.41) were assessed with quantitative 3D computerized Gait Analysis. Results were compared with a group of healthy controls (CG; 30.7+5.6). AN and BN patients were characterized by different gait strategies compared to CG. Spatio-temporal parameters indicated shorter step length, with AN showing the shortest values. AN walked slower than BN and CG. As for kinematics, AN and BN showed a nonphysiologic pattern at pelvis and hip level on the sagittal and frontal plane, with BN yielding the most abnormal values. Both AN and BN patients were characterized by high ankle plantar flexion capacity at toe-off when compared to CG. As for ankle kinetics, both AN and BN showed physiologic patterns. Stiffness at hip level was close to CG in both pathologic groups; at the ankle level, stiffness was significantly decreased in both groups, with AN displaying lower values. Both AN and BN were characterized by an altered gait pattern compared to CG. Biomechanical differences were evident mainly at pelvis and hip level. Loss of lean mass may lead to musculoskeletal adaptation, ultimately causing alterations in the gait pattern.
Kloefkorn, Heidi E.; Pettengill, Travis R.; Turner, Sara M. F.; Streeter, Kristi A.; Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J.; Fuller, David D.; Allen, Kyle D.
While rodent gait analysis can quantify the behavioral consequences of disease, significant methodological differences exist between analysis platforms and little validation has been performed to understand or mitigate these sources of variance. By providing the algorithms used to quantify gait, open-source gait analysis software can be validated and used to explore methodological differences. Our group is introducing, for the first time, a fully-automated, open-source method for the characterization of rodent spatiotemporal gait patterns, termed Automated Gait Analysis Through Hues and Areas (AGATHA). This study describes how AGATHA identifies gait events, validates AGATHA relative to manual digitization methods, and utilizes AGATHA to detect gait compensations in orthopaedic and spinal cord injury models. To validate AGATHA against manual digitization, results from videos of rodent gait, recorded at 1000 frames per second (fps), were compared. To assess one common source of variance (the effects of video frame rate), these 1000 fps videos were re-sampled to mimic several lower fps and compared again. While spatial variables were indistinguishable between AGATHA and manual digitization, low video frame rates resulted in temporal errors for both methods. At frame rates over 125 fps, AGATHA achieved a comparable accuracy and precision to manual digitization for all gait variables. Moreover, AGATHA detected unique gait changes in each injury model. These data demonstrate AGATHA is an accurate and precise platform for the analysis of rodent spatiotemporal gait patterns. PMID:27554674
Fonseca Das Neves, J; Sule, N; Serra, E
Pain is a common experience, both physical and emotional. However we often feel powerless with our patients suffering pain. This paper aims to give a new heuristic and psychological understanding of pain. According to new theories, recent researches as well as different points of view, we form an analogy between pain and emotion. Throughout historical considerations pain has always been perceived through theories and beliefs, changing its definition. This is also the case for emotion. Could they be two ways of expressing a single phenomenon? First, we must clarify the definition of emotion. In past, emotion was considered as a multiple-conditioned notion. To be considered as an emotion the pain had to fill numerous features, which differ according to the scientific opinions. The emotion may be considered as a physical expression or perceived only as the consequences of a real emotion, i.e., the subjective feeling. We propose as a way of thinking that emotion brings together these two concepts. We support a flexible vision of emotion. To investigate the field of the emotion different mental steps may be thought of: we should conceive of the emotion as a stimulus, as an emotional evaluation and as a tendency to action, which becomes an emotional response. These steps are colored by subjective feelings. It can be summarized in three levels: the situation decoding (1), the response organization (2) and the effectiveness of the response (3). Second pain can be considered as a complex notion involving personal and subjective feelings. We can use multidimensional patterns and consider emotion with its multiple features: the generating mechanisms, the pain perception, the pain behavior and the environment. Each stage can be divided in different ways. Hence pain treatment could be approached as an emotional treatment. Indeed, we can make a link between generating mechanisms and emotion situation decoding, between pain perception and emotion situation decoding and response
Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn
Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile.
Full Text Available IntroductionCognitive and gait deficits are common symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Motor-cognitive dual tasks (DTs are used to explore the interplay between gait and cognition. However, it is unclear if DT gait performance is indicative for cognitive impairment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if cognitive deficits are reflected by DT costs of spatiotemporal gait parameters.MethodsCognitive function, single task (ST and DT gait performance were investigated in 67 PD patients. Cognition was assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA followed by a standardized, sensor-based gait test and the identical gait test while subtracting serial 3’s. Cognitive impairment was defined by a MoCA score <26. DT costs in gait parameters [(DT − ST/ST × 100] were calculated as a measure of DT effect on gait. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between MoCA performance and gait parameters. In a linear regression model, DT gait costs and clinical confounders (age, gender, disease duration, motor impairment, medication, and depression were correlated to cognitive performance. In a subgroup analysis, we compared matched groups of cognitively impaired and unimpaired PD patients regarding differences in ST, DT, and DT gait costs.ResultsCorrelation analysis revealed weak correlations between MoCA score and DT costs of gait parameters (r/rSp ≤ 0.3. DT costs of stride length, swing time variability, and maximum toe clearance (|r/rSp| > 0.2 were included in a regression analysis. The parameters only explain 8% of the cognitive variance. In combination with clinical confounders, regression analysis showed that these gait parameters explained 30% of MoCA performance. Group comparison revealed strong DT effects within both groups (large effect sizes, but significant between-group effects in DT gait costs were not observed.ConclusionThese findings suggest that DT gait performance is not indicative
Pratiher, Sawon; Patra, Sayantani; Pratiher, Souvik
A novel analytical methodology for segregating healthy and neurological disorders from gait patterns is proposed by employing a set of oscillating components called intrinsic mode functions (IMF's). These IMF's are generated by the Empirical Mode Decomposition of the gait time series and the Hilbert transformed analytic signal representation forms the complex plane trace of the elliptical shaped analytic IMFs. The area measure and the relative change in the centroid position of the polygon formed by the Convex Hull of these analytic IMF's are taken as the discriminative features. Classification accuracy of 79.31% with Ensemble learning based Adaboost classifier validates the adequacy of the proposed methodology for a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for gait pattern identification. Also, the efficacy of several potential biomarkers like Bandwidth of Amplitude Modulation and Frequency Modulation IMF's and it's Mean Frequency from the Fourier-Bessel expansion from each of these analytic IMF's has been discussed for its potency in diagnosis of gait pattern identification and classification.
Dafkin, Chloe; Green, Andrew; Olivier, Benita; McKinon, Warrick; Kerr, Samantha
To assess if there is a circadian variation in electromyographical (EMG) muscle activity during gait in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients and healthy control participants. Gait assessment was done in 14 RLS patients and 13 healthy control participants in the evening (PM) and the morning (AM). Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally from the tibialis anterior (TA), lateral gastrocnemius (GL), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. A circadian variation during the stance phase in only TA (PM > AM, p Controls, p < 0.05) during early stance and decreased GL activity (RLS < Controls, p < 0.01) during terminal stance in comparison to control participants in the evening. No other significant differences were noted between RLS patients and control participants. Activation of GL during the swing phase was noted in 79% of RLS patients and in 23% of control participants in the morning compared to 71% and 38% in the evening, respectively. EMG muscle activity shows no circadian variation in RLS patients. Evening differences in gait muscle activation patterns between RLS patients and control participants are evident. These results extend our knowledge about alterations in spinal processing during gait in RLS. A possible explanation for these findings is central pattern generator sensitization caused by increased sensitivity in cutaneous afferents in RLS patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Simon, Sheldon R
The technology supporting the analysis of human motion has advanced dramatically. Past decades of locomotion research have provided us with significant knowledge about the accuracy of tests performed, the understanding of the process of human locomotion, and how clinical testing can be used to evaluate medical disorders and affect their treatment. Gait analysis is now recognized as clinically useful and financially reimbursable for some medical conditions. Yet, the routine clinical use of gait analysis has seen very limited growth. The issue of its clinical value is related to many factors, including the applicability of existing technology to addressing clinical problems; the limited use of such tests to address a wide variety of medical disorders; the manner in which gait laboratories are organized, tests are performed, and reports generated; and the clinical understanding and expectations of laboratory results. Clinical use is most hampered by the length of time and costs required for performing a study and interpreting it. A "gait" report is lengthy, its data are not well understood, and it includes a clinical interpretation, all of which do not occur with other clinical tests. Current biotechnology research is seeking to address these problems by creating techniques to capture data rapidly, accurately, and efficiently, and to interpret such data by an assortment of modeling, statistical, wave interpretation, and artificial intelligence methodologies. The success of such efforts rests on both our technical abilities and communication between engineers and clinicians.
Lu, Chiahao; Amundsen Huffmaster, Sommer L; Tuite, Paul J; Vachon, Jacqueline M; MacKinnon, Colum D
To examine the effects of cue timing, across 3 sensory modalities, on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during gait initiation in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Observational study. Biomechanics research laboratory. Individuals with idiopathic PD (N=25; 11 with freezing of gait [FOG]) were studied in the off-medication state (12-h overnight withdrawal). Gait initiation was tested without cueing (self-initiated) and with 3 cue timing protocols: fixed delay (3s), random delay (4-12s), and countdown (3-2-1-go, 1-s intervals) across 3 sensory modalities (acoustic, visual, and vibrotactile). The incidence and spatiotemporal characteristics of APAs during gait initiation were analyzed, including vertical ground reaction forces and center of pressure. All cue timings and modalities increased the incidence and amplitude of APAs compared with self-initiated stepping. Acoustic and visual cues, but not vibrotactile stimulation, improved the timing of APAs. Fixed delay or countdown timing protocols were more effective at decreasing APA durations than random delay cues. Cue-evoked improvements in APA timing, but not amplitude, correlated with the level of impairment during self-initiated gait. Cues did not improve the late push-off phase in the FOG group. External cueing improves gait initiation in PD regardless of cue timing, modality, or clinical phenotype (with and without FOG). Acoustic or visual cueing with predictive timing provided the greatest improvements in gait initiation; therefore, these protocols may provide the best outcomes when applied by caregivers or devices. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10 would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12 and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult. Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated
Melo, Renato de Souza
Several studies have demonstrated that children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) may exhibit balance disorders, which can compromise the gait performance of this population. Compare the gait performance of normal hearing (NH) children and those with SNHL, considering the sex and age range of the sample, and analyze gait performance according to degrees of hearing loss and etiological factors in the latter group. This is a cross-sectional study that assessed 96 students, 48 NH and 48 with SNHL, aged between 7 and 18 years. The Brazilian version of the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) was used to analyze gait and the Mann-Whitney test for statistical analysis. The group with SNHL obtained lower average gait performance compared to NH subjects (p=0.000). This was also observed when the children were grouped by sex female and male (p=0.000). The same difference occurred when the children were stratified by age group: 7-18 years (p=0.000). The group with severe and profound hearing loss exhibited worse gait performance than those with mild and moderate loss (p=0.048) and children with prematurity as an etiological factor demonstrated the worst gait performance. The children with SNHL showed worse gait performance compared to NH of the same sex and age group. Those with severe and profound hearing loss and prematurity as an etiological factor demonstrated the worst gait performances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Modinos, Gemma; Ormel, Johan; Aleman, Andre
Emotion regulation processes, such as reappraisal, are thought to operate through interactions between prefrontal emotion-control regions and subcortical emotion-generation regions such as the amygdala. Impairments in emotional processing and regulation have been reported in schizophrenia and
Ashkani, O; Maleki, A; Jamshidi, N
Exoskeleton is a walking assistance device that improves human gait cycle through providing auxiliary force and transferring physical load to the stronger muscles. This device takes the natural state of organ and follows its natural movement. Exoskeleton functions as an auxiliary device to help those with disabilities in hip and knee such as devotees, elderly farmers and agricultural machinery operators who suffer from knee complications. In this research, an exoskeleton designed with two screw jacks at knee and hip joints. To simulate extension and flexion movements of the leg joints, bearings were used at the end of hip and knee joints. The generated torque and motion angles of these joints obtained as well as the displacement curves of screw jacks in the gait cycle. Then, the human gait cycle was simulated in stance and swing phases and the obtained torque curves were compared. The results indicated that they followed the natural circle of the generated torque in joints with a little difference from each other. The maximum displacement obtained 4 and 6 cm in hip and knee joints jack respectively. The maximum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in foot contact phase. Also the minimum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in toe off and heel off phases respectively.
Montero-Odasso, Manuel M; Sarquis-Adamson, Yanina; Speechley, Mark; Borrie, Michael J; Hachinski, Vladimir C; Wells, Jennie; Riccio, Patricia M; Schapira, Marcelo; Sejdic, Ervin; Camicioli, Richard M; Bartha, Robert; McIlroy, William E; Muir-Hunter, Susan
Gait performance is affected by neurodegeneration in aging and has the potential to be used as a clinical marker for progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. A dual-task gait test evaluating the cognitive-motor interface may predict dementia progression in older adults with MCI. To determine whether a dual-task gait test is associated with incident dementia in MCI. The Gait and Brain Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults that enrolled 112 older adults with MCI. Participants were followed up for 6 years, with biannual visits including neurologic, cognitive, and gait assessments. Data were collected from July 2007 to March 2016. Incident all-cause dementia was the main outcome measure, and single- and dual-task gait velocity and dual-task gait costs were the independent variables. A neuropsychological test battery was used to assess cognition. Gait velocity was recorded under single-task and 3 separate dual-task conditions using an electronic walkway. Dual-task gait cost was defined as the percentage change between single- and dual-task gait velocities: ([single-task gait velocity - dual-task gait velocity]/ single-task gait velocity) × 100. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association between risk of progression to dementia and the independent variables, adjusted for age, sex, education, comorbidities, and cognition. Among 112 study participants with MCI, mean (SD) age was 76.6 (6.9) years, 55 were women (49.1%), and 27 progressed to dementia (24.1%), with an incidence rate of 121 per 1000 person-years. Slow single-task gait velocity (gait cost while counting backward (HR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.57-9.15; P = .003) and naming animals (HR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.04-5.59; P = .04) were associated with dementia progression (incidence rate, 155 per 1000 person-years). The models remained robust after adjusting by baseline cognition except for dual-task gait cost when dichotomized. Dual
Dias, D; Laíns, J; Pereira, A; Nunes, R; Caldas, J; Amaral, C; Pires, S; Costa, A; Alves, P; Moreira, M; Garrido, N; Loureiro, L
Partial body weight support (PBWS) is an accepted treatment for hemiplegic patients. The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of gait trainer with conventional treatment on the gait management after stroke. Forty chronic post-stroke hemiplegics were part of a prospective research. Inclusion criteria were: first ever stroke in a chronic stage with stabilised motor deficits; age >18 and gait trainer, for the same period of time and frequency. Assessment tools: Motricity Index (MI); Toulouse Motor Scale (TMS); modified Ashworth Spasticity Scale (mASS); Berg Balance Scale (BBS); Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI); Fugl-Meyer Stroke Scale (F-MSS); Functional Ambulation Category (FAC); Barthel Index (BI); 10 meters, time up and go (TUG), 6 minutes, and step tests. EG and CG did the assessments before treatment (T(0)), right after treatment (T(1)), and on follow-up, 3 months later (T(2)). CG and EG were homogenous in all the variables at T(0). CG and EG showed improvement in almost all the assessment scales after treatment, although only some with relevant differences. EG showed statistically relevant improvement on T(1) and on T(2) in several of the assessment tools, whereas CG only showed statistically significant improvement after T(1) and only in some of the assessment tools. Both groups of chronic hemiplegic patients improved after either PBWS with gait trainer or Bobath treatment. Only subjects undergoing PBWS with gait trainer maintained functional gain after 3 months.
Full Text Available In nature, many physical and biological systems have structures showing harmonic properties. Some of them were found related to the irrational number known as the golden ratio that has important symmetric and harmonic properties. In this study, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of 25 healthy subjects were analyzed using a stereophotogrammetric system with 25 retroreflective markers located on their skin. The proportions of gait phases were compared with , the value of which is about 1.6180. The ratio between the entire gait cycle and stance phase resulted in 1.620 ± 0.058, that between stance and the swing phase was 1.629 ± 0.173, and that between swing and the double support phase was 1.684 ± 0.357. All these ratios did not differ significantly from each other (, , repeated measure analysis of variance or from (, resp., t-tests. The repetitive gait phases of physiological walking were found in turn in repetitive proportions with each other, revealing an intrinsic harmonic structure. Harmony could be the key for facilitating the control of repetitive walking. Harmony is a powerful unifying factor between seemingly disparate fields of nature, including human gait.
Ludwig, Oliver; Dillinger, Steffen; Marschall, Franz
In this study, inter- and intra-individual gait pattern differences are examined in various gait situations by means of phase diagrams of the extremity angles (cyclograms). 8 test subjects walked along a walking distance of 6m under different conditions three times each: barefoot, wearing sneakers, wearing combat boots, after muscular fatigue, and wearing a full-face motorcycle helmet restricting vision. The joint angles of foot, knee, and hip were recorded in the sagittal plane. The coupling of movements was represented by time-adjusted cyclograms, and the inter- and intra-individual differences were captured by calculating the similarity between different gait patterns. Gait pattern variability was often greater between the defined test situations than between the individual test subjects. The results have been interpreted considering neurophysiological regulation mechanisms. Footwear, masking, and fatigue were interpreted as disturbance parameters, each being a cause for gait pattern variability and complicating the inference of identity of persons in video recordings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alexis N. Cohen-Oram
Full Text Available Gait ignition failure (GIF is a syndrome characterized by hesitation or inability to initiate gait from a static position. It may occur in a variety of conditions, including normal pressure hydrocephalus, subcortical vascular disease, parkinsonian syndromes and a variety of focal lesions. Previous information on the treatment of GIF has been primarily anecdotal, but there have been a few reports of response to dopamine agonists. We report a 63-year-old man with anoxic encephalopathy who developed GIF nine years after the initial anoxic insult. The patient’s GIF responded robustly, albeit transiently, to ropinirole. MRI was unrevealing, but a positron emission tomography scan showed hypometabolism in the deep frontal ACA/MCA watershed area; this may have disconnected the basal ganglia from the motor cortex and/or interrupted dopaminergic mesocortical transmission. Our understanding of the pathophysiology and the treatment of GIF remains limited, but there may be at least a limited therapeutic role for dopamine agonists.
Full Text Available Even though intervertebral disc degeneration can be found in the natural course of alkaptonuria, detection of the disease by black disc color change in a patient without any other presentation of alkaptonuria is an exceptionally rare condition. We have reported a very rare case of alkaptonuria presented with low back pain and steppage gait in a 51-year-old male with a complaint of chronic low-back pain and steppage gait who was operated on for prolapsed lumbar disc herniation. Intraoperatively his lumbar disk was discovered to be black. The alkaptonuria diagnosis was considered after histopathological examination of the black disc material and elevated urinary concentration of homogentisic acid confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this presentation has not been reported previously in literature.
Wang, Yuzheng; Xu, Wei; Luo, Fei
Previous studies have shown that mindfulness promotes positive mood states and reduces negative ones; however, the underlying mechanisms are still controversial. This study assessed the role of emotional resilience as a mediator between mindfulness and emotional regulation. A total of 421 college students (M age = 20.0 year, SD = 2.0; males/females/missing are 152/248/4) completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Profile of Mood States, and Adolescents' Emotional Resilience Questionnaire (AERQ). The ability to generate positive emotion (GP) and the ability to recover from negative emotion (RN) are two subscales of the AERQ. A Structural Equation Modeling analysis indicated that emotional resilience mediated the connection between mindfulness and emotion. Specifically, GP mediated the relationship between mindfulness and both positive and negative emotions while RN mainly mediated the relationship between mindfulness and negative emotions. These findings suggest that mindfulness may play a role in regulating positive and negative emotions through the two different aspects of emotional resilience. © The Author(s) 2016.
Suárez Araujo, Carmen Paz; Barahona da Fonseca, Isabel; Barahona da Fonseca, José; Simões da Fonseca, J.
A theoretical approach that aims to the identification of information processing that may be responsible for emotional dimensions of subjective experience is studied as an initial step in the construction of a neural net model of affective dimensions of psychological experiences. In this paper it is suggested that a way of orientated recombination of attributes can be present not only in the perceptive processing but also in cognitive ones. We will present an analysis of the most important emotion theories, we show their neural organization and we propose the neural computation approach as an appropriate framework for generating knowledge about the neural base of emotional experience. Finally, in this study we present a scheme corresponding to framework to design a computational neural multi-system for Emotion (CONEMSE).
Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the need for emotional intelligence. Two methods of measurementare presented in this research, in order to better understand the necessity of a correct result. Theresults of research can lead to recommendations for improving levels of emotional intelligence andare useful for obtaining data to better compare past and present result. The papers presented inthis research are significant for future study of this subject. The first paper presents the evolutionof emotional intelligence in the past two years, more specifically its decrease concerning certaincharacteristics. The second one presents a research on the differences between generations. Thethird one shows a difference in emotional intelligence levels of children from rural versus urbanenvironments and the obstacles that they encounter in their own development.
Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Wildes, Jennifer E; Miller, Megan A; Erickson, Kirk I
Major depression and eating disorders (EDs) are highly co-morbid and may share liability. Impaired emotion regulation may represent a common etiological or maintaining mechanism. Research has demonstrated that depressed individuals and individuals with EDs exhibit impaired emotion regulation, with these impairments being associated with changes in brain structure and function. The goal of this review was to evaluate findings from neuroimaging studies of depression and EDs to determine whether there are overlapping alterations in the brain regions known to be involved in emotion regulation, evidence of which would aid in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. Our review of the literature suggests that depression and EDs exhibit common structural and functional alterations in brain regions involved in emotion regulation, including the amygdala, ventral striatum and nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We present preliminary support for a shared etiological mechanism. Future studies should consider manipulating emotion regulation in a sample of individuals with depression and EDs to better characterize abnormalities in these brain circuits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Larsen, Peter; Læssøe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten
INTRODUCTION: Despite the high number of studies evaluating the outcomes following tibial shaft fractures, the literature lacks studies including objective assessment of patients' recovery regarding gait pattern. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether gait patterns at 6 and 12...... months post-operatively following intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture are different compared with a healthy reference population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study design was a prospective cohort study. The primary outcome measurement was the gait patterns at 6 and 12 months post......-operatively measured with a 6-metre-long pressure-sensitive mat. The mat registers footprints and present gait speed, cadence as well as temporal and spatial parameters of the gait cycle. Gait patterns were compared to a healthy reference population. RESULTS: 49 patients were included with a mean age of 43.1 years (18...
Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique
Background: During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Methods: Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpa...
Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of both conventional overground gait training (CGT) and a gait trainer with partial body weight support (GTBWS) on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients with hemiparesis following chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were alternately assigned to one of two treatment groups, and both groups underwent CGT and GTBWS. [Results] The functional ambulation classification on the affected side improved significantly in the CGT and GTBWS groups. Walking speed also improved significantly in both groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the GTBWS in company with CGT may be, in part, an effective method of gait training for restoring gait ability in patients after a stroke.
Ingram, Jay; Cangemi, Joseph
When people think of emotions, usually they think of different states of being, such as happiness, sadness, or anger. However, emotions generate very powerful chemicals that can create positive feelings, such as motivation and enthusiasm, or they can create more negative responses, such as offending and even attacking others. When an emotionally…
Machera, Robert P.; Machera, Precious C.
This study investigates the need to design and develop emotional intelligence curriculum for students in higher education. Emotional intelligence curriculum may be used as a therapy that provides skills to manage high emotions faced by generation "Y", on a day-to-day basis. Generation "Y" is emotionally challenged with: drug…
Full Text Available Cardiovascular patients consult doctors for advice regarding regular exercise, whereas obese patients must self-manage their weight. Because a system for permanently monitoring and tracking patients’ exercise intensities and workouts is necessary, a system for recognizing gait and estimating walking exercise intensity was proposed. For gait recognition analysis, αβ filters were used to improve the recognition of athletic attitude. Furthermore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD was used to filter the noise of patients’ attitude to acquire the Fourier transform energy spectrum. Linear discriminant analysis was then applied to this energy spectrum for training and recognition. When the gait or motion was recognized, the walking exercise intensity was estimated. In addition, this study addressed the correlation between inertia and exercise intensity by using the residual function of the EMD and quadratic approximation to filter the effect of the baseline drift integral of the acceleration sensor. The increase in the determination coefficient of the regression equation from 0.55 to 0.81 proved that the accuracy of the method for estimating walking exercise intensity proposed by Kurihara was improved in this study.
Full Text Available Human gait identification aims to identify people by a sequence of walking images. Comparing with fingerprint or iris based identification, the most important advantage of gait identification is that it can be done at a distance. In this paper, silhouette correlation analysis based human identification approach is proposed. By background subtracting algorithm, the moving silhouette figure can be extracted from the walking images sequence. Every pixel in the silhouette has three dimensions: horizontal axis (x, vertical axis (y, and temporal axis (t. By moving every pixel in the silhouette image along these three dimensions, we can get a new silhouette. The correlation result between the original silhouette and the new one can be used as the raw feature of human gait. Discrete Fourier transform is used to extract features from this correlation result. Then, these features are normalized to minimize the affection of noise. Primary component analysis method is used to reduce the features’ dimensions. Experiment based on CASIA database shows that this method has an encouraging recognition performance.
To provide family physicians with an approach to office management of gait disorders in the elderly. Ovid MEDLINE was searched from 1950 to July 2010 using subject headings for gait or neurologic gait disorders combined with physical examination. Articles specific to family practice or family physicians were selected. Relevant review articles and original research were used when appropriate and applicable to the elderly. Gait and balance disorders in the elderly are difficult to recognize and diagnose in the family practice setting because they initially present with subtle undifferentiated manifestations, and because causes are usually multifactorial, with multiple diseases developing simultaneously. To further complicate the issue, these manifestations can be camouflaged in elderly patients by the physiologic changes associated with normal aging. A classification of gait disorders based on sensorimotor levels can be useful in the approach to management of this problem. Gait disorders in patients presenting to family physicians in the primary care setting are often related to joint and skeletal problems (lowest-level disturbances), as opposed to patients referred to neurology specialty clinics with sensory ataxia, myelopathy, multiple strokes, and parkinsonism (lowest-, middle-, and highest-level disturbances). The difficulty in diagnosing gait disorders stems from the challenge of addressing early undifferentiated disease caused by multiple disease processes involving all sensorimotor levels. Patients might present with a nonspecific "cautious" gait that is simply an adaptation of the body to disease limitations. This cautious gait has a mildly flexed posture with reduced arm swing and a broadening of the base of support. This article reviews the focused history (including medication review), practical physical examination, investigations, and treatments that are key to office management of gait disorders. Family physicians will find it helpful to classify gait
In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime. 14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering. Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...
As a great poet in British Romanticism.Wordsworth is not the practioner of an artistic craft designed tO satisfy "taste" of a literary connoisseur.He is,instead."a man speaking to men" with his uniqueness in emotion.This paper tempts to demonstrate how Wordsworth conveys emotion with poetic language.Wordsworthian "emotion recollected in tranquility" is simple,pure and genuine,which is the true art in wordsworth's poems.
Kayser, Jürgen; Tenke, Craig E; Abraham, Karen S; Alschuler, Daniel M; Alvarenga, Jorge E; Skipper, Jamie; Warner, Virginia; Bruder, Gerard E; Weissman, Myrna M
Behavioral and electrophysiologic evidence suggests that major depression (MDD) involves right parietotemporal dysfunction, a region activated by arousing affective stimuli. Building on prior event-related potential (ERP) findings (Kayser et al. 2016 NeuroImage 142:337-350), this study examined whether these abnormalities also characterize individuals at clinical high risk for MDD. We systematically explored the impact of family risk status and personal history of depression and anxiety on three distinct stages of emotional processing comprising the late positive potential (LPP). ERPs (72 channels) were recorded from 74 high and 53 low risk individuals (age 13-59 years, 58 male) during a visual half-field paradigm using highly-controlled pictures of cosmetic surgery patients showing disordered (negative) or healed (neutral) facial areas before or after treatment. Reference-free current source density (CSD) transformations of ERP waveforms were quantified by temporal principal components analysis (tPCA). Component scores of prominent CSD-tPCA factors sensitive to emotional content were analyzed via permutation tests and repeated measures ANOVA for mixed factorial designs with unstructured covariance matrix, including gender, age and clinical covariates. Factor-based distributed inverse solutions provided descriptive estimates of emotional brain activations at group level corresponding to hierarchical activations along ventral visual processing stream. Risk status affected emotional responsivity (increased positivity to negative-than-neutral stimuli) overlapping early N2 sink (peak latency 212 ms), P3 source (385 ms), and a late centroparietal source (630 ms). High risk individuals had reduced right-greater-than-left emotional lateralization involving occipitotemporal cortex (N2 sink) and bilaterally reduced emotional effects involving posterior cingulate (P3 source) and inferior temporal cortex (630 ms) when compared to those at low risk. While the early
Ortells, Javier; Herrero-Ezquerro, María Trinidad; Mollineda, Ramón A
Gait is a firsthand reflection of health condition. This belief has inspired recent research efforts to automate the analysis of pathological gait, in order to assist physicians in decision-making. However, most of these efforts rely on gait descriptions which are difficult to understand by humans, or on sensing technologies hardly available in ambulatory services. This paper proposes a number of semantic and normalized gait features computed from a single video acquired by a low-cost sensor. Far from being conventional spatio-temporal descriptors, features are aimed at quantifying gait impairment, such as gait asymmetry from several perspectives or falling risk. They were designed to be invariant to frame rate and image size, allowing cross-platform comparisons. Experiments were formulated in terms of two databases. A well-known general-purpose gait dataset is used to establish normal references for features, while a new database, introduced in this work, provides samples under eight different walking styles: one normal and seven impaired patterns. A number of statistical studies were carried out to prove the sensitivity of features at measuring the expected pathologies, providing enough evidence about their accuracy. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract reflecting main contributions of the manuscript: at the top, a robust, semantic and easy-to-interpret feature set to describe impaired gait patterns; at the bottom, a new dataset consisting of video-recordings of a number of volunteers simulating different patterns of pathological gait, where features were statistically assessed.
Weijer, R H A; Hoozemans, M J M; van Dieën, J H; Pijnappels, M
Quality of gait during daily life activities and perceived gait stability are both independent risk factors for future falls in older adults. We investigated whether perceived gait stability modulates the association between gait quality and falling in older adults. In this prospective cohort study, we used one-week daily-life trunk acceleration data of 272 adults over 65 years of age. Sample entropy (SE) of the 3D acceleration signals was calculated to quantify daily life gait quality. To quantify perceived gait stability, the level of concern about falling was assessed using the Falls Efficacy Scale international (FES-I) questionnaire and step length, estimated from the accelerometer data. A fall calendar was used to record fall incidence during a six-month follow up period. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association between falling and SE, step length or FES-I score, and their interactions. High (i.e., poor) SE in vertical direction was significantly associated with falling. FES-I scores significantly modulated this association, whereas step length did not. Subgroup analyses based on FES-I scores showed that high SE in the vertical direction was a risk factor for falls only in older adults who had a high (i.e. poor) FES-I score. In conclusion, perceived gait stability modulates the association between gait quality and falls in older adults such that an association between gait quality and falling is only present when perceived gait stability is poor. The results of the present study indicate that the effectiveness of interventions for fall prevention, aimed at improving gait quality, may be affected by a modulating effect of perceived gait stability. Results indicate that interventions to reduce falls in older adults might sort most effectiveness in populations with both a poor physiological and psychological status. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Diekmann, Volker; Hoppner, Anselm Cornelius
Patients suffering from musicogenic epilepsy have focal seizures triggered by auditory stimuli. In some of these patients, the emotions associated with the music appear to play a role in the process triggering the seizure, however, the significance of these emotions and the brain regions involved are unclear. In order to shed some light on this, we conducted fMRI and EEG in a case of musicogenic epilepsy. In a 32-year-old male patient with seizures induced by a specific piece of Russian music, we performed video-EEG monitoring as well as simultaneous fMRI and EEG registration. Video-EEG monitoring revealed a left temporo-frontal epileptogenic focus. During fMRI-EEG co-registration, BOLD signal alterations were not only found in the epileptogenic focus but also in areas known for their role in the processing of emotions. Prior to a seizure in some of these areas, BOLD contrasts exponentially increased or decreased. These results suggest that in our case, dysfunction of the regulation processes of the musically-induced emotions, and not the musical stimulus itself, led to the seizures.
Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas
beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences...
Nogueira, Lucas S C; Zancanaro, Pedro C Q; Azambuja, Roberto D
On average, vitiligo affects one percent of the world population. More than 75% of the patients have negative self-image on account of the disease. The emotional impact of the dermatosis is frequently neglected by the caretaker, which has negative influence on therapy and prognosis. OBJECTIVE; To check the effect of vitiligo on patients emotions and discuss the mind-body interaction and its impact on the disease. METHODS; In their first medical visit, one hundred patients with various forms of vitiligo answered a question about which emotions were elicited by the presence of the spots. RESULTS; Eighty-eight percent of the patients with spots in exposed areas complained of unpleasant emotions versus twenty-seven percent of those with spots in unexposed areas. The most frequently referred emotions were fear, specifically of expansion of the spots (71%), shame (57%), insecurity (55%), sadness (55%) and inhibition (53%). CONCLUSION; Chronic illnesses generate in human beings a negative experience propitiated by the expectation of suffering. Besides appropriate scientific guidance, vitiligo patients need emotional comfort. Treatment outcomes and patients compliance to it, and even their resilience to face occasional therapeutic failures, rely on good physician-patient relationship. At a time when doctors make use of reputable therapeutic resources, it is indispensable that dermatologists become able to evaluate the patient in an integrative fashion.
Generation of Emotional Inferences during Text Comprehension: Behavioral Data and Implementation through the Landscape Model (Generación de Inferencias Emocionales durante la Comprensión de Textos: Datos Conductuales e Implementación a través del Modelo Landscape
Juan Pablo Barreyro
Full Text Available This study investigated the generation of emotional inferences during the reading and recall of narrative texts. Experiment 1 compared the fit of two simulations of text comprehension to the recall data. One simulation examined causal and referential inferences, while the other examined causal, referential and emotional inferences. We found that the simulation that involved emotional inferences provided a better fit to the human data than the other simulation. Experiment 2 tested whether emotional inferences are generated online by recording lexical decision times at pre-inference and inference locations. Lexical decision times were faster at the inference than the pre-inference locations. These findings suggest that emotional inferences play a role in the understanding of natural texts, and that they require the reader to establish connections between text segments.
Ruz, María; Tudela, Pío
Facial displays of emotions can help to infer the mental states of other individuals. However, the expectations we generate on the basis of people's emotions can mismatch their actual behaviour in certain circumstances, which generates conflict. In the present study, we explored the neural mechanisms of emotional conflict during interpersonal interactions. Participants had to accept or reject economic offers made by several partners who displayed emotional expressions. On every trial, a cue informed participants of whether they could trust the emotion of their partner or not. Trustworthy (low-conflict) partners with happy facial expressions were cooperative and those with angry expressions did not cooperate. Untrustworthy (high-conflict) partners, on the other hand, cooperated when their expression was angry and did not cooperate when they displayed a happy emotion. Behavioural responses were faster for trustworthy than for untrustworty partners. High-conflict partners activated the anterior cingulate and the anterior insula. In turn, trustworthy partners were associated with activations in the left precuneus. Our results suggest that the emotion displayed by another person affects our decision-making in social contexts. When emotional expressions are linked to their natural consequences, they engage ToM processes. In contrast, untrustworthy emotional expressions engage conflict-related brain regions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Fang; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E
In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%-18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment.
Eckhardt, Martine M; Mulder, Mascha C Borgerhoff; Horemans, Herwin L; van der Woude, Luc H; Ribbers, Gerard M
To determine the effects of a temporary high custom made orthopaedic shoe on functional mobility, walking speed, and gait characteristics in hemiplegic stroke patients. In addition, interference of attentional demands and patient satisfaction were studied. Clinical experimental study. University Medical Centre. Nineteen stroke patients (12 males; mean age 55 years (standard deviation (SD) 10 years); mean time post onset 3.6 months (SD 1.4 months)) with a spastic paresis of the lower extremity. Functional mobility was assessed with the timed up and go test, walking speed and gait characteristics were measured with clinical gait analysis and performed with and without a verbal dual task. Patient satisfaction was determined with a questionnaire. Walking with the high orthopaedic shoe resulted in improved functional mobility (22%; pshoes. The dual task interfered with functional mobility during walking. The interference was equally big for normal shoes as for the orthopaedic shoe. Patients evaluated walking with the high orthopaedic shoe as an improvement (psafety, walking distance and walking speed. In the early recovery phase after stroke, when regaining walking ability, a temporary high orthopaedic shoe can improve hemiplegic gait, even with dual task interference. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Auvinet, Bernard; Touzard, Claude; Montestruc, François; Delafond, Arnaud; Goeb, Vincent
Gait disorders and gait analysis under single and dual-task conditions are topics of great interest, but very few studies have looked for the relevance of gait analysis under dual-task conditions in elderly people on the basis of a clinical approach. An observational study including 103 patients (mean age 76.3 ± 7.2, women 56%) suffering from gait disorders or memory impairment was conducted. Gait analysis under dual-task conditions was carried out for all patients. Brain MRI was performed in the absence of contra-indications. Three main gait variables were measured: walking speed, stride frequency, and stride regularity. For each gait variable, the dual task cost was computed and a quartile analysis was obtained. Nonparametric tests were used for all the comparisons (Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher or Chi 2 tests). Four clinical subgroups were identified: gait instability (45%), recurrent falls (29%), memory impairment (18%), and cautious gait (8%). The biomechanical severity of these subgroups was ordered according to walking speed and stride regularity under both conditions, from least to most serious as follows: memory impairment, gait instability, recurrent falls, cautious gait (p < 0.01 for walking speed, p = 0.05 for stride regularity). According to the established diagnoses of gait disorders, 5 main pathological subgroups were identified (musculoskeletal diseases (n = 11), vestibular diseases (n = 6), mild cognitive impairment (n = 24), central nervous system pathologies, (n = 51), and without diagnosis (n = 8)). The dual task cost for walking speed, stride frequency and stride regularity were different among these subgroups (p < 0.01). The subgroups mild cognitive impairment and central nervous system pathologies both showed together a higher dual task cost for each variable compared to the other subgroups combined (p = 0.01). The quartile analysis of dual task cost for stride frequency and stride regularity
Heredia-Jimenez, Jose; Latorre-Roman, Pedro; Santos-Campos, Maria; Orantes-Gonzalez, Eva; Soto-Hermoso, Victor M
Gait disorders in fibromyalgia patients affect several gait parameters and different muscle recruitment patterns. The aim of this study was to assess the gait differences observed during a six-minute walk test between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls. Forty-eight women with fibromyalgia and 15 healthy women were evaluated. Fibromyalgia patients met the American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia selected of an ambulatory care. Both patients and controls had a negative history of musculoskeletal disease, neurological disorders, and gait abnormalities. The 15 controls were healthy women matched to the patients in age, height and body weight. Spatio-temporal gait variables and the rate of perceived exertion during the six-minute walk test (all subjects) and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (fibromyalgia subjects) were evaluated. All walking sets on the GaitRITE were collected and the gait variables were selected at three stages during the six-minute walk test: two sets at the beginning, two sets at 3 min and two sets at the end of the test. In addition, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire was used for the fibromyalgia patients. Fibromyalgia patients showed a significant decrease in all spatio-temporal gait variables at each of the three stages and had a lower walk distance covered in the six-minute walk test and higher rate of perceived exertion. No correlations were found between the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and gait variables. The fibromyalgia and control subjects showed lower gait fatigue indices between the middle and last stages. Gait analysis during a six-minute walk test is a good tool to assess the fatigue and physical symptoms of patients with fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cucca, Alberto; Biagioni, Milton C; Fleisher, Jori E; Agarwal, Shashank; Son, Andre; Kumar, Pawan; Brys, Miroslaw; Di Rocco, Alessandro
Freezing of gait (FOG) is 'an episodic inability to generate effective stepping in the absence of any known cause other than parkinsonism or high level gait disorders'. FOG is one of the most disabling symptoms in Parkinson's disease, especially in its more advanced stages. Early recognition is important as FOG is related to higher fall risk and poorer prognosis. Although specific treatments are still elusive, there have been recent advances in the development of new therapeutic approaches. The aim of this review is to present the latest knowledge regarding the phenomenology, pathogenesis, diagnostic assessment and conventional treatment of FOG in Parkinson's disease. A review of the evidence supporting noninvasive brain stimulation will follow to highlight the potential of these strategies.
Nutt, J.G.; Bloem, B.R.; Giladi, N.; Hallett, M.; Horak, F.B.; Nieuwboer, A.
Freezing of gait (FoG) is a unique and disabling clinical phenomenon characterised by brief episodes of inability to step or by extremely short steps that typically occur on initiating gait or on turning while walking. Patients with FoG, which is a feature of parkinsonian syndromes, show variability
Raffalt, Peter Christian; Nielsen, Louise R; Madsen, Stefan
day-to-day reliability of the gait pattern parameters observed in rats during treadmill walking. The results of the present study may serve as a reference material that can help future intervention studies on rat gait characteristics both with respect to the selection of outcome measures...
Stroke is one of the leading causes of severe handicap. Deficiencies in walking may present significant challenges to mobility, resulting in abnormal and inefficient gait patterns in stroke survivors. This study compared the gait characteristics of hemiparetic stroke survivors and those of healthy individuals and determined the ...
Sprager, Sebastijan; Juric, Matjaz B.
With the recent development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), inertial sensors have become widely used in the research of wearable gait analysis due to several factors, such as being easy-to-use and low-cost. Considering the fact that each individual has a unique way of walking, inertial sensors can be applied to the problem of gait recognition where assessed gait can be interpreted as a biometric trait. Thus, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has a great potential to play an important role in many security-related applications. Since inertial sensors are included in smart devices that are nowadays present at every step, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has become very attractive and emerging field of research that has provided many interesting discoveries recently. This paper provides a thorough and systematic review of current state-of-the-art in this field of research. Review procedure has revealed that the latest advanced inertial sensor-based gait recognition approaches are able to sufficiently recognise the users when relying on inertial data obtained during gait by single commercially available smart device in controlled circumstances, including fixed placement and small variations in gait. Furthermore, these approaches have also revealed considerable breakthrough by realistic use in uncontrolled circumstances, showing great potential for their further development and wide applicability. PMID:26340634
Bencke, Jesper; Christiansen, Ditte; Jensen, Anne Kathrine Bendrup
during gait and to compare this method with a static measure and a 2D dynamic method. Fifty-two feet (26 healthy male participants) were tested twice 4-9 days apart in a biomechanical gait analysis laboratory using a 3D three-marker foot model, a 2D video-based model for the measurement of MLAD during...
Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Moe-Nilssen, R
The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of a trunk accelerometric gait analysis in healthy subjects. Accelerations were measured during walking using a triaxial accelerometer mounted on the lumbar spine of the subjects. Six men and 14 women (mean age 35.2; range 18...... a definite potential in clinical gait analysis....
Snijders, A.H.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Giladi, N.; Bloem, B.R.
Gait disorders are common and often devastating companions of ageing, leading to reductions in quality of life and increased mortality. Here, we present a clinically oriented approach to neurological gait disorders in the elderly population. We also draw attention to several exciting scientific
Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipe, Véronique
Physical and hormonal modifications occuring during the pregnancy, can lead to an increase in postural instability and to a higher risk of falls during gait. The first objective was to describe the center of pressure (COP) during late pregnancy at different gait velocity. Comparison of nulliparous women with postpartum women were conducted in order to investigate the effects of pregnancy. The second objective was to analyse COP variability between pregnant and non-pregnant women in order to investigate the effects of pregnancy on gait variability. Fifty-eight pregnant women in the last four months of pregnancy, nine postpartum women and twenty-three healthy non-pregnant women performed gait trials at three different speeds: preferred, slow and fast. In the last four months of pregnancy gait velocity decreased. During the pregnancy, gait velocity decreased by 22%, stopover time increased by 6-12%, COP excursion XY decreased by 5% and COP velocity decreased by 16% and 20% along the anteroposterior and transverse axes, respectively. After delivery, gait velocity increased by 3% but remained a lower compared to non-pregnant women (-12%). Intra-individual variability was greater for non-pregnant than pregnant women. COP parameters were influenced by pregnancy. This suggests that pregnant women establish very specific and individual strategies with the aim of maintaining stability during gait.
Every year stroke affects approximately 15 million people worldwide. It is the leading cause of disability in the western world. Gait relearning has high priority for stroke survivors. One of the most commonly treated effects of stroke gait is drop-foot (the inability to raise the toes during the
Full Text Available Gait disorder, a major cause of morbidity in the elderly population, is one of the cardinal features of Parkinson's disease. Owing to the characteristics of these gaits varying widely from festination to freezing of gait, analysis can be hardly identified in the clinical setting. Instrumented gait analysis has been widely used in a traditional gait laboratory. Recently, wireless monitoring systems have become highly informative by allowing long-term data collection in a variety of environments outside the labs. The quantitative analysis of gait patterns is probably the first step to a successful management of an individual patient. The presence of abnormal gait usually indicates advanced stages of disease and is often associated with cognitive impairment, falls, and injuries. Besides pharmacological and surgical treatments, parkinsonian gait can benefit from a variety of interventions. Assistive devices prevent patients from falls, and cueing strategies help them decrease episodes of freezing. Therefore, a multidisciplinary team approach to the optimal management is essential for an elderly patient with Parkinson's disease.
Simonsen, Erik B; Tegner, Heidi; Alkjær, Tine
BACKGROUND: The majority of adults with Generalised Joint Hypermobility experience symptoms such as pain and joint instability, which is likely to influence their gait pattern. Accordingly, the purpose of the present project was to perform a biomechanical gait analysis on a group of patients...
Doets, H.C.; van Middelkoop, M.; Houdijk, J.H.P.; Nelissen, R.G.; Veeger, H.E.J.
Background: The effect of total ankle replacement on gait is not fully known in terms of joint kinematics, ground reaction force, and activity of the muscles of the lower leg. Methods: A comparative gait study was done in 10 patients after uneventful unilateral mobile-bearing total ankle replacement
Dale, Marian L; Curtze, Carolin; Nutt, John G
"Apraxia of gait" is not a useful concept and freezing of gait should also not be considered an apraxia. The concept of apraxia may, however, be applied to distortions of postural transitions that can accompany fronto-parietal lesions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roerdink, M.; Lamoth, C.J.C.; Kwakkel, G.; van Wieringen, P.C.W.; Beek, P.J.
Background and Purpose: Gait coordination often is compromised after stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acoustically paced treadmill walking as a method for improving gait coordination in people after stroke. Participants: Ten people after stroke volunteered for the
Roerdink, M.; Lamoth, C.J.; Kwakkel, G.; Wieringen, P.C. van; Beek, P.J.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gait coordination often is compromised after stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acoustically paced treadmill walking as a method for improving gait coordination in people after stroke. PARTICIPANTS: Ten people after stroke volunteered for the
Kiernan, D; Hosking, J; O'Brien, T
Hip joint centre (HJC) regression equation error during paediatric gait has recently been shown to have clinical significance. In relation to adult gait, it has been inferred that comparable errors with children in absolute HJC position may in fact result in less significant kinematic and kinetic error. This study investigated the clinical agreement of three commonly used regression equation sets (Bell et al., Davis et al. and Orthotrak) for adult subjects against the equations of Harrington et al. The relationship between HJC position error and subject size was also investigated for the Davis et al. set. Full 3-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 12 healthy adult subjects with data for each set compared to Harrington et al. The Gait Profile Score, Gait Variable Score and GDI-kinetic were used to assess clinical significance while differences in HJC position between the Davis and Harrington sets were compared to leg length and subject height using regression analysis. A number of statistically significant differences were present in absolute HJC position. However, all sets fell below the clinically significant thresholds (GPS <1.6°, GDI-Kinetic <3.6 points). Linear regression revealed a statistically significant relationship for both increasing leg length and increasing subject height with decreasing error in anterior/posterior and superior/inferior directions. Results confirm a negligible clinical error for adult subjects suggesting that any of the examined sets could be used interchangeably. Decreasing error with both increasing leg length and increasing subject height suggests that the Davis set should be used cautiously on smaller subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Heredia Jiménez, José María; Aparicio García-Molina, Virginia A; Porres Foulquie, Jesús M; Delgado Fernández, Manuel; Soto Hermoso, Victor M
The aim of the present study was to determine if there are differences in such parameters among patients affected by fibromyalgia (FM) and healthy subjects and whether the degree of affectation by FM can decrease the gait parameters. We studied 55 women with FM and 44 controls. Gait analysis was performed using an instrumented walkway for measurement of the kinematic parameters of gait (GAITRite system), and patients completed a Spanish version of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Significant differences (p Gait parameters of women affected by FM were severely impaired when compared to those of healthy women. Different factors such as lack of physical activity, bradikinesia, overweight, fatigue, and pain together with a lower isometric force in the legs can be responsible for the alterations in gait and poorer life quality of women with FM.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a boosted linear discriminant analysis (LDA solution on features extracted by the multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA to enhance gait recognition performance. Three-dimensional gait objects are projected in the MPCA space first to obtain low-dimensional tensorial features. Then, lower-dimensional vectorial features are obtained through discriminative feature selection. These feature vectors are then fed into an LDA-style booster, where several regularized and weakened LDA learners work together to produce a strong learner through a novel feature weighting and sampling process. The LDA learner employs a simple nearest-neighbor classifier with a weighted angle distance measure for classification. The experimental results on the NIST/USF “Gait Challenge” data-sets show that the proposed solution has successfully improved the gait recognition performance and outperformed several state-of-the-art gait recognition algorithms.
Broekens, Joost; Qu, Chao; Brinkman, Willem-Paul
Facial emotion expression for virtual characters is used in a wide variety of areas. Often, the primary reason to use emotion expression is not to study emotion expression generation per se, but to use emotion expression in an application or research project. What is then needed is an easy to use and flexible, but also validated mechanism to do so. In this report we present such a mechanism. It enables developers to build virtual characters with dynamic affective facial expressions. The mecha...
Hansen, Flemming; Christensen, Sverre Riis; Lundsteen, Steen
Recent neurological research has pointed to the importance of fundamental emotional processes for most kinds of human behaviour. Measures of emotional response tendencies towards brands seem to reveal intangible aspects of brand equity, particularly in a marketing context. In this paper a procedure...... for estimating such emotional brand equity is presented and findings from two successive studies of more than 100 brands are reported. It demonstrates how changes that occur between two years are explainable in terms of factors identifiable in the markets, and that the measures otherwise are stable over time...
Moevus, Antoine; Mignotte, Max; de Guise, Jacques A; Meunier, Jean
The gait movement is an essential process of the human activity and the result of collaborative interactions between the neurological, articular and musculoskeletal systems, working efficiently together. This explains why gait analysis is important and increasingly used nowadays for the diagnosis of many different types (neurological, muscular, orthopedic, etc.) of diseases. This paper introduces a novel method to quickly visualize the different parts of the body related to an asymmetric movement in the human gait of a patient for daily clinical usage. The proposed gait analysis algorithm relies on the fact that the healthy walk has (temporally shift-invariant) symmetry properties in the coronal plane. The goal is to provide an inexpensive and easy-to-use method, exploiting an affordable consumer depth sensor, the Kinect, to measure the gait asymmetry and display results in a perceptual way. We propose a multi-dimensional scaling mapping using a temporally shift invariant distance, allowing us to efficiently visualize (in terms of perceptual color difference) the asymmetric body parts of the gait cycle of a subject. We also propose an index computed from this map and which quantifies locally and globally the degree of asymmetry. The proposed index is proved to be statistically significant and this new, inexpensive, marker-less, non-invasive, easy to set up, gait analysis system offers a readable and flexible tool for clinicians to analyze gait characteristics and to provide a fast diagnostic. This system, which estimates a perceptual color map providing a quick overview of asymmetry existing in the gait cycle of a subject, can be easily exploited for disease progression, recovery cues from post-operative surgery (e.g., to check the healing process or the effect of a treatment or a prosthesis) or might be used for other pathologies where gait asymmetry might be a symptom.
Seon Jong Pyo
Full Text Available Objective Gait disturbance is the main factor contributing to a negative impact on quality of life in patients with Huntington’s disease (HD. Understanding gait features in patients with HD is essential for planning a successful gait strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate temporospatial gait parameters in patients with HD compared with healthy controls. Methods We investigated 7 patients with HD. Diagnosis was confirmed by genetic analysis, and patients were evaluated with the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. Gait features were assessed with a gait analyzer. We compared the results of patients with HD to those of 7 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Results Step length and stride length were decreased and base of support was increased in the HD group compared to the control group. In addition, coefficients of variability for step and stride length were increased in the HD group. The HD group showed slower walking velocity, an increased stance/swing phase in the gait cycle and a decreased proportion of single support time compared to the control group. Cadence did not differ significantly between groups. Among the UHDRS subscores, total motor score and total behavior score were positively correlated with step length, and total behavior score was positively correlated with walking velocity in patients with HD. Conclusion Increased variability in step and stride length, slower walking velocity, increased stance phase, and decreased swing phase and single support time with preserved cadence suggest that HD gait patterns are slow, ataxic and ineffective. This study suggests that quantitative gait analysis is needed to assess gait problems in HD.
Maathuis, KGB; van der Schans, CP; van Iperen, A; Rietman, HS; Geertzen, JHB
The aim of this study was to test the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the Physician Rating Scale (PRS) and the Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing (GAIT) scale for use in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Both assessment scales are quantitative observational scales, evaluating
Zhao, Yongjia; Zhou, Suiping
The widespread installation of inertial sensors in smartphones and other wearable devices provides a valuable opportunity to identify people by analyzing their gait patterns, for either cooperative or non-cooperative circumstances. However, it is still a challenging task to reliably extract discriminative features for gait recognition with noisy and complex data sequences collected from casually worn wearable devices like smartphones. To cope with this problem, we propose a novel image-based gait recognition approach using the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) without the need to manually extract discriminative features. The CNN's input image, which is encoded straightforwardly from the inertial sensor data sequences, is called Angle Embedded Gait Dynamic Image (AE-GDI). AE-GDI is a new two-dimensional representation of gait dynamics, which is invariant to rotation and translation. The performance of the proposed approach in gait authentication and gait labeling is evaluated using two datasets: (1) the McGill University dataset, which is collected under realistic conditions; and (2) the Osaka University dataset with the largest number of subjects. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves competitive recognition accuracy over existing approaches and provides an effective parametric solution for identification among a large number of subjects by gait patterns.
Patterson, L; Staiger, E A; Brooks, S A
The Mangalarga Marchador (MM) is a Brazilian horse breed known for a uniquely smooth gait. A recent publication described a mutation in the DMRT3 gene that the authors claim controls the ability to perform lateral patterned gaits (Andersson et al. 2012). We tested 81 MM samples for the DMRT3 mutation using extracted DNA from hair bulbs using a novel RFLP. Horses were phenotypically categorized by their gait type (batida or picada), as recorded by the Brazilian Mangalarga Marchador Breeders Association (ABCCMM). Statistical analysis using the plink toolset (Purcell, 2007) revealed significant association between gait type and the DMRT3 mutation (P = 2.3e-22). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests that selective pressure for gait type is altering allele frequencies in this breed (P = 1.00e-5). These results indicate that this polymorphism may be useful for genotype-assisted selection for gait type within this breed. As both batida and picada MM horses can perform lateral gaits, the DMRT3 mutation is not the only locus responsible for the lateral gait pattern. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.
Zhao, Yongjia; Zhou, Suiping
The widespread installation of inertial sensors in smartphones and other wearable devices provides a valuable opportunity to identify people by analyzing their gait patterns, for either cooperative or non-cooperative circumstances. However, it is still a challenging task to reliably extract discriminative features for gait recognition with noisy and complex data sequences collected from casually worn wearable devices like smartphones. To cope with this problem, we propose a novel image-based gait recognition approach using the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) without the need to manually extract discriminative features. The CNN’s input image, which is encoded straightforwardly from the inertial sensor data sequences, is called Angle Embedded Gait Dynamic Image (AE-GDI). AE-GDI is a new two-dimensional representation of gait dynamics, which is invariant to rotation and translation. The performance of the proposed approach in gait authentication and gait labeling is evaluated using two datasets: (1) the McGill University dataset, which is collected under realistic conditions; and (2) the Osaka University dataset with the largest number of subjects. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves competitive recognition accuracy over existing approaches and provides an effective parametric solution for identification among a large number of subjects by gait patterns. PMID:28264503
Ko, Seung-Uk; Jerome, Gerald J; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Studenski, Stephanie; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Ferrucci, Luigi
It is well established that facing a cognitive challenge while carrying out a motor task interferes with the motor task performance, and in general the ability of handling a dual-task declines progressively with aging. However, the reasons for this decline have not been fully elucidated. Understanding the association between usual-walking gait patterns and dual-task walking performance may provide new insights into the mechanisms that lead to gait deterioration in normal aging and its link to motor and cognitive function. Our aim was to assess usual gait parameters in kinematics and kinetics to understand how these parameters are related with a specific task in dual-task walking. We hypothesized that difficulty in dual-task walking would be associated with gait deteriorations as reflected in range of motion and mechanical work expenditure. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the gait of 383 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (68% of whom successfully completed the dual-task walk, 21% failed the motor task, and 11% failed the cognitive task). Compared to successful performers, participants who failed the single motor task had slower gait speed, shorter stride length, higher cadence, and lower range of motion in the knee and ankle joints (p task while walking had longer double support time (p = 0.003), and greater knee absorptive mechanical work (p = 0. 001) and lower ankle generative mechanical work (p task walking may be useful for monitoring subtle and diverse gait deteriorations in aging and possibly for designing interventions for maintaining and regaining proper gait patterns in older adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ducharme, Scott W; Liddy, Joshua J; Haddad, Jeffrey M; Busa, Michael A; Claxton, Laura J; van Emmerik, Richard E A
speed, fractal dynamics increased closer to 1/f when participants were exposed to asymmetric walking. These findings suggest there may not be a relationship between unperturbed preferred or slow speed walking fractal dynamics and gait adaptability. However, the emergent relationship between asymmetric walking fractal dynamics and limb phase adaptation may represent a functional reorganization of the locomotor system (i.e., improved interactivity between degrees of freedom within the system) to be better suited to attenuate externally generated perturbations at various spatiotemporal scales. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vasilyev, Igor A.
Full Text Available In the laboratory of O.K. Tikhomirov, the phenomenon of the acute emotional regulation of productive thinking was justified. This regulation is realized by means of the elaboration of the axiological profile of cognition. The following definition of intellectual emotions can be given: intellectual emotions are the appraisals of specific cognitive objects — contradictions, assumptions, probabilities, and the intermediate and final results of operations. The main aspect of the method used in the research consisted of the synchronous registration of an external (tactile elaboration of problems, skin galvanic response and verbal utterances regarding tasks to be completed in a game of chess. The principle position in Tikhomirov`s group is the following: intellectual emotions represent not only the energetic resource or catalysts for the thinking process, but also the determinants of its structure.
Meshulam, Meir; Winter, Eyal; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Aharon, Itzhak
We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain "mental state" is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the complementary role of rational choice in choosing emotional states. Participants played the role of "recipient" in the dictator game, in which an anonymous "dictator" decides how to split an amount of money between himself and the recipient. A subset of recipients was given a monetary incentive to be angry at low-split offers. That subset demonstrated increased physiological arousal at low offers relative to high offers as well as more anger than other participants. These results provide a fresh outlook on human decision-making and contribute to the continuing effort to build more complete models of rational behavior.
van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H
Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members' emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such expressions influence the emotions, cognitions and behaviours of fellow group members and outside observers? To answer these and other questions, we draw on relevant theoretical perspectives (e.g., intergroup emotions theory, social appraisal theory and emotions as social information theory) and recent empirical findings regarding the role of emotions in groups. We organise our review according to two overarching themes: how groups shape emotions and how emotions shape groups. We show how novel empirical approaches break important new ground in uncovering the role of emotions in groups. Research on emotional collectives is thriving and constitutes a key to understanding the social nature of emotions.
Full Text Available Smartphone-based biometrics offers a wide range of possible solutions, which could be used to authenticate users and thus to provide an extra level of security and theft prevention. We propose a method for positive identification of smartphone user’s identity using user’s gait characteristics captured by embedded smartphone sensors (gyroscopes, accelerometers. The method is based on the application of the Random Projections method for feature dimensionality reduction to just two dimensions. Then, a probability distribution function (PDF of derived features is calculated, which is compared against known user PDF. The Jaccard distance is used to evaluate distance between two distributions, and the decision is taken based on thresholding. The results for subject recognition are at an acceptable level: we have achieved a grand mean Equal Error Rate (ERR for subject identification of 5.7% (using the USC-HAD dataset. Our findings represent a step towards improving the performance of gait-based user identity verification technologies.
Madeira, Filipa; Arriaga, Patrícia; Adrião, Joana; Lopes, Ricardo; Esteves, Francisco
In recent years, research on the psychology of gaming has examined the negative and positive outcomes of playing video games. Thus far, a variety of affective phenomena have been investigated. In this chapter we will continue this exploration by examining the emotions elicited by the act of playing video games. Because the study of emotions must rely on different type of methods, including subjective self-reports (e.g., description of feelings), neuropsychophysiological measurements ...
Experience is an activity that arouses emotions and generates meanings based on vivid sensation and profound comprehension. It is emotional, meaningful, and personal, playing a key role in the course of forming and developing one's qualities. The psychological process of experience generation consists of such links as sensing things, arousing…
Hoogkamer, W.; Bruijn, S.M.; Sunaert, S.; Swinnen, S.P.; Calenbergh, F. Van; Duysens, J.E.J.
The evident ataxic characteristics of gait in patients with cerebellar damage suggest that the cerebellum plays an important role in the neural control of gait. Ataxic features, such as increased gait variability and increased step width, are often related to gait stability. However, the link
Madehkhaksar, F.; Egges, J.
Stair gait is a common daily activity with great potential risk for falls. Stairs have varying inclinations and people may perform other tasks concurrently with stair gait. This study investigated dual-task interference in the context of complex gait tasks, such as stair gait at different
Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Rigoldi, Chiara; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio
The aims of this study are to compare quantitatively the gait strategy of the right and left hemiplegic children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) using gait analysis. The gait strategy of 28 right hemiparetic CP (RHG) and 23 left hemiparetic CP (LHG) was compared using gait analysis (spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters) and considering the hemiplegic…
Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.
van Drongelen, Stefan; Dreher, Thomas; Heitzmann, Daniel W. W.; Wolf, Sebastian I.
To examine gait patterns and gait quality, 7 twins with cerebral palsy were measured preoperatively and after surgical intervention. The aim was to study differences and/or similarities in gait between twins, the influence of personal characteristics and birth conditions, and to describe the development of gait over time after single event…
Simonov, P. V.; Frolov, M. V.
According to the informational theory of emotions, emotions in humans depend on the power of some need (motivation) and the estimation by the subject of the probability (possibility) of the need staisfaction (the goal achievement). Low probability of need satisfaction leads to negative emotions, actively minimized by the subject. Increased probability of satisfaction, as compared to earlier forecast, generates positive emotions, which the subject tries to maximize, i.e. to enhance, to prolong, to repeat. The informational theory of emotions encompasses their reflective function, the laws of their appearance, the regulatory significance of emotions, and their role in organization of behavior. The level of emotional stress influences the operator's performance. A decrease in the emotional tonus leads to drowsiness, lack of vigilance, missing of significant signals and to slower reactions. An extremely high stress level disorganizes the activity, complicates it with a trend toward incorrect actions and reactions to insignificant signals (false alarms). The neurophysiological mechanisms of the influence of emotions on perceptual activity and operator performance as well as the significance of individuality are discussed.
Simonov, P V
At the 23rd International Congress of Physiological Sciences (Tokyo, 1965) the results of experiment brought us to a conclusion that emotions were determined by the actual need and estimation of probability (possibility) of its satisfaction. Low probability of need satisfaction leads to negative emotions actively minimized by the subject. Increased probability of satisfaction, as compared to the earlier forecast, generates positive emotions which the subject tries to maximize, that is to enhance, to prolong, to repeat. We named our concept the Need-Informational Theory of Emotions. According to this theory, motivation, emotion and estimation of probability have different neuromorphological substrate. Activating by motivatiogenic structures of the hypothalamus the frontal parts of neocortex orients the behavior to signals with a high probability of their reinforcement. At the same time the hippocampus is necessary for reactions to signals of low probability events, which is typical for emotionally excited brain. By comparison of motivational excitation with available stimuli or their engrams the amygdala selects a dominant motivation, destined to be satisfied in the first instance. In the cases of classical conditioning and escape reaction the reinforcement was related to involvement of the negative emotion's hypothalamic neurons while in the course of avoidance reaction the positive emotion's neurons being involved. The role of the left and right frontal neocortex in the appearance of positive or negative emotions depends on this informational (cognitive) functions.
Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman
Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Experience iS an activity that arouses emotions and generates meanings based on vivid sensation and profound compreh ension.It iS emotional,meaningful,and personal,playing a key role in the course of forming and developing one'S qualities.The psychological process of experience generation consists of such links as sensing things,arousing emotions,promoting comprehension and association,generating insights and meanings,and deepening emotional responses.Undergoing things personally by means of direct sensation,taking part in activities,and living life are the most important preconditions of experience generation.Emotional influence,situational edification,and arts edification ale extemal factors that induce experience generation.
Hicks, Jennifer L.; Delp, Scott L.; Schwartz, Michael H.
Many patients respond positively to treatments for crouch gait, yet surgical outcomes are inconsistent and unpredictable. In this study, we developed a multivariable regression model to determine if biomechanical variables and other subject characteristics measured during a physical exam and gait analysis can predict which subjects with crouch gait will demonstrate improved knee kinematics on a follow-up gait analysis. We formulated the model and tested its performance by retrospectively analyzing 353 limbs of subjects who walked with crouch gait. The regression model was able to predict which subjects would demonstrate ‘improved’ and ‘unimproved’ knee kinematics with over 70% accuracy, and was able to explain approximately 49% of the variance in subjects’ change in knee flexion between gait analyses. We found that improvement in stance phase knee flexion was positively associated with three variables that were drawn from knowledge about the biomechanical contributors to crouch gait: i) adequate hamstrings lengths and velocities, possibly achieved via hamstrings lengthening surgery, ii) normal tibial torsion, possibly achieved via tibial derotation osteotomy, and iii) sufficient muscle strength. PMID:21616666
Elsworth-Edelsten, Charlotte; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stephane; Assal, Frederic; Lalive, Patrice; Allali, Gilles
Gait disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are well studied; however, no previous study has described upper limb movements during gait. However, upper limb movements have an important role during locomotion and can be altered in MS patients due to direct MS lesions or mechanisms of compensation. The aim of this study was to describe the arm movements during gait in a population of MS patients with low disability compared with a healthy control group. In this observational study we analyzed the arm movements during gait in 52 outpatients (mean age: 39.7±9.6years, female: 40%) with relapsing-remitting MS with low disability (mean EDSS: 2±1) and 25 healthy age-matched controls using a 3-dimension gait analysis. MS patients walked slower, with increased mean elbow flexion and decreased amplitude of elbow flexion (ROM) compared to the control group, whereas shoulder and hand movements were similar to controls. These differences were not explained by age or disability. Upper limb alterations in movement during gait in MS patients with low disability can be characterized by an increase in mean elbow flexion and a decrease in amplitude (ROM) for elbow flexion/extension. This upper limb movement pattern should be considered as a new component of gait disorders in MS and may reflect subtle motor deficits or the use of compensatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hadid, Abdenour; Ghahramani, Mohammad; Kellokumpu, Vili; Feng, Xiaoyi; Bustard, John; Nixon, Mark
Gait is a relatively biometric modality which has a precious advantage over other modalities, such as iris and voice, in that it can be easily captured from a distance. Although it has recently become a topic of great interest in biometric research, there has been little investigation into gait spoofing attacks where a person tries to imitate the clothing or walking style of someone else. We recently analyzed for the first time the effects of spoofing attacks on silhouette-based gait biometric systems and showed that it was indeed possible to spoof gait biometric systems by clothing impersonation and the deliberate selection of a target that has a similar build to the attacker. To gain deeper insight into the performance of current gait biometric systems under spoofing attacks, we provide a thorough investigation on how clothing can be used to spoof a target and evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art recognition methods on a gait spoofing database recorded at the University of Southampton. Furthermore, we describe and evaluate an initial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks. The obtained results are very promising and point out interesting findings which can be used for future investigations.
Lee, Jeon Hyeong; Lee, Myoung Hee
[Purpose] This study was performed to analyze the influence of smartphone multitasking on gait and dynamic balance. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 19 male and 20 female university students. There were 4 types of gait tasks: General Gait (walking without a task), Task Gait 1 (walking while writing a message), Task Gait 2 (walking while writing a message and listening to music), Task Gait 3 (walking while writing a message and having a conversation). To exclude the learning effect, the order of tasks was randomized. The Zebris FDM-T treadmill system (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany) was used to measure left and right step length and width, and a 10 m walking test (10MWT) was conducted for gait velocity. In addition, a Timed Up and Go test (TUG) was used to measure dynamic balance. All the tasks were performed 3 times, and the mean of the measured values was analyzed. [Results] There were no statistically significant differences in step length and width. There were statistically significant differences in the 10MWT and TUG tests. [Conclusion] Using a smartphone while walking decreases a person's dynamic balance and walking ability. It is considered that accident rates are higher when using a smartphone.
Gui, Kai; Liu, Honghai; Zhang, Dingguo
Robotic exoskeletons for physical rehabilitation have been utilized for retraining patients suffering from paraplegia and enhancing motor recovery in recent years. However, users are not voluntarily involved in most systems. This paper aims to develop a locomotion trainer with multiple gait patterns, which can be controlled by the active motion intention of users. A multimodal human-robot interaction (HRI) system is established to enhance subject's active participation during gait rehabilitation, which includes cognitive HRI (cHRI) and physical HRI (pHRI). The cHRI adopts brain-computer interface based on steady-state visual evoked potential. The pHRI is realized via admittance control based on electromyography. A central pattern generator is utilized to produce rhythmic and continuous lower joint trajectories, and its state variables are regulated by cHRI and pHRI. A custom-made leg exoskeleton prototype with the proposed multimodal HRI is tested on healthy subjects and stroke patients. The results show that voluntary and active participation can be effectively involved to achieve various assistive gait patterns.
Joreintje D Mackenbach
Full Text Available Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.
Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Ringoot, Ank P; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Jansen, Pauline W; Tiemeier, Henning W
Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.
Sangeux, Morgan; Passmore, Elyse; Graham, H Kerr; Tirosh, Oren
Measurement of gait kinematic variability provides relevant clinical information in certain conditions affecting the neuromotor control of movement. In this article, we present a measure of overall gait kinematic variability, GaitSD, based on combination of waveforms' standard deviation. The waveform standard deviation is the common numerator in established indices of variability such as Kadaba's coefficient of multiple correlation or Winter's waveform coefficient of variation. Gait data were collected on typically developing children aged 6-17 years. Large number of strides was captured for each child, average 45 (SD: 11) for kinematics and 19 (SD: 5) for kinetics. We used a bootstrap procedure to determine the precision of GaitSD as a function of the number of strides processed. We compared the within-subject, stride-to-stride, variability with the, between-subject, variability of the normative pattern. Finally, we investigated the correlation between age and gait kinematic, kinetic and spatio-temporal variability. In typically developing children, the relative precision of GaitSD was 10% as soon as 6 strides were captured. As a comparison, spatio-temporal parameters required 30 strides to reach the same relative precision. The ratio stride-to-stride divided by normative pattern variability was smaller in kinematic variables (the smallest for pelvic tilt, 28%) than in kinetic and spatio-temporal variables (the largest for normalised stride length, 95%). GaitSD had a strong, negative correlation with age. We show that gait consistency may stabilise only at, or after, skeletal maturity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hak, Laura; Houdijk, Han; Steenbrink, Frans; Mert, Agali; van der Wurff, Peter; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H
Besides a stable gait pattern, gait in daily life requires the capability to adapt this pattern in response to environmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the anticipatory strategies used by able-bodied people to attain an adaptive gait pattern, and how these strategies interact with strategies used to maintain gait stability. Ten healthy subjects walked in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation ENvironment (CAREN). To provoke an adaptive gait pattern, subjects had to hit virtual targets, with markers guided by their knees, while walking on a self-paced treadmill. The effects of walking with and without this task on walking speed, step length, step frequency, step width and the margins of stability (MoS) were assessed. Furthermore, these trials were performed with and without additional continuous ML platform translations. When an adaptive gait pattern was required, subjects decreased step length (padaptations resulted in the preservation of equal MoS between trials, despite the disturbing influence of the gait adaptability task. When the gait adaptability task was combined with the balance perturbation subjects further decreased step length, as evidenced by a significant interaction between both manipulations (p=0.012). In conclusion, able-bodied people reduce step length and increase step width during walking conditions requiring a high level of both stability and adaptability. Although an increase in step frequency has previously been found to enhance stability, a faster movement, which would coincide with a higher step frequency, hampers accuracy and may consequently limit gait adaptability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hausdorff, J. M.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Firtion, R.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.
The basal ganglia are thought to play an important role in regulating motor programs involved in gait and in the fluidity and sequencing of movement. We postulated that the ability to maintain a steady gait, with low stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing and its subphases, would be diminished with both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). To test this hypothesis, we obtained quantitative measures of stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing in subjects with PD (n = 15), HD (n = 20), and disease-free controls (n = 16). All measures of gait variability were significantly increased in PD and HD. In subjects with PD and HD, gait variability measures were two and three times that observed in control subjects, respectively. The degree of gait variability correlated with disease severity. In contrast, gait speed was significantly lower in PD, but not in HD, and average gait cycle duration and the time spent in many subphases of the gait cycle were similar in control subjects, HD subjects, and PD subjects. These findings are consistent with a differential control of gait variability, speed, and average gait cycle timing that may have implications for understanding the role of the basal ganglia in locomotor control and for quantitatively assessing gait in clinical settings.
Toebes, M.J.P.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Furrer, R.; Dekker, J.; van Dieen, J.H.
Gait parameters that can be measured with simple instrumentation may hold promise for identifying individuals at risk of falling. Increased variability of gait is associated with increased risk of falling, but research on additional parameters indicates that local dynamic stability (LDS) of gait may also be a predictor of fall risk. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between gait variability, LDS of gait and fall history in a large sample of elderly subjects.Subj...
Punt, M.; Bruijn, S.M.; Wittink, H.; van Dieen, J.H.
Introduction: Falling causes long term disability and can even lead to death. Most falls occur during gait. Therefore improving gait stability might be beneficial for people at risk of falling. Recently arm swing has been shown to influence gait stability. However at present it remains unknown which mode of arm swing creates the most stable gait. Aim: To examine how different modes of arm swing affect gait stability. Method: Ten healthy young male subjects volunteered for this study. All subj...
Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is one of the factors that reduce the quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Imagining bicycling before gait start provided improvement in FOG in 2 PD patients. Imagining and mimicking bicycling after the initiation of gait allowed the rhythmic gait to continue without interruption. We suggest that imagining and mimicking bicycling, which are nonexternal cues, could serve as a helpful therapeutic approach for the intractable freezing and interruption of gait of PD patients.
Wu, Jianning; Wu, Bin
The accurate identification of gait asymmetry is very beneficial to the assessment of at-risk gait in the clinical applications. This paper investigated the application of classification method based on statistical learning algorithm to quantify gait symmetry based on the assumption that the degree of intrinsic change in dynamical system of gait is associated with the different statistical distributions between gait variables from left-right side of lower limbs; that is, the discrimination of...
Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Lynnerup, Niels
Photogrammetry and recognition of gait patterns are valuable tools to help identify perpetrators based on surveillance recordings. We have found that stature but only few other measures have a satisfying reproducibility for use in forensics. Several gait variables with high recognition rates were...... found. Especially the variables located in the frontal plane are interesting due to large inter-individual differences in time course patterns. The variables with high recognition rates seem preferable for use in forensic gait analysis and as input variables to waveform analysis techniques...
Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine
the concurrence of joint angles throughout a gait cycle at three different velocities (3.0, 4.5, 6.0 km/h). Six datasets at each velocity were collected from 16 men. A variability range VR throughout the gait cycle at each velocity for each joint angle for each person was calculated. The joint angles at each...... velocity were compared pairwise, and whenever this showed values within the VR of this velocity, the case was positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, phases with high and low concurrences were located; peak concurrence was observed at mid-stance phase. Striving for the same velocity...
Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Alkjær, Tine
. Six sets from 12 men were collected. For each man, a variability range VR (mean ± 1SD) of a specific joint angle at a specific time point (a gait cycle was 100 time points) was calculated. In turn, each individual was compared with the 11 others, and whenever 1 of these 11 had a value within...... this individual’s VR, it counted as positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, we created simple bar graphs; tall bars indicated a small discriminatory power, short bars indicated a larger one. The highest discriminatory power was at time points 60–80 in the gait cycle. We show how our data can...
Bastos, Alana Maria Ferreira Guimarães; Costa, Carolina Souza Neves da; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira
In a child's daily routine, sit-to-stand (STS) is a prerequisite activity for many functional tasks. The relationship between gait and other abilities has been pointed out by many authors, but there is no study investigating the changes in STS during gait acquisition in children. The purpose of this study was to analyse, in healthy children, changes that occur in STS performance during gait acquisition. Five healthy children were initially assessed with an average age of 13.6 months. The kine...
Miyoshi, Tasuku; Hiramatsu, Kazuaki; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami
To develop a robotic gait trainer that can be used in water (RGTW) and achieve repetitive physiological gait patterns to improve the movement dysfunctions. The RGTW is a hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis with pneumatic actuators; the control software was developed on the basis of the angular motions of the hip and knee joint of a healthy subject as he walked in water. Three-dimensional motions and electromyographic (EMG) activities were recorded in nine healthy subjects to evaluate the efficacy of using the RGTW while walking on a treadmill in water. The device could preserve the angular displacement patterns of the hip and knee and foot trajectories under all experimental conditions. The tibialis anterior EMG activities in the late swing phase and the biceps femoris throughout the stance phase were reduced whose joint torques were assisted by the RGTW while walking on a treadmill in water. Using the RGTW could expect not only the effect of the hydrotherapy but also the standard treadmill gait training, in particular, and may be particularly effective for treating individuals with hip joint movement dysfunction.
Hwang, Jongseok; Shin, Yongil; Park, Ji-Ho; Cha, Young Joo; You, Joshua Sung H
The robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) system has gained recognition as an innovative, effective paradigm to improve functional ambulation and activities of daily living in spinal cord injury and stroke. However, the effects of the Walkbot robotic-assisted gait training system with a specialized hip-knee-ankle actuator have never been examined in the paraplegia and quadriplegia population. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of Walkbot training on clinical for hips and knee stiffness in individuals with paraplegia or quadriplegia. Nine adults with subacute or chronic paraplegia resulting from spinal cord injury or quadriplegia resulting from cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and/or hypoxia underwent progressive conventional gait retraining combined with the Walkbot RAGT for 5 days/week over an average of 43 sessions for 8 weeks. Clinical outcomes were measured with the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), Modified Rankin Scale (MRS), Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI), Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Kinetic and kinematic data were collected via a built-in Walkbot program. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests showed significant positive intervention effects on K-MBI, maximal hip flexion and extension, maximal knee flexion, active torque in the knee joint, resistive torque, and stiffness in the hip joint (P quadriplegia who had reached a plateau in motor recovery after conventional therapy.
Straudi, S; Benedetti, M G; Venturini, E; Manca, M; Foti, C; Basaglia, N
Gait disorders are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and lead to a progressive reduction of function and quality of life. Test the effects of robot-assisted gait rehabilitation in MS subjects through a pilot randomized-controlled study. We enrolled MS subjects with Expanded Disability Status Scale scores within 4.5-6.5. The experimental group received 12 robot-assisted gait training sessions over 6 weeks. The control group received the same amount of conventional physiotherapy. Outcomes measures were both biomechanical assessment of gait, including kinematics and spatio-temporal parameters, and clinical test of walking endurance (six-minute walk test) and mobility (Up and Go Test). 16 subjects (n = 8 experimental group, n = 8 control group) were included in the final analysis. At baseline the two groups were similar in all variables, except for step length. Data showed walking endurance, as well as spatio-temporal gait parameters improvements after robot-assisted gait training. Pelvic antiversion and reduced hip extension during terminal stance ameliorated after aforementioned intervention. Robot-assisted gait training seems to be effective in increasing walking competency in MS subjects. Moreover, it could be helpful in restoring the kinematic of the hip and pelvis.
Samuel T. Nemanich
Full Text Available Gait difficulties and falls are commonly reported in people with Parkinson disease (PD. Reduction in gait speed is a major characteristic of Parkinsonian gait, yet little is known about its underlying determinants, its ability to reflect an internal reservation about walking, or its relationship to falls. To study these issues, we selected age, disease severity, and nonmotor factors (i.e., depression, quality of life, balance confidence, and exercise beliefs and attitudes to predict self-selected (SELF, fast-as-possible (FAST, and the difference (DIFF between these walking speeds in 78 individuals with PD. We also examined gender differences in gait speeds and evaluated how gait speeds were related to a retrospective fall report. Age, disease severity, and balance confidence were strong predictors of SELF, FAST, and, to a lesser extent, DIFF. All three parameters were strongly associated with falling. DIFF was significantly greater in men compared to women and was significantly associated with male but not female fallers. The results supported the clinical utility of using a suite of gait speed parameters to provide insight into the gait difficulties and differentiating between fallers in people with PD.
Cho, Byung-Yun; Yoon, Jung-Gyu
[Purpose] The purpose of the current research was to identify how gait training with shoe inserts affects the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint dysfunction patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly selected and assigned to be either the experimental group (gait training with shoe insert group) or control group. Each group consisted of 15 patients. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale, and foot pressure in a standing position and during gait was measured with a Gateview AFA-50 system (Alpus, Seoul, Republic of Korea). A paired sample t-test was used to compare the pain and gait of the sacroiliac joint before and after the intervention. Correlation between pain and walking after gait training with shoe inserts was examined by Pearson test. The level of significance was set at α=0.05. [Results] It was found that application of the intervention to the experimental group resulted in a significant decrease in sacroiliac joint pain. It was also found that there was a significant correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and dynamic asymmetric index (r= 0.796) and that there was a negative correlation between Visual Analogue Scale score and forefoot/rear foot peak pressure ratio (r=-0.728). [Conclusion] The results of our analysis lead us to conclude that the intervention with shoe inserts had a significant influence on the pain and gait of sacroiliac joint patients.
Full Text Available Subcortical vascular dementia is a clinical entity, widespread, even challenging to diagnose and correctly treat. Patients with this diagnosis are old, frail, often with concomitant pathologies, and therefore, with many drugs in therapy. We tried to diagnose and follow up for three years more than 600 patients. Study subjects were men and women, not bedridden, aged 68–94 years, outpatients, recruited from June, 1st 2007 to June, 1st 2010. We examined them clinically, neurologically, with specific consideration on drug therapies. Our aim has been to define gait and imbalance problem, if eventually coexistent with the pathology of white matter and/or with the worsening of the deterioration. Drug intake interference has been detected and considered.
Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Afzal, Taimoor; Berliner, Jeffrey; Francisco, Gerard E
Robotic wearable exoskeletons have been utilized as a gait training device in persons with spinal cord injury. This pilot study investigated the feasibility of offering exoskeleton-assisted gait training (EGT) on gait in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) in preparation for a phase III RCT. The objective was to assess treatment reliability and potential efficacy of EGT and conventional physical therapy (CPT). Forty-four individuals were screened, and 13 were eligible to participate in the study. Nine participants consented and were randomly assigned to receive either EGT or CPT with focus on gait. Subjects received EGT or CPT, five sessions a week (1 h/session daily) for 3 weeks. American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS), 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT), 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and gait characteristics including stride and step length, cadence and stance, and swing phase durations were assessed at the pre- and immediate post- training. Mean difference estimates with 95% confidence intervals were used to analyze the differences. After training, improvement was observed in the 6MWT for the EGT group. The CPT group showed significant improvement in the TUG test. Both the EGT and the CPT groups showed significant increase in the right step length. EGT group also showed improvement in the stride length. EGT could be applied to individuals with iSCI to facilitate gait recovery. The subjects were able to tolerate the treatment; however, exoskeleton size range may be a limiting factor in recruiting larger cohort of patients. Future studies with larger sample size are needed to investigate the effectiveness and efficacy of exoskeleton-assisted gait training as single gait training and combined with other gait training strategies. Clinicaltrials.org, NCT03011099, retrospectively registered on January 3, 2017.
de Souza Fortaleza, Ana Claudia; Mancini, Martina; Carlson-Kuhta, Patty; King, Laurie A; Nutt, John G; Chagas, Eliane Ferrari; Freitas, Ismael Forte; Horak, Fay B
Freezing of gait (FoG) is associated with less automatic gait and more impaired cognition, balance and postural transitions compared to people with PD who do not have FoG. However, it is unknown whether dual-task cost during postural sway, postural transitions (such as gait initiation and turning), and gait are more in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have freezing of gait (FoG+) compared to those who do not have FoG (FoG-). Here, we hypothesized that the effects of a cognitive dual task on postural sway, postural transitions and gait would be larger in FoG+ than FoG-. Thirty FoG- and 24 FoG+ performed an Instrumented Stand and Walk test in OFF medication state, with and without a secondary cognitive task (serial subtraction by 3s). Measures of postural sway, gait initiation, turning, and walking were extracted using body-worn inertial sensors. FoG+ showed significantly larger dual task cost than FoG- for several gait metrics, but not during postural sway or postural transitions. During walking, FoG+ exhibited a larger dual task cost than FoG- resulting in shorter stride length and slower stride velocity. During standing, FoG+ showed a larger postural sway compared to FoG- and during gait initiation, FoG+, but not FoG-, showed a longer first step duration during the dual-task condition compared to single-task condition (interaction effect, p=0.04). During turning, both groups showed a slower turn peak speed in the dual-task condition compared to single task condition. These findings partly support our hypothesis that dual task cost on walking is greater in FoG+ than FoG-. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Almost all living species regularly explore environments that they experience as pleasant, aversive, arousing or frightening. We postulate that such exploratory behavior and emotional experience both are regulated based on the interdependent perception of one’s body and stimuli that collectively define a spatial context such as a cliff. Here we examined this by testing if the interaction of the sensory input on one’s gait and the sensory input on the spatial context is modulating both the emotional experience of the environment and its exploration through head motion. To this end, we asked healthy humans to explore a life-sized Virtual Reality simulation of a forest glade by physically walking around in this environment on two narrow rectangular platforms connected by a plank. The platforms and the plank were presented such that they were either placed on ground or on the top of two high bridge piers. Hence, the forest glade was presented either as a “ground” or as a “height” context. Within these two spatial contexts the virtual plank was projected either on the rigid physical floor or onto a bouncy physical plank. Accordingly, the gait of our participants while they crossed the virtual plank was either “smooth” or “bouncy.” We found that in the height context bouncy gait compared to smooth gait increased the orientation of the head below the horizon and intensified the experience of the environment as negative. Whereas, within the ground context bouncy gait increased the orientation of the head towards and above the horizon and made that the environment was experienced as positive. Our findings suggest that the brain of healthy humans is using the interaction of the sensory input on their gait and the sensory input on the spatial context to regulate both the emotional experience of the environment and its exploration through head motion. Keywords: Neuroscience, Psychology
Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine parade horses’ auditory discriminationamong four types of equine gaits: paso-fino (“fine step”, trote-reunido(“two-beat trot”, trocha (“trot”, and galope-reunido (“gallop”. Two experimentallynaïve horses were trained to discriminate the sound of their owngait (paso-fino or fine step, through an experimental module that dispensedfood if the subject pressed a lever after hearing a sound reproduction of aparticular gait. Three experimental phases were developed, defined by theperiod of exposure to the sounds (20, 10, and 5 seconds, respectively. Thechoice between pairs of sounds including the horse’s own gait (fine stepand two-beat trot; fine step and gallop; and fine step and trot was reinforceddifferentially. The results indicate that the fine step horses are able todiscriminate their own gait from others, and that receptivity to their ownsounds could be included in their training regime.
Full Text Available The article deals with a progressive approach in gait sensing. It is incorporated by IMU (Inertia Measurement Unit complex sensors whose field of acting is mainly the motion sensing in medicine, automotive and other industry, self-balancing systems, etc. They allow acquiring the position and orientation of an object in 3D space. Using several IMU units the sensing array for gait dynamics was made. Based on human gait analysis the 7-sensor array was designed to build a gait motion dynamics sensing system with the possibility of graphical interpretation of data from the sensing modules in real-time graphical application interface under the LabVIEW platform. The results of analyses can serve as the information for medical diagnostic purposes. The main control part of the system is microcontroller, whose function is to control the data collection and flow, provide the communication and power management.
.... Conventional training methods, e.g. treadmill training, require great physical effort from the therapists to assist the patient After the successful development and application of a mechanised gait trainer, a new research project...
Nixon, Mark S; Carter, John N
Recognising people by their gait is a biometric of increasing interest. Now, analysis has progressed from evaluation by few techniques on small databases with encouraging results to large databases and still with encouraging results...
Jantra, P; Monga, T N; Press, J M; Gervais, B J
There is little information available regarding management of apraxic gait. We present a 61-year-old man with a five-year history of right-sided cerebrovascular accident, apraxic gait, difficulty in walking, and frequent falls. A CT head scan revealed moderate cerebral atrophy, a small lacunar infarction. The patient was unable to initiate walking, was bed ridden and housebound. Traditional gait training and balance exercises failed to improve his gait. Two straight canes were modified by fixing florescent horizontal projections approximately two inches up from the tip of the cane. The patient was instructed to step over the horizontal projected portion, making use of visual cues from the florescent painted projections. The patient became independent with safe ambulation after practicing for approximately three weeks and was discharged home.
... on drug indicates that caryolanemagnolol use may improve balance and functional mobility in individuals with HD. ... deterioration in gait or increased falls after tetrabenazine .... balance control systems that maintain balance during dynamic ...
Lima, Rosa; Fontes, Liliana Magalhães Campos; Arezes, P.; Carvalho, Miguel
This study aimed to develop appropriate changes in a pair of shoes in order to improve the gait of an individual selected for this case study. This analysis took into account ergonomic aspects, namely those relating to the individual’s anthropometrics. Gait analysis was done with the adapted footwear both before and after intervention.A conventional X-ray was performed, which revealed a 29-mm left lower limb shortening and possible foot adduction. The anthropometric assessment confir...
clinical functional outcomes. The hypothesis of the study is that exoskeleton -assisted ambulation has skeletal and general health benefits for...for the use of robotic exoskeletons to enable gait in individuals with a complete SCI, clinical teams are not provided with appropriate tools to...estimate or predict potential health benefits (e.g. bone health) associated with exoskeleton -assisted gait. What was the impact on other disciplines
Beijersbergen, Chantal M. I.; Granacher, Urs; Gäbler, Martijn; DeVita, Paul; Hortobagyi, Tibor
Background: Aging is associated with slowed gait and old compared with young adults generally walk with greater positive hip work (H1) and reduced positive ankle work (A2). The role of exercise interventions on old adults' gait mechanics that underlie training-induced improvements in gait velocity
Church, C; Ge, J; Hager, S; Haumont, T; Lennon, N; Niiler, T; Hulbert, R; Miller, F
Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of adolescents with cerebral palsy who have undergone single-event multilevel surgery for a flexed-knee gait, followed into young adulthood using 3D motion analysis. Patients and Methods A total of 59 young adults with spastic cerebral palsy, with a mean age of 26 years (sd 3), were enrolled into the study in which their gait was compared with an evaluation that had taken place a mean of 12 years (sd 2) previously. At their visits during adolescence, the children walked with excessive flexion of the knee at initial contact and surgical or therapeutic interventions were not controlled between visits. Results Based on the change in flexed-knee gait over approximately ten years, improvements were seen in increased Gait Deviation Index (p gait (p = 0.007) suggested a mild decline in function. Quality-of-life measures showed that these patients fell within normal limits compared with typical young adults in areas other than physical function. Conclusion While some small significant changes were noted, little clinically significant change was seen in function and gait, with gross motor function maintained between adolescence and young adulthood. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:549-56.
In this comparative study concerning characteristics of independent walking by visually impaired persons, we used a motion analyser system to perform gait analysis of 15 late blind (age 36-54, mean 44.3 years), 15 congenitally blind (age 39-48, mean 43.8 years) and 15 sighted persons (age 40-50, mean 44.4 years) while walking a 10-m walkway. All subjects were male. Compared to the sighted, late blind and congenitally blind persons had a significantly slower walking speed, shorter stride length and longer time in the stance phase of gait. However, the relationships between gait parameters in the late and congenitally blind groups were maintained, as in the sighted group. In addition, the gait of the late blind showed a tendency to approximate the gait patterns of the congenitally blind as the duration of visual loss progressed. Based on these results we concluded that the gait of visually impaired persons, through its active use of non-visual sensory input, represents an attempt to adapt to various environmental conditions in order to maintain a more stable posture and to effect safe walking.
Full Text Available Humans do regular physical activities such as running. Gait is forward propulsion of the human body using lower extremities as a thrust. Humans gait pattern is characterized by their limbs movement in terms of velocity, ground reaction force, work, kinetic energy and potential energy cycle . Human gait analysis is used to assess, to plan, and to deliver the treatment for individuals based on the conditions that affect their ability to move. Gait analysis is commonly used in running sport to improve the efficiency of athletes in running and to identify problems related to their posture or movement. The aim of this research is to do running gait analysis study of human, using force plate which equipped by track board. The benefit of this study is to provide information, ideas and new perspectives about running and its prevention over an injury. The main method that will be discussed in this study is system design of gait analysis with specific setting, hardware and software, in order to acquire data(s.
This paper presents a system of identifying individuals by their gait patterns. We take into account various distinguishable features that can be extracted from a user’s gait and then divide them into two classes: walking pattern and stepping pattern. The conditions we assume are that our target environments are domestic areas, the number of users is smaller than 10, and all users ambulate with bare feet considering the everyday lifestyle of the Korean home. Under these conditions, we have developed a system that identifies individuals’ gait patterns using our biometric sensor, UbiFloorII. We have created UbiFloorII to collect walking samples and created software modules to extract the user’s gait pattern. To identify the users based on the gait patterns extracted from walking samples over UbiFloorII, we have deployed multilayer perceptron network, a feedforward artificial neural network model. The results show that both walking pattern and stepping pattern extracted from users’ gait over the UbiFloorII are distinguishable enough to identify the users and that fusing two classifiers at the matching score level improves the recognition accuracy. Therefore, our proposed system may provide unobtrusive and automatic user identification methods in ubiquitous computing environments, particularly in domestic areas. PMID:22163758
Allet, L; Armand, S; de Bie, R A; Golay, A; Monnin, D; Aminian, K; de Bruin, E D
Activities of daily life require us to move about in challenging environments and to walk on varied surfaces. Irregular terrain has been shown to influence gait parameters, especially in a population at risk for falling. A precise portable measurement system would permit objective gait analysis under such conditions. The aims of this study are to (a) investigate the reliability of gait parameters measured with the Physilog in diabetic patients walking on different surfaces (tar, grass, and stones); (b) identify the measurement error (precision); (c) identify the minimal clinical detectable change. 16 patients with Type 2 diabetes were measured twice within 8 days. After clinical examination patients walked, equipped with a Physilog, on the three aforementioned surfaces. ICC for each surface was excellent for within-visit analyses (>0.938). Inter-visit ICC's (0.753) were excellent except for the knee range parameter (>0.503). The coefficient of variation (CV) was lower than 5% for most of the parameters. Bland and Altman Plots, SEM and SDC showed precise values, distributed around zero for all surfaces. Good reliability of Physilog measurements on different surfaces suggests that Physilog could facilitate the study of diabetic patients' gait in conditions close to real-life situations. Gait parameters during complex locomotor activities (e.g. stair-climbing, curbs, slopes) have not yet been extensively investigated. Good reliability, small measurement error and values of minimal clinical detectable change recommend the utilization of Physilog for the evaluation of gait parameters in diabetic patients.
Wang, Baitong; Rajput, Kuldeep Singh; Tam, Wing-Kin; Tung, Anthony K H; Yang, Zhi
Gait analysis is an important diagnostic measure to investigate the pattern of walking. Traditional gait analysis is generally carried out in a gait lab, with equipped force and body tracking sensors, which needs a trained medical professional to interpret the results. This procedure is tedious, expensive, and unreliable and makes it difficult to track the progress across multiple visits. In this paper, we present a smart insole called FreeWalker, which provides quantitative gait analysis outside the confinement of traditional lab, at low- cost. The insole consists of eight pressure sensors and two motion tracking sensors, i.e. 3-axis accelerometer and 3-axis gyroscope. This enables measurement of under-foot pressure distribution and motion sequences in real-time. The insole is enabled with onboard SD card as well as wireless data transmission, which help in continuous gait-cycle analysis. The data is then sent to a gateway, for analysis and interpretation of data, using a user interface where gait features are graphically displayed. We also present validation result of a subject's left foot, who was asked to perform a specific task. Experiment results show that we could achieve a data-sampling rate of over 1 KHz, transmitting data up to a distance of 20 meter and maintain a battery life of around 24 hours. Taking advantage of these features, FreeWalker can be used in various applications, like medical diagnosis, rehabilitation, sports and entertainment.
Błaszczyk, Janusz W; Opala-Berdzik, Agnieszka; Plewa, Michał
Spatiotemporal gait cycle characteristics were assessed at early (P1), and late (P2) pregnancy, as well as at 2 months (PP1) and 6 months (PP2) postpartum. A substantial decrease in walking speed was observed throughout the pregnancy, with the slowest speed (1±0.2m/s) being during the third trimester. Walking at slower velocity resulted in complex adaptive adjustments to their spatiotemporal gait pattern, including a shorter step length and an increased duration of both their stance and double-support phases. Duration of the swing phase remained the least susceptible to changes. Habitual walking velocity (1.13±0.2m/s) and the optimal gait pattern were fully recovered 6 months after childbirth. Documented here adaptive changes in the preferred gait pattern seem to result mainly from the altered body anthropometry leading to temporary balance impairments. All the observed changes within stride cycle aimed to improve gait safety by focusing on its dynamic stability. The pregnant women preferred to walk at a slower velocity which allowed them to spend more time in double-support compared with their habitual pattern. Such changes provided pregnant women with a safer and more tentative ambulation that reduced the single-support period and, hence, the possibility of instability. As pregnancy progressed a significant increase in stance width and a decrease in step length was observed. Both factors allow also for gait stability improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kim, Ha Yong; Shin, Hyuck Soo; Ko, Jun Hyuck; Cha, Yong Han; Ahn, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Jae Yeon
Flatfoot deformity is a lever arm disease that incurs kinetic inefficiency during gait. The purpose of this study was to measure the degree of kinetic inefficiency by comparing the gait analysis data of a flatfoot group with a normal control group. The patient group consisted of 26 children (21 males and 5 females) with symptomatic flatfoot. They were examined with gait analysis between May 2005 and February 2014. Exclusion criteria were patients with secondary flatfoot caused by neuromuscular disorders, tarsal coalition, vertical talus, or others. Patients' mean age was 9.5 years (range, 7 to 13 years). The gait analysis data of the study group and the normal control group were compared. The mean vertical ground reaction force (GRF) in the push-off phase was 0.99 for the patient group and 1.15 for the control group ( p push-off phase was 0.89 for the patient group and 1.27 for the control group ( p push-off phase was 1.38 for the patient group and 2.52 for the control group ( p push-off phase during gait. Symptomatic flatfeet had a moment inefficiency of 30% and power inefficiency of 45% during gait compared to feet with preserved medial longitudinal arches.
Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.
Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.
Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is n...
Pilleri, Manuela; Weis, Luca; Zabeo, Letizia; Koutsikos, Konstantinos; Biundo, Roberta; Facchini, Silvia; Rossi, Simonetta; Masiero, Stefano; Antonini, Angelo
Freezing of Gait (FOG) is a frequent and disabling feature of Parkinson disease (PD). Gait rehabilitation assisted by electromechanical devices, such as training on treadmill associated with sensory cues or assisted by gait orthosis have been shown to improve FOG. Overground robot assisted gait training (RGT) has been recently tested in patients with PD with improvement of several gait parameters. We here evaluated the effectiveness of RGT on FOG severity and gait abnormalities in PD patients. Eighteen patients with FOG resistant to dopaminergic medications were treated with 15 sessions of RGT and underwent an extensive clinical evaluation before and after treatment. The main outcome measures were FOG questionnaire (FOGQ) global score and specific tasks for gait assessment, namely 10 meter walking test (10 MWT), Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and 360° narrow turns (360 NT). Balance was also evaluated through Fear of Falling Efficacy Scale (FFES), assessing self perceived stability and Berg Balance Scale (BBS), for objective examination. After treatment, FOGQ score was significantly reduced (P=0.023). We also found a significant reduction of time needed to complete TUG, 10 MWT, and 360 NT (P=0.009, 0.004 and 0.04, respectively). By contrast the number of steps and the number of freezing episodes recorded at each gait task did not change. FFES and BBS scores also improved, with positive repercussions on performance on daily activity and quality of life. Our results indicate that RGT is a useful strategy for the treatment of drug refractory FOG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Gunes, Hatice; Pantic, Maja
This paper investigates dimensional emotion prediction and classification from naturalistic facial expressions. Similarly to many pattern recognition problems, dimensional emotion classification requires generating multi-dimensional outputs. To date, classification for valence and arousal dimensions
Full Text Available This systematic review synthesized and analyzed clinical findings related to the effectiveness of innovative technological feedback for tackling functional gait recovery. An electronic search of PUBMED, PEDro, WOS, CINAHL, and DIALNET was conducted from January 2011 to December 2016. The main inclusion criteria were: patients with modified or abnormal gait; application of technology-based feedback to deal with functional recovery of gait; any comparison between different kinds of feedback applied by means of technology, or any comparison between technological and non-technological feedback; and randomized controlled trials. Twenty papers were included. The populations were neurological patients (75%, orthopedic and healthy subjects. All participants were adults, bar one. Four studies used exoskeletons, 6 load platforms and 5 pressure sensors. The breakdown of the type of feedback used was as follows: 60% visual, 40% acoustic and 15% haptic. 55% used terminal feedback versus 65% simultaneous feedback. Prescriptive feedback was used in 60% of cases, while 50% used descriptive feedback. 62.5% and 58.33% of the trials showed a significant effect in improving step length and speed, respectively. Efficacy in improving other gait parameters such as balance or range of movement is observed in more than 75% of the studies with significant outcomes. Conclusion: Treatments based on feedback using innovative technology in patients with abnormal gait are mostly effective in improving gait parameters and therefore useful for the functional recovery of patients. The most frequently highlighted types of feedback were immediate visual feedback followed by terminal and immediate acoustic feedback.
Barki, Anum; Kendricks, Kimberly; Tuttle, Ronald F.; Bunker, David J.; Borel, Christoph C.
This research highlights the results obtained from applying the method of inverse kinematics, using Groebner basis theory, to the human gait cycle to extract and identify lower extremity gait signatures. The increased threat from suicide bombers and the force protection issues of today have motivated a team at Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) to research pattern recognition in the human gait cycle. The purpose of this research is to identify gait signatures of human subjects and distinguish between subjects carrying a load to those subjects without a load. These signatures were investigated via a model of the lower extremities based on motion capture observations, in particular, foot placement and the joint angles for subjects affected by carrying extra load on the body. The human gait cycle was captured and analyzed using a developed toolkit consisting of an inverse kinematic motion model of the lower extremity and a graphical user interface. Hip, knee, and ankle angles were analyzed to identify gait angle variance and range of motion. Female subjects exhibited the most knee angle variance and produced a proportional correlation between knee flexion and load carriage.
Full Text Available We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness. While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars.
Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Aizenstein, Howard; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore; Yaffe, Kristine; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne; Rosano, Caterina
Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are involved in the evolution of impaired mobility and executive functions. Executive functions and mobility are also associated. Thus, WMHs may impair mobility directly, by disrupting mobility-related circuits, or indirectly, by disrupting circuits responsible for executive functions. Understanding the mechanisms underlying impaired mobility in late life will increase our capacity to develop effective interventions. To identify regional WMHs most related to slower gait and to examine whether these regional WMHs directly impact mobility, or indirectly by executive functions. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-one WMH variables (i.e., total WMH volume and WMHs in 20 tracts), gait speed, global cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination; 3MS), and executive functions and processing speed (Digit-Symbol Substitution Test; DSST) were assessed. An L1-L2 regularized regression (i.e., Elastic Net model) identified the WMH variables most related to slower gait. Multivariable linear regression models quantified the association between these WMH variables and gait speed. Formal tests of mediation were also conducted. Community-based sample. Two hundred fifty-three adults (mean age: 83years, 58% women, 41% black). Gait speed. In older adults with an average gait speed of 0.91m/sec, total WMH volume, WMHs located in the right anterior thalamic radiation (ATRR) and frontal corpuscallosum (CCF) were most associated with slower gait. There was a >10% slower gait for each standard deviation of WMH in CCF, ATRR or total brain (standardized beta in m/sec [p value]: -0.11 [p=0.046], -0.15 [p=0.007] and -0.14 [p=0.010], respectively). These associations were substantially and significantly attenuated after adjustment for DSST. This effect was stronger for WMH in CCF than for ATRR or total WMH (standardized beta in m/sec [p value]: -0.07 [p=0.190], -0.12 [p=0.024] and -0.10 [p=0.049], respectively). Adjustment for 3MS did not change these
Fu, Chunjiang; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Morasso, Pietro; Nomura, Taishin
Stability of human gait is the ability to maintain upright posture during walking against external perturbations. It is a complex process determined by a number of cross-related factors, including gait trajectory, joint impedance and neural control strategies. Here, we consider a control strategy that can achieve stable steady-state periodic gait while maintaining joint flexibility with the lowest possible joint impedance. To this end, we carried out a simulation study of a heel-toe footed biped model with hip, knee and ankle joints and a heavy head-arms-trunk element, working in the sagittal plane. For simplicity, the model assumes a periodic desired joint angle trajectory and joint torques generated by a set of feed-forward and proportional-derivative feedback controllers, whereby the joint impedance is parametrized by the feedback gains. We could show that a desired steady-state gait accompanied by the desired joint angle trajectory can be established as a stable limit cycle (LC) for the feedback controller with an appropriate set of large feedback gains. Moreover, as the feedback gains are decreased for lowering the joint stiffness, stability of the LC is lost only in a few dimensions, while leaving the remaining large number of dimensions quite stable: this means that the LC becomes saddle-type, with a low-dimensional unstable manifold and a high-dimensional stable manifold. Remarkably, the unstable manifold remains of low dimensionality even when the feedback gains are decreased far below the instability point. We then developed an intermittent neural feedback controller that is activated only for short periods of time at an optimal phase of each gait stride. We characterized the robustness of this design by showing that it can better stabilize the unstable LC with small feedback gains, leading to a flexible gait, and in particular we demonstrated that such an intermittent controller performs better if it drives the state point to the stable manifold, rather
Pacifici, Ilaria; Galli, Manuela; Kleiner, Ana Francisca Rozin; Corona, Federica; Coghe, Giancarlo; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Loi, Andrea; Crisafulli, Antonio; Cocco, Eleonora; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Pau, Massimiliano
Required Coefficient of Friction (RCOF) is one of the most critical gait parameters associated to the occurrence of slipping in individuals affected by neurological disorders characterized by balance impairments. This study aims to calculate RCOF in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) on the basis of three-dimensional Gait Analysis (GA) data. This study enrolls 22 people with MS (pwMS) who were characterized by an Expanded Disability Status Score in the range 1.5-6 and 10 healthy controls (HC). All participants underwent to three-dimensional GA from which we extracted kinematic and kinetic data (i.e. the Ground Reaction Forces, GRF, and joint moments and powers in the sagittal plane). RCOF was calculated as the ratio of the shear to normal GRF components during the stance phase of gait cycle, and normalized by the walking velocity. Thus, the following variables were extracted: first peak (named P1COF), valley (named V1COF), and second peak (named P2COF) in RCOF curve; also computating the maximum ankle dorsi-plantarflexion moment (MOMmax) and the maximum ankle joint power (PWRmax). Our data revealed that P2COF results are significantly lower in pwMS when compared to HC (p=0.043; Z=-2.025). In pwMS, the study found a moderate, positive correlation between V1COF and MOMmax (r=0.558; pFriction during mid stance and push off phases is critically important to determine whether the frictional capabilities of foot/floor interface are sufficient to prevent slips in pwMS. The impaired ankle moment in MS group causes increased P2COF in comparison to HC, increasing the risk of slipping in the critical phase of transmission of the developed forces to kinematic chain. Also, the correlation analysis among RCOF values and kinetic variables describe the interplay between V1COF and MOMmax: the higher V1COF is, the higher is MOMmax; and the different correlation the study found between COF and kinetic parameters in MS and HC group highlightes the different gait patterns of the two
Barliya, Avi; Omlor, Lars; Giese, Martin A; Berthoz, Alain; Flash, Tamar
Here, we examine how different emotions-happiness, fear, sadness and anger-affect the kinematics of locomotion. We focus on a compact representation of locomotion properties using the intersegmental law of coordination (Borghese et al. in J Physiol 494(3):863-879, 1996), which states that, during the gait cycle of human locomotion, the elevation angles of the thigh, shank and foot do not evolve independently of each other but form a planar pattern of co-variation. This phenomenon is highly robust and has been extensively studied. The orientation of the plane has been correlated with changes in the speed of locomotion and with reduction in energy expenditure as speed increases. An analytical model explaining the conditions underlying the emergence of this plane and predicting its orientation reveals that it suffices to examine the amplitudes of the elevation angles of the different segments along with the phase shifts between them (Barliya et al. in Exp Brain Res 193:371-385, 2009). We thus investigated the influence of different emotions on the parameters directly determining the orientation of the intersegmental plane and on the angular rotation profiles of the leg segments, examining both the effect of changes in walking speed and effects independent of speed. Subjects were professional actors and naïve subjects with no training in acting. As expected, emotions were found to strongly affect the kinematics of locomotion, particularly walking speed. The intersegmental coordination patterns revealed that emotional expression caused additional modifications to the locomotion patterns that could not be explained solely by a change in speed. For all emotions except sadness, the amplitude of thigh elevation angles changed from those in neutral locomotion. The intersegmental plane was also differently oriented, especially during anger. We suggest that, while speed is the dominant variable allowing discrimination between different emotional gaits, emotion can be
Hesse, S; Uhlenbrock, D; Sarkodie-Gyan, T
To investigate to what extent and with how much therapeutic effort nonambulatory stroke patients could train a gait-like movement on a newly developed, machine-supported gait trainer. Open study comparing the movement on the gait trainer with assisted walking on the treadmill. Motion analysis laboratory of a rehabilitation centre. Fourteen chronic, nonambulatory hemiparetic patients. Complex gait analysis while training on the gait trainer and while walking on the treadmill. Gait kinematics, kinesiological EMG of several lower limb muscles and the required assistance. Patients could train a gait-like movement on the gait trainer, characterized kinematically by a perfect symmetry, larger hip extension during stance, less knee flexion and less ankle plantar flexion during swing as compared to treadmill walking (p gait trainer (p gait trainer offered severely disabled hemiparetic subjects the possibility of training a gait-like, highly symmetrical movement with a favourable facilitation of relevant anti-gravity muscles. At the same time, the effort required of the therapists was reduced.
Unger, Marianne; Jelsma, Jennifer; Stark, Christina
This study aimed to determine whether strengthening trunk muscles using vibration can improve posture and gait in children with spastic-type cerebral palsy (STCP). A total of 27 children (6-13 years) participated in a single-blinded pre-post crossover experimental trial. The 1-Minute Walk Test, 2D-posturography, ultrasound imaging and sit-ups in one minute were used to assess effect on gait, posture, resting abdominal muscle thickness and functional strength. Significant increase in distance walked (p posture, an increase in sit-ups executed (p posture were maintained at 4-weeks post-intervention. A trunk-targeted intervention using vibration can improve posture and gait in children with STCP without any known side effects. It is recommended that vibration and specific trunk strengthening is included in training or rehabilitation programmes. Effects of vibration on force generation and spasticity need further investigation.
Langlois, Judith H.
An overview of the content of the From Another Perspective collection on emotion and emotion regulation is provided. The lead article identifies fundamental issues of definition and the commentaries represent varying theoretical and methodological perspectives on emotion and emotion regulation. Together, the articles discuss the promises and…
Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens
Full Text Available Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD commonly experience freezing of gait under time constraints, in narrow spaces, and in the dark. One commonality between these different situations is that they may all provoke anxiety, yet anxiety has never been directly examined as a cause of FOG. In this study, virtual reality was used to induce anxiety and evaluate whether it directly causes FOG. Fourteen patients with PD and freezing of gait (Freezers and 17 PD without freezing of gait (Non-Freezers were instructed to walk in two virtual environments: (i across a plank that was located on the ground (LOW, (ii across a plank above a deep pit (HIGH. Multiple synchronized motion capture cameras updated participants' movement through the virtual environment in real-time, while their gait was recorded. Anxiety levels were evaluated after each trial using self-assessment manikins. Freezers performed the experiment on two separate occasions (in their ON and OFF state. Freezers reported higher levels of anxiety compared to Non-Freezers (p < 0.001 and all patients reported greater levels of anxiety when walking across the HIGH plank compared to the LOW (p < 0.001. Freezers experienced significantly more freezing of gait episodes (p = 0.013 and spent a significantly greater percentage of each trial frozen (p = 0.005 when crossing the HIGH plank. This finding was even more pronounced when comparing Freezers in their OFF state. Freezers also had greater step length variability in the HIGH compared to the LOW condition, while the step length variability in Non-Freezers did not change. In conclusion, this was the first study to directly compare freezing of gait in anxious and non-anxious situations. These results present strong evidence that anxiety is an important mechanism underlying freezing of gait and supports the notion that the limbic system may have a profound contribution to freezing in PD.
Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Swenor, Bonnielin K; Friedman, David S; West, Sheila K; Gitlin, Laura N; Ramulu, Pradeep Y
To evaluate fall-relevant gait features in older glaucoma patients. The GAITRite Electronic Walkway was used to define fall-related gait parameters in 239 patients with suspected or manifest glaucoma under normal usual-pace walking conditions and while carrying a cup or tray. Multiple linear regression models assessed the association between gait parameters and integrated visual field (IVF) sensitivity after controlling for age, race, sex, medications, and comorbid illness. Under normal walking conditions, worse IVF sensitivity was associated with a wider base of support (β = 0.60 cm/5 dB IVF sensitivity decrement, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.12-1.09, P = 0.016). Worse IVF sensitivity was not associated with slower gait speed, shorter step or stride length, or greater left-right drift under normal walking conditions ( P > 0.05 for all), but was during cup and/or tray carrying conditions ( P < 0.05 for all). Worse IVF sensitivity was positively associated with greater stride-to-stride variability in step length, stride length, and stride velocity ( P < 0.005 for all). Inferior and superior IVF sensitivity demonstrated associations with each of the above gait parameters as well, though these associations were consistently similar to, or weaker than, the associations noted for overall IVF sensitivity. Glaucoma severity was associated with several gait parameters predictive of higher fall risk in prior studies, particularly measures of stride-to-stride variability. Gait may be useful in identifying glaucoma patients at higher risk of falls, and in designing and testing interventions to prevent falls in this high-risk group. These findings could serve to inform the development of the interventions for falls prevention in glaucoma patients.
Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong; Maybank, Stephen J
The traditional image representations are not suited to conventional classification methods, such as the linear discriminant analysis (LDA), because of the under sample problem (USP): the dimensionality of the feature space is much higher than the number of training samples. Motivated by the successes of the two dimensional LDA (2DLDA) for face recognition, we develop a general tensor discriminant analysis (GTDA) as a preprocessing step for LDA. The benefits of GTDA compared with existing preprocessing methods, e.g., principal component analysis (PCA) and 2DLDA, include 1) the USP is reduced in subsequent classification by, for example, LDA; 2) the discriminative information in the training tensors is preserved; and 3) GTDA provides stable recognition rates because the alternating projection optimization algorithm to obtain a solution of GTDA converges, while that of 2DLDA does not. We use human gait recognition to validate the proposed GTDA. The averaged gait images are utilized for gait representation. Given the popularity of Gabor function based image decompositions for image understanding and object recognition, we develop three different Gabor function based image representations: 1) the GaborD representation is the sum of Gabor filter responses over directions, 2) GaborS is the sum of Gabor filter responses over scales, and 3) GaborSD is the sum of Gabor filter responses over scales and directions. The GaborD, GaborS and GaborSD representations are applied to the problem of recognizing people from their averaged gait images.A large number of experiments were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness (recognition rate) of gait recognition based on first obtaining a Gabor, GaborD, GaborS or GaborSD image representation, then using GDTA to extract features and finally using LDA for classification. The proposed methods achieved good performance for gait recognition based on image sequences from the USF HumanID Database. Experimental comparisons are made with nine
Chen, Jinyan; Wu, Rongteng
It is very necessary to recognize person through visual surveillance automatically for public security reason. Human gait based identification focus on recognizing human by his walking video automatically using computer vision and image processing approaches. As a potential biometric measure, human gait identification has attracted more and more researchers. Current human gait identification methods can be divided into two categories: model-based methods and motion-based methods. In this paper a two-Dimensional Principal Component Analysis and temporal-space analysis based human gait identification method is proposed. Using background estimation and image subtraction we can get a binary images sequence from the surveillance video. By comparing the difference of two adjacent images in the gait images sequence, we can get a difference binary images sequence. Every binary difference image indicates the body moving mode during a person walking. We use the following steps to extract the temporal-space features from the difference binary images sequence: Projecting one difference image to Y axis or X axis we can get two vectors. Project every difference image in the difference binary images sequence to Y axis or X axis difference binary images sequence we can get two matrixes. These two matrixes indicate the styles of one walking. Then Two-Dimensional Principal Component Analysis(2DPCA) is used to transform these two matrixes to two vectors while at the same time keep the maximum separability. Finally the similarity of two human gait images is calculated by the Euclidean distance of the two vectors. The performance of our methods is illustrated using the CASIA Gait Database.
Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Talcott, Joel B; Toennessen, Finn Egil
Tests of postural stability have provided some evidence of a link between deficits in gross motor skills and developmental dyslexia. The ordinal-level scales used previously, however, have limited measurement sensitivity, and no studies have investigated motor performance during walking in participants with dyslexia. The purpose of this study was to investigate if continuous-scaled measures of standing balance and gait could discriminate between groups of impaired and normal readers when investigators were blind to group membership during testing. Children with dyslexia ( n=22) and controls ( n=18), aged 10-12 years, performed walking tests at four different speeds (slow-preferred-fast-very fast) on an even and an uneven surface, and tests of unperturbed and perturbed body sway during standing. Body movements were registered by a triaxial accelerometer over the lower trunk, and measures of reaction time, body sway, walking speed, step length and cadence were calculated. Results were controlled for gender differences. Tests of standing balance with eyes closed did not discriminate between groups. All unperturbed standing tests with eyes open showed significant group differences ( Pwalking speed during very fast walking on both flat and uneven surface was > or =0.2 m/s ( Pwalking speed ( Pwalking speed as well as cadence at a normalised speed discriminated better between groups when subjects were walking on an uneven surface compared to a flat floor. Continuous-scaled walking tests performed in field settings may be suitable for motor skill assessment as a component of a screening tool for developmental dyslexia.
Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime
Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.
Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People’s everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people’s emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory. PMID:26698124
Full Text Available Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+ and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1 connector emotions (e.g., joy, which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2 provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude, which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3 distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment, which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.
Full Text Available (1 Background: Quantitative evaluation of gait parameters can provide useful information for constructing individuals’ gait profile, diagnosing gait abnormalities, and better planning of rehabilitation schemes to restore normal gait pattern. Objective determination of gait phases in a gait cycle is a key requirement in gait analysis applications; (2 Methods: In this study, the feasibility of using a force myography-based technique for a wearable gait phase detection system is explored. In this regard, a force myography band is developed and tested with nine participants walking on a treadmill. The collected force myography data are first examined sample-by-sample and classified into four phases using Linear Discriminant Analysis. The gait phase events are then detected from these classified samples using a set of supervisory rules; (3 Results: The results show that the force myography band can correctly detect more than 99.9% of gait phases with zero insertions and only four deletions over 12,965 gait phase segments. The average temporal error of gait phase detection is 55.2 ms, which translates into 2.1% error with respect to the corresponding labelled stride duration; (4 Conclusions: This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of force myography techniques as viable solutions in developing wearable gait phase detection systems.
Bruna, O.; Avetisyan, H.; Holub, J.
This paper deals with textual emotion classification which gained attention in recent years. Emotion classification is used in user experience, product evaluation, national security, and tutoring applications. It attempts to detect the emotional content in the input text and based on different approaches establish what kind of emotional content is present, if any. Textual emotion classification is the most difficult to handle, since it relies mainly on linguistic resources and it introduces many challenges to assignment of text to emotion represented by a proper model. A crucial part of each emotion detector is emotion model. Focus of this paper is to introduce emotion models used for classification. Categorical and dimensional models of emotion are explained and some more advanced approaches are mentioned.
Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG in Parkinson's disease (PD rises in prevalence when the effect of medications decays. It is known that auditory rhythmic stimulation improves gait in patients without FOG (PD-FOG, but its putative effect on patients with FOG (PD+FOG at the end of dose has not been evaluated yet. This work evaluates the effect of auditory rhythmic stimulation on PD+FOG at the end of dose. 10 PD+FOG and 9 PD-FOG patients both at the end of dose periods, and 10 healthy controls were asked to perform several walking tasks. Tasks were performed in the presence and absence of auditory sensory stimulation. All PD+FOG suffered FOG during the task. The presence of auditory rhythmic stimulation (10% above preferred walking cadence led PD+FOG to significantly reduce FOG. Velocity and cadence were increased, and turn time reduced in all groups. We conclude that auditory stimulation at the frequency proposed may be useful to avoid freezing episodes in PD+FOG.
Full Text Available Energy consumption is one of the problems for bipedal robots walking. For the purpose of studying the parameter effects on the design of energetic walking bipeds with strong adaptability, we use a dynamic optimization method on our new walking model to first investigate the effects of the mechanical parameters, including mass and length distribution, on the walking efficiency. Then, we study the energetic walking gait features with the combinations of walking speed and step length. Our walking model is designed upon Srinivasan’s model. Dynamic optimization is used for a free search with minimal constraints. The results show that the cost of transport of a certain gait increases with the increase in the mass and length distribution parameters, except for that the cost of transport decreases with big length distribution parameter and long step length. We can also find a corresponding range of walking speed and step length, in which the variation in one of the two parameters has no obvious effect on the cost of transport. With fixed mechanical parameters, the cost of transport increases with the increase in the walking speed. There is a speed–step length relationship for walking with minimal cost of transport. The hip torque output strategy is adjusted in two situations to meet the walking requirements.
Mastering Emotions: The Emotional Politics of Slavery explores how the emotions and affective norms of the Antebellum South were conditioned upon and constructed through the institution of slavery. Though slavery is a subject wrought with emotion, there has been no focus in recent historical scholarship on the affective dimensions of slavery. Studies in the history of emotion have also largely ignored slavery. My intervention in these fields reveals the ways that both slaveholders and slaves ...
Correia, Ana Almeida; Veiga-Branco, Augusta
This study focuses on the concept Managing Emotions from Emotional Intelligence (I.E.), (Mayer-Salovey, 1990, 1997, Goleman, 1995), also identified as Emotional Regulation (Bisquerra, 2000), to obtain recognition and practical use of this concept, through the use of Emotional Fitness charts (Bimbela-Pedrola, 2008), to develop these abilities and manage emotions in contexts of practical life. Objective: To train preschool teachers, as well as primary and lower secondary sc...
Sakurai, Ryota; Montero-Odasso, Manuel
The apolipoprotein E polymorphism ε4 allele (ApoE4) and gait impairment are both known risk factors for developing cognitive decline and dementia. However, it is unclear the interrelationship between these factors, particularly among older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are considered as prodromal for Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to determine whether ApoE4 carrier individuals with MCI may experience greater impairment in gait performance. Fifty-six older adults with MCI from the "Gait and Brain Study" who were identified as either ApoE4 carriers (n = 20) or non-ApoE4 carriers (n = 36) with 1 year of follow-up were included. Gait variability, the main outcome variable, was assessed as stride time variability with an electronic walkway. Additional gait variables and cognitive performance (mini-mental state examination [MMSE] and Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA]) were also recorded. Covariates included age, sex, education level, body mass index, and number of comorbidities. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. Repeated measures analysis of covariance showed that gait stride time and stride length variabilities significantly increased in ApoE4 carriers but was maintained in the non-ApoE4 carriers. Similarly, ApoE4 carriers showed greater decrease in MMSE score at follow-up. In this sample of older adults with MCI, the presence of at least one copy of ApoE4 was associated with the development of both increased gait variability and cognitive decline during 1 year of follow-up. ApoE4 genotype might be considered as a potential mediator of decline in mobility function in MCI; future studies with larger samples are needed to confirm our preliminary findings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hoang, Thang; Choi, Deokjai
Smart environments established by the development of mobile technology have brought vast benefits to human being. However, authentication mechanisms on portable smart devices, particularly conventional biometric based approaches, still remain security and privacy concerns. These traditional systems are mostly based on pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms, wherein original biometric templates or extracted features are stored under unconcealed form for performing matching with a new biometric sample in the authentication phase. In this paper, we propose a novel gait based authentication using biometric cryptosystem to enhance the system security and user privacy on the smart phone. Extracted gait features are merely used to biometrically encrypt a cryptographic key which is acted as the authentication factor. Gait signals are acquired by using an inertial sensor named accelerometer in the mobile device and error correcting codes are adopted to deal with the natural variation of gait measurements. We evaluate our proposed system on a dataset consisting of gait samples of 34 volunteers. We achieved the lowest false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) of 3.92% and 11.76%, respectively, in terms of key length of 50 bits.
Taguchi, Carlos Kazuo
Full Text Available Introduction The process of aging could lead to seniors being more prone to falls, which affects their quality of life. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between quality of life and gait in the elderly. Methods We used World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-Brief Brazilian version and the Dynamic Gait Index to assess fifty-six volunteers from the northeast of Brazil. Ages ranged from 60 to 85 years. Results The Dynamic Gait Index, which indicates the probability of falls, resulted in 36.3% of the sample presenting abnormal results. There was correlation between domain 2 (psychological and domain 4 (environment with domain 1(Physical and domain 3 (Social; a negative correlation between age and Domain 2; correlation between Question 1 (How would you rate your quality of life? and domains 1, 2, and 4 and no correlation between questions 1 and 2 (How satisfied are you with your health?. Question 2 was correlated with all of the domains. There was negative association between question 1 and falls, and a slight correlation between the Dynamic Gait Index scores and Question 1. Conclusion The self-perception of the study group about their quality of life was either good or very good, even though a considerable percentage of individuals had suffered falls or reported gait disturbances.
Satchell, Liam; Morris, Paul; Mills, Chris; O'Reilly, Liam; Marshman, Paul; Akehurst, Lucy
Behavioral observation techniques which relate action to personality have long been neglected (Furr and Funder in Handbook of research methods in personality psychology, The Guilford Press, New York, 2007) and, when employed, often use human judges to code behavior. In the current study we used an alternative to human coding (biomechanical research techniques) to investigate how personality traits are manifest in gait. We used motion capture technology to record 29 participants walking on a treadmill at their natural speed. We analyzed their thorax and pelvis movements, as well as speed of gait. Participants completed personality questionnaires, including a Big Five measure and a trait aggression questionnaire. We found that gait related to several of our personality measures. The magnitude of upper body movement, lower body movement, and walking speed, were related to Big Five personality traits and aggression. Here, we present evidence that some gait measures can relate to Big Five and aggressive personalities. We know of no other examples of research where gait has been shown to correlate with self-reported measures of personality and suggest that more research should be conducted between largely automatic movement and personality.
Wesseling, Mariska; Meyer, Christophe; De Groote, Friedl; Corten, Kristoff; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Desloovere, Kaat; Jonkers, Ilse
Following metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty, edge loading (i.e., loading near the edge of a prosthesis cup) can increase wear and lead to early revision. The position and coverage angle of the prosthesis cup influence the risk of edge loading. This study investigates the effect of altered gait patterns, more specific hip, and pelvis kinematics, on the orientation of hip contact force and the consequent risk of antero-superior edge loading using muscle driven simulations of gait. With a cup orientation of 25° anteversion and 50° inclination and a coverage angle of 168°, many gait patterns presented risk of edge loading. Specifically at terminal double support, 189 out of 405 gait patterns indicated a risk of edge loading. At this time instant, the high hip contact forces and the proximity of the hip contact force to the edge of the cup indicated the likelihood of the occurrence of edge loading. Although the cup position contributed most to edge loading, altering kinematics considerably influenced the risk of edge loading. Increased hip abduction, resulting in decreasing hip contact force magnitude, and decreased hip extension, resulting in decreased risk on edge loading, are gait strategies that could prevent edge loading. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1069-1076, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ropars, Juliette; Lempereur, Mathieu; Vuillerot, Carole; Tiffreau, Vincent; Peudenier, Sylviane; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Pereon, Yann; Leboeuf, Fabien; Delporte, Ludovic; Delpierre, Yannick; Gross, Raphaël; Brochard, Sylvain
The aim of this prospective study was to investigate changes in muscle activity during gait in children with Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Dynamic surface electromyography recordings (EMGs) of 16 children with DMD and pathological gait were compared with those of 15 control children. The activity of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), medial hamstrings (HS), tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius soleus (GAS) muscles was recorded and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The overall muscle activity in the children with DMD was significantly different from that of the control group. Percentage activation amplitudes of RF, HS and TA were greater throughout the gait cycle in the children with DMD and the timing of GAS activity differed from the control children. Significantly greater muscle coactivation was found in the children with DMD. There were no significant differences between sides. Since the motor command is normal in DMD, the hyper-activity and co-contractions likely compensate for gait instability and muscle weakness, however may have negative consequences on the muscles and may increase the energy cost of gait. Simple rehabilitative strategies such as targeted physical therapies may improve stability and thus the pattern of muscle activity.
Full Text Available Smart environments established by the development of mobile technology have brought vast benefits to human being. However, authentication mechanisms on portable smart devices, particularly conventional biometric based approaches, still remain security and privacy concerns. These traditional systems are mostly based on pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms, wherein original biometric templates or extracted features are stored under unconcealed form for performing matching with a new biometric sample in the authentication phase. In this paper, we propose a novel gait based authentication using biometric cryptosystem to enhance the system security and user privacy on the smart phone. Extracted gait features are merely used to biometrically encrypt a cryptographic key which is acted as the authentication factor. Gait signals are acquired by using an inertial sensor named accelerometer in the mobile device and error correcting codes are adopted to deal with the natural variation of gait measurements. We evaluate our proposed system on a dataset consisting of gait samples of 34 volunteers. We achieved the lowest false acceptance rate (FAR and false rejection rate (FRR of 3.92% and 11.76%, respectively, in terms of key length of 50 bits.
Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to investigate changes in muscle activity during gait in children with Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD. Dynamic surface electromyography recordings (EMGs of 16 children with DMD and pathological gait were compared with those of 15 control children. The activity of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus lateralis (VL, medial hamstrings (HS, tibialis anterior (TA and gastrocnemius soleus (GAS muscles was recorded and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The overall muscle activity in the children with DMD was significantly different from that of the control group. Percentage activation amplitudes of RF, HS and TA were greater throughout the gait cycle in the children with DMD and the timing of GAS activity differed from the control children. Significantly greater muscle coactivation was found in the children with DMD. There were no significant differences between sides. Since the motor command is normal in DMD, the hyper-activity and co-contractions likely compensate for gait instability and muscle weakness, however may have negative consequences on the muscles and may increase the energy cost of gait. Simple rehabilitative strategies such as targeted physical therapies may improve stability and thus the pattern of muscle activity.
Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A.; Ellard, Colin G.; Almeida, Quincy J.
Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly experience freezing of gait under time constraints, in narrow spaces, and in the dark. One commonality between these different situations is that they may all provoke anxiety, yet anxiety has never been directly examined as a cause of FOG. In this study, virtual reality was used to induce anxiety and evaluate whether it directly causes FOG. Fourteen patients with PD and freezing of gait (Freezers) and 17 PD without freezing of gait (Non-Freezers) were instructed to walk in two virtual environments: (i) across a plank that was located on the ground (LOW), (ii) across a plank above a deep pit (HIGH). Multiple synchronized motion capture cameras updated participants' movement through the virtual environment in real-time, while their gait was recorded. Anxiety levels were evaluated after each trial using self-assessment manikins. Freezers performed the experiment on two separate occasions (in their ON and OFF state). Freezers reported higher levels of anxiety compared to Non-Freezers (panxiety when walking across the HIGH plank compared to the LOW (panxiety is an important mechanism underlying freezing of gait and supports the notion that the limbic system may have a profound contribution to freezing in PD. PMID:25250691
Hausdorff, J. M.; Lertratanakul, A.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Peterson, A. L.; Kaliton, D.; Goldberger, A. L.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder marked by loss of motoneurons. We hypothesized that subjects with ALS would have an altered gait rhythm, with an increase in both the magnitude of the stride-to-stride fluctuations and perturbations in the fluctuation dynamics. To test for this locomotor instability, we quantitatively compared the gait rhythm of subjects with ALS with that of normal controls and with that of subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), pathologies of the basal ganglia. Subjects walked for 5 min at their usual pace wearing an ankle-worn recorder that enabled determination of the duration of each stride and of stride-to-stride fluctuations. We found that the gait of patients with ALS is less steady and more temporally disorganized compared with that of healthy controls. In addition, advanced ALS, HD, and PD were associated with certain common, as well as apparently distinct, features of altered stride dynamics. Thus stride-to-stride control of gait rhythm is apparently compromised with ALS. Moreover, a matrix of markers based on gait dynamics may be useful in characterizing certain pathologies of motor control and, possibly, in quantitatively monitoring disease progression and evaluating therapeutic interventions.
Criado, Maria Begoña; Santos, Maria João; Machado, Jorge; Gonçalves, Arminda Manuela; Greten, Henry Johannes
Multiple sclerosis is considered a complex and heterogeneous disease. Approximately 85% of patients with multiple sclerosis indicate impaired gait as one of the major limitations in their daily life. Acupuncture studies found a reduction of spasticity and improvement of fatigue and imbalance in patients with multiple sclerosis, but there is a lack of studies regarding gait. We designed a study of acupuncture treatment, according to the Heidelberg model of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), to investigate if acupuncture can be a useful therapeutic strategy in patients with gait impairment in multiple sclerosis of relapsing-remitting type. The sample consisted of 20 individuals with diagnosis of multiple sclerosis of relapsing-remitting type. Gait impairment was evaluated by the 25-foot walk test. The results showed differences in time to walk 25 feet following true acupuncture. In contrast, there was no difference in time to walk 25 feet following sham acupuncture. When using true acupuncture, 95% of cases showed an improvement in 25-foot walk test, compared with 45% when sham acupuncture was done. Our study protocol provides evidence that acupuncture treatment can be an attractive option for patients with multiple sclerosis, with gait impairment.
Sun, Jinming; Wu, Shaoli; Voglewede, Philip A
In this paper, it is proposed that the central nervous system (CNS) controls human gait using a predictive control approach in conjunction with classical feedback control instead of exclusive classical feedback control theory that controls based on past error. To validate this proposition, a dynamic model of human gait is developed using a novel predictive approach to investigate the principles of the CNS. The model developed includes two parts: a plant model that represents the dynamics of human gait and a controller that represents the CNS. The plant model is a seven-segment, six-joint model that has nine degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The plant model is validated using data collected from able-bodied human subjects. The proposed controller utilizes model predictive control (MPC). MPC uses an internal model to predict the output in advance, compare the predicted output to the reference, and optimize the control input so that the predicted error is minimal. To decrease the complexity of the model, two joints are controlled using a proportional-derivative (PD) controller. The developed predictive human gait model is validated by simulating able-bodied human gait. The simulation results show that the developed model is able to simulate the kinematic output close to experimental data.
Prochazkova, Marketa; Tepla, Lucie; Svoboda, Zdenek; Janura, Miroslav; Cieslarová, Miloslava
Ballet is an art that puts extreme demands on the dancer's musculoskeletal system and therefore significantly affects motor behavior of the dancers. The aim of our research was to compare plantar pressure distribution during stance phase of gait between a group of professional ballet dancers and non-dancers. Thirteen professional dancers (5 men, 8 women; mean age of 24.1 ± 3.8 years) and 13 nondancers (5 men, 8 women; mean age of 26.1 ± 5.3 years) participated in this study. Foot pressure analysis during gait was collected using a 2 m pressure plate. The participants were instructed to walk across the platform at a self-selected pace barefoot. Three gait cycles were necessary for the data analysis. The results revealed higher (p < 0.05) pressure peaks in medial edge of forefoot during gait for dancers in comparison with nondancers. Furthermore, differences in total foot loading and foot loading duration of rearfoot was higher (p < 0.05) in dancers as well. We can attribute these differences to long-term and intensive dancing exercises that can change the dancer's gait stereotype.
Cao, Yan; Sun, Ning; Yang, Jing-Wen; Zheng, Yang; Zhu, Wen; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Liu, Cun-Zhi
The effect of acupuncture on gait deficits after stroke is uncertain. This animal study was designed to determine whether acupuncture improves gait impairment following experimentally induced ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. After 7 days' of acupuncture treatment, assessment of gait changes using the CatWalk automated gait analysis system was performed. Comparison of the CatWalk gait parameters among the groups showed that gait function was impaired after ischemic stroke and acupuncture treatment was effective in improving a variety of gait parameters including intensity, stance and swing time, swing speed and stride length at postoperative day 8. This study demonstrates a beneficial effect of acupuncture on gait impairment in rats following ischemic stroke. Further studies aimed to investigate the effects of acupuncture at different stages during stroke using the CatWalk system are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Gait disorders are a major cause of functional impairment and morbidity, especially in the elderly population. Prevalence of gait disorders is higher in persons over 60: is estimated to be around 15% at 60 years of age and more than 50% in people > 80 years. Most gait disorders are multifactorial and have both neurologic and non-neurologic components. Neurological gait abnormalities result from focal or diffuse lesions occurring in the neural pathways linking the cortical motor centers to the peripheral neuromuscular systems. Nonneurological gait abnormalities include gait limitations caused by musculoskeletal, cardiac, or respiratory diseases. Assessment of a gait abnormality should include history, clinical presentation and additional diagnostic tests. Finding the ethiology of a gait disorder could be a challenge for the practitioners in many cases, requiring interdisciplinary cooperation.
Laat, K.F. de; Tuladhar, A.M.; Norden, A.G.W. van; Norris, D.G.; Zwiers, M.P.; Leeuw, F.E. de
Gait disturbances are common in the elderly. Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter lesions and lacunars infarcts, is thought to disrupt white matter tracts that connect important motor regions, hence resulting in gait disturbances. Pathological studies have demonstrated abnormalities
Adnil W. Titus
Conclusion: This pilot study found significant asymmetry in trunk motion between the affected and unaffected sides that varied across the gait cycle. This suggests the trunk may need to be targeted in clinical gait retraining post-stroke.
Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech; Overgaard, Søren; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders
The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Profile Score (GPS) are the most used summary measures of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the reliability and agreement of these indices have not been investigated, limiting their clinimetric quality for research and clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability and agreement of summary measures of gait (GDI; GPS; and the Gait Variable Score (GVS) derived from the GPS). The intra-rater reliability and agreement were investigated across two repeated sessions in 18 children aged 5-12 years diagnosed with spastic CP. No systematic bias was observed between the sessions and no heteroscedasticity was observed in Bland-Altman plots. For the GDI and GPS, excellent reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values of 0.8-0.9 was found, while the GVS was found to have fair to good reliability with ICCs of 0.4-0.7. The agreement for the GDI and the logarithmically transformed GPS, in terms of the standard error of measurement as a percentage of the grand mean (SEM%) varied from 4.1 to 6.7%, whilst the smallest detectable change in percent (SDC%) ranged from 11.3 to 18.5%. For the logarithmically transformed GVS, we found a fair to large variation in SEM% from 7 to 29% and in SDC% from 18 to 81%. The GDI and GPS demonstrated excellent reliability and acceptable agreement proving that they can both be used in research and clinical practice. However, the observed large variability for some of the GVS requires cautious consideration when selecting outcome measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Halovic, Shaun; Kroos, Christian
Previous evidence has shown that males and females display different gait kinematics which may influence the perception of emotions displayed through the same walking gait. We therefore investigated the influence of walker gender on the perception of happiness, sadness, anger and fear displayed through walking movements. Full-light (FL), point-light (PL) and synthetically modelled point-light walkers (SW) of both genders were shown to perceivers over three experiments. Additionally, gender ambiguous synthetic walkers were shown to control for the influence of form, gender stereotypes and idiosyncratic gait movements on emotional gait perception. Each emotion was identified above chance level for both walker genders and in all display conditions though significantly less in PL and SW than in FL. The gender of the walker did not influence the pattern of identifications in FL walkers (Fear > Sad > Happy > Anger > Neutral), but did influence the identification patterns in PL (Female: [Happy = Sad = Fear = Anger] > Neutral; Male: Fear = Sad = [Happy > Anger] > Neutral) and SWs (Female: Happy = Sad = Anger = Fear = Neutral; Male: [Happy = Sad = Anger] > [Fear = Neutral]; Ambiguous: [[Happy = Sad = Anger] > Fear] = Neutral). The gender of the walker and format in which they are displayed influenced the perception of different basic emotions. The constructed SW stimuli also displayed happiness, sadness and anger with equivalent intensity in female, male and gender ambiguous walkers thus untangling the perception-expression entanglement that has plagued previous emotion perception research. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L
Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children's emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children's emotions, (b) socializers' discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers' expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children's emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children's expression of emotion are associated with children's negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.
Goffredo, Michela; Bouchrika, Imed; Carter, John N.; Nixon, Mark S.
Many studies have confirmed that gait analysis can be used as a new biometrics. In this research, gait analysis is deployed for people identification in multi-camera surveillance scenarios. We present a new method for viewpoint independent markerless gait analysis that does not require camera calibration and works with a wide range of walking directions. These properties make the proposed method particularly suitable for gait identification in real surveillance scenarios where people and thei...
Full Text Available This study examines the range of gait patterns that are perceived as healthy and human-like with the goal of understanding how much asymmetry is allowable in a gait pattern before other people start to notice a gait impairment. Specifically, this study explores if certain abnormal walking patterns can be dismissed as unimpaired or not uncanny. Altering gait biomechanics is generally done in the fields of prosthetics and rehabilitation, however the perception of gait is often neglected. Although a certain gait can be functional, it may not be considered as normal by observers. On the other hand, an abnormally perceived gait may be more practical or necessary in some situations, such as limping after an injury or stroke and when wearing a prosthesis. This research will help to find the balance between the form and function of gait. Gait patterns are synthetically created using a passive dynamic walker (PDW model that allows gait patterns to be systematically changed without the confounding influence from human sensorimotor feedback during walking. This standardized method allows the perception of specific changes in gait to be studied. The PDW model was used to produce walking patterns that showed a degree of abnormality in gait cadence, knee height, step length, and swing time created by changing the foot roll-over-shape, knee damping, knee location, and leg masses. The gait patterns were shown to participants who rated them according to separate scales of impairment and uncanniness. The results indicate that some pathological and asymmetric gait patterns are perceived as unimpaired and normal. Step time and step length asymmetries less than 5%, small knee location differences, and gait cadence changes of 25% do not result in a change in perception. The results also show that the parameters of a pathologically or uncanny perceived gait can be beneficially altered by increasing other independent parameters, in some sense masking the initial
Giovanni A. Cavagna
Full Text Available In running, hopping and trotting gaits, the center of mass of the body oscillates each step below and above an equilibrium position where the vertical force on the ground equals body weight. In trotting and low speed human running, the average vertical acceleration of the center of mass during the lower part of the oscillation equals that of the upper part, the duration of the lower part equals that of the upper part and the step frequency equals the resonant frequency of the bouncing system: we define this as on-offground symmetric rebound. In hopping and high speed human running, the average vertical acceleration of the center of mass during the lower part of the oscillation exceeds that of the upper part, the duration of the upper part exceeds that of the lower part and the step frequency is lower than the resonant frequency of the bouncing system: we define this as on-off-ground asymmetric rebound. Here we examine the physical and physiological constraints resulting in this on-off-ground symmetry and asymmetry of the rebound. Furthermore, the average force exerted during the brake when the body decelerates downwards and forwards is greater than that exerted during the push when the body is reaccelerated upwards and forwards. This landing-takeoff asymmetry, which would be nil in the elastic rebound of the symmetric spring-mass model for running and hopping, suggests a less efficient elastic energy storage and recovery during the bouncing step. During hopping, running and trotting the landing-takeoff asymmetry and the mass-specific vertical stiffness are smaller in larger animals than in the smaller animals suggesting a more efficient rebound in larger animals.
Desmet, P.M.A.; Guiza Caicedo, D.; Van Hout, M.
Emotions experienced in response to hotel services were examined with an online questionnaire. The study resulted in 348 cases of hotel service emotions. The frequency of reported pleasant emotions was similar to the frequency of reported unpleasant emotions. Often reported pleasant emotions were
Saraswat, Prabhav; Andersen, Michael S; Macwilliams, Bruce A
Several full body musculoskeletal models have been developed for research applications and these models may potentially be developed into useful clinical tools to assess gait pathologies. Existing full-body musculoskeletal models treat the foot as a single segment and ignore the motions of the intrinsic joints of the foot. This assumption limits the use of such models in clinical cases with significant foot deformities. Therefore, a three-segment musculoskeletal model of the foot was developed to match the segmentation of a recently developed multi-segment kinematic foot model. All the muscles and ligaments of the foot spanning the modeled joints were included. Muscle pathways were adjusted with an optimization routine to minimize the difference between the muscle flexion-extension moment arms from the model and moment arms reported in literature. The model was driven by walking data from five normal pediatric subjects (aged 10.6+/-1.57 years) and muscle forces and activation levels required to produce joint motions were calculated using an inverse dynamic analysis approach. Due to the close proximity of markers on the foot, small marker placement error during motion data collection may lead to significant differences in musculoskeletal model outcomes. Therefore, an optimization routine was developed to enforce joint constraints, optimally scale each segment length and adjust marker positions. To evaluate the model outcomes, the muscle activation patterns during walking were compared with electromyography (EMG) activation patterns reported in the literature. Model-generated muscle activation patterns were observed to be similar to the EMG activation patterns. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Galli, M; Cimolin, V; De Pandis, M F; Le Pera, D; Sova, I; Albertini, G; Stocchi, F; Franceschini, M
The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare the effects, on walking performance, of end-effector robotic rehabilitation locomotor training versus intensive training with a treadmill in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty patients with PD were randomly divided into two groups: 25 were assigned to the robot-assisted therapy group (RG) and 25 to the intensive treadmill therapy group (IG). They were evaluated with clinical examination and 3D quantitative gait analysis [gait profile score (GPS) and its constituent gait variable scores (GVSs) were calculated from gait analysis data] at the beginning (T0) and at the end (T1) of the treatment. In the RG no differences were found in the GPS, but there were significant improvements in some GVSs (Pelvic Obl and Hip Ab-Add). The IG showed no statistically significant changes in either GPS or GVSs. The end-effector robotic rehabilitation locomotor training improved gait kinematics and seems to be effective for rehabilitation in patients with mild PD.
Tong, Raymond K Y; Ng, Maple F W; Li, Leonard S W; So, Elaine F M
This case report describes the implementation of gait training intervention that used an electromechanical gait trainer with simultaneous functional electrical stimulation (FES) for 2 patients with acute ischemic stroke. Two individuals with post-stroke hemiplegia of less than 6 weeks' duration participated in a 4-week gait training program as an adjunct to physical therapy received at a hospital. After the 4-week intervention, both patients were discharged from the hospital, and they returned after 6 months for a follow-up evaluation. By the end of the 4-week intervention, both patients had shown improvements in scores on the Barthel Index, Berg Balance Scale, Functional Ambulation Categories Scale, 5-m timed walking test, and Motricity Index. In the 6-month follow-up evaluation, both patients continued to have improvements in all outcome measures. This case report shows that, following the use of an electromechanical gait trainer simultaneously with FES, patients after acute stroke had improvements in gait performance, functional activities, balance, and motor control in the long term.
Hesse, S; Sarkodie-Gyan, T; Uhlenbrock, D
The study aimed at further development of a mechanised gait trainer which would allow non-ambulant people to practice a gait-like motion repeatedly. To simulate normal gait, discrete stance and swing phases, lasting 60% and 40% of the gait cycle respectively, and the control of the movement of the centre of mass were required. A complex gear system provided the gait-like movement of two foot plates with a ratio of 60% to 40% between the stance and swing phases. A controlled propulsion system adjusted its output according to patient's efforts. Two eccenters on the central gear controlled phase-adjusted the vertical and horizontal position of the centre of mass. The patterns of sagittal lower limb joint kinematics and of muscle activation of a normal subject were similar when using the mechanised trainer and when walking on a treadmill. A non-ambulatory hemiparetic subject required little help from one therapist on the gait trainer, while two therapists supported treadmill walking. Gait movements on the trainer were highly symmetrical, impact-free, and less spastic. The weight-bearing muscles were activated in a similar fashion during both conditions. The vertical displacement of the centre of mass was bi-instead of mono-phasic during each gait cycle on the new device. In conclusion, the gait trainer allowed wheelchair-bound subjects the repetitive practice of a gait-like movement without overstraining therapists.
Henriksen, M; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, J
and little attention has been given to how pain in other muscles affects functional movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the gait patterns of healthy subjects that occur during experimental muscle pain in the biceps femoris. In a cross-over study design, 14 healthy volunteers...... underwent EMG assisted 3D gait analyses before, during and after experimental biceps femoris pain induced by intramuscular injections of hypertonic saline. Isotonic saline injections were administered as a non-painful control. The experimental biceps femoris pain led to reductions in hip extensor moments......, knee flexor and lateral rotator moments. No changes in lower extremity kinematics and EMG activity in any of the recorded muscles were observed. It is concluded that experimental muscle pain in the biceps femoris leads to changes in the gait pattern in agreement with unloading of the painful muscle...
Isaac, Ebenezer R. H. P.; Elias, Susan; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Easwarakumar, K. S.
Template-based model-free approach provides by far the most successful solution to the gait recognition problem in literature. Recent work discusses how isolating the head and leg portion of the template increase the performance of a gait recognition system making it robust against covariates like clothing and carrying conditions. However, most involve a manual definition of the boundaries. The method we propose, the genetic template segmentation (GTS), employs the genetic algorithm to automate the boundary selection process. This method was tested on the GEI, GEnI and AEI templates. GEI seems to exhibit the best result when segmented with our approach. Experimental results depict that our approach significantly outperforms the existing implementations of view-invariant gait recognition.
Jay Prakash Gupta
Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.
Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus
An algorithm is created, which performs human gait analysis using spatial data and amplitude images from a Time-of-ﬂight camera. For each frame in a sequence the camera supplies cartesian coordinates in space for every pixel. By using an articulated model the subject pose is estimated in the depth...... map in each frame. The pose estimation is based on likelihood, contrast in the amplitude image, smoothness and a shape prior used to solve a Markov random ﬁeld. Based on the pose estimates, and the prior that movement is locally smooth, a sequential model is created, and a gait analysis is done...... on this model. The output data are: Speed, Cadence (steps per minute), Step length, Stride length (stride being two consecutive steps also known as a gait cycle), and Range of motion (angles of joints). The created system produces good output data of the described output parameters and requires no user...
Lanska, Douglas J
Beginning in the late 1870s, before the invention of movie cameras or projectors, pioneering English American photographer Eadweard Muybridge photographed iconic image sequences of people and animals in motion using arrays of sequentially triggered single-image cameras. In 1885, Philadelphia neurologist Francis Dercum initiated a collaborative relationship with Muybridge at the University of Pennsylvania to photograph sequential images of patients with various neurologic disorders of movement, including an acquired pathologic quadrupedal gait in a young boy that developed as a consequence of poliomyelitis. This pathologic human quadrupedal gait was compared with other quadrupedal gaits filmed by Muybridge, including a toddler girl and an adult woman crawling on hands and knees, an adult woman bear crawling on hands and feet, and a baboon walking. All of the human quadrupedal gaits were lateral sequence gaits, whereas the baboon's walking gait was a diagonal sequence gait. Modern studies have confirmed the nonpathologic quadrupedal gait sequences of humans and nonhuman primates. Despite Dercum's assertion to the contrary, the limb placement pattern of the boy with a pathologic quadrupedal gait after poliomyelitis was not the typical gait of a primate quadruped, but rather was the typical gait sequence for normal human developmental and volitional quadrupedal gaits. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Van Der Holst, Helena M.; Van Uden, Ingeborg W.M.; de Laat, Karlijn F.; Van Leijsen, Esther M.C.; van Norden, Anouk G.W.; Norris, David G.; Van DIjk, Ewoud J.; Tuladhar, Anil M.; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik
Background Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is cross-sectionally associated with gait disturbances, however, the relation between baseline SVD and gait decline over time is uncertain. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies on gait decline are currently lacking. Objective To
Enkelaar, Lotte; Smulders, Ellen; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Weerdesteyn, Vivian
Limitations in mobility are common in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). As balance and gait capacities are key aspects of mobility, the prevalence of balance and gait problems is also expected to be high in this population. The objective of this study was to critically review the available literature on balance and gait characteristics…
Jensen, Carsten; Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg
We used the Gait Deviation Index (GDI) as method to compare preoperative to postoperative gait changes after uncemented 50mm(median) large-head and 28/32mmtotal hip arthroplasty (THA). We also identified predictors of improvements in GDI. Gait analysis and patient-reported (WOMAC) datawere record...
Scholten, M.; Klemt, J.; Heilbronn, M.; Plewnia, C.; Bloem, B.R.; Bunjes, F.; Kruger, R.; Gharabaghi, A.; Weiss, D.
Conventional subthalamic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease (PD) presumably modulates the spatial component of gait. However, temporal dysregulation of gait is one of the factors that is tightly associated with freezing of gait (FOG). Temporal locomotor integration may be modulated
Toebes, M.J.P.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Furrer, R.; Dekker, J.; van Dieen, J.H.
Gait parameters that can be measured with simple instrumentation may hold promise for identifying individuals at risk of falling. Increased variability of gait is associated with increased risk of falling, but research on additional parameters indicates that local dynamic stability (LDS) of gait may
Punt, M.; Bruijn, S.M.; Wittink, H.; van Dieen, J.H.
Introduction: Falling causes long term disability and can even lead to death. Most falls occur during gait. Therefore improving gait stability might be beneficial for people at risk of falling. Recently arm swing has been shown to influence gait stability. However at present it remains unknown which
Punt, Michiel; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Wittink, Harriet; van Dieën, Jaap H
Falling causes long term disability and can even lead to death. Most falls occur during gait. Therefore improving gait stability might be beneficial for people at risk of falling. Recently arm swing has been shown to influence gait stability. However at present it remains unknown which mode of arm swing creates the most stable gait. To examine how different modes of arm swing affect gait stability. Ten healthy young male subjects volunteered for this study. All subjects walked with four different arm swing instructions at seven different gait speeds. The Xsens motion capture suit was used to capture gait kinematics. Basic gait parameters, variability and stability measures were calculated. We found an increased stability in the medio-lateral direction with excessive arm swing in comparison to normal arm swing at all gait speeds. Moreover, excessive arm swing increased stability in the anterior-posterior and vertical direction at low gait speeds. Ipsilateral and inphase arm swing did not differ compared to a normal arm swing. Excessive arm swing is a promising gait manipulation to improve local dynamic stability. For excessive arm swing in the ML direction there appears to be converging evidence. The effect of excessive arm swing on more clinically relevant groups like the more fall prone elderly or stroke survivors is worth further investigating. Excessive arm swing significantly increases local dynamic stability of human gait. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mohammadi, F.; Bruijn, S.M.; Vervoort, G.; van Wegen, E.E.H.; Kwakkel, G.; Verschueren, S.; Nieuwboer, A.
Background. Patients with freezing of gait (FOG) have more difficulty with switching tasks as well as controlling the spatiotemporal parameters of gait than patients without FOG. Objective. To compare the ability of patients with and without FOG to adjust their gait to sudden speed switching and to
Nieuwboer, A.; Kwakkel, G.; Rochester, L.; Jones, D.; Van Wegen, E.; Willems, A. M.; Chavret, F.; Hetherington, V.; Baker, K.; Lim, I.
Objectives: Gait and mobility problems are difficult to treat in people with Parkinson's disease. The Rehabilitation in Parkinson's Disease: Strategies for Cueing (RESCUE) trial investigated the effects of a home physiotherapy programme based on rhythmical cueing on gait and gait-related activity.
Nieuwboer, A.; Kwakkel, G.; Rochester, L.; Jones, D.; Wegen, E. van; Willems, A.M.; Chavret, F.; Hetherington, V.; Baker, K.; Lim, I.
OBJECTIVES: Gait and mobility problems are difficult to treat in people with Parkinson's disease. The Rehabilitation in Parkinson's Disease: Strategies for Cueing (RESCUE) trial investigated the effects of a home physiotherapy programme based on rhythmical cueing on gait and gait-related activity.
Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus
We present a system that analyzes human gait using a treadmill and a Time-of-flight camera. The camera provides spatial data with local intensity measures of the scene, and data are collected over several gait cycles. These data are then used to model and analyze the gait. For each frame...
Bank, P.J.M.; Roerdink, M.; Peper, C.E.
Acoustic metronomes and visual targets have been used in rehabilitation practice to improve pathological gait. In addition, they may be instrumental in evaluating and training instantaneous gait adjustments. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two cue types in inducing gait
The study group received arm cycling in addition to gait training exercise, while the control group received gait training exercises only. Three dimensional (3D) motion analysis was used before and after the training program to evaluate the angular displacements of shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle joints during gait sub ...
DelMarco, Stephen; Deng, Yunbin
The ubiquity of mobile devices offers the opportunity to exploit device-generated signal data for biometric identification, health monitoring, and activity recognition. In particular, mobile devices contain an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) that produces acceleration and rotational rate information from the IMU accelerometers and gyros. These signals reflect motion properties of the human carrier. It is well-known that the complexity of bio-dynamical systems gives rise to chaotic dynamics. Knowledge of chaotic properties of these systems has shown utility, for example, in detecting abnormal medical conditions and neurological disorders. Chaotic dynamics has been found, in the lab, in bio-dynamical systems data such as electrocardiogram (heart), electroencephalogram (brain), and gait data. In this paper, we investigate the following question: can we detect chaotic dynamics in human gait as measured by IMU acceleration and gyro data from mobile phones? To detect chaotic dynamics, we perform recurrence analysis on real gyro and accelerometer signal data obtained from mobile devices. We apply the delay coordinate embedding approach from Takens' theorem to reconstruct the phase space trajectory of the multi-dimensional gait dynamical system. We use mutual information properties of the signal to estimate the appropriate delay value, and the false nearest neighbor approach to determine the phase space embedding dimension. We use a correlation dimension-based approach together with estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent to make the chaotic dynamics detection decision. We investigate the ability to detect chaotic dynamics for the different one-dimensional IMU signals, across human subject and walking modes, and as a function of different phone locations on the human carrier.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to characterize complexity of lower-extremity muscle coactivation and coordination during gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP, children with typical development (TD and healthy adults, by applying recently developed multivariate multi-scale entropy (MMSE analysis to surface EMG signals. Eleven CP children (CP group, eight TD children and seven healthy adults (consider as an entire control group were asked to walk while surface EMG signals were collected from 5 thigh muscles and 3 lower leg muscles on each leg (16 EMG channels in total. The 16-channel surface EMG data, recorded during a series of consecutive gait cycles, were simultaneously processed by multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD, to generate fully aligned data scales for subsequent MMSE analysis. In order to conduct extensive examination of muscle coactivation complexity using the MEMD-enhanced MMSE, 14 data analysis schemes were designed by varying partial muscle combinations and time durations of data segments. Both TD children and healthy adults showed almost consistent MMSE curves over multiple scales for all the 14 schemes, without any significant difference (p > 0.09. However, quite diversity in MMSE curve was observed in the CP group when compared with those in the control group. There appears to be diverse neuropathological processes in CP that may affect dynamical complexity of muscle coactivation and coordination during gait. The abnormal complexity patterns emerging in CP group can be attributed to different factors such as motor control impairments, loss of muscle couplings, and spasticity or paralysis in individual muscles. All these findings expand our knowledge of neuropathology of CP from a novel point of view of muscle co-activation complexity, also indicating the potential to derive a quantitative index for assessing muscle activation characteristics as well as motor function in CP.
Shin, Yoon-Kyum; Chong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Soo Ji; Cho, Sung-Rae
The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on both kinematic and temporospatial gait patterns in patients with hemiplegia. Eighteen hemiplegic patients diagnosed with either cerebral palsy or stroke participated in this study. All participants underwent the 4-week gait training with RAS. The treatment was performed for 30 minutes per each session, three sessions per week. RAS was provided with rhythmic beats using a chord progression on a keyboard. Kinematic and temporospatial data were collected and analyzed using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Gait training with RAS significantly improved both proximal and distal joint kinematic patterns in hip adduction, knee flexion, and ankle plantar flexion, enhancing the gait deviation index (GDI) as well as ameliorating temporal asymmetry of the stance and swing phases in patients with hemiplegia. Stroke patients with previous walking experience demonstrated significant kinematic improvement in knee flexion in mid-swing and ankle dorsiflexion in terminal stance. Among stroke patients, subacute patients showed a significantly increased GDI score compared with chronic patients. In addition, household ambulators showed a significant effect on reducing anterior tilt of the pelvis with an enhanced GDI score, while community ambulators significantly increased knee flexion in mid-swing phase and ankle dorsiflexion in terminal stance phase. Gait training with RAS has beneficial effects on both kinematic and temporospatial patterns in patients with hemiplegia, providing not only clinical implications of locomotor rehabilitation with goal-oriented external feedback using RAS but also differential effects according to ambulatory function.
Beyaert, C; Vasa, R; Frykberg, G E
We reviewed neural control and biomechanical description of gait in both non-disabled and post-stroke subjects. In addition, we reviewed most of the gait rehabilitation strategies currently in use or in development and observed their principles in relation to recent pathophysiology of post-stroke gait. In both non-disabled and post-stroke subjects, motor control is organized on a task-oriented basis using a common set of a few muscle modules to simultaneously achieve body support, balance control, and forward progression during gait. Hemiparesis following stroke is due to disruption of descending neural pathways, usually with no direct lesion of the brainstem and cerebellar structures involved in motor automatic processes. Post-stroke, improvements of motor activities including standing and locomotion are variable but are typically characterized by a common postural behaviour which involves the unaffected side more for body support and balance control, likely in response to initial muscle weakness of the affected side. Various rehabilitation strategies are regularly used or in development, targeting muscle activity, postural and gait tasks, using more or less high-technology equipment. Reduced walking speed often improves with time and with various rehabilitation strategies, but asymmetric postural behaviour during standing and walking is often reinforced, maintained, or only transitorily decreased. This asymmetric compensatory postural behaviour appears to be robust, driven by support and balance tasks maintaining the predominant use of the unaffected side over the initially impaired affected side. Based on these elements, stroke rehabilitation including affected muscle strengthening and often stretching would first need to correct the postural asymmetric pattern by exploiting postural automatic processes in various particular motor tasks secondarily beneficial to gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Pearson-Dennett, Verity; Todd, Gabrielle; Wilcox, Robert A; Vogel, Adam P; White, Jason M; Thewlis, Dominic
Despite evidence that cannabinoid receptors are located in movement-related brain regions (e.g., basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum), and that chronic cannabis use is associated with structural and functional brain changes, little is known about the long-term effect of cannabis use on human movement. The aim of the current study was to investigate balance and walking gait in adults with a history of cannabis use. We hypothesised that cannabis use is associated with subtle changes in gait and balance that are insufficient in magnitude for detection in a clinical setting. Cannabis users (n=22, 24±6years) and non-drug using controls (n=22, 25±8years) completed screening tests, a gait and balance test (with a motion capture system and in-built force platforms), and a clinical neurological examination of movement. Compared to controls, cannabis users exhibited significantly greater peak angular velocity of the knee (396±30 versus 426±50°/second, P=0.039), greater peak elbow flexion (53±12 versus 57±7°, P=0.038) and elbow range of motion (33±13 versus 36±10°, P=0.044), and reduced shoulder flexion (41±19 versus 26±16°, P=0.007) during walking gait. However, balance and neurological parameters did not significantly differ between the groups. The results suggest that history of cannabis use is associated with long-lasting changes in open-chain elements of walking gait, but the magnitude of change is not clinically detectable. Further research is required to investigate if the subtle gait changes observed in this population become more apparent with aging and increased cannabis use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prader-Willi (PWS and Down Syndrome (DS are two genetic disorders characterised by some common clinical and functional features. A quantitative description and comparison of their patterns would contribute to a deeper understanding of the determinants of motor disability in these two syndromes. The aim of this study was to measure gait pattern in PWS and DS in order to provide data for developing evidence-based deficit-specific or common rehabilitation strategies. Methods 19 PWS patients (17.7-40 yr and 21 DS patients (18-39 yr were evaluated with an optoelectronic system and force platforms for measuring kinematic and kinetic parameters during walking. The results were compared with those obtained in a group of normal-weight controls (Control Group: CG; 33.4 + 9.6 yr. Results and Discussion The results show that PWS and DS are characterised by different gait strategies. Spatio-temporal parameters indicated a cautious, abnormal gait in both groups, but DS walked with a less stable strategy than PWS. As for kinematics, DS showed a significantly reduced hip and knee flexion, especially at initial contact and ankle range of motion than PWS. DS were characterised by lower ranges of motion (p Conclusions Our data show that DS walk with a less physiological gait pattern than PWS. Based on our results, PWS and DS patients need targeted rehabilitation and exercise prescription. Common to both groups is the aim to improve hypotonia, muscle strength and motor control during gait. In DS, improving pelvis and hip range of motion should represent a major specific goal to optimize gait pattern.
Full Text Available Olivier Beauchet1, Gilles Allali2, Gilles Berrut3, Caroline Hommet4, Véronique Dubost5, Frédéric Assal21Department of Geriatrics, Angers University Hospital, France; 2Department of Neurology, Geneva University Hospital, France; 3Department of Geriatrics, Nantes University Hospital, France; 4Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Tours University Hospital, France; 5Department of Geriatrics, Dijon University Hospital, FranceAbstract: Gait disorders are more prevalent in dementia than in normal aging and are related to the severity of cognitive decline. Dementia-related gait changes (DRGC mainly include decrease in walking speed provoked by a decrease in stride length and an increase in support phase. More recently, dual-task related changes in gait were found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and non-Alzheimer dementia, even at an early stage. An increase in stride-to-stride variability while usual walking and dual-tasking has been shown to be more specific and sensitive than any change in mean value in subjects with dementia. Those data show that DRGC are not only associated to motor disorders but also to problem with central processing of information and highlight that dysfunction of temporal and frontal lobe may in part explain gait impairment among demented subjects. Gait assessment, and more particularly dual-task analysis, is therefore crucial in early diagnosis of dementia and/or related syndromes in the elderly. Moreover, dual-task disturbances could be a specific marker of falling at a pre-dementia stage.Keywords: gait, prediction of dementia, risk of falling, older adult
Bürki, Céline N; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Reinhardt, Julia; Stippich, Christoph; Kressig, Reto W; Blatow, Maria
In geriatric clinical diagnostics, gait analysis with cognitive-motor dual tasking is used to predict fall risk and cognitive decline. To date, the neural correlates of cognitive-motor dual tasking processes are not fully understood. To investigate these underlying neural mechanisms, we designed an fMRI paradigm to reproduce the gait analysis. We tested the fMRI paradigm's feasibility in a substudy with fifteen young adults and assessed 31 healthy older adults in the main study. First, gait speed and variability were quantified using the GAITRite © electronic walkway. Then, participants lying in the MRI-scanner were stepping on pedals of an MRI-compatible stepping device used to imitate gait during functional imaging. In each session, participants performed cognitive and motor single tasks as well as cognitive-motor dual tasks. Behavioral results showed that the parameters of both gait analyses, GAITRite © and fMRI, were significantly positively correlated. FMRI results revealed significantly reduced brain activation during dual task compared to single task conditions. Functional ROI analysis showed that activation in the superior parietal lobe (SPL) decreased less from single to dual task condition than activation in primary motor cortex and in supplementary motor areas. Moreover, SPL activation was increased during dual tasks in subjects exhibiting lower stepping speed and lower executive control. We were able to simulate walking during functional imaging with valid results that reproduce those from the GAITRite © gait analysis. On the neural level, SPL seems to play a crucial role in cognitive-motor dual tasking and to be linked to divided attention processes, particularly when motor activity is involved.
Full Text Available The article centers round the problem of stabilization of biped robot gait through smoothing out the jumps of first and second order derivatives of a biped robot control vector using the fuzzy logic approach. The structure of a composite Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy logic controller developed by the authors is presented. The simulation study of a robot gait with climbing an obstacle is carried out and the results provided in the article showed that the developed controller performed significantly better than the analytical formula model in terms of smoothing out the derivatives of the control vector.
Nutt, John G
The term higher-level gait disorders (HLGD) defines a category of balance and gait disorders that are not explained by deficits in strength, tone, sensation, or coordination. HLGD are characterized by various combinations of disequilibrium and impaired locomotion. A plethora of new imaging techniques are beginning to determine the neural circuits that are the basis of these disorders. Although a variety of neurodegenerative and other pathologies can produce HLGD, the most common cause appears to be microvascular disease that causes white-matter lesions and thereby disrupts balance/locomotor circuits. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.
van der Meer, T.G.L.A.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.
Organizational crises are usually highly emotional experiences for both organizations and stakeholders. Hence, crisis situations often result in emotionally charged communication between the two parties. Despite the attention of organizations and scholars to the emotions of stakeholders during
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Managing Your Emotional Reactions KidsHealth / For Teens / Managing Your Emotional Reactions ... Think about what you might do next time. Emotions 101 The skills we use to manage our ...
de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner
personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. Copyright © 2013 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Bonnyaud, Céline; Pradon, Didier; Zory, Raphael; Bensmail, Djamel; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Roche, Nicolas
Gait training for patients with hemiparesis is carried out independently overground or on a treadmill. Several studies have shown differences in hemiparetic gait parameters during overground versus treadmill walking. However, few studies have compared the effects of these 2 gait training conditions on gait parameters, and no study has compared the short-term effects of these techniques on all biomechanical gait parameters. To determine whether a gait training session performed overground or on a treadmill induces specific short-term effects on biomechanical gait parameters in patients with hemiparesis. Twenty-six subjects with hemiparesis were randomly assigned to a single session of either overground or treadmill gait training. The short-term effects on spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic gait parameters were assessed using gait analysis before and immediately after the training and after a 20-minute rest. Speed, cadence, percentage of single support phase, peak knee extension, peak propulsion, and braking on the paretic side were significantly increased after the gait training session. However, there were no specific changes dependent on the type of gait training performed (overground or on a treadmill). A gait training session performed by subjects with hemiparesis overground or on a treadmill did not induce specific short-term effects on biomechanical gait parameters. The increase in gait velocity that followed a gait training session seemed to reflect specific modifications of the paretic lower limb and adaptation of the nonparetic lower limb.
Kim, J. S.; Kim, G. E.; Yoo, J. Y.; Kim, D. G.; Moon, D. H.
Scientific documentation of neurologic improvement following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has not been established. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate whether CEA performed for the internal carotid artery flow lesion improves gait and cerebrovascular hemodynamic status in patients with gait disturbance. We prospectively performed pre- and postCEA gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT (Acz-SPECT) with Tc-99m ECD in 91 patients (M/F: 81/10, mean age: 64.1 y) who had gait disturbance before receiving CEA. Gait performance was assessed using a Vicon 370 motion analyzer. The gait improvement after CEA was correlated to cerebrovascular hemodynamic change as well as symptom duration. 12 hemiparetic stroke patients (M/F=9/3, mean age: 51 y) who did not receive CEA as a control underwent gait analysis twice in a week interval to evaluate whether repeat testing of gait performance shows learning effect. Of 91 patients, 73 (80%) patients showed gait improvement (change of gait speed > 10%) and 42 (46%) showed marked improvement (change of gait speed > 20%), but no improvement was observed in control group at repeat test. Post-operative cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement was noted in 49 (54%) of 91 patients. There was marked gait improvement in patients group with cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement compared to no change group (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement and cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement were noted in 53% and 61% of the patient who had less than 3 month history of symptom compared to 31% and 24% of the patients who had longer than 3 months, respectively (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement was obtained in patients who had improvement of cerebrovascular hemodynamic status on Acz-SPECT after CEA. These results suggest functional improvement such as gait can result from the improved perfusion of misery perfusion area, which is viable for a longer period compared to literatures previously reported
Wittwer, Joanne E; Webster, Kate E; Hill, Keith
Rhythmic auditory cues including music and metronome beats have been used, sometimes interchangeably, to improve disordered gait arising from a range of clinical conditions. There has been limited investigation into whether there are optimal cue types. Different cue types have produced inconsistent effects across groups which differed in both age and clinical condition. The possible effect of normal ageing on response to different cue types has not been reported for gait. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of both rhythmic music and metronome cues on gait spatiotemporal measures (including variability) in healthy older people. Twelve women and seven men (>65 years) walked on an instrumented walkway at comfortable pace and then in time to each of rhythmic music and metronome cues at comfortable pace stepping frequency. Music but not metronome cues produced a significant increase in group mean gait velocity of 4.6 cm/s, due mostly to a significant increase in group mean stride length of 3.1cm. Both cue types produced a significant but small increase in cadence of 1 step/min. Mean spatio-temporal variability was low at baseline and did not increase with either cue type suggesting cues did not disrupt gait timing. Study findings suggest music and metronome cues may not be used interchangeably and cue type as well as frequency should be considered when evaluating effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait. Further work is required to determine whether optimal cue types and frequencies to improve walking in different clinical groups can be identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Poel, Mannes; op den Akker, Rieks; Heylen, Dirk; Nijholt, Anton; Trappl, Robert
In this paper we discuss our approach to integrate emotions in the agent based tutoring system INES (Intelligent Nursing Education System). First we discuss the INES system where we emphasize the emotional component of the system. Afterwards we show how a more advanced emotion generation
Lively, Kathryn J.; Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian
Building upon insights generated by social psychological scholarship on equity, emotions, and identity, we use the General Social Survey (1996) Modules on Emotion and Gender and the National Survey of Family and Households (1992-1994) to investigate the relationship between perceived inequity in the household division of labor and emotion. These…
Poel, Mannes; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Trappl, R.
In this paper we discuss our approach to integrate emotions in the agent based tutoring system INES (Intelligent Nursing Education System). First we discuss the INES system where we emphasize the emotional component of the system. Afterwards we show how a more advanced emotion generation
Keskitalo, Tuulikki; Ruokamo, Heli
Medical education is emotionally charged for many reasons, especially the fact that simulation-based learning is designed to generate emotional experiences. However, there are very few studies that concentrate on learning and emotions, despite widespread interest in the topic, especially within healthcare education. The aim of this research is to…
Davis, Elizabeth L; Levine, Linda J; Lench, Heather C; Quas, Jodi A
Metacognitive emotion regulation strategies involve deliberately changing thoughts or goals to alleviate negative emotions. Adults commonly engage in this type of emotion regulation, but little is known about the developmental roots of this ability. Two studies were designed to assess whether 5- and 6-year-old children can generate such strategies and, if so, the types of metacognitive strategies they use. In Study 1, children described how story protagonists could alleviate negative emotions. In Study 2, children recalled times that they personally had felt sad, angry, and scared and described how they had regulated their emotions. In contrast to research suggesting that young children cannot use metacognitive regulation strategies, the majority of children in both studies described such strategies. Children were surprisingly sophisticated in their suggestions for how to cope with negative emotions and tailored their regulatory responses to specific emotional situations. Copyright 2010 APA
Jansen, Karen; De Groote, Friedl; Aerts, Wouter; De Schutter, Joris; Duysens, Jacques; Jonkers, Ilse
Spasticity is an important complication after stroke, especially in the anti-gravity muscles, i.e. lower limb extensors. However the contribution of hyperexcitable muscle spindle reflex loops to gait impairments after stroke is often disputed. In this study a neuro-musculoskeletal model was developed to investigate the contribution of an increased length and velocity feedback and altered reflex modulation patterns to hemiparetic gait deficits. A musculoskeletal model was extended with a muscle spindle model providing real-time length and velocity feedback of gastrocnemius, soleus, vasti and rectus femoris during a forward dynamic simulation (neural control model). By using a healthy subject's base muscle excitations, in combination with increased feedback gains and altered reflex modulation patterns, the effect on kinematics was simulated. A foot-ground contact model was added to account for the interaction effect between the changed kinematics and the ground. The qualitative effect i.e. the directional effect and the specific gait phases where the effect is present, on the joint kinematics was then compared with hemiparetic gait deviations reported in the literature. Our results show that increased feedback in combination with altered reflex modulation patterns of soleus, vasti and rectus femoris muscle can contribute to excessive ankle plantarflexion/inadequate dorsiflexion, knee hyperextension/inadequate flexion and increased hip extension/inadequate flexion during dedicated gait cycle phases. Increased feedback of gastrocnemius can also contribute to excessive plantarflexion/inadequate dorsiflexion, however in combination with excessive knee and hip flexion. Increased length/velocity feedback can therefore contribute to two types of gait deviations, which are both in accordance with previously reported gait deviations in hemiparetic patients. Furthermore altered modulation patterns, in particular the reduced suppression of the muscle spindle feedback during
The paper focuses on the and emotional intelligence. We try to answer on some questions regarding the role which positive emotions have in our life’s. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) predicts that positive emotions are useful in several ways. They guide present behavior, by broadening one’s attention and cognition, setting the stage for creative, explorative, and innovative pursuits. As well, positive emotions build personal and social resources to help individuals achi...
Kano, Takeshi; Yoshizawa, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio
Snakes change their locomotion patterns in response to the environment. This ability is a motivation for developing snake-like robots with highly adaptive functionality. In this study, a decentralised control scheme of snake-like robots that exhibited autonomous gait transition (i.e. the transition between concertina locomotion in narrow aisles and scaffold-based locomotion on unstructured terrains) was developed. Additionally, the control scheme was validated via simulations. A key insight revealed is that these locomotion patterns were not preprogrammed but emerged by exploiting Tegotae, a concept that describes the extent to which a perceived reaction matches a generated action. Unlike local reflexive mechanisms proposed previously, the Tegotae-based feedback mechanism enabled the robot to 'selectively' exploit environments beneficial for propulsion, and generated reasonable locomotion patterns. It is expected that the results of this study can form the basis to design robots that can work under unpredictable and unstructured environments.
Pu, Fang; Ren, Weiyan; Fan, Xiaoya; Chen, Wei; Li, Shuyu; Li, Deyu; Wang, Yu; Fan, Yubo
The aim of this study was to determine whether and how real-time feedback of dynamic foot pressure index (DFPI) could be used to correct toe-walking gait in spastic diplegic children with dynamic equinus. Thirteen spastic diplegic children with dynamic equinus were asked to wear a monitoring device to record their ambulation during daily gait, conventional training gait, and feedback training gait. Parameters based on their DFPI and stride duration were compared among the three test conditions. The results with feedback training were significantly better for all DFPI parameters in comparison to patients' daily gait and showed significant improvements in DFPI for toe-walking gait and percentage of normal gait in comparison to conventional training methods. Moreover, stride duration under two training gaits was longer than patient's daily gait, but there was no significant difference between the two training gaits. Although the stride duration for the two training gaits was similar, gait training with real-time feedback of DFPI did produce noticeably superior results by increasing heel-loading impulse of toe-walking gait and percentage of normal gait in comparison to convention training methods. However, its effectiveness was still impacted by the motion limitations of diplegic children. Implications for Rehabilitation The DFPI-based gait training feedback system introduced in this study was shown to be more effective at toe-walking gait rehabilitation training over conventional training methods. The feedback system accomplished superior improvement in correcting toe-walking gait, but its effectiveness in an increasing heel-loading impulse in normal gait was still limited by the motion limitations of diplegic children. Stride duration of normal gait and toe-walking gait was similar under conventional and feedback gait training.
Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether gait dysfunction is a predictor of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice. Methods A total of 100 12-month-old male mice that had no obvious abnormal motor ability and whose Morris water maze performances were not significantly different from those of two-month-old male mice were selected for the study. The selected aged mice were then divided into abnormal or normal gait groups according to the results from the quantitative gait assessment. Gaits of aged mice were defined as abnormal when the values of quantitative gait parameters were two standard deviations (SD lower or higher than those of 2-month-old male mice. Gait parameters included stride length, variability of stride length, base of support, cadence, and average speed. After nine months, mice exhibiting severe spatial learning and memory impairment were separated from mice with mild or no cognitive dysfunction. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in the abnormal and normal gait groups was tested by a chi-square test and the correlation between gait dysfunction and decline in cognitive function was tested using a diagnostic test. Results The 12-month-old aged mice were divided into a normal gait group (n = 75 and an abnormal gait group (n = 25. Nine months later, three mice in the normal gait group and two mice in the abnormal gait group had died. The remaining mice were subjected to the Morris water maze again, and 17 out of 23 mice in the abnormal gait group had developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment, including six with stride length deficits, 15 with coefficient of variation (CV in stride length, two with base of support (BOS deficits, five with cadence dysfunction, and six with average speed deficits. In contrast, only 15 out of 72 mice in the normal gait group developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment was
Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Rigoldi, Chiara; Castori, Marco; Celletti, Claudia; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo
The aim of this study was to quantify the gait patterns of adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (JHS/EDS-HT) hypermobility type, using Gait Analysis. We quantified the gait strategy in 12 JHS/EDS-HT adults individuals (age: 43.08 + 6.78 years) compared to 20 healthy controls (age: 37.23 plus or minus 8.91 years), in…
Fino, Peter C; Parrington, Lucy; Pitt, Will; Martini, Douglas N; Chesnutt, James C; Chou, Li-Shan; King, Laurie A
While a growing number of studies have investigated the effects of concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on gait, many studies use different experimental paradigms and outcome measures. The path for translating experimental studies for objective clinical assessments of gait is unclear. This review asked 2 questions: 1) is gait abnormal after concussion/mTBI, and 2) what gait paradigms (single-task, dual-task, complex gait) detect abnormalities after concussion. Data sources included MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) accessed on March 14, 2017. Original research articles reporting gait outcomes in people with concussion or mTBI were included. Studies of moderate, severe, or unspecified TBI, and studies without a comparator were excluded. After screening 233 articles, 38 studies were included and assigned to one or more sections based on the protocol and reported outcomes. Twenty-six articles reported single-task simple gait outcomes, 24 reported dual-task simple gait outcomes, 21 reported single-task complex gait outcomes, and 10 reported dual-task complex gait outcomes. Overall, this review provides evidence for two conclusions: 1) gait is abnormal acutely after concussion/mTBI but generally resolves over time; and 2) the inconsistency of findings, small sample sizes, and small number of studies examining homogenous measures at the same time-period post-concussion highlight the need for replication across independent populations and investigators. Future research should concentrate on dual-task and complex gait tasks, as they showed promise for detecting abnormal locomotor function outside of the acute timeframe. Additionally, studies should provide detailed demographic and clinical characteristics to enable more refined comparisons across studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Jones, Robin M.; Kim, Hanjoe
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine (a) whether emotional reactivity and emotional stress of children who stutter (CWS) are associated with their stuttering frequency, (b) when the relationship between emotional reactivity and stuttering frequency is more likely to exist, and (c) how these associations are mediated by a 3rd…
Roerdink, M.; Bank, P.J.M.; Peper, C.E.; Beek, P.J.
Acoustic rhythms are frequently used in gait rehabilitation, with positive instantaneous and prolonged transfer effects on various gait characteristics. The gait modifying ability of acoustic rhythms depends on how well gait is tied to the beat, which can be assessed with measures of relative timing
Schut, M; de Graaff, Miriam; Verweij, D.E.M.
Which emotions are generated by the behavior of “the other” in intercultural interactions that Dutch soldiers perceive as conflicting with their own values? How are these emotions related to types of behavioral reactions of Dutch military personnel? This preliminary study explores the emotional and
LaBar, Kevin S
Lane et al. emphasize the role of emotional arousal as a precipitating factor for successful psychotherapy. However, as therapy ensues, the arousal diminishes. How can the unfolding therapeutic process generate long-term memories for reconsolidated emotional material without the benefit of arousal? Studies investigating memory for emotionally regulated material provide some clues regarding the neural pathways that may underlie therapy-based memory reconsolidation.
Jiménez Catalán, R.; Dewaele, Jean-Marc
This study intends to contribute to L2 emotion vocabulary research by looking at the words that primary school EFL learners produce in response to prompts in a lexical availability task. Specifically, it aims to ascertain whether emotion prompts (Love, Hate, Happy and Sad) generate a greater number of words than non-emotion prompts (School and Animals). It also seeks to identify the words learners associate with each semantic category to determine whether the words produced in response to emo...
Lumley, Mark A; Cohen, Jay L; Borszcz, George S; Cano, Annmarie; Radcliffe, Alison M; Porter, Laura S; Schubiner, Howard; Keefe, Francis J
Research on emotion and pain has burgeoned. We review the last decade's literature, focusing on links between emotional processes and persistent pain. Neurobiological research documents the neural processes that distinguish affective from sensory pain dimensions, link emotion and pain, and generate central nervous system pain sensitization. Psychological research demonstrates that greater pain is related to emotional stress and limited emotional awareness, expression, and processing. Social research shows the potential importance of emotional communication, empathy, attachment, and rejection. Emotions are integral to the conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of persistent pain. Research should clarify when to eliminate or attenuate negative emotions, and when to access, experience, and express them. Theory and practice should integrate emotion into cognitive-behavioral models of persistent pain. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Manicolo, Olivia; Grob, Alexander; Lemola, Sakari; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska
Previous findings showed a tendency toward higher gait variability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to controls. This study examined whether gait variability in children with ADHD eventually approaches normality with increasing age (delay hypothesis) or whether these gait alterations represent a persistent deviation from typical development (deviation hypothesis). This cross-sectional study compared 30 children with ADHD (25 boys; Mage=10 years 11 months, range 8-13 years; n=21 off medication, n=9 without medication) to 28 controls (25 boys; Mage=10 years 10 months, range 8-13 years). Gait parameters (i.e. velocity and variability in stride length and stride time) were assessed using an electronic walkway system (GAITRite) while children walked at their own pace. Children with ADHD walked with significantly higher variability in stride time compared to controls. Age was negatively associated with gait variability in children with ADHD such that children with higher age walked with lower variability, whereas in controls there was no such association. Children with ADHD displayed a less regular gait pattern than controls, indicated by their higher variability in stride time. The age-dependent decrease of gait variability in children with ADHD showed that gait performance became more regular with age and converged toward that of typically developing children. These results may reflect a maturational delay rather than a persistent deviation of gait regularity among children with ADHD compared to typically developing children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The accurate identification of gait asymmetry is very beneficial to the assessment of at-risk gait in the clinical applications. This paper investigated the application of classification method based on statistical learning algorithm to quantify gait symmetry based on the assumption that the degree of intrinsic change in dynamical system of gait is associated with the different statistical distributions between gait variables from left-right side of lower limbs; that is, the discrimination of small difference of similarity between lower limbs is considered the reorganization of their different probability distribution. The kinetic gait data of 60 participants were recorded using a strain gauge force platform during normal walking. The classification method is designed based on advanced statistical learning algorithm such as support vector machine algorithm for binary classification and is adopted to quantitatively evaluate gait symmetry. The experiment results showed that the proposed method could capture more intrinsic dynamic information hidden in gait variables and recognize the right-left gait patterns with superior generalization performance. Moreover, our proposed techniques could identify the small significant difference between lower limbs when compared to the traditional symmetry index method for gait. The proposed algorithm would become an effective tool for early identification of the elderly gait asymmetry in the clinical diagnosis.
Wu, Jianning; Wu, Bin
The accurate identification of gait asymmetry is very beneficial to the assessment of at-risk gait in the clinical applications. This paper investigated the application of classification method based on statistical learning algorithm to quantify gait symmetry based on the assumption that the degree of intrinsic change in dynamical system of gait is associated with the different statistical distributions between gait variables from left-right side of lower limbs; that is, the discrimination of small difference of similarity between lower limbs is considered the reorganization of their different probability distribution. The kinetic gait data of 60 participants were recorded using a strain gauge force platform during normal walking. The classification method is designed based on advanced statistical learning algorithm such as support vector machine algorithm for binary classification and is adopted to quantitatively evaluate gait symmetry. The experiment results showed that the proposed method could capture more intrinsic dynamic information hidden in gait variables and recognize the right-left gait patterns with superior generalization performance. Moreover, our proposed techniques could identify the small significant difference between lower limbs when compared to the traditional symmetry index method for gait. The proposed algorithm would become an effective tool for early identification of the elderly gait asymmetry in the clinical diagnosis.
Izard, Carroll; Stark, Kevin; Trentacosta, Christopher; Schultz, David
Recent research indicates that emotionality, emotion information processing, emotion knowledge, and discrete emotion experiences may influence and interact with emotion utilization, that is, the effective use of the inherently adaptive and motivational functions of emotions. Strategies individuals learn for emotion modulation and emotion utilization become stabilized in emerging affective-cognitive structures, or emotion schemas. In these emotion schemas, the feeling/motivational component of...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of balance exercise on some selected kinematic gait parameters in patients with knee joint osteoarthritis. Forty subjects (18 men and 22 women) participated in the study.They were divided into two groups: Group 1 (experimental) that was treated with balance exercises, ...
This paper presents the use of locally linear embedding (LLE) as feature extraction technique for classifying a person's identity based on their walking gait patterns. Skeleton data acquired from Microsoft Kinect camera were used as an input for (1). Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and (2). LLE with MLP. The MLP classification ...
Background and purpose: Children with hemophilia often bleed inside the joints and muscles, which may impair postural adjustments. These postural adjustments are necessary to control gait and postural balance during daily activities. The inability to quickly recover postural balance could elevate the risk of bleeding.
Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Albertini, Giorgio
In this work we studied and evaluated the effects of aging in a group of individuals with Down syndrome, using gait analysis as tool of investigation. 32 individuals suffering from Down syndrome (DS) were enrolled in this study as group of pathological participants. The control group (CG) was composed by 36 healthy subjects (10 children, 15…
Seo, Jung-suk; Kim, Sukwon
The study attempted to see if exercise training would alleviate gait asymmetry between nondominant and dominant legs, thus, eliminate the likelihood of slips. The present study provided 18 older adults exercise training for eight weeks and evaluated kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs) in both legs. Participants were randomly assigned to…
Alkjaer, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C; Dalsgaard, Helle
fluctuation analysis. The motor control was assessed by the soleus (SO) Hoffmann (H)-reflex modulation and muscle co-activation during walking. The results showed no statistically significant mean group differences in any of the gait variability measures or muscle co-activation levels. The SO H...
Full Text Available We review a treatment modality for movement disorders by sensory feedback. The natural closed-loop sensory-motor feedback system is imitated by a wearable virtual reality apparatus, employing body-mounted inertial sensors and responding dynamically to the patient’s own motion. Clinical trials have shown a significant gait improvement in patients with Parkinson's disease using the apparatus. In contrast to open-loop devices, which impose constant-velocity visual cues in a treadmill fashion, or rhythmic auditory cues in a metronome fashion, requiring constant vigilance and attention strategies, and in some cases, instigating freezing in Parkinson’s patients, the closed-loop device improved gait parameters and eliminated freezing in most patients, without side effects. Patients with multiple sclerosis, previous stroke, senile gait and cerebral palsy using the device also improved their balance and gait substantially. Training with the device has produced a residual improvement, suggesting virtual sensory feedback for the treatment of neurological movement disorders.
Ferber, Reed; Osis, Sean T; Hicks, Jennifer L; Delp, Scott L
Data science has transformed fields such as computer vision and economics. The ability of modern data science methods to extract insights from large, complex, heterogeneous, and noisy datasets is beginning to provide a powerful complement to the traditional approaches of experimental motion capture and biomechanical modeling. The purpose of this article is to provide a perspective on how data science methods can be incorporated into our field to advance our understanding of gait biomechanics and improve treatment planning procedures. We provide examples of how data science approaches have been applied to biomechanical data. We then discuss the challenges that remain for effectively using data science approaches in clinical gait analysis and gait biomechanics research, including the need for new tools, better infrastructure and incentives for sharing data, and education across the disciplines of biomechanics and data science. By addressing these challenges, we can revolutionize treatment planning and biomechanics research by capitalizing on the wealth of knowledge gained by gait researchers over the past decades and the vast, but often siloed, data that are collected in clinical and research laboratories around the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schwencke, M.; Smolders, L.A.; Bergknut, N.; Gustas, P.; Meij, B.P.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.
Vet Surg. 2012 Oct;41(7):829-37. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2012.01021.x. Soft tissue artifact in canine kinematic gait analysis. Schwencke M, Smolders LA, Bergknut N, Gustås P, Meij BP, Hazewinkel HA. Source Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals,, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
Hortobagyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J.; Rider, Patrick; DeVita, Paul
Hortobagyi T, Herring C, Pories WJ, Rider P, DeVita P. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait. J Appl Physiol 111: 1391-1399, 2011. First published August 18, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00291.2011.-We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight
Iosa, Marco; Morone, Giovanni; Bragoni, Maura; De Angelis, Domenico; Venturiero, Vincenzo; Coiro, Paola; Pratesi, Luca; Paolucci, Stefano
Electromechanically assisted gait training is a promising task-oriented approach for gait restoration, especially for people with subacute stroke. However, few guidelines are available for selecting the parameter values of the electromechanical Gait Trainer (GT) (Reha-Stim; Berlin, Germany) and none is tailored to a patient's motor capacity. We assessed 342 GT sessions performed by 20 people with stroke who were stratified by Functional Ambulatory Category. In the first GT session of all patients, the body-weight support (BWS) required was higher than that reported in the literature. In further sessions, we noted a slow reduction of BWS and a fast increment of walking speed for the most-affected patients. Inverse trends were observed for the less-affected patients. In all the patients, the heart rate increment was about 20 beats per minute, even for sessions in which the number of strides performed was up to 500. In addition, the effective BWS measured during GT sessions was different from that initially selected by the physiotherapist. This difference depended mainly on the position of the GT platforms during selection. Finally, harness acceleration in the anteroposterior direction proved to be higher in patients with stroke than in nondisabled subjects. Our findings are an initial step toward scientifically selecting parameters in electromechanically assisted gait training.
L. Di Lorenzo
Full Text Available Hip is a site very commonly affected by osteoarthritis and the intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid in the management of osteoarthritic pain is increasingly used. However, the debate about its usefulness is still ongoing, as not all results of clinical trials confirm its effectiveness. In order to achieve the best outcome, clinical assessment and treatment choices should be based on subjective outcome, pathological and mechanical findings that should be integrated with qualitative analysis of human movement. After viscosupplementation, clinical trials often evaluate as endpoint subjective outcomes (i.e. pain visual analogic scale and static imaging such as radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In our clinical practice we use gait analysis as part of rehabilitation protocol to measure performance, enhancement and changes of several biomechanical factors. Taking advantage of available resources (BTS Bioengineering gait analysis Elite System we studied a patient’s gait after ultrasound guided hip injections for viscosupplementation. He showed an early clinical and biomechanical improvement during walking after a single intra articular injection of hyaluronic acid. Gait analysis parameters obtained suggest that the pre-treatment slower speed may be caused by antalgic walking patterns, the need for pain control and muscle weakness. After hip viscosupplementation, the joint displayed different temporal, kinetic and kinematic parameters associated with improved pain patterns.
Veneman, J.F.; Menger, Jasper; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; van der Kooij, Herman
In assistive devices for neuro-rehabilitation, natural human motions are partly restricted by the device. This may affect the normality of walking during training. This research determines effects on gait of fixating the pelvis translations in the horizontal plane during treadmill walking. Direct
Eastlack, M E; Arvidson, J; Snyder-Mackler, L; Danoff, J V; McGarvey, C L
The purpose of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of videotaped observational gait-analysis (VOGA) assessments. Fifty-four licensed physical therapists with varying amounts of clinical experience served as raters. Three patients with rheumatoid arthritis who demonstrated an abnormal gait pattern served as subjects for the videotape. The raters analyzed each patient's most severely involved knee during the four subphases of stance for the kinematic variables of knee flexion and genu valgum. Raters were asked to determine whether these variables were inadequate, normal, or excessive. The temporospatial variables analyzed throughout the entire gait cycle were cadence, step length, stride length, stance time, and step width. Generalized kappa coefficients ranged from .11 to .52. Intraclass correlation coefficients (2,1) and (3,1) were slightly higher. Our results indicate that physical therapists' VOGA assessments are only slightly to moderately reliable and that improved interrater reliability of the assessments of physical therapists utilizing this technique is needed. Our data suggest that there is a need for greater standardization of gait-analysis training.
Sjoerd M. Bruijn
Full Text Available Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults (range 18-30 years and 25 healthy older adults (range 62-82 years.Among the different gait stability measures, only stride time and the maximum Lyapunov exponent (which quantifies how well participants are able to attenuate small perturbations were found to decline with age. White matter microstructural organization (FA was lower throughout the brain in older adults. We found a strong correlation between FA in the left anterior thalamic radiation and left corticospinal tract on the one hand, and step width and safety margin (indicative of how close participants are to falling over on the other. These findings suggest that white matter FA in tracts connecting subcortical and prefrontal areas is associated with the implementation of an effective stabilization strategy during gait.
Aqueveque, Pablo; Sobarzo, Sergio; Saavedra, Francisco; Maldonado, Claudio; Gómez, Britam
One of the most important movements performed by the humans is gait. Biomechanical Gait analysis is usually by optical capture systems. However, such systems are expensive and sensitive to light and obstacles. In order to reduce those costs a system based on Inertial Measurements Units (IMU) is proposed. IMU are a good option to make movement analisys indoor with a low post-processing data, allowing to connect those systems to an Android platform. The design is based on two elements: a) The IMU sensors and the b) Android device. The IMU sensor is simple, small (35 x 35 mm), portable and autonomous (7.8 hrs). A resolution of 0.01° in their measurements is obtained, and sends data via Bluetooth link. The Android application works for Android 4.2 or higher, and it is compatible with Bluetooth devices 2.0 or higher. Three IMU sensors send data to a Tablet wirelessly, in order to evaluate the angles evolution for each joint of the leg (hip, knee and ankle). This information is used to calculate gait index and evaluate the gait quality online during the physical therapist is working with the patient.
Wentink, E.C.; Beijen, S.I.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Rietman, Johan Swanik; Veltink, Petrus H.
Gait initiation in transfemoral amputees (TFA) is different from non-amputees. This is mainly caused by the lack of stability and push-off from the prosthetic leg. Adding control and artificial push-off to the prosthesis may therefore be beneficial to TFA. In this study the feasibility of real-time
Wentink, E.C.; Beijen, S.I.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Rietman, Johan Swanik; Veltink, Petrus H.
Gait initiation in transfemoral amputees (TFA) is different from non-amputees. This is mainly caused by the lack of stability and push-off from the prosthetic leg. Adding control and artificial push-off to the prosthesis may therefore be beneficial to TFA. In this study the feasibility of real-time
Góes, Suelen M; Leite, Neiva; de Souza, Ricardo M; Homann, Diogo; Osiecki, Ana C V; Stefanello, Joice M F; Rodacki, André L F
Fibromyalgia is a condition which involves chronic pain. Middle-aged individuals with fibromyalgia seem to exhibit changes in gait pattern, which may prematurely expose them to a gait pattern which resembles that found in the elderly population. To determine the 3D spatial (linear and angular) gait parameters of middle-aged women with fibromyalgia and compare to elderly women without this condition. 25 women (10 in the fibromyalgia group and 15 in the elderly group) volunteered to participate in the study. Kinematics was performed using an optoelectronic system, and linear and angular kinematic variables were determined. There was no difference in walking speed, stride length, cadence, hip, knee and ankle joints range of motion between groups, except the pelvic rotation, in which the fibromyalgia group showed greater rotation (P<0.05) compared to the elderly group. Also, there was a negative correlation with pelvic rotation and gluteus pain (r = -0.69; P<0.05), and between pelvic obliquity and greater trochanter pain (r = -0.69; P<0.05) in the fibromyalgia group. Middle-aged women with fibromyalgia showed gait pattern resemblances to elderly, women, which is characterized by reduced lower limb ROM, stride length and walking speed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Eltoukhy, Moataz; Oh, Jeonghoon; Kuenze, Christopher; Signorile, Joseph
A cost-effective, clinician friendly gait assessment tool that can automatically track patients' anatomical landmarks can provide practitioners with important information that is useful in prescribing rehabilitative and preventive therapies. This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Microsoft Kinect v2 as a potential inexpensive gait analysis tool. Ten healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at 1.3 and 1.6m·s -1 , as spatiotemporal parameters and kinematics were extracted concurrently using the Kinect and three-dimensional motion analysis. Spatiotemporal measures included step length and width, step and stride times, vertical and mediolateral pelvis motion, and foot swing velocity. Kinematic outcomes included hip, knee, and ankle joint angles in the sagittal plane. The absolute agreement and relative consistency between the two systems were assessed using interclass correlations coefficients (ICC2,1), while reproducibility between systems was established using Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient (rc). Comparison of ensemble curves and associated 90% confidence intervals (CI90) of the hip, knee, and ankle joint angles were performed to investigate if the Kinect sensor could consistently and accurately assess lower extremity joint motion throughout the gait cycle. Results showed that the Kinect v2 sensor has the potential to be an effective clinical assessment tool for sagittal plane knee and hip joint kinematics, as well as some spatiotemporal temporal variables including pelvis displacement and step characteristics during the gait cycle. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Faber, Herre; Hoeven, H. vd; Ipenburg, S. van; Lummel, Robert C. van R.C. van Rob C. Van R.C. van; Blockhuis, Nancy; Nienhuis, B.; Heikens, Sander S.C.; Brandes, Mirko; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Terwee, C.B. Caroline B.; Slikke, R.M.A. van der Rienk M.A. vam der; Benink, Rob J. R.J.; Meijers, Wil G.H W.G.H.; de Vet, H.C.W. Henrica C W; Pitta, Fabio; Troosters, Thierry; Spruit, Martijn A.; Decramer, Marc; Gosselink, Rik; Thoumie, P.; Forward, M.J.; Plasschaert, F.S.; Burdorf, Lex; Windhorst, Judith; Beek, Allard J. van der; Molen, Henk F. van der; Swuste, Paul H.J.J.; Janssen, Maurice M.J.A.; Pas, Rianne; Aarts, Jos; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne; Vles, Johan; Pinxteren, S.A.T.v. Sjors van; Stokroos, R.J. Robert; Kingma, Herman; Pas, A.J.; Aarts, A.F.J.; Nabuurs, C.I.H.C.; Janssen, Y.; Mokkink, Lidwine B.; van der Slikke, Rienk M.A.; van Lummel, Rob C R.C.; Bouter, L.M. Lex M; de Vet, H.C.W. Henrica C W; de Witte, S.J.; Wetzels, L.; Probst, Vanessa S.; Peijl, I.D. van der; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.; Versteegh, M.I.M.; Lok, J.J.; Munneke, M.; Dion, R.A.E.; Bulthuis, Y.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M.; Hermens, H.J.; Vendrig, L.; Roozenburg, B.; Wal, M. van der; Lisowski, A.E.; Murray, D.W.; Lisowski, L.A.; Creusen, H.; Witvrouw, E.; Victor, J.; Bellemans, J.; Rock, B.; Verdonk, R.; Spenkelink, C.D.; Hutten, M.M.R.; Greitemann, B.O.L.; Schillemans, P.F.; Meijer, O.G.; Dikkenberg, N. van den; Dieën, Jaap H van J.H. van; Pijls, B.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.; Uiterwaal, M.; Dam, M.S. van; Kok, G.J.; Vogelaar, F.J.; Taminiau, A.H.M.; Derycke, P.; Vilella, P.; Loonbeek, S.; Schuffelers, K.; Jong, Z. de; Zwinderman, A.H.; Tijhuis, G.J.; Hazes, J.M.W.; Glerum, E.B.C.; Busser, H.J. J.; Ott, J.; Blank, R.; de Korte, W.G.; Veltink, Peter H. P.H.; Bussmann, Hans B.J.; de Vries, W.; Martens, W.I.J. Wim L.J.; Kerkhof, G. A.; Koelma, Frank; Franken, Henry M.; Kim, Tea-Woo; Kim, Yong-Wook; Abrahin, O.; Rodrigues, R. P.; Nascimento, V.C.; Silva-Grigoletto, M.E. Da; Sousa, E.C.; Marçal, A.C.; Van Remoortel, Hans; Raste, Yogini; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Giavedoni, Santiago; Burtin, Chris; Langer, Daniel; Wilson, Frederick; Rabinovich, Roberto; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Schooten, Kimberley S.; Rispens, Sietse M; Elders, Petra J M; Lips, Paul; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Andersson, M.; Janson, C.; Emtner, M.; Sena, R.; Holt, Nicole E.; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Kurlinski, Laura A.; Thomas Julia, C.; Landry, Paige M.; Campbell, Braidie; Latham, Nancy; Ni, Pengsheng; Jette, Alan; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Bean, Johnathan F.; Bisi, Maria Cristina; Riva, Federico; Stagni, Rita; Altuğ, Filiz; Acar, Feridun; Acar, Göksemin; Cavlak, Uğur; Choi, Ho-Chun; Son, Ki Young; Cho, Belong; Park, Sang Min; Cho, Sung-Il
The objective of this study was to examine if spatio-temporal gait parameters in healthy children can be determined from accelerations measured at the lower trunk as has been demonstrated in adults, previously. Twenty children aged 3-16 years, participated in a protocol that involved repeated walks
Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.
contexts and tangent orientations. Input silhouettes are matched to the database using the Hungarian method. We define a classifier based on the dissimilarity between the input silhouettes and the gait actions of the database. This classification achieves an overall recognition rate of 87.1% on a diverse...
Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine
(EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during...