Ferrer, Rebecca A; Green, Paige A; Oh, April Y; Hennessy, Erin; Dwyer, Laura A
Emotion suppression may lead to ironic increases in emotional experience. More important, suppression is a transactional process, creating stress and disrupting interactions for the suppressor and those in social interactions with individuals who are suppressing emotion. However, no research has examined the behavioral consequences of emotion suppression in close relationships. We examine the possibility that emotion suppression will predict eating behaviors as a secondary emotion regulatory strategy among 1,556 parent-adolescent dyads (N = 3,112), consistent with evidence suggesting that suppression influences eating at the individual-level. Actor-partner interdependence models and structural equation modeling demonstrate that one's own emotion suppression was associated with emotional eating; greater consumption of hedonic-low nutrient, high energy dense-foods; and lower consumption of fruits and vegetables (actor effects). One's partner's emotion suppression was also independently associated with one's own emotional eating; lower consumption of fruits and vegetables; and greater consumption of hedonic foods (partner effects), although this association was most consistent for adolescents' suppression and parents' eating (compared with the converse). These analyses suggest that dyadic emotion regulatory processes have implications on eating behavior. Moreover, analyses suggest that emotion suppression has potential implications on eating behaviors of others within close relationships with a suppressor, consistent with the notion that emotion regulation is a transactional process. These findings suggest that interventions to improve eating habits of parents and their adolescent children should consider dyadic emotion regulatory processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Nelson, Jackie A; Leerkes, Esther M; Marcovitch, Stuart
The current study examined the moderating effect of children's cardiac vagal suppression on the association between maternal socialization of negative emotions (supportive and nonsupportive responses) and children's emotion regulation behaviors. One hundred and ninety-seven 4-year-olds and their mothers participated. Mothers reported on their reactions to children's negative emotions and children's regulatory behaviors. Observed distraction, an adaptive self-regulatory strategy, and vagal suppression were assessed during a laboratory task designed to elicit frustration. Results indicated that children's vagal suppression moderated the association between mothers' nonsupportive emotion socialization and children's emotion regulation behaviors such that nonsupportive reactions to negative emotions predicted lower observed distraction and lower reported emotion regulation behaviors when children displayed lower levels of vagal suppression. No interaction was found between supportive maternal emotion socialization and vagal suppression for children's emotion regulation behaviors. Results suggest physiological regulation may serve as a buffer against nonsupportive emotion socialization. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Emotions & Behavior Is it just a phase or a ... whether it's toddler tantrums or teenage depression. Feelings & Emotions "Am I Pretty?": What Moms, Daughters Really Think ...
Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher
What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.
Burton, Charles L; Bonanno, George A
Flexibility in self-regulatory behaviors has proved to be an important quality for adjusting to stressful life events and requires individuals to have a diverse repertoire of emotion regulation abilities. However, the most commonly used emotion regulation questionnaires assess frequency of behavior rather than ability, with little evidence linking these measures to observable capacity to enact a behavior. The aim of the current investigation was to develop and validate a Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) Scale that measures a person's ability to enhance and suppress displayed emotion across an array of hypothetical contexts. In Studies 1 and 2, a series of confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the FREE Scale consists of 4 first-order factors divided by regulation and emotional valence type that can contribute to 2 higher order factors: expressive enhancement ability and suppression ability. In Study 1, we also compared the FREE Scale to other commonly used emotion regulation measures, which revealed that suppression ability is conceptually distinct from suppression frequency. In Study 3, we compared the FREE Scale with a composite of traditional frequency-based indices of expressive regulation to predict performance in a previously validated emotional modulation paradigm. Participants' enhancement and suppression ability scores on the FREE Scale predicted their corresponding performance on the laboratory task, even when controlling for baseline expressiveness. These studies suggest that the FREE Scale is a valid and flexible measure of expressive regulation ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Katsumi, Yuta; Dolcos, Sanda
Available evidence suggests that emotion regulation can modulate both immediate (emotional experience) and long-term (episodic memory) effects of emotion, and that both explicit and implicit forms may be effective. However, neural mechanisms by which explicit and implicit emotional suppression affect these phenomena remain unclear, particularly regarding their effects on memory. In this study, participants rated the emotional content of negative and neutral images, following explicit (verbal instructions) or implicit (priming) induction of emotional suppression goals, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants' memory for the images was tested one week later. Behaviorally, explicit suppression reduced emotional ratings of negative images, whereas both explicit and implicit suppression reduced subsequent memory. At the neural level, the engagement of explicit suppression was uniquely associated with decreased activity in the amygdala (AMY), during emotional ratings, and in the AMY and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), during successful encoding. Although both explicit and implicit suppression diminished functional connectivity between these regions and the hippocampus (HC) linked to successful encoding, explicit suppression was uniquely associated with interference with AMY-HC interactions, which no longer predicted subsequent memory for the explicitly-suppressed items. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of the common and dissociable mechanisms of explicit and implicit emotional suppression on perception and memory, and suggest their impact on both bottom-up and top-down mechanisms involved in emotion-cognition interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Butler, Emily A; Lee, Tiane L; Gross, James J
Emotional suppression has been associated with generally negative social consequences (Butler et al., 2003; Gross & John, 2003). A cultural perspective suggests, however, that these consequences may be moderated by cultural values. We tested this hypothesis in a two-part study, and found that, for Americans holding Western-European values, habitual suppression was associated with self-protective goals and negative emotion. In addition, experimentally elicited suppression resulted in reduced interpersonal responsiveness during face-to-face interaction, along with negative partner-perceptions and hostile behavior. These deleterious effects were reduced when individuals with more Asian values suppressed, and these reductions were mediated by cultural differences in the responsiveness of the suppressors. These findings suggest that many of suppression's negative social impacts may be moderated by cultural values. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Langner, Carrie A.; Epel, Elissa; Matthews, Karen; Moskowitz, Judith T.; Adler, Nancy
Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depre...
Huwae, Sylvia; Schaafsma, Juliëtte
Previous research suggests that in collectivistic cultures, people tend to suppress their emotions more than in individualistic cultures. Little research, however, has explored cross-cultural differences in emotion regulation in everyday interactions. Using a daily social interaction method, we
Kalokerinos, Elise K; Greenaway, Katharine H; Casey, James P
It is generally considered socially undesirable to suppress the expression of positive emotion. However, previous research has not considered the role that social context plays in governing appropriate emotion regulation. We investigated a context in which it may be more appropriate to suppress than express positive emotion, hypothesizing that positive emotion expressions would be considered inappropriate when the valence of the expressed emotion (i.e., positive) did not match the valence of the context (i.e., negative). Six experiments (N = 1,621) supported this hypothesis: when there was a positive emotion-context mismatch, participants rated targets who suppressed positive emotion as more appropriate, and evaluated them more positively than targets who expressed positive emotion. This effect occurred even when participants were explicitly made aware that suppressing targets were experiencing mismatched emotion for the context (e.g., feeling positive in a negative context), suggesting that appropriate emotional expression is key to these effects. These studies are among the first to provide empirical evidence that social costs to suppression are not inevitable, but instead are dependent on context. Expressive suppression can be a socially useful emotion regulation strategy in situations that call for it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Dolan, R. J.
Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.
Huwaë, Sylvia; Schaafsma, Juliette
Previous research suggests that in collectivistic cultures, people tend to suppress their emotions more than in individualistic cultures. Little research, however, has explored cross-cultural differences in emotion regulation in everyday interactions. Using a daily social interaction method, we examined whether people from collectivistic backgrounds (Chinese exchange students and immigrants from the Moluccas, Indonesia) living in the Netherlands differed from those from individualistic backgrounds (Dutch natives) in emotion suppression during everyday interactions. We also examined whether this depended on their relationship with the interaction partner(s). We found that Chinese participants suppressed positive and negative emotions more than Dutch and Moluccan participants and that this was related to differences in interdependent and independent self-construal across the samples. We also found that Chinese participants suppressed positive emotions less in interactions with close others, whereas Dutch participants suppressed negative emotions more with non-close others. No such differences were found for Moluccans. Our findings support the idea that people from collectivistic cultures suppress emotions more than those from individualistic cultures, but they also suggest that this depends on who the interaction partner is. Furthermore, they suggest that emotion suppression may change when people with collectivistic backgrounds have been raised in individualistic cultures. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Andrade, Eduardo; Gururangan, Kapil; Iantorno, Stefano; Feng, Harvey; Cherone, Jennifer; Sawant, Manali; Neogi, Sushrita; Bhat, Prashant; Lukus, Alan
Professor Eduardo Andrade received his Ph.D. in Marketing from the University of Florida in 2004 before coming to theHaas School of Business. He studies the impact of emotions on consumer decision making. One of his studies publishedin 2009 shifted the concept of emotions from transient effects to long-term processes and his recent work is movinginto the burgeoning field of decision neuroscience, which uses neuroscience tools to study economic decision-making.When Berkeley Scientific Journal ...
Langner, Carrie A; Epel, Elissa S; Matthews, Karen A; Moskowitz, Judith T; Adler, Nancy E
Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of women. Low social power was related to greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by emotion suppression. Study 2 examined education as a proxy for social hierarchy position, anger suppression, and depressive symptoms in a national, longitudinal cohort study (The coronary artery risk development in young adults [CARDIA] study; Cutter et al., 1991). Much as in study 1, low education levels were correlated with greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by anger suppression. Further, suppression mediated the relationship between low education and subsequent depression up to 15 years later. These findings support the theory that social hierarchy affects mental health in part through a process of emotion suppression.
Koval, Peter; Butler, Emily A; Hollenstein, Tom; Lanteigne, Dianna; Kuppens, Peter
The tendency for emotions to be predictable over time, labelled emotional inertia, has been linked to low well-being and is thought to reflect impaired emotion regulation. However, almost no studies have examined how emotion regulation relates to emotional inertia. We examined the effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on the inertia of behavioural, subjective and physiological measures of emotion. In Study 1 (N = 111), trait suppression was associated with higher inertia of negative behaviours. We replicated this finding experimentally in Study 2 (N = 186). Furthermore, in Study 2, instructed suppressors and reappraisers both showed higher inertia of positive behaviours, and reappraisers displayed higher inertia of heart rate. Neither suppression nor reappraisal were associated with the inertia of subjective feelings in either study. Thus, the effects of suppression and reappraisal on the temporal dynamics of emotions depend on the valence and emotional response component in question.
Bebko, Genna M; Franconeri, Steven L; Ochsner, Kevin N; Chiao, Joan Y
According to appraisal theories of emotion, cognitive reappraisal is a successful emotion regulation strategy because it involves cognitively changing our thoughts, which, in turn, change our emotions. However, recent evidence has challenged the importance of cognitive change and, instead, has suggested that attentional deployment may at least partly explain the emotion regulation success of cognitive reappraisal. The purpose of the current study was to examine the causal relationship between attentional deployment and emotion regulation success. We examined 2 commonly used emotion regulation strategies--cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression-because both depend on attention but have divergent behavioral, experiential, and physiological outcomes. Participants were either instructed to regulate emotions during free-viewing (unrestricted image viewing) or gaze-controlled (restricted image viewing) conditions and to self-report negative emotional experience. For both emotion regulation strategies, emotion regulation success was not altered by changes in participant control over the (a) direction of attention (free-viewing vs. gaze-controlled) during image viewing and (b) valence (negative vs. neutral) of visual stimuli viewed when gaze was controlled. Taken together, these findings provide convergent evidence that attentional deployment does not alter subjective negative emotional experience during either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression, suggesting that strategy-specific processes, such as cognitive appraisal and response modulation, respectively, may have a greater impact on emotional regulation success than processes common to both strategies, such as attention.
Fernando, Silvia Carvalho; Griepenstroh, Julia; Urban, Sabine; Driessen, Martin; Beblo, Thomas
Emotion regulation dysfunctions marked by negative affectivity are a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In addition, patients with BPD show disturbed attentional processes which become particularly apparent in the domain of selective attention when emotional stimuli are presented (negative attentional bias). Assuming that emotion regulation is linked to attentional deployment processes, this study aimed (1) to determine whether a negative attentional bias is established by using film clips of fearful faces and (2) to investigate the association between dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies (emotional suppression) and negative attention bias in BPD. We investigated 18 inpatients with BPD and 18 healthy control participants using the modified version of the fearful face-paradigm to assess the inhibition of emotional stimuli. We also administered self-report emotion regulation questionnaires. Compared to the healthy controls, patients with BPD showed significant longer reaction times during the emotional versus the neutral film stimuli in the modified fearful face-paradigm. With regard to the second hypothesis, we failed to find an association between the negative attentional bias and the habitual use of emotional suppression in BPD. In this study, we could confirm an attentional bias for negative stimuli, using complex, dynamic material. Future studies need to address the impact of confounding variables (e. g. comorbid disorders) on the relationship between maladaptive emotion regulation and selective attentional bias.
Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J
Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced "self-conscious" emotions-shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or "collective" experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions-elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process-other-oriented empathy.
Axinn, William G; Ghimire, Dirgha J; Smith-Greenaway, Emily
Emotional influences on fertility behaviors are an understudied topic that may offer a clear explanation of why many couples choose to have children even when childbearing is not economically rational. With setting-specific measures of the husband-wife emotional bond appropriate for large-scale population research matched with data from a long-term panel study, we have the empirical tools to provide a test of the influence of emotional factors on contraceptive use to limit fertility. This article presents those tests. We use long-term, multilevel community and family panel data to demonstrate that the variance in levels of husband-wife emotional bond is significantly associated with their subsequent use of contraception to avert births. We discuss the wide-ranging implications of this intriguing new result.
Bowers, Hannah; Wroe, Abigail
Cross-sectional and experimental research has demonstrated an association between emotional suppression and IBS. However, the relationship is not well understood. To examine the relationships between emotional suppression, we compare the measures of beliefs about emotions and quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with healthy controls. Online questionnaires measured beliefs about emotions, emotional suppression and IBS-related quality of life in participants with (n = 87) and without (n = 37) IBS. Mediation analyses and group comparisons were used to explore the role of emotional suppression and beliefs about emotions in this sample. IBS participants held significantly more beliefs about the unacceptability of emotions compared to healthy controls despite no differences in emotional suppression. The relationship between beliefs about emotions and quality of life was not mediated by emotional suppression. However, the relationship between emotional suppression and quality of life was mediated by beliefs about emotions. The findings suggest a role of beliefs about emotions and emotional suppression in IBS, where emotional suppression may relate to changes in beliefs about emotions and consequently quality of life. This is discussed in relation to the cognitive-behavioural model of medically unexplained symptoms.
Choi, Damee; Sekiya, Takahiro; Minote, Natsumi; Watanuki, Shigeki
Previous studies have shown that reappraisal (changing the way that one thinks about emotional events) is an effective strategy for regulating emotion, compared with suppression (reducing emotion-expressive behavior). In the present study, we investigated relative left frontal activity when participants were instructed to use reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion, by measuring frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA). Two electroencephalography (EEG) experiments were conducted; FAA was analyzed while 102 healthy participants (59 men, 43 women) watched negative images after being instructed to perform reappraisal (Experiment 1) and suppression (Experiment 2). Habitual use of reappraisal and suppression was also assessed using the emotion regulation questionnaire (ERQ). The results of Experiment 1 showed that relative left frontal activity was greater when instructed to use reappraisal of negative images than when normally viewing negative images. In contrast, we observed no difference between conditions of instructed suppression and normal viewing in Experiment 2. In addition, in male participants, habitual use of reappraisal was positively correlated with increased relative left frontal activity for instructed reappraisal, while habitual use of suppression did not show a significant correlation with changes in relative left frontal activity for instructed suppression. These results suggest that emotional responses to negative images might be decreased for instructed reappraisal, but not suppression. These findings support previous reports that reappraisal is an effective emotion regulation strategy, compared with suppression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available When presented with emotional visual scenes, older adults have been found to be equally capable to regulate emotion expression as younger adults, corroborating the view that emotion regulation skills are maintained or even improved in later adulthood. However, the possibility that gaze direction might help achieve an emotion control goal has not been taken into account, raising the question whether the effortful processing of expressive regulation is really spared from the general age-related decline. Since it does not allow perceptual attention to be redirected away from the emotional source, music provides a useful way to address this question. In the present study, affective, behavioral and physiological consequences of free expression of emotion, expressive suppression and expressive enhancement were measured in 31 younger and 30 older adults while they listened to positive and negative musical excerpts. The main results indicated that compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing less emotional intensity in response to negative music during the free expression of emotion condition. No age difference was found in the ability to amplify or reduce emotional expressions. However, an age-related decline in the ability to reduce the intensity of emotional state and an age-related increase in physiological reactivity were found when participants were instructed to suppress negative expression. Taken together, the current data support previous findings suggesting an age-related change in response to music. They also corroborate the observation that older adults are as efficient as younger adults at controlling behavioral expression. But most importantly, they suggest that when faced with auditory sources of negative emotion, older age does not always confer a better ability to regulate emotions.
Chervonsky, Elizabeth; Hunt, Caroline
Emotion expression is critical for the communication of important social information, such as emotional states and behavioral intentions. However, people tend to vary in their level of emotional expression. This meta-analysis investigated the relationships between levels of emotion expression and suppression, and social and interpersonal outcomes. PsycINFO databases, as well as reference lists were searched. Forty-three papers from a total of 3,200 papers met inclusion criteria, allowing for 105 effect sizes to be calculated. Meta-analyses revealed that greater suppression of emotion was significantly associated with poorer social wellbeing, including more negative first impressions, lower social support, lower social satisfaction and quality, and poorer romantic relationship quality. Furthermore, the expression of positive and general/nonspecific emotion was related to better social outcomes, while the expression of anger was associated with poorer social wellbeing. Expression of negative emotion generally was also associated with poorer social outcomes, although this effect size was very small and consisted of mixed results. These findings highlight the importance of considering the role that regulation of emotional expression can play in the development of social dysfunction and interpersonal problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Caballero Meneses, Jonathan Azael; Menez Díaz, Judith Marina
Emotional expressions have been proposed to be important for regulating social interaction as they can serve as cues for behavioral intentions. The issue has been mainly addressed analyzing the effects of facial emotional expressions in cooperation behavior, but there are contradictory results regarding the impact of emotional expressions on that…
Megreya, Ahmed M
A large body of research links criminality to cognitive intelligence and personality traits. This study examined the link between emotional intelligence (EI) and criminal behavior. One hundred Egyptian adult male offenders who have been sentenced for theft, drug dealing or murder and 100 nonoffenders were administered the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The offenders had lower levels of EI than the nonoffenders. In addition, EI varied as a function of the types of offenses. Namely, it decreased in magnitude with crime severity (lowest for murder, higher for drug dealing, and highest for theft). These results converged with the direct/ indirect aggression theory suggesting that indirect aggression requires more social intelligence than physical aggression. Forensic intervention programs should therefore include EI training, especially when violence is involved. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Students bullying, especially in the adolescence period, is a prevalent problem in the schools, that emotional dysregulation is posed as a one cause of it. Considering this issue, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between emotion regulation and emotion expression styles with bullying behaviors in adolescent students. Methods: The method of this study was correlation. Whole male students of secondary and high schools in Ardabil at 90-91 educational year comprised statistical population of this research. Two hundred thirty students, were selected by multistage cluster sampling method, responded to the questionnaires of bullying/victimization, emotion regulation and emotion expression. Gathered data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple regression tests. Results: The results showed that victimization by bullying has positive relationship with cognitive reappraisal (r= 0.15, p<0.02, emotion suppression (r= 0.47, p<0.001, and positive expression (r= 0.25, p<0.02, but has negative relationship with impulse severity (r= -0.35, p<0.001, and negative emotion expression (r= -0.43, p<0.001. Furthermore bullying has a positive relationship with cognitive reappraisal (r= 0.14, p<0.03, impulse severity (r= 0.31, p<0.003, and negative expression (r= 0.29, p<0.001, but has negative relationship with emotion suppression (r= 0.28, p<0.001, and positive expression (r= 0.24, p<0.001. In sum emotion regulation and emotion expression styles explained 36 percent of the variance of the victimization by bullying and 19 percent of the variance of the bullying. Conclusion: This research demonstrated that emotion dysregulation at the adolescent period plays important role in bullying and victimization, thus the training of emotion regulation abilities is suggested as the one of interventions methods for this behavioral problems.
Full Text Available Despite the increasing amount of research about the effects of a seller’s transgression on consumers’ relationship quality evaluation, existing theory still demands more insight into consumer’s capacity to suppress the negative emotions that a transgression might generate. This research proposes that consumers’ are not always equally influenced by a transgression because some individuals demonstrate a higher capacity to suppress the negative emotions that arise from a seller’s transgression. An experimental study in a controlled virtual bookstore was developed, simulating a real website. Participants were randomly allocated into one of the two conditions: transgression vs. non-transgression scenario. We demonstrate that consumers who are better able to suppress the negative emotions experienced a lower decrease in their satisfaction evaluation of the relationship with the seller after a transgression than those who had a lower negative emotion suppression capacity following the behavior. These results shed light into the boundary conditions of the transgressions in the business to consumer marketing relationship. This research is therefore intended to make contributions to the literature of marketing relationship in a transgression context.
Logan A. Berg; Kathleen E. Darbor; Heather C. Lench
This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1) are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2) how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that pre...
Walle, Eric A; Reschke, Peter J; Camras, Linda A; Campos, Joseph J
Emotional communication regulates the behaviors of social partners. Research on individuals' responding to others' emotions typically compares responses to a single negative emotion compared with responses to a neutral or positive emotion. Furthermore, coding of such responses routinely measure surface level features of the behavior (e.g., approach vs. avoidance) rather than its underlying function (e.g., the goal of the approach or avoidant behavior). This investigation examined infants' responding to others' emotional displays across 5 discrete emotions: joy, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. Specifically, 16-, 19-, and 24-month-old infants observed an adult communicate a discrete emotion toward a stimulus during a naturalistic interaction. Infants' responses were coded to capture the function of their behaviors (e.g., exploration, prosocial behavior, and security seeking). The results revealed a number of instances indicating that infants use different functional behaviors in response to discrete emotions. Differences in behaviors across emotions were clearest in the 24-month-old infants, though younger infants also demonstrated some differential use of behaviors in response to discrete emotions. This is the first comprehensive study to identify differences in how infants respond with goal-directed behaviors to discrete emotions. Additionally, the inclusion of a function-based coding scheme and interpersonal paradigms may be informative for future emotion research with children and adults. Possible developmental accounts for the observed behaviors and the benefits of coding techniques emphasizing the function of social behavior over their form are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Logan A. Berg
Full Text Available This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1 are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2 how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that present adaptive challenges? We also identify two core questions raised by the articles included in this Special Issue. Future research must address the extent to which emotions are best represented as discrete emotional constructs (e.g., anger, sadness, fear versus emotions that vary along dimensions, such as valence and arousal. Functional perspectives would also be facilitated by identification of situations or environments that are likely to elicit particular emotions and reactions.
Lench, Heather C; Darbor, Kathleen E; Berg, Logan A
This Editorial reviews the challenges and advantages posed by a functional perspective on the relationships among emotion, behavior, and cognition. We identify the core themes among the articles published as part of this Special Issue. The articles generally address two important questions: (1) are emotions functional and what is their impact on behavioral and cognitive processes, and (2) how do the interactions among emotion, cognition, and behavior play out in particular situations that present adaptive challenges? We also identify two core questions raised by the articles included in this Special Issue. Future research must address the extent to which emotions are best represented as discrete emotional constructs (e.g., anger, sadness, fear) versus emotions that vary along dimensions, such as valence and arousal. Functional perspectives would also be facilitated by identification of situations or environments that are likely to elicit particular emotions and reactions.
Bowers, Hannah; Wroe, Abigail L; Pincus, Tamar
Beliefs about the unacceptability of experiencing and expressing emotions have been found to be related to worse outcomes in people with persistent physical symptoms. The current study tested mediation models regarding emotional suppression, beliefs about emotions, support-seeking and global impact in fibromyalgia. One hundred eighty-two participants took part in an online questionnaire testing potential mechanisms of this relationship using mediation analysis. The model tested emotional suppression and affective distress as serial mediators of the relationship between beliefs about emotions and global impact. In parallel paths, two forms of support-seeking were tested (personal/emotional and symptom-related support-seeking) as mediators. Emotional suppression and affective distress significantly serially mediated the relationship between beliefs about emotions and global impact. Neither support-seeking variable significantly mediated this relationship. Results indicate a potential mechanism through which beliefs about emotions and global impact might relate which might provide a theoretical basis for future research on treatments for fibromyalgia.
Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta; Gross, James J
Early life stress (ELS) has been found to be associated with lower concentrations of plasma oxytocin (OT) in adulthood. It is not yet clear, however, what mechanisms underlie this association. The goal of the present study was to test the role of emotional suppression as an intervening variable between ELS in childhood and plasma OT. In a nonclinical sample of 90 men, ELS, emotional suppression, and plasma OT were assessed. Emotional suppression was positively associated with ELS (r = 0.37, p emotion regulation strategy - was not correlated with ELS or plasma OT concentrations. Cross-sectional regression analyses revealed that the ELS explained variance in plasma OT via emotional suppression. Moderation analyses revealed that the combination of high ELS and high emotional suppression was associated with the lowest concentrations of plasma oxytocin. These findings are consistent with the view that emotional suppression may be one pathway linking ELS and OT.
Emotions are the central process of motivation and play a key role in adaptive behavior in humans. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy stresses the importance of changing both cognition and behavior, there is growing emphasis on direct therapeutic work on emotions and emotional processing, as problematic emotional processes are at the core of nearly all psychic disorders. This type of work is the goal of emotion-focused psychotherapy, which centers on direct change of problematic emotions, especially those which are usually suppressed resp. overregulated by the patient. This paper examines the basic phobic/emotional conflict, the problematic emotional processes arising from this conflict, and the importance to cognitive-behavioral therapy of their potentially integrative role.
Full Text Available Emotion regulation is crucial for successfully engaging in social interactions. Yet, little is known about the neural mechanisms controlling behavioral responses to emotional expressions perceived in the face of other people, which constitute a key element of interpersonal communication. Here, we investigated brain systems involved in social emotion perception and regulation, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 20 healthy participants who saw dynamic facial expressions of either happiness or sadness, and were asked to either imitate the expression or to suppress any expression on their own face (in addition to a gender judgment control task. fMRI results revealed higher activity in regions associated with emotion (e.g., the insula, motor function (e.g., motor cortex, and theory of mind during imitation. Activity in dorsal cingulate cortex was also increased during imitation, possibly reflecting greater action monitoring or conflict with own feeling states. In addition, premotor regions were more strongly activated during both imitation and suppression, suggesting a recruitment of motor control for both the production and inhibition of emotion expressions. Expressive suppression produced increases in dorsolateral and lateral prefrontal cortex typically related to cognitive control. These results suggest that voluntary imitation and expressive suppression modulate brain responses to emotional signals perceived from faces, by up- and down-regulating activity in distributed subcortical and cortical networks that are particularly involved in emotion, action monitoring, and cognitive control.
Schall, Marina; Martiny, Sarah E; Goetz, Thomas; Hall, Nathan C
Although expressing positive emotions is typically socially rewarded, in the present work, we predicted that people suppress positive emotions and thereby experience social benefits when outperformed others are present. We tested our predictions in three experimental studies with high school students. In Studies 1 and 2, we manipulated the type of social situation (outperformance vs. non-outperformance) and assessed suppression of positive emotions. In both studies, individuals reported suppressing positive emotions more in outperformance situations than in non-outperformance situations. In Study 3, we manipulated the social situation (outperformance vs. non-outperformance) as well as the videotaped person's expression of positive emotions (suppression vs. expression). The findings showed that when outperforming others, individuals were indeed evaluated more positively when they suppressed rather than expressed their positive emotions, and demonstrate the importance of the specific social situation with respect to the effects of suppression. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on
Hill, Larry K.
Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)
Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura
Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)
van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S.; Mathijssen, Jolanda J.P.; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J.; Prast, Henriëtte M.
Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals
van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan; Prast, Henriette
Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals
Full Text Available We introduce a dynamic model of emotional behavior regulation that can generalize to a wide range of decision dilemmas. Dilemmas are characterized by availability of mutually exclusive goals that a decision maker is dually motivated to pursue. In our model, previous goal pursuant decisions produce negative emotions that regulate an individual’s propensity to further pursue those goals at future times. This emotional regulation of behavior helps explain the non-stationarity and switching observed between so-called “preferences” revealed in repeated decision dilemmas (e.g., by choosing A over B at time 1, then choosing B over A at time 2. We also explain how behavior regulation under dilemma conditions is affected by the set of available options and how the strength and decay rate of emotions affect the tendency to choose behaviors pursuant of extremely (rather than moderately different options over time. We discuss how emotional behavior regulation insights provided by our model can extend to a variety of topics including approach and avoidance, temptation and self-control, moral balancing, impulse buying and shopping momentum, dieting and exercise, work and leisure, sleep regulation, cooperation, and competition.
English, Tammy; John, Oliver P
Individuals differ in the strategies they use to regulate their emotions (e.g., suppression, reappraisal), and these regulatory strategies can differentially influence social outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying these social effects remain to be specified. We examined one potential mediator that arises directly from emotion-regulatory effort (expression of positive emotion), and another mediator that does not involve emotion processes per se, but instead results from the link between regulation and self-processes (subjective inauthenticity). Across three studies, only inauthenticity mediated the link between habitual use of suppression and poor social functioning (lower relationship satisfaction, lower social support). These findings replicated across individuals socialized in Western and East Asian cultural contexts, younger and older adults, when predicting social functioning concurrently and a decade later, and even when broader adjustment was controlled. Thus, the social costs of suppression do not seem to be due to reduced positive emotion expression but rather the incongruence between inner-self and outer-behavior. Reappraisal was not consistently related to social functioning. Implications of these findings for emotion processes, self processes, and interpersonal relationships are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Santiago García Carbajal
Full Text Available Interpreting, modeling and representing emotions is a key feature of new generation games. This paper describes the first version of the Emotional Engine we have developed as a component of more complex behavior simulators. The purpose of this module is to manage the state and behavior of the characters present in a scene while they interact with a human user. We use preexistent language recognition libraries like Windows™ Speech API, and Kinect™ devices to communicate real humans with artificial characters participating in a virtual scene. The Emotional Engine works upon numeric variables extracted from such devices and calculated after some natural language interpretation process. It then produces numerical results that lead the behavior, modify both the verbal and body language of the characters, and influence the general evolution of the scene that takes place inside the simulator. This paper presents the system architecture and discusses some key components, such as the Language Interpretation and the Body Language Interpreter modules.
Chang, Valerie T; Overall, Nickola C; Madden, Helen; Low, Rachel S T
The current research extends prior research linking negative emotions and emotion regulation tendencies to memory by investigating whether (a) naturally occurring negative emotions during routine weekly life are associated with more negatively biased memories of prior emotional experiences-a bias called projection; (b) tendencies to regulate emotions via expressive suppression are associated with greater projection bias in memory of negative emotions; and (c) greater projection bias in memory is associated with poorer future well-being. Participants (N = 308) completed a questionnaire assessing their general tendencies to engage in expressive suppression. Then, every week for 7 weeks, participants reported on (a) the negative emotions they experienced across the current week (e.g., "This week, I felt 'sad'"), (b) their memories of the negative emotions they experienced the prior week (e.g., "Last week, I felt 'sad'"), and (c) their well-being. First, participants demonstrated significant projection bias in memory: Greater negative emotions in a given week were associated with remembering emotions in the prior week more negatively than those prior emotions were originally reported. Second, projection bias in memory of negative emotions was greater for individuals who reported greater tendencies to regulate emotions via expressive suppression. Third, greater projection bias in memory of negative emotions was associated with reductions in well-being across weeks. These 3 novel findings indicate that (a) current negative emotions bias memory of past emotions, (b) this memory bias is magnified for people who habitually use expressive suppression to regulate emotions, and (c) this memory bias may undermine well-being over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Hysek, Cédric M.; Schmid, Yasmin; Simmler, Linda D.; Domes, Gregor; Heinrichs, Markus; Eisenegger, Christoph; Preller, Katrin H.; Quednow, Boris B.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’) releases serotonin and norepinephrine. MDMA is reported to produce empathogenic and prosocial feelings. It is unknown whether MDMA in fact alters empathic concern and prosocial behavior. We investigated the acute effects of MDMA using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), dynamic Face Emotion Recognition Task (FERT) and Social Value Orientation (SVO) test. We also assessed effects of MDMA on plasma levels of hormones involved in social behavior using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-order, cross-over design in 32 healthy volunteers (16 women). MDMA enhanced explicit and implicit emotional empathy in the MET and increased prosocial behavior in the SVO test in men. MDMA did not alter cognitive empathy in the MET but impaired the identification of negative emotions, including fearful, angry and sad faces, in the FERT, particularly in women. MDMA increased plasma levels of cortisol and prolactin, which are markers of serotonergic and noradrenergic activity, and of oxytocin, which has been associated with prosocial behavior. In summary, MDMA sex-specifically altered the recognition of emotions, emotional empathy and prosociality. These effects likely enhance sociability when MDMA is used recreationally and may be useful when MDMA is administered in conjunction with psychotherapy in patients with social dysfunction or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:24097374
Hysek, Cédric M; Schmid, Yasmin; Simmler, Linda D; Domes, Gregor; Heinrichs, Markus; Eisenegger, Christoph; Preller, Katrin H; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') releases serotonin and norepinephrine. MDMA is reported to produce empathogenic and prosocial feelings. It is unknown whether MDMA in fact alters empathic concern and prosocial behavior. We investigated the acute effects of MDMA using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), dynamic Face Emotion Recognition Task (FERT) and Social Value Orientation (SVO) test. We also assessed effects of MDMA on plasma levels of hormones involved in social behavior using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-order, cross-over design in 32 healthy volunteers (16 women). MDMA enhanced explicit and implicit emotional empathy in the MET and increased prosocial behavior in the SVO test in men. MDMA did not alter cognitive empathy in the MET but impaired the identification of negative emotions, including fearful, angry and sad faces, in the FERT, particularly in women. MDMA increased plasma levels of cortisol and prolactin, which are markers of serotonergic and noradrenergic activity, and of oxytocin, which has been associated with prosocial behavior. In summary, MDMA sex-specifically altered the recognition of emotions, emotional empathy and prosociality. These effects likely enhance sociability when MDMA is used recreationally and may be useful when MDMA is administered in conjunction with psychotherapy in patients with social dysfunction or post-traumatic stress disorder. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lebowitz, Matthew S; Dovidio, John F
Empathic concern-a sense of caring and compassion in response to the needs of others-is a type of emotional response to the plights and misfortunes of others that predicts positive social attitudes and altruistic interpersonal behaviors. One psychological process that has been posited to facilitate empathic concern is the ability to regulate one's own emotions. However, existing research links some emotion-regulation approaches (e.g., suppression) to social outcomes that would appear at odds with empathic concern, such as decreased interpersonal closeness. In the present research, we tested whether relying on suppression to regulate one's emotions would lead to decreases in empathic concern-and related downstream variables, such as negative social attitudes and unwillingness to engage in altruistic behavior-when learning about another person's misfortune. In Study 1, dispositional and instructionally induced suppression was negatively associated with empathic concern, which led to increased stigmatizing attitudes. By contrast, instructing participants to use another emotion-regulation strategy examined for comparison-reappraisal-did not decrease empathic concern, and dispositional reliance on reappraisal was actually positively associated with empathic concern. In Study 2, the findings of Study 1 regarding the effects of habitual use of reappraisal and suppression were replicated, and reliance on suppression was also found to be associated with reluctance to engage in helping behaviors. These findings are situated within the existing literature and employed to shed new light on the interpersonal consequences of intrapersonal emotion-regulation strategies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available There is a growing appreciation that individuals differ systematically in their use of particular emotion regulation strategies. Our aim was to examine the structural correlates of the habitual use of expressive suppression of emotions. Based on our previous research on the voluntary suppression of actions we expected this response-focused emotion regulation strategy to be associated with increased grey matter volume in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC. On high-resolution MRI scans of 42 college-aged healthy adults we computed optimized voxel-based-morphometry (VBM to explore the correlation between grey matter volume and inter-individual differences in the tendency to suppress the expression of emotions assessed by means of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003. We found a positive correlation between the habitual use of expressive suppression as an emotion regulation strategy and grey matter volume in the dmPFC. No other brain area showed a significant positive or negative correlation with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire scores. The association between the suppression of expression of emotions and volume in the dmPFC supports the behavioural stability and biological foundation of the concept of this particular emotion regulation strategy within an age-homogenous sample of adults.
Nickerson, Angela; Garber, Benjamin; Ahmed, Ola; Asnaani, Anu; Cheung, Jessica; Hofmann, Stefan G; Huynh, Ly; Liddell, Belinda; Litz, Brett T; Pajak, Rosanna; Bryant, Richard A
While clinical reports suggest that torture survivors may try to suppress their emotions during torture, little is known about the use of emotional suppression following torture. In this study, 82 refugees and asylum-seekers (including 33 torture survivors) completed self-report measures of trait suppression, PTSD symptoms and baseline negative affect before being exposed to images depicting scenes of interpersonal trauma. The use of suppression while viewing the images was indexed and negative affect was measured both immediately after viewing the images and following a five minute rest period. Findings indicated that torture survivors did not show higher rates of trait suppression or state emotional suppression during the experimental session compared to non-torture survivors. However, torture survivors who endorsed state suppression higher levels of distress, and this relationship was especially strong for those with more severe PTSD symptoms. In contrast, there was a negative relationship between state suppression and distress for non-torture survivors with high levels of PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that, while torture exposure does not lead to greater use of suppression, it does influence the impact of suppression on emotional responses to stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper addresses the differences between emotional and behavioral disorders, physical and health impairments and Traumatic brain Injury at the level of definitions, causes, and characteristics. It also describes specific and the most effective instructional strategies for students with these disabilities. It further suggests ways and means by…
Görlach, Mirja Gianna; Kohlmann, Sebastian; Shedden-Mora, Meike; Rief, Winfried; Westermann, Stefan
Emotions have a considerable impact on eating behaviour; however, research addressing emotion regulation in obesity is rare. The present study is the first to investigate the association between emotional suppression and overeating in individuals with overweight. In total, 314 participants including 190 individuals with obesity filled in a cross-sectional online survey, which assessed emotional suppression, eating behaviour and psychopathology. A hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with overeating. Individuals with obesity reported more frequent overeating compared with individuals without obesity. The habitual use of emotional suppression was associated with more overeating; however, this link was moderated by increased body mass index (BMI). The results suggest that suppression of emotional expression contributes to overeating and is maladaptive especially in individuals with obesity. Further research should longitudinally investigate the predictive value of emotional suppression on overweight, as the training of emotion regulation could contribute to treating obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Hooge, de I.E.
Decades of emotion research have demonstrated the unique influences of many specific emotions on consumer behaviors. These countless numbers of emotion effects can make it difficult to understand the role of emotions in consumer behavior. The current research introduces a parsimonious framework that
Turnipseed, David L; Vandewaa, Elizabeth A
This study evaluated hypothesized positive linkages between organizational citizenship behavior and the emotional intelligence dimensions of perception, using emotion, understanding emotion, and management of emotion, involving two samples. Sample 1 comprised 334 employed college students, 52% male, with a mean age of 23.4 yr., who worked an average of 29.6 hr. per week. Sample 2 comprised 72 professors, 81% female, with a mean age of 47 yr. Measures were the Emotional Intelligence Scale and the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. Results of hierarchical multiple regressions indicated a positive link between organizational citizenship behavior and emotional intelligence. There were differences between the samples. In Sample 1, each of the emotional intelligence dimensions were positively linked to citizenship behavior: using and managing emotion were the greatest contributors. In Sample 2, managing emotion was the only contributor. Emotional intelligence had the strongest relationship with citizenship behavior directed at individuals.
Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; He, Jincai; Yi, Jinyao; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Jinqiang; Zhu, Xiongzhao
Patients with breast cancer usually present varying levels of depressive symptoms. Emotional suppression, as a coping style, refers to an individual's ability to consciously control expression of negative emotions. Thus, emotional suppression is an important psychological factor related to depressive symptoms in patients with breast cancer. It has long been considered that compared to European and American women, Chinese women are more likely to ascribe to norms of negative emotion control for smooth social interaction. However, there is paucity of research focusing on emotional suppression among Chinese women with breast cancer. Thus the aims of the current study were (1) to investigate the incidence of depressive symptoms in women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer in Mainland China, and (2) to examine the relationships between emotional suppression and depressive symptoms in these patients. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Chinese version of the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS) were used to assess the level of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and emotional suppression respectively in 247 women with early breast cancer and 362 healthy women. Analyses of variance were conducted to investigate group differences on depressive symptoms and emotional suppression. Bivariate correlations and Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to examine the effect of emotional suppression on depressive symptoms in participants after controlling the impact of group membership and anxiety level. (1) The incidence rates of clinical and severe depressive symptoms in patients were 36.4 and 36.0 % respectively. (2) Patients scored significantly higher than healthy women on CECS. (3) The scores on CECS were significantly associated with the total CES-D scores in all participants; Anger suppression significantly predicted the total CES-D scores. The majority of women newly diagnosed with
Danielle Mantovani; José Carlos Korelo; Paulo Henrique Muller Prado; Tatiane SIlva dos Santos
Despite the increasing amount of research about the effects of a seller’s transgression on consumers’ relationship quality evaluation, existing theory still demands more insight into consumer’s capacity to suppress the negative emotions that a transgression might generate. This research proposes that consumers’ are not always equally influenced by a transgression because some individuals demonstrate a higher capacity to suppress the negative emotions that arise from a ...
Danielle Mantovani; José Carlos Korelo; Paulo Henrique Muller Prado; Tatiane SIlva dos Santos
Despite the increasing amount of research about the effects of a seller’s transgression on consumers’ relationship quality evaluation, existing theory still demands more insight into consumer’s capacity to suppress the negative emotions that a transgression might generate. This research proposes that consumers’ are not always equally influenced by a transgression because some individuals demonstrate a higher capacity to suppress the negative emotions that arise from a ...
Lim, Sung Shil; Lee, Wanhyung; Hong, Kwanyoung; Jeung, Dayee; Chang, Sei Jin; Yoon, Jin Ha
This study aimed to investigate the effect of facing complaining customer and suppressed emotion at worksite on sleep disturbance among working population. We enrolled 13,066 paid workers (male = 6,839, female = 6,227, age Working Condition Survey (2011). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sleep disturbance occurrence were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Among workers in working environments where they always engage complaining customers had a significantly higher risk for sleep disturbance than rarely group (The OR [95% CI]; 5.46 [3.43-8.68] in male, 5.59 [3.30-9.46] in female workers). The OR (95% CI) for sleep disturbance was 1.78 (1.16-2.73) and 1.63 (1.02-2.63), for the male and female groups always suppressing their emotions at the workplace compared with those rarely group. Compared to those who both rarely engaged complaining customers and rarely suppressed their emotions at work, the OR (CI) for sleep disturbance was 9.66 (4.34-20.80) and 10.17 (4.46-22.07), for men and women always exposed to both factors. Sleep disturbance was affected by interactions of both emotional demands (engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace). The level of emotional demand, including engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace is significantly associated with sleep disturbance among Korean working population.
Kwon, Heewon; Kim, Young-Hoon
Whether the negative effects of emotion suppression on psychological well-being are applicable cross-culturally is a long-debated topic. The present study attempted to shed light on this debate, focusing on the effects of perceived emotion suppression and examining the psychological processes leading from perceived emotion suppression to lower psychological well-being. We used a scale manipulation to lead 196 American and 213 Chinese participants to perceive themselves as having suppressed their emotions to a greater or lesser extent and then measured their life satisfaction. As expected, both the American and Chinese participants reported lower life satisfaction in the high-suppression condition than in the low-suppression condition; this negative effect was mediated by positive affect and moderated by self-esteem. Specifically, perceived high emotion suppression decreased positive affect, which in turn led to lower well-being. This effect was observed only for those with low self-esteem, but the patterns and mechanisms were consistent cross-culturally. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.
Xiao, Erte; Houser, Daniel
Evolutionary theory reveals that punishment is effective in promoting cooperation and maintaining social norms. Although it is accepted that emotions are connected to punishment decisions, there remains substantial debate over why humans use costly punishment. Here we show experimentally that constraints on emotion expression can increase the use of costly punishment. We report data from ultimatum games, where a proposer offers a division of a sum of money and a responder decides whether to accept the split, or reject and leave both players with nothing. Compared with the treatment in which expressing emotions directly to proposers is prohibited, rejection of unfair offers is significantly less frequent when responders can convey their feelings to the proposer concurrently with their decisions. These data support the view that costly punishment might itself be used to express negative emotions and suggest that future studies will benefit by recognizing that human demand for emotion expression can have significant behavioral consequences in social environments, including families, courts, companies, and markets.
Larsen, J.K.; Vermulst, A.A.; Geenen, R.; Middendorp, H. van; English, T.; Gross, J.J.; Ha, P.T.; Evers, C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between expressive suppression and depressive symptoms. These results have been interpreted as reflecting the impact of emotion regulation efforts on depression. However, it is also possible that depression may alter emotion regulation
van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M
Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals do not get their prize but receive feedback on what their forgone earnings would have been. This counterfactual feedback should provoke anticipated regret and increase commitment to health goals. We explored which emotions were actually expected upon missing out on a prize due to unsuccessful weight loss and which incentive-characteristics influence their likelihood and intensity. Participants reported their expected emotional response after missing out on a prize in one of 12 randomly presented incentive-scenarios, which varied in incentive type, incentive size and deadline distance. Participants primarily reported feeling disappointment, followed by regret. Regret was expected most when losing a lottery prize (vs. a fixed incentive) and intensified with prize size. Multiple features of the participant and the lottery incentive increase the occurrence and intensity of regret. As such, our findings can be helpful in designing behavioral economic incentives that leverage emotions to support health behavior change.
Yan Mei Wang
Full Text Available In the field of emotion research, the influence of emotion regulation strategies on memory with emotional materials has been widely discussed in recent years. However, existing studies have focused exclusively on regulating negative emotion but not positive emotion. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of emotion regulation strategies for positive emotion on memory. One hundred and twenty college students were selected as participants. Emotional pictures (positive, negative and neutral were selected from Chinese Affective Picture System (CAPS as experimental materials. We employed a mixed, 4 (emotion regulation strategies: cognitive up-regulation, cognitive down-regulation, expressive suppression, passive viewing × 3 (emotional pictures: positive, neutral, negative experimental design. We investigated the influences of different emotion regulation strategies on memory performance, using free recall and recognition tasks with pictures varying in emotional content. The results showed that recognition and free recall memory performance of the cognitive reappraisal groups (up-regulation and down-regulation were both better than that of the passive viewing group for all emotional pictures. No significant differences were reported in the two kinds of memory scores between the expressive suppression and passive viewing groups. The results also showed that the memory performance with the emotional pictures differed according to the form of memory test. For the recognition test, participants performed better with positive images than with neutral images. Free recall scores with negative images were higher than those with neutral images. These results suggest that both cognitive reappraisal regulation strategies (up-regulation and down-regulation promoted explicit memories of the emotional content of stimuli, and the form of memory test influenced performance with emotional pictures.
Wang, Yan Mei; Chen, Jie; Han, Ben Yue
In the field of emotion research, the influence of emotion regulation strategies on memory with emotional materials has been widely discussed in recent years. However, existing studies have focused exclusively on regulating negative emotion but not positive emotion. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of emotion regulation strategies for positive emotion on memory. One hundred and twenty college students were selected as participants. Emotional pictures (positive, negative and neutral) were selected from Chinese Affective Picture System (CAPS) as experimental materials. We employed a mixed, 4 (emotion regulation strategies: cognitive up-regulation, cognitive down-regulation, expressive suppression, passive viewing) × 3 (emotional pictures: positive, neutral, negative) experimental design. We investigated the influences of different emotion regulation strategies on memory performance, using free recall and recognition tasks with pictures varying in emotional content. The results showed that recognition and free recall memory performance of the cognitive reappraisal groups (up-regulation and down-regulation) were both better than that of the passive viewing group for all emotional pictures. No significant differences were reported in the two kinds of memory scores between the expressive suppression and passive viewing groups. The results also showed that the memory performance with the emotional pictures differed according to the form of memory test. For the recognition test, participants performed better with positive images than with neutral images. Free recall scores with negative images were higher than those with neutral images. These results suggest that both cognitive reappraisal regulation strategies (up-regulation and down-regulation) promoted explicit memories of the emotional content of stimuli, and the form of memory test influenced performance with emotional pictures.
Yuan, JiaJin; Long, QuanShan; Ding, NanXiang; Lou, YiXue; Liu, YingYing; Yang, JieMin
The timing dynamics of regulating negative emotion with expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal were investigated in a Chinese sample. Event-Related Potentials were recorded while subjects were required to view, suppress emotion expression to, or reappraise emotional pictures. The results showed a similar reduction in self-reported negative emotion during both strategies. Additionally, expressive suppression elicited larger amplitudes than reappraisal in central-frontal P3 component (340-480 ms). More importantly, the Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were decreased in each 200 ms of the 800-1600 ms time intervals during suppression vs. viewing conditions. In contrast, LPP amplitudes were similar for reappraisal and viewing conditions in all the time windows, except for the decreased amplitudes during reappraisal in the 1400-1600 ms. The LPP (but not P3) amplitudes were positively related to negative mood ratings, whereas the amplitudes of P3, rather than LPP, predict self-reported expressive suppression. These results suggest that expressive suppression decreases emotion responding more rapidly than reappraisal, at the cost of greater cognitive resource involvements in Chinese individuals.
Full Text Available Emotion regulation is very important for psychological well-being. Although it is known that alternative regulation strategies may have different emotional consequences, the effectiveness of such strategies for socially driven emotions remains unclear. In this study we investigated the efficacy of different forms of reappraisal on responses to the selfish and altruistic behavior of others in the Dictator Game. In Experiment 1, subjects mentalized the intentions of the other player in one condition, and took distance from the situation in the other. Emotion ratings were recorded after each offer. Compared with a baseline condition, mentalizing led subjects to experience their emotions as more positive when receiving both selfish and altruistic proposals, whereas distancing decreased the valence when receiving altruistic offers, but did not affect the perception of selfish behaviors. In Experiment 2, subjects played with both computer and human partners while reappraising the meaning of the player’s intentions (in case of a human partner or the meaning of the situation (in case of a computer partner. Results showed that both contexts were effectively modulated by reappraisal, however a stronger effect was observed when the donor was a human partner as compared to a computer. Taken together, these results demonstrate that socially driven emotions can be successfully modulated by reappraisal strategies that focus on the reinterpretation of others’ intentions.
Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.
Emotion regulation is important for psychological well-being. Although it is known that alternative regulation strategies may have different emotional consequences, the effectiveness of such strategies for socially driven emotions remains unclear. In this study we investigated the efficacy of different forms of reappraisal on responses to the selfish and altruistic behavior of others in the Dictator Game. In Experiment 1, subjects mentalized the intentions of the other player in one condition, and took distance from the situation in the other. Emotion ratings were recorded after each offer. Compared with a baseline condition, mentalizing led subjects to experience their emotions more positively when receiving both selfish and altruistic proposals, whereas distancing decreased the valence when receiving altruistic offers, but did not affect the perception of selfish behavior. In Experiment 2, subjects played with both computer and human partners while reappraising the meaning of the player’s intentions (with a human partner) or the meaning of the situation (with a computer partner). Results showed that both contexts were effectively modulated by reappraisal, however a stronger effect was observed when the donor was a human partner, as compared to a computer partner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that socially driven emotions can be successfully modulated by reappraisal strategies that focus on the reinterpretation of others’ intentions. PMID:23349645
Tashiro, Ty; Frazier, Patricia
The authors conducted 2 translational studies that assessed the causal effects of emotion on maladaptive cognitions and behaviors in couples. Specifically, the authors examined whether negative emotions increased and positive emotions decreased partner attributions and demand-withdraw behaviors. Study 1 (N=164) used video clips to assess the…
Jussara Rocha Batista
Full Text Available Some psychological approaches distinguish behavioral self-control from emotional self-control, the latter being approached with the reference to inside events controlled by the individual himself. This paper offers some directions to a behavior-analytic approach of what has been referred to as emotional self-control. According to Behavior Analysis, no new process is found in emotional self-control, but components that are additional to those found in behavioral self-control, which require appropriate treatment. The paper highlights some determinants of behavioral repertoires taken as instances of emotional self-control: the social context in which self-control is produced and maintained; the conflicts between consequences for the individual and for the group; and the degree of participation of the motor apparatus in the emission of emotional responses. Keywords: emotional self-control; emotional responses; inner world; behavior analysis.
Zhang, Guofeng; Li, Zushu
In bionic methodology rather than in design methodology more familiar with, summarizing the psychological researches of emotion, we propose the biologic mechanism of emotion, emotion selection role in creature evolution and a anima framework including emotion similar to the classical control structure; and consulting Prospect Theory, build an Emotion Characteristic Functions(ECF) that computer emotion; two more emotion theories are added to them that higher emotion is preferred and middle emotion makes brain run more efficiently, emotional behavior mechanism comes into being. A simulation of proposed mechanism are designed and carried out on Alife Swarm software platform. In this simulation, a virtual grassland ecosystem is achieved where there are two kinds of artificial animals: herbivore and preyer. These artificial animals execute four types of behavior: wandering, escaping, finding food, finding sex partner in their lives. According the theories of animal ethnology, escaping from preyer is prior to other behaviors for its existence, finding food is secondly important behavior, rating is third one and wandering is last behavior. In keeping this behavior order, based on our behavior characteristic function theory, the specific functions of emotion computing are built of artificial autonomous animals. The result of simulation confirms the behavior selection mechanism.
Rescorla, L.A.; Achenbach, T.M.; Ivanova, M.Y.
This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age...... and gender effects were quite similar across societies. The rank orders of mean item ratings were similar across diverse societies. For 7,380 children from 13 societies, ratings were also obtained from a parent. In all 13 societies, mean Total Problems scores derived from parent ratings were significantly...
Chung, Man Cheung; Shakra, Mudar; AlQarni, Nowf; AlMazrouei, Mariam; Al Mazrouei, Sara; Al Hashimi, Shurooq
This study revisited the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and examined a hypothesized model describing the interrelationship between trauma exposure characteristics, trauma centrality, emotional suppression, PTSD, and psychiatric comorbidity among Syrian refugees. A total of 564 Syrian refugees participated in the study and completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Centrality of Event Scale, and Courtauld Emotional Control Scale. Of the participants, 30% met the cutoff for PTSD. Trauma exposure characteristics (experiencing or witnessing horror and murder, kidnapping or disappearance of family members or friends) were associated with trauma centrality, which was associated with emotional suppression. Emotional suppression was associated with PTSD and psychiatric comorbid symptom severities. Suppression mediated the path between trauma centrality and distress outcomes. Almost one-third of refugees can develop PTSD and other psychiatric problems following exposure to traumatic events during war. A traumatized identity can develop, of which life-threatening experiences is a dominant feature, leading to suppression of depression with associated psychological distress.
Samson, Andrea C.; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Lee, Ihno A.; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Gross, James J.
Maladaptive behavior is common in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, the factors that give rise to maladaptive behavior in this context are not well understood. The present study examined the role of emotion experience and emotion regulation in maladaptive behavior in individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD) participants.…
Castro, Vanessa L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Lozada, Fantasy T.; Craig, Ashley B.
Children who are able to recognize others’ emotions are successful in a variety of socioemotional domains, yet we know little about how school-aged children's abilities develop, particularly in the family context. We hypothesized that children develop emotion recognition skill as a function of parents’ own emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and skills. We examined parents’ beliefs about the value of emotion and guidance of children's emotion, parents’ emotion labeling and teaching behaviors, and parents’ skill in recognizing children's emotions in relation to their school-aged children's emotion recognition skills. Sixty-nine parent-child dyads completed questionnaires, participated in dyadic laboratory tasks, and identified their own emotions and emotions felt by the other participant from videotaped segments. Regression analyses indicate that parents’ beliefs, behaviors, and skills together account for 37% of the variance in child emotion recognition ability, even after controlling for parent and child expressive clarity. The findings suggest the importance of the family milieu in the development of children's emotion recognition skill in middle childhood, and add to accumulating evidence suggesting important age-related shifts in the relation between parental emotion socialization and child emotional development. PMID:26005393
Kashdan, Todd B.; Breen, William E.
The purpose of the present study was to examine social anxiety as a predictor of positive emotions using a short-term prospective design. We examined whether the effects of social anxiety on positive emotions are moderated by tendencies to openly express or suppress emotions. Over the course of a 3-month interval, people with excessive social…
Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A.
Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict. PMID:25925271
Zinchenko, Artyom; Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A
Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje
The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.
Summary of thesis “Different cultures, different selves? Suppression of emotions and reactions to transgressions across cultures”, Sylvia Huwaë People can differ in how they respond to everyday situations. For example, when treated unfairly by someone, some people may express their anger and find it
Kaszniak, Alfred W; Menchola, Marisa
Recent research on emotion and aging has revealed a stability of emotional experience from adulthood to older age, despite aging-related decrements in the perception and categorization of emotionally relevant stimuli. Research also shows that emotional expression remains intact with aging. In contrast, other studies provide evidence for an age-related decrease in autonomic nervous system physiological arousal, particularly in response to emotionally negative stimuli, and for shifts in central nervous system physiologic response to emotional stimuli, with increased prefrontal cortex activation and decreased amygdala activation in aging. Research on attention and memory for emotional information supports a decreased processing of negative emotional stimuli (i.e., a decrease in the negativity effect seen in younger adults), and a relative increase in the processing of emotionally positive stimuli (positivity effect). These physiological response and attentional/memory preference differences across increasingly older groups have been interpreted, within socioemotional selectivity theory, as reflecting greater motivation for emotion regulation with aging. According to this theory, as persons age, their perceived future time horizon shrinks, and a greater value is placed upon cultivating close, familiar, and meaningful relationships and other situations that give rise to positive emotional experience, and avoiding, or shifting attention from, those people and situations that are likely to elicit negative emotion. Even though there are central nervous system structural changes in emotion-relevant brain regions with aging, this shift in socioemotional selectivity, and perhaps the decreased autonomic nervous system physiological arousal of emotion with aging, facilitate enhanced emotion regulation with aging.
Nørby, Simon; Lange, Martin; Larsen, Axel
retrieval but does not lead to long-term forgetting. Furthermore, the amount of training that clearly reduced immediate recall of neutral items did not at all reduce recall of emotional items. This finding is in accordance with the notion that emotional items have a higher degree of salience and tend......Can we control the content of our memory and forget what we do not want to think about by an act of will? If so, is forgetting temporary or permanent, and is it independent of the nature of what we wish to forget? Using Anderson and Green’s (2001) ‘‘think/no-think” paradigm with neutral...... and emotional nouns, we found in agreement with other studies that memory for neutral words was reduced instantly upon repeated attempts at suppression. However, the effect was temporary and vanished after a period of one week, which strongly suggests that intended memory suppression interferes with immediate...
Tsai, William; Nguyen, D Julie; Weiss, Bahr; Ngo, Victoria; Lau, Anna S
The current study examined the prospective relations between emotion suppression and maladjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, family stress events, peer stress events, and family and peer support) among Vietnamese American (n = 372) and European American adolescents (n = 304). We found that at baseline Vietnamese Americans adolescents reported greater use of emotion suppression coping than European American adolescents. Multi-group structural equation modeling indicated that for European American teens emotion suppression was significantly related to increased depression symptoms and decreased quality of peer relationships. In contrast, for the Vietnamese Americans teens emotion suppression relations to later maladjustment was either nonsignificant or attenuated relative to the European American. These findings suggest ethnic group differences in both the utilization, and consequences and function of emotion suppression among Vietnamese American and European American adolescents.
Giner, Lucas; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; De La Vega, Diego; Courtet, Philippe
Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria). We included classic factors related to suicidal behavior such as cognitive, inflexibility, problem-solving, coping, rumination, thought suppression, decision-making, autobiographical memory, working memory, language fluency, burdensomeness, belongingness, fearless, pain insensitivity, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, and hopelessness. The personality correlates reported are mainly based on the personality theories of Cloninger, Costa and McCrae, and Eysenck. Moreover, it explores conceptual links to other new pathways in psychological factors, emptiness, and psychological pain as a possible origin and common end path for a portion of suicidal behaviors.
Dever, Bridget V.; Gallagher, Emily K.; Hochbein, Craig D.; Loukas, Austin; Dai, Chenchen
Behavioral and emotional problems among children and adolescents can lead to numerous negative outcomes without intervention. From a prevention standpoint, screening for behavioral and emotional risk is an important step toward identifying such problems before the point of diagnosis or referral. The present study conducted a k-means cluster…
Wang, Ling; Xu, Huihui; Zhang, Xue; Fang, Ping
The job search process is a stressful experience. This study investigated the effect of emotion regulation strategies on job search behavior in combination with anxiety and job search self-efficacy among Chinese university fourth-year students (N = 816, mean age = 21.98, 31.5% male, 34.9% majored in science, 18.0% from "211 Project" universities). Results showed that cognitive reappraisal was positively related to job search behavior, while expressive suppression was negatively related to job search behavior. Additionally, anxiety was negatively related to job search behavior, while job search self-efficacy was positively associated with job search behavior. Moreover, both anxiety and job search self-efficacy mediated the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and job search behavior. In general, emotion regulation strategies played an important role in job search behavior. Implications include the notion that emotion regulation interventions may be helpful to increase job search behavior among university students. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Szameitat, Diana P; Alter, Kai; Szameitat, André J; Darwin, Chris J; Wildgruber, Dirk; Dietrich, Susanne; Sterr, Annette
Although laughter is important in human social interaction, its role as a communicative signal is poorly understood. Because laughter is expressed in various emotional contexts, the question arises as to whether different emotions are communicated. In the present study, participants had to appraise 4 types of laughter sounds (joy, tickling, taunting, schadenfreude) either by classifying them according to the underlying emotion or by rating them according to different emotional dimensions. The authors found that emotions in laughter (a) can be classified into different emotional categories, and (b) can have distinctive profiles on W. Wundt's (1905) emotional dimensions. This shows that laughter is a multifaceted social behavior that can adopt various emotional connotations. The findings support the postulated function of laughter in establishing group structure, whereby laughter is used either to include or to exclude individuals from group coherence.
Full Text Available Emotions play a central role in every human life from the moment we are born until we die. They prepare the body for action, highlight what should be noticed and remembered, and guide decisions and actions. As emotions are central to daily functioning, it is important to understand how aging affects perception, memory, experience, as well as regulation of emotions. The Frontiers research topic Emotion and Aging: Evidence from Brain and Behavior takes a step into uncovering emotional aging considering both brain and behavioral processes. The contributions featured in this issue adopt innovative theoretical perspectives and use novel methodological approaches to target a variety of topics that can be categorized into three overarching questions: How do cognition and emotion interact in aging in brain and behavior? What are behavioral and brain-related moderators of emotional aging? Does emotion-regulatory success as reflected in brain and behavior change with age? In this perspective paper we discuss theoretical innovation, methodological approach, and scientific advancement of the thirteen papers in the context of the broader literature on emotional aging. We conclude by reflecting on topics untouched and future directions to take.
Rimmele, Ulrike; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan
Cortisol's effects on memory follow an inverted U-shaped function such that memory retrieval is impaired with very low concentrations, presumably due to insufficient activation of high-affine mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), or with very high concentrations, due to predominant low-affine glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Through corresponding changes in re-encoding, the retrieval effect of cortisol might translate into a persistent change of the retrieved memory. We tested whether partial suppression of morning cortisol synthesis by metyrapone, leading to intermediate, circadian nadir-like levels with presumed predominant MR activation, improves retrieval, particularly of emotional memory, and persistently changes the memory. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subject cross-over design, 18 men were orally administered metyrapone (1g) vs. placebo at 4:00 AM to suppress the morning cortisol rise. Retrieval of emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 days earlier) was assessed 4h after substance administration and a second time one week later. Metyrapone suppressed endogenous cortisol release to circadian nadir-equivalent levels at the time of retrieval testing. Contrary to our expectations, metyrapone significantly impaired free recall of emotional texts (ppictures remained unaffected. One week later, participants still showed lower memory for emotional texts in the metyrapone than placebo condition (pmemories corroborates the concept that retrieval effects of cortisol produce persistent memory changes, possibly by affecting re-encoding. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Schema therapy (ST and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross’ process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g. lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect. These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogues and imagery rescripting.
Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud
Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting. PMID:27683567
Zarbo, Cristina; Brugnera, Agostino; Frigerio, Luigi; Malandrino, Chiara; Rabboni, Massimo; Bondi, Emi; Compare, Angelo
Endometriosis is a disabling and long-term medical condition affecting quality of life and mental health. Behavioral, cognitive, and emotional coping strategies, emotional intelligence, and metacognition could in part explain the link between the disease and impaired psychological and life functioning. This critical narrative review aimed at examining the state of the art of the relationships between endometriosis and these factors. According to PRISMA principles, we performed a systematic search for quantitative and qualitative studies on multiple electronic databases as regards coping strategies, emotional intelligence, and metacognition in women with endometriosis. Studies were subjected to interpretative and critical narrative synthesis. A total of 9 papers were included in the review. Three main categories were identified in thematic analysis and resumed in the manuscript. Findings suggested that (a) pain is considered the major stressor; (b) they usually use both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies; (c) women with endometriosis and related chronic pain seem to repress emotions more likely than healthy ones; (d) suppressing own emotions, pain catastrophizing, and having a passive coping style are related to higher self-reported pain; and (e) emotional and avoidance coping styles are associated to poor mental status, while positive coping strategies focusing on the problem or on emotions, detached and rational styles are associated to better mental health. Few studies with mixed results and some methodological flaws have focused on coping strategies in women with endometriosis. No studies focusing on metacognition or emotional intelligence were found. Methodological biases, suggestions for future research, and implications for clinical practice were discussed.
Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Försterling, Friedrich
This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent behaviour. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more emotional intelligence than maladaptive emotions which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behaviour. We hypothesize that semantically similar emotions (e.g. annoyance and rage) lead to different behavioural reactions and have a different functionality in an organizational context. The results of scenario experiments using organizational vignettes confirm the central assumptions of Ellis' appraisal theory and support our hypotheses of a correspondence between adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behaviour. Additionally, we find evidence that irrational job-related attitudes result in reduced work (but not life) satisfaction.
Yoshimura, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Naoko
Operator's behavior may be influenced by the atmosphere in a control room. Therefore, it is important to consider operator's emotions especially when abnormal situations occur in a plant. SYBORG (Simulation System for the Behavior of an Operating Group) is a system for simulating the behavior of an operator team. Based on 1) Investigations of how operators feel the situations in a control room and 2) biological and psychological similarities between emotion and immunity, an emotional function was tried to be incorporated into SYBORG using immune algorithm. (author)
Schwartz, Rachel; Rothermich, Kathrin; Kotz, Sonja A; Pell, Marc D
Recognizing emotions in others is a pivotal part of socioemotional functioning and plays a central role in social interactions. It has been shown that individuals suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) are less accurate at identifying basic emotions such as fear, sadness, and happiness; however, previous studies have predominantly assessed emotion processing using unimodal stimuli (e.g., pictures) that do not reflect the complexity of real-world processing demands. Dynamic, naturalistic stimuli (e.g., movies) have been shown to elicit stronger subjective emotional experiences than unimodal stimuli and can facilitate emotion recognition. In this experiment, pupil measurements of PD patients and matched healthy controls (HC) were recorded while they watched short film clips. Participants' task was to identify the emotion elicited by each clip and rate the intensity of their emotional response. We explored (a) how PD affects subjective emotional experience in response to dynamic, ecologically valid film stimuli, and (b) whether there are PD-related changes in pupillary response, which may contribute to the differences in emotion processing reported in the literature. Behavioral results showed that identification of the felt emotion as well as perceived intensity varies by emotion, but no significant group effect was found. Pupil measurements revealed differences in dilation depending on the emotion evoked by the film clips (happy, tender, sadness, fear, and neutral) for both groups. Our results suggest that differences in emotional response may be negligible when PD patients and healthy controls are presented with dynamic, ecologically valid emotional stimuli. Given the limited data available on pupil response in PD, this study provides new evidence to suggest that the PD-related deficits in emotion processing reported in the literature may not translate to real-world differences in physiological or subjective emotion processing in early-stage PD patients.
Ramli, Nurulhuda; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Hatta, Zulkarnain Ahmad; Hashim, Intan Hashimah Mohd; Sulong, Jasni; Mahudin, Nor Diana Mohd; Rahman, Shukran Abd; Saad, Zarina Mat
The effects of overcrowding have become a major concern for event organizers. One aspect of this concern has been the idea that overcrowding can enhance the occurrence of serious incidents during events. As one of the largest Muslim religious gathering attended by pilgrims from all over the world, Hajj has become extremely overcrowded with many incidents being reported. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nature of human emotion and negative behavior resulting from overcrowding during Hajj events from data gathered in Malaysian Hajj Experience Survey in 2013. The sample comprised of 147 Malaysian pilgrims (70 males and 77 females). Utilizing a probabilistic model called Bayesian network, this paper models the dependence structure between different emotions and negative behaviors of pilgrims in the crowd. The model included the following variables of emotion: negative, negative comfortable, positive, positive comfortable and positive spiritual and variables of negative behaviors; aggressive and hazardous acts. The study demonstrated that emotions of negative, negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive emotion have a direct influence on aggressive behavior whereas emotion of negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive have a direct influence on hazardous acts behavior. The sensitivity analysis showed that a low level of negative and negative comfortable emotions leads to a lower level of aggressive and hazardous behavior. Findings of the study can be further improved to identify the exact cause and risk factors of crowd-related incidents in preventing crowd disasters during the mass gathering events.
Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] Information search capability is the focus of information literacy education. This paper explores the relationship between emotional intelligence and information search behavior. [Method/process] Based on the data from the questionnaires by 250 undergraduates, this paper used IBM SPSS Statistics 19.0 for statistical data analysis. [Result/conclusion]The correlation between emotional intelligence and information search capability is positively obvious. When it comes to all variables in the regression equation, information search behavior is mainly affected by regulation and utilization of the dimension of emotion. Utilization of emotion mainly affects retrieval strategies, information evaluation, behavior adjustment and total score; regulation of emotions mainly affects the information reference.
This study has aimed to investigate language learners' emotional experiences through the lens of L2 future self-guides. To that end, the L2 motivational self system was chosen as the theoretical framework to relate learners' emotions to their L2 selves. However, due to inconsistent results of past research concerning the motivational role of the…
Lusk, Bethany R; Carr, Andrea R; Ranson, Valerie A; Felmingham, Kim L
Emotion regulation deficits have been implicated in anxiety and depressive disorders, and these internalising disorders are more prevalent in women than men. Few electrophysiological studies have investigated sex differences in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation controlling for menstrual phase. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 28 early follicular women, 29 midluteal women, and 27 men who completed an emotion regulation task. A novel finding of increased N2 amplitude during suppression was found for midluteal women compared with men. These findings suggest midluteal women may be significantly less able to suppress cortical processing of negative stimuli compared to men. This ERP finding was complemented by behavioral ratings data which revealed that while both early follicular and midluteal women reported more distress than men, midluteal women also reported greater effort when suppressing their responses than men. P1 and N1 components were increased in midluteal women compared to men regardless of instructional set, suggesting greater early attentional processing. No sex or menstrual phase differences were apparent in P3 or LPP. This study underscores the importance of considering menstrual phase when examining sex differences in the cortical processing of emotion regulation and demonstrates that midluteal women may have deficits in down-regulating their neural and behavioural responses.
Schneider, Kristin G; Hempel, Roelie J; Lynch, Thomas R
Successful interpersonal functioning often requires both the ability to mask inner feelings and the ability to accurately recognize others' expressions--but what if effortful control of emotional expressions impacts the ability to accurately read others? In this study, we examined the influence of self-controlled expressive suppression and mimicry on facial affect sensitivity--the speed with which one can accurately identify gradually intensifying facial expressions of emotion. Muscle activity of the brow (corrugator, related to anger), upper lip (levator, related to disgust), and cheek (zygomaticus, related to happiness) were recorded using facial electromyography while participants randomized to one of three conditions (Suppress, Mimic, and No-Instruction) viewed a series of six distinct emotional expressions (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust) as they morphed from neutral to full expression. As hypothesized, individuals instructed to suppress their own facial expressions showed impairment in facial affect sensitivity. Conversely, mimicry of emotion expressions appeared to facilitate facial affect sensitivity. Results suggest that it is difficult for a person to be able to simultaneously mask inner feelings and accurately "read" the facial expressions of others, at least when these expressions are at low intensity. The combined behavioral and physiological data suggest that the strategies an individual selects to control his or her own expression of emotion have important implications for interpersonal functioning.
Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…
Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.
Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.
McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C. Cybele
The present study examined the relationships between caregivers' self-reported positive and negative emotional expressiveness, observer assessments of children's emotion regulation, and teachers' reports of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 97 primarily African American and Hispanic Head Start families. Results…
Bardack, Sarah; Obradovic´, Jelena
Research Findings: Drawing from a diverse community sample of 89 children, ages 4-6, their primary caregivers and teachers, this study examined the interplay of child emotional behavior problems, parent emotion socialization practices, and gender in predicting teacher-child closeness. Teachers reported on perceptions of closeness with children.…
Spangler, Derek P; Bell, Martha Ann; Deater-Deckard, Kirby
There is uncertainty about whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a cardiac marker of adaptive emotion regulation, is involved in relatively low or high executive function performance. In the present study, we investigated (a) whether RSA during rest and tasks predict both relatively low and high executive function within a larger quadratic association among the two variables, and (b) the extent to which this quadratic trend was moderated by individual differences in emotion regulation. To achieve these aims, a sample of ethnically and socioeconomically diverse women self-reported reappraisal and emotion suppression. They next experienced a 2-min resting period during which electrocardiogram (ECG) was continually assessed. In the next phase, the women completed an array of executive function and nonexecutive cognitive tasks while ECG was measured throughout. As anticipated, resting RSA showed a quadratic association with executive function that was strongest for high suppression. These results suggest that relatively high resting RSA may predict poor executive function ability when emotion regulation consumes executive control resources needed for ongoing cognitive performance. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this paper is to obtain evidence of the relation between entrepreneur proactive networking behavior and trait emotional intelligence to support transition towards entrepreneurial careers. Design/methodology/approach – The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short form (TEIQue-SF, developed by Cooper and Petrides (2010, was used to test hypotheses on the factors that define a proactive use of a professional network and their relationship with the individual level of trait emotional intelligence and its four components (well-being, self-control, emotionality and sociability. A questionnaire was sent to local entrepreneurs to verify whether trait emotional intelligence act as a predictor of proactive networking behavior. Theoretical foundation – We will be using Petrides and Furnham’s (2001 trait EI definition and EI will be studied within a personality framework (Petrides, 2001, Petrides & Furnham, 2001, 2006, 2014. Findings – Final findings partially confirms research hypothesis, with some components of EI (well-being and self-control factors showing a significant positive correlation with proactive networking behavior. This indicates that entrepreneurs’ ability to regulate emotions influences their networking behavior helping them to succeed in their business relationships. Practical implications – The present study provides a clear direction for further research by focusing on how trait emotional intelligence affects social networking behavior amongst entrepreneurs, thus demonstrating the utility of using trait EI to evaluate high potential entrepreneurs.
The author examined the association between emotional autonomy and problem behavior among Chinese adolescents living in Hong Kong. The respondents were 512 adolescents, 16 to 18 years of age, who were interviewed for a cross-sectional study. Three dimensions of emotional autonomy including individuation, nondependency on parents, and de-idealization of parents were significantly and positively correlated with the amount of problem behavior the participants engaged in during the past 6 months. Using a simple linear multiple regression model, the author found that problem behavior was associated with only one aspect of emotional autonomy-individuation. Results indicated that the relationship between problem behavior and three aspects of emotional autonomy was similar in both individualistic and collectivistic societies.
Maliepaard, M.; Mathijssen, I.M.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Okkerse, J.M.E.
OBJECTIVES: To examine intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis and to explore differences between diagnostic subgroups. METHODS: A national sample of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis participated in this study. Intellectual,
Natália Araújo Pacheco
Given the pervasive nature of service failures and their harmful consequences, it is important to understand how customers react to them. This doctoral dissertation addresses some of the customers’ cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to service failures. More specifically, it investigates customers’ causal attributions, appraisals, and perceived control as cognitive reactions, as well as a wide range of emotional (e.g., regret, anger, disappointment, etc.) and behavioral reactions ...
Sze, Jocelyn A.; Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Levenson, Robert W.
Emotional empathy and prosocial behavior were assessed in older, middle-aged, and young adults. Participants watched two films depicting individuals in need, one uplifting and the other distressing. Physiological responses were monitored during the films and participants rated their levels of emotional empathy following each film. As a measure of prosocial behavior, participants were given an additional payment they could contribute to charities supporting the individuals in the films. Age-re...
Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Gable, Robert A., Ed.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr., Ed.
The third in a series, this collection of previously published monographs examines the challenges of preparing teachers to work with students who have emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Monographs include: (1) "Issues in Training Teachers for the Seriously Emotionally Disturbed" (Frank H. Wood), which discusses preparing regular and special…
LIN Wenjuan; WANG Weiwen; SHAO Feng
This report describes a new model of emotional stress, which was induced by randomly giving an empty water bottle to rats during watering periods per day for 14 consecutive days. The behavioral, endocrinological and immunological consequences were investigated. The data showed that the emotional stress activated both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, leading to the increased blood levels of corticosterone and catecholamine. It also elicited attacking and exploring behavior, suppressed the immune function of the rats, including leukocyte counts, weight of the spleen, and the level of specific anti-ovalbumin IgG antibody production. Presenting no water and no empty bottle to rats only evoked the exploring behavior, increased the corticosterone level and decreased the leukocyte counts. These findings demonstrate a role of psychological factors on behavioral, endocrinological and immunological functioning. The animal model described in the present study may serve as an analogue mimicking emotional stress experienced in humans (e.g. anger and/or anxiety), and may be useful for further studying the complex relationships among emotional stress, behavior, and immune function.
Erin J. Belval; Yu Wei; Michael. Bevers
Wildfire suppression combines multiple objectives and dynamic fire behavior to form a complex problem for decision makers. This paper presents a mixed integer program designed to explore integrating spatial fire behavior and suppression placement decisions into a mathematical programming framework. Fire behavior and suppression placement decisions are modeled using...
Maliepaard, Marianne; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Okkerse, Jolanda M E
To examine intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis and to explore differences between diagnostic subgroups. A national sample of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis participated in this study. Intellectual, behavioral, and emotional outcomes were assessed by using standardized measures: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)/6-18, Disruptive Behavior Disorder rating scale (DBD), and the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. We included 82 children (39 boys) aged 6 to 13 years who have syndromic craniosynostosis. Mean Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) was in the normal range (M = 96.6; SD = 21.6). However, children who have syndromic craniosynostosis had a 1.9 times higher risk for developing intellectual disability (FSIQ intellectual disability, internalizing, social, and attention problems. Higher levels of behavioral and emotional problems were related to lower levels of intellectual functioning.
I. A. Kelmanson
Full Text Available The paper considers whether parasomnia may be associated with emotional and behavioral problems. It gives data on the relationship of impaired sleep duration and integrity to increased emotional responsiveness and lability, high levels of anxiety, and depression symptoms. Whether the clinical symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, aggression, and academic underachievement are related to sleep disorders, including those in the presence of sleep disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder, is discussed. There are data on the characteristic polysomnographic changes detected in the presence of the discussed emotional and behavioral disorders in children. A possible pathophysiological rationale is provided for the found associations. Practical guidelines for examination of children with complaints about emotional and behavioral disorders for possible concomitant parasomnias are substantiated.
Kemeny, Margaret E; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Cullen, Margaret; Giese-Davis, Janine; Jennings, Patricia; Rosenberg, Erika L; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Ekman, Paul
Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Mitrović, Marija; Paltoglou, Georgios; Tadić, Bosiljka
Large-scale data resulting from users' online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study the emergence of emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from digg.com onto bipartite networks of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion classifier developed for this type of text. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and temporal correlations. To explore the robustness of these critical states, we design a network-automaton model on realistic network connections and several control parameters, which can be inferred from the dataset. Dissemination of emotions by a small fraction of very active users appears to critically tune the collective states.
Holley, Sarah R; Ewing, Scott T; Stiver, Jordan T; Bloch, Lian
Emotion regulation deficits and executive functioning deficits have independently been shown to increase vulnerability toward engaging in aggressive behaviors. The effects of these risk factors, however, have not been evaluated in relation to one another. This study evaluated the degree to which each was associated with aggressive behaviors in a sample of 168 undergraduate students. Executive functioning (cognitive inhibition and mental flexibility) was assessed with a Stroop-like neuropsychological task. Emotion regulation and aggressive behaviors were assessed via self-report inventories. Results showed main effects for both emotion regulation and executive functioning, as well as a significant interaction, indicating that those who scored lowest in both domains reported engaging in aggressive behaviors the most frequently. When different types of aggression were examined, this interaction was only significant for acts of physical aggression, not for acts of verbal aggression. Therefore, for physical aggression, emotion regulation and executive functioning exerted a moderating effect on one another. The implications are that, at least for acts of physical aggression, relatively strong capabilities in either domain may buffer against tendencies to engage in aggressive behaviors. Thus, both emotion regulation skills and executive functioning abilities may be valuable targets for interventions aiming to reduce aggressive behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.
Brand, Alice G.
Although contemporary psychologists generally acknowledge the significance of affect in human experience, few have attempted to understand its role in cognitive processes. The same can be said of writing specialists. In fact, New Criticism, so long dominant in American literary thinking, still continues to influence the emotions writers disclose…
Larkin, Vincent; And Others
Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of three learning modules to instruct the general public in methods of exploring human psychology and personal interrelationships. The first module, "The Basic Idea behind Rational-Emotive Therapy" by Vincent Larkin, distinguishes between rational and irrational fears and…
Casey, Kathryn J.
There is a large body of literature suggesting that students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) lack appropriate social skills, including deficits in building and maintaining interpersonal relationships, prosocial behaviors (e.g., sharing, helping, cooperation), and self-management strategies. While the literature shows small to modest…
Fassbinder, E.; Schweiger, U.; Martius, D.; Brand-de Wilde, O.; Arntz, A.
Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However,
Perrin, Jeffrey L.
The present research investigated effects of message framing (losses-framed or gains-framed), message modality (video with text or text-only) and emotional arousal on environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The sample consisted of 161 college students. The present research did not find a significant difference in behavioral intentions…
Van Strien, T; Schippers, G.M.; Cox, W M
Although there is a strong relationship between emotional and external eating, separate subscales for these behaviors have been constructed in the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. This study tries to establish whether this distinction is justified. We studied relationships among self-reported (
Aguilar-Luzón, Maria Carmen; Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Salinas, Jose Maria
Recent decades have seen a proliferation of studies aiming to explain how pro-environmental behavior is shaped by attitudes, values and beliefs. In this study, we have included an aspect in our analysis that has been rarely touched upon until now, that is, the intelligent use of emotions as a possible component of pro-environmental behavior. We applied the Trait Meta Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) and the New Environmental Paradigm scale to a sample of 184 male and female undergraduate students. We also carried out correlation and hierarchical regression analyses of blocks. The results show the interaction effects of the system of environmental beliefs and the dimensions of emotional intelligence on glass recycling attitudes, intentions and behavior. The results are discussed from the perspective of research on how the management of emotions guides thought and behavior. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yeung, Dannii Y; Fung, Helene H
Past studies have demonstrated that older adults used less emotional suppression to regulate their emotions than did younger adults, but the effectiveness of using this emotion regulatory strategy on psychosocial well-being across age remains largely unexplored. The present study adopted an experience-sampling method to examine whether the impacts of momentary employment of emotional suppression on momentary positive and negative emotions and job performance would be different by age. Eighty-seven Chinese insurance workers, aged between 18 and 61 years, participated in a 5-day sampling study. Their affective responses at work, momentary task performance, and sales productivity were recorded. Results showed that older workers' greater use of suppression at work was associated with lower intensity of negative emotions, whereas such association was not found among younger workers. Moreover, greater use of suppression over the sampling period was significantly predictive of sales productivity of older workers, but such a positive association was not shown in younger workers. These findings reveal that the use of suppression at work may be more effective for older workers than for younger workers.
Teresa Torres-Coronas; María-Arántzazu Vidal-Blasco
Objective – The purpose of this paper is to obtain evidence of the relation between entrepreneur proactive networking behavior and trait emotional intelligence to support transition towards entrepreneurial careers. Design/methodology/approach – The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short form (TEIQue-SF), developed by Cooper and Petrides (2010), was used to test hypotheses on the factors that define a proactive use of a professional network and their relationship with the indivi...
Maya Elizabeth Cano
Full Text Available The neural basis of motivated forgetting using the Think/No-Think (TNT paradigm is receiving increased attention with a particular focus on the mechanisms that enable memory suppression. However, most TNT studies have been limited to the visual domain. To assess whether and to what extent direct memory suppression extends across sensory modalities, we examined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG effects of auditory Think/No-Think in healthy young adults by adapting the TNT paradigm to the auditory modality. Behaviorally, suppression of memory strength was indexed by prolonged response times during the retrieval of subsequently remembered No-Think words. We examined task-related EEG activity of both attempted memory retrieval and inhibition of a previously learned target word during the presentation of its paired associate. Event-related EEG responses revealed two main findings: 1 a centralized Think > No-Think positivity during auditory word presentation (from approximately 0-500ms, and 2 a sustained Think positivity over parietal electrodes beginning at approximately 600ms reflecting the memory retrieval effect which was significantly reduced for No-Think words. In addition, word-locked theta (4-8 Hz power was initially greater for No-Think compared to Think during auditory word presentation over fronto-central electrodes. This was followed by a posterior theta increase indexing successful memory retrieval in the Think condition.The observed event-related potential pattern and theta power analysis are similar to that reported in visual Think/No-Think studies and support a modality non-specific mechanism for memory inhibition. The EEG data also provide evidence supporting differing roles and time courses of frontal and parietal regions in the flexible control of auditory memory.
Cano, Maya E; Knight, Robert T
The neural basis of motivated forgetting using the Think/No-Think (TNT) paradigm is receiving increased attention with a particular focus on the mechanisms that enable memory suppression. However, most TNT studies have been limited to the visual domain. To assess whether and to what extent direct memory suppression extends across sensory modalities, we examined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of auditory TNT in healthy young adults by adapting the TNT paradigm to the auditory modality. Behaviorally, suppression of memory strength was indexed by prolonged response time (RTs) during the retrieval of subsequently remembered No-Think words. We examined task-related EEG activity of both attempted memory retrieval and inhibition of a previously learned target word during the presentation of its paired associate. Event-related EEG responses revealed two main findings: (1) a centralized Think > No-Think positivity during auditory word presentation (from approximately 0-500 ms); and (2) a sustained Think positivity over parietal electrodes beginning at approximately 600 ms reflecting the memory retrieval effect which was significantly reduced for No-Think words. In addition, word-locked theta (4-8 Hz) power was initially greater for No-Think compared to Think during auditory word presentation over fronto-central electrodes. This was followed by a posterior theta increase indexing successful memory retrieval in the Think condition. The observed event-related potential pattern and theta power analysis are similar to that reported in visual TNT studies and support a modality non-specific mechanism for memory inhibition. The EEG data also provide evidence supporting differing roles and time courses of frontal and parietal regions in the flexible control of auditory memory.
Sevos, Jessica; Grosselin, Anne; Fedotova, Tatyana; Massoubre, Catherine
Many data suggest a disjunction between decreased emotional expressions and relatively preserved experience of and ability to assess emotions in schizophrenia. Based in an embodied approach of cognition, several studies have highlighted affective stimulus-response congruency effect in healthy subjects that show a direct link between the perception of emotion and associated motor responses. This study investigated whether the categorization of emotional words involves an automatic sensorimotor simulation of approach and avoidance behaviors. We asked 28 subjects with schizophrenia and 28 controls to execute arm movements of approach or avoidance to categorize emotional words, according to their valence (positive or negative). Controls were faster to respond to a positive stimulus with a movement of approach and a negative stimulus with a movement of avoidance (congruent condition) than to perform the inverted response movements (incongruent condition). However, responses of patients with schizophrenia did not differ according to congruence condition. Our results support the apparent non-involvement of covert sensorimotor simulation of approach and avoidance in the categorization of emotional stimuli by patients with schizophrenia, despite their understanding of the emotional valence of words. This absence of affective stimulus-response compatibility effect would imply a decoupling between emotional and bodily states in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daini, Roberta; Comparetti, Chiara M; Ricciardelli, Paola
Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have shown that facial recognition and emotional expressions are dissociable. However, it is unknown if a single system supports the processing of emotional and non-emotional facial expressions. We aimed to understand if individuals with impairment in face recognition from birth (congenital prosopagnosia, CP) can use non-emotional facial expressions to recognize a face as an already seen one, and thus, process this facial dimension independently from features (which are impaired in CP), and basic emotional expressions. To this end, we carried out a behavioral study in which we compared the performance of 6 CP individuals to that of typical development individuals, using upright and inverted faces. Four avatar faces with a neutral expression were presented in the initial phase. The target faces presented in the recognition phase, in which a recognition task was requested (2AFC paradigm), could be identical (neutral) to those of the initial phase or present biologically plausible changes to features, non-emotional expressions, or emotional expressions. After this task, a second task was performed, in which the participants had to detect whether or not the recognized face exactly matched the study face or showed any difference. The results confirmed the CPs' impairment in the configural processing of the invariant aspects of the face, but also showed a spared configural processing of non-emotional facial expression (task 1). Interestingly and unlike the non-emotional expressions, the configural processing of emotional expressions was compromised in CPs and did not improve their change detection ability (task 2). These new results have theoretical implications for face perception models since they suggest that, at least in CPs, non-emotional expressions are processed configurally, can be dissociated from other facial dimensions, and may serve as a compensatory strategy to achieve face recognition.
Full Text Available Many authors have proposed that facial expressions, by conveying emotional states of the person we are interacting with, influence the interaction behavior. We aimed at verifying how specific the effect is of the facial expressions of emotions of an individual (both their valence and relevance/specificity for the purpose of the action with respect to how the action aimed at the same individual is executed. In addition, we investigated whether and how the effects of emotions on action execution are modulated by participants' empathic attitudes. We used a kinematic approach to analyze the simulation of feeding others, which consisted of recording the "feeding trajectory" by using a computer mouse. Actors could express different highly arousing emotions, namely happiness, disgust, anger, or a neutral expression. Response time was sensitive to the interaction between valence and relevance/specificity of emotion: disgust caused faster response. In addition, happiness induced slower feeding time and longer time to peak velocity, but only in blocks where it alternated with expressions of disgust. The kinematic profiles described how the effect of the specificity of the emotional context for feeding, namely a modulation of accuracy requirements, occurs. An early acceleration in kinematic relative-to-neutral feeding profiles occurred when actors expressed positive emotions (happiness in blocks with specific-to-feeding negative emotions (disgust. On the other hand, the end-part of the action was slower when feeding happy with respect to neutral faces, confirming the increase of accuracy requirements and motor control. These kinematic effects were modulated by participants' empathic attitudes. In conclusion, the social dimension of emotions, that is, their ability to modulate others' action planning/execution, strictly depends on their relevance and specificity to the purpose of the action. This finding argues against a strict distinction between social
Ferri, Francesca; Stoianov, Ivilin Peev; Gianelli, Claudia; D'Amico, Luigi; Borghi, Anna M; Gallese, Vittorio
Many authors have proposed that facial expressions, by conveying emotional states of the person we are interacting with, influence the interaction behavior. We aimed at verifying how specific the effect is of the facial expressions of emotions of an individual (both their valence and relevance/specificity for the purpose of the action) with respect to how the action aimed at the same individual is executed. In addition, we investigated whether and how the effects of emotions on action execution are modulated by participants' empathic attitudes. We used a kinematic approach to analyze the simulation of feeding others, which consisted of recording the "feeding trajectory" by using a computer mouse. Actors could express different highly arousing emotions, namely happiness, disgust, anger, or a neutral expression. Response time was sensitive to the interaction between valence and relevance/specificity of emotion: disgust caused faster response. In addition, happiness induced slower feeding time and longer time to peak velocity, but only in blocks where it alternated with expressions of disgust. The kinematic profiles described how the effect of the specificity of the emotional context for feeding, namely a modulation of accuracy requirements, occurs. An early acceleration in kinematic relative-to-neutral feeding profiles occurred when actors expressed positive emotions (happiness) in blocks with specific-to-feeding negative emotions (disgust). On the other hand, the end-part of the action was slower when feeding happy with respect to neutral faces, confirming the increase of accuracy requirements and motor control. These kinematic effects were modulated by participants' empathic attitudes. In conclusion, the social dimension of emotions, that is, their ability to modulate others' action planning/execution, strictly depends on their relevance and specificity to the purpose of the action. This finding argues against a strict distinction between social and nonsocial
Cho, Sunghye; Philbrook, Lauren E; Davis, Elizabeth L; Buss, Kristin A
Although the conceptual interplay among the biological and clinical features of sleep, arousal, and emotion regulation has been noted, little is understood about how indices of sleep duration and parasympathetic reactivity operate jointly to predict adjustment in early childhood. Using a sample of 123 toddlers, the present study examined sleep duration and RSA reactivity as predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Parents reported on children's sleep duration and adjustment. RSA reactivity was assessed via children's responses to fear-eliciting stimuli and an inhibitory control challenge. Findings demonstrated that greater RSA suppression to both types of tasks in combination with longer sleep duration was concurrently associated with less internalizing. In contrast, greater RSA augmentation to an inhibitory control task in the context of shorter sleep duration predicted more externalizing 1 year later. The significance of duration of toddlers' sleep as well as the context in which physiological regulatory difficulties occurs is discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Whalen, Diana J; Ostapenko, Laura J; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Dahl, Ronald E
This study investigated pupillary and behavioral responses to an emotional word valence identification paradigm among 32 pre-/early pubertal and 34 mid-/late pubertal typically developing children and adolescents. Participants were asked to identify the valence of positive, negative, and neutral words while pupil dilation was assessed using an eyetracker. Mid-/late pubertal children showed greater peak pupillary reactivity to words presented during the emotional word identification task than pre-/early pubertal children, regardless of word valence. Mid-/late pubertal children also showed smaller sustained pupil dilation than pre-/early pubertal children after the word was no longer on screen. These findings were replicated controlling for participants' age. In addition, mid-/late pubertal children had faster reaction times to all words, and rated themselves as more emotional during their laboratory visit compared to pre-/early pubertal children. Greater recall of emotional words following the task was associated with mid-/late pubertal status, and greater recall of emotional words was also associated with higher peak pupil dilation. These results provide physiological, behavioral, and subjective evidence consistent with a model of puberty-specific changes in neurobehavioral systems underpinning emotional reactivity.
Bar-Haim, Yair; Bar-Av, Gali; Sadeh, Avi
Emotion regulation has become a pivotal concept in developmental and clinical research. However, the measurement of regulatory processes has proved extremely difficult, particularly in the context of within-subject designs. Here, we describe a formal conceptualization and a new experimental procedure, the Balloons Game, to measure a regulatory component of emotion-expressive behavior. We present the internal consistency and stability of the indices derived from the Balloons Game in a sample of 121 kindergarten children. External validation against measures that have been associated with emotion regulation processes is also provided. The findings suggest that the Balloons Game provides a reliable tool for the study of regulation of emotion expression in young children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
The theory of rational-emotive therapy (RET) and of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is briefly explained and is applied to group therapy. It is shown how RET and CBT therapy groups deal with transference, countertransference, levels of group intervention, process versus content orientation, identifying underlying group process themes, here-and-now activation, working with difficult group members, activity levels of therapist and group members, and other group problems. Although they particularly concentrate on people's tendencies to construct and create their own "emotional" difficulties, RET and CBT group procedures fully acknowledge the interactions of human thoughts, feelings, and actions and active-directively employ a variety of cognitive, emotive, and behavioral group therapy techniques.
Zijlmans, Linda J M; Embregts, Petri J C M; Bosman, Anna M T
Working with clients who show challenging behavior can be emotionally demanding and stressful for support staff, because this behavior may cause a range of negative emotional reactions and feelings. These reactions are of negative influence on staff wellbeing and behavior. Research has focused on negative emotions of staff. However, a distinction between emotions and feelings has never been made in the research field of intellectual disabilities. Negative emotions and feelings may be regulated by emotional intelligence, a psychological construct that takes into account personal style and individual differences. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence on the one hand and emotions and feelings on the other. Participants were 207 support staff serving clients with moderate to borderline intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior. Emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings were measured with questionnaires. The results show that emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings are related. However, found relationships were weak. Most significant relations were found between feelings and stress management and adaptation elements of emotional intelligence. Because the explored variables can change over time they call for a longitudinal research approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan
This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.
Malow, Micheline S.; Austin, Vance L.
A six-week investigation utilizing a standard mindfulness for adolescents curriculum and norm-based standardized resiliency scale was implemented in a self-contained school for students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders (E/BD). Informal integration of mindfulness activities into a classroom setting was examined for ecological appropriateness and…
Background: This study investigated the emotional and behavioral problems of orphans in Rakai District, Uganda, and to suggest interventions. Studies, elsewhere, have shown orphans to have high levels of psychological problems. However, in Uganda such studies are limited and no specific interventions have been ...
Haney, Jolynn L.; Houser, Linda; Cullen, Jennifer A.
Emotional and behavioral difficulties in children with autism often present problems for families seeking appropriate treatment interventions. Using data from the 2011 Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services, ordinal logistic regression models were used to examine the association between parental perceptions about autism and their reports of…
Dever, Bridget V.; Dowdy, Erin; Raines, Tara C.; Carnazzo, Katherine
Universal screening for behavioral and emotional difficulties is integral to the identification of students needing early intervention and prevention efforts. However, unanswered questions regarding the stability of screening scores impede the ability to determine optimal strategies for subsequent screening. This study examined the 2-year…
DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael
Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.
Wilkins, Julia; Bost, Loujeania Williams
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders have the highest dropout rates of any student group--about 40%. The outcomes for students who drop out of school are dire but are particularly bleak for students with poor academic, interpersonal, and decision-making skills. Helping students earn a high school diploma and gain the skills needed to…
Rockwell, Sylvia; Guetzloe, Eleanor
This article addresses effective techniques for teaching students with emotional disturbances and/or behavior disorders in group settings. Three stages of group development are described with specific teaching strategies for each stage identified and related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, including needs for safety and trust, belonging and…
Caputo, Rosario Anthony
This article suggests ways in which special educators of students with emotional and behavioral disorders can introduce puppets into their classrooms as educational and therapeutic instruments. Puppets are able to help students identify problems and find rational solutions in a nonthreatening situation. Two sample applications are included. (DB)
Watson, Joshua C.
In 1956, Dr. Albert Ellis presented his seminal work on Rational Therapy, subsequently renamed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in 1993. This paper explores the origins, theoretical foundations, applications, and implications of REBT and provides a look at the empirical research available in support of the approach's efficacy. REBT is…
Côté, Stéphane; Decelles, Katherine A; McCarthy, Julie M; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Hideg, Ivona
Does emotional intelligence promote behavior that strictly benefits the greater good, or can it also advance interpersonal deviance? In the investigation reported here, we tested the possibility that a core facet of emotional intelligence--emotion-regulation knowledge--can promote both prosocial and interpersonally deviant behavior. Drawing from research on how the effective regulation of emotion promotes goal achievement, we predicted that emotion-regulation knowledge would strengthen the effects of other-oriented and self-oriented personality traits on prosocial behavior and interpersonal deviance, respectively. Two studies supported our predictions. Among individuals with higher emotion-regulation knowledge, moral identity exhibited a stronger positive association with prosocial behavior in a social dilemma (Study 1), and Machiavellianism exhibited a stronger positive association with interpersonal deviance in the workplace (Study 2). Thus, emotion-regulation knowledge has a positive side and a dark side.
Chung, Man Cheung; Di, Xiaohu; Wan, King Hung
This study investigated the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following homicide and psychiatric co-morbidity. One hundred and fifty male homicide perpetrators and 156 male perpetrators of non-violent crime completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (except for non-violent perpetrators), the General Health Questionnaire-28, the Defense Styles Questionnaire, the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. The results showed that 44% of homicide perpetrators met the criteria for PTSD. No significant differences were found between groups in alexithymia, defense style and psychiatric co-morbidity. Homicide perpetrators suppressed depression significantly more than the non-violent group. PLS analyses showed that alexithymia was significantly correlated with defense style. Defense styles were significantly correlated with emotional suppression which, in turn, was associated with homicide-related PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. To conclude, perpetrators can experience PTSD reactions following the act of homicide. The severity of these reactions and other psychological problems were related to difficulty getting in touch with distressing emotions, the defenses they used to protect themselves psychologically and the way they suppressed their emotion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Describes aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). REBT shows how people can both create and uncreate many of their emotional disturbances. It is a theory of personality which avoids devotion to any kind of magic and supernaturalism and emphasizes unconditional self-acceptance, antiabsolutism, uncertainty, and human fallibility. (RJM)
Gordijn, E.H.; Yzerbyt, V.Y.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Dumont, M.
In this paper, we examined reactions to situations in which, although one is not personally involved, one could see oneself connected to either the perpetrators or the victims of unfair behavior. We manipulated participants' similarity and measured their identification to either one of two groups
Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Wigboldus, Daniël; Dumont, Muriel
In this paper, we examined reactions to situations in which, although one is not personally involved, one could see oneself connected to either the perpetrators or the victims of unfair behavior We 14 manipulated participants' similarity and measured their identification to either one of two groups
Terjesen,Mark D.; Kurasaki,Robyn
Given the high rates of reported emotional stress among parents and teachers, the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy approach appears to be a useful strategy to promote more effective parent and teacher emotional functioning and increase child positive behaviors and learning. The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy model may be helpful for clinicians who work with the parents and the family by identifying and subsequently changing their unhealthy ideas, enhancing emotional functioning, and incre...
Mooney, Paul; Ryan, Joseph B.; Gunter, Philip L.; Denny, R. Kenton
In addressing positive general education teaching practices for use with students with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), the chapter emphasizes teacher behavior change research that has been informed by applied behavior analytic (ABA) principles. Its central theme is that general education teachers can access research…
Muthupalaniappen, Leelavathi; Omar, Juslina; Omar, Khairani; Iryani, Tuti; Hamid, Siti Norain
We carried out a cross sectional study to detect emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents who smoke and their help-seeking behavior. This study was conducted in Sarawak, East Malaysia, between July and September 2006. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR/11-18) questionnaire; help seeking behavior was assessed using a help-seeking questionnaire. Three hundred ninety-nine students participated in the study; the smoking prevalence was 32.8%. The mean scores for emotional and behavioral problems were higher among smokers than non-smokers in all domains (internalizing, p = 0.028; externalizing, p = 0.001; other behavior, p = 0.001). The majority of students who smoked (94.7%) did not seek help from a primary health care provider for their emotional or behavioral problems. Common barriers to help-seeking were: the perception their problems were trivial (60.3%) and the preference to solve problems on their own (45.8%). Our findings suggest adolescent smokers in Sarawak, East Malaysia were more likely to break rules, exhibit aggressive behavior and have somatic complaints than non-smoking adolescents. Adolescent smokers preferred to seek help for their problems from informal sources. Physicians treating adolescents should inquire about smoking habits, emotional and behavioral problems and offer counseling if required.
Yan Mei Wang; Jie Chen; Ben Yue Han
In the field of emotion research, the influence of emotion regulation strategies on memory with emotional materials has been widely discussed in recent years. However, existing studies have focused exclusively on regulating negative emotion but not positive emotion. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of emotion regulation strategies for positive emotion on memory. One hundred and twenty college students were selected as participants. Emotional pictures (positive, n...
Lockwood, Patricia L.; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi
Theory and evidence suggest that empathy is an important motivating factor for prosocial behaviour and that emotion regulation, i.e. the capacity to exert control over an emotional response, may moderate the degree to which empathy is associated with prosocial behaviour. However, studies to date have not simultaneously explored the associations between different empathic processes and prosocial behaviour, nor whether different types of emotion regulation strategies (e.g. cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) moderate associations between empathy and prosocial behaviour. One hundred–and-ten healthy adults completed questionnaire measures of empathy, emotion regulation and prosocial tendencies. In this sample, both affective and cognitive empathy predicted self-reported prosocial tendencies. In addition, cognitive reappraisal moderated the association between affective empathy and prosocial tendencies. Specifically, there was a significant positive association between empathy and prosocial tendencies for individuals with a low or average tendency to reappraise but not for those with a high tendency to reappraise. Our findings suggest that, in general, empathy is positively associated with prosocial behaviour. However, this association is not significant for individuals with a high tendency for cognitive reappraisal. PMID:24810604
Lockwood, Patricia L; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi
Theory and evidence suggest that empathy is an important motivating factor for prosocial behaviour and that emotion regulation, i.e. the capacity to exert control over an emotional response, may moderate the degree to which empathy is associated with prosocial behaviour. However, studies to date have not simultaneously explored the associations between different empathic processes and prosocial behaviour, nor whether different types of emotion regulation strategies (e.g. cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) moderate associations between empathy and prosocial behaviour. One hundred-and-ten healthy adults completed questionnaire measures of empathy, emotion regulation and prosocial tendencies. In this sample, both affective and cognitive empathy predicted self-reported prosocial tendencies. In addition, cognitive reappraisal moderated the association between affective empathy and prosocial tendencies. Specifically, there was a significant positive association between empathy and prosocial tendencies for individuals with a low or average tendency to reappraise but not for those with a high tendency to reappraise. Our findings suggest that, in general, empathy is positively associated with prosocial behaviour. However, this association is not significant for individuals with a high tendency for cognitive reappraisal.
Kristensen, Liv Kondrup; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin
Observing science classroom activities presents an opportunity to observe the emotional aspect of interactions, and this chapter presents how this can be done and why. Drawing on ideas proposed by French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, emotions are theorized as publicly embodied enactments......, where differences in behavior between people shape emotional responses. Merleau-Ponty’s theorization of the body and feelings is connected to embodiment while examining central concepts such as consciousness and perception. Merleau-Ponty describes what he calls the emotional atmosphere and how it shapes...... the ways we experience events and activities. We use our interpretation of his understanding of emotions to examine an example of a group of year 8 science students who were engaged in a physics activity. Using the analytical framework of analyzing bodily stance by Goodwin, Cekaite, and Goodwin...
Côté, S.; DeCelles, K.A.; McCarthy, J.M.; van Kleef, G.A.; Hideg, I.
Does emotional intelligence promote behavior that strictly benefits the greater good, or can it also advance interpersonal deviance? In the investigation reported here, we tested the possibility that a core facet of emotional intelligence—emotion-regulation knowledge—can promote both prosocial and
Cheng, Chi-Tai; Yang, Yu-Ting; Miao, Shih-Heng; Wong, Ching-Chang
A pet robot dog with two ears, one mouth, one facial expression plane, and one vision system is designed and implemented so that it can do some emotional behaviors. Three processors (Inter® Pentium® M 1.0 GHz, an 8-bit processer 8051, and embedded soft-core processer NIOS) are used to control the robot. One camera, one power detector, four touch sensors, and one temperature detector are used to obtain the information of the environment. The designed robot with 20 DOF (degrees of freedom) is able to accomplish the walking motion. A behavior system is built on the implemented pet robot so that it is able to choose a suitable behavior for different environmental situation. From the practical test, we can see that the implemented pet robot dog can do some emotional interaction with the human.
J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien); S.J. Roza (Sabine); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)
textabstractBackground: Maternal prenatal folate status has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, but the association with child emotional and behavioral problems is unclear. Objectives: We assessed the association of maternal folate status during pregnancy with child emotional and behavioral
Vizueta, Nathalie; Patrick, Christopher J; Jiang, Yi; Thomas, Kathleen M; He, Sheng
"Invisible" stimulus paradigms provide a method for investigating basic affective processing in clinical and non-clinical populations. Neuroimaging studies utilizing continuous flash suppression (CFS) have shown increased amygdala response to invisible fearful versus neutral faces. The current study used CFS in conjunction with functional MRI to test for differences in brain reactivity to visible and invisible emotional faces in relation to two distinct trait dimensions relevant to psychopathology: negative affectivity (NA) and fearfulness. Subjects consisted of college students (N=31) assessed for fear/fearlessness along with dispositional NA. The main brain regions of interest included the fusiform face area (FFA), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and amygdala. Higher NA, but not trait fear, was associated with enhanced response to fearful versus neutral faces in STS and right amygdala (but not FFA), within the invisible condition specifically. The finding that NA rather than fearfulness predicted degree of amygdala reactivity to suppressed faces implicates the input subdivision of the amygdala in the observed effects. Given the central role of NA in anxiety and mood disorders, the current data also support use of the CFS methodology for investigating the neurobiology of these disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carhuatanta, Kimberly A. K.; Shea, Chloe J. A.; Herman, James P.; Jankord, Ryan
An individual's genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual's genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behav...
Chan, Jackie N-M; Lee, Jada C-D; Lee, Sylvia S P; Hui, Katy K Y; Chan, Alan H L; Fung, Timothy K-H; Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda I; Lau, Benson W-M; Ngai, Shirley P-C
Hypercortisolemia is one of the clinical features found in depressed patients. This clinical feature has been mimicked in animal studies via application of exogenous corticosterone (CORT). Previous studies suggested that CORT can induce behavioral disturbance in anxious-depressive like behavior, which is associated with suppressed neurogenesis. Hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in adult cognitive and behavioral regulation. Its suppression may thus lead to neuropsychiatric disorders. Similar to the effects of CORT on the animals' depression-like behaviors and neurogenesis, social deprivation has been regarded as one factor that predicts poor prognosis in depression. Furthermore, social isolation is regarded as a stressor to social animals including experimental rodents. Hence, this study aims to examine if social isolation would induce further emotional or anxiety-like behavior disturbance and suppress neurogenesis in an experimental model that was repeatedly treated with CORT. Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study to determine the effects of different housing conditions, either social isolated or group housing, in vehicle-treated control and CORT-treated animals. Forced swimming test (FST), open field test (OFT) and social interaction test (SIT) were used to assess depression-like, anxiety-like and social behaviors respectively. Immunohistochemistry was performed to quantify the number of proliferative cells and immature neurons in the hippocampus, while dendritic maturation of immature neurons was analyzed by Sholl analysis. Social isolation reduced latency to immobility in FST. Furthermore, social isolation could significantly reduce the ratio of doublecortin and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) positive cells of the neurogenesis assay under CORT-treated condition. The current findings suggested that the behavioral and neurological effect of social isolation is dependent on the condition of hypercortisolemia. Furthermore, social isolation may
Denham, Susanne A; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K; Mincic, Melissa S; Sirotkin, Yana S; Zinsser, Katherine
Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private child-care and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and stability of both versions; and, using the shortened measure, to examine (b) age, gender, and risk status differences in social-emotional behaviors; (c) contributions of emotion knowledge and executive function to social-emotional behaviors; and (d) contributions of social-emotional behaviors to early school adjustment and kindergarten academic success. Results show that reliability of MPAC-R/S was as good, or better, than the MPAC-R. MPAC-R/S structure, at both times of observation, included emotionally negative/aggressive, emotionally regulated/prosocial, and emotionally positive/productive behaviors; MPAC-R structure was similar but less replicable over time. Age, gender, and risk differences were found. Children's emotion knowledge contributed to later emotionally regulated/prosocial behavior. Finally, preschool emotionally negative/aggressive behaviors were associated with concurrent and kindergarten school success, and there was evidence of social-emotional behavior mediating relations between emotion knowledge or executive function, and school outcomes. The importance of portable, empirically supported observation measures of social-emotional behaviors is discussed along with possible applications, teacher utilization, and implementation barriers.
Lappalainen, Kristiina; Savolainen, Hannu; Kuorelahti, Matti; Epstein, Michael H.
The assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths has been identified as an important part of the assessment process for children referred for specialized services. The Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2; Epstein, Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale: a strength-based approach to assessment. PRO-Ed, Austin, TX, 2004) was developed…
Eichen, Dawn M; Chen, Eunice; Boutelle, Kerri N; McCloskey, Michael S
Binge eating is the most common disordered eating symptom and can lead to the development of obesity. Previous self-report research has supported the hypothesis that individuals who binge eat report greater levels of general emotion dysregulation, which may facilitate binge-eating behavior. However, to date, no study has experimentally tested the relation between binge eating history and in-vivo emotion dysregulation. To do this, a sample of female college students who either endorsed binge eating (n = 40) or denied the presence of any eating pathology (n = 47) completed the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and a behavioral distress tolerance task (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task-Computer: PASAT-C) known to induce negative affect and distress. The binge eating group was 2.96 times more likely to quit the PASAT-C early (χ 2 = 5.04, p = 0.025) and reported greater irritability (F(1,84) = 7.09 p = 0.009) and frustration (F(1,84) = 5.00, p = 0.028) after completing the PASAT-C than controls, controlling for initial levels of these emotions. Furthermore, across the entire sample, quitting early was associated with greater emotion dysregulation on the DERS (r pb = 0.342, p < 0.01). This study is the first to demonstrate that individuals who binge eat show in-vivo emotional dysregulation on a laboratory task. Future studies should examine the PASAT-C to determine its potential clinical utility for individuals with or at risk of developing binge eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Estévez, Ana; Jáuregui, Paula; Sánchez-Marcos, Inmaculada; López-González, Hibai; Griffiths, Mark D
Background Risky behaviors have been related to emotional regulation and attachment, which may constitute risk factors for developing an addictive behavior. However, there may also be differences between substance and non-substance-related addictions. Aims This study aimed to examine the relationship of emotional regulation and attachment, with substance (alcohol and drug abuse), and non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use) in adolescents and emerging adults. The study also aimed to examine gender differences for such predictors. Methods The sample comprised 472 students aged 13-21 years recruited from high schools and vocational education centers. Results Findings demonstrated that emotion regulation was predictive of all addictive behaviors assessed in this study (alcohol and drug abuse, gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use), whereas attachment predicted non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use). In addition, gender differences were found, with females scoring significantly higher in maternal and peer attachment, whereas males scored significantly higher in gambling disorder and video game addiction. Conclusion The findings may be useful for preventive and clinical interventions conducted with youth regarding addictive behaviors.
Johnson, Stacy R.; Finlon, Kristy J.; Izard, Carroll E.
Research Findings: This article describes the development and evaluation of the Behavior and Emotion Expression Observation System (BEEOS), a direct observation tool to characterize preschoolers' social and emotion behaviors during semistructured activities in the classroom. The BEEOS was used to observe 148 Head Start preschoolers, and…
Is teaching emotional labor? Are teachers selling their own emotions in exchange for money? To examine these questions, this paper examines teachers' emotion expression in teaching. Most previous studies have assessed teachers' emotional experience using interviews, and have reported that because teachers manage their own emotions, teaching is…
Full Text Available Despite the well-established role of serotonin signaling in mood regulation, causal relationships between serotonergic neuronal activity and behavior remain poorly understood. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find that selectively increasing serotonergic neuronal activity in wild-type mice is anxiogenic and reduces floating in the forced-swim test, whereas inhibition has no effect on the same measures. In a developmental mouse model of altered emotional behavior, increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors correlate with reduced dorsal raphé and increased median raphé serotonergic activity. These mice display blunted responses to serotonergic stimulation and behavioral rescues through serotonergic inhibition. Furthermore, we identify opposing consequences of dorsal versus median raphé serotonergic neuron inhibition on floating behavior, together suggesting that median raphé hyperactivity increases anxiety, whereas a low dorsal/median raphé serotonergic activity ratio increases depression-like behavior. Thus, we find a critical role of serotonergic neuronal activity in emotional regulation and uncover opposing roles of median and dorsal raphé function.
Teissier, Anne; Chemiakine, Alexei; Inbar, Benjamin; Bagchi, Sneha; Ray, Russell S; Palmiter, Richard D; Dymecki, Susan M; Moore, Holly; Ansorge, Mark S
Despite the well-established role of serotonin signaling in mood regulation, causal relationships between serotonergic neuronal activity and behavior remain poorly understood. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find that selectively increasing serotonergic neuronal activity in wild-type mice is anxiogenic and reduces floating in the forced-swim test, whereas inhibition has no effect on the same measures. In a developmental mouse model of altered emotional behavior, increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors correlate with reduced dorsal raphé and increased median raphé serotonergic activity. These mice display blunted responses to serotonergic stimulation and behavioral rescues through serotonergic inhibition. Furthermore, we identify opposing consequences of dorsal versus median raphé serotonergic neuron inhibition on floating behavior, together suggesting that median raphé hyperactivity increases anxiety, whereas a low dorsal/median raphé serotonergic activity ratio increases depression-like behavior. Thus, we find a critical role of serotonergic neuronal activity in emotional regulation and uncover opposing roles of median and dorsal raphé function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marlowe, Mike; Disney, Gayle
Torey Hayden's portrayal of classroom behavior management in her teacher lore, autobiographical writings about teaching children with emotional and behavioral disorders, is examined. Five of her books were sampled: "One child", "Somebody else's kids", "Just another kid", "Ghost girl" and "Beautiful child". Each of these books unfolds within the…
Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael
Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N=704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence. PMID:25684447
Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael
Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N = 704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence.
Full Text Available Behavioral biometrics aim at providing algorithms for the automatic recognition of individual behavioral traits, stemming from a person’s actions, attitude, expressions and conduct. In the field of ambient assisted living, behavioral biometrics find an important niche. Individuals suffering from the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases (MCI, Alzheimer’s, dementia need supervision in their daily activities. In this context, an unobtrusive system to monitor subjects and alert formal and informal carers providing information on both physical and emotional status is of great importance and positively affects multiple stakeholders. The primary aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for recognizing the emotional status of a subject using facial expressions and to identify its uses, in conjunction with pre-existing risk-assessment methodologies, for its integration into the context of a smart monitoring system for subjects suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. Paul Ekman’s research provided the background on the universality of facial expressions as indicators of underlying emotions. The methodology then makes use of computational geometry, image processing and graph theory algorithms for the detection of regions of interest and then a neural network is used for the final classification. Findings are coupled with previous published work for risk assessment and alert generation in the context of an ambient assisted living environment based on Service oriented architecture principles, aimed at remote web-based estimation of the cognitive and physical status of MCI and dementia patients.
Thomas Wiben Jensen
Full Text Available This article argues for a view on languaging as inherently affective. Informed by recent ecological tendencies within cognitive science and distributed language studies a distinction between first order languaging (language as whole-body sense making and second order language (language as system like constraints is put forward. Contrary to common assumptions within linguistics and communication studies separating language-as-a-system from language use (resulting in separations between language vs. body-language and verbal vs. non-verbal communication etc. the first/second order distinction sees language as emanating from behavior making it possible to view emotion and affect as integral parts languaging behavior. Likewise, emotion and affect are studied, not as inner mental states, but as processes of organism-environment interactions. Based on video recordings of interaction between 1 children with special needs, and 2 couple in therapy and the therapist patterns of reciprocal influences between interactants are examined. Through analyzes of affective stance and patterns of inter-affectivity it is exemplified how language and emotion should not be seen as separate phenomena combined in language use, but rather as completely intertwined phenomena in languaging behavior constrained by second order patterns.
Abd Rahman, Fairuz Nazri; Mohd Daud, Tuti Iryani; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Wan Ismail, Wan Salwina
There is a dearth of studies on behavioral and emotional problems in residential care children in Malaysia. This study describes the behavioral and emotional problems in a sample of children in a government residential care home and compares them with their classmates living with their birth parents. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out where carers from both groups were asked to fill in the translated Bahasa Melayu version of the Child Behavior Check List. Forms for 53 residential care children and 61 classmates were completed. The residential care children had significantly higher scores on the rule-breaking (P breaking (P = 0.008), DSM conduct problems (P = 0.018) and externalizing scores (P = 0.017). Abuse and neglect cases had higher anxiety and depression scores (P = 0.024). Number of reasons in care positively correlated with several subscales, including total behavioral problem score (P = 0.005). Logistic regression revealed the greater number of reasons for placement a child had was significantly associated with having externalizing scores in the clinical range (P = 0.016). However, after Bonferroni correction, only the initial findings regarding rule-breaking and DSM conduct problem scores remained significant. Challenges exist in managing residential care children in Malaysia, especially regarding externalizing behavior. More studies are required to describe the Malaysian scene. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.
Veilleux, Jennifer C; Pollert, Garrett A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Shaver, Jennifer A; Hill, Morgan A
The current behavioral tasks assessing distress tolerance measure tolerance to frustration and tolerance to physical discomfort, but do not explicitly assess tolerance to negative emotion. We closely evaluated the conceptual distinctions between current behavioral tasks and self-report tasks assessing distress tolerance, and then developed a new behavioral distress tolerance task called the Emotional Image Tolerance (EIT) task. The EIT task retains elements of existing behavioral tasks (e.g., indices of persistence) while augmenting the reliability and content sufficiency of existing measures by including multiple trials, including a variety of negative affect stimuli, and separating overall task persistence from task persistence after onset of distress. In a series of three studies, we found that the EIT correlated with extant behavioral measures of distress tolerance, the computerized mirror-tracing task and a physical cold pressor task. Across all of the studies, we also evaluated whether the EIT correlated with self-report measures of distress tolerance and measures of psychopathology (e.g., depression, anxiety, and binge eating). Implications for the refinement of the distress tolerance construct are discussed.
Du, Xu; Hao, Jian
Specific emotions, especially guilt, are considered to facilitate children's prosocial behavior. The current study differentiated moral stories with a helping theme in terms of the valence and source of emotions and aimed to clarify the effect of these stories on preschoolers' helping intentions and behavior. A total of 322 preschoolers between 4 and 6 years old were randomly assigned to four experimental groups and one control group. A specific type of moral story was presented to each of the experimental groups, whereas a nonmoral story was presented to the control group. The preschoolers were also asked to answer relevant questions to examine their story comprehension. The preschoolers' donating intentions and behavior were then measured. The results showed that all the experimental groups expressed more donating intentions than the control group. However, only the group that read the moral story emphasizing the actor's negative emotions toward his nonhelping behavior displayed more donating behavior than the control group. Therefore, the current study reveals that various moral stories dealing with a helping theme can facilitate helping intentions among preschoolers and that only certain stories can promote their helping behavior. Thus, it indicates the specificity of moral stories that facilitate prosocial behavior in terms of the valence and source of emotions in those stories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.
An emotion concept is a script in which an emotion event is an ordered sequence of subevents from situational cause through bodily changes to behavioral consequence. As children build a script for each emotion, in what order do they add each subevent? Preschoolers (N = 108, three to five years), were asked to name the protagonist's emotion in…
Rand, David G; Kraft-Todd, Gordon; Gruber, June
Cooperation is central to human existence, forming the bedrock of everyday social relationships and larger societal structures. Thus, understanding the psychological underpinnings of cooperation is of both scientific and practical importance. Recent work using a dual-process framework suggests that intuitive processing can promote cooperation while deliberative processing can undermine it. Here we add to this line of research by more specifically identifying deliberative and intuitive processes that affect cooperation. To do so, we applied automated text analysis using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software to investigate the association between behavior in one-shot anonymous economic cooperation games and the presence inhibition (a deliberative process) and positive emotion (an intuitive process) in free-response narratives written after (Study 1, N = 4,218) or during (Study 2, N = 236) the decision-making process. Consistent with previous results, across both studies inhibition predicted reduced cooperation while positive emotion predicted increased cooperation (even when controlling for negative emotion). Importantly, there was a significant interaction between positive emotion and inhibition, such that the most cooperative individuals had high positive emotion and low inhibition. This suggests that inhibition (i.e., reflective or deliberative processing) may undermine cooperative behavior by suppressing the prosocial effects of positive emotion.
David G Rand
Full Text Available Cooperation is central to human existence, forming the bedrock of everyday social relationships and larger societal structures. Thus, understanding the psychological underpinnings of cooperation is of both scientific and practical importance. Recent work using a dual-process framework suggests that intuitive processing can promote cooperation while deliberative processing can undermine it. Here we add to this line of research by more specifically identifying deliberative and intuitive processes that affect cooperation. To do so, we applied automated text analysis using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC software to investigate the association between behavior in one-shot anonymous economic cooperation games and the presence inhibition (a deliberative process and positive emotion (an intuitive process in free-response narratives written after (Study 1, N = 4,218 or during (Study 2, N = 236 the decision-making process. Consistent with previous results, across both studies inhibition predicted reduced cooperation while positive emotion predicted increased cooperation (even when controlling for negative emotion. Importantly, there was a significant interaction between positive emotion and inhibition, such that the most cooperative individuals had high positive emotion and low inhibition. This suggests that inhibition (i.e., reflective or deliberative processing may undermine cooperative behavior by suppressing the prosocial effects of positive emotion.
Lench, Heather C; Flores, Sarah A; Bench, Shane W
Our purpose in the present meta-analysis was to examine the extent to which discrete emotions elicit changes in cognition, judgment, experience, behavior, and physiology; whether these changes are correlated as would be expected if emotions organize responses across these systems; and which factors moderate the magnitude of these effects. Studies (687; 4,946 effects, 49,473 participants) were included that elicited the discrete emotions of happiness, sadness, anger, and anxiety as independent variables with adults. Consistent with discrete emotion theory, there were (a) moderate differences among discrete emotions; (b) differences among discrete negative emotions; and (c) correlated changes in behavior, experience, and physiology (cognition and judgment were mostly not correlated with other changes). Valence, valence-arousal, and approach-avoidance models of emotion were not as clearly supported. There was evidence that these factors are likely important components of emotion but that they could not fully account for the pattern of results. Most emotion elicitations were effective, although the efficacy varied with the emotions being compared. Picture presentations were overall the most effective elicitor of discrete emotions. Stronger effects of emotion elicitations were associated with happiness versus negative emotions, self-reported experience, a greater proportion of women (for elicitations of happiness and sadness), omission of a cover story, and participants alone versus in groups. Conclusions are limited by the inclusion of only some discrete emotions, exclusion of studies that did not elicit discrete emotions, few available effect sizes for some contrasts and moderators, and the methodological rigor of included studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Terzis, Vasileios; Moridis, Christos N.; Economides, Anastasios A.
This study introduces emotional feedback as a construct in an acceptance model. It explores the effect of emotional feedback on behavioral intention to use Computer Based Assessment (CBA). A female Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) with empathetic encouragement behavior was displayed as emotional feedback. More specifically, this research aims…
Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D; DeWall, C Nathan; Zhang, Liqing
Fear causes fleeing and thereby saves lives: this exemplifies a popular and common sense but increasingly untenable view that the direct causation of behavior is the primary function of emotion. Instead, the authors develop a theory of emotion as a feedback system whose influence on behavior is typically indirect. By providing feedback and stimulating retrospective appraisal of actions, conscious emotional states can promote learning and alter guidelines for future behavior. Behavior may also be chosen to pursue (or avoid) anticipated emotional outcomes. Rapid, automatic affective responses, in contrast to the full-blown conscious emotions, may inform cognition and behavioral choice and thereby help guide current behavior. The automatic affective responses may also remind the person of past emotional outcomes and provide useful guides as to what emotional outcomes may be anticipated in the present. To justify replacing the direct causation model with the feedback model, the authors review a large body of empirical findings.
Naughton, Aideen Mary; Maguire, Sabine Ann; Mann, Mala Kanthi; Lumb, Rebecca Caroline; Tempest, Vanessa; Gracias, Shirley; Kemp, Alison Mary
Early intervention for neglect or emotional abuse in preschoolers may mitigate lifelong consequences, yet practitioners lack confidence in recognizing these children. To define the emotional, behavioral, and developmental features of neglect or emotional abuse in preschoolers. A literature search of 18 databases, 6 websites, and supplementary searching performed from January 1, 1960, to February 1, 2011, identified 22 669 abstracts. Standardized critical appraisal of 164 articles was conducted by 2 independent, trained reviewers. Inclusion criteria were children aged 0 to 6 years with confirmed neglect or emotional abuse who had emotional, behavioral, and developmental features recorded or for whom the carer-child interaction was documented. Twenty-eight case-control (matched for socioeconomic, educational level, and ethnicity), 1 cross-sectional, and 13 cohort studies were included. Key features in the child included the following: aggression (11 studies) exhibited as angry, disruptive behavior, conduct problems, oppositional behavior, and low ego control; withdrawal or passivity (12 studies), including negative self-esteem, anxious or avoidant behavior, poor emotional knowledge, and difficulties in interpreting emotional expressions in others; developmental delay (17 studies), particularly delayed language, cognitive function, and overall development quotient; poor peer interaction (5 studies), showing poor social interactions, unlikely to act to relieve distress in others; and transition (6 studies) from ambivalent to avoidant insecure attachment pattern and from passive to increasingly aggressive behavior and negative self-representation. Emotional knowledge, cognitive function, and language deteriorate without intervention. Poor sensitivity, hostility, criticism, or disinterest characterize maternal-child interactions. Preschool children who have been neglected or emotionally abused exhibit a range of serious emotional and behavioral difficulties and adverse
Gaspelin, Nicholas; Luck, Steven J
Researchers have long debated how salient-but-irrelevant features guide visual attention. Pure stimulus-driven theories claim that salient stimuli automatically capture attention irrespective of goals, whereas pure goal-driven theories propose that an individual's attentional control settings determine whether salient stimuli capture attention. However, recent studies have suggested a hybrid model in which salient stimuli attract visual attention but can be actively suppressed by top-down attentional mechanisms. Support for this hybrid model has primarily come from ERP studies demonstrating that salient stimuli, which fail to capture attention, also elicit a distractor positivity (P D ) component, a putative neural index of suppression. Other support comes from a handful of behavioral studies showing that processing at the salient locations is inhibited compared with other locations. The current study was designed to link the behavioral and neural evidence by combining ERP recordings with an experimental paradigm that provides a behavioral measure of suppression. We found that, when a salient distractor item elicited the P D component, processing at the location of this distractor was suppressed below baseline levels. Furthermore, the magnitude of behavioral suppression and the magnitude of the P D component covaried across participants. These findings provide a crucial connection between the behavioral and neural measures of suppression, which opens the door to using the P D component to assess the timing and neural substrates of the behaviorally observed suppression.
Lench, Heather C.; Flores, Sarah A.; Bench, Shane W.
Our purpose in the present meta-analysis was to examine the extent to which discrete emotions elicit changes in cognition, judgment, experience, behavior, and physiology; whether these changes are correlated as would be expected if emotions organize responses across these systems; and which factors moderate the magnitude of these effects. Studies…
Lotze, Geri M.; Ravindran, Neeraja; Myers, Barbara J.
Children with incarcerated mothers are at high risk for developing problem behaviors. Fifty children (6-12 years; 62% girls) participated in summer camps, along with adult mentors. Regression analyses of child and adult measures of child's emotion self-regulation and callous-unemotional traits, and a child measure of moral emotions, showed that…
Rolider, Ahmos; Van Houten, Ron
Effects of a movement suppression time-out, which involved punishing any movements or verbalization while a client is in the time-out area, were evaluated in four experiments. The procedure produced a larger reduction in the target behavior in all three children and effectiveness was explained in terms of suppression of self-stimulation during…
Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigated the role of thought suppression, meta- cognitive factors, and negative emotions in predicting of substance dependency disorder. Method: Subjects were 70 patients with substance dependence disorder and 70 normal individuals (total 140. Substance dependants were selected of outpatient treatment centers and the normal sample was selected of the general population too. Sampling methods in both samples were convenience sampling. All people were assessed by MCQ-30, White Bear Suppression Inventory, and Beck’s Anxiety and Depression Questionnaires. For data analysis, discriminant analysis were used. Results: Negative meta-cognitive beliefs about worry, depression, and thought suppression were the most significant predictors of substance dependence disorder. Conclusion: Through meta-cognitive beliefs, thought suppression and negative emotion (especially depression, substance dependency disorder can be predicted. Based on this model can be used to take a substance dependency disorder prevention approach and psychotherapy approach (based on cognitive and meta-cognitive therapies. In addition, the findings of this research can be applied in clinical and counseling environments to help substance dependant clients.
Shaffer, Anne; Whitehead, Monica; Davis, Molly; Morelen, Diana; Suveg, Cynthia
In a diverse community sample of mothers (N = 108) and their preschool-aged children (M age = 3.50 years), this study conducted person-oriented analyses of maternal emotion regulation (ER) based on a multimethod assessment incorporating physiological, observational, and self-report indicators. A model-based cluster analysis was applied to five indicators of maternal ER: maternal self-report, observed negative affect in a parent-child interaction, baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and RSA suppression across two laboratory tasks. Model-based cluster analyses revealed four maternal ER profiles, including a group of mothers with average ER functioning, characterized by socioeconomic advantage and more positive parenting behavior. A dysregulated cluster demonstrated the greatest challenges with parenting and dyadic interactions. Two clusters of intermediate dysregulation were also identified. Implications for assessment and applications to parenting interventions are discussed. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Joon Sik Kim
Full Text Available In the pediatric literature, excessive crying has been reported solely in association with 3-month colic and is described, if at all, as unexplained crying and fussing during the first 3 months of life. The bouts of crying are generally thought to be triggered by abdominal colic (over-inflation of the still immature gastrointestinal tract, and treatment is prescribed accordingly. According to this line of reasoning, excessive crying is harmless and resolves by the end of the third month without long-term consequences. However, there is evidence that it may cause tremendous distress in the mother–infant relationship, and can lead to disorders of behavioral and emotional regulation at the toddler stage (such as sleep and feeding disorders, chronic fussiness, excessive clinginess, and temper tantrums. Early treatment of excessive crying focuses on parent–infant communication, and parent-infant interaction in the context of soothing and settling the infant to sleep is a promising approach that may prevent later behavioral and emotional disorders in infancy.
Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Paíno, Mercedes; Aritio-Solana, Rebeca
The main purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of symptoms of an emotional and behavioral nature, as well as prosocial type capabilities, measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, in non-clinical adolescents. The final sample was composed of a total of 508 students, 208 male (40.9%). The age of participants ranged from 11 to 18 years (M=13.91 years; SD=1.71). The results show that a significant number of adolescents self-reported emotional and behavioral problems. The mean scores of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire subscales varied according the gender and age of the adolescents. In the present study, the prevalence of psychological difficulties among adolescents was similar to that reported in other national and international studies. In view of these results, there is a need to develop programs for the early detection of these types of problems in schools in children and adolescents ages. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Matson, Johnny L.; Coe, David A.
This article reviews applications of the applied behavior analysis ideas of B. F. Skinner and others to persons with both mental retardation and emotional disturbance. The review examines implications of behavior analysis for operant conditioning and radical behaviorism, schedules of reinforcement, and emotion and mental illness. (DB)
In this article, sensorial effects are introduced as emotional stimuli for shaping environmentally significant behaviors. This research provides a link between sensorial effect as ubiquitous environmental behavior feedback and the effect of sensorial stimuli on emotions that trigger individuals' pro-environment behavior. A case study of using…
Flournoy, John C.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Moore, William E.; Tackman, Allison M.; Masten, Carrie L.; Mazziotta, John C.; Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella
Reactivity to others' emotions not only can result in empathic concern (EC), an important motivator of prosocial behavior, but can also result in personal distress (PD), which may hinder prosocial behavior. Examining neural substrates of emotional reactivity may elucidate how EC and PD differentially influence prosocial behavior. Participants…
Crandall, AliceAnn; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Day, Randal D; Riley, Anne W
Prior research links poor maternal emotion regulation to maladaptive parenting and child behaviors, but little research is available on these relationships during the adolescent period. We use structural equation modeling to assess the influence of poor maternal emotion regulation, measured as emotional reactivity and distancing, on adolescent behaviors (measured as aggression and prosocial behaviors) among 478 adolescents (53 % female; baseline age 10-13 years) and their mothers over a 5 year period. We also tested the possible mediating roles of family functioning and parenting behaviors between maternal emotion regulation and adolescent behaviors. Results indicated that higher baseline maternal emotional distancing and reactivity were not directly predictive of adolescents' behaviors, but they were indirectly related through family functioning and parenting. Specifically, indulgent parenting mediated the relationship between maternal emotional reactivity and adolescent aggression. Maternal-reported family functioning significantly mediated the relationship between maternal emotional distancing and adolescent aggression. Family functioning also mediated the relationship between emotional distancing and regulation parenting. The results imply that poor maternal emotion regulation during their child's early adolescence leads to more maladaptive parenting and problematic behaviors during the later adolescent period. However, healthy family processes may ameliorate the negative impact of low maternal emotion regulation on parenting and adolescent behavioral outcomes. The implications for future research and interventions to improve parenting and adolescent outcomes are discussed.
YOON, Jin-Ha; KANG, Mo-Yeol; JEUNG, Dayee; CHANG, Sei-Jin
Our aim was to investigate the relationship between suppressing emotion and engaging with complaining customers at work and experience of depression and anxiety symptoms. We used nationally representative data from the Korean Working Condition Survey with 15,669 paid customer service workers. Job characteristics of ?Engaging with Complaints?, ?Suppressing Emotion?, experience of depression and anxiety symptoms were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Gender specific odds ratios (OR) and...
Lana, Alberto; Baizán, Eva María; Faya-Ornia, Goretti; López, María Luisa
To explore the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and risky health behaviors in nursing students at the University of Oviedo (Spain). This cross-sectional study of 275 students used a validated questionnaire to measure EI level, nine risky behaviors (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, unhealthy diet, being overweight, sedentarism, risky sun exposure, occupational risk, and unsafe sex), and other factors that may influence EI. Students with the highest EI score had a lower probability of drinking too much alcohol (odds ratio [OR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.19, 0.67]), eating too few fruits and vegetables (OR, 0.60; 95% CI [0.34, 0.99]), and having unsafe sex (OR, 0.10; 95% CI [0.01, 0.74]). A dose-response effect was found for those three behaviors (p for trend excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, and unsafe sex. Training nursing students about EI could improve health behaviors, and thus the role of nurses as health promoters. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT) model for grief are reviewed. The foc...
Kilgus, Stephen P.; Taylor, Crystal N.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.
The purpose of this study was to support the identification of Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS) cut scores that could be used to detect high-risk students. Teachers rated students across two time points (Time 1 n = 1,242 students; Time 2 n = 704) using the SAEBRS and the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System…
Banks, Tachelle I.
Mental health curriculum should be delivered in classroom settings to address and remediate the socio-emotional needs of students with and without disabilities. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is a comprehensive, universal, and humanistic approach that focuses on the emotional distress manifested by individuals has been used with children…
Ortner, Catherine Nicole Marie; Briner, Esther Lydia; Marjanovic, Zdravko
Research in emotion regulation has begun to examine various predictors of emotion regulation choices, including individual differences and contextual variables. However, scant attention has been paid to the extent to which people's beliefs about the specific consequences of emotion regulation strategies for the components of an emotional response and long-term well-being predict their behavioral regulatory choices and, in turn, their subjective well-being. Participants completed measures to assess their beliefs about the consequences of functional and dysfunctional strategies, behavioral choices of emotion regulation strategies in negative scenarios, and subjective well-being. The model that fit the data indicated partial mediation whereby beliefs were associated with approximately 9% of the variance in choices. Emotion regulation choices were related to subjective well-being, with an additional direct effect between beliefs and well-being. This suggests beliefs play a role in people's regulatory choices. Future research should explore how beliefs interact with individual differences and contextual variables to better understand why people regulate their emotions in different ways and, ultimately, to help individuals make healthy emotion regulation choices.
Catherine Nicole Marie Ortner
Full Text Available Research in emotion regulation has begun to examine various predictors of emotion regulation choices, including individual differences and contextual variables. However, scant attention has been paid to the extent to which people’s beliefs about the specific consequences of emotion regulation strategies for the components of an emotional response and long-term well-being predict their behavioral regulatory choices and, in turn, their subjective well-being. Participants completed measures to assess their beliefs about the consequences of functional and dysfunctional strategies, behavioral choices of emotion regulation strategies in negative scenarios, and subjective well-being. The model that fit the data indicated partial mediation whereby beliefs were associated with approximately 9% of the variance in choices. Emotion regulation choices were related to subjective well-being, with an additional direct effect between beliefs and well-being. This suggests beliefs play a role in people’s regulatory choices. Future research should explore how beliefs interact with individual differences and contextual variables to better understand why people regulate their emotions in different ways and, ultimately, to help individuals make healthy emotion regulation choices.
Achterberg, E J Marijke; Trezza, Viviana; Siviy, Stephen M; Schrama, Laurens; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J
Social play behavior is a characteristic form of social behavior displayed by juvenile and adolescent mammals. This social play behavior is highly rewarding and of major importance for social and cognitive development. Social play is known to be modulated by neurotransmitter systems involved in reward and motivation. Interestingly, psychostimulant drugs, such as amphetamine and cocaine, profoundly suppress social play, but the neural mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological underpinnings of amphetamine- and cocaine-induced suppression of social play behavior in rats. The play-suppressant effects of amphetamine were antagonized by the alpha-2 adrenoreceptor antagonist RX821002 but not by the dopamine receptor antagonist alpha-flupenthixol. Remarkably, the effects of cocaine on social play were not antagonized by alpha-2 noradrenergic, dopaminergic, or serotonergic receptor antagonists, administered either alone or in combination. The effects of a subeffective dose of cocaine were enhanced by a combination of subeffective doses of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, the dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR12909, and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. Amphetamine, like methylphenidate, exerts its play-suppressant effect through alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors. On the other hand, cocaine reduces social play by simultaneous increases in dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin neurotransmission. In conclusion, psychostimulant drugs with different pharmacological profiles suppress social play behavior through distinct mechanisms. These data contribute to our understanding of the neural mechanisms of social behavior during an important developmental period, and of the deleterious effects of psychostimulant exposure thereon.
Full Text Available Tinnitus is the experience of sounds without an appropriate external auditory source. These auditory sensations are intertwined with emotional and attentional processing. Drawing on theories of mental control, we predicted that suppressing an affectively negative sound mimicking the psychoacoustic features of tinnitus would result in decreased persistence in a mentally challenging task (mental arithmetic that required participants to ignore the same sound, but that receiving a mindfulness exercise would reduce this effect. Normal hearing participants (N = 119 were instructed to suppress an affectively negative sound under cognitive load or were given no such instructions. Next, participants received either a mindfulness induction or an attention control task. Finally, all participants worked with mental arithmetic while exposed to the same sound. The length of time participants could persist in the second task served as the dependent variable. As hypothesized, results indicated that an auditory suppression rationale reduced time of persistence relative to no such rationale, and that a mindfulness induction counteracted this detrimental effect. The study may offer new insights into the mechanisms involved in the development of tinnitus interference. Implications are also discussed in the broader context of attention control strategies and the effects of emotional sound on task performance. The ironic processes of mental control may have an analog in the experience of sounds.
Brown, Christina M; McConnell, Allen R
Discrepancies between one's current and desired states evoke negative emotions, which presumably guide self-regulation. In the current work we evaluated the function of discrepancy-based emotions in behavioral self-regulation. Contrary to classic theories of self-regulation, discrepancy-based emotions did not predict the degree to which people engaged in self-regulatory behavior. Instead, expectations about how future self-discrepancies would make one feel (i.e., anticipated emotions) predicted self-regulation. However, anticipated emotions were influenced by previous discrepancy-based emotional experiences, suggesting that the latter do not directly motivate self-regulation but rather guide expectations. These findings are consistent with the perspective that emotions do not necessarily direct immediate behavior, but rather have an indirect effect by guiding expectations, which in turn predict goal-directed action.
Graziano, Paulo A; Hart, Katie
The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; Mage=5.16years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. During the summer between preschool and kindergarten, children were randomized to receive three newly developed intervention packages. The first and most cost effective intervention package was an 8-week School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP). Families randomized into the second and third intervention packages received not only the weekly SRPP, but children also attended two different versions of an intensive kindergarten summer readiness class (M-F, 8a.m.-5p.m.) that was part of an 8-week summer treatment program for pre-kindergarteners (STP-PreK). One version included the standard behavioral modification system and academic curriculum (STP-PreK) while the other additionally contained social-emotional and self-regulation training (STP-PreK Enhanced). Baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up data were collected on children's school readiness outcomes including parent, teacher, and objective assessment measures. Analyses using linear mixed models indicated that children's behavioral functioning significantly improved across all groups in a similar magnitude. Children in the STP-PreK Enhanced group, however, experienced greater growth across time in academic achievement, emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and executive functioning compared to children in the other groups. These findings suggest that while parent training is sufficient to address children's behavioral difficulties, an intensive summer program that goes beyond behavioral modification and academic preparation by targeting socio-emotional and self-regulation skills can have incremental benefits across multiple aspects of school readiness
Purbaning Tyas, Prias Hayu
The research aims to obtain an overview of the effectiveness of the narrative approach in counseling Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) to manage emotions. The approach used in this study is a quantitative approach using a quasi-experimental methods. The study design used is one group pretest-posttest design using purposive sampling technique. The samples were 6 students who score low emotion management. The instrument used in the form of guidelines for the interview to express emotion ...
Jacobs, Ingo; Wollny, Anna; Sim, Chu-Won; Horsch, Antje
In the present study, we tested a serial mindfulness facets-trait emotional intelligence (TEI)-emotional distress-multiple health behaviors mediation model in a sample of N = 427 German-speaking occupational therapists. The mindfulness facets-TEI-emotional distress section of the mediation model revealed partial mediation for the mindfulness facets Act with awareness (Act/Aware) and Accept without judgment (Accept); inconsistent mediation was found for the Describe facet. The serial two-mediator model included three mediational pathways that may link each of the four mindfulness facets with multiple health behaviors. Eight out of 12 indirect effects reached significance and fully mediated the links between Act/Aware and Describe to multiple health behaviors; partial mediation was found for Accept. The mindfulness facet Observe was most relevant for multiple health behaviors, but its relation was not amenable to mediation. Implications of the findings will be discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianlei; Weissing, Franz J.
Our attention is focused on how individual emotions influence collective behaviors, which captures an aspect of reality missing from past studies: free riders may suffer some stress, which could adapt jointly with the individual stress intensity and size of the gaming group. With an evolutionary game theoretical approach, we gain the fixation probability for one mutant cooperator to invade and dominate the whole defecting population. When the stress intensity exceeds a threshold, natural selection favors cooperators replacing defectors in a finite population. We further infer that lower stress intensity is sufficient for one mutant cooperator to become fixed with an advantageous probability in a larger population. Moreover, when the gaming group is smaller than the population size, the more the return from the public goods, the lower the threshold of stress intensity required to facilitate the full dominance of cooperators. We hope our studies may show that individual sentiments or psychological activities will open up novel explanations for the puzzle of collective actions.
Patton, Patricia L.
Describes a model used to teach rational behavior skills to 34 emotionally disturbed adolescents. Discusses teaching, training, and counseling strategies. The group demonstrated significant positive changes in learning and personality variables, but not behavior. (JAC)
Gong, Miao; Huai, Ziqing; Song, Han; Cui, Lingyu; Guo, Qingjun; Shao, Juan; Gao, Yuan; Shi, Haishui
Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), one kind of environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs), exerted significantly detrimental effects on neuro-endocrinological system and related disorders, such as memory dysfunction and depression. Bisphenol AF (BPAF),a newly introduced chemical structurally related to BPA, is used extensively. BPAF has stronger estrogenic activities than BPA. However, the potential neurotoxicological effects of BPAF are still elusive. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effects of maternal BPAF exposure during pregnancy on emotional behaviors of adolescent mice offspring. In male adolescent offspring, maternal exposure to BPAF (0.4, 4.0 mg kg -1 , intragastrically administration) induced significant anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, assessed by open field test (OFT), novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSF), sucrose preference test (SPT), tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST). In female adolescent offspring, BPAF exposure at 0.4 mg kg -1 dose reduced the latency to feeding in the NSF test, while increased the floating time in the FST. Maternal BPAF exposure decreased the recognition index in the long term memory (LTM) test in both sexes, while only decreased the freezing time of male offspring in the contextual fear conditioning (CFC) task. These results indicate that maternal exposure to BPAF significantly affect emotion-related behaviors in adolescent mice offspring, and the male offspring with a higher probability to develop symptoms of anxiety and depression and to suffer memory impairment after maternal exposure to BPAF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
S.A. Reijneveld (Sijmen); P.A. Wiegersma (Auke); J. Ormel (Johan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W.A.M. Vollebergh (Wilma); D.E.M.C. Jansen (Daniëlle)
textabstractObjective: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants,
Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Wiegersma, P. Auke; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.
Objective: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants, for ages
Carmi, Nurit; Arnon, Sara; Orion, Nir
The present study was based on the premise that environmental knowledge can drive environmental behavior only if it arouses environmental emotions. Using a structural equations modeling approach, we tested the direct, as well as the indirect (mediated) effects of knowledge on behavior and assessed the mediating role of environmental emotions. We…
Conclusion We conclude that the training intervention (especially, emotion management training for mothers who have male offspring with behavioral problems is beneficial not only for strengthening the parents to manage their emotions effectively but also for reducing behavioral problems in their offspring.
Wiley, Andrew L.; Kauffman, James M.; Plageman, Kristen
Underidentification of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD; emotional disturbance or ED in federal language) is a critical issue, perhaps explainable in part by causal attributions of problem behavior associated with conservatism. Conservatism in 58 counties in the state of California was measured by finding the percentage of…
Skaar, Nicole R.; Williams, John E.
The current study aimed to investigate emotional intelligence as a predictor of adolescent risk participation and risk perception. While research has suggested that certain personality traits relate to adolescent risk behavior and perception, the extent to which emotional intelligence relates to risk behavior participation and perception is…
Blair, Kimberly A.; Denham, Susanne A.; Kochanoff, Anita; Whipple, Beth
The contributions of temperamental styles and emotional coping strategies to the development of preschoolers' social competence and behavior problems were investigated. The ability to cope with emotion was found to be more important than temperament alone in the development of prosocial behavior. Our results indicate that the use of passive coping…
Neacsiu, Andrada D; Lungu, Anita; Harned, Melanie S; Rizvi, Shireen L; Linehan, Marsha M
Evidence suggests that heightened negative affectivity is a prominent feature of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) that often leads to maladaptive behaviors. Nevertheless, there is little research examining treatment effects on the experience and expression of specific negative emotions. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an effective treatment for BPD, hypothesized to reduce negative affectivity (Linehan, 1993a). The present study analyzes secondary data from a randomized controlled trial with the aim to assess the unique effectiveness of DBT when compared to Community Treatment by Experts (CTBE) in changing the experience, expression, and acceptance of negative emotions. Suicidal and/or self-injuring women with BPD (n = 101) were randomly assigned to DBT or CTBE for one year of treatment and one year of follow-up. Several indices of emotional experience and expression were assessed. Results indicate that DBT decreased experiential avoidance and expressed anger significantly more than CTBE. No differences between DBT and CTBE were found in improving guilt, shame, anxiety, or anger suppression, trait, and control. These results suggest that DBT has unique effects on improving the expression of anger and experiential avoidance, whereas changes in the experience of specific negative emotions may be accounted for by general factors associated with expert therapy. Implications of the findings are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Rasheed, Saleem A.; Fore, Cecil, III; Jones, Arthur; Smith, Latisha
The research literature on the use of Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) to develop Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP) for students with emotional/behavioral disorders, who present problem classroom behaviors for use in the schools, is well documented. There are school-wide, district-wide, and state-wide plans that are currently being…
Patton, Patricia Lucey
This seven lesson curriculum sequence is designed to help teachers teach principles of Rational Behavior Training (RBT) which targets thinking behaviors, feeling behaviors, and behavioral responses to the environment. The program is appropriate for students with social and emotional disabilities and also develops reading, writing, spelling,…
Taylor, Charles T; Knapp, Sarah E; Bomyea, Jessica A; Ramsawh, Holly J; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is empirically supported for the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, not all individuals achieve recovery following CBT. Positive emotions serve a number of functions that theoretically should facilitate response to CBT - they promote flexible patterns of information processing and assimilation of new information, encourage approach-oriented behavior, and speed physiological recovery from negative emotions. We conducted a secondary analysis of an existing clinical trial dataset to test the a priori hypothesis that individual differences in trait positive emotions would predict CBT response for anxiety. Participants meeting diagnostic criteria for panic disorder (n = 28) or generalized anxiety disorder (n = 31) completed 10 weekly individual CBT sessions. Trait positive emotionality was assessed at pre-treatment, and severity of anxiety symptoms and associated impairment was assessed throughout treatment. Participants who reported a greater propensity to experience positive emotions at pre-treatment displayed the largest reduction in anxiety symptoms as well as fewer symptoms following treatment. Positive emotions remained a robust predictor of change in symptoms when controlling for baseline depression severity. Initial evidence supports the predictive value of trait positive emotions as a prognostic indicator for CBT outcome in a GAD and PD sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lue, Bee-Horng; Wu, Wen-Chi; Yen, Lee-Lan
Despite widespread recognition of the occurrence of antisocial behavior and depression in adolescents, the specifics of the relationship between them have not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of expressed emotion as a proximal factor for depression and antisocial behavior among adolescents, by looking at direct and indirect relationships. Secondary data analysis using path analysis was carried out on 2004 data from the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evaluation project. The study sample consisted of 1599 seventh-grade students in Northern Taiwan. Variables included family factors, personal factors (sex and academic performance), expressed emotion [emotional involvement (EI) and perceived criticism (PC)], depression, and antisocial behavior. We found that one dimension of expressed emotion, PC, directly influenced student depression and related indirectly to antisocial behavior. Depression was an important mediator between PC and antisocial behavior. Another dimension, EI, did not influence either depression or antisocial behavior. Sex was related directly to expressed emotion, depression, and antisocial behavior, and also indirectly to antisocial behavior through PC and depression. Academic performance was related directly to expressed emotion and indirectly to antisocial behavior through PC and depression. Greater PC from parents directly contributed to higher levels of student depression and was related indirectly to more student antisocial behavior. It is suggested that parents should decrease overly critical parenting styles to promote adolescent mental health and avoid the development of antisocial behavior. (c) 2010 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Butler, Mark J; Behringer, Donald C; Dolan, Thomas W; Moss, Jessica; Shields, Jeffrey D
Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of "behavioral immunity"; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics) practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA) resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system.
Mark J Butler
Full Text Available Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of "behavioral immunity"; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system.
Fradcourt, B; Peyrin, C; Baciu, M; Campagne, A
Previous studies performed on visual processing of emotional stimuli have revealed preference for a specific type of visual spatial frequencies (high spatial frequency, HSF; low spatial frequency, LSF) according to task demands. The majority of studies used a face and focused on the appraisal of the emotional state of others. The present behavioral study investigates the relative role of spatial frequencies on processing emotional natural scenes during two explicit cognitive appraisal tasks, one emotional, based on the self-emotional experience and one motivational, based on the tendency to action. Our results suggest that HSF information was the most relevant to rapidly identify the self-emotional experience (unpleasant, pleasant, and neutral) while LSF was required to rapidly identify the tendency to action (avoidance, approach, and no action). The tendency to action based on LSF analysis showed a priority for unpleasant stimuli whereas the identification of emotional experience based on HSF analysis showed a priority for pleasant stimuli. The present study confirms the interest of considering both emotional and motivational characteristics of visual stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This writing would like to offer rational emotive behavior concept based on Islamic counseling. Rational emotive behavior focused on changing behavior based on mind. Behavior changing stressed on mind then emotion or action. Mental awareness is using Islamic Counseling, by giving Islamic material and values inside the counseling services.The result is beggar has two factors internal and external as cause. In Islamic counseling perspective, beggar categorized as a man without believing “kufurnikmat”, they doesn’t use fitrah or potential self that given by Allah to work. The core problems on changing beggar action focused on changing mentalities. Rational emotive and Islamic counseling, has a same perspective about human, human has a goodness and positive. Rational emotive behavior based on Islamic counseling is reeducate client to change their irrational believe to rational believe. Counseling stages is exploring the background of problem, awareness, mind modification and disputing mind through habituation.
Bodell, Lindsay P.; Keel, Pamela K.
Bulimia nervosa (BN) is a serious eating disorder that can persist for years and contribute to medical complications and increased mortality, underscoring the need to better understand factors maintaining this disorder. Higher levels of weight suppression (WS) have been found to predict both the onset and maintenance of BN; however, no studies have examined mechanisms that may account for the effects of WS on BN. We hypothesized that high WS would lead to reduced leptin levels, which may increase risk of binge eating by modulating reward responses to food. The current study examined the relationship between WS, leptin levels, and the reinforcing value of food in women with BN (n=32) and non-eating disorder controls (n=30). Participants provided information on WS, completed a fasting blood draw to obtain serum leptin, and completed a progressive ratio task to measure the reinforcing value of food. Individuals with BN had greater WS (p<.01) and reinforcing food value (p<.05) compared to controls. Additionally, higher WS was associated with both lower leptin (p<.05) and increased reinforcing value of food (p<.05). Contrary to hypotheses, BN and control participants did not differ significantly on leptin levels, and leptin levels were not significantly associated with the reinforcing value of food. Findings support that efforts to conform to the thin ideal may alter drive to consume rewarding foods and leave women vulnerable to binge episodes. However, mechanisms through which WS contributes to food reward and binge eating remain unknown. PMID:26191637
Alfarra, Ramey; Fins, Ana I; Chayo, Isaac; Tartar, Jaime L
While sleep loss is shown to have widespread effects on cognitive processes, little is known about the impact of sleep loss on emotion processes. In order to expand on previous behavioral and physiological findings on how sleep loss influences emotion processing, we administered positive, negative, and neutral affective visual stimuli to individuals after one night of sleep deprivation while simultaneously acquiring EEG event related potential (ERP) data and recording affective behavioral responses. We compared these responses to a baseline testing session. We specifically looked at the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual ERP as an established sensitive measure of attention to emotionally-charged visual stimuli. Our results show that after sleep deprivation, the LPP no longer discriminates between emotional and non-emotional pictures; after sleep deprivation the LPP amplitude was of similar amplitude for neutral, positive, and negative pictures. This effect was driven by an increase in the LPP to neutral pictures. Our behavioral measures show that, relative to baseline testing, emotional pictures are rated as less emotional following sleep deprivation with a concomitant reduction in emotional picture-induced anxiety. We did not observe any change in cortisol concentrations after sleep deprivation before or after emotional picture exposure, suggesting that the observed changes in emotion processing are independent of potential stress effects of sleep deprivation. Combined, our findings suggest that sleep loss interferes with proper allocation of attention resources during an emotional task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hasegawa, Naoko; Yoshimura, Seiichi
The Simulation System for the Behavior of an Operating Group (SYBORG) has been developed to simulate and analyze the cognitive process of operators and the behavior of operating teams. Although fundamental mechanisms of the SYBORG have been constructed, it cannot simulate the influence of human emotion. Emotion may be considered to be one of important factors causing human errors. This is why an emotional function is introduced into the SYBORG. As the first step to develop a simulation model of operator''s emotion, a basic mechanism of simulation function was suggested. According to the suggestion, the composition of each emotion with basic emotions was investigated for expressing each emotion by numerical values. In addition, the relationship among situations which activate emotion, kinds of emotion and kinds of expected actions was investigated. This report shows the results of two investigations which were conducted to develop a simulation model for the SYBORG. In the first investigation, 51 emotions were classified into five basic emotions according to the criterion proposed by Johnson-Laird (1988), and then, were ranked by their intensities. Another investigation was also conducted to determine the emotions with which operators predicted behavior that they would respond when a trouble occurs in a plant. Subjects were 53 men who have had experience in operating nuclear power plants. The results are as follows: (1) ''Fear'' is the most frequently activated emotion during plant off-normal conditions. (2) ''Cannot decide what should be done'' which is one of errors in thinking process is the most frequently expected behavior accompanying any emotion except ''Happiness''. (author)
Bourassa, Katelynn A; McKibbin, Christine L; Hartung, Cynthia M; Bartholomew, Kay L; Lee, Aaron A; Stevens, Anne E; Buxton, Yvette; Slosser, Andrea E; Andren, Katherine A Kitchen
While youth with emotional and behavioral disorders experience increased rates of obesity, few obesity interventions exist that are tailored to their needs. Qualitative methods were employed to elucidate obesity management practices in this population. In all, 56 participants (i.e. 21 youths with emotional and behavioral disorders, 20 caregivers of youth with emotional and behavioral disorders, and 15 mental health providers) were recruited from community mental health centers. Participants completed a demographic form and semi-structured interview regarding obesity-related behaviors. Barriers (e.g. psychiatric symptoms) and facilitators (e.g. social support) to obesity management were identified. These results highlight preferred intervention components for this unique population.
Full Text Available This paper presents a casual structure model between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior by using organizational commitment as mediator variable. The study is accomplished among 324 employees of united bus company in city of Tehran, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has confirmed that emotional intelligence influenced on organizational citizenship behavior and commitment. The study also confirms that organizational commitment influenced on organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, the study has confirmed that there were significant relationships between emotional intelligence and its dimensions with organizational citizenship behavior and organizational commitment of employees.
Torres, Ana; Catena, Andrés; Megías, Alberto; Maldonado, Antonio; Cándido, Antonio; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Perales, José C.
Impulsivity is tightly linked to addiction. However, there are several pathways by means of which impulsive individuals are more prone to become addicts, or to suffer an addiction more intensely and for a longer period. One of those pathways involves an inadequate appraisal or regulation of positive and negative emotions, leading to lack of control over hazardous behaviors, and inappropriate decisions. In the present work, we assessed cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI; n = 20), pathological gamblers (PG; n = 21), and healthy controls (HC; n = 23) in trait impulsivity measures (UPPS-P model's dimensions), and decision-making tasks (Go/No-go; delay-discounting task). During the Go/No-go task, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded, and Go/No-go stimuli-evoked potentials (ERP) were extracted. Theory-driven ERP analyses focused on the No-go > Go difference in the N2 ERP. Our results show that negative urgency is one of the several psychological features that distinguish addicts from HC. Nevertheless, among the dimensions of trait impulsivity, negative urgency is unique at independently covarying with gambling over-pathologization in the PG sample. Cocaine-dependent individuals performed more poorly than gamblers in the Go/No-go task, and showed abnormal Go/No-go stimuli-evoked potentials. The difference between the No-go stimulus-evoked N2, and the Go one was attenuated by severity and intensity of chronic cocaine use. Emotional dimensions of impulsivity, however, did not influence Go/No-go performance. PMID:23441001
Full Text Available Impulsivity is tightly linked to addiction. However, there are several pathways by means of which impulsive individuals are more prone to become addicts, or to suffer an addiction more intensely and for a longer period. One of those pathways involves an inadequate appraisal or regulation of positive and negative emotions, leading to lack of control over hazardous behaviors, and inappropriate decisions. In the present work, we assessed cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI; n=20, pathological gamblers (PG; n=21, and healthy controls (HC; n=23 in trait impulsivity measures (UPPS-P model’s dimensions, and decision-making tasks (Go/No-go; delay-discounting task. During the Go/No-go task, electroencephalographic (EEG activity was recorded, and Go/No-go stimuli-evoked potentials (ERP were extracted. Theory-driven ERP analyses focused on the No Go > Go difference in the N2 ERP.Our results show that negative urgency is one of the several psychological features that distinguish addicts from healthy controls. Nevertheless, among the measures of trait impulsivity, negative urgency is unique at independently covarying with gambling over-pathologization in the PG sample. Cocaine dependent individuals performed more poorly than gamblers in the Go/No-go task, and showed abnormal Go/no-go stimuli-evoked potentials. The difference between the No-go stimulus-evoked N2, and the Go one was attenuated by severity and intensity of chronic cocaine use. Emotional dimensions of impulsivity, however, did not influence go/No-go performance.
Yoon, Jin-Ha; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Jeung, Dayee; Chang, Sei-Jin
Our aim was to investigate the relationship between suppressing emotion and engaging with complaining customers at work and experience of depression and anxiety symptoms. We used nationally representative data from the Korean Working Condition Survey with 15,669 paid customer service workers. Job characteristics of "Engaging with Complaints", "Suppressing Emotion", experience of depression and anxiety symptoms were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Gender specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression after controlling for age, income, education level, job satisfaction, and working hours per week. The results showed that people who were 'Always Engaging with Complaints' (OR: 3.81, 95% CI: 1.83-7.96 for male, OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 2.07-7.66 for female) and 'Always Suppressing Emotion' (OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.33-4.08 for male, OR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.67-4.77 for female) were more likely to experience depression and anxiety symptoms compared to those 'Rarely Engaging with Complaints' and 'Rarely Suppressing Emotion', respectively. Additionally, there was an interactive relationship between those job characteristics. Our nationwide study demonstrates that mental health problems are incrementally related to how much service workers must engage with complaining customers and suppressing emotion at work.
Kimberly AK Carhuatanta
Full Text Available An individual’s genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual’s genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behavioral genetics mouse model to identify chromosomal regions that predict fear learning and emotional behavior following exposure to a control or chronic stress environment. 62 BXD recombinant inbred strains and C57BL/6 and DBA/2 parental strains underwent behavioral testing including a classical fear conditioning paradigm and the elevated plus maze. Distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs were identified for emotional learning, anxiety and locomotion in control and chronic stress populations. Candidate genes, including those with already known functions in learning and stress were found to reside within the identified QTLs. Our data suggest that chronic stress history reveals novel genetic predictors of emotional behavior.
Flournoy, John C.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Moore, William E.; Tackman, Allison; Masten, Carrie L.; Mazziotta, John C.; Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella
Reactivity to others' emotions can result in empathic concern (EC), an important motivator of prosocial behavior, but can also result in personal distress (PD), which may hinder prosocial behavior. Examining neural substrates of emotional reactivity may elucidate how EC and PD differentially influence prosocial behavior. Participants (N=57) provided measures of EC, PD, prosocial behavior, and neural responses to emotional expressions at age 10 and 13. Initial EC predicted subsequent prosocial behavior. Initial EC and PD predicted subsequent reactivity to emotions in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior parietal lobule, respectively. Activity in the IFG, a region linked to mirror neuron processes, as well as cognitive control and language, mediated the relation between initial EC and subsequent prosocial behavior. PMID:28262939
Sutherland, Kevin S.; Singh, Nirbhay N.
Students with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) are characterized by academic deficits and classroom behavioral problems. The relationship between problem behavior and academic difficulties is complex, and some researchers have hypothesized that the classroom behavior problems of students with E/BD are responses to aversive stimuli, namely…
Dan-Glauser, Elise S.; Gross, James J.
One of the central tenets of emotion theory is that emotions involve coordinated changes across experiential, behavioral, and physiological response domains. Surprisingly little is known, however, on how the strength of this emotion coherence is altered when people try to regulate their emotions. To address this issue, we recorded experiential, behavioral, and physiological responses while participants watched negative and positive pictures. Cross-correlations were used to quantify emotion coherence. Study 1 tested how two types of suppression (expressive and physiological) influence coherence. Results showed that both strategies decreased the response coherence measured in negative and positive contexts. Study 2 tested how multi-channel suppression (simultaneously targeting expressive and physiological responses) and acceptance influence emotion coherence. Results again showed that suppression decreased coherence. By contrast, acceptance was not significantly different from the unregulated condition. These findings help to clarify the nature of emotion response coherence by showing how different forms of emotion regulation may differentially affect it. PMID:23731438
Dan-Glauser, Elise S; Gross, James J
One of the central tenets of emotion theory is that emotions involve coordinated changes across experiential, behavioral, and physiological response domains. Surprisingly little is known, however, about how the strength of this emotion coherence is altered when people try to regulate their emotions. To address this issue, we recorded experiential, behavioral, and physiological responses while participants watched negative and positive pictures. Cross-correlations were used to quantify emotion coherence. Study 1 tested how two types of suppression (expressive and physiological) influence coherence. Results showed that both strategies decreased the response coherence measured in negative and positive contexts. Study 2 tested how multichannel suppression (simultaneously targeting expressive and physiological responses) and acceptance influence emotion coherence. Results again showed that suppression decreased coherence. By contrast, acceptance was not significantly different from the unregulated condition. These findings help to clarify the nature of emotion response coherence by showing how different forms of emotion regulation may differentially affect it.
Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Fillo, Jennifer
In the current research, we tested the extent to which attachment insecurity produces inaccurate and biased perceptions of intimate partners' emotions and whether more negative perceptions of partners' emotions elicit the damaging behavior often associated with attachment insecurity. Perceptions of partners' emotions as well as partners' actual emotions were assessed multiple times in couples' conflict discussions (Study 1) and daily during a 3-week period in 2 independent samples (Study 2). Using partners' reports of their own emotional experiences as the accuracy benchmark, we simultaneously tested whether attachment insecurity was associated with the degree to which individuals (a) accurately detected shifts in their partners' negative emotions (tracking accuracy), and (b) perceived their partners were feeling more negative relationship-related emotions than they actually experienced (directional bias). Highly avoidant perceivers were equally accurate at tracking their partners' changing emotions compared to less avoidant individuals (tracking accuracy), but they overestimated the intensity of their partners' negative emotions to a greater extent than less avoidant individuals (directional bias). In addition, more negative perceptions of partners' emotions triggered more hostile and defensive behavior in highly avoidant perceivers both during conflict discussions (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In contrast, attachment anxiety was not associated with tracking accuracy, directional bias, or hostile reactions to perceptions of their partners' negative emotions. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing biased perceptions in actual relationship interactions and reveal that biased perceptions play an important role in activating the defenses of avoidantly attached people. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Sani, Susan Raouf Hadadi; Tabibi, Zahra; Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Stavrinos, Despina
The present study explored whether aggression, emotional regulation, cognitive inhibition, and attentional bias towards emotional stimuli were related to risky driving behavior (driving errors, and driving violations). A total of 117 applicants for taxi driver positions (89% male, M age=36.59years, SD=9.39, age range 24-62years) participated in the study. Measures included the Ahwaz Aggression Inventory, the Difficulties in emotion regulation Questionnaire, the emotional Stroop task, the Go/No-go task, and the Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses showed that aggression and emotional regulation predicted risky driving behavior. Difficulties in emotion regulation, the obstinacy and revengeful component of aggression, attentional bias toward emotional stimuli, and cognitive inhibition predicted driving errors. Aggression was the only significant predictive factor for driving violations. In conclusion, aggression and difficulties in regulating emotions may exacerbate risky driving behaviors. Deficits in cognitive inhibition and attentional bias toward negative emotional stimuli can increase driving errors. Predisposition to aggression has strong effect on making one vulnerable to violation of traffic rules and crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article briefly reviews the changes that occurred in the field of grief and bereavement, viewing it as a process of searching for a "rational" meaning to life without the deceased in line with the concept of continuing bonds and thus replacing that of Fred’s concept of decathexis. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT evidenced-based studies for PTSD and complicated grief and the Cognitive-behavioral therapy − Rational-emotion behavior therapy (CBT-REBT model for grief are reviewed. The focus of intervention based on CBT-REBT is to facilitate a healthy adaptation to loss following death. A distinction is made between rational (adaptive and irrational (maladaptive grief processes. Case example illustrating the application of the model specifically a dialogue with repetitive thoughts, are presented.
Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.
The 15 chapters in this book address behavioral approaches to the assessment of youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Behavioral Assessment: An Overview" (Catherine Stanger); (2) "Legal and Ethical Issues in the Educational Assessment and Programming for Youth with…
Richard, Patrick; Gaskin, Darrell J; Alexandre, Pierre K; Burke, Laura S; Younis, Mustafa
It has been documented that about 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder in the United States. The high prevalence of children's emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) might have a negative effect on their mothers' labor market outcomes because children with EBP require additional time for treatment. However, these children may require additional financial resources, which might promote mothers' labor supply. Previous studies have only considered chronic conditions in analyzing the impact of children's health on parental work activities. Moreover, most of these studies have not accounted for endogeneity in children's health. This article estimates the effects of children's EBP on their mothers' labor supply by family structure while accounting for endogeneity in children's health. We used the 1997 and 2002 Child Development Supplements (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). We used probit and bivariate probit models to estimate mothers' probability of employment, and tobit and instrumental variable tobit models to estimate the effects of children's EBP on their mothers' work hours. Findings show negative effects of children's EBP on their married mothers' employment and on their single mothers' work hours. © The Author(s) 2014.
Henning-Smith, Carrie; Alang, Sirry
Emotional/behavioral difficulties (EBDs) are increasingly diagnosed in children, constituting some of the most common chronic childhood conditions. Left untreated, EBDs pose long-term individual and population-level consequences. There is a growing evidence of disparities in EBD prevalence by various demographic characteristics. This article builds on this research by examining disparities in access to medical care for children with EBD. From 2008 to 2011, using data from the US National Health Interview Survey (N = 31,631) on sample children aged 4-17, we investigate (1) whether having EBD affects access to care (modeled as delayed care due to cost and difficulty making an appointment) and (2) the role demographic characteristics, health insurance coverage, and frequency of service use play in access to care for children with EBD. Results indicate that children with EBD experience issues in accessing care at more than twice the rate of children without EBD, even though they are less likely to be uninsured than their counterparts without EBD. In multivariable models, children with EBD are still more likely to experience delayed care due to cost and difficulty making a timely appointment, even after adjusting for frequency of health service use, insurance coverage, and demographic characteristics. © The Author(s) 2015.
Acheampong, Ama; Kelly, Kathleen; Shields-Johnson, Maria; Hajovsky, Julie; Wainwright, Marcy; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo
In "Aplysia," noxious stimuli induce sensitization of defensive responses. However, it remains largely unknown whether such stimuli also alter nondefensive behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of noxious stimuli on feeding. Strong electric shocks, capable of inducing sensitization, also led to the suppression of feeding. The use of…
Chan, Jackie N.-M.; Lee, Jada C.-D.; Lee, Sylvia S. P.; Hui, Katy K. Y.; Chan, Alan H. L.; Fung, Timothy K.-H.; S?nchez-Vida?a, Dalinda I.; Lau, Benson W.-M.; Ngai, Shirley P.-C.
Hypercortisolemia is one of the clinical features found in depressed patients. This clinical feature has been mimicked in animal studies via application of exogenous corticosterone (CORT). Previous studies suggested that CORT can induce behavioral disturbance in anxious-depressive like behavior, which is associated with suppressed neurogenesis. Hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in adult cognitive and behavioral regulation. Its suppression may thus lead to neuropsychiatric disor...
Isasi, Carmen R; Ostrovsky, Natania W; Wills, Thomas A
Recent research suggests a role of cognitive self-regulation skills on obesity and lifestyle behaviors. However, very little is known about the role of emotion regulation. This study examined the association of emotion regulation with lifestyle behaviors and examined a mediational model testing the effects of emotion regulation through self-efficacy and depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 602 adolescents (mean age 12.7 years) from 4 public schools in the Bronx, NY. The sample was 58% female, predominantly Hispanic (74%) and US born (81%). Emotion regulation was assessed by 3 indicators and defined as a latent variable. Dependent variables included fruit/vegetable intake, snack/junk food intake, frequency of physical activity, and time spent in sedentary behaviors. Structural equation modeling examined the association of emotion regulation with lifestyle behaviors, with self-efficacy and depressive symptoms defined as potential mediators. The analyses showed that there was a positive association of emotion regulation with higher intake of fruits/vegetable and greater physical activity, which was mediated by self-efficacy. Emotion regulation was related to snack/junk food intake and sedentary behavior, and the structural equation model indicated pathways through an inverse relation to depressive symptoms, but these pathways were only observed in adolescent girls and not boys. These findings indicate that the ability to regulate emotions among adolescents has a role in weight-related behaviors. Future studies may need to explore the relation of other dimensions of emotion to positive health behaviors and study aspects of emotion regulation that may be more relevant for boys. © 2013.
With climate change becoming ever-present as a huge environmental issue for the modern era to address, pro-environmental behavior (PEB) is becoming an increasingly relevant area. There seems to be a divergence between how different actors try and encourage PEB when using emotion as the motivational tool. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore this effect of (negative) emotion on decision making. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as the theoretical framework, with the primar...
Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Slot, Pauline L.; van Aken, Marcel A G; Dubas, Judith S.
Research Findings: Drawing from a Dutch sample of 113 Dutch children (M age = 37 months, SD = 3.5) from 37 early care and education classrooms (19 child care centers and 18 preschools), this study examined whether the relation between classroom emotional and behavioral support and children’s
Raval, Vaishali V.; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Deo, Neeraj
Studies examining the link between parental socialization and child functioning in varying cultural contexts are scarce. Focusing on early adolescents in suburban middle-class families in India, the present study examined interrelations among reports of mothers' socialization goals, socialization behaviors in response to child emotion, child…
Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Slot, Pauline L.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dubas, Judith S.
Research Findings: Drawing from a Dutch sample of 113 Dutch children (M age = 37 months, SD = 3.5) from 37 early care and education classrooms (19 child care centers and 18 preschools), this study examined whether the relation between classroom emotional and behavioral support and children's observed social integration and positive mood in a play…
Iglesias, Alex; Iglesias, Adam
A case of pediatric oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) with concomitant emotional dysregulation and secondary behavioral disruptiveness was treated with hypnosis by means of the hypnotic hold, a method adapted by the authors. An A-B-A-B time-series design with multiple replications was employed to measure the relationship of the hypnotic treatment to the dependent measure: episodes of emotional dysregulation with accompanying behavioral disruptiveness. The findings indicated a statistically significant relationship between the degree of change from phase to phase and the treatment. Follow-up at 6 months indicated a significant reduction of the frequency of targeted episodes of emotional dysregulation and behavioral disruptiveness at home.
Perry, Nicole B.; Swingler, Margaret M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann
Current theoretical conceptualizations of regulatory development suggest that attention processes and emotion regulation processes share common neurophysiological underpinnings and behavioral antecedents such that emotion regulation abilities may build upon early attentional skills. To further elucidate this proposed relationship, we tested whether early neurophysiological processes measured during an attention task in infancy predicted in-task attention behavior, and whether infant's attention behavior was subsequently associated with their ability to regulate emotion in early childhood (N=388). Results indicated that, greater EEG power change (from baseline to task) at medial frontal locations (F3 and F4) during an attention task at 10 months were associated with concurrent observed behavioral attention. Specifically, greater change in EEG power at the right frontal location (F4) was associated with more attention, and greater EEG power at the left frontal location (F3) was associated with less attention, indicating a potential right hemisphere specialization for attention processes already present in the first year of life. In addition, after controlling for 5-month attention behavior, increased behavioral attention at 10-months was negatively associated with children's observed frustration to emotional challenge at age 3. Finally, the indirect effects from 10-month EEG power change at F3 and F4 to 3-year emotion regulation via infants' 10-month behavioral attention were significant, suggesting that infant's attention behavior is one mechanism through which early neurophysiological activity is related to emotion regulation abilities in childhood. PMID:26381926
Full Text Available This study investigated whether different behaviors young adolescents can act during bullying episodes were associated with their ability to recognize morphed facial expressions of the six basic emotions, expressed at high and low intensity. The sample included 117 middle-school students (45.3% girls; mean age = 12.4 years who filled in a peer nomination questionnaire and individually performed a computerized emotion recognition task. Bayesian generalized mixed-effects models showed a complex picture, in which type and intensity of emotions, students' behavior and gender interacted in explaining recognition accuracy. Results were discussed with a particular focus on negative emotions and suggesting a "neutral" nature of emotion recognition ability, which does not necessarily lead to moral behavior but can also be used for pursuing immoral goals.
Gini, Gianluca; Altoè, Gianmarco
This study investigated whether different behaviors young adolescents can act during bullying episodes were associated with their ability to recognize morphed facial expressions of the six basic emotions, expressed at high and low intensity. The sample included 117 middle-school students (45.3% girls; mean age = 12.4 years) who filled in a peer nomination questionnaire and individually performed a computerized emotion recognition task. Bayesian generalized mixed-effects models showed a complex picture, in which type and intensity of emotions, students’ behavior and gender interacted in explaining recognition accuracy. Results were discussed with a particular focus on negative emotions and suggesting a “neutral” nature of emotion recognition ability, which does not necessarily lead to moral behavior but can also be used for pursuing immoral goals. PMID:29131871
Full Text Available Introduction This paper analyzes the parental acceptance or rejection and the emotional intelligence among adolescents with and without delinquent behavior. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to explore the differences between parents’ acceptance/rejection (by mother and father, respectively and the emotional intelligence among adolescentswith and without delinquent behavior, as well as the correlation between parents’ acceptance/rejection (by mother and father, respectively and the emotional intelligence among minors with delinquent behavior. Methods: The survey was conducted on two groups of adolescents, that is, 30 respondents serving a prison sentence for minors and/or have been imposed an educational measure of referral to an Educational and Correctional Facility aged 14 to 18, and 40 respondents that are secondary school students at the same age. In this research, the terms minors and adolescents both refer to persons aged 14-18 years. All respondents were males. The following measuring instruments were used: Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire and a Questionnaire for Measuring Emotional Intelligence – 45. Results: Minors with and without delinquent behavior differ considerably in terms of perceiving parental acceptance (by the mother and by the father, aggressiveness, neglect and undifferentiated rejection. The feeling of being rejected by the parents is more common among minors with delinquent behavior than in those without such behavior. Furthermore, minors with delinquent behavior have lower emotional intelligence compared with their peers without delinquent behavior. Positive associations were found between parental acceptance and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: Minors with delinquent behavior have experienced lower acceptance and higher rejection from the parents and have lower emotional intelligence than their peers without delinquent behavior. In general, parental acceptance is associated with
Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt
that emotional responses are important explanations of this finding. It is first argued that the emotional response to a pro-social decision combined with private good purchase is different from the response to a similar decision in a non-market situation. Through evidence from a laboratory experiment...
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two training methods of emotional regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT and gross emotion regulation process model(GERM in reducing symptoms of emotional problems (depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity and hostility. Materials and Method: In this semi-experimental study, 45 students who referred to Isfahan university center by themselves, randomly selected between the students who have emotional problems, they randomly assigned into three groups (two experimental and a waiting list group. One of the experimental group received DBT and another on GERM. The data obtained using SCL-90-R and psychological interview (in pre- post test and follow-up. Results: 1- Both experimental methods reduce interpersonal sensitivity of students. 2- Just DBT reduced depression symptoms. 3- Both experimental methods reduce anxiety symptoms but in DBT, recurrent anxiety symptoms were observed in follow up stage. Also these methods had different effect on anxiety symptoms. 4- None of the above methods could reduce hostility symptoms. Conclusion: Those findings showed effectiveness of two training methods of emotional regulation on emotion problems. We could use GERM method for intervention in anxiety, DBT method for intervention in depression and both method for intervention in interpersonal sensitivity
Mattison, Richard E.
This study of 182 secondary special education students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders investigated their classification by their school districts, in particular how well they were distinguished and represented by their federal categories. The districts used four classification groups (emotional disturbance, other health impairment…
Gresham, Frank M.
Students with emotional and behavioral difficulties are often unserved or underserved by schools and by mental health systems. One reason for the under identification of these students is the current and past definitions of emotional disturbance (ED) specified in federal special education legislation (IDEA and IDEIA). These definitions are vague,…
Schmitt, Sara A.; Lewis, Kendra M.; Duncan, Robert J.; Korucu, Irem; Napoli, Amy R.
Children from low-income families are at greater risk for poor social-emotional development and physical health and may be in need of intervention. This study examined the extent to which the "Positive Action" ("PA") preschool lessons improved low-income children's social-emotional competence and health behaviors. Mixed…
Koss, Kalsea J.; George, Melissa R. W.; Bergman, Kathleen N.; Cummings, E. M.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante
Marital conflict is a distressing context in which children must regulate their emotion and behavior; however, the associations between the multidimensionality of conflict and children's regulatory processes need to be examined. The current study examined differences in children's (N=207, mean age=8.02 years) emotions (mad, sad, scared, and happy)…
Emotion tunes cognition, such that approach-motivated positive states promote verbal cognition, whereas withdrawal-motivated negative states promote spatial cognition (Gray, 2001). The current research examined whether self-control resources become depleted and influence subsequent behavior when emotion tunes an inappropriate cognitive tendency.…
Claro, Anthony; Boulanger, Marie-Michelle; Shaw, Steven R.
The paper examined the effectiveness of an in-school intervention for adolescents designed to target emotional regulation skills related to risky behaviors. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Intended for Youth (CERTIFY) program was delivered to at-risk adolescents in Montreal, Canada. Participants were drawn from an alternative high school and a…
Ongley, Sophia F.; Malti, Tina
This study investigated the role of moral emotions in the development of children's sharing behavior (N = 244 4-, 8-, and 12-year-old children). Children's sympathy was measured with both self- and primary caregiver-reports, and participants anticipated their negatively and positively valenced moral emotions (i.e., feeling guilty, sad, or bad; and…
Dunlap, Glen; Kern, Lee; dePerczel, Maria; Clarke, Shelley; Wilson, Diane; Childs, Karen E.; White, Ronnie; Falk, George D.
Functional assessment and functional analysis are processes that have been applied successfully in work with people who have developmental disabilities, but they have been used rarely with students who experience emotional or behavioral disorders. In the present study, five students in elementary school programs for severe emotional disturbance…
Warren, Jeffrey M.
This literature review explores the potential impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) on teacher efficacy and student achievement. Research conducted to date, focusing on increasing teacher efficacy and student achievement, has produced mixed results. Teachers continue to think, emote, and behave in unhelpful ways. REBT appears to…
Ilies, R.; de Pater, I.E.; Lim, S.; Binnewies, C.
Work-family conflict may give rise to different emotional reactions, depending on the causal attributions people make for the experience of work-family conflict. These emotional reactions, in turn, may result in specific behavioral reactions, that may either be adaptive or maladaptive in nature. In
Jacobson, Colleen M.; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.
Depression and suicidal thoughts and behaviors are prevalent among youth today. The current study sought to further our understanding of the correlates of depression and suicidality by assessing the relationship between restrictive emotionality (difficulty understanding and expressing emotions) and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and…
Wied, de M.; Boxtel, van Anton; Zaalberg, R.; Goudena, P.P.; Matthys, W.
Based on the assumption that facial mimicry is a key factor in emotional empathy, and clinical observations that children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are weak empathizers, the present study explored whether DBD boys are less facially responsive to facial expressions of emotions than
Roosen, M.A.; Safer, D.; Adler, S.; Cebolla, A.; Strien, T. van
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) has been shown to effectively target binge eating disorder (BED). This study pilots the effectiveness of group DIVE for obese "emotional eaters" to reduce eating psychopathology and achieve weight maintenance. Thirty-five obese male and female emotional eaters
Roosen, M A; Safer, D; Adler, S.N.; Cebolla, A.; van Strien, T
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) has been shown to effectively target binge eating disorder (BED). This study pilots the effectiveness of group DBT for obese "emotional eaters" to reduce eating psychopathology and achieve weight maintenance. Thirty-five obese male and female emotional eaters
Motamedi, Farzaneh; Ghobari-Bonab, Bagher; Beh-pajooh, Ahmad; Yekta, Mohsen Shokoohi; Afrooz, Gholam Ali
Development of children and adolescents' personality is strongly affected by their parents, and absence of one of them has an undesirable effect on their development, and makes them vulnerable to later psychological disorders and behavioral problems. The purpose of this study was to develop an emotional intelligence training program and to…
Giovagnoli, Giulia; Postorino, Valentina; Fatta, Laura M; Sanges, Veronica; De Peppo, Lavinia; Vassena, Lia; Rose, Paola De; Vicari, Stefano; Mazzone, Luigi
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were shown to experience more stress than parents of typically developing peers, although little is known about risk factors predicting stress in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental stress levels and behavioral and emotional problems in a sample of preschool children with ASD as compared to typically developing (TD) peers and to investigate the role of several factors, including the severity of autistic symptoms, adaptive skills, cognitive abilities and behavioral and emotional problems, on parental stress. Results confirmed that parents of children with ASD experience higher stress levels than parents of TD and that children with ASD show more behavioral and emotional problems than controls. Moreover, our results showed that behavioral and emotional problems are strong predictors of parental stress, while stress related to a parent-child dysfunctional relationship was associated with daily living and communication skills as well as cognitive abilities. Findings revealed different behavioral and emotional problems affecting parental stress in ASD and TD samples. No association between the severity of autism symptoms and parental stress was detected. These results suggest that dysfunctional behaviors in preschool children with ASD have a strong impact on parental stress, profoundly affecting the well-being of the entire family. Therefore, strategies aimed at the early detection and management of these behavioral and emotional problems are crucial in order to prevent parental stress and to develop the most appropriate treatment interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patton, Patricia Lucey
Rational behavior training is a proactive teaching model concerned with helping students with behavior disorders or serious emotional disturbances develop rational thinking and appropriate social skills. Describes a seven-session sequence for teaching rational behavior skills in a middle school setting. Pre- and posttest data revealed significant…
Conclusion: Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes.
The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone
Bullis, Michael; Cheney, Douglas
This article describes characteristics of adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders, transition outcomes for these students, model transition programs, and key transition service delivery components, including: intake and functional skill assessment, personal future planning, wraparound social services, competitive employment, flexible…
Atzil, Shir; Gendron, Maria
As adults, we have structured conceptual representations of our emotions that help us to make sense of and regulate our ongoing affective experience. The ability to use emotion concepts is critical to make predictions about the world and choose appropriate action, such as 'I am afraid, and going to run away' or 'I am hungry and going to eat'. Thus, emotion concepts have an important role in helping us maintain our ongoing physiological balance, or allostasis. We will suggest here that infants can learn emotion concepts for the purpose of allostasis regulation, and that conceptualization is key component in emotional development. Moreover, we will suggest that social dyads facilitate concept learning because of a robust evolutionary feature seen in newborns of social species: they cannot survive alone and depend on conspecifics for allostasis regulation. Such social dependency creates a robust driving force for social learning of emotion concepts, and makes the social dyad, which is designed to regulate the infant's allostasis, an optimal medium for concept learning. In line with that, we will review evidence showing that the neural reference space for emotion overlaps with neural circuits that support allostasis (striatum, amygdala, and hypothalamus) and conceptualization (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex), and that their developmental trajectories are interrelated, and depend on synchronous social care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available One of the consequences of extensive mindfulness practice is a reduction of anxiety and depression, but also a capacity to regulate negative emotions. In this study, we explored four key questions concerning mindfulness training: (1 What are the processes by which mindfulness regulates our emotions? (2 Can mindfulness be applied to social emotions? (3 Does mindfulness training affect emotionally driven behavior towards others? (4 Does mindfulness alter physiological reactivity? To address these questions, we tested, in two experiments, the ability of mindfulness meditators to regulate interpersonal emotions (Experiment 1 and interactive behaviors (Experiment 2 as compared to naïve controls. To better understand the mechanisms by which mindfulness regulates emotions, we asked participants to apply two strategies: a cognitive strategy (mentalizing, a form of reappraisal focused on the intentions of others and an experiential strategy derived from mindfulness principles (mindful detachment. Both groups were able to regulate interpersonal emotions by means of cognitive (mentalizing and experiential (mindful detachment strategies. In Experiment 1, a simple effect of meditation, independent from the implementation of the strategies, resulted in reduced emotional and physiological reactivity, as well as in increased pleasantness for meditators when compared to controls, providing evidence of baseline regulation. In Experiment 2, one visible effect of the strategy was that meditators outperformed controls in the experiential (mindful detachment but not in the cognitive (mentalize strategy, showing stronger modulation of their interactive behavior (less punishments and providing evidence of a strategic behavioral regulation. Based on these results, we suggest that mindfulness can influence interpersonal emotional reactions through an experiential mechanism, both at a baseline level and a strategic level, thereby altering the subjective and physiological
Fang-Ju Tsai; Shu-Tsen Liu; Chi-Mei Lee; Wang-Tso Lee; Pi-Chuan Fan; Wei-Sheng Lin; Yen-Nan Chiu; Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. Methods: We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6–16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parenta...
Wiwad, Dylan; Aknin, Lara
Past research has demonstrated that engaging in and reflecting upon past instances of prosocial behavior promote happiness. Yet, people provide help for a myriad of reasons. Do the motives for giving impact its emotional consequences? In three experiments (N > 680), we compared the emotional outcomes of recalling a past instance of prosocial behavior motivated by self-focused and other-focused concerns. Using both between and within subjects designs, we find that recalling an instance of o...
Narme, Pauline; Mouras, Harold; Roussel, Martine; Duru, Cécile; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Godefroy, Olivier
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with behavioral disorders that can affect social functioning but are poorly understood. Since emotional and cognitive social processes are known to be crucial in social relationships, impairment of these processes may account for the emergence of behavioral disorders. We used a systematic battery of tests to assess emotional processes and social cognition in PD patients and relate our findings to conventional neuropsychological data (especially behavioral disorders). Twenty-three PD patients and 46 controls (matched for age and educational level) were included in the study and underwent neuropsychological testing, including an assessment of the behavioral and cognitive components of executive function. Emotional and cognitive social processes were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index caregiver-administered questionnaire (as a measure of empathy), a facial emotion recognition task and two theory of mind (ToM) tasks. When compared with controls, PD patients showed low levels of empathy (p = .006), impaired facial emotion recognition (which persisted after correction for perceptual abilities) (p = .001), poor performance in a second-order ToM task (p = .008) that assessed both cognitive (p = .004) and affective (p = .03) inferences and, lastly, frequent dysexecutive behavioral disorders (in over 40% of the patients). Overall, impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning was observed in 17% of patients and was related to certain cognitive dysexecutive disorders. In terms of behavioral dysexecutive disorders, social behavior disorders were related to impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning (p = .04) but were independent of cognitive impairments. Emotional and cognitive social processes were found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease. This impairment may account for the emergence of social behavioral disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Saman Chehrazi; Mehrdad Hoseini Shakib; Mohammad Hosein Askari Azad
This paper presents a casual structure model between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior by using organizational commitment as mediator variable. The study is accomplished among 324 employees of united bus company in city of Tehran, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has confirmed that emotional intelligence influenced on organizational citizenship behavior and commitment. The study also confirms that organizational commitment influenced on organiza...
Muhamad Abdul Kohar; Imam Mujahid
This article describes the concept of guidance and counseling rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) Islamic to increase the resilience of prostitutes. REBT is an approach that directive, the approach to reeducation counselees to understand the cognitive input that causes emotional disturbance, trying to change the thought patterns counselee to let the irrational thoughts or study anticipates the benefits or consequences of behavior. Resilience is the ability of individuals to adapt, so as ...
Butler, Rachel M; Boden, Matthew T; Olino, Thomas M; Morrison, Amanda S; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J; Heimberg, Richard G
We examined (1) differences between controls and patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) in emotional clarity and attention to emotions; (2) changes in emotional clarity and attention to emotions associated with cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), or a waitlist (WL) condition; and (3) whether emotional clarity and attention to emotions moderated changes in social anxiety across treatment. Participants were healthy controls (n = 37) and patients with SAD (n = 108) who were assigned to CBGT, MBSR, or WL in a randomized controlled trial. At pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up, patients with SAD completed measures of social anxiety, emotional clarity, and attention to emotions. Controls completed measures at baseline only. At pretreatment, patients with SAD had lower levels of emotional clarity than controls. Emotional clarity increased significantly among patients receiving CBGT, and changes were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Emotional clarity at posttreatment did not differ between CBGT and MBSR or between MBSR and WL. Changes in emotional clarity predicted changes in social anxiety, but emotional clarity did not moderate treatment outcome. Analyses of attention to emotions were not significant. Implications for the role of emotional clarity in the treatment of SAD are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Song, Ju-Hyun; Colasante, Tyler; Malti, Tina
Although emotionally well-regulated children are more likely to behave prosocially, the psychological processes that connect their emotion regulation abilities and prosocial behavior are less clear. We tested if other-oriented sympathy and trust mediated the links between emotion regulation capacities (i.e., resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA], negative emotional intensity, and sadness regulation) and prosocial behavior in an ethnically diverse sample of 4- and 8-year-olds (N = 131; 49% girls). Resting RSA was calculated from children's electrocardiogram data in response to a nondescript video. Sympathy was child and caregiver reported, whereas negative emotional intensity, sadness regulation, trust, and prosocial behavior were caregiver reported. Regardless of age, higher resting RSA was linked to higher sympathy, which was associated with higher prosocial behavior. The positive link between sadness regulation and prosocial behavior was mediated by higher sympathy and trust. Children's other-oriented psychological processes may play important roles in translating certain emotion regulation capacities into prosocial behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Sirvinskiene, Giedre; Zemaitiene, Nida; Jusiene, Roma; Markuniene, Egle
Emotional and behavioral problems at an early age can reasonably be considered a high-risk factor for later mental health disorders. The aim of the article is to reveal predictive factors of 1½-year-old children's emotional and behavioral problems. The study was a part of a prospective birth-cohort study. The study sample consisted of 172 full-term infants (born during Gestational Weeks 37-42) and their mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at the age of 1½ years were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 (T. Achenbach & L. Rescorla, 2000), which was completed by mothers. Emotional and behavioral problems at age of 1½ years were more prevalent in infants born via cesarean section, as compared to infants born vaginally without administration of medication. Newborns' suboptimal functioning after birth, complicated emotional acceptance of pregnancy, a couple's nonsatisfactory relationship during pregnancy, maternal distress during pregnancy and in the first months after childbirth, and inflexible and parent-oriented attitudes toward infant-rearing also predicted children's emotional and behavioral problems independent of sociodemographic factors. Results suggest that biomedical and psychosocial factors which manifest themselves in the prenatal and perinatal periods can have associations with later infant and child mental health. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Full Text Available Emotional eating is an attempt to avoid, control, or cope with negative emotions through eating a large amount of calorie dense sweet and/or high fat foods. Several factors, including various attentional mechanisms, negative affect, and stress, impact emotional eating behavior. For example, attentional narrowing on negative events may increase attentional stickiness and thereby prevent the processing of more peripheral events, such as eating behavior. This study contributes to the extant literature by examining the neural correlates underlying the attentional conflict between processing negative events and regulating behavior within a task that emulates how negative life experiences might contribute to unrestrained eating behavior. We explore this question within a normative sample that varies in their self-reported anxiety symptoms. Dense-array EEG was collected while participants played the attentional blink game—a task in which excessive attentional resource allocated to one event (e.g., negative picture interferes with the adequate attentional processing of a second event that requires action. To assess the attentional conflict, we measured N2 activation, an event-related potentials (ERPs; averaged EEG associated with conflict processing. Results revealed that N2 activation moderates the association between anxiety and emotional-eating behavior. Thus, increased anxiety combined with more negative N2 activation can contribute to emotional-eating behavior. These results are discussed in the context of ineffective conflict processing contributing to poor emotion regulation.
Papazacharias, Apostolos; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Quarto, Tiziana; Mancini, Marina; Porcelli, Annamaria; Romano, Raffaella; Caforio, Grazia; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro
Earlier studies have demonstrated that emotional stimulation modulates attentional processing during goal-directed behavior and related activity of a brain network including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the caudate nucleus. However, it is not clear how emotional interference modulates behavior and brain physiology during variation in attentional control, a relevant question for everyday life situations in which both emotional stimuli and cognitive load vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of negative emotions on behavior and activity in IFG and caudate nucleus during increasing levels of attentional control. Twenty two healthy subjects underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task in which neutral or fearful facial expressions were displayed before stimuli eliciting increasing levels of attentional control processing. Results indicated slower reaction time (RT) and greater right IFG activity when fearful compared with neutral facial expressions preceded the low level of attentional control. On the other hand, fearful facial expressions preceding the intermediate level of attentional control elicited faster behavioral responses and greater activity in the right and left sides of the caudate. Finally, correlation analysis indicated a relationship between behavioral correlates of attentional control after emotional interference and right IFG activity. All together, these results suggest that the impact of negative emotions on attentional processing is differentially elicited at the behavioral and physiological levels as a function of cognitive load.
Alice Y. Hua
Full Text Available Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by profound changes in emotions and empathy. Although most patients with bvFTD become less sensitive to negative emotional cues, some patients become more sensitive to positive emotional stimuli. We investigated whether dysregulated positive emotions in bvFTD undermine empathy by making it difficult for patients to share (emotional empathy, recognize (cognitive empathy, and respond (real-world empathy to emotions in others. Fifty-one participants (26 patients with bvFTD and 25 healthy controls viewed photographs of neutral, positive, negative, and self-conscious emotional faces and then identified the emotions displayed in the photographs. We used facial electromyography to measure automatic, sub-visible activity in two facial muscles during the task: Zygomaticus major (ZM, which is active during positive emotional reactions (i.e., smiling, and Corrugator supercilii (CS, which is active during negative emotional reactions (i.e., frowning. Participants rated their baseline positive and negative emotional experience before the task, and informants rated participants' real-world empathic behavior on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. The majority of participants also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. A mixed effects model found a significant diagnosis X trial interaction: patients with bvFTD showed greater ZM reactivity to neutral, negative (disgust and surprise, self-conscious (proud, and positive (happy faces than healthy controls. There was no main effect of diagnosis or diagnosis X trial interaction on CS reactivity. Compared to healthy controls, patients with bvFTD had impaired emotion recognition. Multiple regression analyses revealed that greater ZM reactivity predicted worse negative emotion recognition and worse real-world empathy. At baseline, positive emotional experience was higher in bvFTD than healthy controls and also
Farbiash, Tali; Berger, Andrea
Inhibitory control (IC) - one of the most critical functions underlying a child's ability to self-regulate - develops significantly throughout the kindergarten years. Experiencing negative emotions imposes challenges on executive functioning and may specifically affect IC. In this study, we examined kindergartners' IC and its related brain activity during a negative emotional situation: 58 children (aged 5.5-6.5 years) performed an emotion-induction Go/NoGo task. During this task, we recorded children's performance and brain activity, focusing on the fronto-central N2 component in the event-related potential (ERP) and the power of its underlying theta frequency. Compared to Go trials, inhibition of NoGo trials was associated with larger N2 amplitudes and theta power. The negative emotional experience resulted in better IC performance and, at the brain level, in larger theta power. Source localization of this effect showed that the brain activity related to IC during the negative emotional experience was principally generated in the posterior frontal regions. Furthermore, the band power measure was found to be a more sensitive index for children's inhibitory processes than N2 amplitudes. This is the first study to focus on kindergartners' IC while manipulating their emotional experience to induce negative emotions. Our findings suggest that a kindergartner's experience of negative emotion can result in improved IC and increases in associated aspects of brain activity. Our results also suggest the utility of time-frequency analyses in the study of brain processes associated with response inhibition in young children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Soto, José A; Levenson, Robert W; Ebling, Rachel
Ethnographic accounts suggest that emotions are moderated in Chinese cultures and expressed openly in Mexican cultures. The authors tested this notion by comparing subjective, behavioral, and physiological aspects of emotional responses to 3 (warned, unwarned, instructed to inhibit responding) aversive acoustic startle stimuli in 95 Chinese Americans and 64 Mexican Americans. Subjective reports were consistent with ethnographic accounts; Chinese Americans reported experiencing significantly less emotion than Mexican Americans across all 3 startle conditions. Evidence from a nonemotional task suggested that these differences were not artifacts of cultural differences in the use of rating scales. Few cultural differences were found in emotional behavior or physiology, suggesting that these aspects of emotion are less susceptible to cultural influence.
Cheung, Francis Yue-Lok; Cheung, Ray Yu-Hin
In this study, the stressor-strain-outcome (SSO) model developed by Koeske and Koeske was adopted to examine the mediating effect of burnout between emotional dissonance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The study involved 264 full-time Chinese school teachers (82 men, 16 women, and 22 individuals whose genders were not specified; mean age = 34.4 years and SD = 8.09 years). Correlation analysis showed that emotional dissonance is positively related to all three burnout dimensions (i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment). Emotional dissonance is also negatively related to OCB toward individuals. Results from structural equation modeling support the SSO model, which states that emotional dissonance first leads to burnout and then to lower OCB. The limitations and implications to the school management, such as provision of emotional regulation training and strengthening of the social network system, were also discussed.
Trach, Jessica; Lee, Matthew; Hymel, Shelley
A substantial body of evidence verifies that social-emotional learning (SEL) can be effectively taught in schools and can reduce the prevalence and impact of emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) among children and youth. Although the positive effects of SEL on individual student's emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes have been…
Baker, Jason K.; Fenning, Rachel M.; Crnic, Keith A.
This study examined inter-relations among different types of parental emotion socialization behaviors in 88 mothers and 76 fathers (co-residing with participating mothers) of eight-year-old children. Parents completed questionnaires assessing emotion socialization behaviors, emotion-related attitudes, and their children's social functioning. An…
Kavanaugh, Brian C; Scarborough, Vanessa Ramos; Salorio, Cynthia F
The present study examined clinical and demographic risk factors associated with parent-rated emotional-behavioral and executive functioning in children and adolescents with epilepsy. The medical records of 152 children and adolescents with epilepsy referred for neuropsychological evaluation were reviewed. Results indicated that the sample displayed significantly elevated symptoms across the emotional-behavioral and executive domains assessed. Executive functioning and behavioral symptoms had the highest rates of clinically elevated scores, with lowest rates of elevated scores in internalizing and externalizing emotional problems. Only 34% of those participants with clinically significant emotional-behavioral or executive functioning difficulties had a history of psychological or counseling services, highlighting the underserved mental health needs of this population. In regard to clinical factors, the majority of seizure-related variables were not associated with emotional-behavioral or executive functioning. However, the frequency of seizures (i.e., seizure status) was associated with behavioral regulation aspects of executive functioning, and the age at evaluation was associated with externalizing problems and behavioral symptoms. Family psychiatric history (with the exception of ADHD) was associated with all domains of executive and emotional-behavioral functioning. In summary, emotional-behavioral and executive functioning difficulties frequently co-occur with seizures in childhood epilepsy, with both seizure-related and demographic factors contributing to the presentation of such neurobehavioral comorbidities. The present findings provide treatment providers of childhood epilepsy with important information to assist in better identifying children and adolescents who may be at risk for neurobehavioral comorbidities and may benefit from intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin
This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed…
Kilgus, Stephen P.; Bowman, Nicollette A.; Christ, Theodore J.; Taylor, Crystal N.
This study examined the extent to which teacher ratings of student behavior via the "Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener" (SAEBRS) predicted academic achievement in math and reading. A secondary purpose was to compare the predictive capacity of three SAEBRS subscales corresponding to social, academic, or emotional…
Hawkins, Renee O.; Haydon, Todd; McCoy, Dacia; Howard, Andrea
An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency with randomized components to improve the transition behavior of middle school students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) served in an alternative educational setting. The intervention was implemented by one teacher with three…
Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.
This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…
Christina Whidya Utami
Full Text Available Along with the process of globalization, the retail industry has been growing into a business that is very influential in the world economy, including Indonesian economy. The growth of modern retailers dominates the retail business in Indonesia, supported by the widespread presence of foreign retailers bringing modern retail concepts. The trend choice of shopping places of the Indonesian people in the future are shopping malls and modern markets. This will drive changes in customer behavior in making purchase decisions. The development model used to describe the behavior of consumer spending, which is rarely used, especially in Indonesia, is a Model of Goal-Directed Behavior (MGB. MGB has factors of the model builders from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. They are past behavior and emotional factors. Therefore, it is possible to further examine the distinction between expectations and interests as variables that can motivate a person in making purchasing decisions. The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze: 1 the influence of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and emotion on the desire in the form of modern retail consumer behavior patterns 2 the influence of desire and perceived behavioral control on the intention in forming the patterns of modern retail consumer behavior. 202 modern retail consumers in Surabaya region (North, South, East, West and Central were used as respondents. Stratified judgment sampling was applied and the SEM (Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the hypotheses. The first finding of the study is that attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and emotion have a significant effect on desire. The second finding is that desire and perceived behavioral control significantly influence the intention in forming the modern retail consumer behavior patterns. It was also found a good fit model that builds the influence of attitude, subjective norm, anticipated positive
Full Text Available In the study of nonconscious processing, different methods have been used in order to renderstimuli invisible. While their properties are well described, the level at which they disruptnonconscious processing remains unclear. Yet, such accurate estimation of the depth ofnonconscious processes is crucial for a clear differentiation between conscious and nonconsciouscognition. Here, we compared the processing of facial expressions rendered invisible through gazecontingentcrowding (GCC, masking, and continuous flash suppression (CFS, three techniquesrelying on different properties of the visual system. We found that both pictures and videos of happyfaces suppressed from awareness by GCC were processed such as to bias subsequent preferencejudgments. The same stimuli manipulated with visual masking and CFS did not bias significantlypreference judgments, although they were processed such as to elicit perceptual priming. Asignificant difference in preference bias was found between GCC and CFS, but not between GCCand masking. These results provide new insights regarding the nonconscious impact of emotionalfeatures, and highlight the need for rigorous comparisons between the different methods employedto prevent perceptual awareness.
Soleman, Remi S; Staphorsius, A.S.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Veltman, Dick J; van Trotsenburg, M.A.A.; Hompes, Peter G A; Drent, M L; de Ronde, W P; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C
Although the prevailing opinion is that emotional processes are influenced by sex hormones, the literature is still inconclusive. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of gonadal suppression on brain activity during affective picture processing. Twenty-one female-to-male (FtM)
Meyer, Dixie; Cohn, Aaron; Robinson, Brittany; Muse, Fatima; Hughes, Rachel
Child sexual abuse has the potential to cause distress for the victim across the lifespan. Romantic relationships may be particularly difficult for victims of child sexual abuse. This retrospective study examined differences in adult romantic attachment, sexually compulsive behaviors, and emotion regulation by history of child sexual abuse in a large, nonclinical sample. Those with a history of child sexual abuse reported more attachment anxiety in romantic relationships and engaged in more sexually compulsive behaviors. Overall, males displayed more sexually compulsive behaviors than females regardless of history of sexual abuse. Males with a history of sexual abuse displayed the greatest number of sexually compulsive behaviors. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in emotion regulation or attachment avoidant behaviors by history of child sexual abuse. Future research should seek to replicate current findings and examine emotion regulation difficulties experienced as a result of trauma.
Sanchez-Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Baaklini, Amal
This study investigates the relationship between Aggressive Behavior and individual factors, namely trait Emotional Intelligence, personality dimensions, emotion regulation and self-worth, as well as social factors, namely accepting/rejecting parenting styles and exposure to violence. The sample consisted of 252 university students in Lebanon (154 females), from 16 to 30 years old. Results from hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for age and gender and in the presence of social and individual predictors) showed that the Self-control and Emotionality factors of trait Emotional Intelligence were significant negative predictors of Aggressive Behavior while controlling for age and gender and in the presence of social and individual predictors). Exposure to violence and openness to experience also predicted Aggressive Behavior. Implications for future research and limitations of the present study are discussed.
Paulussen-Hoogeboom, Marja C; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hermanns, Jo M A; Peetsma, Thea T D; van den Wittenboer, Godfried L H
Negative emotionality is considered to be the core of the difficult temperament concept (J. E. Bates, 1989; R. L. Shiner, 1998). In this correlational study, the authors examined whether the relations between children's negative emotionality and problematic behavior (internalizing and externalizing) were partially mediated by parenting style (authoritative and authoritarian) in a community sample of 196 3-year-old children and their mothers. The authors assessed maternal perception of child negative emotionality using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (M. K. Rothbart, S. A. Ahadi, K. L. Hershey, & P. Fisher, 2001) and assessed problematic child behavior by means of maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist (T. M. Achenbach, 1992). The results showed that the relations between child negative emotionality and internalizing and externalizing behaviors were partially mediated by mothers' authoritative parenting style. Moreover, when the authors used confirmatory factor analysis to decontaminate possible overlap in item content between measures assessing temperament and problematic behavior, the association between negative emotionality and internalizing behavior was fully mediated by authoritative parenting.
Mundy, Lisa K; Canterford, Louise; Tucker, Dawn; Bayer, Jordana; Romaniuk, Helena; Sawyer, Susan; Lietz, Petra; Redmond, Gerry; Proimos, Jenny; Allen, Nicholas; Patton, George
Many emotional and behavioral problems first emerge in primary school and are the forerunners of mental health problems occurring in adolescence. However, the extent that these problems may be associated with academic failure has been explored less. We aimed to quantify the association between emotional and behavioral problems with academic performance. A stratified random sample of 8- to 9-year-olds (N = 1239) were recruited from schools in Australia. Data linkage was performed with a national assessment of academic performance to assess reading and numeracy. Parent report assessed emotional and behavioral problems with students dichotomized into "borderline/abnormal" and "normal" categories. One in 5 grade 3 students fell in the "borderline/abnormal" category. Boys with total difficulties (β = -47.8, 95% CI: -62.8 to -32.8), conduct problems, and peer problems scored lower on reading. Numeracy scores were lower in boys with total difficulties (β = -37.7, 95% CI: -53.9 to -21.5) and emotional symptoms. Children with hyperactivity/inattention scored lower in numeracy. Girls with peer problems scored lower in numeracy. Boys with emotional and behavioral problems in mid-primary school were 12 months behind their peers. Children with emotional and behavioral problems are at high risk for academic failure, and this risk is evident in mid-primary school. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Osman Ferda BEYTEKİN
Full Text Available In this study, higher education administrators, administrative behaviors; as educator, leader and manager, emotional competency; as self awareness and self management and social competency; as social awareness and social skills were compared according to two different cultures. The data was collected by inventories from 165 educators, and head of the departments Istanbul, and Helsinki Universities in 2008-2009 educational year. Elkins' administrative behaviors of higher education administrators inventory and Goleman's emotional and social competence inventory were conducted to test the differences. The manager behaviors of Istanbul University administrators are significantly higher than University of Helsinki administrators. The emotional competences of University of Helsinki administrators are significantly higher than the administrators of Istanbul University in the dimensions of self-awareness, self management, emotional selfcontrol, achievement orientation and positive outlook. The social competencies of University of Helsinki administrators are significantly higher than the administrators of Istanbul University in the dimensions of social awareness, empathy, and conflict management. On the other hand, the social competencies of Istanbul University administrators are significantly higher than the administrators of University of Helsinki in the dimensions of organizational awareness, coach and mentor, influence and teamwork. There is a significant positive relationship between the leadership behaviors and emotional and social competencies administrators in both Istanbul University and University of Helsinki. Significant differences are found between faculties and administrators about the administrative behaviors and emotional and social competences of administrators both at İstanbul University and University of Helsinki.
Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with substance abuse show signs of negative emotion regulation strategies and impaired interpersonal behaviors. The aim of the present research was to determine the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and interpersonal behavior among substance abusers. Method: The research design was a correlation study. The research sample consisted of 100 who were selected of the substance abusers that referred to clinical of addiction withdrawal by random sample method in Ardabil city. To collect the data, Emotion regulation Scale and Interpersonal Reactivity Index were used. Results: The results showed that positive and negative emotion regulation strategies were correlated to interpersonal behavior in substance abusers. The results of multiple regression analysis showed positive and negative emotion regulation strategies explained 16 percent of interpersonal behavior variance. Also the results showed that “putting into perspective“ was found to be the best predictor for interpersonal behavior. Conclusion: These results have important implications in psychopathological of substance abuse. On the basis of these results, clinicians can use emotion regulation strategies in order to cope substance abuse.
Barasch, Alixandra; Levine, Emma E; Berman, Jonathan Z; Small, Deborah A
Theories that reject the existence of altruism presume that emotional benefits serve as ulterior motives for doing good deeds. These theories argue that even in the absence of material and reputational benefits, individuals reap utility from the feelings associated with doing good. In response to this normative view of altruism, this article examines the descriptive question of whether laypeople penalize emotional prosocial actors. Six studies find that emotion serves as a positive signal of moral character, despite the intrapsychic benefits associated with it. This is true when emotion motivates prosocial behavior (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 5) and when emotion is a positive outcome of prosocial behavior (i.e., "warm glow"; Studies 4, 5, and 6). Emotional actors are considered to be moral because people believe emotion provides an honest and direct signal that the actor feels a genuine concern for others. Consequently, prosocial actors who are motivated by the expectation of emotional rewards are judged differently than prosocial actors who are motivated by other benefits, such as reputational or material rewards (Study 6). These results suggest that laypeople do not view altruism as incompatible with all benefits to the self. 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Kwok, Sylvia Lai Yuk Ching; Shek, Daniel Tan Lei
Utilizing Daniel Goleman's theory of emotional competence, Beck's cognitive theory, and Rudd's cognitive-behavioral theory of suicidality, the relationships between hopelessness (cognitive component), social problem solving (cognitive-behavioral component), emotional competence (emotive component), and adolescent suicidal ideation were examined. Based on the responses of 5,557 Secondary 1 to Secondary 4 students from 42 secondary schools in Hong Kong, results showed that suicidal ideation was positively related to adolescent hopelessness, but negatively related to emotional competence and social problem solving. While standard regression analyses showed that all the above variables were significant predictors of suicidal ideation, hierarchical regression analyses showed that hopelessness was the most important predictor of suicidal ideation, followed by social problem solving and emotional competence. Further regression analyses found that all four subscales of emotional competence, i.e., empathy, social skills, self-management of emotions, and utilization of emotions, were important predictors of male adolescent suicidal ideation. However, the subscale of social skills was not a significant predictor of female adolescent suicidal ideation. Standard regression analysis also revealed that all three subscales of social problem solving, i.e., negative problem orientation, rational problem solving, and impulsiveness/carelessness style, were important predictors of suicidal ideation. Theoretical and practice implications of the findings are discussed.
Sylvia Y.C.L. Kwok
Full Text Available Utilizing Daniel Goleman's theory of emotional competence, Beck's cognitive theory, and Rudd's cognitive-behavioral theory of suicidality, the relationships between hopelessness (cognitive component, social problem solving (cognitive-behavioral component, emotional competence (emotive component, and adolescent suicidal ideation were examined. Based on the responses of 5,557 Secondary 1 to Secondary 4 students from 42 secondary schools in Hong Kong, results showed that suicidal ideation was positively related to adolescent hopelessness, but negatively related to emotional competence and social problem solving. While standard regression analyses showed that all the above variables were significant predictors of suicidal ideation, hierarchical regression analyses showed that hopelessness was the most important predictor of suicidal ideation, followed by social problem solving and emotional competence. Further regression analyses found that all four subscales of emotional competence, i.e., empathy, social skills, self-management of emotions, and utilization of emotions, were important predictors of male adolescent suicidal ideation. However, the subscale of social skills was not a significant predictor of female adolescent suicidal ideation. Standard regression analysis also revealed that all three subscales of social problem solving, i.e., negative problem orientation, rational problem solving, and impulsiveness/carelessness style, were important predictors of suicidal ideation. Theoretical and practice implications of the findings are discussed.
Dvorak, Robert D; Kuvaas, Nicholas J; Lamis, Dorian A; Pearson, Matthew R; Stevenson, Brittany L
Emotional and behavioral regulation has been linked to coping and enhancement motives and associated with different patterns of alcohol use and problems. The current studies examined emotional instability, urgency, and internal drinking motives as predictors of alcohol dependence symptoms as well as the likelihood and severity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th editionAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD). In Study 1, college drinkers (n = 621) completed alcohol involvement and behavioral/emotional functioning assessments. There was an indirect association between emotional instability and dependence symptoms via both coping and enhancement drinking motives which was potentiated by trait urgency. In Study 2, college drinkers (n = 510) completed alcohol involvement, behavioral/emotional functioning, and AUD criteria assessments. A significant indirect effect from emotional instability to the likelihood of meeting AUD criteria, via drinking to cope was found, again potentiated by urgency. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lee, Bong Hyo; Lim, Sung Chul; Jeon, Hyeon Jeong; Kim, Jae Su; Lee, Yun Kyu; Lee, Hyun Jong; In, Sunghyun; Kim, Hee Young; Yoon, Seong Shoon; Yang, Chae Ha
Morphine causes physical and psychological dependence for individuals after repeated-use. Above all, our previous study showed that acupuncture attenuated reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior induced by pharmacological cue. In this study, we investigated whether acupuncture could suppress the reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior induced by the combination of environmental and pharmacological cues and the possible neuronal involvement. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer morphine (1.0 mg/kg) for 3 weeks. Following the withdrawal phase (7 days), the effects of acupuncture on reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior were investigated. For the investigation of neuronal involvement, the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline and the GABAB receptor antagonist SCH 50911 were pre-treated. Morphine-seeking behavior induced by combination of re-exposure to the operant chamber and morphine injection was suppressed perfectly by acupuncture at SI5, but not at the control acupoint LI5 and this effect was blocked by pre-treatment with the GABA receptor antagonists. This study suggests that acupuncture at SI5 can be considered as a predominant therapy for the reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Bocknek, Erika London; Vallotton, Claire D; Stansbury, Kathy E; Senehi, Neda; Dalimonte-Merckling, Danielle; Lee, Young-Eun
To test the hypothesis that toddlers at highest risk for behavioral problems from the most economically vulnerable families will benefit most from maternal talk about emotions. This study included 89 toddlers and mothers from low-income families. Behavioral problems were rated at 2 time points by masters-level trained Early Head Start home visiting specialists. Maternal emotion talk was coded from a wordless book-sharing task. Coding focused on mothers' emotion bridging, which included labeling emotions, explaining the context of emotions, noting the behavioral cues of emotions, and linking emotions to toddlers' own experiences. Maternal demographic risk reflected a composite score of 5 risk factors. A significant 3-way interaction between Time 1 toddler behavior problems, maternal emotion talk, and maternal demographic risk (p = .001) and examination of slope difference tests revealed that when maternal demographic risk was greater, more maternal emotion talk buffered associations between earlier and later behavior problems. Greater demographic risk and lower maternal emotion talk intensified Time 1 behavior problems as a predictor of Time 2 behavior problems. The model explained 54% of the variance in toddlers' Time 2 behavior problems. Analyses controlled for maternal warmth to better examine the unique contributions of emotion bridging to toddlers' behaviors. Toddlers at highest risk, those with more early behavioral problems from higher demographic-risk families, benefit the most from mothers' emotion talk. Informing parents about the use of emotion talk may be a cost-effective, simple strategy to support at-risk toddlers' social-emotional development and reduce behavioral problems.
Noely Gisela de la Vega
Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to analyze if the empathic po- sitive emotions, sympathy and gratitude influence teenager’s social behavior. The sample was composed of 255 participants of both sexes (109 women and 146 men, aged 14-18 (M =15.97, DE = 1.18, who attended different schools in Buenos Aires province. In order to get the information, it was used: a the Index of Empathy for children and teenagers (Frías, Mestre, Perez and Samper, 1999; b the gratitude scale corresponding to the Questionnaire of Positive Emotions for teenagers (Schmidt, 2005 and c the Assertive Behavior scale (Michelson, Sugay, Wood and Kasdin, 1987. The results from MANO-VAs (Multivariate analysis of variance show that both sympathy and gratitude influence signifi- cantly teenager’s social behavior. Participants with high sympathy and gratitude show more assertive behaviors and less aggressive strategies in their social re- lationships. It corroborates the hypothesis that empathic emotion can enhance the development and performance of socially skilled behavior. Nevertheless, is important to note that this relation may not be unidirectional, but those positive emotions can enhance assertive behavior and this, in turn, provide feedback for positive emotional experience as it is expressed by the model of rising spiral by Fredrickson (Fredrickson, 2002.
MacFarlane, Kate; Woolfson, Lisa Marks
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to examine relationships between teacher attitudes and behavior toward children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). One hundred and eleven elementary school teachers completed questionnaires. Teacher perception of their school principals' expectations (subjective norm) predicted…
Chiu, Isabelle; Piguet, Olivier; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Riedl, Lina; Beck, Johannes; Leyhe, Thomas; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Kressig, Reto W; Berres, Manfred; Monsch, Andreas U; Sollberger, Marc
Misdiagnosis of early behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) with major depressive disorder (MDD) is not uncommon due to overlapping symptoms. The aim of this study was to improve the discrimination between these disorders using a novel facial emotion perception task. In this prospective cohort study (July 2013-March 2016), we compared 25 patients meeting Rascovsky diagnostic criteria for bvFTD, 20 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for MDD, 21 patients meeting McKhann diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease dementia, and 31 healthy participants on a novel emotion intensity rating task comprising morphed low-intensity facial stimuli. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of morphed faces on the congruent basic emotion (eg, rating on sadness when sad face is shown) and on the 5 incongruent basic emotions (eg, rating on each of the other basic emotions when sad face is shown). While bvFTD patients underrated congruent emotions (P dementia patients perceived emotions similarly to healthy participants, indicating no impact of cognitive impairment on rating scores. Our congruent and incongruent facial emotion intensity rating task allows a detailed assessment of facial emotion perception in patient populations. By using this simple task, we achieved an almost complete discrimination between bvFTD and MDD, potentially helping improve the diagnostic certainty in early bvFTD. © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Ortiz Barón, María J; Etxebarria Bilbao, Itziar; Apodaca Urquijo, Pedro; Conejero López, Susana; Pascual Jimeno, Aitziber
The present study aims to explore the main effects and interactive effects of empathy, guilt, shame, pride (authentic and hubristic), and moral pride, on prosocial and antisocial behavior in children. The sample group comprised 351 children aged between 10 and 14 selected from four schools in the Basque Country (Spain). Hierarchical multiple regression models were used in the statistical analyses. Prosocial behavior was found to be predicted by the additive interaction between empathy and moral pride, by guilt and, to a lesser extent and negatively, by shame. In relation to antisocial behavior, children with a strong disposition to guilt scored lower for antisocial behavior, regardless of their empathy levels. Nevertheless, the combination of low empathy and low guilt levels was associated with highest antisocial behavior scores. As regards shame, this emotion was moderately associated with antisocial behavior. By exploring interactions the present study provided a more nuanced view of the emotional factors associated with children´s prosocial and antisocial behavior.
Full Text Available Aggressive behavior can be defined as any behavior intended to hurt another person, and it is associated with many individual and social factors. This study examined the relationship between emotional regulation and inhibitory control in predicting aggressive behavior. Seventy-eight participants (40 males completed self-report measures (Negative Mood Regulation Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, a stop signal task, and engaged in a modified version of Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP exercise, in which the outcome was used as a measure of direct physical aggression. We used a hierarchical, mixed-model multiple regression analysis test to examine the effects of emotion regulation and inhibitory control on physical reactive aggression. Results indicated an interaction between emotion regulation and inhibitory control on aggression. For participants with low inhibitory control only, there was a significant difference between high and low emotion regulation on aggression, such that low emotion regulation participants registered higher aggression than high emotion regulation participants. This difference was not found among participants with high inhibitory control. These results have implications for refining and targeting training and rehabilitation programs aimed at reducing aggressive behavior.
Tösten, Rasim; Sahin, Çigdem Çelik
The aim of this research is to investigate the teachers' emotional labour behaviours and to determine the reasons of the differences. In the research, mixed research methods including both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used. The population of the study was comprised of 280 teachers (266 for quantitative, 14 for qualitative…
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette
Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…
Walton, Katherine M.
This study examined risk factors for behavioral and emotional problems in 1973 siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results revealed six correlates of sibling internalizing and externalizing problems: male gender, smaller family size, older age of the child with ASD, lower family income, child with ASD behavior problems, and…
Rescorla, L.; Achenbach, T.; Ivanova, M.Y.
This study compared parents' ratings of behavioral and emotional problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) for general population samples of children ages 6 to 16 from 31 societies (N = 55,508). Effect sizes for society ranged from .03 to .14. Effect s...
Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Goncalves, Miguel; Gudmundsson, Halldor; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Liu, Jianghong; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Machado, Barbara Cesar; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Pluck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Pranvera, Jetishi; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zeynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Yurdusen, Sema; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.
International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1 1/2-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"-oriented scales; a Stress…
Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Weisz, John; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank
This study compared parents' ratings of behavioral and emotional problems on the "Child Behavior Checklist" (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) for general population samples of children ages 6 to 16 from 31 societies (N = 55,508). Effect sizes for society ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. Effect sizes for gender were less than or…
Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chen, Wei; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael; Larsson, Bo; Leung, Patrick; Liu, Xianchen; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Weisz, John; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Yang, Hao-Jan; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank
This study compared parents' ratings of behavioral and emotional problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 199 1; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) for general population samples of children ages 6 to 16 from 31 societies (N = 55,508). Effect sizes for society ranged from.03 to.14. Effect sizes
The newsletter describes two projects of the Teaching Research Infant and Child Center (Oregon) which are developing assessment systems for use with severely emotionally disturbed (SED) adolescents. The first project focuses on job-related social behavior while the second project addresses social behavior in community settings. An introductory…
Chu, Szu-Yin; Baker, Sonia
Video self-modeling has been proven to be effective with other populations with challenging behaviors, but only a few studies of video self-modeling have been conducted with high school students with emotional and behavioral disorders. This study aimed to focus on analyzing the effects of video self-modeling on four high school students with…
Evans, Chan; Weiss, Stacy L.; Cullinan, Douglas
The present study examined problem characteristics of students with emotional disturbance in 3 educational environments, the behavior management and intervention strategies their teachers used, and what relation exists between problem characteristics and intervention strategies. Teachers completed a behavior problems rating scale and they…
Silberg, Judy L.; And Others
Applied structural equation modeling to twin data to assess impact of genetic and environmental factors on children's behavioral and emotional functioning. Applied models to maternal ratings of behavior of 515 monozygotic and 749 dizygotic twin pairs. Importance of genetic, shared, and specific environmental factors for explaining variation was…
Boe, Val Rae M.
This single-subject action research project examines the effects of animal-assisted therapy on the self-esteem and classroom behaviors of a student with an emotional/behavioral disorder. An 18- year-old male attending a special education school in northeastern St. Paul participated in animal-assisted therapy research for four weeks. Quantitative…
Chiu, Isabelle; Piguet, Olivier; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Riedl, Lina; Beck, Johannes; Leyhe, Thomas; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Berres, Manfred; Monsch, Andreas U; Sollberger, Marc
Features of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) such as executive dysfunction, apathy, and impaired empathic abilities are also observed in major depressive disorder (MDD). This may contribute to the reason why early stage bvFTD is often misdiagnosed as MDD. New assessment tools are thus needed to improve early diagnosis of bvFTD. Although emotion processing is affected in bvFTD and MDD, growing evidence indicates that the pattern of emotion processing deficits varies between the two disorders. As such, emotion processing paradigms have substantial potentials to distinguish bvFTD from MDD. The current study compared 25 patients with bvFTD, 21 patients with MDD, 21 patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia, and 31 healthy participants on a novel facial emotion intensity rating task. Stimuli comprised morphed faces from the Ekman and Friesen stimulus set containing faces of each sex with two different degrees of emotion intensity for each of the six basic emotions. Analyses of covariance uncovered a significant dissociation between bvFTD and MDD patients in rating the intensity of negative emotions overall (i.e., bvFTD patients underrated negative emotions overall, whereas MDD patients overrated negative emotions overall compared with healthy participants). In contrast, AD dementia patients rated negative emotions similarly to healthy participants, suggesting no impact of cognitive deficits on rating facial emotions. By strongly differentiating bvFTD and MDDpatients through negative facial emotions, this sensitive and short rating task might help improve the early diagnosis of bvFTD. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.
Berhenke, Amanda; Miller, Alison L.; Brown, Eleanor; Seifer, Ronald; Dickstein, Susan
Emotions and behaviors observed during challenging tasks are hypothesized to be valuable indicators of young children's motivation, the assessment of which may be particularly important for children at risk for school failure. The current study demonstrated reliability and concurrent validity of a new observational assessment of motivation in young children. Head Start graduates completed challenging puzzle and trivia tasks during their kindergarten year. Children's emotion expression and task engagement were assessed based on their observed facial and verbal expressions and behavioral cues. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that observed persistence and shame predicted teacher ratings of children's academic achievement, whereas interest, anxiety, pride, shame, and persistence predicted children's social skills and learning-related behaviors. Children's emotional and behavioral responses to challenge thus appeared to be important indicators of school success. Observation of such responses may be a useful and valid alternative to self-report measures of motivation at this age. PMID:21949599
Lee, Woo Kyeong; Kim, Yong Kyu
Several studies have suggested the presence of a theory of mind (ToM) deficit in schizophrenic disorders. This study examined the relationship of emotion recognition, theory of mind, and ward behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Fifty-five patients with chronic schizophrenia completed measures of emotion recognition, ToM, intelligence, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE). Theory of mind sum score correlated significantly with IQ, emotion recognition, and ward behavior. Ward behavior was linked to the duration of the illness, and even more so to theory of mind deficits. Theory of mind contributed a significant proportion of the amount of variance to explain social behavior on the ward. Considering our study results, impaired theory of mind contributes significantly to the understanding of social competence in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Bhatt, S; Bhatt, R S; Zalcman, S S; Siegel, A
Based upon recent findings in our laboratory that cytokines microinjected into the medial hypothalamus or periaqueductal gray (PAG) powerfully modulate defensive rage behavior in cat, the present study determined the effects of peripherally released cytokines following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge upon defensive rage. The study involved initial identification of the effects of peripheral administration of LPS upon defensive rage by electrical stimulation from PAG and subsequent determination of the peripheral and central mechanisms governing this process. The results revealed significant elevation in response latencies for defensive rage from 60 to 300 min, post LPS injection, with no detectable signs of sickness behavior present at 60 min. In contrast, head turning behavior elicited by stimulation of adjoining midbrain sites was not affected by LPS administration, suggesting a specificity of the effects of LPS upon defensive rage. Direct administration of LPS into the medial hypothalamus had no effect on defensive rage, suggesting that the effects of LPS were mediated by peripheral cytokines rather than by any direct actions upon hypothalamic neurons. Complete blockade of the suppressive effects of LPS by peripheral pretreatment with an Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) antibody but not with an anti- interleukin-1 (IL-1) antibody demonstrated that the effects of LPS were mediated through TNF-alpha rather than through an IL-1 mechanism. A determination of the central mechanisms governing LPS suppression revealed that pretreatment of the medial hypothalamus with PGE(2) or 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists each completely blocked the suppressive effects of LPS, while microinjections of a TNF-alpha antibody into the medial hypothalamus were ineffective. Microinjections of -Iodo-N-[2-[4-(methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl) benzamide monohydrochloride (p-MPPI) into lateral hypothalamus (to test for anatomical specificity) had no effect upon
Cheung, Francis Y L; Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi
This study examined the association between emotional labor and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and the mediation of work engagement in this relationship. A total of 264 teachers in Mainland China were recruited for this study. Bivariate correlation showed that both deep acting and the expression of naturally felt emotion were positively related to the two dimensions of OCB, namely, OCB toward the individual (OCBI) and OCB toward the organization (OCBO), whereas surface acting was not related to the OCB dimensions. Work engagement was also positively associated with both OCB dimensions. Regression results showed that work engagement partially mediated the relation between deep acting and OCBO, and that between the expression of naturally felt emotion and OCBI. Work engagement also fully mediated the association between deep acting and OCBI, and that between the expression of naturally felt emotion and OCBO. In light of these findings, strategies that encourage employees to display emotions consistent with their inner experience were discussed.
Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Van Dijk, Eric; Güroğlu, Berna; Van Beest, Ilja; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Crone, Eveline A
This study investigated the neural mechanisms involved in the interpersonal effects of emotions--i.e., how people are influenced by other people's emotions. Participants were allocators in a version of the dictator game and made a choice between two offers after receiving written emotional expressions of the recipients. The results showed that participants more often made a self-serving offer when dealing with an angry recipient than when dealing with a happy or disappointed recipient. Compared to disappointment, expressions of anger increased activation in regions associated with self-referential thinking (anterior medial prefrontal cortex, aMPFC) and (emotional) conflict (anterior cingulate cortex). We found increased activation in temporoparietal junction for receiving happy reactions in comparison with receiving angry or disappointed reactions. This study thus emphasizes that distinct emotions have distinct effects on people in terms of behavior and underlying neurological mechanisms.
Eisenberg, N; Fabes, R A; Karbon, M; Murphy, B C; Wosinski, M; Polazzi, L; Carlo, G; Juhnke, C
The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of a measure of children's dispositional prosocial behavior (i.e., peer nominations) to individual differences in children's negative emotionality, regulation, and social functioning. Children with prosocial reputations tended to be high in constructive social skills (i.e., socially appropriate behavior and constructive coping) and attentional regulation, and low in negative emotionality. The relations of children's negative emotionality to prosocial reputation were moderated by level of dispositional attentional regulation. In addition, the relations of prosocial reputation to constructive social skills and parent-reported negative emotionality (for girls) increased with age. Vagal tone, a marker of physiological regulation, was negatively related to girls' prosocial reputation.
Cassiano, Rafaela G M; Gaspardo, Claudia M; Linhares, Maria Beatriz M
Preterm birth can impact on child development. As seen previously, children born preterm present more behavioral and/or emotional problems than do full-term counterparts. In addition to gestational age, neonatal clinical status should be examined to better understand the differential impact of premature birth on later developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review empirical studies on the relationship between prematurity, neonatal health status, and behavioral and/or emotional problems in children. A systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and LILACS databases for articles published from 2009 to 2014 was performed. The inclusion criteria were empirical studies that evaluated behavioral and/or emotional problems that are related to clinical neonatal variables in children born preterm. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Results showed that the degree of prematurity and birth weight were associated with emotional and/or behavioral problems in children at different ages. Prematurity that was associated with neonatal clinical conditions (e.g., sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and hemorrhage) and such treatments as corticoids and steroids increased the risk for these problems. The volume and abnormalities of specific brain structures also were associated with these outcomes. In conclusion, the neonatal health problems associated with prematurity present a negative impact on later child emotional and adapted behavior. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to develop and to test a comprehensive model that investigates the effect of shopping environment on consumption emotion, perceived value and behavioral intentions in tourism setting. The proposed model specifies the effect of environment perceptions on consumption emotions (pleasure and arousal, hedonic and utilitarian value, which in turn emotions and values affect tourist’s satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Data were collected through tourists who visited a tourist city by using cluster random sampling method. A total of 410 questionnaires were used for data analysis. Structural equations modeling (SEM by using LISREL was performed to empirically test the relationships between the constructs of this research. Results show that environment has a positive and significant influence on pleasure and arousal. However, the effect of environment perceptions on behavioral intentions was not significant. In addition, results indicate that pleasure and arousal have positive and significant effects on tourist’s values. Findings also indicate that hedonic and utilitarian values had direct effect on customer satisfaction and the effect of satisfaction on behavioral intention was positive and significant. Finally, it suggests that service providers should focus on components of environment in a way that contributes positively in creating positive emotions in customers, which in turn consumption emotions enhance perceived value and positive behavioral intentions.
Dowdy, Erin; Harrell-Williams, Leigh; Dever, Bridget V.; Furlong, Michael J.; Moore, Stephanie; Raines, Tara; Kamphaus, Randy W.
Increasingly, schools are implementing school-based screening for risk of behavioral and emotional problems; hence, foundational evidence supporting the predictive validity of screening instruments is important to assess. This study examined the predictive validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening…
Axelrod, Seth R; Perepletchikova, Francheska; Holtzman, Kevin; Sinha, Rajita
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) identifies emotion dysregulation as central to the dangerous impulsivity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) including substance use disorders, and DBT targets improved emotion regulation as a primary mechanism of change. However, improved emotion regulation with DBT and associations between such improvement and behavioral outcomes such as substance use has not been previously reported. Thus, the goal of this study was to assess for improvement in emotion regulation and to examine the relationship between improvements in the emotion regulation and substance use problems following DBT treatment. Emotion regulation as assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, depressed mood as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory, and their associations with substance use frequency were investigated in 27 women with substance dependence and BPD receiving 20 weeks of DBT in an academic community outpatient substance abuse treatment program. Results indicated improved emotion regulation, improved mood, and decreased substance use frequency. Further, emotion regulation improvement, but not improved mood, explained the variance of decreased substance use frequency. This is the first study to demonstrate improved emotion regulation in BPD patients treated with DBT and to show that improved emotion regulation can account for increased behavioral control in BPD patients. SIGNIFICANCE AND FUTURE RESEARCH: Emotion regulation assessment is recommended for future studies to further clarify the etiology and maintenance of disorders associated with emotional dysregulation such as BPD and substance dependence and to further explore emotion regulation as a potential mechanism of change for clinical interventions.
de Sousa, Arielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline
This study was designed to examine the relationship between deficits in empathy, emotional responsivity, and social behavior in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A total of 21 patients with severe TBI and 25 control participants viewed six film clips containing pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral content whilst facial muscle responses, skin conductance, and valence and arousal ratings were measured. Emotional empathy (the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale, BEES: self-report) and changes in drive and control in social situations (The Current Behaviour Scale, CBS: relative report) were also assessed. In comparison to control participants, those in the TBI group reported less ability to empathize emotionally and had reduced facial responding to both pleasant and unpleasant films. They also exhibited lowered autonomic arousal, as well as abnormal ratings of valence and arousal, particularly to unpleasant films. Relative reported loss of emotional control was significantly associated with heightened empathy, while there was a trend to suggest that impaired drive (or motivation) may be related to lower levels of emotional empathy. The results represent the first to suggest that level of emotional empathy post traumatic brain injury may be associated with behavioral manifestations of disorders of drive and control.
Lapate, R. C.; Rokers, B.; Tromp, D. P. M.; Orfali, N. S.; Oler, J. A.; Doran, S. T.; Adluru, N.; Alexander, A. L.; Davidson, R. J.
Conscious awareness of negative cues is thought to enhance emotion-regulatory capacity, but the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. Using continuous flash suppression (CFS) in the MRI scanner, we manipulated visual awareness of fearful faces during an affect misattribution paradigm, in which preferences for neutral objects can be biased by the valence of a previously presented stimulus. The amygdala responded to fearful faces independently of awareness. However, when awareness of fearful faces was prevented, individuals with greater amygdala responses displayed a negative bias toward unrelated novel neutral faces. In contrast, during the aware condition, inverse coupling between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex reduced this bias, particularly among individuals with higher structural connectivity in the major white matter pathway connecting the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Collectively, these results indicate that awareness promotes the function of a critical emotion-regulatory network targeting the amygdala, providing a mechanistic account for the role of awareness in emotion regulation. PMID:27181344
Goodman, Marianne; Carpenter, David; Tang, Cheuk Y; Goldstein, Kim E; Avedon, Jennifer; Fernandez, Nicolas; Mascitelli, Kathryn A; Blair, Nicholas J; New, Antonia S; Triebwasser, Joseph; Siever, Larry J; Hazlett, Erin A
Siever and Davis' (1991) psychobiological framework of borderline personality disorder (BPD) identifies affective instability (AI) as a core dimension characterized by prolonged and intense emotional reactivity. Recently, deficient amygdala habituation, defined as a change in response to repeated relative to novel unpleasant pictures within a session, has emerged as a biological correlate of AI in BPD. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an evidence-based treatment, targets AI by teaching emotion-regulation skills. This study tested the hypothesis that BPD patients would exhibit decreased amygdala activation and improved habituation, as well as improved emotion regulation with standard 12-month DBT. Event-related fMRI was obtained pre- and post-12-months of standard-DBT in unmedicated BPD patients. Healthy controls (HCs) were studied as a benchmark for normal amygdala activity and change over time (n = 11 per diagnostic-group). During each scan, participants viewed an intermixed series of unpleasant, neutral and pleasant pictures presented twice (novel, repeat). Change in emotion regulation was measured with the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation (DERS) scale. fMRI results showed the predicted Group × Time interaction: compared with HCs, BPD patients exhibited decreased amygdala activation with treatment. This post-treatment amygdala reduction in BPD was observed for all three pictures types, but particularly marked in the left hemisphere and during repeated-emotional pictures. Emotion regulation measured with the DERS significantly improved with DBT in BPD patients. Improved amygdala habituation to repeated-unpleasant pictures in patients was associated with improved overall emotional regulation measured by the DERS (total score and emotion regulation strategy use subscale). These findings have promising treatment implications and support the notion that DBT targets amygdala hyperactivity-part of the disturbed neural circuitry underlying emotional dysregulation
Cerullo, N.; Delli Gatti, A.; Marinelli, M.; Mazzini, M.; Mazzoni, A.; Sbrana, A.; Todisco, P.
The SOPRE-1 test facility is an integral model (scale 1:13) of a MARK II pressure suppression containment system. It was set up at the University of Pisa in order to study the pressure-temperature transient in pressure suppression containment systems during LOCAs. Knowledge of this transient is necessary to perform a correct structural analysis of reactor containment. The containment system behavior is studied by changing the principal parameters which affect the transient (blow-down mass and energy release, suppression pool water temperature, vent pipe number and submergence, heat transfer coefficients). The first series of tests involved: A) 13 tests with break area of 1.8 cm 2 , B) 8 tests with break area of 20.0 cm 2 . The following experimental conditions were changed: position of the simulated break (from liquid or steam zone), water pressure (20-85 Kg/cm 2 ) and mass (45-70 Kg) in the vessel model. Tests A): the CONTEMPT codes correctly forecast the pressure-temperature history, both in dry- and in wet-well. Tests B): the experimental runs have shown that increasing of blow-down flowrate produces dry-well pressure spatial differences and anomalous vent pipe behavior. This results in damped oscillations of dry- and wet-well pressure, probably due to alternating air bubble over-expansion and collapse, and in vent pipe opening and reclosing. Dry-well pressure maxima at the end of blow-down are greater than those forecasted by currently applied codes: these codes use an homogeneous model, and do not take into account the above mentioned dynamic phenomena. In some tests other interesting phenomena were observed, such as some local pressure peaks in the suppression pool greater than dry-well pessure maxima at the end of blow-down. At present, all these phenomena are under study; they could be important for the structural analysis of containment systems
Kavussanu, M; Stanger, N; Ring, C
Given the prevalence and significance of antisocial behavior in sport, researchers have begun to explore the role that self conscious moral emotions play in reducing such behavior. In this research, we examined whether moral identity inhibits antisocial behaviour and whether these effects are mediated by anticipated guilt. Using a cross-sectional design, Study 1 showed that moral identity was negatively related to antisocial behavior. Study 2 found that the negative association between moral ...
Martin James Turner
In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training (PST) for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and main...
Full Text Available Background: Lack of emotional intelligence (EI may lead to maladjustment and inability to achieve desired goals. A relationship between low levels of EI and crime has been proposed. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between EI and criminal behavior. Materials and Methods: Study sample consisted of 202 subjects, in whom 101 subjects were convicted offenders, and 101 were matched normal controls. Offender group comprised of individuals convicted for different crimes such as murder, rape, and robbery, selected from Birsa Munda Central Jail, Hotwar, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India based on purposive sampling. Sample of the normal control group was taken from Ranchi and nearby areas. All subjects gave informed consent for participating in the study. Both the groups were matched on age, gender, education, occupation, and marital status. All participants were assessed on General Health Questionnaire-12 and Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII. The results were analyzed using statistical package SPSS-version 20. Results: The group of convicted offenders obtained significantly lower scores on all the domains of MEII such as intrapersonal awareness (own emotions, interpersonal awareness (others emotions, intrapersonal management (own emotions and interpersonal management (others emotions, and aggregate emotional quotient in comparison to their normal counterparts. Conclusion: The convicted offenders group had significantly lower EI compared to normal subjects. Starting EI enhancement program in prison can help the inmates better understand their feelings and emotions.
Rogers, Megan L; Halberstadt, Amy G; Castro, Vanessa L; MacCormack, Jennifer K; Garrett-Peters, Patricia
Numerous parental emotion socialization factors have been implicated as direct and indirect contributors to the development of children's emotional competence. To date, however, no study has combined parents' emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and regulation strategies in one model to assess their cumulative-as well as unique-contributions to children's emotion regulation. We considered the 2 components that have recently been distinguished: emotion regulation and emotional lability. We predicted that mothers' beliefs about the value of and contempt for children's emotions, mothers' supportive and nonsupportive reactions to their children's emotions, as well as mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal and suppression of their own emotions would each contribute unique variance to their children's emotion regulation and lability, as assessed by children's teachers. The study sample consisted of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse group of 165 mothers and their third-grade children. Different patterns emerged for regulation and lability: Controlling for family income, child gender, and ethnicity, only mothers' lack of suppression as a regulatory strategy predicted greater emotion regulation in children, whereas mothers' valuing of children's emotions, mothers' lack of contempt for children's emotions, mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal to reinterpret events, and mothers' lack of emotional suppression predicted less lability in children. These findings support the divergence of emotion regulation and lability as constructs and indicate that, during middle childhood, children's lability may be substantially and uniquely affected by multiple forms of parental socialization. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Miwa, Yoshiji; Nagase, Keiko; Oyama, Nobuyuki; Akino, Hironobu; Yokoyama, Osamu
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates various responses of the body to stress, and CRF receptors are important targets of treatment for stress-related disorders. To investigate the effect of a nonselective CRF receptor antagonist, astressin, on suppression of masculine sexual behavior by psychological stress in rats. First, we investigated the influence of psychological stress, induced 2 hours per day for three consecutive days, on sexual behavior. Then, rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group, an astressin administration group (A), a psychological stress loading group (PS), and a psychological stress loading and astressin administration group (PS + A). The rats were exposed to sham or psychological stress for three consecutive days. After the last stress loading, the rats were injected with vehicle or astressin, and their sexual behavior was observed. We also measured serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The effects of astressin on sexual behavior and serum levels of ACTH in rats affected by psychological stress were determined. Sexual behavior was reduced after psychological stress loading. The PS rats had significantly longer mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies and lower ejaculation frequency than did the control, A, and PS + A rats. The intromission latency and ejaculation frequency in the PS + A rats did not achieve the level observed in the controls. There was no significant difference in these parameters between the control and A rats. Serum ACTH levels were significantly lower in PS + A rats than in PS rats. Psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior could be partially recovered with astressin administration in rats. These data provide a rationale for the further study of CRF receptor antagonists as novel agents for treating psychological sexual disorders. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Kosar Moghaddam POUR
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.
Wiegand, Douglas M
Safety coaching is an applied behavior analysis technique that involves interpersonal interaction to understand and manipulate environmental conditions that are directing (i.e., antecedent to) and motivating (i.e., consequences of) safety-related behavior. A safety coach must be skilled in interacting with others so as to understand their perspectives, communicate a point clearly, and be persuasive with behavior-based feedback. This article discusses the evidence-based "ability model" of emotional intelligence and its relevance to the interpersonal aspect of the safety coaching process. Emotional intelligence has potential for improving safety-related efforts and other aspects of individuals' work and personal lives. Safety researchers and practitioners are therefore encouraged to gain an understanding of emotional intelligence and conduct and support research applying this construct toward injury prevention.
Boaretto, B. R. R.; Budzinski, R. C.; Prado, T. L.; Kurths, J.; Lopes, S. R.
It is known that neural networks under small-world topology can present anomalous synchronization and nonstationary behavior for weak coupling regimes. Here, we propose methods to suppress the anomalous synchronization and also to diminish the nonstationary behavior occurring in weakly coupled neural network under small-world topology. We consider a network of 2000 thermally sensitive identical neurons, based on the model of Hodgkin-Huxley in a small-world topology, with the probability of adding non local connection equal to p = 0 . 001. Based on experimental protocols to suppress anomalous synchronization, as well as nonstationary behavior of the neural network dynamics, we make use of (i) external stimulus (pulsed current); (ii) biologic parameters changing (neuron membrane conductance changes); and (iii) body temperature changes. Quantification analysis to evaluate phase synchronization makes use of the Kuramoto's order parameter, while recurrence quantification analysis, particularly the determinism, computed over the easily accessible mean field of network, the local field potential (LFP), is used to evaluate nonstationary states. We show that the methods proposed can control the anomalous synchronization and nonstationarity occurring for weak coupling parameter without any effect on the individual neuron dynamics, neither in the expected asymptotic synchronized states occurring for large values of the coupling parameter.
Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin
The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.
Full Text Available In this article, deviant behavior is considered as a combination of different manifestations of personality, leading eventually to its social desaptation. It is shown that an effective method of preventing deviant behavior is psychological training. Group training activity helps to solve the problems associated with the development of various behavioral skills, to provide psychological support, and can be used as a means of psychological work with teenagers with behavioral problems. We discuss the basic points required to effectively create and conduct training programs in general, as well as the challenges and opportunities of designing trainings in order to develop emotional intelligence as a method of prevention of deviant behavior
Ferro, M A; Van Lieshout, R J; Ohayon, J; Scott, J G
Adolescents with food allergy have poorer psychosocial outcomes compared with their nonallergic counterparts; however, few studies have prospectively examined the mental health of adolescents and young adults in this vulnerable population. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in an epidemiological sample of adolescents and young adults with food allergy; determine whether food allergy is associated with adolescent and maternal reports of such problems; and examine the patterns of change in emotional and behavioral problems from adolescence to young adulthood among individuals with and without food allergy. Data came from 1303 participants at 14 and 21 years of age in the Mater University Study of Pregnancy. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using self- and maternal-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Maternal, but not self-reports suggested that emotional and behavioral problems were higher among adolescents with food allergy. Food allergy was associated with increased odds of elevated levels of maternal-reported symptoms of depression [OR = 4.50 (1.83, 11.07)], anxiety [OR = 2.68 (1.12, 6.44)], and ADHD [OR = 3.14 (1.07, 9.19)] in adolescence. Food allergy was also associated with depressive symptoms that persisted from adolescence to young adulthood [OR = 2.05 (1.04, 4.03)]. Emotional and behavioral problems, particularly symptoms of depression, anxiety, and ADHD, are common among adolescents with food allergy in the general population and, in the case of elevated levels of depressive symptoms, persist into young adulthood. Healthcare professionals should seek adolescent and parental perspectives when assessing emotional and behavioral problems and monitor mental health during the transition to adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Martin James Turner
Full Text Available In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training (PST for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957, the original cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1 the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2 the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3 the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as
Turner, Martin J
In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one's beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research
Turner, Martin J.
In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research
McDonnell, S M; Kenney, R M; Meckley, P E; Garcia, M C
Sexual behavior dysfunction unaccompanied by detectable physical or endocrine abnormality is an important cause of reproductive failure among domestic stallions. Several authors have suggested that such dysfunction may be psychogenic, related to negative experience associated with intense handling and training. An experimental model of experience-related dysfunction was developed by exposing pony stallions to erection-contingent aversive conditioning. This resulted in rapid, specific suppression of sexual arousal and response similar to spontaneously occurring dysfunction. Subsequently, treatment with a CNS-active benzodiazepine derivative (diazepam) reversed these effects.
Yeung, Rachel; Leadbeater, Bonnie
This longitudinal study investigated the associations between peer victimization and maladaptive outcomes (emotional and behavioral problems) among 580 adolescents concurrently and across a 2-year period, and proposed that adult emotional support moderated this association. Peer victimization and maladaptive outcomes were assessed from…
Dvorak, Robert D.; Kuvaas, Nicholas J.; Lamis, Dorian A.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Stevenson, Brittany L.
Emotional and behavioral regulation has been linked to coping and enhancement motives and associated with different patterns of alcohol use and problems. The current studies examined emotional instability, urgency, and internal drinking motives as predictors of alcohol dependence symptoms as well as the likelihood and severity of "Diagnostic…
I. Kruizinga (Ingrid); W. Jansen (Wilma); A.S. Carter (Alice); H. Raat (Hein)
textabstractBackground: The prevalence of social-emotional and behavioral problems is estimated to be 8 to 9% among preschool children. Effective early detection tools are needed to promote the provision of adequate care at an early stage. The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment
Miller, Lynn C.; Read, Stephen J.; Zachary, Wayne; Rosoff, Andrew
Models seeking to predict human social behavior must contend with multiple sources of individual and group variability that underlie social behavior. One set of interrelated factors that strongly contribute to that variability - motivations, personality, and emotions - has been only minimally incorporated in previous computational models of social behavior. The Personality, Affect, Culture (PAC) framework is a theory-based computational model that addresses this gap. PAC is used to simulate social agents whose social behavior varies according to their personalities and emotions, which, in turn, vary according to their motivations and underlying motive control parameters. Examples involving disease spread and counter-insurgency operations show how PAC can be used to study behavioral variability in different social contexts.
Vaughn, Allison A; Teeters, Stacy A; Sadler, Melody S; Cronan, Sierra B
The utility of the Stereotype Content Model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002) and the Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes map (Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2007) were examined in the context of heterosexuals' attitudes toward sexual minorities. Heterosexual adults completed a survey measuring stereotypes, emotions, and behavioral tendencies toward lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men. Stereotype content differed across groups and showed "gendered" and "valenced" effects on emotions and behavioral tendencies. Competence predicted behaviors for men, whereas warmth and competence predicted behaviors for women, and, for the most part, more was better. Admiration and contempt mediated most of these relationships across most subgroups, but pity and envy played smaller roles for some subgroups. Across all groups, competence played a more predictive role than warmth.
Tofighi, M; Tirgari, B; Fooladvandi, M; Rasouli, F; Jalali, M
Several factors including emotional intelligence affect the efficiency of people. It seems that organizational behavior of each person is strongly influenced by emotional intelligence. Therefore, the present study is aimed to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior in critical and emergency nurses in teaching hospitals supervised by Kerman Medical University in Southeast of Iran. This study employed a descriptive cross sectional design. A census sample consisted of 150 critical and emergency nurses working in teaching hospitals supervised by Kerman Medical University participated in this study. Emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire was used to assess nurses' emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior by available sampling method. The results showed that the mean age of the participants was 35 years. Most participants (94%) were females and belonged to the age group of 26-30 years. Overall mean score of organizational citizenship behavior scale was 88.21 (±10.4). In the organizational citizenship behavior categories, altruism mean score was higher than the other mean scores. Overall mean score of emotional intelligence was (121.08 ± 17.56). In the subgroups of emotional intelligence, mean score of the relationship management, was higher than the average of other factors. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior (p ≥ 0.05). The study suggests that health care managers should organize systematic and dynamic policies and procedures in dealing with emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior to assist critical and emergency nurses.
Nusairat, NM; Akhorshaideh, AHO; Rashid, T; Sahadev, S; Rembielak, G
This paper investigates the effect of social cues in a mall’s shopping environment on customer behavior. Two competing mediation scenarios are assessed: emotion-cognition and cognition-emotion in a stimulus-organism-response (SOR)-based framework. Although the role of social cues in driving customer behavior in shopping contexts is largely addressed in the extant literature, the mechanism of the effect is still under-researched area and this study is an attempt to fill this gap.\\ud The concep...
Troxel, Wendy M; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Forbes, Erika E; Campbell, Susan B
Secure parent-child relationships are implicated in children's self-regulation, including the ability to self-soothe at bedtime. Sleep, in turn, may serve as a pathway linking attachment security with subsequent emotional and behavioral problems in children. We used path analysis to examine the direct relationship between attachment security and maternal reports of sleep problems during toddlerhood and the degree to which sleep serves as a pathway linking attachment with subsequent teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems. We also examined infant negative emotionality as a vulnerability factor that may potentiate attachment-sleep-adjustment outcomes. Data were drawn from 776 mother-infant dyads participating in the National Institute of Child and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. After statistically adjusting for mother and child characteristics, including child sleep and emotional and behavioral problems at 24 months, we found no evidence for a statistically significant direct path between attachment security and sleep problems at 36 months; however, there was a direct relationship between sleep problems at 36 months and internalizing problems at 54 months. Path models that examined the moderating influence of infant negative emotionality demonstrated significant direct relationships between attachment security and toddler sleep problems and between sleep problems and subsequent emotional and behavioral problems, but only among children characterized by high negative emotionality at 6 months. In addition, among this subset, there was a significant indirect path between attachment and internalizing problems through sleep problems. These longitudinal findings implicate sleep as one critical pathway linking attachment security with adjustment difficulties, particularly among temperamentally vulnerable children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Grazuleviciene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Petraviciene, Inga; Balseviciene, Birute
Objective: The impact of maternal psychosocial stress on young children's mental difficulties is unclear. This study investigated the joint effects of the socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships on emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool children. Methods: The case-control study included 1416 mothers and their 4-6 year-old children pairs, living in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The parent-child relationships were measured using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale. Children's mental health difficulties were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We used logistic regression models to indicate the strength of the associations. Results: Lower socioeconomic status women more often than higher ones reported pathological mother-child relations. Low education level was associated with statistically significant increase adjusted odds ratios for emotional symptoms and total behavioral difficulties. With reference to the group of better-educated mothers and normal mother-child relations, low education and pathological mother-child relations statistically significantly increased the risk of total difficulties in 4-6 year-old children; the adjusted odds ratios were 2.45; 95% CI 1.51-3.99. Conclusions: Pathological mother-child relations strengthened the effect of lower education on the increased risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool-age children. Measures oriented towards health behavior and psychosocial difficulties management may decrease children's emotional and behavioral difficulties.
Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Williams, Lela Rankin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S.; Pollak, Seth D.; Fox, Nathan A.
The current study examined differences in emotion expression identification between adolescents characterized with behavioral inhibition (BI) in childhood with and without a lifetime history of anxiety disorder. Participants were originally assessed for behavioral inhibition during toddlerhood and for social reticence during childhood. During adolescence, participants returned to the laboratory and completed a facial-emotion identification task and a clinical psychiatric interview. Results revealed that behaviorally inhibited adolescents with a lifetime history of anxiety disorder displayed a lower threshold for identifying fear relative to anger emotion expressions compared to non-anxious behaviorally inhibited adolescents and non-inhibited adolescents with or without anxiety. These findings were specific to behaviorally inhibited adolescents with a lifetime history of social anxiety disorder. Thus, adolescents with a history of both BI and anxiety, specifically social anxiety, are more likely to differ from other adolescents in their identification of fearful facial expressions. This offers further evidence that perturbations in the processing of emotional stimuli may underlie the etiology of anxiety disorders. PMID:24800906
Full Text Available Objective: The impact of maternal psychosocial stress on young children’s mental difficulties is unclear. This study investigated the joint effects of the socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships on emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool children. Methods: The case-control study included 1416 mothers and their 4–6 year-old children pairs, living in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The parent-child relationships were measured using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale. Children’s mental health difficulties were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We used logistic regression models to indicate the strength of the associations. Results: Lower socioeconomic status women more often than higher ones reported pathological mother-child relations. Low education level was associated with statistically significant increase adjusted odds ratios for emotional symptoms and total behavioral difficulties. With reference to the group of better-educated mothers and normal mother-child relations, low education and pathological mother-child relations statistically significantly increased the risk of total difficulties in 4–6 year-old children; the adjusted odds ratios were 2.45; 95% CI 1.51–3.99. Conclusions: Pathological mother-child relations strengthened the effect of lower education on the increased risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool-age children. Measures oriented towards health behavior and psychosocial difficulties management may decrease children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties.
Willard, Victoria W.; Conklin, Heather M.; Boop, Frederick A.; Wu, Shengjie; Merchant, Thomas E.
Purpose: The standard of care for pediatric patients with ependymoma involves postoperative radiation therapy. Prior research suggests that conformal radiation therapy (CRT) is associated with relative sparing of cognitive and academic functioning, but little is known about the effect of CRT on emotional and behavioral functioning. Methods and Materials: A total of 113 patients with pediatric ependymoma underwent CRT using photons as part of their enrollment on an institutional trial. Patients completed annual evaluations of neurocognitive functioning during the first 5 years after CRT. Emotional and behavioral functioning was assessed via the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Before CRT, emotional and behavioral functioning were commensurate with those of the normative population and within normal limits. After 5 years, means remained within normal limits but were significantly below the normative mean. Linear mixed models revealed a significant increase in attention problems over time. These problems were associated with age at diagnosis/CRT, tumor location, and extent of resection. A higher-than-expected incidence of school problems was present at all assessment points after baseline. Conclusions: The use of photon CRT for ependymoma is associated with relatively stable emotional and behavioral functioning during the first 5 years after treatment. The exception is an increase in attention problems. Results suggest that intervening earlier in the survivorship period—during the first year posttreatment—may be beneficial
Willard, Victoria W.; Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Boop, Frederick A. [Department of Surgery, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)
Purpose: The standard of care for pediatric patients with ependymoma involves postoperative radiation therapy. Prior research suggests that conformal radiation therapy (CRT) is associated with relative sparing of cognitive and academic functioning, but little is known about the effect of CRT on emotional and behavioral functioning. Methods and Materials: A total of 113 patients with pediatric ependymoma underwent CRT using photons as part of their enrollment on an institutional trial. Patients completed annual evaluations of neurocognitive functioning during the first 5 years after CRT. Emotional and behavioral functioning was assessed via the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Before CRT, emotional and behavioral functioning were commensurate with those of the normative population and within normal limits. After 5 years, means remained within normal limits but were significantly below the normative mean. Linear mixed models revealed a significant increase in attention problems over time. These problems were associated with age at diagnosis/CRT, tumor location, and extent of resection. A higher-than-expected incidence of school problems was present at all assessment points after baseline. Conclusions: The use of photon CRT for ependymoma is associated with relatively stable emotional and behavioral functioning during the first 5 years after treatment. The exception is an increase in attention problems. Results suggest that intervening earlier in the survivorship period—during the first year posttreatment—may be beneficial.
Prias Hayu Purbaning Tyas
Full Text Available Abstract The research aims to obtain an overview of the effectiveness of the narrative approach in counseling Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT to manage emotions. The approach used in this study is a quantitative approach using a quasi-experimental methods. The study design used is one group pretest-posttest design using purposive sampling technique. The samples were 6 students who score low emotion management. The instrument used in the form of guidelines for the interview to express emotion management profile of students in class X. The results showed that: (1 there are 6 students of 14 students interviewed, have a tendency to be difficult to manage emotions appropriately; (2 The narrative approach in counseling REBT apparently quite effective for improving emotional intelligence on aspects of self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation, empathy, and social skills. This recommendation is addressed to the teacher guidance and counseling, further research, and study of Guidance and Counseling Program. Keywords: counseling REBT, narrative approach, manage emotions.
A variety of theoretical perspectives describe the crucial behavioral roles of motivation and emotion, but how these interact with perceptions of social contexts and behaviors is less well understood. This study examined whether autonomous motivation mediated the relationship between perceived autonomy support and behavioral engagement in physical education and whether this mediating process was moderated by positive emotion. A sample of 592 Korean middle-school students (304 boys, 288 girls; M age = 14.0 yr., SD = 0.8) completed questionnaires. Autonomous motivation partially mediated the positive association between perceived autonomy support and behavioral engagement. Positive emotion moderated the relationship between autonomous motivation and behavioral engagement. This indirect link was stronger as positive emotion increased. These findings suggest the importance of integrating emotion into motivational processes to understand how and when perceived autonomy support is associated with behavioral engagement in physical education.
Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N.; Evans, Gary W.
Objective: Developmental models of temperament by environment interactions predict that children’s negative emotionality exacerbates the detrimental effects of risky environments, increasing the risk for pathology. However, negative emotions may have an adaptive function. Accordingly, the present...... study explores an alternative hypothesis that in the context of high adversity, negative emotionality may be a manifestation of an adaptive coping style and thus be protective against the harmful effects of a stressful environment. Method: Prospective combined effects of negative emotionality...... assessed at baseline. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured at 4- and 8-year follow-ups. Allostatic load was measured at baseline and both follow-ups using neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters. Linear mixed-effect models were used to analyze the prospective...
Adrian MITROI; Alexandru OPROIU
The paper presents a critique of standard investment analysis, fundamental and technical, and develops an alternative more comprehensive approach that should include some of the tenets of behavioral finance. In the pursuit of understanding the behavior of the market player, the basic argument relies on the supposition that the risk appetite increases exactly at the worst moment - when the capacity to assume additional risk decreases significantly. People view a sample random...
Gerend, Mary A; Maner, Jon K
Message framing is a theoretically grounded health communication strategy designed to motivate action by emphasizing either the benefits of engaging in a particular behavior (gains) or the costs of failing to engage in the behavior (losses). This study investigated whether the effectiveness of a framed message depends on the emotional state of the message recipient. We examined effects of fear versus anger, emotions that frequently occur within the context of health decision-making. Undergraduate students (N = 133) were randomly assigned to complete a fear or anger induction task after which they read a gain- or loss-framed pamphlet promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. Fruit and vegetable intake (servings per day) subsequently was assessed over the following 2 weeks. As predicted, a significant frame by emotion interaction was observed, such that participants in the fear condition reported eating more servings of fruits and vegetables after exposure to a loss-framed message than to a gain-framed message. In contrast, participants in the anger condition reported eating (marginally) more servings of fruits and vegetables after exposure to a gain-framed message than to a loss-framed message. Greater increases in fruit and vegetable intake from baseline to follow-up were observed when the message frame was matched to the participant's emotional state. The effectiveness of framed health communications depends on the message recipient's current emotional state. Affective factors that are incidental to the behavior recommended in a health communication can affect the relative success of gain- and loss-framed appeals.
Barden, R C; Ford, M E; Wilhelm, W M; Rogers-Salyer, M; Salyer, K E
The present experiment investigated whether observers' emotional and behavioral reactions to facially deformed patients could be substantially improved by surgical procedures conducted by well-trained specialists in an experienced multidisciplinary team. Also investigated was the hypothesis that emotional states mediate the effects of physical attractiveness and facial deformity on social interaction. Twenty patients between the ages of 3 months and 17 years were randomly selected from over 2000 patients' files of Kenneth E. Salyer of Dallas, Texas. Patient diagnoses included facial clefts, hypertelorism, Treacher Collins syndrome, and craniofacial dysostoses (Crouzon's and Apert's syndromes). Rigorously standardized photographs of patients taken before and after surgery were shown to 22 "naive" raters ranging in age from 18 to 54 years. Raters were asked to predict their emotional and behavioral responses to the patients. These ratings indicated that observers' behavioral reactions to facially deformed children and adolescents would be more positive following craniofacial surgery. Similarly, the ratings indicated that observers' emotional reactions to these patients would be more positive following surgery. The results are discussed in terms of current sociopsychologic theoretical models for the effects of attractiveness on social interaction. A new model is presented that implicates induced emotional states as a mediating process in explaining the effects of attractiveness and facial deformity on the quality of social interactions. Limitations of the current investigation and directions for future research are also discussed.
Full Text Available For decades, the dominance of studies with various aspects of the negative impact of television content as their subject of interest is evident in the field of theoretical and empirical analysis of the impact of television content on the development of children and youth, while the consideration of positive impact was mostly beyond the systematic interest of scientists and researchers. Even though the general assessment is that viewing prosocial television content may result in positive changes in social and emotional behavior of young people, research studies committed to the positive effects of television content on emotional and social behavior of children are scarce and insufficiently perceive the character and nature of the impact of television on the development of emotions and prosocial behavior during childhood. Based on the critical review of the findings of a number of foreign empirical studies, this article summarizes the research evidence of the positive effects of television content on emotional empathy, altruism, learning about emotions, social interaction and acceptance of diversity, with presentation of conclusions about potential mediator factors that may interact with the influences of television portrayals.
Full Text Available Universities and institutions of higher education with a professional, special, educational and cultural environment, play an important role in effective knowledge management and preparing the background for knowledge sharing. Faculty members are known as the main elements of the university who own mental and intellectual property. Their knowledge sharing under certain conditions along with knowledge sharing behaviors improve individual and organizational operations. Moreover, the tendency to do these actions is the most important factor in knowledge sharing behavior and emotional intelligence (EQ, as one of the social intelligence factors, can guide individual thinking and activity. This study examines the impact of emotional intelligence on faculty members' knowledge sharing behaviors. Regarding the purpose and nature, this study was functional and its methodology was exploratory and due to evaluation of the relations and impacts among variables, it was a correlational method. Data collection included interviews with experts for the qualitative part and a questionnaire for the quantitative part. The qualitative findings indicate different emotional intelligence dimensions, which includes self-awareness, social skills, coping with pressure, adaptability and overall creation. In addition, the result of EQ dimensions on knowledge sharing behavior reveal that “social skills, coping with pressure, and overall creation” share a link with faculty members' research behavior among the four dimensions of knowledge sharing behavior and that “adaptability” has no significant relationship with knowledge sharing behavior.
Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Walsh, Sophie D; Huijts, Tim; Maes, Marlies; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Cavallo, Franco; Molcho, Michal
PURPOSE: Although the potential consequences of immigration for adolescent problem behaviors have been addressed in many former studies, internationally comparative research is scarce. This study investigated the impact of immigration on four indicators of adolescents' emotional and behavioral
It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial
Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; OToole, Mia Skytte
The present study explored the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between emotion regulation and affective states following exposure to emotion inducing images. Results revealed that gender moderated the association between reappraisal and affect. In addition, the moderating effect...... of gender varied according to category of emotion....
Montoya, Estrella R; Bos, Peter A
Millions of women worldwide use oral contraceptives ('the pill'; OCs), often starting at a pubertal age when their brains are in a crucial developmental stage. Research into the social-emotional effects of OCs is of utmost importance. In this review, we provide an overview of studies that have emerged over the past decade investigating how OCs, and their main ingredients estradiol (E) and progesterone (P), influence social-emotional behaviors and underlying brain functions. Based on this overview, we present a heuristic model that postulates that OCs modulate core social-emotional behaviors and brain systems. Research domains and challenges for the future, as well as implications, are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patrick, Megan E; Blair, Clancy; Maggs, Jennifer L
Relations among executive function, behavioral approach sensitivity, emotional decision making, and risk behaviors (alcohol use, drug use, and delinquent behavior) were examined in single female college students (N = 72). Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated a significant Approach Sensitivity x Working Memory interaction in which higher levels of alcohol use were associated with the combination of greater approach tendency and better working memory. This Approach Sensitivity x Working Memory interaction was also marginally significant for drug use and delinquency. Poor emotional decision making, as measured by a gambling task, was also associated with higher levels of alcohol use, but only for individuals low in inhibitory control. Findings point to the complexity of relations among aspects of self-regulation and personality and provide much needed data on neuropsychological correlates of risk behaviors in a nonclinical population.
Sherman, Ryne A; Rauthmann, John F; Brown, Nicolas A; Serfass, David G; Jones, Ashley Bell
The joint influence of persons and situations on behavior has long been posited by personality and social psychological theory (Funder, 2006; Lewin, 1951). However, a lack of tools for real-time behavioral and situation assessment has left direct investigations of this sort immobilized. This study combines recent advances in situation assessment and experience sampling methodology to examine the simultaneous effects of personality traits and situation characteristics on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion in N = 210 participants. The results support an additive model such that both personality traits and situation characteristics independently predict real-time expressions of behavior and emotion. These results have implications for several prominent theoretical perspectives in personality, including both trait and cognitive theories. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Liana C L Portugal
Full Text Available High comorbidity among pediatric disorders characterized by behavioral and emotional dysregulation poses problems for diagnosis and treatment, and suggests that these disorders may be better conceptualized as dimensions of abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, identifying neuroimaging biomarkers related to dimensional measures of behavior may provide targets to guide individualized treatment. We aimed to use functional neuroimaging and pattern regression techniques to determine whether patterns of brain activity could accurately decode individual-level severity on a dimensional scale measuring behavioural and emotional dysregulation at two different time points.A sample of fifty-seven youth (mean age: 14.5 years; 32 males was selected from a multi-site study of youth with parent-reported behavioral and emotional dysregulation. Participants performed a block-design reward paradigm during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Pattern regression analyses consisted of Relevance Vector Regression (RVR and two cross-validation strategies implemented in the Pattern Recognition for Neuroimaging toolbox (PRoNTo. Medication was treated as a binary confounding variable. Decoded and actual clinical scores were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r and mean squared error (MSE to evaluate the models. Permutation test was applied to estimate significance levels.Relevance Vector Regression identified patterns of neural activity associated with symptoms of behavioral and emotional dysregulation at the initial study screen and close to the fMRI scanning session. The correlation and the mean squared error between actual and decoded symptoms were significant at the initial study screen and close to the fMRI scanning session. However, after controlling for potential medication effects, results remained significant only for decoding symptoms at the initial study screen. Neural regions with the highest contribution to the pattern regression model
Full Text Available Leadership and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB stayed at pinnacle in the arena of organizational behavior research since decades and has attained significant consideration of scholars pursuing to define multifaceted dynamics of leadership and their influence on follower’s behavior at work. The voluntary behavior of Organizational citizenship improves organizational effectiveness, and it goes beyond formal job duties. This study attempts to explore the association amongst transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior of teachers in public sector higher education institutions in Pakistan. Study of organizational citizenship behavior in educational organizations and academicians is of high value that definitely requires attention. This study examines the direct and indirect influence of transformational leadership through exploring the mediating role of emotional intelligence. The model was tested by employing structural equation modelling technique on survey responses collected from academicians. Results from 220 responses indicated that relationship between transformational leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior is statistically significant where Emotional Intelligence plays an important role as a mediator. The results support and add to the positive effects of transformational leadership style interconnected with extra role behavior at work making it more meaningful. The findings make a significant contribution to leadership and organizational behavior literature in higher education sector and propose that organizations should implement practices that help in enhancing the level of organizational citizenship behavior in organizations.
Khor, Angela S.; Melvin, Glenn A.; Reid, Sophie C.; Gray, Kylie M.
Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in…
Giallo, Rebecca; Gartland, Deirdre; Woolhouse, Hannah; Mensah, Fiona; Westrupp, Elizabeth; Nicholson, Jan; Brown, Stephanie
The deleterious effects of maternal depression on child emotional and behavioral development are well documented, yet many children exposed to maternal depression experience positive outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors associated with the emotional-behavioral resilience of four-year-old children of first-time…
Dahl, R E
This paper addresses the importance of affect regulation (AR) in relation to a broad range of behavioral and emotional health problems that emerge during adolescence. AR is defined as the adaptive modulation of emotional experience to serve a goal or purpose. This conceptualization of AR emphasizes the use of cognitive skills to guide, inhibit, or modify emotion and behavior, including the expression of emotional responses, in learned, strategic ways-skills that ultimately underpin adult levels of social maturity and the ability to show "responsible" behavior across a range of emotional situations. Neurobehavioral systems that subserve these AR skills include areas of the inferior and orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC), with rich interconnections to several limbic structures and other cortical areas, including the dorsolateral PFC. Adolescence represents an important developmental period in the functional maturation of adult AR skills; it is also a critical time in the development of clinical disorders of AR (eg, rates of depression increase dramatically and gender differences in depression emerge). Maturational changes in AR that occur during adolescence-particularly with respect to the role of emotions influencing responsible decision making-are also relevant to understanding key aspects of the developmental pathways of some behavioral health problems, such as alcohol use and nicotine dependence. A strong case is made for developmental research in affective neuroscience aimed at this important maturational period, particularly the kind of transdisciplinary research leading toward mechanistic understanding of the development of adolescent-onset disorders. Improving understanding in these areas could ultimately lead to the development of early interventions in targeted high-risk populations, and has enormous clinical and social policy relevance.
Dwi Fachri Harahap
Conclusions The prevalence of emotional and behavior problems detected using CBCL and PSC-17 in obese children was 28% and 22%, respectively. The PSC-17 has moderate sensitivity to screen emotional and behavior problem in obese children.[Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:42-8].
Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl
Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one's emotions in order to meet one's immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors' restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors' emotionally expressive behaviors. However, expressive suppression use is not known to lead to clinically significant social impairments. One explanation may be that over the lifespan, individuals who habitually suppress their emotions come to compensate for their interlocutors' restrained expressive behaviors by developing an increased sensitivity to nonverbal affective cues. To probe this issue, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan healthy older women while they viewed silent videos of a male social target displaying nonverbal emotional behavior, together with a brief verbal description of the accompanying context, and then judged the target's affect. As predicted, perceivers who reported greater habitual use of expressive suppression showed increased neural processing of nonverbal affective cues. This effect appeared to be coordinated in a top-down manner via cognitive control. Greater neural processing of nonverbal cues among perceivers who habitually suppress their emotions was linked to increased ventral striatum activity, suggestive of increased reward value/personal relevance ascribed to emotionally expressive nonverbal behaviors. These findings thus provide neural evidence broadly consistent with the hypothesized link between habitual use of expressive suppression and compensatory development of increased responsiveness to
Marusak, Hilary A; Thomason, Moriah E; Sala-Hamrick, Kelsey; Crespo, Laura; Rabinak, Christine A
Healthy parenting may be protective against the development of emotional psychopathology, particularly for children reared in stressful environments. Little is known, however, about the brain and behavioral mechanisms underlying this association, particularly during childhood and adolescence, when emotional disorders frequently emerge. Here, we demonstrate that psychological control, a parenting strategy known to limit socioemotional development in children, is associated with altered brain and behavioral responses to emotional conflict in 27 at-risk (urban, lower income) youth, ages 9-16. In particular, youth reporting higher parental psychological control demonstrated lower activity in the left anterior insula, a brain area involved in emotion conflict processing, and submitted faster but less accurate behavioral responses-possibly reflecting an avoidant pattern. Effects were not replicated for parental care, and did not generalize to an analogous nonemotional conflict task. We also find evidence that behavioral responses to emotional conflict bridge the previously reported link between parental overcontrol and anxiety in children. Effects of psychological control may reflect a parenting style that limits opportunities to practice self-regulation when faced with emotionally charged situations. Results support the notion that parenting strategies that facilitate appropriate amounts of socioemotional competence and autonomy in children may be protective against social and emotional difficulties. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.
Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior prob...
PURNAMA SARI, ULIS PRATIWI
This aim of this reseach is to find out the relationship between personality with student’s environmental moral behavior, personality consists of five factors (openess, conscietiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and emotional stability) which each of the factors will be sought the relationship with student’s environmental moral behavior. This research used quantitative with survey method, involved 120 samples in Bhineka Tunggal Ika Senior High School. Data were colleted through participant...
Kähler, Helena Grøn
on the socio-political paradigm and the theory of innovation as a socio-political process, the main hypothesis is that employees’ strategic emotional intelligence, mediated by their socio-political competencies, will predict their innovative behavior, particularly their degree of idea-promoting and idea-realization....
Morgan, Joseph John; Higgins, Kyle; Miller, Susan; Pierce, Thomas B.; Boone, Randall; Tandy, Richard
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) often lack appropriate social skills. Participation in direct and explicit instruction related to social skills is common in their educational programming. For these interventions to be effective, it is important that students have the opportunity to apply them in the natural environment.…
The studies described in this dissertation focus on children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in special education. It was found that poor academic performance, relational problems between children and caregivers, and the age at which youth care was involved for the first time predicted
Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M
The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men. © The Author(s) 2014.
Bagner, Daniel M.; Rodriguez, Gabriela M.; Blake, Clair A.; Linares, Dainelys; Carter, Alice S.
Behavioral and emotional problems are highly prevalent in early childhood and represent an important focus of practice for clinical child and pediatric psychologists. Although psychological or psychiatric disorders are not typically diagnosed in children under the age of 2 years, recent research has demonstrated the appropriateness of assessing…
Garwood, Justin D.; Ciullo, Stephen; Brunsting, Nelson
This article discusses two strategies to improve reading outcomes for middle and high school adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). The first is providing secondary students a choice of accessible, engaging activities to more actively engage them during reading instruction and foster intrinsic motivation to engage in literacy…
Knops, Anouk M.; Goossens, Astrid; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Legemate, Dink A.; Stalpers, Lukas J.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.
Patient decision aids facilitate treatment decisions. They are often evaluated in terms of their effect on decisional conflict, as measured by the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS). It is unclear to what extent lower DCS scores are accompanied by observable patient behavior or emotions. To help
Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.; Nordness, Philip D.; Swain, Kristine D.; Hagaman, Jessica L.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate graduate students' perceptions of a completely online master's degree program in special education for emotional and behavioral disorders. The Community of Inquiry survey was used to examine graduate students' perceptions of the online program in the areas of teaching, cognitive, and social presences. The…
Forness, Steven R.; Kavale, Kenneth A.
This article reviews the development and current status of alternatives to the federal definition of emotional disturbance or behavior disorders. It notes that several states are now revising their own terminologies or definitions in response to the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act that dropped the term…
Kim, Joungmin; Kim, Kyeong-hwa
In South Korea, there is no consensus on the definition of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This column focuses on how the definition has affected the prevalence rates and services available for students with EBDs. Of the legal, clinical, and educational definitions, the legal definition of EBDs is currently in common use, which raises…
... inability to build or maintain satisfactory (age appropriate) interpersonal relationships with peers or... relationships, self-care, educational progress or classroom behavior. A child is classified as having an... need for reassurance); or (4) Has a professional diagnosis of serious emotional disturbance. (b) The...
Obergriesser, Stefanie; Stoeger, Heidrun
Research has shown that various individual factors play an important role in the underachievement of gifted students. Most often discussed as predictors of underachievement are motivation, learning behavior, and emotions. To examine which specific constructs from these fields simultaneously predict underachievement among gifted fourth graders,…
Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Goldston, David B.; Walsh, Adam K.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Hickman, Enith; Wood, Frank B.
The purpose of this study was to examine the severity of behavioral and emotional problems among adolescents with poor and typical single word reading ability (N = 188) recruited from public schools and followed for a median of 2.4 years. Youth and parents were repeatedly assessed to obtain information regarding the severity and course of symptoms…
Molenaar, D.; Middeldorp, C.; van Beijsterveldt, T.; Boomsma, D.I.
This study tested for Genotype × Environment (G × E) interaction on behavioral and emotional problems in children using new methods that do not require identification of candidate genes or environments, can distinguish between interaction with shared and unique environment, and are insensitive to
Egger, Helen Link; Angold, Adrian
We review recent research on the presentation, nosology and epidemiology of behavioral and emotional psychiatric disorders in preschool children (children ages 2 through 5 years old), focusing on the five most common groups of childhood psychiatric disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, oppositional defiant and conduct disorders,…
Burt, Keith B.; Paysnick, Amy A.
The present study examined sense of identity (assessed using the Identity subscale of the Psychosocial Maturity Inventory) as a moderator of associations between stressful life events, behavioral/emotional problems, and substance abuse in a sample of 187 college undergraduates (67% female). Correlations showed evidence for positive associations…
Ekholm, Bodil; Hedin, Anna
School climates at 12 day care centers in Sweden were compared to investigate effects of center climates on children's social and emotional behavior. Observations and interviews conducted at the day care centers revealed differences in center climates related to child-rearing patterns, patterns of interaction, the distribution of power, and in…
Saito, Aya; Stickley, Andrew; Haraguchi, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Kamio, Yoko
Although children with a greater number of autistic traits are likely to have other mental health problems, research on the association between earlier autistic traits in preschool children and later emotional/behavioral outcomes is scarce. Using data from 189 Japanese community-based children, this study examined whether autistic traits at age 5…
Hardman, Elizabeth L.
This paper presents the results of a small preliminary investigation of the moral judgment of three children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) using case study research methodology to describe their moral orientations and explore how their reasoning patterns might affect the development of a cooperative moral orientation. Data were…
Mohammad Reza Shojaei
Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between emotional intelligence and its components, self-awareness, self-management, social-awareness and relationship-management, with managers’ innovative work behavior. The research statistical population includes 100 managers of private bank branches in the city of Tehran selected with the random sampling method. The research type is descriptive-correlation. The tool for data aggregation is comprised of two questionnaires of emotional intelligence by Bradberry and Greaves (2006 [Bradberry, T., & Greaves, J. (2006. The emotional intelligence quick book: Everything you need to know to put your EQ to work. Simon and Schuster.] and innovative work behavior based on the studies of Janssen (2000 [Janssen, O. (2000. Job demands, perceptions of effort‐reward fairness and innovative work behaviour. Journal of Occupational and organizational psychology, 73(3, 287-302.]. The Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis have been used for data analysis. The results indicated that there was a positive and significant relationship between emotional intelligence and its components with innovative work behavior of managers. In addition, regression analysis showed that the self-management variable had the highest effect in estimating the managers’ innovative work behavior followed by relationship-management, self-awareness and social-awareness.
Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Denner, Silvia; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel; Guomundsson, Halldor; Jusiene, Roma; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Lobel, Sofia P.; Machado, Barbara Cesar; Markovic, Jasminka; Mas, Paola A.; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Montirosso, Rosario; Pluck, Julia; Pronaj, Adelina Ahmeti; Rodriguez, Jorge T.; Rojas, Pamela O.; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.
This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age and gender effects were quite similar across…
Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Beal, Sarah J.
This study was designed to examine the roles of emotional reactivity, self-regulation, and pubertal timing in prosocial behaviors during adolescence. Participants were 850 sixth graders (50 percent female, mean age = 11.03, standard deviation = 0.17) who were followed up at the age of 15. In hierarchical regression models, measures of emotional…
Arnold, Hayley S.; Conture, Edward G.; Key, Alexandra P. F.; Walden, Tedra
The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess whether behavioral and psychophysiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation are associated with developmental stuttering, as well as determine the feasibility of these methods in preschool-age children. Nine preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and nine preschool-age children…
Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K.; Mincic, Melissa S.; Sirotkin, Yana S.; Zinsser, Katherine
Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private childcare and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest…
Taal, Margot; Ekels, Elles; van der Valk, Cindel; van der Molen, Maurits
The current study presents a review of intervention studies conducted in the Low Countries (i.e., The Netherlands and Flanders) focusing on social-emotional behaviors in the school. The primary purpose of this review was to assess whether studies included an operational definition of the intervention under study and reported data on the…
State, Talida M.; Kern, Lee
Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in measuring life satisfaction among children and adolescents as an indicator of broad well-being and happiness. Although limited, existing research with students with social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems indicates they experience lower life satisfaction compared with their…
Bullis, Michael; Paris, Kathleen
Given the variety and severity of problems associated with adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), it is imperative that a coordinated system of vocational training and social support be afforded adolescents and young adults with EBD for them to become successful members of the workforce. Describes such a service model.…
Breeman, L.D.; Wubbels, T.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; van der Ende, J.; Maras, A.; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, N.T.
The goal of this study was to explore relations between teacher characteristics (i.e., competence and wellbeing); social classroom relationships (i.e., teacher-child and peer interactions); and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment. These relations were explored at both
Saelen, Cecile; Markovits, Henry
This study examined the idea that expectations of behavior in hypothetical situations involving potential moral transgressions are related to emotion attributions relating to both moral and cost-benefit considerations. We asked younger (14 years 5 months) and older (16 years 1 month) female and male adolescents (a) to make predictions about the…
Lauritzen, Paul; Friedman, Stephen J.
This article describes children having emotional/behavioral disorders, presents data demonstrating the critical shortage of teachers for this population, discusses factors that contribute to this problem, and offers recommendations including giving teachers of these children an additional salary stipend and providing them the option of…
Meesters, C.M.G.; Muris, P.E.H.M.; Dibbets, P.; Cima, M.; Lemmens, L.H.J.M.
This study examined relationships between the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in both clinical (N = 104) and non-clinical (N = 477) (young) adolescents aged 11-18 years, who completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parental rearing behaviors (EMBU-C) and a scenario-based instrument
Meesters, Cor; Muris, Peter; Dibbets, Pauline; Cima, Maaike; Lemmens, Lotte H.J.M.
This study examined relationships between the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in both clinical (N = 104) and non-clinical (N = 477) (young) adolescents aged 11–18 years, who completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parental rearing behaviors (EMBU-C) and a scenario-based instrument
Ralston, Nicole C.; Benner, Gregory J.; Tsai, Shu-Fei; Riccomini, Paul J.; Nelson, J. Ron
The authors report findings of a best-evidence synthesis of the effects of mathematics instruction on the mathematics skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The goal of the synthesis was to extend previous research by (a) detailing independent variables, instructional components, and outcome measures for each study; (b)…
Wood, Frank; And Others
The guide lists information on 56 resources (journal articles, books, reports, monographs) dealing with the education of children with behavioral disorders and published between 1950 and 1983. An introductory section reviews issues involved in the definition of the population, considers implications of the term "emotional disturbance," and cites…
Boyd, Rhonda C.; Diamond, Guy S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.
Extensive research demonstrates the negative impact of maternal depression on their offspring. Unfortunately, few studies have been explored in African American families. This study examined emotional and behavioral functioning among children of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 63), with a past year diagnosis…
Molenaar, D.; Middeldorp, C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.
This study tested for Genotype × Environment (G × E) interaction on behavioral and emotional problems in children using new methods that do not require identification of candidate genes or environments, can distinguish between interaction with shared and unique environment, and are insensitive to
Armstrong-Hugg, Robin L.; And Others
The paper describes development of the Pupil Observation Schedule (POS), a computer based system which provides a framework for assessing, evaluating, and reporting behavioral progress of emotionally disturbed students. The POS is used to rate five skill areas--computation, language, reading, reference, and psychomotor skills; and nine behavioral…
RICCIUTI, HENRY N.
INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR IN HUMAN INFANCY HAVE RAISED MANY RESEARCH ISSUES AND HAVE INDICATED MANY ADDITIONAL AREAS OF INQUIRY. EARLY AND CONTEMPORARY STUDIES HAVE BOTH BEEN CONCERNED WITH PROVIDING MORE PRECISE ANALYSES OF STIMULUS AND SITUATIONAL DETERMINANTS OF SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL…
Harrison, Judith R.; State, Talida M.; Wills, Howard P.; Custer, Beth A.; Miller, Elaine
Transition planning is a mandated component of individualized education plans (IEPs) designed to ensure successful transition to adult life for students with disabilities. Students with social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) needs experience poor post-school outcomes, suggesting a need for more effective transition planning. This study evaluated…
Park, Sanghoon; Yun, Heoncheol
Providing effective motivational support is a critical determinant of a successful online distance learning experience for students in higher education. In this study, we examined how students' academic level and use of 8 motivational regulation strategies influence 3 types of student engagement: behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, and…
Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George
We summarize our recent findings that White children in the United States are more likely than otherwise similar racial or ethnic minority children to receive special education services, including for emotional and behavioral disorders. We show how the findings are robust. We explain why our findings conflict with prior reports in education that…
Evolution has created a human brain that is characterized by a layered, hierarchical organization. These superimposed layers have gradually evolved to generate ever more complex forms of socio-emotional behavior. The present thesis centers on the neurobiological substrates that generate this
A.E.R. Bos (Arjan); A.J. Dijker (Anton); W. Koomen (Willem)
textabstractTwo studies examined the influence of HIV+ individual’s expression of distress on perceivers’ emotional and behavioral reactions. In Study 1 (N = 224), HIV+ individuals’ expression of distress was experimentally manipulated by means of vignettes. Men and women reacted differently when
Nelson, J. Ron; Maculan, Amelia; Roberts, Maura L.; Ohlund, Barbara J.
Occupational stress ratings from 415 teachers of students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) was modeled by regression, using teacher demographic characteristics, working conditions, and the ability to work with children with EBD as factors. All working condition variables, professional experience, and ability to work with externalizing…
Breeman, L.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/390776114; Wubbels, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070651361; van Lier, P.A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; van der Ende, J.; Maras, A.; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, Nouchka|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298678012
The goal of this study was to explore relations between teacher characteristics (i.e., competence and wellbeing); social classroom relationships (i.e., teacher–child and peer interactions); and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment. These relations were explored at both
The author presents a strategy for helping students with emotional and behavioral disorders become more proficient at solving math word problems. Math word problems require students to go beyond simple computation in mathematics (e.g., adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing) and use higher level reasoning that includes recognizing relevant…
Garwood, Justin D.; Van Loan, Christopher L.; Werts, Margaret Gessler
As schools across the United States move toward more inclusive models and as caseloads for special education teachers increase, special education paraprofessionals are being hired to fill service delivery gaps. Most often, paraprofessionals are asked to provide social and behavioral support to students with disabilities, and much of their time is…
Plaud, J J; Gaither, G A; Weller, L A; Bigwood, S J; Barth, J; von Duvillard, S P
Stimulus equivalence is a behavioral approach to analyzing the "meaning" of stimulus sets and has an implication for clinical psychology. The formation of three-member (A --> B --> C) stimulus equivalence classes was used to investigate the effects of three different sets of sample and comparison stimuli on emergent behavior. The three stimulus sets were composed of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)-related words, non-REBT emotionally charged words, and a third category of neutral words composed of flower labels. Sixty-two women and men participated in a modified matching-to-sample experiment. Using a mixed cross-over design, and controlling for serial order effects, participants received conditional training and emergent relationship training in the three stimulus set conditions. Results revealed a significant interaction between the formation of stimulus equivalence classes and stimulus meaning, indicating consistently biased responding in favor of reaching criterion responding more slowly for REBT-related and non-REBT emotionally charged words. Results were examined in the context of an analysis of the importance of stimulus meaning on behavior and the relation of stimulus meaning to behavioral and cognitive theories, with special appraisal given to the influence of fear-related discriminative stimuli on behavior.
Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael
En emotion er en evaluerende respons på en betydningsfuld hændelse, som har affektiv valens og motiverer organismen i forhold til objektverdenen (omverden). Emotioner fører til affekt: til smerte (negativ) eller glæde (positiv affekt). Både positive og negative emotioner påvirker organismens...
Carter Alice S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of social-emotional and behavioral problems is estimated to be 8 to 9% among preschool children. Effective early detection tools are needed to promote the provision of adequate care at an early stage. The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA was developed for this purpose. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the BITSEA to enhance social-emotional and behavioral health of preschool children. Methods and Design A cluster randomized controlled trial is set up in youth health care centers in the larger Rotterdam area in the Netherlands, to evaluate the BITSEA. The 31 youth health care centers are randomly allocated to either the control group or the intervention group. The intervention group uses the scores on the BITSEA and cut-off points to evaluate a child's social-emotional and behavioral health and to decide whether or not the child should be referred. The control group provides care as usual, which involves administering a questionnaire that structures the conversation between child health professionals and parents. At a one year follow-up measurement the social-emotional and behavioral health of all children included in the study population will be evaluated. Discussion It is hypothesized that better results will be found, in terms of social-emotional and behavioral health in the intervention group, compared to the control group, due to more adequate early detection, referral and more appropriate and timely care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NTR2035
Shouse, Sarah H.; Nilsson, Johanna
Self-silencing (or the suppression of expressing one's thoughts, feelings, and needs) can have a negative impact on the mental health of women, from depression to disordered eating behaviors. The authors examined the relationship between self-silencing and disordered eating as well as intuitive eating. The authors also explored whether emotional…
Yuni Sufyanti Arief
Full Text Available Introduction: A child who is diagnosed with Leukemia will undergo several procedures are long and painful action. During the process of hospitalization due to leukemia children and parents can experience a variety of events or actions handling according to various studies shown by the experience very traumatic and stressful (Supartini 2004 in Arif, SY, 2007. Some of the methods used to deal with anxiety is psikoprofilaksis, relaxation and imagination (Reeder et al., 2011. Rational-emotive behavior therapy by Albert Ellis in 1990 describes a unique man who is basically have a tendency to think rational and irrational. Methods: aim of this study is to explain the effect of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT for stress levels of mothers with children suffering from Leukemia. The study design used was a pre-experiment Quasy-post control group design. The sample was 10 mothers of children diagnosed with leukemia are treated in a child hematology ward Soetomo hospital. Variable in this study is the level of depression and anxiety mothers with children suffering from leukemia. Result: Based on the results obtained Wilcoxon statistical test p = 0.025 in the treatment group and p = 0.32 in the control group. Mann Whitney test results obtained p = 0.012. Conclution: Rational-emotive behavior therapy can reduce levels of depression and anxiety (stress mothers with children suffering from leukemia. It is expected that the application of rational -emotive behavior therapy can be done to reduce depression and anxiety in women with chronic disease cases while maintaining the effectiveness the goal of REBT. Keywords: stress, anxiety, depression, rational-emotive behavior
Wang, Mei-Ling; Chang, Shu-Chen
Healthcare is a profession that requires a high level of emotional labor (EL). Nurses provide frontline services in hospitals and thus typically experience high levels of EL. The quality of services that nurses provide impacts on how patients evaluate the service quality of hospitals. The aim of this study is to explore the relationships among EL, job involvement (JI), and customer-oriented behavior (COB) in the context of the nursing profession. The participants in this study were nurses at eight hospitals, all located in Taiwan. This study used a self-reporting questionnaire. Research data were gathered at two discrete periods (A and B). Questionnaire A collected data on EL and JI, and Questionnaire B collected data on COB. Five hundred questionnaires were sent out to qualified participants, and 472 valid questionnaires were returned. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The expression of positive emotion (EPE) and the suppression of negative emotion (SNE) were found to positively affect the patient-oriented COB. Furthermore, the EPE was found to positively affect the task-oriented COB. In terms of the moderating effect of JI, JI was found to relate positively to the EPE, patient-oriented COB, and task-oriented COB. In addition, higher values of JI were found to weaken the relationship between the SNE and the task-oriented COB. It has become an increasingly popular practice for hospital organizations to work to promote the COB of their nursing staffs. The results of this study prove empirically that a relationship exists among EL, COB, and JI in nurses. This study contributes to the related literature, enhances the knowledge of hospital and nursing administrators with regard to EL and COB, and offers a reference for hospital managers who are responsible for designing and executing multidisciplinary programs and for managing hospital-based human resources.
Lauer, Amanda M; Larkin, Gail; Jones, Aikeen; May, Bradford J
Increased prevalence of emotional distress is associated with tinnitus and hearing loss. The underlying mechanisms of the negative emotional response to tinnitus and hearing loss remain poorly understood, and it is challenging to disentangle the emotional consequences of hearing loss from those specific to tinnitus in listeners experiencing both. We addressed these questions in laboratory rats using three common rodent anxiety screening assays: elevated plus maze, open field test, and social interaction test. Open arm activity in the elevated plus maze decreased substantially after one trial in controls, indicating its limited utility for comparing pre- and post-treatment behavior. Open field exploration and social interaction behavior were consistent across multiple sessions in control animals. Individual sound-exposed and salicylate-treated rats showed a range of phenotypes in the open field, including reduced entries into the center in some subjects and reduced locomotion overall. In rats screened for tinnitus, less locomotion was associated with higher tinnitus scores. In salicylate-treated animals, locomotion was correlated with age. Sound-exposed and salicylate-treated rats also showed reduced social interaction. These results suggest that open field exploratory activity is a selective measure for identifying tinnitus distress in individual animals, whereas social interaction reflects the general effects of hearing loss. This animal model will facilitate future studies of the structural and functional changes in the brain pathways underlying emotional distress associated with hearing dysfunction, as well as development of novel interventions to ameliorate or prevent negative emotional responses.
Rominov, Holly; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A
Fathers' postnatal distress has been associated with subsequent emotional and behavioral problems for children; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs have received less attention. One potential pathway could be via the negative effects that father mental health problems and parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in the postnatal period have on later parenting behaviors. Using a nationally representative cohort of Australian father-child dyads (N = 3,741), the long-term relationships between fathers' psychological distress and PSE in the postnatal period, parenting behavior when children were aged 4-5 years, and emotional-behavioral outcomes for children aged 8-9 years were explored. Path analysis indicated that high distress and low PSE in the postnatal period was associated with higher levels of hostile parenting and lower parenting consistency when children were aged 4-5 years; in turn, these were associated with poorer child outcomes at 8-9 years. These results remained significant after controlling for socioeconomic position, couple relationship quality, mothers' and fathers' mental health, and fathers' concurrent parenting behavior. The pathways among PSE, parenting hostility, parenting consistency, and children's outcomes at age 8-9 years differed for fathers of boys compared with fathers of girls. Results highlight the importance of father-inclusive assessments of postnatal mental health. Support programs targeting new fathers' perceptions of parenting competence may be particularly important for fathers experiencing postnatal distress. For fathers, building a stronger sense of parenting competence in the postnatal period is important for later parenting behavior, which relates to children's emotional and behavioral outcomes during middle childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Emotion tunes cognition, such that approach-motivated positive states promote verbal cognition, whereas withdrawal-motivated negative states promote spatial cognition (Gray, 2001). The current research examined whether self-control resources become depleted and influence subsequent behavior when emotion tunes an inappropriate cognitive tendency. In 2 experiments, either an approach-motivated positive state or a withdrawal-motivated negative state was induced, and then participants completed a verbal or a spatial working memory task creating conditions of emotion-cognition alignment (e.g., approach/verbal) or misalignment (e.g., approach/spatial). A control condition was also included. To examine behavioral costs due to depleted self-control resources, participants completed either a Stroop task (Stroop, 1935; Experiment 1) or a Black/White implicit association test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998; Experiment 2). Participants in the misalignment conditions performed worse on the Stroop task, and they were worse at controlling their implicit attitude biases on the IAT. Thus, when emotion tunes inappropriate cognitive tendencies for one's current environment, self-control resources become depleted, impairing behavioral control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Ittel, Angela; Müller, Christin R; Pfetsch, Jan; Walk, Sebastian
The experience of cybervictimization is related to health, psychological, and behavioral problems among children and adolescents. Up to today research is scarce, how the persons affected by cybervictimization react and which determinants influence the choice for social, problem-focused, technical, or helpless coping behavior. The current online study with 428 adolescents considers age, sex, mean internet use, frequency of victimization, roles in cyberbullying, and emotional reactions to cybervictimization as potential determinants of the mentioned coping strategies. Based on the participant role approach, roles of cyberbullies, cybervictims, defenders or outsiders are frequently changing. Logistic regression analyses point out the important relevance of emotional reactions like anger or helplessness and the roles as cyberbully-victim or outsider. Further, younger participants reported cybervictimization more often, while the frequency of cybervictimization and sex did not and internet use only partially predict coping strategies. These findings corroborate the relevance of emotional reactions and the roles in the process of cyberbullying. As a starting point for prevention and intervention of cybervictimization, we suggest emotion regulation, teaching of technical coping behaviors as well as reflexion of roles in the context of cyberbullying. If feasible, different stakeholders should be engaged in this process: adolescents, parents, educational staff inside and outside of schools, experts from counseling and therapy as well as internet and mobile phone service providers.
Molenaar, Dylan; Middeldorp, Christel; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Boomsma, Dorret I
This study tested for Genotype × Environment (G × E) interaction on behavioral and emotional problems in children using new methods that do not require identification of candidate genes or environments, can distinguish between interaction with shared and unique environment, and are insensitive to scale effects. Parental ratings of problem behavior from 14,755 twin pairs (5.3 years, SD = 0.22) indicated G × E interaction on emotional liability, social isolation, aggression, attention problems, dependency, anxiety, and physical coordination. Environmental influences increased in children who were genetically more predisposed to problem behavior, with ~20% of the variance due to G × E interaction (8% for anxiety to 37% for attention problems). Ignoring G × E interaction does not greatly bias heritability estimates, but it does offer a comprehensive model of the etiology for childhood problems. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Muhamad Abdul Kohar
Full Text Available This article describes the concept of guidance and counseling rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT Islamic to increase the resilience of prostitutes. REBT is an approach that directive, the approach to reeducation counselees to understand the cognitive input that causes emotional disturbance, trying to change the thought patterns counselee to let the irrational thoughts or study anticipates the benefits or consequences of behavior. Resilience is the ability of individuals to adapt, so as to put themselves well against an unpleasant experience. Islamic REBT approach focuses on thinking (aqliyah rational individual to the nature of the individual who escorted counselees aware that he is a servant and vicegerent of Allah in order to survive counselees his life in this world and hereafter. Islamic REBT counseling techniques are affective, cognitive, and behavioral adapted to the conditions of the counselee. Such techniques include: Assertive adaptive, Reinforcement, Social and Assertive modeling exercise.
Traditional moral philosophy has long focused on rationality, principled thinking, and good old-fashioned willpower, but recent evidence strongly suggests that moral judgments and prosocial behavior are more heavily influenced by emotion and intuition. As the evidence mounts, rational traditions emphasizing deliberative analysis and conscious decision making are called into question. The first section highlights some compelling evidence supporting the primacy of affective states in motivating moral judgments and behavior. The real challenge is finding a way to align intuition with desired behavior. In cool reflective states, one may desire to be a kind and loving person. But when it is time to act, the moment is often accompanied by strong affect-laden intuitions. I argue that if affective states are the primary motivators of behavior, then moral sentiments must be trained through habituation in order to increase prosocial behavior. The second section provides empirical evidence linking emotional training with increased prosociality. To highlight this connection, focus is placed on the relationship between habitual meditation training, compassion, and prosocial behavior. Recent studies by Antoine Lutz, Richard Davidson, Susanne Leiberg, and others show that various meditation practices can dramatically affect the human person at various levels, i.e., increased physical health, neural restructuring, regulation and development of emotions, and increased helping behavior, to name a few. The current article focuses on the impact the habit of loving-kindness meditation (LKM) has on compassion and prosocial behavior. Recent studies strongly support the conclusion that LKM training hones compassion and ultimately leads to an increase in compassionate behavior.
Tsai, Fang-Ju; Liu, Shu-Tsen; Lee, Chi-Mei; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6-16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parental education-matched school controls. Data on demographics, parental reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV), and medical records were collected. The average full-scale intelligence quotient of the case group was 95.8. There were 11 (18.0%), 7 (11.5%), 26 (42.6%), and 26 (42.6%) of children with epilepsy ever clinically diagnosed with developmental delay, overt ADHD symptoms, allergies reported by physicians, and behavior problems measured by the CBCL, respectively. Those children with epilepsy had more severe ADHD-related symptoms and a wider range of emotional/behavioral problems than controls (Cohen's d 0.36-0.80). The rate of potential cases of ADHD among children with epilepsy was 24.6%. A history of developmental delay predicted ADHD- related symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems. Among children with epilepsy, a longer duration of treatment with antiepileptic drugs predicted externalizing problems, and an earlier onset of epilepsy predicted inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings imply that clinicians should assess physical and emotional/behavioral problems among children with epilepsy in order to provide interventions to offset possible adverse psychiatric outcomes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ketelaar, Lizet; Wiefferink, Carin H; Frijns, Johan H M; Broekhof, Evelien; Rieffe, Carolien
Moral emotions such as shame, guilt and pride are the result of an evaluation of the own behavior as (morally) right or wrong. The capacity to experience moral emotions is thought to be an important driving force behind socially appropriate behavior. The relationship between moral emotions and social behavior in young children has not been studied extensively in normally hearing (NH) children, let alone in those with a hearing impairment. This study compared young children with hearing impairments who have a cochlear implant (CI) to NH peers regarding the extent to which they display moral emotions, and how this relates to their social functioning and language skills. Responses of 184 NH children and 60 children with CI (14-61 months old) to shame-/guilt- and pride-inducing events were observed. Parents reported on their children's social competence and externalizing behavior, and experimenters observed children's cooperative behavior. To examine the role of communication in the development of moral emotions and social behavior, children's language skills were assessed. Results show that children with CI displayed moral emotions to a lesser degree than NH children. An association between moral emotions and social functioning was found in the NH group, but not in the CI group. General language skills were unrelated to moral emotions in the CI group, yet emotion vocabulary was related to social functioning in both groups of children. We conclude that facilitating emotion language skills has the potential to promote children's social functioning, and could contribute to a decrease in behavioral problems in children with CI specifically. Future studies should examine in greater detail which factors are associated with the development of moral emotions, particularly in children with CI. Some possible directions for future research are discussed.
De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; D'Elia, Alessandra; Giagnotti, Francesca; Matera, Emilia; Quaranta, Nicola
The aim of this study is to examine cognitive skills, adaptive behavior, social and emotional skills in deaf children with cochlear implant (CI) compared to normal hearing children. The study included twenty children affected by profound hearing loss implanted with a CI compared to 20 healthy children matched to chronological age and gender. Results of this study indicated that 55% of children with CI showed a score in the normal range of nonverbal intelligence (IQ > 84), 40% in the borderline range (71 differences were found after comparison with normal hearing children.Children with CI reported more abnormalities in emotional symptoms (p = .018) and peer problems(p = .037) than children with normal hearing. Age of CI was negatively correlated with IQ (p = .002),positively correlated with emotional symptoms (p = .04) and with peer problems (p = .02). CI has a positive effect on the lives of deaf children, especially if it is implanted in much earlier ages.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between emotional intelligence, organizational communications and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB for a case study of Islamic Azad University, Gorgan Branch, and Sama Institution in Iran. Statistical population includes all heads and assistants and employees of Islamic Azad University and Sama Institution in city of Gorgan, Iran as 300 people. Sample size was determined as 169 people according to Korjesi and Morgan table. This research is operational by goal, and survey and correlation by method. To determine questionnaire reliability and questionnaire validity, Cronbach Alpha coefficient for emotional intelligence questionnaire, organizational communications questionnaire, and OCB questionnaire were calculated as 0.86, 0.86, 0.87 and 0.85, respectively. To analyze data and information, Pearson correlation coefficient by inferential level was used. Results indicate that there was a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational communication and OCB.
Shaffer, Anne; Obradović, Jelena
Parenting is a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral endeavor, yet limited research investigates parents' executive functions and emotion regulation as predictors of how parents interact with their children. The current study is a multimethod investigation of parental self-regulation in relation to the quality of parenting behavior and parent-child interactions in a diverse sample of parents and kindergarten-age children. Using path analyses, we tested how parent executive functions (inhibitory control) and lack of emotion regulation strategies uniquely relate to both sensitive/responsive behaviors and positive/collaborative behaviors during observed interaction tasks. In our analyses, we accounted for parent education, financial stress, and social support as socioeconomic factors that likely relate to parent executive function and emotion regulation skills. In a diverse sample of primary caregivers (N = 102), we found that direct assessment of parent inhibitory control was positively associated with sensitive/responsive behaviors, whereas parent self-reported difficulties in using emotion regulation strategies were associated with lower levels of positive and collaborative dyadic behaviors. Parent education and financial stress predicted inhibitory control, and social support predicted emotion regulation difficulties; parent education was also a significant predictor of sensitive/responsive behaviors. Greater inhibitory control skills and fewer difficulties identifying effective emotion regulation strategies were not significantly related in our final path model. We discuss our findings in the context of current and emerging parenting interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Gonçalves, Ana R; Fernandes, Carina; Pasion, Rita; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João
Aging is known to alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion (FEE), however the impact of this alteration is less clear. Additionally, there is little information about the temporal dynamics of the neural processing of facial affect. We examined behavioral and neural age-related changes in the identification of FEE using event-related potentials. Furthermore, we analyze the relationship between behavioral/neural responses and neuropsychological functioning. To this purpose, 30 younger adults, 29 middle-aged adults and 26 older adults identified FEE. The behavioral results showed a similar performance between groups. The neural results showed no significant differences between groups for the P100 component and an increased N170 amplitude in the older group. Furthermore, a pattern of asymmetric activation was evident in the N170 component. Results also suggest deficits in facial feature decoding abilities, reflected by a reduced N250 amplitude in older adults. Neuropsychological functioning predicts P100 modulation, but does not seem to influence emotion identification ability. The findings suggest the existence of a compensatory function that would explain the age-equivalent performance in emotion identification. The study may help future research addressing behavioral and neural processes involved on processing of FEE in neurodegenerative conditions. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alyanak, Behiye; Kılınçaslan, Ayşe; Harmancı, Halime Sözen; Demirkaya, Sevcan Karakoç; Yurtbay, Tülin; Vehid, Hayriye Ertem
The present study investigated emotional and behavioral problems in children with selective mutism (SM) along with the psychological adjustment and parenting attitudes of their mothers and fathers. Participants included 26 children with SM (mean age = 8.11 ± 2.11 years), 32 healthy controls (mean age = 8.18 ± 2.55 years) and the parents of all children. Children with SM displayed higher problem scores than controls in a variety of emotional and behavioral parameters. They predominantly displayed internalizing problems, whereas aggressive and delinquent behavior was described among a subsample of the children. Significant differences existed between the SM and control groups only in paternal psychopathology, which included anxiety and depression. They did not differ with respect to maternal psychological distress or mother or father reported parental attitudes. Another important result of the present study was that the severity of emotional and behavioral problems of children with SM was correlated with maternal psychopathology but not paternal psychopathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The role of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA in the control of emotional behavior remains to be determined. We analyzed the effects of the central administration of 1-oleoyl-LPA (LPA 18∶1 in rats tested for food consumption and anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors. For this purpose, the elevated plus-maze, open field, Y maze, forced swimming and food intake tests were performed. In addition, c-Fos expression in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG was also determined. The results revealed that the administration of LPA 18∶1 reduced the time in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze and induced hypolocomotion in the open field, suggesting an anxiogenic-like phenotype. Interestingly, these effects were present following LPA 18∶1 infusion under conditions of novelty but not under habituation conditions. In the forced swimming test, the administration of LPA 18∶1 dose-dependently increased depression-like behavior, as evaluated according to immobility time. LPA treatment induced no effects on feeding. However, the immunohistochemical analysis revealed that LPA 18∶1 increased c-Fos expression in the DPAG. The abundant expression of the LPA1 receptor, one of the main targets for LPA 18∶1, was detected in this brain area, which participates in the control of emotional behavior, using immunocytochemistry. These findings indicate that LPA is a relevant transmitter potentially involved in normal and pathological emotional responses, including anxiety and depression.
Full Text Available Nowadays, almost all sectors especially service ones are aware of the fact that the presence of employees who have high level ofemotional intelligence and innovative work behaviors is crucial so as to perform efficiently and productively. Since customersatisfaction and customer loyalty are the main primacy for the banking sector, they need to keep up with all kinds of changes anddevelopments to resist and gain advantages over their competitors subject to the highly increase of competition worldwide. Themain reason of applying this study on the banking sector is its dynamic structure that has been changed both positively andnegatively owing to the economic crisis. In connection with this, it is aimed to present the importance of emotional intelligence andinnovative work behaviors on the success of banking sector through the analysis of two variables in terms of their relationshipbetween each other. Additionally, it is intended for setting forth the differences of state-owned and private banks in terms of thelevel of emotional intelligence and innovative work behaviors. As a data collection tool, questionnaire technique has been used. Ithas been benefited from the emotional intelligence scale developed by Wong and Law to obtain the data related to emotionalintelligence level; and the innovative work behaviors scale developed by Janssen to obtain the data related to innovative workbehaviors. The findings obtained from the questionnaire were applied to 332 employees in Turkish banking sector
S. Soltan Mohammadlou
Full Text Available Worry is a popular phenomenon and a common feature of many disorders, especially anxiety disorders. The objective of the study was to predict worry by using three predictive factors related to biological, emotional and cognition areas. In this study, behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation system, difficulties in emotion regulation and metacognition were examined as predictive variables. In a correlation cross-sectional design, 234 Medical Group students [BA and MA] of Tehran University of Medical Sciences participated in this study by using cluster sampling. The students completed these scales: Behavioral Inhibition and Behavioral Activation Systems (BAS/BIS, Difficulty of Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS, Metacognition Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30 and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ. Behavioral inhibition system, difficulty of emotion rgulation and metacognition variables were significantly positively correlated with worry (P<0/0 1(. Behavioral activation system variable was not significantly associated with worry. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated a predictive model for worry in which behavioral inhibition system, difficulty of emotional regulation and metacognition were its components respectively. Behavioral activation system was not included in the model. The findings of this study that worry should be studied in different biological, emotional, and metacognitive aspects. The results also emphasize the role of behavioral inhibition system as a temperamental and biological factor in psychopathology of worry in adult population.
Breeman, L D; Wubbels, T; van Lier, P A C; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Maras, A; Hopman, J A B; Tick, N T
The goal of this study was to explore relations between teacher characteristics (i.e., competence and wellbeing); social classroom relationships (i.e., teacher-child and peer interactions); and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment. These relations were explored at both the individual and classroom levels among 414 children with emotional and behavioral disorders placed in special education. Two models were specified. In the first model, children's classroom adjustment was regressed on social relationships and teacher characteristics. In the second model, reversed links were examined by regressing teacher characteristics on social relationships and children's adjustment. Results of model 1 showed that, at the individual level, better social and emotional adjustment of children was predicted by higher levels of teacher-child closeness and better behavioral adjustment was predicted by both positive teacher-child and peer interactions. At the classroom level, positive social relationships were predicted by higher levels of teacher competence, which in turn were associated with lower classroom levels of social problems. Higher levels of teacher wellbeing were directly associated with classroom adaptive and maladaptive child outcomes. Results of model 2 showed that, at the individual and classroom levels, only the emotional and behavioral problems of children predicted social classroom relationships. At the classroom level, teacher competence was best predicted by positive teacher-child relationships and teacher wellbeing was best predicted by classroom levels of prosocial behavior. We discuss the importance of positive teacher-child and peer interactions for children placed in special education and suggest ways of improving classroom processes by targeting teacher competence. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin
This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed that caregivers of children with mild/moderate autistic behavior problems perceived lower parenting stress than did those of children with no or severe problems. In addition, prosocial behaviors and conduct problems respectively predicted stress in the parent-child relationship and child-related stress. The findings can provide guidance in evaluations and interventions with a focus on mitigating parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism.
Poulou, Maria S.
The present study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine predictors of students' emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool classrooms. Specifically, the study examined (a) the link between teachers' perceptions of their own emotional intelligence and students' emotional and behavioral difficulties, (b) the link between teachers'…
Lim, So-Hee; Han, Sang-Sook; Joo, Yun-Su
To investigate the causal relationship between nurses' emotional intelligence and their organizational citizenship behavior and the possible mediating effects of leader trust and value congruence. The participants were 348 nurses who were working in a general hospital in a metropolitan area. The data were collected from December 16, 2012 to February 20, 2013. The hypothetical model of emotional intelligence, organizational citizenship behavior, leader trust, and value congruence was fitted to the actual data via structural equation modeling. The leaders' emotional intelligence had a direct positive effect on leader trust and value congruence; however, the nurses' own emotional intelligence had a negative effect on these two variables. Furthermore, leader trust had a direct positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior; value congruence had no such relationship. The nurses' emotional intelligence had a partial, indirect effect on organizational citizenship behavior via leader trust. In a nursing organization, it is necessary to build a system, such as mentoring, to be able to exchange emotions actively among the members in order to enhance emotional intelligence and have the same values between leaders and members throughout open communication. Therefore, nurse managers can contribute greatly to the enhancement of organizational performance by promoting members' organizational citizenship behavior through improving their relationships with them and gaining their trust, while concurrently making efforts to further develop their emotional intelligence. © 2018 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Rodrigue, J R; Fleishman, A; Vishnevsky, T; Fitzpatrick, S; Boger, M
Video narratives increasingly are used to draw the public's attention to the need for more registered organ donors. We assessed the differential impact of donation messaging videos on appeal, emotional valence, and organ donation intentions in 781 non-registered adults. Participants watched six videos (four personal narratives, one informational video without personal narrative, and one unrelated to donation) with or without sound (subtitled), randomly sequenced to minimize order effects. We assessed appeal, emotional valence, readiness to register as organ donors, and donation information-seeking behavior. Compared to other video types, one featuring a pediatric transplant recipient (with or without sound) showed more favorable appeal (p emotional valence (p emotion (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.07, p < 0.001) were significant multivariable predictors of clicking through to the donation website. Brief, one-min videos can have a very dramatic and positive impact on willingness to consider donation and behavioral intentions to register as an organ donor. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Moeller, Christin; Kwantes, Catherine T
Research suggests that the outcomes of interpersonal conflict are determined not only by the conflict itself, but also by the way in which it is handled. Confrontational and domineering tactics have been found to magnify the adverse impact of conflict. Thus, investigations of determinants of aggressive conflict management behaviors are of considerable interest. This study extends the literature by examining the relationship between conflict management preferences and conflict management behaviors and by examining how emotional intelligence (EI) shapes this preference-behavior relationship. Individuals' conflict management preferences predicted actual conflict management behaviors. EI was found to moderate this relationship. However, some of these moderating effects run contrary to the popular view of EI as a prosocial concept. Specifically, some EI facets were found to strengthen the link between aggressive conflict management preferences and subsequent conflict management behaviors.
Granic, Isabela; Meusel, Liesel-Ann; Lamm, Connie; Woltering, Steven; Lewis, Marc D
Past studies have shown that aggressive children exhibit rigid (rather than flexible) parent-child interactions; these rigid repertoires may provide the context through which children fail to acquire emotion-regulation skills. Difficulties in regulating emotion are associated with minimal activity in dorsal systems in the cerebral cortex, for example, the anterior cingulate cortex. The current study aimed to integrate parent-child and neurocognitive indices of emotion regulation and examine their associations for the first time. Sixty children (8-12 years old) referred for treatment for aggression underwent two assessments. Brain processes related to emotion regulation were assessed using dense-array EEG with a computerized go/no-go task. The N2 amplitudes thought to tap inhibitory control were recorded, and a source analysis was conducted. In the second assessment, parents and children were videotaped while trying to solve a conflict topic. State space grids were used to derive two dynamic flexibility parameters from the coded videotapes: (a) the number of transitions between emotional states and (b) the dispersion of emotional states, based on proportional durations in each state. The regression results showed that flexibility measures were not related to N2 amplitudes. However, flexibility measures were significantly associated with the ratio of dorsal to ventral source activation: for transitions, ΔR 2 = .27, F (1, 34) = 13.13, p = .001; for dispersion, ΔR 2 = .29, F (1, 35) = 14.76, p < .001. Thus, in support of our main hypothesis, greater dyadic flexibility was associated with a higher ratio of dorsomedial to ventral activation, suggesting that children with more flexible parent-child interactions are able to recruit relatively more dorsomedial activity in challenging situations.
Lee, Hyoung S.; Catley, Delwyn; Harris, Kari Jo
This study compared autonomous self-regulation and negative self-evaluative emotions as predictors of smoking behavior change in college student smokers (N=303) in a smoking cessation intervention study. Although the two constructs were moderately correlated, latent growth curve modeling revealed that only autonomous regulation, but not negative self-evaluative emotions, was negatively related to the number of days smoked. Results suggest that the two variables tap different aspects of motivation to change smoking behaviors, and that autonomous regulation predicts smoking behavior change better than negative self-evaluative emotions. PMID:21911436
Lee, Hyoung S; Catley, Delwyn; Harris, Kari Jo
This study compared autonomous self-regulation and negative self-evaluative emotions as predictors of smoking behavior change in college student smokers (N = 303) in a smoking cessation intervention study. Although the two constructs were moderately correlated, latent growth curve modeling revealed that only autonomous regulation, but not negative self-evaluative emotions, was negatively related to the number of days smoked. Results suggest that the two variables tap different aspects of motivation to change smoking behaviors, and that autonomous regulation predicts smoking behavior change better than negative self-evaluative emotions.
Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi
Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind�s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children�s anxiety and beh...
Spalek, Klara; Fastenrath, Matthias; Ackermann, Sandra; Auschra, Bianca; Coynel, David; Frey, Julia; Gschwind, Leo; Hartmann, Francina; van der Maarel, Nadine; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique; Milnik, Annette
Extensive evidence indicates that women outperform men in episodic memory tasks. Furthermore, women are known to evaluate emotional stimuli as more arousing than men. Because emotional arousal typically increases episodic memory formation, the females' memory advantage might be more pronounced for emotionally arousing information than for neutral information. Here, we report behavioral data from 3398 subjects, who performed picture rating and memory tasks, and corresponding fMRI data from up ...
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present research was determination of the role of metacognition and negative emotions on prediction of abuse behaviors. Method: In correlational research design which is categorized as descriptive research design, 200 participants selected by available sampling in abandonment clinics in Shahrod city. Out of 200 participants, 128 were addicted and 72 were non addicted persons. Metacognition, anxiety, depression, and stress questionnaires were administered among selected samples. Results: The results of regression analysis showed both variables could be significant predictors in prediction of abuse behaviors. Of metacognition subscales, negative believes about not controlling and risk, and cognitive confidence also of negative emotion subscales depression and anxiety were significant predictors. Conclusion: By consideration of results it could be said by intervention of significant variables the probability of suffering of substance abuse and its relapse could be down.
Hochman, Daniel M; Feinstein, Robert E; Stauter, Erinn C
There are many psychological risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and the ability to reduce mortality depends on an ability to integrate care of these risk factors with traditional Framingham cardiovascular risk and use them both in routine practice. The aim of this article is to provide an update of all the major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors along with a practical treatment model for implementation. First, we provide a review of major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors, the associated primary effect, and proposed mechanism of action. Second, we provide an office-based approach to cardiovascular risk factor reduction and methods of reducing barriers to implementation, called Prevention Oriented Primary Care-Abridged. The approach integrates several forms of detection, assessment using the 3As (ask, assess, assist), and Stages of Change approaches, and subsequent efficient and targeted treatment with either Motivational Interviewing or further office intervention. A case example is provided to help illustrate this process.
Buodo, Giulia; Moscardino, Ughetta; Scrimin, Sara; Altoè, Gianmarco; Palomba, Daniela
This study investigated whether the parenting stress-child externalizing behavior link is moderated by children's emotional reactivity, as indexed by skin conductance responses (SCRs). Participants were 61 children aged 9-12 years and their mothers. Mothers completed measures of parenting stress and their children's externalizing symptoms; children also reported on their externalizing behavior. Children's SCRs were assessed during the viewing of standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures. Cluster analysis on SCRs identified two groups, labeled Lower SCRs and Higher SCRs. Regression analyses indicated that among children with lower SCRs, those exposed to increased parenting stress reported more externalizing symptoms, whereas those who experienced low parenting stress reported similar rates of externalizing problems as children with higher SCRs. No effect of parenting stress emerged for children with higher SCRs. Findings suggest that higher parenting stress renders children with lower, as opposed to higher, SCRs to emotional stimuli more vulnerable to externalizing problems.
Pastor, Patricia N; Reuben, Cynthia A
This report describes trends in health conditions reported by parents as the limitations leading to special education services for their children. Data are reported for children ages 6-17 (N=182,998) surveyed in households in the 2001-2012 National Health Interview Survey. Between 2001 and 2012, the overall percentage of U.S. children ages 6-17 who were receiving special education services increased from 7.2% to 8.7%. Between 2001 and 2012, the leading causes of activity limitations among children receiving special education services included emotional or behavioral problems, which increased from 36% to 43%; speech problems, which increased from 16% to 22%; and learning disability, which decreased from 41% to 27%. There were no significant trends in any of the other conditions considered as possible sources of activity limitations. Emotional and behavioral problems have become the most frequently reported source of activity limitations among children receiving special education services.
Olga M Klimecki
Full Text Available In the prevention and resolution of conflicts in social contexts, an important step is to understand how different emotions and empathic traits are linked to punishment behaviors. Unfortunately, few paradigms exist to study these phenomena. Here, we developed the Inequality Game (IG as an economic and verbal interaction paradigm in which participants are faced with an "unfair other" as opposed to a "fair other" and subsequently have the opportunity to engage in a range of social behaviors. These social behaviors include cooperative or competitive economic choices and nice or derogatory verbal behavior toward the unfair and fair other. Participants could thus engage in punishment or forgiveness behavior toward the unfair other as well as in cooperative or aggressive behavior toward the fair other. We validated the IG through multimodal measures comprising the assessment of personality traits, emotions (by means of facial expressions and self-reports, arousal (by means of skin conductance responses, physical effort (force exertion, and behavioral reactions. Second, we examined the influence of emotions and empathy-related traits on punishment behavior. With regard to emotions, we observed a positive relation between malicious joy and punishment behavior. This result highlights the role of reward-related mechanisms in favoring punishment behavior. In addition, different empathic traits had opposing effects on antisocial behavior. Whereas personal distress predicted aggressive verbal behavior, perspective taking and empathic concern predicted a reduction in punishment behavior. Empathic traits also modulated emotional experience and person evaluations, such that perspective taking was related to more positive affect (less frowning and more smiling and a more favorable evaluation of the unfair other. The current data validate the IG, reveal that malicious joy is positively related to punishment behavior, and show that different types of empathic
Klimecki, Olga M.; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Sander, David
In the prevention and resolution of conflicts in social contexts, an important step is to understand how different emotions and empathic traits are linked to punishment behaviors. Unfortunately, few paradigms exist to study these phenomena. Here, we developed the Inequality Game (IG) as an economic and verbal interaction paradigm in which participants are faced with an “unfair other” as opposed to a “fair other” and subsequently have the opportunity to engage in a range of social behaviors. These social behaviors include cooperative or competitive economic choices and nice or derogatory verbal behavior toward the unfair and fair other. Participants could thus engage in punishment or forgiveness behavior toward the unfair other as well as in cooperative or aggressive behavior toward the fair other. We validated the IG through multimodal measures comprising the assessment of personality traits, emotions (by means of facial expressions and self-reports), arousal (by means of skin conductance responses), physical effort (force exertion), and behavioral reactions. Second, we examined the influence of emotions and empathy-related traits on punishment behavior. With regard to emotions, we observed a positive relation between malicious joy and punishment behavior. This result highlights the role of reward-related mechanisms in favoring punishment behavior. In addition, different empathic traits had opposing effects on antisocial behavior. Whereas personal distress predicted aggressive verbal behavior, perspective taking and empathic concern predicted a reduction in punishment behavior. Empathic traits also modulated emotional experience and person evaluations, such that perspective taking was related to more positive affect (less frowning and more smiling) and a more favorable evaluation of the unfair other. The current data validate the IG, reveal that malicious joy is positively related to punishment behavior, and show that different types of empathic traits can
Baum, Amber E; Solberg, Leah C; Churchill, Gary A; Ahmadiyeh, Nasim; Takahashi, Joseph S; Redei, Eva E
Inbred Wistar-Kyoto rats consistently display hypoactivity in tests of emotional behavior. We used them to test the hypothesis that the genetic factors underlying the behavioral decision-making process will vary in different environmental contexts. The contexts used were the open-field test (OFT), a novel environment with no explicit threats present, and the defensive-burying test (DB), a habituated environment into which a threat has been introduced. Rearing, a voluntary behavior was measured in both tests, and our study was the first to look for genetic loci affecting grooming, a relatively automatic, stress-responsive stereotyped behavior. Quantitative trait locus analysis was performed on a population of 486 F2 animals bred from reciprocal inter-crosses. The genetic architectures of DB and OFT rearing, and of DB and OFT grooming, were compared. There were no common loci affecting grooming behavior in both tests. These different contexts produced the stereotyped behavior via different pathways, and genetic factors seem to influence the decision-making pathways and not the expression of the behavior. Three loci were found that affected rearing behavior in both tests. However, in both contexts, other loci had greater effects on the behavior. Our results imply that environmental context's effects on decision-making vary depending on the category of behavior.
Huang, Xue-zhu; Guo, Lan-ting; Tang, Guang-zheng
To study the life events which are correlated with adolescent's emotion and behavior problems, and to provide evidence for clinicians and school staff to develop intervention for those problems. Youth's Self Report (YSR) and Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC) were used to assess adolescent's emotional and behavioral problems and life events by 'spot' study. The referred group consisted of 585 patients from 11 to 18 years old in a Mental Health Centre of West China Hospital of Sichuan University from July in 2002 to March in 2004. Level of IQ was above 5th grade of primary school among the study subjects who were willing to fill in the YSR and ASLEC. The non-referred group was selected in a 1280 students cluster-sample from the schools of Chengdu city, whose sex, age and father's career were matched with the referred group. Variance inflation factor (VIF) was used to verify that there was no collinearity to each other in the 6 factors of ASLEC: interpersonal relationship, learning pressure, being punished, losing good adaptation and other. Linear stepwise regression was adopted. The YSR scores in referred group were higher than those in non-referred group, and the referred group had more emotional and behavioral problems than the non-referred one. Partial correlations ranged from 0.124 to 0.418 in referred group, and from 0.104 to 0.388 in non-referred group. Unsatisfied interpersonal relationship, heavy learning pressure, having been punished and poor adaptation were likely to increase the risk of youth's emotional and behavioral problems. More attention should be paid to help adolescents in the following areas: solving intrapersonal affairs, relieving pressure from learning, avoiding punishment, and improving ability to fit themselves to their surroundings.
Amaliyah, Kharisma A; Palila, Sara
This research aims to determine the effectiveness Training of Rational Emotive Behavioral to deriving arrange minithesis anxiety of college student in faculty of sciences and technology X University. The methode of group training REB require to deriving arrange minithesis anxiety. Sample in this research is college student in faculty of science and technology X University that arrange ministhesis. Total of subject in this research is sixteenth college student, that divide into two group 12 su...
Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2015. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 76-85). This study explores the impacts of physical environmental items (DINESCAPE) on emotions and behavioral intentions of customers at an upscale restaurant. The theoretical framework is grounded on the Mehrabian- Russell model which suggests that any environment...
Tielung, Maria V. J.; Mekel, Peggy A.; Makarawung, Evanglin M.
Companies have to face all of challenge that happen, utilize all of opportunity and understand all of needs and wants of consumers to get a win in business competition. Development of Department Store in Indonesia showed significant figures in line with the increasing of needs toward fulfillment of a fairly large of consumers needs. Emotions are important factor in studying consumption, consumer decision making and consumer behavior. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of pos...
Full Text Available The problem of social-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavioral today is of particular relevance in relation to the current process of restructuring of educational institutions - the merging of general and specialized schools for adolescents with behavioral problems in a unified educational complexes. In these circumstances it is necessary to find an efficient tool that will simultaneously accelerate the process of adaptation and have a positive preventive effect. In this article, the author shows that such a tool can become the emotional intelligence as a construct that includes various abilities of the emotional sphere. The main hypothesis of the study was that the socio-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavior has its own characteristics, different from the norm group, and is interconnected with the components of emotional intelligence. The study was conducted on the basis of general education school № 2077 formed by the merger of five educational institutions: the former school № 738, № 703, № 702, № 7 and № 77. The study involved 222 teenagers from 14 to 16 years (111 girls and 111 boys.