WorldWideScience

Sample records for emissions reduction targets

  1. Can tourism deliver its "aspirational" greenhouse gas emission reduction targets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, D.; Peeters, P.M.; Gössling, S.

    2010-01-01

    This review paper examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets postulated by a range of organizations seeking to reduce the consequences of global climate change and how, or if, the global tourism sector can achieve its share of those targets. It takes both existing estimates of

  2. The EU 40 % greenhouse gas emission reduction target by 2030 in perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, A. F.; den Elzen, M. G J; Mendoza Beltran, A.

    2016-01-01

    We assess the fairness and ambition level of the EU’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) of reducing domestic greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40 % relative to 1990. For this, we calculate which reduction targets for other major emitting economies are comparable to the EU target,

  3. Is China’s target of a 40-45% reduction in carbon dioxide emission plausible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosupeng Mpho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early days of industrialisation, economists believed that the ramifications of economic growth will far outweigh the potential damage to the environment. Today the concern is the rising magnitude of emissions. Many economies are under immense pressure to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon taxation and absorption technologies seem to be the main mechanisms controlling emissions in different nations. China proposed her target of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 40-45% by 2025. The purpose of this study is to determine if China’s ambition of reducing its carbon dioxide emissions is feasible. This investigation also examines the potential effects of China's emissions on the economic growth of other countries. The study demonstrates that China’s target may not only reduce her output, but may also adversely affect the economic growth of others. This article further reveals that unemployment in China is likely to soar during the reduction in emissions and energy consumption. Additionally, this paper evaluates the effects of green taxation on carbon dioxide emissions. In conclusion, there is a possibility that China may reach her emissions target by 2025. However, the country faces a dilemma between economic growth and environmental preservation. It is recommended that China should explore techniques which will reduce emissions but not impinge negatively on economic growth.

  4. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM2.5) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Setting Corporate Targets for GHG Emission Reduction in Energy Management and GHG Reporting Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Rietbergen

    2013-01-01

    Energy management and carbon accounting schemes are increasingly being adopted as a corporate response to climate change. These schemes often demand the setting of ambitious targets for the reduction of corporate greenhouse gas emissions. There is however only limited empirical insight in the

  6. Environmental and economic effects of the Copenhagen pledges and more ambitious emission reduction targets. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Joachim; Duscha, Vicki; Peterson, Everett B. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany); Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Applied Economics

    2010-06-15

    Global carbon dioxide emissions need to be reduced by at least 50 to 85 % in 2050 compared to 2000 levels to limit global surface temperature increase to 2 C compared to preindustrial levels (IPCC 2007). As an intermediate greenhouse gas emission reduction target for industrialized countries in 2020 the IPCC (2007) confirmed a range of 25 % to 40 % compared to 1990, together with a substantial deviation from baseline in some developing regions, which was quantified as reductions in the range of 15 % to 30 % below baseline (den Elzen and Hoehne 2008). This report explores the environmental and economic effects of the pledges submitted by industrialized and major developing countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord as quantifiable emission reductions or as NAMAs. Two scenarios reflect the lower (''weak'') and upper (''ambitious'') bounds of the Copenhagen pledges leading to emission reductions of 17 % below 1990 levels for Annex I countries and 13 % below reference levels for Non-Annex I countries. Both scenarios do not reach the level of ambition indicated as necessary by science to keep temperature increase below 2 C. In addition, two scenarios in accordance with the IPCC range for reaching a 2 C target are analyzed with industrialized countries in aggregate reducing their CO{sub 2}-emissions by 30 % and by 40 % in 2020 compared to 1990 levels, respectively. For all four policy scenarios the effects of emission paths leading to a global reduction target of 50 % below 1990 levels in 2050 are also simulated for 2030. In the scenarios for 2030 all but the least developed countries are assumed to take on emission targets, but emission caps are considerably less stringent for developing countries than for developed countries. In addition, a separate scenario is carried out which estimates the costs of an unconditioned EU 30 % emission reduction target. The analyses are carried out with the dynamic Computable General

  7. Analysing the emission gap between pledged emission reductions under the Cancun Agreements and the 2C climate target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Roelfsema, M.; Hof, A.F. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Boettcher, H. [Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria); Grassi, G. [Joint Research Centre JRC, European Commission, Ispra (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    In the Cancun Agreements, Annex I Parties (industrialised countries) and non-Annex I Parties (developing countries) made voluntary pledges to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. The Cancun Agreements also state a long-term target of limiting temperature increase to a maximum of 2C above pre-industrial levels. This report is an update of the PBL report 'Evaluation of the Copenhagen Accord', which similar to earlier studies showed that there is a possible gap in emissions between the emission level resulting from the pledges and the level necessary to achieve the 2C target. The updates involve new information on many topics that have become available over the last two years, including updated national business-as-usual emission projections as provided by the countries themselves, and more information on uncertainties and on factors influencing the size of the emission gap. In this context, the main objective of this report can be formulated as follows: This report analyses the effect of the pledges put forward by the Parties in the Cancun Agreements on the emission gap, taking into account all the new information available. It pays specific attention to uncertainties and risks and describes in more detail the emission implications of the pledges and actions of the 12 largest emitting countries or regions.

  8. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  9. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  10. Intra- and extra-union flexibility in meeting the European union's emission reduction targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The EU has proposed four flexibility mechanisms for the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2013-2020: (1) the Emissions Trade Scheme (ETS), a permit market between selected companies; (2) trade in non-ETS allotments between Member States; (3) the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

  11. Is There a Future for Nuclear Power? Wind and Emission Reduction Targets in Fossil-Fuel Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooten, G Cornelis; Duan, Jun; Lynch, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the viability of relying on wind power to replace upwards of 60% of electricity generation in Alberta that would be lost if coal-fired generation is phased out. Using hourly wind data from 17 locations across Alberta, we are able to simulate the potential wind power output available to the Alberta grid when modern, 3.5 MW-capacity wind turbines are spread across the province. Using wind regimes for the years 2006 through 2015, we find that available wind power is less than 60% of installed capacity 98% of the time, and below 30% of capacity 74% of the time. There is only a small amount of correlation between wind speeds at different locations, but yet it remains necessary to rely on fossil fuel generation. Then, based on the results from a grid allocation model, we find that CO2 emissions can be reduced by about 30%, but only through a combination of investment in wind energy and reliance on purchases of hydropower from British Columbia. Only if nuclear energy is permitted into the generation mix would Alberta be able to meet its CO2-emissions reduction target in the electricity sector. With nuclear power, emissions can be reduced by upwards of 85%.

  12. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable

  13. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  14. Efficient emissions reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Roussillon, Beatrice; Schweinzer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple mechanism capable of achieving international agreement on the reduction of harmful emissions to their efficient level. It employs a contest creating incentives among participating nations to simultaneously exert efficient productive and efficient abatement efforts. Participation in the most stylised formulation of the scheme is voluntary and individually rational. All rules are mutually agreeable and are unanimously adopted if proposed. The scheme balances its budget and r...

  15. The impact of technology availability on the timing and costs of emission reductions for achieving long-term climate targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, J.; Hof, Andries|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/240412397; Mendoza Beltran, A.; van den Berg, M..; Deetman, S.; den Elzen, M.G.J.; Lucas, P.L.; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X

    2014-01-01

    While most long-term mitigation scenario studies build on a broad portfolio of mitigation technologies, there is quite some uncertainty about the availability and reduction potential of these technologies. This study explores the impacts of technology limitations on greenhouse gas emission

  16. Post2012 climate regime options for global GHG emission reduction. Analysis and evaluation of regime options and reduction potential for achieving the 2 degree target with respect to environmental effectiveness, costs and institutional aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Graichen, Jakob; Healy, Sean [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Schleich, Joachim; Duscha, Vicki [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    This report explores the environmental and economic effects of the pledges submitted by industrialized and major developing countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord and provides an in-depth comparison with results arrived at in other model analyses. Two scenarios reflect the lower (''weak'') and upper (''ambitious'') bounds of the Copenhagen pledges. In addition, two scenarios in accordance with the IPCC range for reaching a 2 C target are analyzed with industrialized countries in aggregate reducing their CO2 emissions by 30 % in 2020 compared to 1990 levels. For all four policy scenarios the effects of emission paths leading to a global reduction target of 50 % below 1990 levels in 2050 are also simulated for 2030. In addition, a separate scenario is carried out which estimates the costs of an unconditioned EU 30 % emission reduction target, i.e. where the EU adopts a 30 % emission reduction target in 2020 (rather than a 20 % reduction target), while all other countries stick with their ''weak'' pledges. Not included in the calculations is possible financial support for developing countries from industrialized countries as currently discussed in the climate change negotiations and laid out in the Copenhagen Accord. (orig.)

  17. Path towards achieving of China's 2020 carbon emission reduction target-A discussion of low-carbon energy policies at province level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Run, E-mail: rwang@iue.ac.c [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu Wenjuan [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiao Lishan [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu Jian; Kao, William [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Following the announcement of the China's 2020 national target for the reduction of the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45% compared with 2005 levels, Chinese provincial governments prepared to restructure provincial energy policy and plan their contribution to realizing the State reduction target. Focusing on Fujian and Anhui provinces as case studies, this paper reviews two contrasting policies as a means for meeting the national reduction target. That of the coastal province of Fujian proposes to do so largely through the development of nuclear power, whilst the coal-rich province of Anhui proposes to do so through its energy consumption rate rising at a lower rate than that of the rise in GDP. In both cases renewable energy makes up a small proportion of their proposed 2020 energy structures. The conclusion discusses in depth concerns about nuclear power policy, energy efficiency, energy consumption strategy and problems in developing renewable energy. - Research Highlights: {yields} We review two contrasting policies as a means for meeting the national reduction target of carbon emission in two provinces. {yields} Scenario review of energy structure in Fujian and Anhui Provinces to 2020. {yields} We discuss concerns about nuclear power policy, energy efficiency, energy consumption strategy and problems in developing renewable energy.

  18. Power plant emissions reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  19. Targeting Nitrous Oxide Reduction Efforts Using Crop-Specific, High-Resolution Emission Estimates from Synthetic Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, J. S.; West, P. C.; Carlson, K. M.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Launay, M.; Makowski, D.; Mueller, N. D.; O'Connell, C.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in global weather patterns are projected to have important impacts on regional food security. These impacts can be substantial, but how do they compare to other drivers of food supply vulnerability, including decreasing stocks, changing trade patterns, concentration of production, and changing demand patterns? We use multi-year global datasets of yield and area for staple crops to assess relationships between metrics of drought derived from high-resolution gridded weather data and crop yields. We then evaluate how these metrics are changing over time, and compare the resulting change in the likelihood of regional yield reduction events to other systemic factors.

  20. Quantifying emission reduction contributions by emerging economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moltmann, Sara; Hagemann, Markus; Eisbrenner, Katja; Hoehne, Niklas [Ecofys GmbH, Koeln (Germany); Sterk, Wolfgang; Mersmann, Florian; Ott, Hermann E.; Watanabe, Rie [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    regime under the UNFCCC post 2012'' published 2008. The analysis for this report was completed before the UN climate summit in Copenhagen in December 2009. Hence, it predates the notification of NAMAs under the ''Copenhagen Accord''. However, the NAMAs discussed in this report and the NAMAs notified under the Copenhagen Accord operate at different levels. With the exception of Brazil, all the countries discussed in this report notified aggregate national targets under the Copenhagen Accord, either in terms of emission intensity targets or in terms of a reduction of national emissions below ''business as usual.'' By contrast, this report discusses sector- or technology-specific NAMAs. The NAMAs discussed in this report can therefore be seen as possible ways of achieving the aggregate NAMAs notified under the Copenhagen Accord. (orig.)

  1. Methane emission reduction: an application of FUND

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, R.S.J.; Heintz, R.J.; Lammers, P.E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Methane is, after carbon dioxide, the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Governments plan to abate methane emissions. A crude set of estimates of reduction costs is included in FUND, an integrated assessment model of climate change. In a cost-benefit analysis, methane emission reduction is found to be instrumental in controlling the optimal rate of climate change. In a cost-effectiveness analysis, methane emission reduction largely replaces carbon dioxide emission reduction. Methane...

  2. Multigas reduction strategy under climate stabilization target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, A. [Inst. of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Global warming can be mitigated through the abatement of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). This study argued that multiple gas reduction flexibility should be assessed when considering effective greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies. Emissions of non-CO{sub 2} GHGs were calculated endogenously using an integrated assessment model. Multigas reduction potential was measured in relation to long-term atmospheric temperature targets, and the effects on gas life as well as abatement timing uncertainty were considered in terms of cost and technological availability. The model consisted of 5 nodules which considered issues related to energy, climate, land use, macroeconomics, and environmental impacts. The time horizon of the model was 2000 to 2100. An economic utility maximization technology was used to consider global trade balances. Emissions of non-CO{sub 2} gases from specific sources was calculated by multiplying the emission factor and the endogenous parameters within the model. Results were presented for GHG emissions and concentrations in 2 simulation cases: (1) a no climate policy case (NCP); and (2) a transient temperature stabilization (TTS) case. Actions to reduce non-CO{sub 2} GHGs included activity level changes in production and consumption, and additional reductions in abatement costs without sector activity changes. Results of the study showed that reducing global dependency on fossil fuels was an effective way to reduce GHG effects from CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. Additional abatements to reduce N{sub 2}O emissions are required in the agricultural sector. Economic incentives and public outreach programs are needed to offset the high transaction costs of GHG mitigation strategies. It was concluded that both short-term and long-term policies are required to reduce GHG in all sectors. Multigas mitigation is needed to

  3. Volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen. Further emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froste, H. [comp.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents the current status in relation to achievement of the Swedish Environmental target set by Parliament to reduce emission of volatile organic compounds by 50 per cent between 1988 and 2000. It also instructed the Agency to formulate proposed measures to achieve a 50 per cent reduction of emission of nitrogen oxides between 1985 and 2005. The report presents an overall account of emission trends for volatile organic compounds (from all sectors) and nitrogen oxides (from the industry sector) and steps proposed to achieve further emission reductions. 43 refs

  4. Methane emission reduction: an application of FUND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Heintz, R.J.; Lammers, P.E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Methane is, after carbon dioxide, the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Governments plan to abate methane emissions. A crude set of estimates of reduction costs is included in FUND, an integrated assessment model of climate change. In a cost-benefit analysis, methane emission reduction is

  5. Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2, issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel industry, and proposed various kinds of analyzing models. The primary measures mainly focus on the targeted policies formulation and also on clean and high-efficient technologies development. The differences and similarities in energy conservation and emission reduction in foundry industry between China and other countries were discussed, while, the future development trend was also pointed out.

  6. Diesel emission reduction in construction equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The state of Rhode Island general law : The Diesel Emission Reduction Act : required a pilot project be undertaken to : gain a better understanding of the : impact of this legislative act. : The Rhode Island Department of : Transportation (RIDO...

  7. Profile of emissions reduction options in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetken, S.E.; Bertule, M.; Ipsen Hansen, J.; Karavai, M.; Sandbukt, S.; Staun, F.; Wieben, E.

    2013-06-15

    A second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol has just started. International climate negotiations consistently keep new market based approaches on the agenda. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions are rapidly rising as a new signature concept for a future climate treaty. In response to this momentum, many countries still find themselves in search of concrete emissions reduction options. UNEP Risoe, with the support of the UNFCCC Secretariat and the ACP-MEA Programme, has decided to assess the emissions reduction potential in 15 diverse countries. While most of these countries are not seen as obvious targets for emissions reduction activities, they are nevertheless likely to be involved in some form of future emissions reduction. Consequently, 15 country reports have been developed, from which this synthesis report gathers the main messages. The overall assessments of the potential emissions reduction in the 15 countries are presented. Sector details have been presented throughout the text, allowing an accumulation of overviews of the potentials in the 15 countries distributed across the 7 sectors of the economy around which the country reports have been structured. It is evident that the emissions reduction potential by far exceeds the current emissions reported by the UN, following calculations from the United States Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The reason for this is that these figures do not include the indirect emissions caused by current deforestation levels, as presented in the agro and forestry sections of the country reports. The intention behind including these figures is to illustrate that compared to these indirect emissions, almost any emissions reduction initiative, whether CDM or not - even those that may yield hundreds of thousands of tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents - are dwarfed by the main cause of emissions in these countries: deforestation. This source of emissions should be addressed with

  8. Research on CO2 Emission Reduction Mechanism of China’s Iron and Steel Industry under Various Emission Reduction Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Duan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage dynamic game model of China’s iron and steel industry is constructed. Carbon tax levy, product subsidy, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS and other factors are included in the emission reduction mechanism. The effects of emissions reduction and the economic impact of China’s overall steel industry (and that of its six main regions are investigated for the first time under different scenarios. As new findings, we report the following: (1 Not all factors declined. The overall social welfare, consumer surplus, output and emissions decrease with a gradual increase in the reduction target, whereas the carbon tax value, unit value of product subsidies and total subsidies show a rising trend; (2 A combination of multiple emissions reduction policies is more effective than a single policy. With the implementation of a combined policy, regional output polarization has eased; (3 Steel output does not exceed 950 million tons, far below the current peak. These results will help the industry to formulate reasonable emissions reduction and output targets. In short, in effort to eliminate industry poverty and to alleviate overcapacity, the industry should not only adopt the various coordinated reduction policies, but also fully consider regional differences and reduction needs.

  9. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-05

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power.

  10. Smart Transportation CO2 Emission Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulescu, S.; Tarulescu, R.; Soica, A.; Leahu, C. I.

    2017-10-01

    Transport represents the sector with the fastest growing greenhouse gas emissions around the world. The main global objective is to reduce energy usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. For this study it was analyzed the road transportation system from Brasov Metropolitan area. The study was made for the transportation route that connects Ghimbav city to the main surrounding objectives. In this study ware considered four optimization measures: vehicle fleet renewal; building the detour belt for the city; road increasing the average travel speed; making bicycle lanes; and implementing an urban public transport system for Ghimbav. For each measure it was used a mathematical model to calculate the energy consumption and carbon emissions from the road transportation sector. After all four measures was analyzed is calculated the general energy consumption and CO2 reduction if this are applied from year 2017 to 2020.

  11. Emission reductions to meet deposition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, F. B.

    The paper assumes Governments are willing and able to reduce national emissions of pollution to protect the environment. Sulphur dioxide is examined as an important example. Although not necessarily true at the present time, it further assumes: (i) that the cost of reducing these emissions from different industries (and other source types) are known, and that these costs include the secondary consequences of emission control (for example, possible resulting unemployment); (ii) that maximum deposition criteria ( mdc) have been established on some appropriate grid (above which undesirable environmental damage will occur) and that in some gridsquares these mdc are currently being exceeded; and (iii) that priorities for reducing the deposition may be ascribed for each gridsquare. The highest priority may reflect concern over excessive levels of heavy metals in drinking water drawn from wells used by remote homesteads, for example. Gridsquares where more gradual, and hopefully reversible, damage is taking place would be given a rather lower priority. The paper seeks to establish maximum levels of emission in each gridsquare which will result in depositions nowhere exceeding the mdc (on the scale of a gridsquare). It also offers a means of selecting an optimum staged reduction strategy whereby emissions are reduced gradually towards the ultimate maximum levels, and at each stage of the reduction, gives the maximum benefit for the capital outlay consistent with the priorities and costs outlined above. The paper utilizes a very simple analytical model of the deposition field resulting from a single emission. The model is tuned to give the best comparison with the 1985 sulphur deposition field obtained using the much more complex EMEP MSC-W Lagrangian model used operationally for acid-rain analyses in Europe.

  12. Lean-burn engines UHC emission reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karll, B.; Kristensen, P.G.; Nielsen, M.; Iskov, H. [Danish Gas Technology Centre a/s (Denmark); Broe Bendtsen, A.; Glarborg, P.; Dam-Johansen, K. [Technical University of Denmark. CHEC, Department of Chemical Engineering (Denmark)

    1999-04-01

    The effect of adding hydrogen to methane as a fuel for spark ignited engines has been extensively investigated. Both the possibility of adding a limited amount of hydrogen as well as equal amounts of hydrogen and carbon dioxide to natural gas has been investigated. A 10 vol% addition of hydrogen to the natural gas caused a reduction in UHC of approximately 40%, and an increase in efficiency of approximately three percentage points at the test engine. It is unknown if the gain is representative for large engines. Similar results for UHC reduction and efficiency were obtained for combined hydrogen and carbon dioxide addition. The carbon dioxide was added by exhaust gas recirculation. However, the price of hydrogen, makes this idea uneconomical even when carbon dioxide is readily available through recirculation of engine exhaust. Adiabatic prereforming may be used to convert natural gas into methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide in order to generate hydrogen and at the same time increase the methane number. The process has been found to be competitive with adding of hydrogen but it is still not economical. The effect of NO/NO{sub 2} on methane oxidation has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. A detailed kinetic modelling study of the UHC conversion dependency of exhaust gas parameters is reported and the project has contributed to the theoretical understanding of the oxidation chemistry. Both NO and NH{sub 3} addition to the engine inlet was used to increase the NO{sub x} level, and the general trend was a decrease in UHC as the NO{sub x} level increased, both in cylinger, manifold and rector. From the data it is concluded that NO and NH{sub 3} addition have identical effects. The results show a 15-35% decrease in manifold UHC. However, the increased emissions of NO{sub x} and CO associated with this process must be realised. Field tests show a 28% UHC reduction without an increase in CO emission. The UHC oxidation in the exhaust reactor has been tested

  13. Lean-burn engines UHC emission reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karll, B.; Kristensen, P.G.; Nielsen, M.; Iskov, H. [Danish Gas Technology Centre a/s (Denmark); Broe Bendtsen, A.; Glarborg, P.; Dam-Johansen, K. [Technical University of Denmark. CHEC, Department of Chemical Engineering (Denmark)

    1999-04-01

    The effect of adding hydrogen to methane as a fuel for spark ignited engines has been extensively investigated. Both the possibility of adding a limited amount of hydrogen as well as equal amounts of hydrogen and carbon dioxide to natural gas has been investigated. A 10 vol% addition of hydrogen to the natural gas caused a reduction in UHC of approximately 40%, and an increase in efficiency of approximately three percentage points at the test engine. It is unknown if the gain is representative for large engines. Similar results for UHC reduction and efficiency were obtained for combined hydrogen and carbon dioxide addition. The carbon dioxide was added by exhaust gas recirculation. However, the price of hydrogen, makes this idea uneconomical even when carbon dioxide is readily available through recirculation of engine exhaust. Adiabatic prereforming may be used to convert natural gas into methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide in order to generate hydrogen and at the same time increase the methane number. The process has been found to be competitive with adding of hydrogen but it is still not economical. The effect of NO/NO{sub 2} on methane oxidation has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. A detailed kinetic modelling study of the UHC conversion dependency of exhaust gas parameters is reported and the project has contributed to the theoretical understanding of the oxidation chemistry. Both NO and NH{sub 3} addition to the engine inlet was used to increase the NO{sub x} level, and the general trend was a decrease in UHC as the NO{sub x} level increased, both in cylinger, manifold and rector. From the data it is concluded that NO and NH{sub 3} addition have identical effects. The results show a 15-35% decrease in manifold UHC. However, the increased emissions of NO{sub x} and CO associated with this process must be realised. Field tests show a 28% UHC reduction without an increase in CO emission. The UHC oxidation in the exhaust reactor has been tested

  14. Non-ETS emission targets for 2030. Indication of emission targets for the Netherlands and other EU Member States under the European Effort Sharing Decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Hof, A.

    2013-10-15

    As European Member States are making progress towards their 2020 targets in the Effort Sharing Decision, the attention of policymakers is shifting to a framework beyond 2020. The European Commission launched a discussion with its Green Paper on a possible policy framework for 2030. This PBL Note aims to contribute to that discussion by analysing the effects of various assumptions on Member States' non-ETS emission targets for 2030. The effort sharing of the current European target for 2020 has resulted in an emission target of +20% relative to 2005 levels for the least wealthy Member State and -20% for the three wealthiest Member States. The targets for all other Member States were determined based on per-capita income levels of 2005. For possible non-ETS targets for 2030, we assumed a Europe-wide emission reduction target of 40% for 2030, compared to 1990 levels. This target is considered by the European Commission as the most cost-efficient to achieve a low-carbon economy by 2050. The 2030 target was split into a target for emissions covered by the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) and one for emissions that are not covered by the ETS (non-ETS). According to our estimations, European non-ETS emissions need to be reduced by around 30% by 2030, compared to 2005 levels. We distributed the non-ETS reduction target of 30% over the Member States by using similar effort sharing principles that are applied in the EU Effort Sharing Decision for 2020, but with different targets assumed for the least wealthy Member State. We also took recent per-capita income levels into account. However, we did not take into account the costs and effects of emission reductions on GDP. This PBL Note analyses two possible scenarios that differ in the target assumed for the least wealthy Member State, in order to assess the effects of differing assumptions on the 2030 non-ETS targets. These scenarios should be considered as 'what if' scenarios and not as political positions

  15. The advantage of calculating emission reduction with local emission factor in South Sumatera region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchari, Erika

    2017-11-01

    Green House Gases (GHG) which have different Global Warming Potential, usually expressed in CO2 equivalent. German has succeeded in emission reduction of CO2 in year 1990s, while Japan since 2001 increased load factor of public transports. Indonesia National Medium Term Development Plan, 2015-2019, has set up the target of minimum 26% and maximum 41% National Emission Reduction in 2019. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), defined three types of accuracy in counting emission of GHG, as tier 1, tier 2, and tier 3. In tier 1, calculation is based on fuel used and average emission (default), which is obtained from statistical data. While in tier 2, calculation is based fuel used and local emission factors. Tier 3 is more accurate from those in tier 1 and 2, and the calculation is based on fuel used from modelling method or from direct measurement. This paper is aimed to evaluate the calculation with tier 2 and tier 3 in South Sumatera region. In 2012, Regional Action Plan for Greenhouse Gases of South Sumatera for 2020 is about 6,569,000 ton per year and with tier 3 is about without mitigation and 6,229,858.468 ton per year. It was found that the calculation in tier 3 is more accurate in terms of fuel used of variation vehicles so that the actions of mitigation can be planned more realistically.

  16. Bali: an agreement in principle for post-Kyoto negotiations but no emissions reduction targets - Panorama 2008; Bali: un accord de principe pour des negociations post-Kyoto mais pas d'objectif de reduction - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Ten years have passed since December 1997, when the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was signed in Kyoto. It's been a decade of tough international negotiations, leading to the beginnings of an international CO{sub 2} emissions trading market, whose future past 2012 remains uncertain. The December negotiations in Bali may not have produced a successor to the Kyoto Protocol, but they did get all parties to the Convention to sign an agreement in principle to post- Kyoto negotiations.

  17. Agriculture and greenhouse gases emissions reduction; Agriculture et reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguet, B.

    2005-09-15

    In France, the agriculture is the third sector of greenhouse gases emitter. Meanwhile since 1990 this sector poorly reduces its greenhouse gases. It is necessary to find mechanisms which allow the valorization of emissions reduction. In this framework the author presents the specificities of the greenhouse gases emissions of the agricultural sector, the possible incentives of emissions reduction, the reduction projects in France and abroad. (A.L.B.)

  18. Characterizing sensitivity of longwave infrared hyperspectral target detection with respect to signature mismatch and dimensionality reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral target detection typically relies upon libraries of material reflectance and emissivity signatures. Application to real-world, airborne data requires estimation of atmospheric properties in order to convert reflectance/emissivity signatures to the sensor data domain. In the longwave infrared, an additional nuisance parameter of surface temperature exists that further complicates the signature conversion process. A significant amount of work has been done in atmospheric compensation and temperature-emissivity-separation techniques. This work examines the sensitivity of target detection performance for various materials with respect to target signature mismatch introduced from atmospheric compensation error or target temperature mismatch. Additionally, the impact of dimensionality reduction via principal components analysis is assessed.

  19. THE ANALYSIS OF GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION TARGETS IN JAPAN USING A COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazu, Michiko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    In this study, a recursive dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model which can deal with Greenhouse Gas (GHG) constraint is applied to Japan. Based on several references, Japan's emissions reduction targets are determined as 25% reduction from 1990 level by 2020 and 80% reduction from 2005 level by 2050 in this study. Several cases with different scenarios for nuclear power plant, international emissions trading, and CO2 Capture and Strage (CCS) technology are simulated using the CGE model. By comparison among the results of each case, the effects, especially economic effects are evaluated and analyzed quantitatively. The results show that the most important counter measure to achieve GHG emissions reduction targets in Japan is whether Japan joins international emissions trading or not. In a no-trading case, in which GHG emissions constraints are imposed and Japan does not participate to the trading, GHG reduction costs reach 2,560 USD/tCO2-eq,yr (2005 price) in 2050. In addition, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) decreases 3.8% compared with a counter measure case in which GHG constraints are imposed but the emissions trading is allowed. The results also show that in case Japan targets no nuclear power plants in 2050, CCS technology and emissions trading are able to make up for the gap resulted from the nuclear power decrease. About the speed of CCS technology introduction, the share of power plants with CCS technology is changed depended on the speed; however, GDP and GHG reduction costs do not affected so much.

  20. Locomotive emissions. Reductions using modular aftertreatment solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotrba, Adam; Zheng, Guanyu [Tenneco Inc., Grass Lake, MI (United States). Emission Control Center

    2011-11-15

    In the near future, significant changes will be introduced to the emissions produced by locomotives in the EU and the US. An analysis carried out by Tenneco investigates the opportunities for modifying engines and installing aftertreatment systems to meet the requirements of future emissions legislation. (orig.)

  1. A survey of laser plasma target emissions and contamination effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, James E.

    2013-11-01

    Since the late 1990s staff at national laboratories have been studying the effects of high energy focussed laser beams [>100J] on a variety of plasma physics targets to understand the disassembly of targets and their effects on target chamber surfaces. Target geometries have included metal foils, polymer foils, metal cylinders or cones, gas bags, metal wires and complex geometries of combinations of the above. The post shot target remnants have been studied by both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of exposed targets indicated phase changes and other physical phenomena [shock, spall, crater formation and material ejection]. Pre and post weighing of the targets has been used to determine mass lost from the target. Initially most of the material distribution analysis was performed by catching target by-products with glass or silica witness plates. Spatial and image analysis of micrographs has been used to measure angular distributions of material and its form. Spectrophotometry of the exposed witness plates in the UVVis- NIR region allowed transmission spectra to be determined and the reduction of transmittance at the laser wavelengths of interest. It also allowed estimation of average debris thickness. Shrapnel size and velocity has been studied by capturing fragments in silica aerogels. One unexpected aspect of studying the witness plates was the identification of secondary emissions from solid surfaces close to the irradiated target, this showed that the near environment of the target is also important in determining overall material distributions. We have been fortunate to find interested collaborators at other UK, European and US laboratories that have brought considerable insight into target disassembly processes and palliative measures.

  2. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  3. Technical and Economic Aspects of Low Emission Reduction in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikuć, M.; Łasiński, K.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the problem of excessive air pollution in Poland caused mainly by low emission. The emission arises in result of heating flats by means of old and energetically inefficient heating installations. In Poland and Bulgaria the inhaled air is of the worst quality out of all EU countries. The paper presents economic and technical problems related to low emission occurring during the combustion of solid fuels in local boiler houses. Furthermore, the most significant economic issues, connected with the reduction of low emission are discussed, as well as technological possibilities of efficient reduction of the amount of pollution in the atmosphere. Conclusions are presented at the end of the article.

  4. Households Willingness to Pay for the Emissions Reduction Policy, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Williams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines households’ willingness to support the emissions reduction policy and their perceptions of climate change using an Internet survey of more than 1,000 households in Queensland, Australia. Respondents were asked for their willingness to pay (WTP to support the emissions reduction target proposed by the Australian Government by paying extra on their electricity bills. The results can be summarized in four key findings. First, respondents’ WTP to support the emissions reduction target is higher if they perceive that climate change will result in high loss of biodiversity. Second, respondents were willing to support a higher emissions target than proposed by the Australian Government. Third, there is a correlation between respondents WTP to support the emissions reduction and their beliefs about climate change, its effect on standards of living, the environment, and future generations. Fourth, as the data show a high rate of zero responses, common for the contingent valuation method (CVM used in the survey, the zero bids were further investigated using the non-parametric Turnbull model and the more recent spike model. The results showed that although there is some support for the emissions reduction policy, it is not sufficient for the policy to be successful.

  5. Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Wells, J.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-12-14

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Background information on a multimedia nitrogen emission reduction strategy; Hintergrundpapier zu einer multimedialen Stickstoffemissionsminderungsstrategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geupel; Jering; Frey (and others)

    2009-04-15

    The background information report on a multimedia nitrogen reduction strategy covers the following chapters: 1. Introduction: the nitrogen cascade and the anthropogenic influence, environmental impact of increased nitrogen emissions and effects on human health. 2. Sources and balancing of anthropogenic nitrogen emissions in Germany. 3. Environmental quality targets, activity goals of environmental measures and instruments of an integrated nitrogen reduction strategy. 4. Conclusions and perspectives. The attachments include emission sources, nitrogen release and nitrogen transport in Germany; catalogue of measures and instruments according the criteria efficiency and cost-efficacy.

  7. Electricity generation: options for reduction in carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, H W

    2002-08-15

    Historically, the bulk production of electricity has been achieved by burning fossil fuels, with unavoidable gaseous emissions, including large quantities of carbon dioxide: an average-sized modern coal-burning power station is responsible for more than 10 Mt of CO(2) each year. This paper details typical emissions from present-day power stations and discusses the options for their reduction. Acknowledging that the cuts achieved in the past decade in the UK CO(2) emissions have been achieved largely by fuel switching, the remaining possibilities offered by this method are discussed. Switching to less-polluting fossil fuels will achieve some measure of reduction, but the basic problem of CO(2) emissions continues. Of the alternatives to fossil fuels, only nuclear power represents a zero-carbon large-scale energy source. Unfortunately, public concerns over safety and radioactive waste have still to be assuaged. Other approaches include the application of improved combustion technology, the removal of harmful gases from power-station flues and the use of waste heat to improve overall power-station efficiency. These all have a part to play, but many consider our best hope for emissions reduction to be the use of renewable energy. The main renewable energy contenders are assessed in this paper and realistic estimates of the contribution that each could provide are indicated. It appears that, in the time-scale envisaged by planners for reduction in CO(2) emission, in many countries renewable energy will be unlikely to deliver. At the same time, it is worth commenting that, again in many countries, the level of penetration of renewable energy will fall short of the present somewhat optimistic targets. Of renewable options, wind energy could be used in the short to medium term to cover for thermal plant closures, but for wind energy to be successful, the network will have to be modified to cope with wind's intermittent nature. Globally, hydroelectricity is currently the

  8. Diesel Engine Air Emissions Reduction Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Aberdeen Test Center B20 20 Percent Biodiesel by Volume, 80 Percent Petroleum Diesel by Volume BAT Best Available Technology CAA Clean Air...DOC Diesel Oxidation Catalyst DoD Department of Defense DPF Diesel Particulate Filter ECM Engine Control Module EGT Exhaust Gas...time of exposure in the marketplace. The ESW diesel oxidation catalyst filtering technology was developed to reduce PM emissions by up to 60

  9. Land-Based Mitigation Strategies under the Mid-Term Carbon Reduction Targets in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Hasegawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the key mitigation options for achieving the mid-term target for carbon emission reduction in Indonesia. A computable general equilibrium model coupled with a land-based mitigation technology model was used to evaluate specific mitigation options within the whole economic framework. The results revealed three primary findings: (1 If no climate policy were implemented, Indonesia’s total greenhouse gas emissions would reach 3.0 GtCO2eq by 2030; (2 To reduce carbon emissions to meet the latest Intended Nationally-Determined Contributions (INDC target, ~58% of total reductions should come from the agriculture, forestry and other land use sectors by implementing forest protection, afforestation and plantation efforts; (3 A higher carbon price in 2020 suggests that meeting the 2020 target would be economically challenging, whereas the INDC target for 2030 would be more economically realistic in Indonesia.

  10. Technologies for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulica Arsenie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to gas turbines, their main problem concerning pollutant emissions is represented by nitric oxides. Among other emissions, sulphur oxides being much reduced due to the use of liquid distilled and gas fuels with a low content of sulphur. Using water or steam injection became the favourite method during the '80s and especially the '90s since "dry" methods and catalytic reduction were both at the beginning of the development phase. Catalytic convertors have been used since the '80s and they are still used although the costs of renewing the catalyst are very high. In the last twenty years a gradual decrease has been registered on the limits of nitric oxides from 75 ppm to 25 ppm, and now the target is oriented towards the 9 ppm level. The evolution of burning technologies of combustion makes it possible to control the level of production of nitric oxides even from the source without being necessary to use "humid" methods. This, of course, opened the market for gas turbines because they can function even in areas with limited quality water reserves, such as maritime platforms and in the desert. In this paper, we are going to show that, although water injection is still used, "dry" control technologies of burning became favourite methods for the majority of users on the industrial power generators market. The great dependency between the creation of nitric oxides and the temperature reveals the effect of direct water or steam injection on reducing nitric oxides. Recent research showed that a reduction up to 85% of nitric oxides may be obtained by using the water or steam injection all together with the improvement of aerodynamic character of the burning room.

  11. High Speed Link Radiated Emission Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, P.; Pelissou, P.; Cissou, R.; Giniaux, M.; Vargas, O.

    2016-05-01

    To control the radiated emission of high-speed link and associated unit, the current approach is to implement overall harness shielding on cables bundles. This method is very efficient in the HF/ VHF (high frequency/ very high frequency) and UHF (ultra-high frequency) ranges when the overall harness shielding is properly bonded on EMC back-shell. Unfortunately, with the increasing frequency, the associated half wavelength matches with the size of Sub-D connector that is the case for the L band. Therefore, the unit connectors become the main source of interference emission. For the L-band and S-band, the current technology of EMC back-shell leaves thin aperture matched with the L band half wavelength and therefore, the shielding effectiveness is drastically reduced. In addition, overall harness shielding means significant increases of the harness mass.Airbus D&S Toulouse and Elancourt investigated a new solution to avoid the need of overall harness shielding. The objective is to procure EM (Electro-Magnetic) clean unit connected to cables bundles free of any overall harness shielding. The proposed solution is to implement EMC common mode filtering on signal interfaces directly on unit PCB as close as possible the unit connector.Airbus D&S Elancourt designed and manufactured eight mock-ups of LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling) interface PCBs' with different solutions of filtering. After verification of the signal integrity, three mock-ups were retained (RC filter and two common mode choke coil) in addition to the reference one (without EMC filter).Airbus D&S Toulouse manufactured associated LVDS cable bundles and integrated the RX (Receiver) and TX (Transmitter) LVDS boards in shielded boxes.Then Airbus D&S performed radiated emission measurement of the LVDS links subassemblies (e.g. RX and TX boxes linked by LVDS cables) according to the standard test method. This paper presents the different tested solutions and main conclusions on the feasibility of such

  12. Reduction of CO2 Emissions Due to Wind Energy - Methods and Issues in Estimating Operational Emission Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; McCann, John; Clancy, Matthew; Millgan, Michael; Pineda, Ivan; Eriksen, Peter Borre; Orths, Antje; Wolfgang, Ove

    2015-10-05

    This paper presents ways of estimating CO2 reductions of wind power using different methodologies. Estimates based on historical data have more pitfalls in methodology than estimates based on dispatch simulations. Taking into account exchange of electricity with neighboring regions is challenging for all methods. Results for CO2 emission reductions are shown from several countries. Wind power will reduce emissions for about 0.3-0.4 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly gas and up to 0.7 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly coal powered generation. The paper focuses on CO2 emissions from power system operation phase, but long term impacts are shortly discussed.

  13. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Wagner

    2004-03-31

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  14. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Gas Technology

    2004-01-30

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  15. Potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through the use of mobility services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grischkat, Sylvie; Hunecke, Marcel; Böhler, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the passenger transport sector achievable through the use of mobility services. Beside car-sharing and -pooling, six services targeted at improving and encouraging the use of urban public transportation were considered...

  16. Twenty-five years of continuous sulphur dioxide emission reduction in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vestreng

    2007-07-01

    60% between 1990 and 2004, and one quarter have already achieved sulphur emission reductions higher than 80%. At European level, the total sulphur target for 2010 set in the Gothenburg Protocol (16 Tg has apparently already been met by 2004. However, still half of the Parties to the Gothenburg Protocol have to reduce further their sulphur emissions in order to attain their individual country total emission targets for 2010. It is also noteworthy that, contrasting the Gothenburg Protocol requirements, a growing number of countries have recently been reporting increasing sulphur emissions, while others report only minor further decreases. The emission trends presented here are supported by different studies of air concentrations and depositions carried out within and outside the framework of the LRTAP Convention.

  17. Internal combustion engine run on biogas is a potential solution to meet Indonesia emission target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Indonesia has released two different Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets. The first target, released in 2009, is reduction GHG emissions 26% from Business-as-Usual (BAU) level using own budget and up 41% if supported international aids by 2020. The second target is reduction 29% and 41% from BAU by 2030 using own budget and with international support, respectively. In this paper, the BAU emissions and emissions reduction target of these two targets are elaborated. In addition, the characteristics of emissions from transportation sector are discussed. One of the potential mitigation actions is switching fuel in transportation sector. The results the most promising mitigation action in the transportation is switching oil fuel with biofuel. The Government of Indonesia (GoI) focuses on using biodiesel and bioethanol to run internal combustion engine in transportation sector and biogas is aimed to fuel power plant unit. However, there is very limited of success stories on using biogas in the power plant. The barriers and challenges will be discussed here. It is suggested to run internal combustion engine with biogas.

  18. Options for utilizing the CDM for global emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butzengeiger-Geyer, Sonja; Castro, Paula; Harthan, Ralph O.; Hayashi, Daisuke; Healy, Sean; Maribu, Karl Magnus; Michaelowa, Axel; Okubo, Yuri; Schneider, Lambert; Storroe, Ingunn [Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland); Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Perspectives GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Point Carbon A/S, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    The study describes and discusses in detail how four CDM reform alternatives, namely discounting of emission reductions, ambitious baselines, purchase and cancellation of CERs and reinvestment of CER levies, could be integrated in a Post-2012 climate regime. The study assesses these alternatives, according to their impacts on GHG emission reductions, contribution to sustainable development, cost-efficiency, technical feasibility, incentives and distributional effects as well as negotiability. The study shows that the introduction of discounting and ambitious baselines is technically feasible but politically a massive challenge. With the help of an economic model the study shows that the introduction of reform alternatives increases the amount of emission reductions but in comparison to the current CDM the impact is rather limited. But a CDM reform can in any case increase the credibility and improve the environmental integrity of the mechanism. (orig.)

  19. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  20. Emission Reduction of Fuel-Staged Aircraft Engine Combustor Using an Additional Premixed Fuel Nozzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Shimodaira, Kazuo; Yoshida, Seiji; Kurosawa, Yoji

    2013-03-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is conducting research and development on aircraft engine technologies to reduce environmental impact for the Technology Development Project for Clean Engines (TechCLEAN). As a part of the project, combustion technologies have been developed with an aggressive target that is an 80% reduction over the NO x threshold of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP)/4 standard. A staged fuel nozzle with a pilot mixer and a main mixer was developed and tested using a single-sector combustor under the target engine's landing and takeoff (LTO) cycle conditions with a rated output of 40 kN and an overall pressure ratio of 25.8. The test results showed a 77% reduction over the CAEP/4 NO x standard. However, the reduction in smoke at thrust conditions higher than the 30% MTO condition and of CO emission at thrust conditions lower than the 85% MTO condition are necessary. In the present study, an additional fuel burner was designed and tested with the staged fuel nozzle in a single-sector combustor to control emissions. The test results show that the combustor enables an 82% reduction in NO x emissions relative to the ICAO CAEP/4 standard and a drastic reduction in smoke and CO emissions.

  1. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2012. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gores, S.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany)] [and others

    2012-10-15

    At the end of 2011, almost all European countries were on track towards their Kyoto targets for 2008-2012. The EU-15 also remained on track to achieve its Kyoto target. Italy, however, was not on track. Spain plans to acquire a large quantity of Kyoto units through the KP's flexible mechanisms to achieve its target. With emission caps already set for the economic sectors under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), emissions reductions during 2012 in the sectors outside the EU ETS together with reductions by carbon sinks will set the frame for how many Kyoto units Member States need to acquire to reach their individual targets. Hence, both the development and delivery of adequate plans to acquire enough Kyoto credits is becoming increasingly important. ETS emissions from 2008 to 2011 were on average 5 % below these caps, which results in an oversupply of allowances. The EU ETS is undergoing important changes in view of the third trading phase from 2013 to 2020. Most EU Member States project that in 2020, their emissions outside the EU ETS will be lower than their national targets set under the Climate and Energy Package. However, further efforts will be necessary to achieve longer term reductions. (Author)

  2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Estimates: Potential Use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS RESEARCH JOURNAL – Volume 16 – 2010. University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius. Research Week 2009/2010. 512. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction. Estimates: Potential Use of Biofuels in. Mauritian Transport Sector for Cars and Dual. Cars. D Surroop *. Faculty of Engineering,.

  3. Integrated assessment of climate change with reductions of methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amstel, van A.R.

    2005-01-01

    We have been living in the anthropocene era since about 1950, and evidence of human influence on the natural ecosystems and climate is mounting. Reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are needed to reduce the effects of climate change in the future. In an integrated assessment with the IMAGE model

  4. Air quality in Romania. Main pollutant emissions and financing possibilities for emission reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko IOAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Air is the environmental factor which is the most important for pollutants transport because it is the support for the fastest transportation throughout the environment. Reducing polluting emissions in air remains a field in which there are needed important investments, considering the commitments assumed by Romania for reducing emissions and the poor quality of the air in certain areas. The paper analyzes the evolution of the main emissions, respectively the ones coming from large burning installations and greenhouse gases and identifies financing possibilities for the reduction of those emissions by using structural and cohesion funds or by using state aid schemes.

  5. Observation of reduction of secondary electron emission from helium ion impact due to plasma-generated nanostructured tungsten fuzz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Doerner, R. P.; Nishijima, D.; Pigarov, A. Yu

    2017-11-01

    Growth of nanostructured fuzz on a tungsten target in a helium plasma is found to cause a significant (~3×) reduction in ion impact secondary electron emission in a linear plasma device. The ion impact secondary electron emission is separated from the electron impact secondary electron emission by varying the target bias voltage and fitting to expected contributions from electron impact, both thermal and non-thermal; with the non-thermal electron contribution being modeled using Monte-Carlo simulations. The observed (~3×) reduction is similar in magnitude to the (~2×) reduction observed in previous work for the effect of tungsten fuzz formation on secondary electron emission due to electron impact. It is hypothesized that the observed reduction results from re-absorption of secondary electrons in the tungsten fuzz.

  6. Emissions reduction scenarios in the Argentinean Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Sbroiavacca, Nicolas; Nadal, Gustavo; Lallana, Francisco; Falzon, James; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the LEAP, TIAM-ECN, and GCAM models were applied to evaluate the impact of a variety of climate change control policies (including carbon pricing and emission constraints relative to a base year) on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, electricity sector development, and CO2 emission savings of the energy sector in Argentina over the 2010-2050 period. The LEAP model results indicate that if Argentina fully implements the most feasible mitigation measures currently under consideration by official bodies and key academic institutions on energy supply and demand, such as the ProBiomass program, a cumulative incremental economic cost of 22.8 billion US$(2005) to 2050 is expected, resulting in a 16% reduction in GHG emissions compared to a business-as-usual scenario. These measures also bring economic co-benefits, such as a reduction of energy imports improving the balance of trade. A Low CO2 price scenario in LEAP results in the replacement of coal by nuclear and wind energy in electricity expansion. A High CO2 price leverages additional investments in hydropower. An emission cap scenario (2050 emissions 20% lower than 2010 emissions) is feasible by including such measures as CCS and Bio CCS, but at a significant cost. By way of cross-model comparison with the TIAM-ECN and GCAM global integrated assessment models, significant variation in projected emissions reductions in the carbon price scenarios was observed, which illustrates the inherent uncertainties associated with such long-term projections. These models predict approximately 37% and 94% reductions under the High CO2 price scenario, respectively. By comparison, the LEAP model, using an approach based on the assessment of a limited set of mitigation options, predicts a 11.3% reduction under the ‘high’ carbon tax. The main reasons for this difference are differences in assumptions about technology cost and availability, CO2 storage capacity, and the ability to import bioenergy

  7. Adaptive Engine Technologies for Aviation CO2 Emissions Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive turbine engine technologies are assessed for their potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from commercial air transports.Technologies including inlet, fan, and compressor flow control, compressor stall control, blade clearance control, combustion control, active bearings and enabling technologies such as active materials and wireless sensors are discussed. The method of systems assessment is described, including strengths and weaknesses of the approach. Performance benefit estimates are presented for each technology, with a summary of potential emissions reduction possible from the development of new, adaptively controlled engine components.

  8. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2011. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, J.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. (Umweltbundesamt, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    2011-10-15

    At the end of 2010, the EU-15 was on track to achieve its Kyoto target but three EU-15 Member States (Austria, Italy and Luxembourg) were not on track to meet their burden-sharing targets. These countries must therefore seriously consider further action to ensure compliance, in particular revising their plans on using flexible mechanisms. Among the EEA member countries outside the EU, Liechtenstein and Switzerland were not on track to achieve their Kyoto target at the end of 2009. All other European countries are on track to meet their targets, either based on domestic emissions only or with the assistance of Kyoto mechanisms. The economic recession had a significant impact on the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends but a more limited effect on progress towards Kyoto targets. This is because emissions in the sectors covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), which were most affected by the crisis, do not affect Kyoto compliance once ETS caps have been set. With existing national measures, Member States do not project enough emission reductions for the EU to meet its unilateral 20 % reduction commitment in 2020. Additional measures currently planned by Member States will help further reduce emissions but will be insufficient to achieve the important emission cuts needed in the longer term. By 2020 Member States must enhance their efforts to reduce emissions in non-EU ETS sectors, such as the residential, transport or agriculture sectors, where legally binding national targets have been set under the EU's 2009 climate and energy package. (Author)

  9. Post-2012 climate regime. How industrial and developing nations can help to reduce emissions - assessing emission trends, reduction potentials, incentive systems and negotiation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duscha, Vicki; Graichen, Jakob; Healy, Sean; Schleich, Joachim; Schumacher, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This report analyses the emissions reduction targets submitted under the Copenhagen Accord by developed and developing countries in matters of four key questions: - Do the pledges add up to the emission reductions required necessary by science? - What are the costs associated with meeting the given targets? - Are the proposed emission reduction efforts of Annex I parties comparable? - What would comparable efforts look like taking country-specific socio-economic indicators into account? Secondary to these questions this report explores the economic and environmental implications of the submitted pledges and NAMAs. Furthermore, we analyze and assess the comparability of efforts of Annex I mitigation pledges compared to a range of socio-economic indicators that may provide a basis for a ''fair'' effort sharing agreement to achieve a given target. (orig.)

  10. Black carbon emissions reductions from combustion of alternative jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Raymond L.; Rojo, Carolina; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurement campaigns for alternative aviation fuels indicate that black carbon emissions from gas turbines are reduced significantly with the use of alternative jet fuels that are low in aromatic content. This could have significant climate and air quality-related benefits that are currently not accounted for in environmental assessments of alternative jet fuels. There is currently no predictive way of estimating aircraft black carbon emissions given an alternative jet fuel. We examine the results from available measurement campaigns and propose a first analytical approximation (termed 'ASAF') of the black carbon emissions reduction associated with the use of paraffinic alternative jet fuels. We establish a relationship between the reduction in black carbon emissions relative to conventional jet fuel for a given aircraft, thrust setting relative to maximum rated thrust, and the aromatic volume fraction of the (blended) alternative fuel. The proposed relationship is constrained to produce physically meaningful results, makes use of only one free parameter and is found to explain a majority of the variability in measurements across the engines and fuels that have been tested.

  11. Electricity production from biogas in Serbia: Assessment of emissions reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Slobodan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas represents a promising source for the production of clean energy. The objective of this paper was to quantify the potential for the reduction of emissions to the environment during the production of electricity from biogas in comparison with environmental effects of the production of the same amount of electricity from fossil resources (coal from Kolubara basin and natural gas. Basis for comparison of environmental impacts in this work was the annual production of electricity in biogas plants of the total capacity of 80 MW. This study has shown that the annual production of electricity from biogas power plants of 80 MW results in: substitution of up to 840 kt of coal from Kolubara basin and 123.2 million m3 of natural gas; reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in the range of 491.16 kt - 604.97 kt CO2-eq, depending on the energy efficiency of the process of electricity production from biogas; reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases up to 92.37 kt CO2-eq compared to the use of natural gas for electricity generation.

  12. Measuring Poverty Reduction and Targeting Performance Under Multiple Government Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Makdissi; Quentin Wodon

    2001-01-01

    The evaluation of the poverty impact and targeting performance of a given social program may depend on how other programs are treated in the analysis.Using well-known results from cooperative game theory, this paper proposes an empirically simple yet theoretically sound method for allocating between various programs the overall poverty reduction obtained from a set of programs, and for assessing the targeting performance of each program

  13. Spectral control of emissions from tin doped targets for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, S S [University of California San Diego, Center for Energy Research, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0438 (United States); O' Shay, B [University of California San Diego, Center for Energy Research, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0438 (United States); Tillack, M S [University of California San Diego, Center for Energy Research, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0438 (United States); Tao, Y [University of California San Diego, Center for Energy Research, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0438 (United States); Paguio, R [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Nikroo, A [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Back, C A [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States)

    2006-02-07

    We have investigated the unresolved transition array (UTA) emission around 13.5 nm from solid density tin and tin doped foam targets. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral measurements were made in the wavelength region 11-17 nm using a transmission grating spectrograph and the EUV in-band conversion efficiency was measured using an absolutely calibrated EUV calorimeter. The aim of this work was to optimize the UTA emission with the proper density of tin dopant in low-Z foam targets. The addition of tin as an impurity leads to a reduction in the plasma continuum and narrowing of the UTA compared with fully dense tin targets. Our studies indicate that the required percentage of tin for obtaining bright in-band spectral emission is less than 1%.

  14. Modeling Air Pollution in Beijing: Emission Reduction vs. Meteorological Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse, Eicke-Alexander; Hao, Nan; Trautmann, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This case study uses the Chemical Transport Model WRF-Chem to simulate and measure the efficiency of temporal large-scale emission reductions under different meteorological conditions. The Nov. 2014 Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit provides a unique opportunity for this study due to the extraordinarily good and well-measured air quality which is believed to be induced by intense emission- reduction measures by the Chinese government. Four cases are simulated to inter-compare between favorable und unfavorablemeteorological conditions (in terms of air quality) as well as reduced and non-reduced emissions. Key variables of the simulation results are evaluated against AERONET measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and air-quality measurements by the Chinese Ministry of Environment (CME). The inter-comparison is then performed on time- and volume-averaged total concentrations of the key variables Nitrogenous Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10).The simulation settings and some important facts about the model are shown in table 1.

  15. Greenhouse Gases Emissions Reduction and WTO Trade Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghwan Kim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases (GHGs cannot be contained within nations' border and climate change is certainly a global issue that requires global actions. Therefore, when a country considers domestic measures to reduce GHGs emissions, their impacts beyond the nation's border should be examined carefully. Possible effects through international trade are particularly important in the globalized world with growing trade and expanding capital movements. After reviewing the current status of multilateral environment agreements (MEAs, how they are related to WTO trade rules, legal questions and dispute cases that are possibly related to GHGs emissions reductioGreenhouse gases (GHGs cannot be contained within nations' border and climate change is certainly a global issue that requires global actions. Therefore, when a country considers domestic measures to reduce GHGs emissions, their impacts beyond the nation's border should be examined carefully. Possible effects through international trade are particularly important in the globalized world with growing trade and expanding capital movements. After reviewing the current status of multilateral environment agreements (MEAs, how they are related to WTO trade rules, legal questions and dispute cases that are possibly related to GHGs emissions reduction, this paper examines recently proposed border GHGs adjustment measures and various WTO agreements as potential tools that are promising or not promising. This paper also suggests how to make WTO’s potential tools ready and how to build global consensus so that we can avoid unilateral trade measures for climate change. Finally, policy implications for Korea are discussed.

  16. Cycle update : advanced fuels and technologies for emissions reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, G. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper provided a summary of key achievements of the Program of Energy Research and Development advanced fuels and technologies for emissions reduction (AFTER) program over the funding cycle from fiscal year 2005/2006 to 2008/2009. The purpose of the paper was to inform interested parties of recent advances in knowledge and in science and technology capacities in a concise manner. The paper discussed the high level research and development themes of the AFTER program through the following 4 overarching questions: how could advanced fuels and internal combustion engine designs influence emissions; how could emissions be reduced through the use of engine hardware including aftertreatment devices; how do real-world duty cycles and advanced technology vehicles operating on Canadian fuels compare with existing technologies, models and estimates; and what are the health risks associated with transportation-related emissions. It was concluded that the main issues regarding the use of biodiesel blends in current technology diesel engines are the lack of consistency in product quality; shorter shelf life of biodiesel due to poorer oxidative stability; and a need to develop characterization methods for the final oxygenated product because most standard methods are developed for hydrocarbons and are therefore inadequate. 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  17. Greenhouse gas emission reduction: A case study of Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P. [IDEA, Washington, DC (United States); Munasinghe, M. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper we describe a case study for Sri Lanka that explores a wide range of options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Options range from renewable technologies to carbon taxes and transportation sector initiatives. We find that setting electricity prices to reflect long-run marginal cost has a significant beneficial impact on the environment, and the expected benefits predicted on theoretical grounds are confirmed by the empirical results. Pricing reform also has a much broader impact than physical approaches to demand side management, although several options such as compact fluorescent lighting appear to have great potential. Options to reduce GHG emissions are limited as Sri Lanka lacks natural gas, and nuclear power is not practical until the system reaches a much larger size. Building the few remaining large hydro facilities would significantly reduce GHG emissions, but these would require costly resettlement programs. Given the inevitability for fossil-fuel base load generation, both clean coal technologies such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion, as well as steam-cycle residual oil fueled plants merit consideration as alternatives to the conventional pulverized coal-fired plants currently being considered. Transportation sector measures necessary to ameliorate local urban air pollution problems, such as vehicle inspection and maintenance programs, also bring about significant reductions of GHG emissions. 51 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Device with Complex System for Heat Utilization and Reduction of Hazardous Air Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kascheeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations concern heat utilization and reduction of hazardous emissions occurring in residential buildings and accompanying operation of a great number of industrial enterprises in particular heat and power objects, and firstly, heat-generating units of small power located in densely populated residential areas without centralized heat supply.The investigation target is to reduce cost of heat produced by independent system of building heat supply, reduction of air pollution  due to hazardous gas emissions and reduction of heat pollution of the environment as a result of building ventilation system operation, ventilation of their internal and external sewerage network and higher reliability of their operation.The target is achieved because the device with complex system for heat utilization and reduction of hazardous air emissions has additionally an assembly tank for mixing flue gases, ventilation emissions and atmospheric air, heat pump. Evaporation zone of the pump is a condensator of the gas mixture and its condensate zone contains a heat supply line for a heat consumer. The line is equipped with assembling  and distributing collectors, pipeline connecting the heat supply line with the system of direct and return delivery water from a boiler house, a separator for division of liquid and gaseous mixture phases, neutralizing devices for separate reduction of concentrations of hazardous and odorous substances being released in gaseous and liquid portions of the mixture, a pipeline for periodic supply of air with higher concentration of hazardous and odorous substances in the boiler furnace. The supplied air is obtained as a result of its passing through gas filters at their regeneration when their exchange capacity is exhausted.

  19. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  20. India’s GHG Emission Reduction and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.; Dhar, Subash

    2016-01-01

    remaining aligned to the UNFCCC’s expressed objective of keeping the average global surface temperature increase to below 2 C over the preindustrial average. This chapter assesses three emission scenarios for India, spanning the period 2010–2050. The analysis is carried out using a bottom-up energy system...... model ANSWER-MARKAL, which is embedded within a soft-linked integrated model system (SLIMS). The central themes of the three scenario storylines and assumptions are as follows: first, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario that assumes the socioeconomic development to happen along the conventional path...... that includes implementation of current and announced policies and their continuation dynamically into the future; second, a conventional low carbon scenario (CLCS) which assumes imposition, over the BAU scenario, of CO2 emission price trajectory that is equivalent to achieving the global 2 C target; and third...

  1. Eco-friendly selection of ship emissions reduction strategies with emphasis on SOx and NOx emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddiek, Ibrahim S.; Elgohary, Mohamed M.

    2014-09-01

    Increasing amounts of ships exhaust gases emitted worldwide forced the International Maritime Organization to issue some restricted maritime legislation for reducing the adverse environmental impacts arising from such emissions. Consequently, ships emission reduction became one of the technical and economical challenges that facing the ships, operators. The present paper addresses the different strategies that can be used to reduce those emissions, especially nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The strategies included: applying reduction technologies onboard, using of alternative fuels, and follows one of fuel saving strategies. Using of selective catalytic reduction and sea water scrubbing appeared as the best reduction technologies onboard ships. Moreover, among the various proposed alternative fuels, natural gas, in its liquid state; has the priority to be used instead of conventional fuels. Applying one of those strategies is the matter of ship type and working area. As a numerical example, the proposed methods were investigated at a high-speed craft operating in the Red Sea area between Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results obtained are very satisfactory from the point of view of environment and economic issues, and reflected the importance of applying those strategies

  2. Eco-friendly selection of ship emissions reduction strategies with emphasis on SOx and NOx emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. Seddiek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of ships exhaust gases emitted worldwide forced the International Maritime Organization to issue some restricted maritime legislation for reducing the adverse environmental impacts arising from such emissions. Consequently, ships emission reduction became one of the technical and economical challenges that facing the ships' operators. The present paper addresses the different strategies that can be used to reduce those emissions, especially nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The strategies included: applying reduction technologies onboard, using of alternative fuels, and follows one of fuel saving strategies. Using of selective catalytic reduction and sea water scrubbing appeared as the best reduction technologies onboard ships. Moreover, among the various proposed alternative fuels, natural gas, in its liquid state; has the priority to be used instead of conventional fuels. Applying one of those strategies is the matter of ship type and working area. As a numerical example, the proposed methods were investigated at a high-speed craft operating in the Red Sea area between Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results obtained are very satisfactory from the point of view of environment and economic issues, and reflected the importance of applying those strategies.

  3. "APEC Blue": Secondary Aerosol Reductions from Emission Controls in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2016-02-18

    China implemented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to emission controls. Our results show consistently large reductions in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61-67% and 51-57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large reductions in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2-3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as "APEC Blue". We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution.

  4. Diesel Engine Emission Reduction Using Catalytic Nanoparticles: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajin C. Sajeevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide being a rare earth metal with dual valance state existence has exceptional catalytic activity due to its oxygen buffering capability, especially in the nanosized form. Hence when used as an additive in the diesel fuel it leads to simultaneous reduction and oxidation of nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions, respectively, from diesel engine. The present work investigates the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on performance and emissions of diesel engine. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical method and techniques such as TEM, EDS, and XRD have been used for the characterization. Cerium oxide was mixed in diesel by means of standard ultrasonic shaker to obtain stable suspension, in a two-step process. The influence of nanoparticles on various physicochemical properties of diesel fuel has also been investigated through extensive experimentation by means of ASTM standard testing methods. Load test was done in the diesel engine to investigate the effect of nanoparticles on the efficiency and the emissions from the engine. Comparisons of fuel properties with and without additives are also presented.

  5. The Allocation of Carbon Intensity Reduction Target by 2020 among Industrial Sectors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baochen Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the national carbon intensity reduction target, China has decided to establish a unified national carbon emissions trading market in 2017. At the initial stage, eight industrial sectors will be covered in the carbon market and the other industrial sectors will be included gradually. The aim of this paper is to study the issue of how to allocate the carbon emissions quotas among different industrial sectors fairly and effectively. We try to provide theoretical support for how to determine the coverage scope and access order of the carbon market. In this paper, we construct a comprehensive reduction index based on indicators of equity and efficiency principle. We adopt entropy method to get the objective weights of the three indicators. Then, an allocation model is developed to determine each sector’s reduction target for the year of 2020. The result shows that our allocation scheme based on entropy method is more reasonable, and our allocation method will promote the equity of carbon quotas allocation and the efficiency of carbon emissions. With consideration of China’s current economic situation and industrial background, we discuss some policy implications regarding the construction of carbon market.

  6. Toward a more consistent combined approach of reduction targets and climate policy regulations: the illustrative case study of a meat tax in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caro, Dario; Frederiksen, Pia; Thomsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    , whether or not consumed inside or outside the country, policy regulations directed at consumption, such as a meat tax, may not effectively target the national GHG reduction obligations, and thereby they may not be sufficiently attractive to governments. In particular, emissions derived from...... that are parties to the UNFCCC, using as illustrative case study the meat tax recently proposed in Denmark. We argue that when the GHG reduction targets for individual countries are based on a territorial approach alone (such as in the UNFCCC framework), i.e. sum of emissions from production inside the country...... internationally traded goods are insufficiently targeted by territorially oriented policy frameworks because a country might reduce the consumption of an imported good without contributing to the national GHG emission reduction target. If consumption-based reduction targets were implemented, a reduction of GHG...

  7. Achieving 80% greenhouse gas reduction target in Saudi Arabia under low and medium oil prices

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Yousef Mohammad

    2016-11-10

    COP 21 led to a global agreement to limit the earth\\'s rising temperature to less than 2 °C. This will require countries to act upon climate change and achieve a significant reduction in their greenhouse gas emissions which will play a pivotal role in shaping future energy systems. Saudi Arabia is the World\\'s largest exporter of crude oil, and the 11th largest CO2 emitter. Understanding the Kingdom\\'s role in global greenhouse gas reduction is critical in shaping the future of fossil fuels. Hence, this work presents an optimisation study to understand how Saudi Arabia can meet the CO2 reduction targets to achieve the 80% reduction in the power generation sector. It is found that the implementation of energy efficiency measures is necessary to enable meeting the 80% target, and it would also lower costs of transition to low carbon energy system while maintaining cleaner use of hydrocarbons with CCS. Setting very deep GHG reduction targets may be economically uncompetitive in consideration of the energy supply requirements. In addition, we determine the breakeven price of crude oil needed to make CCS economically viable. Results show important dimension for pricing CO2 and the role of CCS compared with alternative sources of energy.

  8. Least Cost Emission Reductions in Transboundary River Basins: The Case of Diffuse Emissions of Nutrients in the Rhine River Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veeren, R.J.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Excessive nutrient loads to rivers and receiving water bodies cause water quality problems and a cascade of negative impacts on ecosystems and human activities. Emission reduction policies can help to reverse this situation. As is often shown in economic literature, a flat rate emissions reduction

  9. Concepts of Emission Reduction in Fluidized Bed Combustion of Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amon Purgar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A status report on fluidized bed technology in Austria is under preparation, in response to the Fluidized Bed Conversion multi-lateral technology initiative of the International Energy Agency. This status report focuses on the current operation of fluidized bed combustors. Combustors have been installed in the following industrial sectors: pulp and paper, biomass heat and power plants, waste-to-energy plants, and communal sewage sludge treatment plants. There are also some small demonstration plants. These plants all have in common that they treat renewable fuel types. In many cases, only bio-fuels are treated. Besides the ability to burn a wide range of low-grade and difficult fuels, fluidized bed combustors have the advantages of low NOX emissions and the possibility of in-process capture of SO2. Various emission reduction concepts for fluidized bed combustors that are typical for their industrial sector are discussed. The discussion of these concepts focuses on NOX, SO2 and dust.

  10. Emissions and targets of greenhouse gases not included in the Emission Trading System 2013-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.

    2011-06-15

    This report evaluates the European Commission's (EC) proposal to calculate Member States' targets for emissions not included in the Emission Trading System (ETS) (as announced in the so-called Effort Sharing Decision). The calculation procedures and data sources proposed by the EC have been used for calculating non-ETS emission targets for the Netherlands, for the years from 2013 to 2020. In order to compare results, an alternative approach also was introduced and evaluated. In this approach more transparent data sources were used. Furthermore, the report updates the emission forecast of non-ETS emission levels in the Netherlands, for 2020, and evaluates the consequences of excluding uncertainties related to monitoring from the (updated) emission forecast. It is concluded that, for the Netherlands, the non-ETS emission caps as proposed by the EC would result in an emission cap of 105 Mt CO2 equivalent by 2020. This is higher than in the alternative approach, which would result in a cap of 103 Mt CO2 equivalents. The difference is explained by the different data sources that were used. A drawback of the data sources used in the EC proposal is the lack of transparency of part of the data, which resulted in an additional uncertainty as not all issues could be verified. However, other Member States may not have similar data sources available, in case the EC decides to adopt the alternative approach. The calculated emission caps are to be considered as estimates based on the most recent (but sometimes uncertain) statistics. The EC will determine the definite caps by the end of 2012. Based on a 2010 forecast, and including both an updated division of emissions into ETS and non-ETS emissions and a revised methodology for calculating nitrous oxide emissions, we estimate that non-ETS emissions in the Netherlands would be 104 Mt CO2 equivalents by 2020, with an uncertainty range of between 96 and 112 Mt CO2 equivalents. It is our conclusion that non-ETS emission

  11. [Research on contribution decomposition by industry to China's carbon intensity reduction and carbon emission growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing-Jing; Ye, Bin; Ji, Jun-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-01

    The binding carbon intensity index and the pilot "cap-and-trade" emission trading scheme are two important approaches currently applied by China to mitigate its greenhouse gases emissions. It is of great significance to research the influence mechanism of related factors by industry on the dynamics of national carbon intensity and emission, not only for setting industry-specified intensity reduction target but also for setting industry coverage of the ETS. Two LMDI models were applied in this paper to decompose industry contributions to the changes of China's carbon intensity and carbon emission during the period of 1996-2010. Empirical results showed that: The decline of national carbon intensity was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value proportions of all industries, and the impact of industry carbon intensities was larger. The increase of national carbon emission was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value of all industries. The former had inhibitory effect whist the latter had decisive promoting effect. The five industries making the largest contribution to the changes of national carbon emission and carbon intensity included industries of electricity, nonmetal mineral, ferrous metal, transportation service, chemical materials, which were followed by the industries of agriculture, coal mining and processing, petroleum and natural gas extraction. Petroleum refining and coking industry and construction industry made small contribution to the decline of national carbon intensity, but made large contribution to the growth of national carbon emission. The contributions of service industries to national carbon emission growth showed a rising trend, especially those of transportation service industry, wholesaling, retailing and catering service industry.

  12. Contingency planning for rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson, Nils K.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The current and predicted levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions are, according to the best international scientific estimates, leading the world towards climate change that will have serious consequences for all countries. The problem is aggravated by the tendency of people and institutions not to take action until catastrophic consequences emerge. The history of crises in other sectors show us that reactions are likely to focus on ad-hoc reactions or using plans that are readily available, with negative results. However, the alternative of developing public plans for drastic and rapid reductions is not likely to gain support because of their radical nature. The author therefore proposes that large organizations with direct or indirect control over substantial GHG emissions should prepare private contingency plans for very rapid reductions in emissions, so that more rational and less destructive plans will be available when the appropriate moment comes for last-minute action. Examples of the type of specific plans that may be appropriate are suggested.

    Según las estimaciones científicas internacionales más optimistas, los niveles actuales y previstos de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI están llevando al mundo hacia un cambio climático que tendrá graves consecuencias para todos los países. El problema se ve agravado por la tendencia de personas e instituciones a no tomar medidas hasta que no se perciben las catastróficas consecuencias. El historial de crisis ocurridas en otros sectores nos demuestra que las reacciones probablemente se centren en medidas ad hoc o en emplear planes que ya existían, pero sin resultados. Sin embargo, es poco probable que la alternativa al desarrollo de planes públicos para las reducciones drásticas y rápidas consiga el apoyo necesario, debido precisamente a su radicalidad. El autor recomienda por tanto que las grandes organizaciones que tengan control directo o indirecto sobre un

  13. Dimension Reduction of Multivariable Optical Emission Spectrometer Datasets for Industrial Plasma Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new data dimension-reduction method, called Internal Information Redundancy Reduction (IIRR, is proposed for application to Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES datasets obtained from industrial plasma processes. For example in a semiconductor manufacturing environment, real-time spectral emission data is potentially very useful for inferring information about critical process parameters such as wafer etch rates, however, the relationship between the spectral sensor data gathered over the duration of an etching process step and the target process output parameters is complex. OES sensor data has high dimensionality (fine wavelength resolution is required in spectral emission measurements in order to capture data on all chemical species involved in plasma reactions and full spectrum samples are taken at frequent time points, so that dynamic process changes can be captured. To maximise the utility of the gathered dataset, it is essential that information redundancy is minimised, but with the important requirement that the resulting reduced dataset remains in a form that is amenable to direct interpretation of the physical process. To meet this requirement and to achieve a high reduction in dimension with little information loss, the IIRR method proposed in this paper operates directly in the original variable space, identifying peak wavelength emissions and the correlative relationships between them. A new statistic, Mean Determination Ratio (MDR, is proposed to quantify the information loss after dimension reduction and the effectiveness of IIRR is demonstrated using an actual semiconductor manufacturing dataset. As an example of the application of IIRR in process monitoring/control, we also show how etch rates can be accurately predicted from IIRR dimension-reduced spectral data.

  14. Atmospheric pollution reduction effect and regional predicament: An empirical analysis based on the Chinese provincial NOx emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Liu, Chao; Chen, Kunlun; Huang, Yalin; Diao, Beidi

    2017-07-01

    Atmospheric pollution emissions have become a matter of public concern in recent years. However, most of the existing researches on NOx pollution are from the natural science and technology perspective, few studies have been conducted from an economic point, and regional differences have not been given adequate attention. This paper adopts provincial panel data from 2006 to 2013 and the LMDI model to analyze the key driving factors and regional dilemmas of NOx emissions. The results show that significant regional disparities still exit on NOx emissions and its reduction effect 27 provinces didn't accomplish their corresponding reduction targets. Economic development factor is the dominating driving factor of NOx emissions during the study period, while energy efficiency and technology improvement factors offset total NOx emissions in the majority of provinces. In addition, the industrial structure factor plays a more significant role in reducing the NOx emissions after 2011. Therefore, the government should consider all these factors as well as regional heterogeneity in developing appropriate pollution mitigating policies. It's necessary to change NOx emissions control attitude from original key areas control to divided-zone control, not only attaches great importance to the reduction of the original key areas, but also emphasizes the new potential hotspots with high NOx emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Worm Control in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew G. Coulter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently little or no data on the role of endemic disease control in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from livestock. In the present study, we have used an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-compliant model to calculate GHG emissions from naturally grazing lambs under four different anthelmintic drug treatment regimes over a 5-year study period. Treatments were either “monthly” (NST, “strategic” (SPT, “targeted” (TST or based on “clinical signs” (MT. Commercial sheep farming practices were simulated, with lambs reaching a pre-selected target market weight (38 kg removed from the analysis as they would no longer contribute to the GHG budget of the flock. Results showed there was a significant treatment effect over all years, with lambs in the MT group consistently taking longer to reach market weight, and an extra 10% emission of CO2e per kg of weight gain over the other treatments. There were no significant differences between the other three treatment strategies (NST, SPT and TST in terms of production efficiency or cumulated GHG emissions over the experimental period. This study has shown that endemic disease control can contribute to a reduction in GHG emissions from animal agriculture and help reduce the carbon footprint of livestock farming.

  16. The climate fund. Some notions on the socio-economic impacts of greenhouse gas emissions and emission reductions in an international context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Van der Burg, T.; Jansen, H.M.A.; Verbruggen, H.

    1995-05-01

    The title project investigates the possibility of setting up an international climate fund and the way in which this could be arranged. A climate fund is a potential method to enhance the efficiency and efficacy of the reduction of the increase in the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. It would allow countries to transfer capital, for instance through the here proposed climate fund, and to redistribute the damages caused by global warming. This project focuses on the economic aspects of a climate fund, although some attention will also be given to its political feasibility. The system of tradeable emission permits, of which joint implementation is often seen as a pilot phase, presumes that fixed emission targets exist. In this report the emissions are not prefixed, but optimised in a cost-benefit analysis in which the impact of international capital transfer is examined. In order to determine the impact of international capital transfer on the efficiency and efficacy on optimal greenhouse gas emission reduction, three building blocks are needed. The first block concerns the costs of climate change, or the benefits of climate change control. The second block concerns the costs of emission reduction. The third block is the model to integrate costs and benefits, and calculate the optimal emission control with and without international capital transfers. The project is split into four conceptual phases. In the first phase, a literature survey has been performed of the socio-economic costs and benefits of greenhouse gas emission reductions, with a particular focus on the international distribution of costs and benefits. In the second phase, the costs and benefits are modelled in the Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation and Distribution (FUND). In the third phase the optimal emission reductions are calculated with and without international capital transfers in several game-theoretic settings. (Abstract Truncated).

  17. An analysis of China's CO2 emission peaking target and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Kun He

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available China has set the goal for its CO2 emissions to peak around 2030, which is not only a strategic decision coordinating domestic sustainable development and global climate change mitigation but also an overarching target and a key point of action for China's resource conservation, environmental protection, shift in economic development patterns, and CO2 emission reduction to avoid climate change. The development stage where China maps out the CO2 emission peak target is earlier than that of the developed countries. It is a necessity that the non-fossil energy supplies be able to meet all the increased energy demand for achieving CO2 emission peaking. Given that China's potential GDP annual increasing rate will be more than 4%, and China's total energy demand will continue to increase by approximately 1.0%–1.5% annually around 2030, new and renewable energies will need to increase by 6%–8% annually to meet the desired CO2 emission peak. The share of new and renewable energies in China's total primary energy supply will be approximately 20% by 2030. At that time, the energy consumption elasticity will decrease to around 0.3, and the annual decrease in the rate of CO2 intensity will also be higher than 4% to ensure the sustained growth of GDP. To achieve the CO2 emission peaking target and substantially promote the low-carbon development transformation, China needs to actively promote an energy production and consumption revolution, the innovation of advanced energy technologies, the reform of the energy regulatory system and pricing mechanism, and especially the construction of a national carbon emission cap and trade system.

  18. Reductions in emissions from deforestation from Indonesia's moratorium on new oil palm, timber, and logging concessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Ferretti-Gallon, Kalifi; Engelmann, Jens; Wright, Max; Austin, Kemen G; Stolle, Fred; Turubanova, Svetlana; Potapov, Peter V; Margono, Belinda; Hansen, Matthew C; Baccini, Alessandro

    2015-02-03

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation, Indonesia instituted a nationwide moratorium on new license areas ("concessions") for oil palm plantations, timber plantations, and logging activity on primary forests and peat lands after May 2011. Here we indirectly evaluate the effectiveness of this policy using annual nationwide data on deforestation, concession licenses, and potential agricultural revenue from the decade preceding the moratorium. We estimate that on average granting a concession for oil palm, timber, or logging in Indonesia increased site-level deforestation rates by 17-127%, 44-129%, or 3.1-11.1%, respectively, above what would have occurred otherwise. We further estimate that if Indonesia's moratorium had been in place from 2000 to 2010, then nationwide emissions from deforestation over that decade would have been 241-615 MtCO2e (2.8-7.2%) lower without leakage, or 213-545 MtCO2e (2.5-6.4%) lower with leakage. As a benchmark, an equivalent reduction in emissions could have been achieved using a carbon price-based instrument at a carbon price of $3.30-7.50/tCO2e (mandatory) or $12.95-19.45/tCO2e (voluntary). For Indonesia to have achieved its target of reducing emissions by 26%, the geographic scope of the moratorium would have had to expand beyond new concessions (15.0% of emissions from deforestation and peat degradation) to also include existing concessions (21.1% of emissions) and address deforestation outside of concessions and protected areas (58.7% of emissions). Place-based policies, such as moratoria, may be best thought of as bridge strategies that can be implemented rapidly while the institutions necessary to enable carbon price-based instruments are developed.

  19. Modelling nutrient reduction targets - model structure complexity vs. data availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, Rene; Lausten Hansen, Anne; Donnelly, Chantal; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    In most parts of Europe, macronutrient concentrations and loads in surface water are currently affected by human land use and land management choices. Moreover, current macronutrient concentration and load levels often violate European Water Framework Directive (WFD) targets and effective measures to reduce these levels are sought after by water managers. Identifying such effective measures in specific target catchments should consider the four key processes release, transport, retention, and removal, and thus physical catchment characteristics as e.g. soils and geomorphology, but also management data such as crop distribution and fertilizer application regimes. The BONUS funded research project Soils2Sea evaluates new, differentiated regulation strategies to cost-efficiently reduce nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea based on new knowledge of nutrient transport and retention processes between soils and the coast. Within the Soils2Sea framework, we here examine the capability of two integrated hydrological and nutrient transfer models, HYPE and Mike SHE, to model runoff and nitrate flux responses in the 100 km2 Norsminde catchment, Denmark, comparing different model structures and data bases. We focus on comparing modelled nitrate reductions within and below the root zone, and evaluate model performances as function of available model structures (process representation within the model) and available data bases (temporal forcing data and spatial information). This model evaluation is performed to aid in the development of model tools which will be used to estimate the effect of new nutrient reduction measures on the catchment to regional scale, where available data - both climate forcing and land management - typically are increasingly limited with the targeted spatial scale and may act as a bottleneck for process conceptualizations and thus the value of a model as tool to provide decision support for differentiated regulation strategies.

  20. Negative emissions from soils: the role of soils in meeting the Paris Agreement targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete; Lehmann, Johannes; Robertson, Phil; Paustian, Keith; Reay, Dave

    2017-04-01

    The Paris Climate Agreement commits signatories to pursue efforts to keep global temperatures well below 2 degrees C above pre-industrial temperatures. Further, there is an aspirational target to limit warming to less than 1.5 degrees C above pre-industrial temperatures. Integrated Assessment Models show that it is now extremely unlikely that these targets can be met through greenhouse gas emission reduction alone, and that greenhouse gases will need to be removed from the atmosphere. Methods to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere are known as negative emission technologies (NETs) or carbon dioxide removal (CDR) methods. Land based NETs include afforestation and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, and in the soil, include soil carbon sequestration and biochar additions to the land. In this talk we outline the potential and limitations of soils based NETs globally, and examine synergies and trade-offs with other ecosystem services and sustainable development goals.

  1. Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.schmidt@boku.ac.at [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Leduc, Sylvain [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Dotzauer, Erik [Maelardalen University, P.O. Box 883, SE-72123 Vaesteras (Sweden); Schmid, Erwin [Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability of bioenergy technologies. Advanced technologies such as second-generation biofuels, biomass gasification for power production, and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will likely change the performance of policy instruments. This article assesses the cost-effectiveness of energy policy instruments, considering new bioenergy technologies for the year 2030, with respect to greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Instruments that directly subsidize bioenergy are compared with instruments that aim at reducing GHG emissions. A spatially explicit modeling approach is used to account for biomass supply and energy distribution costs in Austria. Results indicate that a carbon tax performs cost-effectively with respect to both policy targets if BECCS is not available. However, the availability of BECCS creates a trade-off between GHG emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution. Biofuel blending obligations are costly in terms of attaining the policy targets. - Highlights: > Costs of energy policies and effects on reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and fossil fuel consumption. > Particular focus on new bioenergy production technologies such as second generation biofuels. > Spatially explicit techno-economic optimization model. > CO{sub 2} tax: high costs for reducing fossil fuel consumption if carbon capture and storage is available. > Biofuel policy: no significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions or fossil fuel consumption.

  2. Scenario analysis on CO{sub 2} emissions reduction potential in China's electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Wenjia [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Can [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: canwang@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang Ke; Zhang Ying; Chen Jining [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-12-15

    With the approach of the year 2012, a new round of international negotiations has energized the entire climate change community. With this, analyses on sector-based emissions reduction and mitigation options will provide the necessary information to form the debate. In order to assess the CO{sub 2} emissions reduction potential of China's electricity sector, this research employs three scenarios based on the 'long-range energy alternative planning system' (LEAP) model to simulate the different development paths in this sector. The baseline scenario, the current policy scenario, and the new policy scenario seek to gradually increase the extent of industrial restructuring and technical advancement. Results imply that energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission in China's electricity sector will rise rapidly in all scenarios until 2030-triple or quadruple the 2000 level; however, through structural adjustment in China's electricity sector, and through implementing technical mitigation measures, various degrees of abatement can be achieved. These reductions range from 85 to 350 million tons CO{sub 2} per year-figures that correspond to different degrees of cost and investment. Demand side management and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) (ranked in order) are employed prior to use to realize emissions reduction, followed by supercritical plants and the renovation of conventional thermal power plants. In the long term, nuclear and hydropower will play the dominant role in contributing to emissions reduction. It is also suggested that a 'self-restraint' reduction commitment should be employed to help contribute to the reduction of emission intensity, an avenue that is more practical for China in light of its current development phase. Setting the year 2000 as the base year, the intensity reduction target could possibly range from 4.2% to 19.4%, dependent on the implementation effectiveness of various mitigation options.

  3. Reduction in trace particulate matter emissions due to adoption of clean diesel technology at a major port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Toshihiro

    Air pollution emissions from major ports around the world contribute to airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure in surrounding communities. The Port of Oakland is one of three major shipping ports in California that collectively account for 39% of all the goods movement in the United States. The current study is the first to perform relatively complete chemical speciation on the real-world reduction in primary PM emissions from heavy duty trucks at a major shipping Port during the implementation of a retrofit and replacement program. Measurements of fine PM composition at the Port were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify five dominant PM sources: shipping, port truck traffic, distant on-road traffic, background sea spray, and road dust. Changes to port truck traffic related PM concentration on days with similar meteorological conditions during and after implementation of the controls programs were used as a direct indication of emissions reductions. Primary PM mass emissions from port trucks decreased by 75% due to the control program which meets the target inherent in the Emissions Reduction Plan for Ports and Goods Movement in California. Contributions of PM components attributed to Port truck activities decreased by amounts ranging from 66-86% (elemental carbon (EC) = 66%, organic carbon (OC) = 78%, Na = 82%, Ba = 84%, Fe = 87%). These reductions include contributions from both tailpipe emissions and brake/tire wear. Prior to implementation of the control program, port trucks accounted for approximately 56% of the ambient EC concentrations in the vicinity of the Port while ships accounted for approximately 12% of the EC concentrations. After implementation of the control program, port trucks and ships accounted for approximately 23% and 29% of the ambient EC concentrations at the Port, respectively. This estimate does not account for rail emissions that were downwind of the sampling site. The current study provides an example of how

  4. Freezing HFC emissions, Reduction of HFC-emissions in commercial refrigerationin the Netherlands by the STEK- regulation - an actor study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IVEM, Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to define the main reasons for success of the Dutch HFC emission reduction system, called the STEK regulation. Besides that recommendations are formulated to successfully implement similar regulations in other European countries. This

  5. Pulsating combustion - Combustion characteristics and reduction of emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Annika

    1999-11-01

    In the search for high efficiency combustion systems pulsating combustion has been identified as one of the technologies that potentially can meet the objectives of clean combustion and good fuel economy. Pulsating combustion offers low emissions of pollutants, high heat transfer and efficient combustion. Although it is an old technology, the interest in pulsating combustion has been renewed in recent years, due to its unique features. Various applications of pulsating combustion can be found, mainly as drying and heating devices, of which the latter also have had commercial success. It is, however, in the design process of a pulse combustor, difficult to predict the operating frequency, the heat release etc., due to the lack of a well founded theory of the phenomenon. Research concerning control over the combustion process is essential for developing high efficiency pulse combustors with low emissions. Natural gas fired Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been the experimental objects of this study. In order to investigate the interaction between the fluid dynamics and the chemistry in pulse combustors, laser based measuring techniques as well as other conventional measuring techniques have been used. The experimental results shows the possibilities to control the combustion characteristics of pulsating combustion. It is shown that the time scales in the large vortices created at the inlet to the combustion chamber are very important for the operation of the pulse combustor. By increasing/decreasing the time scale for the large scale mixing the timing of the heat release is changed and the operating characteristics of the pulse combustor changes. Three different means for NO{sub x} reduction in Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been investigated. These include exhaust gas recirculation, alteration of air/fuel ratio and changed inlet geometry in the combustion chamber. All used methods achieved less than 10 ppm NO{sub x} emitted (referred to stoichiometric

  6. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  7. Modelling the impacts of ammonia emissions reductions on North American air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Makar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A unified regional air-quality modelling system (AURAMS was used to investigate the effects of reductions in ammonia emissions on regional air quality, with a focus on particulate-matter formation. Three simulations of one-year duration were performed for a North American domain: (1 a base-case simulation using 2002 Canadian and US national emissions inventories augmented by a more detailed Canadian emissions inventory for agricultural ammonia; (2 a 30% North-American-wide reduction in agricultural ammonia emissions; and (3 a 50% reduction in Canadian beef-cattle ammonia emissions. The simulations show that a 30% continent-wide reduction in agricultural ammonia emissions lead to reductions in median hourly PM2.5 mass of <1 μg m−3 on an annual basis. The atmospheric response to these emission reductions displays marked seasonal variations, and on even shorter time scales, the impacts of the emissions reductions are highly episodic: 95th-percentile hourly PM2.5 mass decreases can be up to a factor of six larger than the median values.

    A key finding of the modelling work is the linkage between gas and aqueous chemistry and transport; reductions in ammonia emissions affect gaseous ammonia concentrations close to the emissions site, but substantial impacts on particulate matter and atmospheric deposition often occur at considerable distances downwind, with particle nitrate being the main vector of ammonia/um transport. Ammonia emissions reductions therefore have trans-boundary consequences downwind. Calculations of critical-load exceedances for sensitive ecosystems in Canada suggest that ammonia emission reductions will have a minimal impact on current ecosystem acidification within Canada, but may have a substantial impact on future ecosystem acidification. The 50% Canadian beef-cattle ammonia emissions reduction scenario was used to examine model sensitivity to uncertainties in the new Canadian

  8. CATALYTIC REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR POST-COMBUSTION DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİN, Ahmet; EMİROĞLU, Alaattin Osman

    2016-01-01

    Stiff exhaust emission regulations set for limiting the air pollution caused by motor vehicles have oriented the producers and researchers to investigate new techniques to reduce exhaust emissions. The main pollutants caused by diesel engines are particle matters (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxides (CO). Among the preventive actions to keep the emissions caused by motor vehicles at a certain level are enhancing the fuel quality, preventing the pollutant format...

  9. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  10. The international research progress of Ammonia(NH3) emissions and emissions reduction technology in farmland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. Z.; Jiao, Y.

    2017-03-01

    NH3 is the important factor leading to the grey haze, and one of the main causes of environmental problems of serious ecological imbalance, such as acid rain and air quality deterioration. The fertilizer excessive application of the current farmland results NH3 emissions intensity greatly. In order to clear the farmland NH3 emissions research status and achievements, the literature of farmland NH3 emission related were retrievaled by the SCI journals and Chinese science citation database. Some factors of NH3 emission were analyzed such as soil factors, climate factors and farmland management measures. The research progress was inductived on farmland NH3 emission reduction technology. The results will help to clarify farmland NH3 emissions research progress. The theoretical guidance was provided on the future of farmland NH3 emissions research.

  11. [Reduction of meat consumption and greenhouse gas emissions associated with health benefits in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farchi, Sara; Lapucci, Enrica; Michelozzi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    the reduction in red meat consumption has been proposed as one of the climate change mitigation policies associated to health benefits. In the developed world, red meat consumption is above the recommended intake level. the aim is to evaluate health benefits, in term of mortality decline, associated to different bovine meat consumption reduction scenarios and the potential reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. meat consumption in Italy has been estimated using the Italian National Food Consumption Survey INRAN-SCAI (2005-2006) and the Multipurpose survey on household (2012) of the Italian National Institute for Statistics. Colorectal cancer and stoke mortality data are derived from the national survey on causes of death in 2012. Bovine meat consumption risk function has been retrieved from systematic literature reviews. Mean meat consumption in Italy is equal to 770 grams/week; gender and geographical variations exist: 69 per cent of the adult population are habitual bovine meat consumers; males have an average intake of over 400 grams/week in all areas of Italy (with the exception of the South), while females have lower intakes (360 grams per week), with higher consumption in the North-West (427 gr) and lower in the South of Italy. Four scenarios of reduction of bovine meat consumption (20%, 40%, 50% e 70%, respectively) have been evaluated and the number of avoidable deaths by gender and area of residence have been estimated. GHG emissions attributed to bovine meat adult consumption have been estimated to be to 10 gigagrams CO2-eq. from low to high reduction scenario, the percentage of avoidable deaths ranged from 2.1% to 6.5% for colorectal cancer and from 1.6% to 5.6% for stroke. Health benefits were greatest for males and for people living in the North-Western regions of Italy. in Italy, in order to adhere to bovine meat consumption recommendations and to respect EU GHG emission reduction targets, scenarios between 50% and 70% need to be adopted.

  12. An evaluation of China's carbon emission reduction policies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change has become one of the hottest issues in international law. As the world's second-largest greenhouse gas emission sector, the transport sector, especially the urban traffic system, is facing much more pressure to reduce its aggregate emissions. This article begins with a theoretical examination of the system ...

  13. Effects of free formaldehyde emission reduction by ammonia fuming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Particleboards made using formaldehyde adhesives cause substantial emission of free formaldehyde over time. Free formaldehyde is harmful to the user's health and it also weakens internal bonds of particleboards in use. Emissions levels of formaldehyde lie between 0.8 to 2.2 g/m3 of indoor air in particleboards ...

  14. Analysis of GHG Emission Reduction in South Korea Using a CO2 Transportation Network Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Ho Jin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Korea’s national carbon capture and storage (CCS master plan aims to commercialize CCS projects by 2030. Furthermore, the Korean government is forced to reduce emissions from various sectors, including industries and power generation, by 219 million tons by 2030. This study analyzes a few scenarios of Korean CCS projects with a CO2 pipeline transportation network optimization model for minimizing the total facility cost and pipeline cost. Our scenarios are based on the “2030 asic roadmap for reducing greenhouse gases” established by the government. The results for each scenario demonstrate that the effective design and implementation of CO2 pipeline network enables the lowering of CO2 units cost. These suggest that CO2 transportation networks, which connect the capture and sequestration parts, will be more important in the future and can be used to substitute and supplement the emission reduction target in case the execution of other reduction options faces uncertainty. Our mathematical model and scenario designs will be helpful for various countries which plan to introduce CCS technology.

  15. Modelling cost-effectiveness of interrelated emission reduction strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords:Environmental pollution; Acidification; Global warming; Agriculture; Abatement cost; Environmental policy interrelations; Ammonia; Nitrous Oxide; MethaneAgriculture is an important source of ammonia, contributing to acidification and eutrophication, as well as emissions of the greenhouse

  16. Reduction emissions from transport sector - EU action against climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This paper explores and discusses the initiation and development of the EU's policies and strategies against climate change and the share experiences in the EU transport sector to reduce CO2 emission.

  17. Assessment of biodiesel scenarios for Midwest freight transport emission reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    There are trade-offs when attempting to reduce both greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutants for freight transport, as the control : strategies are not necessarily complimentary. While emission controls can remove ozone precursors and particulate f...

  18. ICAO action plan on emissions reduction: Republic of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kantareva, Mariya; Angelova, Anna; Iliev, Lazar; Efthymiou, Marina; General Directorate of Civil Aviation Administration Republic of Bulgaria

    2015-01-01

    ICAO environmental action plans present States' measures to reduce emissions from international aviation. Action plans are a practical means for States to communicate to ICAO information on their activities to address CO2 emissions from international civil aviation. The level of detail of the information contained in an action plan demonstrates the effectiveness of actions and will ultimately enable ICAO to measure global progress towards meeting the goals set by Assembly Resolution A37-19.

  19. Emission reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gases used as refrigerant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gerwen, R.J.M.; Verwoerd, M. [Department of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Technology, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research TNO, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Several options exist for the reduction of the title greenhouse gases, used as refrigerant. Only a balanced combination of all the options can assure a maximum short time as well as long time contribution to the required emission reduction goals. Interference between non-CO2 greenhouse gas emission reduction and the phase out of ozone depleting substances should be carefully considered. The complex relation between CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emission from refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump equipment should be carefully considered as well, using the TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) approach.

  20. The role of anthropogenic aerosol emission reduction in achieving the Paris Agreement's objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienola, Anca; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; O'Donnell, Declan; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Korhonen, Hannele; Laaksonen, Ari

    2017-04-01

    -industrial temperature will be, making the 1.5◦C temperature goal impossible to reach. Although the global reduction of anthropogenic aerosols can greatly enforce the global warming effect due to GHGs, all our simulations resulted in temperature increase bellow (but not well bellow) 2◦C above preindustrial levels - a slightly more realistic target compared to 1.5◦C. The results of this study are based on simulations of only two climate models. As such, we do not regard these results as indisputable, but we consider that aerosols and their effect on climate deserve more attention when discussing future aerosol emission.

  1. Technological and Economic Feasibility of Emissions Trajectories Achieving Ambitious Climate Protection Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegler, E.

    2008-12-01

    Achieving ambitious climate protection targets will require a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions until the end of the 21st century, involving a major restructuring of the energy system on the path to a low carbon economy. I will review several key aspects of this transition process based on results from a coupled energy-economy-climate model capturing major mitigation options (increasing energy efficiency, CCS, deploying carbon free energy technologies). This will include (1) how uncertainty about climate sensitivity and key socio-economic parameters shape the climate policy problem, (2) how different types of climate targets on CO2 (equivalent) concentration or global mean temperature increase affect the transition path, (3) what cost-efficient portfolios of mitigation options can be identified, (4) what technology options are key to achieve low levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide at reasonable costs, and (5) what additional challenges and opportunities emerge if other greenhouse gases and aerosols are added to the picture.

  2. [Synergistic emission reduction of chief air pollutants and greenhouse gases-based on scenario simulations of energy consumptions in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuan-bo; Li, Wei

    2013-05-01

    It is one of the common targets and important tasks for energy management and environmental control of Beijing to improve urban air quality while reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Here, based on the interim and long term developmental planning and energy structure of the city, three energy consumption scenarios in low, moderate and high restrictions were designed by taking the potential energy saving policies and environmental targets into account. The long-range energy alternatives planning (LEAP) model was employed to predict and evaluate reduction effects of the chief air pollutants and GHG during 2010 to 2020 under the three given scenarios. The results showed that if urban energy consumption system was optimized or adjusted by exercising energy saving and emission reduction and pollution control measures, the predicted energy uses will be reduced by 10 to 30 million tons of coal equivalents by 2020. Under the two energy scenarios with moderate and high restrictions, the anticipated emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, VOC and GHG will be respectively reduced to 71 to 100.2, 159.2 to 218.7, 89.8 to 133.8, 51.4 to 96.0, 56.4 to 74.8 and 148 200 to 164 700 thousand tons. Correspondingly, when compared with the low-restriction scenario, the reducing rate will be 53% to 67% , 50% to 64% , 33% to 55% , 25% to 60% , 41% to 55% and 26% to 34% respectively. Furthermore, based on a study of synergistic emission reduction of the air pollutants and GHG, it was proposed that the adjustment and control of energy consumptions shall be intensively developed in the three sectors of industry, transportation and services. In this way the synergistic reduction of the emissions of chief air pollutants and GHG will be achieved; meanwhile the pressures of energy demands may be deliberately relieved.

  3. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the likely direct and indirect effects of the actions taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (d... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7... gases listed in the definition of “greenhouse gases” in § 300.2 are eligible for registration. (b...

  4. F‐GHG Emissions Reduction Efforts: FY2015 Supplier Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Supplier Profiles outlined in this document detail the efforts of large‐area flat panel suppliers to reduce their F‐GHG emissions in manufacturing facilities that make today’s large‐area panels used for products such as TVs and computer monitors.

  5. New generation gasifier with significant reduction of emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, V. [Credo Engineering (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Combined Bed Gasifier (CBG) that produces high calorific value syngas is described. Limestone is included in the bed to capture sulfur, and the bed is operated at below 1000{sup o}C to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions. Carbon dioxide is captured in the gasification process. 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Primary Aluminum Reduction Industry - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emission standards for each new or existing potline, paste production operation, and anode bake furnace associated with a primary aluminum reduction plant. Includes rule history, implementation information and additional resources.

  7. Numerical investigation of emission reduction techniques applied on methanol blended diesel engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soni, Dinesh Kumar; Gupta, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    ... gases in Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) technique and finally by means of adding water in various proportions to the same optimum diesel methanol blended fuel to obtain further reduction of emission...

  8. Reduction of CO{sub 2} emission and oil dependency with biomass-based polygeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Jonas M.; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology and Environmental Science, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    We compare different options for the use of lignocellulosic biomass to reduce CO{sub 2} emission and oil use, focusing on polygeneration of biomass-based motor fuels and electricity, and discuss methodological issues related to such comparisons. The use of biomass can significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emission and oil use, but there is a trade-off between the reductions in CO{sub 2} emission and oil use. Bioelectricity from stand-alone plants replacing coal-based electricity reduced CO{sub 2} emission by 99 kg per GJ biomass input but gave no oil use reduction. Stand-alone produced methanol replacing diesel reduced the CO{sub 2} emission with 38 kg and the oil use with 0.67 GJ per GJ biomass, indicating that a potential CO{sub 2} emission reduction of 90 kg is lost per GJ oil reduced. CO{sub 2} emission and oil use reduction for alternatives co-producing fuel and electricity fall between the stand-alone alternatives. Plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles using bioelectricity reduced CO{sub 2} emission by 75-88 kg and oil use by 0.99-1.2 GJ, per GJ biomass input. Biomass can also reduce CO{sub 2} emission and/or oil use more efficiently if fossil-fuel-fired boilers or electric heating is replaced by district heating from biomass-based combined heat and power generation. This is also true if electricity or motor fuel is produced from black liquor gasification in pulp mills or if wood is used instead of concrete in building construction. Biomass gasification is an important technology to achieve large reductions, irrespective of whether CO{sub 2} emission or oil use reduction is prioritised. (author)

  9. Identifying potential exposure reduction priorities using regional rankings based on emissions of known and suspected carcinogens to outdoor air in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setton, Eleanor M; Veerman, Basil; Erickson, Anders; Deschenes, Steeve; Cheasley, Roz; Poplawski, Karla; Demers, Paul A; Keller, C Peter

    2015-08-22

    Emissions inventories aid in understanding the sources of hazardous air pollutants and how these vary regionally, supporting targeted reduction actions. Integrating information on the relative toxicity of emitted pollutants with respect to cancer in humans helps to further refine reduction actions or recommendations, but few national programs exist in North America that use emissions estimates in this way. The CAREX Canada Emissions Mapping Project provides key regional indicators of emissions (total annual and total annual toxic equivalent, circa 2011) of 21 selected known and suspected carcinogens. The indicators were calculated from industrial emissions reported to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) and estimates of emissions from transportation (airports, trains, and car and truck traffic) and residential heating (oil, gas and wood), in conjunction with human toxicity potential factors. We also include substance-specific annual emissions in toxic equivalent kilograms and annual emissions in kilograms, to allow for ranking substances within any region. For provinces and territories in Canada, the indicators suggest the top five substances contributing to the total toxic equivalent emissions in any region could be prioritized for further investigation. Residents of Quebec and New Brunswick may be more at risk of exposure to industrial emissions than those in other regions, suggesting that a more detailed study of exposure to industrial emissions in these provinces is warranted. Residential wood smoke may be an important emission to control, particularly in the north and eastern regions of Canada. Residential oil and gas heating, along with rail emissions contribute little to regional emissions and therefore may not be an immediate regional priority. The developed indicators support the identification of pollutants and sources for additional investigation when planning exposure reduction actions among Canadian provinces and territories, but have

  10. Quantification of emission reduction potentials of primary air pollutants from residential solid fuel combustion by adopting cleaner fuels in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng

    2015-11-01

    Residential low efficient fuel burning is a major source of many air pollutants produced during incomplete combustions, and household air pollution has been identified as one of the top environmental risk factors. Here we compiled literature-reported emission factors of pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSPs), PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for different household energy sources, and quantified the potential for emission reduction by clean fuel adoption. The burning of crop straws, firewood and coal chunks in residential stoves had high emissions per unit fuel mass but lower thermal efficiencies, resulting in high levels of pollution emissions per unit of useful energy, whereas pelletized biofuels and coal briquettes had lower pollutant emissions and higher thermal efficiencies. Briquetting coal may lead to 82%-88% CO, 74%-99% TSP, 73%-76% PM2.5, 64%-98% OC, 92%-99% EC and 80%-83% PAH reductions compared to raw chunk coal. Biomass pelletizing technology would achieve 88%-97% CO, 73%-87% TSP, 79%-88% PM2.5, 94%-96% OC, 91%-99% EC and 63%-96% PAH reduction compared to biomass burning. The adoption of gas fuels (i.e., liquid petroleum gas, natural gas) would achieve significant pollutant reduction, nearly 96% for targeted pollutants. The reduction is related not only to fuel change, but also to the usage of high efficiency stoves. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Methane - quick fix or tough target? New methods to reduce emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; Brownlow, R.

    2016-12-01

    Methane is a cost-effective target for greenhouse gas reduction efforts. The UK's MOYA project is designed to improve understanding of the global methane budget and to point to new methods to reduce future emissions. Since 2007, methane has been increasing rapidly: in 2014 and 2015 growth was at rates last seen in the 1980s. Unlike 20thcentury growth, primarily driven by fossil fuel emissions in northern industrial nations, isotopic evidence implies present growth is driven by tropical biogenic sources such as wetlands and agriculture. Discovering why methane is rising is important. Schaefer et al. (Science, 2016) pointed out the potential clash between methane reduction efforts and food needs of a rising, better-fed (physically larger) human population. Our own work suggests tropical wetlands are major drivers of growth, responding to weather changes since 2007, but there is no acceptable way to reduce wetland emission. Just as sea ice decline indicates Arctic warming, methane may be the most obvious tracker of climate change in the wet tropics. Technical advances in instrumentation can do much in helping cut urban and industrial methane emissions. Mobile systems can be mounted on vehicles, while drone sampling can provide a 3D view to locate sources. Urban land planning often means large but different point sources are typically clustered (e.g. landfill or sewage plant near incinerator; gas wells next to cattle). High-precision grab-sample isotopic characterisation, using Keeling plots, can separate source signals, to identify specific emitters, even where they are closely juxtaposed. Our mobile campaigns in the UK, Kuwait, Hong Kong and E. Australia show the importance of major single sources, such as abandoned old wells, pipe leaks, or unregulated landfills. If such point sources can be individually identified, even when clustered, they will allow effective reduction efforts to occur: these can be profitable and/or improve industrial safety, for example in the

  12. International markets for greenhouse gas emission reduction policies - possibilities for integrating developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, K.; Olhoff, A.

    2005-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are affecting a global common: the climate, and as a global environmental problem with a public good character it provides attractive opportunities for minimising control costs through the use of emission trading markets. This paper introduces cost and benefit...... principles that can be applied to the assessment of global markets for GHG emission reduction options and evaluates the scope for and the potential economic gains of such markets....

  13. Deep CO2 emission reductions in a global bottom-up model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deetman, Sebastiaan; Hof, Andries; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies that explore deep GHG emission reduction scenarios assume that climate goals are reached by implementing least-cost emission mitigation options, typically by implementing a global carbon tax. Although such a method provides insight into total mitigation costs, it does not provide much

  14. Potential for reduction of methane emissions from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Maike; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Methane is a gas cows naturally produce in the rumen. However, it is also a potential greenhouse gas. Therefore, there is a certain interest from an environmental point of view to reduce methane emissions from dairy cows. Estimates from earlier studies indicate that there is a potential to reduce......, while fibre and sugar enhance methane emissions. Fat can be regarded as the most promising feed additive at the moment. At AU, respiration chambers have been installed to enable methane measurements from dairy cows combined with digestibility trials, and at present studies are being conducted concerning...... methane production by 10 to 25% by changing the feeding strategies. Several feedstuffs influence methane production, such as additional fat. The increase of the concentrate proportion can potentially decrease methane by decreasing the rumen degradability of the diet or by changing the rumen fermentation...

  15. Application research on big data in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bingdong; Chen, Jing; Wang, Mei; Yao, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    In the context of big data age, the energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation is a natural big data industry. The planning, management, decision-making of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation and other aspects should be supported by the analysis and forecasting of large amounts of data. Now, with the development of information technology, such as intelligent city, sensor road and so on, information collection technology in the direction of the Internet of things gradually become popular. The 3G/4G network transmission technology develop rapidly, and a large number of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data is growing into a series with different ways. The government not only should be able to make good use of big data to solve the problem of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation, but also to explore and use a large amount of data behind the hidden value. Based on the analysis of the basic characteristics and application technology of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data, this paper carries out its application research in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry, so as to provide theoretical basis and reference value for low carbon management.

  16. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from vinasse through anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moraes, Bruna S.; Petersen, Søren O.; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    with digestate, ranging from 0.173 to 0.193 kg CO2eq m−2 in the former and from 0.045 to 0.100 kg CO2eq m−2 in the latter. Extrapolation of the results to a Brazilian case indicated that AD treatment prior to storage/transport and field application could reduce GHG emissions from the vinasse management chain...

  17. Study of exhaust and noise emissions reduction on a single spray direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Sahara, Masanori; Takamori, Yuji; Sakurai, Shigeru (Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    In order to materialize the automobile use small direct injection diesel engine (DI), the reduction in both exhaust emission and noise, as studied, was explained in summary. The DI, as excellent in fuel consumption characteristics, was studied to be adopted to the small automobile, with the materialization of small DI to be about 600cc in capacity per cylinder. However the further diminution in dimension had not been materialized yet, because of the aggravation in exhaust emission and vibration noise. Then a single spray DI, characterized by the approximate sphericity in shape of combustion chamber and adoption of cast iron made piston and two-stage spring nozzle, was prototypically made, with optimizing the combustion in characteristics, decreasing HC in exhaust quantity by modifying the injection system, doing also NOx in exhaust quantity by adopting the lag angle at injection time and EGR, modifying the structure to lower the noise, and adopting an air heater to improve the cold start-up in performance. As a result, the present ten-mode exhaust gas regulation and noise level target were achieved, with the improvement in cold start-up and warm-up properties. 6 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Meat consumption reduction in Italian regions: Health co-benefits and decreases in GHG emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Farchi

    Full Text Available Animal agriculture has exponentially grown in recent decades in response to the rise in global demand for meat, even in countries like Italy that traditionally eat a Mediterranean, plant-based diet. Globalization related dietary changes are contributing to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases and to the global climate crisis, and are associated with huge carbon and water footprints. The objective of the study is to assess inequalities in health impacts and in attributable greenhouse gases-GHG emissions in Italy by hypothesizing different scenarios of reduction in red and processed meat consumption towards healthier consumption patterns more compliant with the recommendations of the Mediterranean food pyramid.We used demographic and food consumption patterns from national surveys and risk relationships between meat intake and cardiovascular and colorectal cancer mortality from IARC and other meta-analyses. From the baseline data (year 2005-2006, average 406 gr/week beef and 245 gr/week processed meat, we considered hypothetical meat reduction scenarios according to international dietary guidelines such as the Mediterranean pyramid targets. For each geographical area (Northwest, Northeast, Centre, and South and gender, we calculated the number of avoidable deaths from colorectal cancer, and cardiovascular disease among the adult population. Moreover, years of life gained by the adult population from 2012 to 2030 and changes in life expectancy of the 2012 birth cohort were quantified using gender-specific life tables. GHG emission reductions under Mediterranean scenario were estimated only for beef by applying the Global Warming Potential (GWP coefficient to total consumption and to a low carbon food substitution in adult diet.The deaths avoidable (as percentage change compared to baseline according to the three reduction scenarios for beef consumption were between 2.3% and 4.5% for colorectal cancer, and between 2.1% and 4.0% for

  19. Chloropicrin Emission Reduction by Soil Amendment with Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuxia; Yan, Dongdong; Liu, Pengfei; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Dong; Fang, Wensheng; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2015-01-01

    Biochar has sorption capacity, and can be used to enhance the sequestration of volatile organic contaminants such as pesticides in soil. Chloropicrin (CP) is an important soil fumigant for the production of many fruit and vegetable crops, but its emissions must be minimized to reduce exposure risks and air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP and the effect of biochar amendments to soil on CP emission, concentration in the soil gas phase, degradation in soil and CP bioactivity for controlling soil borne pests. CP emission and concentration in the soil air phase were measured from packed soil columns after fumigant injection at 20-cm depth and application of selected doses of biocharto the surface 5 cm soil. Laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP, the effects on CP degradation and, separately, CP’s bioactivity on soil borne pests in soil amended with biochar. Biochar amendment at 2% to 5% (w/w) greatly reduced total CP emission losses by 85.7% - 97.7% compared to fumigation without biochar. CP concentrations in the soil gas-phase, especially in the top 5 cm of soil, were reduced within 48 h following application. The half-life of CP decreased from 13.6 h to 6.4 h as the biochar rate increased from 0% to 5%. CP and its metabolite (dichloronitromethane) both degraded more rapidly in pure biochar than in soil. The biochar used in the present study had a maximum adsorption capacity for CP of less than 5 mg g-1. There were no negative effects on pathogen and nematode control when the biochar used in this study was less than 1% (on a weight basis) in soil. Biochar amendment to soil reduced the emissions of CP. CP concentrations in the top 5 cm of soil gas-phase were reduced. CP degradation was accelerated with the addition of biochar. The biochar used in the present study had a low adsorption capacity for CP. There were no negative effects

  20. Impact of agricultural emission reductions on fine-particulate matter and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pozzer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine-particulate matter (PM2.5, with a focus on Europe, North America, East and South Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3 released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not immediately limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by  ∼ 250 000 people yr−1 worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30, 19, 8 and 3 % over North America, Europe, East and South Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 000 per year.

  1. Impact of agricultural emission reductions on fine-particulate matter and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer, Andrea; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; de Meij, Alexander; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-10-01

    A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine-particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America, East and South Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3) released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not immediately limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by ˜ 250 000 people yr-1 worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30, 19, 8 and 3 % over North America, Europe, East and South Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 000 per year.

  2. Trends in greenhouse gas emissions from consumption and production of animal food products - implications for long-term climate targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, C; Hedenus, F; Wirsenius, S; Sonesson, U

    2013-02-01

    To analyse trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and consumption of animal products in Sweden, life cycle emissions were calculated for the average production of pork, chicken meat, beef, dairy and eggs in 1990 and 2005. The calculated average emissions were used together with food consumption statistics and literature data on imported products to estimate trends in per capita emissions from animal food consumption. Total life cycle emissions from the Swedish livestock production were around 8.5 Mt carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in 1990 and emissions decreased to 7.3 Mt CO2e in 2005 (14% reduction). Around two-thirds of the emission cut was explained by more efficient production (less GHG emission per product unit) and one-third was due to a reduced animal production. The average GHG emissions per product unit until the farm-gate were reduced by 20% for dairy, 15% for pork and 23% for chicken meat, unchanged for eggs and increased by 10% for beef. A larger share of the average beef was produced from suckler cows in cow-calf systems in 2005 due to the decreasing dairy cow herd, which explains the increased emissions for the average beef in 2005. The overall emission cuts from the livestock sector were a result of several measures taken in farm production, for example increased milk yield per cow, lowered use of synthetic nitrogen fertilisers in grasslands, reduced losses of ammonia from manure and a switch to biofuels for heating in chicken houses. In contrast to production, total GHG emissions from the Swedish consumption of animal products increased by around 22% between 1990 and 2005. This was explained by strong growth in meat consumption based mainly on imports, where growth in beef consumption especially was responsible for most emission increase over the 15-year period. Swedish GHG emissions caused by consumption of animal products reached around 1.1 t CO2e per capita in 2005. The emission cuts necessary for meeting a global temperature

  3. WP/073 Is the Clean Development Mechanism Effective for Emission Reductions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yongfu; He, Jingjing; Tarp, Finn

    This research studies whether the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol achieves its objective of emission reductions in the host countries. It empirically investigates the impacts of CDM projects on CO2 emission reductions for 60 CDM host countries over 2005-10. This research...... makes use of the newly-developed econometric methods for dynamic panel data models associated with X-differencing procedure. It provides evidence in support of a decline in CO2 emissions in the CDM host countries. It has important policy implications that encourage the international community to support...... developing countries’ efforts towards low-carbon development via CDM projects....

  4. Potential of greenhouse gas emission reductions in soybean farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Dalgaard, Tommy; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2013-01-01

    Joint implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has recently showed to be a suitable tool for measuring efficiency in agri-food systems. In the present study, LCA + DEA methodologies were applied for a total of 94 soybean farms in Iran to benchmark the level...... residue in the field generate significantly more greenhouse gas emissions than other farms. The raising of operational input efficiency and limiting of crop residue burning in the field are recommended options to ensure more environmental friendly soybean farming systems in the region....

  5. Staggering reductions in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide across Canada in response to legislated transportation emissions reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Holly; Aherne, Julian

    2016-12-01

    It is well established that atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), associated mainly with emissions from transportation and industry, can have adverse effects on both human and ecosystem health. Specifically, atmospheric NO2 plays a role in the formation of ozone, and in acidic and nutrient deposition. As such, international agreements and national legislation, such as the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations (SOR/2003-2), and the Federal Agenda on Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuel have been put into place to regulate and limit oxidized nitrogen emissions. The objective of this study was to assess the response of ambient air concentrations of NO2 across Canada to emissions regulations. Current NO2 levels across Canada were examined at 137 monitoring sites, and long-term annual and quarterly trends were evaluated for 63 continuous monitoring stations that had at least 10 years of data during the period 1988-2013. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test (Z values) and Sen's slope estimate were used to determine monotonic trends; further changepoint analysis was used to determine periods with significant changes in NO2 air concentration and emissions time-series data. Current annual average NO2 levels in Canada range between 1.16 and 14.96 ppb, with the national average being 8.43 ppb. Provincially, average NO2 ranges between 3.77 and 9.25 ppb, with Ontario and British Columbia having the highest ambient levels of NO2. Long-term tend analysis indicated that the annual average NO2 air concentration decreased significantly at 87% of the stations (55 of 63), and decreased non-significantly at 10% (5 of 63) during the period 1998-2013. Concentrations increased (non-significantly) at only 3% (2 of 63) of the sites. Quarterly long-term trends showed similar results; significant decreases occurred at 84% (January-March), 88% (April-June), 83% (July-September), and 81% (October-December) of the sites. Declines in transportation emissions had the most influence on NO2 air

  6. Modelling environmental cooperation on reciprocal emission reduction via virtual market system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nentjes, Andries; Shibayev, Sergey; Meijer, G; Heijman, WJM; VanOphem, JAC; Verstegen, BHJ

    2006-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory views international agreements on reduction of trans-boundary pollution as a Pareto-optimal outcome of negotiations among self-interested parties. This paper elaborates that notion by modelling negotiation as a multilateral trade in reciprocal emission reductions within

  7. Numerical investigation of emission reduction techniques applied on methanol blended diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Soni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation works out a two-stage strategy to achieve higher level of emission reduction to meet more stringent emission norms. In the first stage, an optimum blend of diesel methanol fuel has been determined using numerical simulation to give maximum possible NOx and soot reduction. In the next stage, numerical simulation has been performed by three different methods of emission reduction namely through variation of swirl ratio, variation in quantity of recirculation of exhaust gases in Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR technique and finally by means of adding water in various proportions to the same optimum diesel methanol blended fuel to obtain further reduction of emission. The numerical simulation has been performed on a single cylinder Kirloskar diesel engine (model TV1 using commercially available CFD software AVL FIRE. Simulation starting with the optimum diesel–methanol blend as the base fuel, effects of swirl ratio; 1.0,1.3,1.6 and 2, percentage EGR varied between 10% and 20% and addition of water to the base fuel in the ratio of 5%, 10% and 15% by volume on emission are analyzed. Results indicate that water blend method tends to reduce NOx emission by 95% and soot by 14% with respect to emissions of base fuel.

  8. Policy effectiveness for road passenger transport emissions reductions across the world

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J -F

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of policy for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of prices, engine sizes and emissions. This is done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of existing and possible fiscal and technological change policies for emissions reductions. We provide tools to understand and evaluate the effectiveness of policy taking account of the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We furthermore explai...

  9. The longview diesel emission control system : emissions performance of a combined DPF and NOx reduction catalyst system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, B.; Streichsbier, M. [Cleaire Advanced Emissions Controls, San Leandro, CA (United States)]|[Cummins Emissions Solutions, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Diesel engines operating in underground mines must be equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) to control particulate matter (PM). Although wall flow filters offer the desired levels of PM/EC control, the use of precious metals as part of the regeneration strategy has an adverse impact on nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) formation. Therefore, the reductions in PM/EC are offset by increases in NO{sub 2}. This study presented a new system that offers the benefits of a passive regeneration system without the disadvantage of high NO{sub 2} formation. The Longview{sup R} system was initially developed for above ground mine facilities concerned with PM and ozone levels. The system combines HC-SCR with catalyzed DPF to reduce nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. HC-SCR refers to active hydrocarbon dosing upstream of a NOx reduction catalyst. This paper presented details of the system design features as well as emission performance test results. The impact of fuel sulfur level on emissions was also investigated at a Cummins test laboratory. The cycle averaged emissions from the Longview system using ULSD were a 40 per cent reduction in NOx; a 50 per cent reduction in NO{sub 2}; nearly a complete removal of CO; and, a 5 per cent increase in CO{sub 2}. It was determined that the system's fuel injection and NOx reduction catalysts play an important role in NO, NO{sub 2} and NOx emissions. The catalyzed PDF plays an important role in CO, HC and PM reductions. The Longview system is currently being tested in underground mining field trials. tabs., figs.

  10. Energy demand modelling and GHG emission reduction: case study Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Novosel, Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    and develop new energy policy towards energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, in order to comply with all of the presented tasks. Planning future energy demand, considering various policy options like regulation, fiscal and financial measures, becomes one of the crucial issues of future national...... energy strategy. This paper analyses Croatian long term energy demand and its effect on the future national GHG emissions. For that purpose the national energy demand model was constructed (NeD model). The model is comprised out of six modules each representing one sector, following Croatian national...... energy balance; industry, transport, households, services, agriculture and construction. For three of the modules (industry, transport and households) previously developed long term energy demand models were used, while for the remaining three new models were constructed. As an additional feature, new...

  11. CH4 emissions and reduction potential in wastewater treatment in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Yun Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater is one of the major sources of CH4 in the Chinese waste sector. On the basis of statistical data and country-specific emission factors, using IPCC methodology, the characteristics of CH4 emissions from wastewater treatment in China were analyzed. The driving factors of CH4 emissions were studied, and the emission trend and reduction potential were predicted and analyzed according to the current situation. Results show that in 2010, CH4 emissions from the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater were 0.6110 Mt and 1.6237 Mt, respectively. Eight major industries account for more than 92% of emissions, and CH4 emissions gradually increased from 2005 to 2010. From the controlling management scenario, we predict that in 2020, CH4 emissions from the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater will be 1.0136 Mt and 2.3393 Mt, respectively, and the reduction potential will be 0.0763 Mt and 0.2599 Mt, respectively. From 2010 to 2020, CH4 emissions from the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater will increase by 66% and 44%, respectively.

  12. Carbon flow analysis and Carbon emission reduction of FCC in Chinese oil refineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fengrui; Wei, Na; Ma, Danzhu; Liu, Guangxin; Wu, Ming; Yue, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    The major problem of the energy production in oil refineries is the high emission of CO2 in China. The fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCC) is the key source of carbon emission in the oil refineries. According to the statistical data, the carbon emission of FCC unit accounts for more than 31% for the typical oil refineries. The carbon flow of FCC in the typical Chinese oil refineries were evaluated and analysed, which aimed at the solution of CO2 emission reduction. The method of substances flow analysis (SFA) and the mathematical programming were used to evaluate the carbon metabolism and optimize the carbon emission. The results indicated that the combustion emission of the reaction-regeneration subsystem (RRS) was the major source of FCC. The quantity of CO2 emission of RSS was more than 90%. The combustion efficiency and the amount of residual oil affected the carbon emission of RRS most according to the optimized analysis of carbon emission reduction. Moreover, the fractionation subsystem (TFS) had the highest environmental efficiency and the absorption-stabilization subsystem (ASS) had the highest resource efficiency (approximately to 1) of carbon.

  13. Reduction of CO2 emissions from road transport in cities impact of dynamic route guidance system on greenhouse gas emission

    CERN Document Server

    Markiewicz, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Michal Markiewicz presents the outcomes of his research regarding the influence of dynamic route guidance system on overall emission of carbon dioxide from road transport in rural areas. Sustainable transportation in smart cities is a big challenge of our time, but before electric vehicles replace vehicles that burn fossil fuels we have to think about traffic optimization methods that reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Contents Comparison of Travel Time Measurements Using Floating Car Data and Intelligent Infrastructure Integration of Cellular Automata Traffic Simulator with CO2 Emission Model Impact of Dynamic Route Guidance System on CO2 Emission Naxos Vehicular Traffic Simulator Target Groups Lecturers and students of computer science, transportation and logistics Traffic engineers The Author Dr. Michal Markiewicz defended his PhD thesis in computer science at the University of Bremen,TZI Technologie-Zentrum Informatik und Informationstechnik, Germany. Currently, he is working on commercializat...

  14. Derivation of internationally comparable reduction targets for the Annex-I countries of the climate convention. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, R.; Landwehr, M.; Mannsbart, W.; Schoen, M.

    1997-05-01

    Since the start of international negotiations on the climate in 1991, the Federal Republic of Germany has supported the process of agreeing on binding limits especially for CO{sub 2} emissions among the industrialised countries under international law, after corresponding commitments had already been agreed upon for CFC emissions. The formation of the Adhoc group Berlin Mandate (AGBM) launched a process of negotiation which aimed to lead to the adoption of a protocol with, among other things, quantified limits and reduction targets for the Annex-I countries; this objective was reconfirmed at the Second Conference of Member States in July '96 in Geneva. The work carried out is documented in this final report. Chapter 2 deals with the fundamental principles of target differentiation. Justifications and possible correction factors are presented and methodological approaches to target differentiation developed. In the subsequent chapters, example calculations are made for different groups of countries (EU, OECD, OECD with selected Eastern European countries). Three different methods of target differentiation are employed: correction factors without sectoral differentiation (Chapter 3), correction factors with sectoral differentiation (Chapter 4) and a division into reduction clusters (Chapter 5). A summary of the results and the conclusions to be drawn can be found in Chapter 6 of this final report. The data collected during the study and the individual results of the example calculations are shown in the Appendices. (orig.)

  15. Experimental investigation on emission reduction in neem oil biodiesel using selective catalytic reduction and catalytic converter techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Karthickeyan

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, non-edible seed oil namely raw neem oil was converted into biodiesel using transesterification process. In the experimentation, two biodiesel blends were prepared namely B25 (25% neem oil methyl ester with 75% of diesel) and B50 (50% neem oil methyl ester with 50% diesel). Urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technique with catalytic converter (CC) was fixed in the exhaust tail pipe of the engine for the reduction of engine exhaust emissions. Initially, the engine was operated with diesel as a working fluid and followed by refilling of biodiesel blends B25 and B50 to obtain the baseline readings without SCR and CC. Then, the same procedure was repeated with SCR and CC technique for emission reduction measurement in diesel, B25 and B50 sample. The experimental results revealed that the B25 blend showed higher break thermal efficiency (BTE) and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) with lower break-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than B50 blend at all loads. On comparing with biodiesel blends, diesel experiences increased BTE of 31.9% with reduced BSFC of 0.29 kg/kWh at full load. A notable emission reduction was noticed for all test fuels in SCR and CC setup. At full load, B25 showed lower carbon monoxide (CO) of 0.09% volume, hydrocarbon (HC) of 24 ppm, and smoke of 14 HSU and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) of 735 ppm than diesel and B50 in SCR and CC setup. On the whole, the engine with SCR and CC setup showed better performance and emission characteristics than standard engine operation.

  16. Costs and benefits of differences in the timing of greenhouse gas emission reductions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, Annemiek K.; Hof, Andries; Den Elzen, Michel G J; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-01-01

    Most modelling studies that explore long-term greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios focus on cost-efficient emission pathways towards a certain climate target, like the internationally agreed target to keep global temperature increase below 2 °C compared to pre-industrial levels (the 2 °C climate

  17. The potentional of renewable energy sources for greenhouse gases emissions reduction in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedinec Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As European Union (EU candidate country, Macedonia is in the process of adoption of the EU strategic energy policies, harmonization of the national legislation with the EU legislation and defining the respective national goals. In this regard, the government has recently adopted a National Strategy for Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources (RES, prepared by ICEIM-MANU. The main goal of this paper is to assess the potential for greenhouse gases (GHG emissions reduction by implementation of 21%-RES-scenarios from the Strategy. The corresponding emissions reduction is calculated against the baseline (reference scenario developed within the Second National Communication on Climate Change. Furthermore, all potential RES technologies are analyzed from economic aspect and combined in a form of emissions reduction cost curve, displaying the total marginal cost of the GHG emissions reduction by RES. Finally, on the bases of the environmental and economic effectiveness of the considered RES technologies, as well as taking into account the country specific barriers, the priority actions for GHG emissions reduction are identified.

  18. Climate Change Mitigation Pathways for Southeast Asia: CO2 Emissions Reduction Policies for the Energy and Transport Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew Fulton

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As of June 2017, 150 countries have ratified the Paris Climate Agreement. This agreement calls for, among other things, strong reductions in CO2 emissions by 2030 and beyond. This paper reviews the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDCs plans of six Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN countries and compares their current and projected future CO2 levels across sectors, and their stated targets in the context of their economic and demographic situations. This comparison reveals wide variations in the types of targets, with the “ambition” level changing as the perspective changes from total CO2 to CO2/capita and per unit gross domestic product (GDP. We also review national plans as stated in NDCs and find that while there are many types of policies listed, few are quantified and no attempts are made to score individual or groups of policies for their likelihood in achieving stated targets. We conclude that more analysis is needed to better understand the possible impacts of current policies and plans on CO2 emissions, and whether current plans are adequate to hit targets. Considerations on better aligning targets are also provided.

  19. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  20. Effects of Particle Filters and Selective Catalytic Reduction on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2016-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT) are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Diesel particle filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems that target PM and NOx emissions, respectively, have recently become standard equipment on new HDDT. DPFs can also be installed on older engines as a retrofit device. Previous work has shown that DPF and SCR systems can reduce NOx and BC emissions by up to 70% and 90%, respectively, compared to modern trucks without these after-treatment controls (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). DPFs can have the undesirable side-effect of increasing ultrafine particle (UFP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. While SCR systems can partially mitigate DPF-related NO2 increases, these systems can emit nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. We report new results from a study of HDDT emissions conducted in fall 2015 at the Port of Oakland and Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. We report pollutant emission factors (g kg-1) for emitted NOx, NO2, BC, PM2.5, UFP, and N2O on a truck-by-truck basis. Using a roadside license plate recognition system, we categorize each truck by its engine model year and installed after-treatment controls. From this, we develop emissions profiles for trucks with and without DPF and SCR. We evaluate the effectiveness of these devices as a function of their age to determine whether degradation is an issue. We also compare the emission profiles of trucks traveling at low speeds along a level, arterial road en route to the port and at high speeds up a 4% grade highway approaching the tunnel. Given the climate impacts of BC and N2O, we also examine the global warming potential of emissions from trucks with and without DPF and SCR.

  1. An Incentive-Based Solution of Sustainable Mobility for Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Herrador

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Incentivized Sustainable Mobility” is a conceptual business model which involves four stakeholders: citizens, municipalities, commerce and mobility services. A platform named “ISUMO” (Incentivized Sustainable Mobility provides technological support to this business model, integrating a set of metaservices that unifies the existing ICTs of transportation plus a unique patented QR-based (Quick Response low-cost charging device for electric vehicles. Essentially, the system tracks and registers citizens’ transportation activities (anonymously and voluntarily and evaluates each through a scoring system while their ecological footprint is calculated. Afterwards, citizens are able to exchange their accumulated points for discount QR coupons, to be redeemed in the associated commerce in order to purchase their products or services. The breakthrough of this business model is that it enhances awareness of sustainable mobility practices, increasing their attractiveness as perceived by the stakeholders with diverse benefits; citizens (and indirectly, the municipalities initiate a new consumption pattern of “coupons culture” linked to sustainable mobility, the urban economy is stimulated, and the use of mobility services grows, providing a new business opportunity regarding electric vehicles. It is expected that continuous exploration of the model and implementation will contribute to sustainable social and economic development aiming at CO2 emissions reduction, headline targets of the Europe 2020 strategy.

  2. Impact of International Oil Price on Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of “new normal” economy and frequent “haze”, the strategy of energy conservation and emission reduction aiming to lower costs and reduce pollution is currently still a major strategic direction in China and the world, and will remain so for some time in the future. This paper uses the annual data of West Texas Intermediate (WTI crude oil price in 1987–2014 as samples. We firstly present the direction and mechanism of the influence of oil price change on total consumption of every kind of energy by path analysis, and then consider establishing a Structural Vector Autoregression model of energy conservation and emission reduction in three statuses. Research shows that if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP and carbon dioxide emission increase by 0.092% and 0.053% respectively in the corresponding period. In the status of high energy consumption and high emission, if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP and carbon dioxide emission increase by 0.043% and 0.065% respectively in the corresponding period. In the status of low energy consumption and low emission, if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP per unit increases by 0.067% and carbon dioxide emission decreases by 0.085% in the corresponding period.

  3. Reduction of EMC Emissions in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits with Embedded LIN Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hartl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes several methods for reduction of electromagnetic emissions (EME of mixed signal integrated circuits (IC. The focus is on the impact that a LIN bus communication block has on a complex IC which contains analog blocks, noisy digital block, micro-core (µC and several types of memories. It is used in an automotive environment, where EMC emission reduction is one of the key success factors. Several proposed methods for EME reduction are described and implemented on three test chips. These methods include current consumption reduction, internal on-chip decoupling, ground separation and different linear voltage regulator topologies. Measurement results of several fabricated test chips are shown and discussed.

  4. Analyzing and forecasting CO2 emission reduction in China's steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chengkang; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Baohua; Chen, Shan; Qin, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Recent measures of carbon dioxide emissions from the steel industry of China have indicated a high rate of total CO2 emissions from the industry, even compared to the rest of the world. So, CO2 emission reduction in China's steel industry was analyzed, coupling the whole process and scenarios analysis. First, assuming that all available advanced technologies are almost adopted, this study puts forward some key potential-sectors and explores an optimal technical route for reducing CO2 emissions from the Chinese steel industry based on whole process analysis. The results show that in the stages of coking, sintering, and iron making, greater potential for reducing emissions would be fulfilled by taking some technological measures. If only would above well-developed technologies be fulfill, the CO2 emissions from 5 industry production stages would be reduced substantially, and CO2 emissions per ton of steel could be decreased to 1.24 (ton/ton-steel) by 2020. At the same time, the scenarios analysis indicates that if mature carbon-reducing technologies are adopted, and if the difference between steel output growth rate and the GDP growth rate could be controlled below 3%, CO2 emissions from China's steel industry would approach the goal of reducing CO2 emissions per GDP unit by 40%-45% of the 2005 level by 2020. This indicates that the focus of carbon dioxide emissions reduction in China lies in policy adjustments in order to enhance technological application, and lies in reasonably controlling the pace of growth of GDP and steel output.

  5. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-chun Meng

    Full Text Available CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996-2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated.

  6. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing-chun; Rong, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996-2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated.

  7. Reductions in emissions from deforestation from Indonesia’s moratorium on new oil palm, timber, and logging concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Ferretti-Gallon, Kalifi; Engelmann, Jens; Wright, Max; Austin, Kemen G.; Stolle, Fred; Turubanova, Svetlana; Potapov, Peter V.; Margono, Belinda; Hansen, Matthew C.; Baccini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation, Indonesia instituted a nationwide moratorium on new license areas (“concessions”) for oil palm plantations, timber plantations, and logging activity on primary forests and peat lands after May 2011. Here we indirectly evaluate the effectiveness of this policy using annual nationwide data on deforestation, concession licenses, and potential agricultural revenue from the decade preceding the moratorium. We estimate that on average granting a concession for oil palm, timber, or logging in Indonesia increased site-level deforestation rates by 17–127%, 44–129%, or 3.1–11.1%, respectively, above what would have occurred otherwise. We further estimate that if Indonesia’s moratorium had been in place from 2000 to 2010, then nationwide emissions from deforestation over that decade would have been 241–615 MtCO2e (2.8–7.2%) lower without leakage, or 213–545 MtCO2e (2.5–6.4%) lower with leakage. As a benchmark, an equivalent reduction in emissions could have been achieved using a carbon price-based instrument at a carbon price of $3.30–7.50/tCO2e (mandatory) or $12.95–19.45/tCO2e (voluntary). For Indonesia to have achieved its target of reducing emissions by 26%, the geographic scope of the moratorium would have had to expand beyond new concessions (15.0% of emissions from deforestation and peat degradation) to also include existing concessions (21.1% of emissions) and address deforestation outside of concessions and protected areas (58.7% of emissions). Place-based policies, such as moratoria, may be best thought of as bridge strategies that can be implemented rapidly while the institutions necessary to enable carbon price-based instruments are developed. PMID:25605880

  8. Emission reductions from woody biomass waste for energy as an alternative to open burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springsteen, Bruce; Christofk, Tom; Eubanks, Steve; Mason, Tad; Clavin, Chris; Storey, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Woody biomass waste is generated throughout California from forest management, hazardous fuel reduction, and agricultural operations. Open pile burning in the vicinity of generation is frequently the only economic disposal option. A framework is developed to quantify air emissions reductions for projects that alternatively utilize biomass waste as fuel for energy production. A demonstration project was conducted involving the grinding and 97-km one-way transport of 6096 bone-dry metric tons (BDT) of mixed conifer forest slash in the Sierra Nevada foothills for use as fuel in a biomass power cogeneration facility. Compared with the traditional open pile burning method of disposal for the forest harvest slash, utilization of the slash for fuel reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions by 98% (6 kg PM/BDT biomass), nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 54% (1.6 kg NOx/BDT), nonmethane volatile organics (NMOCs) by 99% (4.7 kg NMOCs/BDT), carbon monoxide (CO) by 97% (58 kg CO/BDT), and carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) by 17% (0.38 t CO2e/BDT). Emission contributions from biomass processing and transport operations are negligible. CO2e benefits are dependent on the emission characteristics of the displaced marginal electricity supply. Monetization of emissions reductions will assist with fuel sourcing activities and the conduct of biomass energy projects.

  9. Assessing the potential impact of the CO2 performance ladder on CO2 emission reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis Blok; dr. Martijn Rietbergen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess the potential impact of the CO2 Performance Ladder on CO2 emission reduction. The CO2 Performance Ladder is a new green procurement scheme that has been adopted by several public authorities in the Netherlands; it is a staged certification scheme for energy and

  10. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chipman, Peter [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States); Johnson, Shawn [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  11. X-ray emission from Au-Sm alloy target irradiated with high power sub nanosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, S.; Munda, D. S.; Tripathi, S.; Kumar, M.; Gupta, N. K.; Dhareshwar, L. J.; Bajaj, P. N.

    2010-02-01

    The hohlraum cavity is generally made out of gold (Au) and recently it has been shown that laser-target coupling efficiency can be increased by using cocktail or mixed targets such as gold-samarium (Au-Sm). We report here results of experiments performed on Au-Sm alloy in various spectral regions for various compositions. In these experiments, a 12 Joule/500ps Nd:glass laser has been used. It is observed that the soft x-ray emission in the spectral region 0.7 -1.56 keV is enhanced by about 40-50% by using a composition of Au:Sm:: 3:7 as compared to pure Au .However, in case of hard x-ray emission (3.2 -5 keV), there is a reduction in x-ray emission from Au-Sm target as compared to pure gold. This behaviour, that enhancement occurs in soft x-rays in the case of mixed Au-Sm targets is desirable in the ICF scheme.

  12. Technical analysis on energy conservation and emission reduction of new energy electric vehicle in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    With the global environmental problems and energy crisis continuously emerging, all countries are taking active measures to achieve the benign development of domestic economy and society. Vehicle, as a large oil consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide, nend to be a revolutionary change. Therefore, the development of new energy electric vehicle has become the consensus of the world. On this background, this paper has sorted out the current state and the related development planning of new energy electric vehicles in different countries to predict the car ownership of the new energy electric vehicles using elastic coefficient method and setting different path of development, conclude that under the consideration of energy conservation and emissions reduction factors, our country should mainly promote the BEV to realize the maximum energy conservation and emissions reduction.

  13. Global Health Benefits from Reductions in Background Tropospheric Ozone due to Methane Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2005-05-01

    Increases in background ozone throughout the troposphere are partially attributed to rising anthropogenic methane concentrations, which are projected to continue to increase in the future. Because methane is long-lived and affects background ozone, controls on methane emissions would reduce surface ozone concentrations fairly uniformly around the globe. Epidemiological research indicates that exposure to ozone increases incidence of respiratory ailments and premature mortality. In addition, exposure to ozone reduces agricultural yields and damages natural ecosystems. We use the MOZART-2 global atmospheric chemistry and transport model to estimate the effects on global surface ozone of perturbations in methane emissions. We consider a baseline scenario for 2000 and the 2030 A2 scenario (emissions from the IPCC AR-4 2030 atmospheric chemistry experiments), and examine the impact on ozone of decreasing anthropogenic methane emissions relative to this baseline by 20%. Using the simulated spatially-distributed decreases in surface ozone concentrations resulting from these reductions in methane emissions, we estimate the global benefits to human health in the methane emission reduction scenario. We focus on human mortality, and consider the sensitivity of our estimates to different assumptions of health effect thresholds at low ozone concentrations.

  14. Carbon emission targets for driving sustainable mobility with US light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes-Casey, Hilary G; Keoleian, Gregory A; Willcox, Blair

    2009-02-01

    Models and frameworks to guide "sustainable mobility" of personal transportation lack definitive quantitative targets. This paper defines sustainable mobility targets for US light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to help stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at 450 or 550 ppm. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change carbon stabilization pathways are used to equitably distribute future carbon dioxide emissions to the US. Allowable US emissions are then allocated to the LDV sector according to the current share of national emissions. Average on-road LDV well-to-wheel carbon emissions must be reduced from 160 g/mile (2002) to 20 g/mile by 2050 to contribute to a 450 ppm CO2 goal. Strategies to reduce LDV greenhouse gas emissions include reducing travel demand, improving average fuel economy, and utilizing low-carbon ethanol. Simulations using EIA modeling parameters indicate that average LDV fuel economy must reach 136 mpg, cellulosic ethanol must make up over 83% of fuel market share, or annual LDV travel demand must be reduced by about 53% by 2050 to help meet LDV greenhouse gas targets based on a 450 ppm CO2 stabilization goal. Recent federal energy security policy and plug-in hybrid technology programs may also help meet LDV carbon emission targets in the short term by reducing gasoline use, but an aggressive combination of strategies will be needed to keep vehicle CO2 in line with an emissions target to 2050.

  15. Joint carbon footprint assessment and data envelopment analysis for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo-Leiva, Ricardo; Angulo-Meza, Lidia; Iriarte, Alfredo; González-Araya, Marcela C

    2017-09-01

    Operations management tools are critical in the process of evaluating and implementing action towards a low carbon production. Currently, a sustainable production implies both an efficient resource use and the obligation to meet targets for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The carbon footprint (CF) tool allows estimating the overall amount of GHG emissions associated with a product or activity throughout its life cycle. In this paper, we propose a four-step method for a joint use of CF assessment and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Following the eco-efficiency definition, which is the delivery of goods using fewer resources and with decreasing environmental impact, we use an output oriented DEA model to maximize production and reduce CF, taking into account simultaneously the economic and ecological perspectives. In another step, we stablish targets for the contributing CF factors in order to achieve CF reduction. The proposed method was applied to assess the eco-efficiency of five organic blueberry orchards throughout three growing seasons. The results show that this method is a practical tool for determining eco-efficiency and reducing GHG emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction Benefits Analysis for Battery Electric Buses Based on Travel Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-dan; Tian, Liang; Lü, Bin; Yang, Jian-xin

    2015-09-01

    Battery Electric Bus (BEB) has become one of prior options of urban buses for its "zero emission" during the driving stage. However, the environmental performance of electric buses is affected by multi-factors from the point of whole life cycle. In practice, carrying capacity of BEB and power generation structures can both implement evident effects on the energy consumption and pollutants emission of BEB. Therefore, take the above factors into consideration, in this article, Life Cycle Assessment is employed to evaluate the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of BEB. Results indicate that, travel service is more reasonable as the functional unit, rather than mileage, since the carrying capacity of BEB is 15% lower than the diesel buses. Moreover, compared with diesel buses, the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of battery electric buses are all different due to different regional power structures. Specifically, the energy benefits are 7. 84%, 11. 91%, 26. 90%, 11. 15%, 19. 55% and 20. 31% respectively in Huabei, Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang power structure. From the point of comprehensive emissions reduction benefits, there is no benefit in Huabei power structure, as it depends heavily on coal. But in other areas, the comprehensive emissions reduction benefits of BEB are separately 3. 46%, 26. 81%, 1. 17%, 13. 74% and 17. 48% in Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang. Therefore, it suggests that, enlargement of carrying capacity should be taken as the most prior technology innovation direction for BEB, and the grids power structure should be taken into consideration when the development of BEB is in planning.

  17. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  18. Emission Certificate Trade and Costs under Regional Burden-Sharing Regimes for a 2˚C Climate Change Control Target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kober, T.; van der Zwaan, B.C.C.; Rösler, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we explore regional burden-sharing regimes for the allocation of greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations needed to reach a 2°C long-term global climate change control target by performing an integrated energy-economy-climate assessment with the bottom-up TIAM-ECN model. Our

  19. Low Carbon Grid Study: Analysis of a 50% Emission Reduction in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ehlen, Ali [Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, Sacramento, CA (United States); Caldwell, James H. [Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-01-07

    The California 2030 Low Carbon Grid Study (LCGS) analyzes the grid impacts of a variety of scenarios that achieve 50% carbon emission reductions from California's electric power sector. Impacts are characterized based on several key operational and economic metrics, including production costs, emissions, curtailment, and impacts on the operation of gas generation and imports. The modeling results indicate that achieving a low-carbon grid (with emissions 50% below 2012 levels) is possible by 2030 with relatively limited curtailment (less than 1%) if institutional frameworks are flexible. Less flexible institutional frameworks and a less diverse generation portfolio could lead to higher curtailment (up to 10%), operational costs (up to $800 million higher), and carbon emissions (up to 14% higher).

  20. Assessment of methods for methyl iodide emission reduction and pest control using a simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lifang; Ashworth, Daniel J.; Šimunek, Jirka; Xuan, Richeng; Yates, Scott R.

    2013-02-01

    The increasing registration of the fumigant methyl iodide within the USA has led to more concerns about its toxicity to workers and bystanders. Emission mitigation strategies are needed to protect the public and environmental health while providing effective pest control. The effectiveness of various methods on emissions reduction and pest control was assessed using a process-based mathematical model in this study. Firstly, comparisons between the simulated and laboratory measured emission fluxes and cumulative emissions were made for methyl iodide (MeI) under four emission reduction treatments: 1) control, 2) using soil with high organic matter content (HOM), 3) being covered by virtually impermeable film (VIF), and 4) irrigating soil surface following fumigation (Irrigation). Then the model was extended to simulate a broader range of emission reduction strategies for MeI, including 5) being covered by high density polyethylene (HDPE), 6) increasing injection depth from 30 cm to 46 cm (Deep), 7) HDPE + Deep, 8) adding a reagent at soil surface (Reagent), 9) Reagent + Irrigation, and 10) Reagent + HDPE. Furthermore, the survivability of three types of soil-borne pests (citrus nematodes [Tylenchulus semipenetrans], barnyard seeds [Echinochloa crus-galli], fungi [Fusarium oxysporum]) was also estimated for each scenario. Overall, the trend of the measured emission fluxes as well as total emission were reasonably reproduced by the model for treatments 1 through 4. Based on the numerical simulation, the ranking of effectiveness in total emission reduction was VIF (82.4%) > Reagent + HDPE (73.2%) > Reagent + Irrigation (43.0%) > Reagent (23.5%) > Deep + HDPE (19.3%) > HOM (17.6%) > Deep (13.0%) > Irrigation (11.9%) > HDPE (5.8%). The order for pest control efficacy suggests, VIF had the highest pest control efficacy, followed by Deep + HDPE, Irrigation, Reagent + Irrigation, HDPE, Deep, Reagent + HDPE, Reagent, and HOM. Therefore, VIF is the optimal method disregarding

  1. Thiosulfate and manure amendment with water application and tarp on 1,3-dichloropropene emission reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jason A; Gao, Suduan; Qin, Ruijun; Trout, Thomas J; Hanson, Bradley D

    2008-01-15

    Reducing fumigant emissions is required for minimizing bystander risk and environmental impact. Effective and economic field management methods including commonly used surface sealing technique and soil amendments are needed for achieving emission reductions. This research determined the effectiveness of ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) and composted manure amendments to surface soil in combination with water application or high density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp on reducing emissions of 1,3-D from soil columns. Surface treatments included an untreated control, water seal (single water application at time of fumigant injection), ATS amendments at 1:1 and 2:1 molar ratio of ATS:fumigant, composted steer manure at 3.5 kg m(-2), and HDPE tarp over 1:1 ATS or the manure amendment. Cumulative 1,3-D emission loss over two weeks was greatest for the control (52% of applied). The HDPE tarp over ATS and manure treatments had the lowest 1,3-D emissions at 24 and 16%, respectively. Treatments with ATS or manure alone reduced 1,3-D emissions (29-39%) more effectively than water seal (43%) and further benefit was gained with the addition of HDPE tarp. Amendment of surface soil with organic materials shows greater potential in minimizing fumigant emissions than with chemicals with the need for a better understanding of the organic-fumigant reaction mechanism.

  2. The challenge of meeting Canada's greenhouse gas reduction targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Larry; Chaudhry, Nikhil

    2010-09-15

    In 2007, Canada's federal government announced its medium and long-term greenhouse gas emissions reduction plan entitled 'Turning the Corner', which proposed emission cuts of 20% below 2006 levels by 2020 and 60% to 70% below 2006 levels by 2050. A government advisory organization, the National Round Table on Environment and Economy presented a set of 'fast and deep' pathways to emissions reduction through the large-scale electrification of the Canadian economy. This paper examines the likelihood of the 'fast and deep' pathways being met by considering the technical report's proposed energy systems, their associated energy sources, and the magnitude of the changes.

  3. Zero emission targets as long-term global goals for climate protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Knutti, Reto; Alcamo, Joseph; Riahi, Keywan; Hare, William

    2015-10-01

    Recently, assessments have robustly linked stabilization of global-mean temperature rise to the necessity of limiting the total amount of emitted carbon-dioxide (CO2). Halting global warming thus requires virtually zero annual CO2 emissions at some point. Policymakers have now incorporated this concept in the negotiating text for a new global climate agreement, but confusion remains about concepts like carbon neutrality, climate neutrality, full decarbonization, and net zero carbon or net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here we clarify these concepts, discuss their appropriateness to serve as a long-term global benchmark for achieving temperature targets, and provide a detailed quantification. We find that with current pledges and for a likely (>66%) chance of staying below 2 °C, the scenario literature suggests net zero CO2 emissions between 2060 and 2070, with net negative CO2 emissions thereafter. Because of residual non-CO2 emissions, net zero is always reached later for total GHG emissions than for CO2. Net zero emissions targets are a useful focal point for policy, linking a global temperature target and socio-economic pathways to a necessary long-term limit on cumulative CO2 emissions.

  4. Reduction of odorous compounds emissions from swine slurry by electrolytic treatments and copper addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Podrecca

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Swine livestock farms represent potential sources of emissions of gaseous compounds and odors in relation to slurry management, manure treatment, and particularly, storage. Electrolytic treatments of slurries were proposed to solve this pressing problem. Electrolytic treatment consists of the passage of a low electric current through the liquid phase of swine manure in storage basins determined by two or more electrodes with alternated polarisation. We investigated the mechanisms of odour reduction and evaluated the effects of current intensity and of anodically dissolved copper (Cu2+ ions. Fresh swine slurry was subject to electrolytic treatment in a bench top experiment, at 25 mA and 75 mA for 32 days with either copper or graphite electrodes. Emissions of methane, hydrogen sulphide, and volatile fatty acids were measured. Effects of copper addition to fresh swine slurry were also monitored in a bench top scale trial. Reduction of emissions was found to be due to both current passage and copper dissolution. Reduction of foul emissions in graphite electrodes assays resulted lower than in copper electrodes assays, although the direct additions of Cu2+ ions had a much larger effect than could be predicted from the results of electrolytic treatments with copper electrodes, probably due to the greater uniformity in distribution in swine manure. A simple empiric odour threshold value normalised index, odour offensiveness index of slurries, was found to be effective in differentiating treatments.

  5. Uncertain Emission Reductions from Forest Conservation: REDD in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Watson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental integrity of a mechanism rewarding Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD depends on appropriate accounting for emission reductions. Largely stemming from a lack of forest data in developing countries, emission reductions accounting contains substantial uncertainty as a result of forest carbon stock estimates, where the application of biome-averaged data over large forest areas is commonplace. Using a case study in the Bale Mountains in Ethiopia, we exemplify the implications of primary and secondary forest carbon stock estimates on predicted REDD project emission reductions and revenues. Primary data estimate area-weighted mean forest carbon stock of 195 tC/ha ± 81, and biome-averaged data reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change underestimate forest carbon stock in the Bale Mountains by as much as 63% in moist forest and 58% in dry forest. Combining forest carbon stock estimates and uncertainty in voluntary carbon market prices demonstrates the financial impact of uncertainty: potential revenues over the 20-year project ranged between US$9 million and US$185 million. Estimated revenues will influence decisions to implement a project or not and may have profound implications for the level of benefit sharing that can be supported. Strong financial incentives exist to improve forest carbon stock estimates in tropical forests, as well as the environmental integrity of REDD projects.

  6. Modelling nutrient emissions and the impact of nutrient reduction measures in the Weser river basin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Ulrike; Venohr, Markus; Kreins, Peter; Behrendt, Horst

    2008-01-01

    To implement the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) into German law, measures have to be taken to reduce the unacceptably high nutrient input into rivers. To identify the most effective measures, the sources and pathways of nutrient emissions into rivers have to be quantified. Therefore, the MONERIS model is applied, which quantifies nutrients emissions into river basins, via various point and diffuse pathways, as well as nutrient load in rivers. Most nitrogen emissions come from groundwater flow (43%), tile drainages (30%), and point sources (12%), whereas most phosphorus emissions come from groundwater flow (31%), point sources (23%), erosion (13%) and overland flow (12%). Because of their great distance from the river basin outlet, the southern sub-basins Werra and Fulda-Diemel have an 8% reduction in their nitrogen loads and a 15% and 16% reduction in their phosphorus loads, respectively. This reduction is due to retention in the main part of the river Weser. For the choice of the most effective measures, the different retention in the river is relevant. Copyright (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  7. Effect of urban symbiosis development in China on GHG emissions reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes current urban symbiosis development and application in China, and then conducts a statistical analysis of the emissions reduction of CO2 and CH4 in relation to recovery of iron and steel scraps, waste paper, and waste plastics from 2011 to 2014 using the greenhouse gas (GHG emission inventory calculation method provided by the IPCC. Results indicate that the cumulative recovery of renewable resources during China's main urban symbiosis development in 2011–2014 was 803.275 Mt, and the amount of iron and steel scraps, waste paper, and waste plastic recovery was the largest, respectively accounting for 62.2%, 18.0%, and 8.2% of total recovery in 2014. In addition, the cumulative emissions reduction of GHGs in relation to recovery of iron and steel scraps, waste paper, and waste plastics in 2011–2014 was 27.962 Mt CO2-eq, 954.695 Mt CO2-eq, and 22.502 Mt CO2-eq, respectively, thereby totaling 1005.159 Mt CO2-eq. Results show a remarkable GHG emissions reduction during 2011–2014.

  8. Savanna burning methodology for fire management and emissions reduction: a critical review of influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek Narayan Maraseni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Savanna fire is a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In Australia, savanna fire contributes about 3% of annual GHG emissions reportable to the Kyoto Protocol. In order to reduce GHG emissions from savanna burning, the Australian government has developed and approved a Kyoto compliant savanna controlled burning methodology—the first legal instrument of this kind at a global level—under its Emission Reduction Fund. However, this approved methodology is currently only applicable to nine vegetation fuel types across northern parts of Australia in areas which receive on average over 600 mm rainfall annually, covering only 15.4% of the total land area in Australia. Savanna ecosystems extend across a large proportion of mainland Australia. This paper provides a critical review of ten key factors that need to be considered in developing a savanna burning methodology applicable to the other parts of Australia. It will also inform discussion in other countries intent on developing similar emissions reduction strategies.

  9. Reduction of carbon monoxide emission from a solid-fuel thermo-accumulation furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakić Dragoljub

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many households in Serbia, using electric thermo-accumulation furnaces for heating, have been forced to find an alternative solution, due to a significant increase in electricity prices during the last decade. A possible solution is replacing electric heating appliances with the solid fuel-fired ones. A prototype of a new concept of thermo-accumulation solid fuel-fired furnace has been developed to meet these growing needs, providing electricity saving together with considerable environmental benefits. Two strategies for reduction of carbon monoxide emission are examined in the paper: application of Pt/Al2O3 catalyst, in the form of 3 ± 0.3 mm spheres, providing further combustion of flue gases within the furnace, as well as an additional emission reduction by means of the air excess control. Experimental investigations of the catalyst influence on the conversion of carbon monoxide have been done for different operation regimes and positions of the catalyst. The paper presents selected results regarding carbon monoxide emission during wood and coal combustion. Investigations suggest a considerable effect of the catalyst and a strong influence of the catalyst position within the furnace to carbon monoxide emission reduction. In addition, experimental tests have been conducted to asses the effect of the air excess control in the furnace on carbon monoxide emission. The amount of combustion air, the flue gas flow rate, and the fuel feeding regime have been adjusted in order to keep the flue gas oxygen content in a relatively narrow range, thus obtaining controlled combustion conditions and lower carbon monoxide emission. In this way, the furnace has been made able to respond to the changes in heating needs, fuel quality and other parameters, which is advantageous in comparison with similar solid-fuel fired furnaces. .

  10. The contribution of energy efficiency and renewables to the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, J.A.; Mateo, I. [Union Electrica Fenosa, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-11-01

    The problems emerging with respect to the potential consequences of global warming, along with the commitment of the European Union in October 1990 to stabilise of CO{sub 2} emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000, has generated a polemic around what is the best method to achieve emissions reductions. The European Commission has proposed a series of measures, among which should be highlighted, for its potential effects, the imposition of a tax on the consumption of energy and CO{sub 2} emissions. On the other hand, different organisations, among them Eurelectric, have opposed this tax, arguing that there exist alternative solutions, such as the adoption of voluntary commitments between companies/national governments, to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and which at the same time have a much lower cost/benefit ratio. This speech outlines the potential of some of the measures included in the proposed framework for voluntary commitments made by Eurelectric, in terms of CO{sub 2} emissions reduction and levels of compliance with the EU stabilisation commitment. More concretely, descriptions will be made of the effects of the increased use of natural gas in electricity generation, improvements in energy efficiency and the promotion and development of co-generation and renewable energies on CO{sub 2} emissions on a national level (Spain), as well as applications of the same principles within a particular company (Union Fenosa). The establishment of a general framework of voluntary commitments, like the one proposed, that facilitates for companies and governments the implementation of these types of measures, is considered a procedure that, while achieving the forecast objectives for reduction and stabilisation, does not present the inconveniences associated with the tax. 3 tabs.

  11. Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal

    2014-03-01

    Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14 μm. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7 μm gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

  12. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  13. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  14. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs

  15. Model-based comparison of strategies for reduction of stormwater micropollutant emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    Strategies for reduction of micropollutant (MP) emissions from stormwater systems require the comparison of different scenarios including source control, end-of-pipe treatment, or their combination. Dynamic integrated models can be important tools for this comparison, as they can integrate the li...... can provide to the management of stormwater pollution.......Strategies for reduction of micropollutant (MP) emissions from stormwater systems require the comparison of different scenarios including source control, end-of-pipe treatment, or their combination. Dynamic integrated models can be important tools for this comparison, as they can integrate...... the limited data provided by monitoring campaigns and evaluate the performance of different strategies based on model simulation results. This study presents an example where an integrated dynamic model, in combination with stormwater quality measurements, was used to evaluate 6 different strategies...

  16. Maximum Regional Emission Reduction Potential in Residential Sector Based on Spatial Distribution of Population and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    In the residential sector, major activities that generate emissions are cooking and heating, and fuels ranging from traditional (wood) to modern (natural gas, or electricity) are used. Direct air pollutant emissions from this sector are low when natural gas or electricity are the dominant energy sources, as is the case in developed countries. However, in developing countries, people may rely on solid fuels and this sector can contribute a large fraction of emissions. The magnitude of the health loss associated with exposure to indoor smoke as well as its concentration among rural population in developing countries have recently put preventive measures high on the agenda of international development and public health organizations. This study focuses on these developing regions: Central America, Africa, and Asia. Current and future emissions from the residential sector depend on both fuel and cooking device (stove) type. Availability of fuels, stoves, and interventions depends strongly on spatial distribution. However, regional emission calculations do not consider this spatial dependence. Fuel consumption data is presented at country level, without information about where different types of fuel are used. Moreover, information about stove types that are currently used and can be used in the future is not available. In this study, we first spatially allocate current emissions within residential sector. We use Geographic Information System maps of temperature, electricity availability, forest area, and population to determine the distribution of fuel types and availability of stoves. Within each country, consumption of different fuel types, such as fuelwood, coal, and LPG is distributed among different area types (urban, peri-urban, and rural area). Then, the cleanest stove technologies which could be used in the area are selected based on the constraints of each area, i.e. availability of resources. Using this map, the maximum emission reduction compared with

  17. Reduction of energy consumption and Greenhouse gas emissions in a plant for the separation of amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantes-Jaramillo, D.; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G.; Hernandez, S. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Facultad de Quimica, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    The chemical industry comprises of the companies that produce industrial chemicals. It is central to the modern world economy, converting raw materials into more than 70 000 different products. However, environmental regulations and the risk of climate change are putting pressure on the chemical industry to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. In this work, we use the concept of process intensification (using thermally coupled distillation) to reduce energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in a plant for the separation of amines. The results show that the use of thermally coupled distillation sequences can be related to a reduction in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and good theoretical control properties in the re-designed plant. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. On the possibilities of reduction in emission caused by home tile stoves in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczyk, W. [Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The coal-fired tile stoves are still very popular in Poland. The estimated total number of such home stoves operated in Cracow reaches ca. 100 000. Operation of these stoves during the heating season belongs to the most significant sources of air pollution. Type and scale of emission of the most important pollutants, caused by coal combustion in home stoves in Cracow has been determined basing upon the investigations carried out at the laboratory of the Department of Power Engineering Machines and Devices, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow, Poland within the American-Polish Program of Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. Further experiments included in this Program allowed to estimate the attainable efficiency of home tile stoves and possible reduction in pollutant emission resulting from their operation. A short discussion of these data and capacities is presented in this lecture.

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

    2002-02-01

    The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

  20. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability, and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions in mass of 86% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (66%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. At 7% power, this corresponds to a reduction from 7.6 mg kg-1 for JP-8 to 1.2 mg kg-1 for the natural gas FT fuel. At full power, soot emissions were reduced from 103 to 24 mg kg-1 (JP-8 and natural gas FT, respectively). The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g., at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the natural gas FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the

  1. The best MSW treatment option by considering greenhouse gas emissions reduction: a case study in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyeba, Omid; Olsson, Monika; Brandt, Nils

    2011-08-01

    The grave concern over climate change and new economic incentives such as the clean development mechanism (CDM) have given more weight to the potential of projects for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the Adjara solid waste management project, even though the need for reductions in GHG emissions is acknowledged, it is not one of the key factors for selecting the most appropriate treatment method. This study addresses the benefit of various solid waste treatment methods that could be used in the Adjara project in terms of reducing GHG emissions. Seven different options for solid waste treatment are examined: open dumping as the baseline case, four options for landfill technology (no provision of landfill gas capture, landfill gas capture with open flare system, with enclosed flare system and with electricity generation), composting and anaerobic digestion with electricity production. CDM methodologies were used to quantify the amount of reductions for the scenarios. The study concludes sanitary landfill with capture and burning of landfill gas by an enclosed flare system could satisfy the requirements, including GHG reduction potential. The findings were tested for uncertainty and sensitivity by varying the data on composition and amount of waste and were found to be robust.

  2. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C).

  3. Reducing emissions from agriculture to meet the 2 °C target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberg, Eva; Richards, Meryl; Smith, Pete

    2016-01-01

    More than 100 countries pledged to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 2015 Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Yet technical information about how much mitigation is needed in the sector vs. how much is feasible remains poor. We...... identify a preliminary global target for reducing emissions from agriculture of ~1 GtCO2e yr−1 by 2030 to limit warming in 2100 to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Yet plausible agricultural development pathways with mitigation cobenefits deliver only 21–40% of needed mitigation. The target indicates...... that more transformative technical and policy options will be needed, such as methane inhibitors and finance for new practices. A more comprehensive target for the 2 °C limit should be developed to include soil carbon and agriculture-related mitigation options. Excluding agricultural emissions from...

  4. Comparative Analysis of Pine Needles and Coal for Electricity Generation using Carbon Taxation and Emission Reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitigating global climate change via emission control and taxation is promising for strengthening the economic benefits of bioenergy generation and utilization. This study examines the cost effectiveness of pine needles as an alternative fuel for off-grid electricity generation in India. We first examined the changes of prices in coal for electricity generation due to CO2 emission reductions and taxes using experimental data of gasification plants. The time value of money and depreciation scale were used to find out the real levellized cost of electricity generation of gasification plants. Then, the costs of electricity generation fuelled by pine needles and coal were estimated using the cost analysis method. Our results indicate that pine needles would have more competitive edge than coal if emission had taxed at about an emission tax INR 525.15 Mg-1 of CO2 (US$ 8.4, or higher would be needed for pine needles at a yield of 202.176 dry Mg hm-2 yr. The price of coal used for electricity generation would have significantly increased if global CO2 emission had abridged by 20% or more. However, pine needles were found a much better fuel source with an increasing yield of 5.05 Mg hm-2 yr (with respect to power generation and 2.335 Mg hm-2 yr (with respect to feedstock production.

  5. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  6. Energy supply structures and strategies for the reduction of emissions in selected Central and Eastern European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jattke, A.; Haasis, H.-D.; Oder, C.; Russ, P.; Rentz, O. (University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute for Industrial Production)

    1993-01-01

    This article sets out to analyse strategies for the reduction of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions applied by a selection of Central and Eastern European countries, together with the impact of these strategies upon national energy supply structure. Hungary, Lithuania and the European sector of Russia are used as representative examples of the wide variety of energy industry structures and future developments in Eastern Europe. Current energy supply, transformation and consumer demand conditions in the various economic sectors (industry, transport, the domestic sector, etc.) have been used as a basis for the establishment of the national cost of emission reduction strategies, together with preferred national structure for emission reduction measures. Calculated cost functions are based upon a technical and economic assessment of available energy transformation and emission reduction technologies. The potential of various options for emission reduction, such as the substitution of fuels or technologies, secondary emission reduction techniques and energy conservation measures have also been quantified. This process has been used as a means of identifying and assessing the interdependence of strategies for the reduction of various atmospheric pollutants. The EFOM-ENV Energy/Emission Model has been used as a methodological tool. 15 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Net radiative forcing and air quality responses to regional CO emission reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Fry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO emissions influence global and regional air quality and global climate change by affecting atmospheric oxidants and secondary species. We simulate the influence of halving anthropogenic CO emissions globally and individually from 10 regions on surface and tropospheric ozone, methane, and aerosol concentrations using a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4 for the year 2005. Net radiative forcing (RF is then estimated using the GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory standalone radiative transfer model. We estimate that halving global CO emissions decreases global annual average concentrations of surface ozone by 0.45 ppbv, tropospheric methane by 73 ppbv, and global annual net RF by 36.1 mW m−2, nearly equal to the sum of changes from the 10 regional reductions. Global annual net RF per unit change in emissions and the 100 yr global warming potential (GWP100 are estimated as −0.124 mW m−2 (Tg CO−1 and 1.34, respectively, for the global CO reduction, and ranging from −0.115 to −0.131 mW m−2 (Tg CO−1 and 1.26 to 1.44 across 10 regions, with the greatest sensitivities for regions in the tropics. The net RF distributions show widespread cooling corresponding to the O3 and CH4 decreases, and localized positive and negative net RFs due to changes in aerosols. The strongest annual net RF impacts occur within the tropics (28° S–28° N followed by the northern midlatitudes (28° N–60° N, independent of reduction region, while the greatest changes in surface CO and ozone concentrations occur within the reduction region. Some regional reductions strongly influence the air quality in other regions, such as East Asia, which has an impact on US surface ozone that is 93% of that from North America. Changes in the transport of CO and downwind ozone production clearly exceed the direct export of ozone from each reduction region. The small variation in CO GWPs among world regions suggests that future international

  8. Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Jessica; McCollum, David; Emmerling, Johannes; Bertram, Christoph; Gernaat, David E H J; Krey, Volker; Paroussos, Leonidas; Berger, Loïc; Fragkiadakis, Kostas; Keppo, Ilkka; Saadi, Nawfal; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef; Vinichenko, Vadim; Riahi, Keywan

    2018-02-07

    Hopes are high that removing fossil fuel subsidies could help to mitigate climate change by discouraging inefficient energy consumption and levelling the playing field for renewable energy. In September 2016, the G20 countries re-affirmed their 2009 commitment (at the G20 Leaders' Summit) to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and many national governments are using today's low oil prices as an opportunity to do so. In practical terms, this means abandoning policies that decrease the price of fossil fuels and electricity generated from fossil fuels to below normal market prices. However, whether the removal of subsidies, even if implemented worldwide, would have a large impact on climate change mitigation has not been systematically explored. Here we show that removing fossil fuel subsidies would have an unexpectedly small impact on global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions and would not increase renewable energy use by 2030. Subsidy removal would reduce the carbon price necessary to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration at 550 parts per million by only 2-12 per cent under low oil prices. Removing subsidies in most regions would deliver smaller emission reductions than the Paris Agreement (2015) climate pledges and in some regions global subsidy removal may actually lead to an increase in emissions, owing to either coal replacing subsidized oil and natural gas or natural-gas use shifting from subsidizing, energy-exporting regions to non-subsidizing, importing regions. Our results show that subsidy removal would result in the largest CO 2 emission reductions in high-income oil- and gas-exporting regions, where the reductions would exceed the climate pledges of these regions and where subsidy removal would affect fewer people living below the poverty line than in lower-income regions.

  9. The importance of health co-benefits in macroeconomic assessments of UK Greenhouse Gas emission reduction strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    We employ a single-country dynamically-recursive Computable General Equilibrium model to make health-focussed macroeconomic assessments of three contingent UK Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation strategies, designed to achieve 2030 emission targets as suggested by the UK Committee on Climate Change....... In contrast to previous assessment studies, our main focus is on health co-benefits additional to those from reduced local air pollution. We employ a conservative cost-effectiveness methodology with a zero net cost threshold. Our urban transport strategy (with cleaner vehicles and increased active travel......) brings important health co-benefits and is likely to be strongly cost-effective; our food and agriculture strategy (based on abatement technologies and reduction in livestock production) brings worthwhile health co-benefits, but is unlikely to eliminate net costs unless new technological measures...

  10. Energetic valorization of wood waste: estimation of the reduction in CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, J; Van Gerven, T; Vander Putten, E; Van der Bruggen, B; Helsen, L

    2011-09-01

    This paper investigates the potential CO(2) emission reductions related to a partial switch from fossil fuel-based heat and electricity generation to renewable wood waste-based systems in Flanders. The results show that valorization in large-scale CHP (combined heat and power) systems and co-firing in coal plants have the largest CO(2) reduction per TJ wood waste. However, at current co-firing rates of 10%, the CO(2) reduction per GWh of electricity that can be achieved by co-firing in coal plants is five times lower than the CO(2) reduction per GWh of large-scale CHP. Moreover, analysis of the effect of government support for co-firing of wood waste in coal-fired power plants on the marginal costs of electricity generation plants reveals that the effect of the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is effectively counterbalanced. This is due to the fact that biomass integrated gasification combined cycles (BIGCC) are not yet commercially available. An increase of the fraction of coal-based electricity in the total electricity generation from 8 to 10% at the expense of the fraction of gas-based electricity due to the government support for co-firing wood waste, would compensate entirely for the CO(2) reduction by substitution of coal by wood waste. This clearly illustrates the possibility of a 'rebound' effect on the CO(2) reduction due to government support for co-combustion of wood waste in an electricity generation system with large installed capacity of coal- and gas-based power plants, such as the Belgian one. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Salt Reduction Initiatives around the World - A Systematic Review of Progress towards the Global Target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Trieu

    Full Text Available To quantify progress with the initiation of salt reduction strategies around the world in the context of the global target to reduce population salt intake by 30% by 2025.A systematic review of the published and grey literature was supplemented by questionnaires sent to country program leaders. Core characteristics of strategies were extracted and categorised according to a pre-defined framework.A total of 75 countries now have a national salt reduction strategy, more than double the number reported in a similar review done in 2010. The majority of programs are multifaceted and include industry engagement to reformulate products (n = 61, establishment of sodium content targets for foods (39, consumer education (71, front-of-pack labelling schemes (31, taxation on high-salt foods (3 and interventions in public institutions (54. Legislative action related to salt reduction such as mandatory targets, front of pack labelling, food procurement policies and taxation have been implemented in 33 countries. 12 countries have reported reductions in population salt intake, 19 reduced salt content in foods and 6 improvements in consumer knowledge, attitudes or behaviours relating to salt.The large and increasing number of countries with salt reduction strategies in place is encouraging although activity remains limited in low- and middle-income regions. The absence of a consistent approach to implementation highlights uncertainty about the elements most important to success. Rigorous evaluation of ongoing programs and initiation of salt reduction programs, particularly in low- and middle- income countries, will be vital to achieving the targeted 30% reduction in salt intake.

  12. Salt Reduction Initiatives around the World - A Systematic Review of Progress towards the Global Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Kathy; Neal, Bruce; Hawkes, Corinna; Dunford, Elizabeth; Campbell, Norm; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Legetic, Branka; McLaren, Lindsay; Barberio, Amanda; Webster, Jacqui

    2015-01-01

    To quantify progress with the initiation of salt reduction strategies around the world in the context of the global target to reduce population salt intake by 30% by 2025. A systematic review of the published and grey literature was supplemented by questionnaires sent to country program leaders. Core characteristics of strategies were extracted and categorised according to a pre-defined framework. A total of 75 countries now have a national salt reduction strategy, more than double the number reported in a similar review done in 2010. The majority of programs are multifaceted and include industry engagement to reformulate products (n = 61), establishment of sodium content targets for foods (39), consumer education (71), front-of-pack labelling schemes (31), taxation on high-salt foods (3) and interventions in public institutions (54). Legislative action related to salt reduction such as mandatory targets, front of pack labelling, food procurement policies and taxation have been implemented in 33 countries. 12 countries have reported reductions in population salt intake, 19 reduced salt content in foods and 6 improvements in consumer knowledge, attitudes or behaviours relating to salt. The large and increasing number of countries with salt reduction strategies in place is encouraging although activity remains limited in low- and middle-income regions. The absence of a consistent approach to implementation highlights uncertainty about the elements most important to success. Rigorous evaluation of ongoing programs and initiation of salt reduction programs, particularly in low- and middle- income countries, will be vital to achieving the targeted 30% reduction in salt intake.

  13. Salt Reduction Initiatives around the World – A Systematic Review of Progress towards the Global Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Kathy; Neal, Bruce; Hawkes, Corinna; Dunford, Elizabeth; Campbell, Norm; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Legetic, Branka; McLaren, Lindsay; Barberio, Amanda; Webster, Jacqui

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify progress with the initiation of salt reduction strategies around the world in the context of the global target to reduce population salt intake by 30% by 2025. Methods A systematic review of the published and grey literature was supplemented by questionnaires sent to country program leaders. Core characteristics of strategies were extracted and categorised according to a pre-defined framework. Results A total of 75 countries now have a national salt reduction strategy, more than double the number reported in a similar review done in 2010. The majority of programs are multifaceted and include industry engagement to reformulate products (n = 61), establishment of sodium content targets for foods (39), consumer education (71), front-of-pack labelling schemes (31), taxation on high-salt foods (3) and interventions in public institutions (54). Legislative action related to salt reduction such as mandatory targets, front of pack labelling, food procurement policies and taxation have been implemented in 33 countries. 12 countries have reported reductions in population salt intake, 19 reduced salt content in foods and 6 improvements in consumer knowledge, attitudes or behaviours relating to salt. Conclusion The large and increasing number of countries with salt reduction strategies in place is encouraging although activity remains limited in low- and middle-income regions. The absence of a consistent approach to implementation highlights uncertainty about the elements most important to success. Rigorous evaluation of ongoing programs and initiation of salt reduction programs, particularly in low- and middle- income countries, will be vital to achieving the targeted 30% reduction in salt intake. PMID:26201031

  14. Black carbon emission reduction strategies in healthcare industry for effective global climate change management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, Emilia Mmbando; Anderson, David O

    2017-04-01

    Climate change remains one of the biggest threats to life on earth to date with black carbon (BC) emissions or smoke being the strongest cause after carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Surprisingly, scientific evidence about black carbon emissions reduction in healthcare settings is sparse. This paper presents new research findings on the reduction of black carbon emissions from an observational study conducted at the UN Peacekeeping Operations (MINUSTAH) in Haiti in 2014. Researchers observed 20 incineration cycles, 30 minutes for each cycle of plastic and cardboard sharps healthcare waste (HCW) containers ranged from 3 to 14.6 kg. The primary aim was to determine if black carbon emissions from healthcare waste incineration can be lowered by mainstreaming the use of cardboard sharps healthcare waste containers instead of plastic sharps healthcare waste containers. Similarly, the study looks into whether burning temperature was associated with the smoke levels for each case or not. Independent samples t-tests demonstrated significantly lower black carbon emissions during the incineration of cardboard sharps containers (6.81 ± 4.79% smoke) than in plastic containers (17.77 ± 8.38% smoke); a statistically significant increase of 10.96% smoke (95% Confidence Interval ( CI) [4.4 to 17.5% smoke], p = 0.003). Correspondingly, lower bottom burner temperatures occurred during the incineration of cardboard sharps containers than in plastic (95% Cl [16 to 126°C], p = 0.014). Finally, we expect the application of the new quantitative evidence to form the basis for policy formulation, mainstream the use of cardboard sharps containers and opt for non-incineration disposal technologies as urgent steps for going green in healthcare waste management.

  15. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential reductions in ambient NO2 concentrations from meeting diesel vehicle emissions standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schneidemesser, Erika; Kuik, Friderike; Mar, Kathleen A.; Butler, Tim

    2017-11-01

    Exceedances of the concentration limit value for ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at roadside sites are an issue in many cities throughout Europe. This is linked to the emissions of light duty diesel vehicles which have on-road emissions that are far greater than the regulatory standards. These exceedances have substantial implications for human health and economic loss. This study explores the possible gains in ambient air quality if light duty diesel vehicles were able to meet the regulatory standards (including both emissions standards from Europe and the United States). We use two independent methods: a measurement-based and a model-based method. The city of Berlin is used as a case study. The measurement-based method used data from 16 monitoring stations throughout the city of Berlin to estimate annual average reductions in roadside NO2 of 9.0 to 23 µg m‑3 and in urban background NO2 concentrations of 1.2 to 2.7 µg m‑3. These ranges account for differences in fleet composition assumptions, and the stringency of the regulatory standard. The model simulations showed reductions in urban background NO2 of 2.0 µg m‑3, and at the scale of the greater Berlin area of 1.6 to 2.0 µg m‑3 depending on the setup of the simulation and resolution of the model. Similar results were found for other European cities. The similarities in results using the measurement- and model-based methods support our ability to draw robust conclusions that are not dependent on the assumptions behind either methodology. The results show the significant potential for NO2 reductions if regulatory standards for light duty diesel vehicles were to be met under real-world operating conditions. Such reductions could help improve air quality by reducing NO2 exceedances in urban areas, but also have broader implications for improvements in human health and other benefits.

  17. The importance of health co-benefits in macroeconomic assessments of UK Greenhouse Gas emission reduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R; Smith, Richard D; Chalabi, Zaid; Dangour, Alan D; Davies, Mike; Edwards, Phil; Garnett, Tara; Givoni, Moshe; Griffiths, Ulla; Hamilton, Ian; Jarrett, James; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Haines, Andy

    We employ a single-country dynamically-recursive Computable General Equilibrium model to make health-focussed macroeconomic assessments of three contingent UK Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation strategies, designed to achieve 2030 emission targets as suggested by the UK Committee on Climate Change. In contrast to previous assessment studies, our main focus is on health co-benefits additional to those from reduced local air pollution. We employ a conservative cost-effectiveness methodology with a zero net cost threshold. Our urban transport strategy (with cleaner vehicles and increased active travel) brings important health co-benefits and is likely to be strongly cost-effective; our food and agriculture strategy (based on abatement technologies and reduction in livestock production) brings worthwhile health co-benefits, but is unlikely to eliminate net costs unless new technological measures are included; our household energy efficiency strategy is likely to breakeven only over the long term after the investment programme has ceased (beyond our 20 year time horizon). We conclude that UK policy makers will, most likely, have to adopt elements which involve initial net societal costs in order to achieve future emission targets and longer-term benefits from GHG reduction. Cost-effectiveness of GHG strategies is likely to require technological mitigation interventions and/or demand-constraining interventions with important health co-benefits and other efficiency-enhancing policies that promote internalization of externalities. Health co-benefits can play a crucial role in bringing down net costs, but our results also suggest the need for adopting holistic assessment methodologies which give proper consideration to welfare-improving health co-benefits with potentially negative economic repercussions (such as increased longevity).

  18. Selective catalytic reduction operation with heavy fuel oil: NOx, NH3, and particle emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, Kati; Vesala, Hannu; Koponen, Päivi; Korhonen, Satu

    2015-04-07

    To meet stringent NOx emission limits, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is increasingly utilized in ships, likely also in combination with low-priced higher sulfur level fuels. In this study, the performance of SCR was studied by utilizing NOx, NH3, and particle measurements. Urea decomposition was studied with ammonia and isocyanic acid measurements and was found to be more effective with heavy fuel oil (HFO) than with light fuel oil. This is suggested to be explained by the metals found in HFO contributing to metal oxide particles catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction prior to SCR. At the exhaust temperature of 340 °C NOx reduction was 85-90%, while at lower temperatures the efficiency decreased. By increasing the catalyst loading, the low temperature behavior of the SCR was enhanced. The drawback of this, however, was the tendency of particle emissions (sulfate) to increase at higher temperatures with higher loaded catalysts. The particle size distribution results showed high amounts of nanoparticles (in 25-30 nm size), the formation of which SCR either increased or decreased. The findings of this work provide a better understanding of the usage of SCR in combination with a higher sulfur level fuel and also of ship particle emissions, which are a growing concern.

  19. Performance and emission reduction potential of micro-gasifier improved through better design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Dino Adem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification is getting popular for household cooking application in most developing countries including Ethiopia. The preference for biomass gasification is due to the generation of less CO (Carbon Monoxide and PM (Particulate Matter in comparison with other biomass cookstoves. Our study showed the improvement in thermal efficiency and emission reduction potential of micro-gasifier. A prototype micro-gasifier was built and tested using the water boiling test protocol. The test results gave a thermal efficiency of 39.6% and a specific fuel consumption of 57 g of fuel/ liter of water. With regard to indoor air pollution, the maximum CO & PM registered were 12.5 ppm and 1.85 mg/m3, respectively. Using clean development mechanism (CDM methodology, the estimated emission reduction potential of the micro-gasifier is 1.30 tCO2 per micro-gasifier per year. Generally, the micro-gasifier has better performance compared to the previous designs proposed by other researchers. Thus, disseminating our micro-gasifier at a larger scale in developing countries such as Ethiopia will be beneficial in reducing deforestation and emission that will be brought about by using open-fire stoves and thus, helps to obtain carbon credit.

  20. Economic gains from targeting measures based on detailed nitrate reduction maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2015-01-01

    is the highest. The purpose of the NiCA project has been to estimate the nitrate reduction potential in greater detail than before using a plot size of 1-25 ha. This article builds on these findings and presents the possible economic gains to the farmer when using this information. Targeted measures......-reduction map is used on 10 farms in the Norsminde Catchment near Århus, Denmark. The findings suggest that the average farm would gain approximately 100-150 DKK per ha per year from targeted measures as opposed to not knowing where to place the measures. The analysis indicates that the economic gain is higher...... than the costs of providing the detailed maps, which are estimated to be 40-60 DKK/ha/year. When reduction requirements are increased, the economic gains are higher. When combined with new measures like mini wetlands and early sowing, the economic advantage is increased further. The paper also shows...

  1. Assessing the potential of utilisation and storage strategies for post-combustion CO2 emissions reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eStyring

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emissions reduction potential of three carbon dioxide handling strategies for post-combustion capture are considered. These are carbon capture and sequestration/storage (CCS, enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (EHR and carbon dioxide utilization (CDU to produce synthetic oil. This is performed using common and comparable boundary conditions including net CO2 sequestered based on equivalent boundary conditions. This is achieved using a 'cradle to grave approach' where the final destination and fate of any product is considered. The input boundary is pure CO2 that has been produced using a post-combustion capture process as this is common between all processes. The output boundary is the emissions resulting from any product produced with the assumption that the majority of the oil will go to combustion processes. We also consider the 'cradle to gate' approach where the ultimate fate of the oil is not considered as this is a boundary condition often applied to EHR processes. Results show that while CCS can make an impact on CO2 emissions, CDU will have a comparable effect whilst generating income while EHR will ultimately increase net emissions. The global capacity for CDU is also compared against CCS using data based on current and planned CCS projects. Analysis shows that current CDU represent a greater volume of capture than CCS processes and that this gap is likely to remain well beyond 2020 which is the limit of the CCS projects in the database.

  2. S O{sub 2} emission reduction through the use of the humid oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Jurgen [TIBRAS, Titanio do Brasil S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The SO{sub 2} emission reduction unit to be installed in TIBRAS consists of six reactors supplied with activates carbon beds which will remove the SO{sub 2} (0.11 volume percent) contained in the residual gas (150.000 cubic meters per hour) produced in three rotary calciner kilns. The SO{sub 2} reacts with the water in the carbon pores forming diluted sulfuric acid. The activated carbon is fabricated from coke from peat. The weak H{sub 2} SO{sub 4} is reused in the titanium dioxide pigment process. This process is supposed to reduce TIBRAS SO{sub 2} emissions by 50 to 85 percent in addition to eliminating two stacks. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. A mathematical/physics carbon emission reduction strategy for building supply chain network based on carbon tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xueying

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the background of a low carbon economy, this paper examines the impact of carbon tax policy on supply chain network emission reduction. The integer linear programming method is used to establish a supply chain network emission reduction such a model considers the cost of CO2 emissions, and analyses the impact of different carbon price on cost and carbon emissions in supply chains. The results show that the implementation of a carbon tax policy can reduce CO2 emissions in building supply chain, but the increase in carbon price does not produce a reduction effect, and may bring financial burden to the enterprise. This paper presents a reasonable carbon price range and provides decision makers with strategies towards realizing a low carbon building supply chain in an economical manner.

  4. A mathematical/physics carbon emission reduction strategy for building supply chain network based on carbon tax policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueying; Peng, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Under the background of a low carbon economy, this paper examines the impact of carbon tax policy on supply chain network emission reduction. The integer linear programming method is used to establish a supply chain network emission reduction such a model considers the cost of CO2 emissions, and analyses the impact of different carbon price on cost and carbon emissions in supply chains. The results show that the implementation of a carbon tax policy can reduce CO2 emissions in building supply chain, but the increase in carbon price does not produce a reduction effect, and may bring financial burden to the enterprise. This paper presents a reasonable carbon price range and provides decision makers with strategies towards realizing a low carbon building supply chain in an economical manner.

  5. Bunker Levy Schemes for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission Reduction in International Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosmas, Vasileios; Acciaro, Michele

    2017-01-01

    in the energy efficiency of the sector would be expected as a result of the regulation enforcement. The speed reduction in the unit-tax case depends on fuel prices and the tax amount, whereas in the ad-valorem case it relies upon the enforced tax percentage. Both schemes lead to industry profit decline......A fuel levy is one of the market-based measures (MBMs) currently under consideration at the International Maritime Organization. MBMs have been proposed to improve the energy efficiency of the shipping sector and reduce its emissions. This paper analyses the economic and environmental implications...... of two types of levy on shipping bunker fuels by means of an analytical model built on the cobweb theorem. A unit-tax per ton of fuel and an ad-valorem tax, enforced as a percentage of fuel prices, are examined. In both cases, a speed and fuel-consumption reduction equivalent to an improvement...

  6. Bunker Levy Schemes for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission Reduction in International Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosmas, Vasileios; Acciaro, Michele

    2017-01-01

    A fuel levy is one of the market-based measures (MBMs) currently under consideration at the International Maritime Organization. MBMs have been proposed to improve the energy efficiency of the shipping sector and reduce its emissions. This paper analyses the economic and environmental implications...... of two types of levy on shipping bunker fuels by means of an analytical model built on the cobweb theorem. A unit-tax per ton of fuel and an ad-valorem tax, enforced as a percentage of fuel prices, are examined. In both cases, a speed and fuel-consumption reduction equivalent to an improvement...... in the energy efficiency of the sector would be expected as a result of the regulation enforcement. The speed reduction in the unit-tax case depends on fuel prices and the tax amount, whereas in the ad-valorem case it relies upon the enforced tax percentage. Both schemes lead to industry profit decline...

  7. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Olesen, Jørgen E; Petersen, Søren O

    2011-01-01

    emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990–2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50–70% reduction...

  8. Reduction of particulate emission in two coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguer, X.

    1998-07-01

    Escucha and Cercs are two coal-fired power stations, each with a capacity of 160MW, which belong to FECSA. They came into operation in 1970 and 1971. Their boilers are of the once-through type and both have similar configurations. The power station at Cercs uses a mixture of local lignite, rich in calcium, together with 40% of South African coal, while that of Escucha uses local lignite, the ashes of which are predominantly silicon and aluminium oxides, together with 20% of South African coal. A change in quality of the lignite over the years has produced two consequences; on one hand, the characteristics of the ash have changed in that the resistivity of the fly ash produced at present is much higher than when the power stations were designed. On the other hand, the temperature of the gases at the boiler outlet has increased and reaches values of up to 200 C, which has also led to an increase in resistivity. These two facts have produced, as a consequence, a significant increase in the emission of particulate matter. In order to reduce the emission of particulate matter, two strategies were implanted at both power stations; a reduction in the temperature of the flue gases and a reduction of the resistivity of the fly ash. A reduction of flue gas temperature was achieved by modifying the last three tube banks of the boiler by adding another 2,500 m{sup 2} of heat exchanging surface. As a result, the temperature of the flue gases decreased to a value of 140 C, which in turn produced a notable effect on the resistivity of the ash. Furthermore, an increase in the performance of the boiler has been obtained as well as a significant reduction in the quantity of water injected into the reheater, which has also produced an increase in the performance of the power stations.

  9. Single Maneuvering Target Tracking in Clutter Based on Multiple Model Algorithm with Gaussian Mixture Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The measurement origin uncertainty and target (dynamic or/and measurement model uncertainty are two fundamental problems in maneuvering target tracking in clutter. The multiple hypothesis tracker (MHT and multiple model (MM algorithm are two well-known methods dealing with these two problems, respectively. In this work, we address the problem of single maneuvering target tracking in clutter by combing MHT and MM based on the Gaussian mixture reduction (GMR. Different ways of combinations of MHT and MM for this purpose were available in previous studies, but in heuristic manners. The GMR is adopted because it provides a theoretically appealing way to reduce the exponentially increasing numbers of measurement association possibilities and target model trajectories. The superior performance of our method, comparing with the existing IMM+PDA and IMM+MHT algorithms, is demonstrated by the results of Monte Carlo simulation.

  10. Drug-target interaction prediction using ensemble learning and dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Ali; Wu, Min; Li, Xiao-Li; Kwoh, Chee-Keong

    2017-10-01

    Experimental prediction of drug-target interactions is expensive, time-consuming and tedious. Fortunately, computational methods help narrow down the search space for interaction candidates to be further examined via wet-lab techniques. Nowadays, the number of attributes/features for drugs and targets, as well as the amount of their interactions, are increasing, making these computational methods inefficient or occasionally prohibitive. This motivates us to derive a reduced feature set for prediction. In addition, since ensemble learning techniques are widely used to improve the classification performance, it is also worthwhile to design an ensemble learning framework to enhance the performance for drug-target interaction prediction. In this paper, we propose a framework for drug-target interaction prediction leveraging both feature dimensionality reduction and ensemble learning. First, we conducted feature subspacing to inject diversity into the classifier ensemble. Second, we applied three different dimensionality reduction methods to the subspaced features. Third, we trained homogeneous base learners with the reduced features and then aggregated their scores to derive the final predictions. For base learners, we selected two classifiers, namely Decision Tree and Kernel Ridge Regression, resulting in two variants of ensemble models, EnsemDT and EnsemKRR, respectively. In our experiments, we utilized AUC (Area under ROC Curve) as an evaluation metric. We compared our proposed methods with various state-of-the-art methods under 5-fold cross validation. Experimental results showed EnsemKRR achieving the highest AUC (94.3%) for predicting drug-target interactions. In addition, dimensionality reduction helped improve the performance of EnsemDT. In conclusion, our proposed methods produced significant improvements for drug-target interaction prediction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impacts of Emission Reduction Scenarios on Regional Climate and Local Air Quality for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Smith, J. A.; Wang, Z.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Wu, Q.; Baeck, M.; Michel, A. P.; Yeung, J.; Gustafson, W. I.

    2009-05-01

    Beijing implemented a long term emission reduction program in 2001 when it won the bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. During the summer of 2008 Beijing increased its emission reduction effort by integrating short term strategies such as temporally shutting down factories, freezing constructions, and automobile control. Taking advantage of emission reduction measures, numerical simulation experiments are being carried out with the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry module (WRF-Chem) to examine aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in the Beijing metropolitan region during the period of the 2008 Olympic Games. Analyses of TRMM 3B42V6 and MODIS Terra L3C5 datasets show that August 2008 was a period of above average precipitation and below average aerosol loadings, relative to observations during the past 10 years. This study is based on numerical simulations with two emission scenarios, business as usual scenario and reduced emission scenario, to examine the impacts of emission reduction measures on regional climate and local air quality in the Beijing metropolitan region, as well as the role of cloud and precipitation processes in controlling the regional distribution of aerosols. Both of the high- resolution emission inventories were developed by the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, China, to represent the effects of emission reduction policies for the Olympic period. Intercomparisons with in-situ measurements are used to assess the capability for modeling aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions on a regional scale. Analyses center on assessing "microphysical" and "stability" hypotheses linking aerosols to cloud and precipitation processes and examining the relative roles of precipitation processes, regional transport processes and emission reduction scenarios in producing the favorable air quality conditions during the Olympic period.

  12. “APEC Blue”: Secondary Aerosol Reductions from Emission Controls in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2016-02-01

    China implemented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to emission controls. Our results show consistently large reductions in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61-67% and 51-57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large reductions in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2-3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as “APEC Blue”. We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution.

  13. Nonlinear Complex Dynamics of Carbon Emission Reduction Cournot Game with Bounded Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiuWei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the hypothesis of participant’s bounded rationality, our study formulated a novel Cournot duopoly game model of carbon emission reduction and, subsequently, analyzed the dynamic adjustment mechanism of emission reduction for enterprises. The existence and stability of the equilibrium solution of game are further discussed by the nonlinear dynamics theory. Our findings revealed that the parameters have key significance on the dynamic properties of the system. However, when the adjustment speed gets too large, the system loses the original stability and vividly demonstrates complex chaos phenomenon. Higher market prices in carbon trading have an outstanding impact on the stability of the system, which easily leads to system instability. Our study further controlled the chaos behavior of the power system by the delay feedback control. The results of the numerical analysis depict that the unstable behavior of the dynamic system can be controlled efficiently and quickly, in the quest to restore back a stable and orderly market. Our novel method is proved to have provided decision makers with effective solution to market instability.

  14. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jarod C; Sullivan, John L; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle and vehicle total life-cycle impacts of substituting lightweight materials into vehicles. We determine part-based greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data and evaluating that alongside known mass-based GHG ratios (using and updating Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model) associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts are lightweighted via material substitution, using substitution ratios from a U.S. Department of Energy report, to determine GHG emissions. We then examine fuel-cycle GHG reductions from lightweighting. The fuel reduction value methodology is applied using FRV estimates of 0.15-0.25, and 0.25-0.5 L/(100km·100 kg), with and without powertrain adjustments, respectively. GHG breakeven values are derived for both driving distance and material substitution ratio. While material substitution can reduce vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs. It is likely that replacing steel (the dominant vehicle material) with wrought aluminum, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CRFP), or magnesium will increase vehicle-cycle GHGs. However, lifetime fuel economy benefits often outweigh the vehicle-cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. This is the case for steel replaced by wrought aluminum in all assumed cases, and for CFRP and magnesium except for high substitution ratio and low FRV.

  15. Hot surface ionic line emission and cold K-inner shell emission from petawatt-laser irradiated Cu foil targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theobald, W; Akli, K; Clarke, R; Delettrez, J A; Freeman, R R; Glenzer, S; Green, J; Gregori, G; Heathcote, R; Izumi, N; King, J A; Koch, J A; Kuba, J; Lancaster, K; MacKinnon, A J; Key, M; Mileham, C; Myatt, J; Neely, D; Norreys, P A; Park, H; Pasely, J; Patel, P; Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Shepherd, R; Snavely, R; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Storm, M; Zhang, B; Sangster, T C

    2005-12-13

    A hot, T{sub e} {approx} 2- to 3-keV surface plasma was observed in the interaction of a 0.7-ps petawatt laser beam with solid copper-foil targets at intensities >10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. Copper K-shell spectra were measured in the range of 8 to 9 keV using a single-photon-counting x-ray CCD camera. In addition to K{sub {alpha}} and K{sub {beta}} inner-shell lines, the emission contained the Cu He{sub {alpha}} and Ly{sub {alpha}} lines, allowing the temperature to be inferred. These lines have not been observed previously with ultrafast laser pulses. For intensities less than 3 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, only the K{sub {alpha}} and K{sub {beta}} inner-shell emissions are detected. Measurements of the absolute K{sub {alpha}} yield as a function of the laser intensity are in agreement with a model that includes refluxing and confinement of the suprathermal electrons in the target volume.

  16. Test methods and reduction of organic pollutant compound emissions from wood-based building and furniture materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin; Choi, Yoon-Ki; Park, Kyung-Won; Kim, Jeong Tai

    2010-08-01

    This paper reviews different methods for the analysis of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wood-based panel materials for furniture and building interiors and highlights research on reduction of emission from wood-based panels that can adversely affect indoor air quality. In Korea, standard test methods have been developed to determine formaldehyde and VOC emissions from building products, and the Ministry of Environment regulates the use of building materials with pollutant emissions. Desiccator and perforator methods are being used for formaldehyde and the chamber and field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) methods for VOC and formaldehyde emissions. The VOC analyzer is a suitable pre-test method for application as a total VOC (TVOC) emission test and bake-out is a useful method to reduce TVOC and formaldehyde emissions from furniture materials in indoor environments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy saving and emission reduction revolutionizing China's environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Yong [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Great pressure to curb carbon emission and increased need for energy have forced China to develop an 'energy saving and emission reduction' (ESER) plan. ESER has become China's basic national policy, and a guideline for China's energy and environmental issues during the 11th Five-Years Plan (2006-2010). ESER represents a recalibration of China's economic model, moving away from growth-at-all-cost in favor of a more 'balanced and sustainable' output. In 2007, China's GDP grew by 11.4%, but emission of COD and SO{sub 2} decreased by 3.14% and 4.66% respectively compared to 2006, energy consumption for each unit of GDP declined by 3.27% also compared to 2006. ESER is also the engine behind reform of China's traditional administrative system which has always favored economic growth over environmental protection. The ESER accountability system sets green efforts as a decisive factor in determining the career prospects of local leaders. Also, China's State Environmental Protection Agency has been upgraded to the Ministry of Environmental Protection, gaining cabinet status for the first time. A greener future relative to the previous three decades can be anticipated with confidence for China provided that the best practices enunciated by ESER are taken to heart by policymakers. (author)

  18. Verifying emission reductions from heavy-duty diesel trucks operating on Southern California freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Kathleen H; Park, Seong Suk; Mara, Steven L; Herner, Jorn D

    2014-01-01

    Measurements on truck-dominated freeways in southern California have offered a unique opportunity to track emission changes that have occurred due to the implementation of local and state regulations affecting heavy-duty diesel trucks. These regulations have accelerated fleet turnover to cleaner and newer trucks. In this study, a mobile platform was used to measure nitrogen oxides (NOX), black carbon (BC), and ultrafine particles (UFPs) on diesel-dominated southern California freeways. Fleet-averaged fuel-based emission factors were calculated for diesel trucks and the results showed NOX and BC emissions were reduced by 40% or more between 2009 and 2011, but there were no statistically significant reductions for UFP. Technologies associated with these new trucks, mainly diesel particulate filters, have changed the physical characteristics of diesel particulate, shifting the size distribution of such particles to smaller modes (10-20 nm). In addition, integration of 2007 MY trucks into the fleet was also observed in on-road ratios of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and NOX. NO2/NOX ratios steadily increased from 0.23 ± 0.06 in 2009 to 0.30 ± 0.03 in 2010 but plateaued and declined in 2011.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction in China by cleaner coal technology towards 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Chen, Sha

    2015-01-01

    generation technology, CO2 emissions reduction is 6.4% for super-C, 37.4% for USC and 61.5% for IGCC. Four coal power scenarios are developed based on the assumption of potential investment power for CCTs in 2020, which are super-C, USC, USC and old low efficiency generation substitution by USC, IGCC......The Chinese energy system, a major CO2 emitter, relies heavily on fossil fuels, especially coal. Coal will continue to play a major role in the new installed power generation capacity in the future, which will cause unavoidable environmental problems. Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are essential...... and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The CO2 emissions intensity is 1.93 kg/kWh for super-C, 1.69 kg/kWh for USC, 1.59 kg/kWh for USC + replacement and 1.29 kg/kWh for IGCC + CCS. The CO2 emissions intensity was 1.95 kg/kWh in 2010, which had decreased 5.5% compared with the level in 2005. The energy...

  20. The research and application of electricity economic boom model under the constraint of energy conservation and emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangyan; Xia, Huaijian; Chen, Meiling; Wang, Dong; Jia, Sujin

    2017-10-01

    Energy saving and emission reduction policies affects the development of high power industry, thereby affecting electricity demand, so the study of the electricity industry boom helps to master the national economy. This paper analyses the influence of energy saving and emission reduction on power generation structure and pollutant emission in power industry. Through the construction of electricity market composite boom index to indicate electricity boom, using boom index to study volatility characteristics and trend of electricity market. Here we provide a method for the enterprise and the government, that it can infer the overall operation of the national economy situation from power data.

  1. The central importance of the EU emission trading scheme for achievement of the German climate protection target of 40% until 2020; Die zentrale Bedeutung des EU-Emissionshandels zur Erreichung des deutschen Klimaziels in Hoehe von 40 % bis 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hauke; Cludius, Johanna

    2014-02-15

    Both Germany and the European Union have set themselves targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The EU was the forerunner in 2008 when it adopted the Climate and Energy package and set a target of reducing GHG emissions by 20 % by 2020 compared to 1990. Two years later, Germany adopted a range of national GHG targets in the context of the German government's Energy Concept. This includes a 40% emissions reduction target to be met by 2020. One of the main instruments for achieving GHG emissions reduction targets is the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), which covers all large industrial and combustion installations in Europe. According to the agreement made in 2008 (Climate and Energy Package), the effort to achieve the EU's 20 % reduction target by 2020 was split between the ETS sector (2/3 of the reduction effort, representing a 21 % reduction in GHG emissions for installations covered under the ETS compared to 2005) and the non-ETS sector (1/3 of the reduction effort, representing a 10 % reduction compared to 2005). Logically, GHG emissions reductions occurring in German ETS installations count both towards the EU and the national target. This research project has been commissioned to analyse whether the ETS in its cur-rent design can contribute its fair share in efforts to meet the national emissions reduc-tion target. This question is particularly relevant in light of the following considerations: - The new German Coalition Agreement, signed in December 2013, reiterated the national target of a 40 % reduction of GHG emissions by 2020 compared to 1990 levels. - At the same time, the new Coalition Agreement stated that changes to the ETS are only to be considered if the EU GHG emissions reduction target will not be met. - There is a surplus of CO2 allowances on the ETS market, which undermines the credibility of the instrument as well as the integrity of the emissions reduction tar-gets (both European and national). At the same

  2. Photochemical modeling in California with two chemical mechanisms: model intercomparison and response to emission reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenxia; Kelly, James T; Avise, Jeremy C; Kaduwela, Ajith P; Stockwell, William R

    2011-05-01

    An updated version of the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC) chemical mechanism (SAPRC07C) was implemented into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) version 4.6. CMAQ simulations using SAPRC07C and the previously released version, SAPRC99, were performed and compared for an episode during July-August, 2000. Ozone (O3) predictions of the SAPRC07C simulation are generally lower than those of the SAPRC99 simulation in the key areas of central and southern California, especially in areas where modeled concentrations are greater than the federal 8-hr O3 standard of 75 parts per billion (ppb) and/or when the volatile organic compound (VOC)/nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratio is less than 13. The relative changes of ozone production efficiency (OPE) against the VOC/NOx ratio at 46 sites indicate that the OPE is reduced in SAPRC07C compared with SAPRC99 at most sites by as much as approximately 22%. The SAPRC99 and SAPRC07C mechanisms respond similarly to 20% reductions in anthropogenic VOC emissions. The response of the mechanisms to 20% NOx emissions reductions can be grouped into three cases. In case 1, in which both mechanisms show a decrease in daily maximum 8-hr O3 concentration with decreasing NOx emissions, the O3 decrease in SAPRC07C is smaller. In case 2, in which both mechanisms show an increase in O3 with decreasing NOx emissions, the O3 increase is larger in SAPRC07C. In case 3, SAPRC07C simulates an increase in O3 in response to reduced NOx emissions whereas SAPRC99 simulates a decrease in O3 for the same region. As a result, the areas where NOx controls would be disbeneficial are spatially expanded in SAPRC07C. Although the results presented here are valuable for understanding differences in predictions and model response for SAPRC99 and SAPRC07C, the study did not evaluate the impact of mechanism differences in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guidance for using numerical models in demonstrating air quality attainment

  3. THE MALAYSIAN GOVERNMENT'S ROAD ACCIDENT DEATH REDUCTION TARGET FOR YEAR 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.H. LAW

    2005-01-01

    Results and Conclusions:: The Gompertz model predicted that vehicle ownership would be equal to 0.4409 by the year 2010. The road accident death rate is projected to decrease to 4.22 in year 2010, at an average decline rate of 2.14% per annum. This result suggests that a minimum 2.18% reduction per annum is required to achieve the national target in year 2010.

  4. Reducing emissions from agriculture to meet the 2 °C target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Eva; Richards, Meryl; Smith, Pete; Havlík, Petr; Obersteiner, Michael; Tubiello, Francesco N; Herold, Martin; Gerber, Pierre; Carter, Sarah; Reisinger, Andrew; van Vuuren, Detlef P; Dickie, Amy; Neufeldt, Henry; Sander, Björn O; Wassmann, Reiner; Sommer, Rolf; Amonette, James E; Falcucci, Alessandra; Herrero, Mario; Opio, Carolyn; Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria; Stehfest, Elke; Westhoek, Henk; Ortiz-Monasterio, Ivan; Sapkota, Tek; Rufino, Mariana C; Thornton, Philip K; Verchot, Louis; West, Paul C; Soussana, Jean-François; Baedeker, Tobias; Sadler, Marc; Vermeulen, Sonja; Campbell, Bruce M

    2016-12-01

    More than 100 countries pledged to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 2015 Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Yet technical information about how much mitigation is needed in the sector vs. how much is feasible remains poor. We identify a preliminary global target for reducing emissions from agriculture of ~1 GtCO2 e yr(-1) by 2030 to limit warming in 2100 to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Yet plausible agricultural development pathways with mitigation cobenefits deliver only 21-40% of needed mitigation. The target indicates that more transformative technical and policy options will be needed, such as methane inhibitors and finance for new practices. A more comprehensive target for the 2 °C limit should be developed to include soil carbon and agriculture-related mitigation options. Excluding agricultural emissions from mitigation targets and plans will increase the cost of mitigation in other sectors or reduce the feasibility of meeting the 2 °C limit. © 2016 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Impacts of Future European Emission Reductions on Aerosol Particle Number Concentrations Accounting for Effects of Ammonia, Amines, and Organic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julin, Jan; Murphy, Benjamin N; Patoulias, David; Fountoukis, Christos; Olenius, Tinja; Pandis, Spyros N; Riipinen, Ilona

    2018-01-16

    Although they are currently unregulated, atmospheric ultrafine particles (organic compounds onto particles. These processes had notable impacts on atmospheric particle number concentrations. All three emission scenarios (current legislation, optimized emissions, and maximum technically feasible reductions) resulted in substantial (10-50%) decreases in median particle number concentrations over Europe. Consistent reductions were predicted in Central Europe, while Northern Europe exhibited smaller reductions or even increased concentrations. Motivated by the improved NPF descriptions for ammonia and methylamines, we placed special focus on the potential to improve air quality by reducing agricultural emissions, which are a major source of these species. Agricultural emission controls showed promise in reducing ultrafine particle number concentrations, although the change is nonlinear with particle size.

  6. [Awareness of health co-benefits of carbon emissions reduction in urban residents in Beijing: a cross-sectional survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J H; Zhang, Y; Wang, J; Chen, H J; Zhang, G B; Liu, X B; Wu, H X; Li, J; Li, J; Liu, Q Y

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To understand the awareness of the health co-benefits of carbon emission reduction in urban residents in Beijing and the influencing factors, and provide information for policy decision on carbon emission reduction and health education campaigns. Methods: Four communities were selected randomly from Fangshan, Haidian, Huairou and Dongcheng districts of Beijing, respectively. The sample size was estimated by using Kish-Leslie formula for descriptive analysis. 90 participants were recruited from each community. χ(2) test was conducted to examine the associations between socio-demographic variables and individuals' awareness of the health co-benefits of carbon emission reduction. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the factors influencing the awareness about the health co-benefits. Results: In 369 participants surveyed, 12.7% reported they knew the health co-benefits of carbon emission reduction. The final logistic regression analysis revealed that age (OR=0.98), attitude to climate warming (OR=0.72) and air pollution (OR=1.59), family monthly average income (OR=1.27), and low carbon lifestyle (OR=2.36) were important factors influencing their awareness of the health co-benefits of carbon emission reduction. Conclusion: The awareness of the health co-benefits of carbon emissions reduction were influenced by people' socio-demographic characteristics (age and family income), concerns about air pollution and climate warming, and low carbon lifestyle. It is necessary to take these factors into consideration in future development and implementation of carbon emission reduction policies and related health education campaigns.

  7. Exploration of two Canadian greenhouse gas emissions targets : 25 per cent below 1990 and 20 per cent below 2006 levels by 2020 : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, C.; Wolinetz, M.; Peters, J.; Bennett, M.; Rivers, N. [MK Jaccard and Associates, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-10-18

    This study reviewed the feasibility and cost of 2 levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions in Canada, with particular reference to an environmental non-governmental organization (ENGO) that recommended 25 per cent reduction in GHG emissions below 1990 levels by 2020, and the Canadian government's recommended 20 per cent reduction of GHGs from 2006 levels by 2020. A CIMS hybrid technology simulation tool and a static computable general equilibrium (CGE) model were used to conduct the analysis. The study showed that current carbon charge and other complementary policies will not meet required targets for either the current governmental reduction plan or the ENGO plan. Recommended actions to provide emissions reductions included carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology implementation; increased energy efficiency in the personal and freight transportation sectors; increased GHG control in the upstream oil and gas industry and of landfill gas; and the use of international permit purchases. Other recommendations included switching to electricity and using renewable energy sources within the electricity industry. 11 refs., 98 tabs., 16 figs.

  8. Greenhouse gas emission controls : differentiated vs. flat rate targets : impacts and concerts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydanek, D. [Dow Chemical, (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Continuing the discussion on differentiation in greenhouse gas emission targets and timetables for all nations, the different implications of differentiation vs. flat rate controls were examined. A scenario of how different targets for different countries based on national circumstances might be implemented, was presented. Implications of differentiation for the Dow Chemical Company were also reviewed. For more than 20 years, Dow has practiced leading edge energy efficiency in environmental management systems and has committed to a series of environmental, health and safety goals. The company believes that at the international level, fully differentiated targets and timetables need to be negotiated, party by party, by the 150 nations who agreed to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000. It was suggested that a strong disincentive exists to delivering energy efficiency beyond compliance. It was predicted that despite efficiency, the energy intensive assets in place today in Annex I countries will be disadvantaged and prematurely retired as the costs of greenhouse gas emission controls grow and exert pressure to move productive capacity offshore.

  9. Effect of power plant emission reductions on a nearby wilderness area: a case study in northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa; Ely, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of emission reductions at two coal-fired power plants in northwestern Colorado on a nearby wilderness area. Control equipment was installed at both plants during 1999–2004 to reduce SO2 and NOx emissions. One challenge was separating the effects of local from regional emissions, which also declined during the study period. The long-term datasets examined confirm that emission reductions had a beneficial effect on air and water quality in the wilderness. Despite a 75 % reduction in SO2 emissions, sulfate aerosols measured in the wilderness decreased by only 20 %. Because the site is relatively close to the power plants (2 to sulfate, particularly under conditions of low relative humidity, might account for this less than one-to-one response. On the clearest days, emissions controls appeared to improve visibility by about 1 deciview, which is a small but perceptible improvement. On the haziest days, however, there was little improvement perhaps reflecting the dominance of regional haze and other components of visibility degradation particularly organic carbon and dust. Sulfate and acidity in atmospheric deposition decreased by 50 % near the southern end of the wilderness of which 60 % was attributed to power plant controls and the remainder to reductions in regional sources. Lake water sulfate responded rapidly to trends in deposition declining at 28 lakes monitored in and near the wilderness. Although no change in the acid–base status was observed, few of the lakes appear to be at risk from chronic or episodic acidification.

  10. Diagnosing the uncertainty and detectability of emission reductions for REDD + under current capabilities: an example for Panama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, Johanne; Potvin, Catherine [Department of Biology and Global Environmental and Climate Change Center, McGill University, 1205 Dr Penfield, Montreal, QC, H3A 1B1 (Canada); Ramankutty, Navin, E-mail: johannepelletier@gmail.com [Department of Geography and Global Environmental and Climate Change Center, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street W., Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    In preparation for the deployment of a new mechanism that could address as much as one fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions by reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD +), important work on methodological issues is still needed to secure the capacity to produce measurable, reportable, and verifiable emissions reductions from REDD + in developing countries. To contribute to this effort, we have diagnosed the main sources of uncertainty in the quantification of emission from deforestation for Panama, one of the first countries to be supported by the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility of the World Bank and by UN-REDD. Performing sensitivity analyses using a land-cover change emissions model, we identified forest carbon stocks and the quality of land-cover maps as the key parameters influencing model uncertainty. The time interval between two land-cover assessments, carbon density in fallow and secondary forest, and the accuracy of land-cover classifications also affect our ability to produce accurate estimates. Further, we used the model to compare emission reductions from five different deforestation reduction scenarios drawn from governmental input. Only the scenario simulating a reduction in deforestation by half succeeds in crossing outside the confidence bounds surrounding the baseline emission obtained from the uncertainty analysis. These results suggest that with current data, real emission reductions in developing countries could be obscured by their associated uncertainties. Ways of addressing the key sources of error are proposed, for developing countries involved in REDD + , for improving the accuracy of their estimates in the future. These new considerations confirm the importance of current efforts to establish forest monitoring systems and enhance capabilities for REDD + in developing countries.

  11. Reduction of fine particle emissions from wood combustion with optimized condensing heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröhn, Arto; Suonmaa, Valtteri; Auvinen, Ari; Lehtinen, Kari E J; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    2009-08-15

    In this study, we designed and built a condensing heat exchanger capable of simultaneous fine particle emission reduction and waste heat recovery. The deposition mechanisms inside the heat exchanger prototype were maximized using a computer model which was later compared to actual measurements. The main deposition mechanisms were diffusio- and thermophoresis which have previously been examined in similar conditions only separately. The obtained removal efficiency in the experiments was measured in the total number concentration and ranged between 26 and 40% for the given pellet stove and the heat exchanger. Size distributions and number concentrations were measured with a TSI Fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). The computer model predicts that there exists a specific upper limit for thermo- and diffusiophoretic deposition for each temperature and water vapor concentration in the flue gas.

  12. Abolishing inequity, a necessity for poverty reduction and the realisation of child mortality targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Målqvist, Mats

    2015-02-01

    The first Millennium Development Goal (MDG 1) due in 2015 concerns poverty reduction. It has been claimed to be fulfilled on a global level, but still more than 1 billion people are living in abject poverty. There is a strong link between the economy and child survival, and only a minority of countries will have reached the MDG target for child mortality reduction by 2015. This paper discusses the relationship between poverty and child survival. It argues that a focus on equity is necessary to further reduce child mortality, through poverty reduction in absolute terms and also through targeting interventions for increased child survival to disadvantaged populations. The political will to actually achieve real change for those in greatest need is crucial but not to be taken for granted, and the distribution rather than the generation of wealth needs to be made a priority in the post-MDG era. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Willingness to engage in energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction: An empirical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluwa, S. E.; Siong, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    Africa's response to climate change has largely been focused on adaptation rather than mitigation. The reason for this is based on the fact that the continent contributes very little to global CO2 emission. Again, mitigation policies like carbon tax as being practised in developed countries may be costly and difficult to implement in a continent where most economies are fragile. Using behavioural change as an adaptation approach, we examined the opinion of Ibadan city residents towards energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction. A total of 822 respondents were sampled across the three residential neighbourhoods of the city. Results from the study showed that female and male respondents differed in their opinion towards energy conservation. However, the female respondents tended to record higher mean scores on majority of the items used to capture energy conservation behaviour than their male counterparts. Also, those with higher level of education seemed to be more conscious of the environmental consequences arising from energy use at home than those with lower educational background. However, very slight variations were recorded in the mean value score across the different age groups, those respondents above 50 years scored a bit higher than other age groups.

  14. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  15. Role of biodiesel with nanoadditives in port owned trucks and other vehicles for emission reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Atulya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is presently available all over the world and can be produced from several types of biomass. Biodiesel fuels are gaining more and more importance as an attractive alternate fuel in various transport sectors due to their renewable nature and lower pollution impact. However, the ports and the shipping sector are still in the early stage of orientation towards biofuels. In the present work, an experimental investigation on the use of diesterol blend (a mixture of diesel, ethanol with biodiesel with cerium oxide as a nanoadditive (D80JBD15E4S1 + cerium oxide in a compression ignition engine is performed to assess the emission characteristics. The results reveal that the presence of the cerium oxide nanoparticle changes the reaction patterns and heat transfer rate that reduces both the CO and CO2 percentage concentration in the exhaust gas appreciably. Further, the reduction in CO2 emission in the port of Chennai is quantified considering the replacement of neat diesel with those of modified diesel blend in port owned trucks and vehicles.

  16. Experimental study of the reduction of field emission by gas injection in vacuum for accelerator applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Almaksour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Field emission current from surfaces under vacuum and at high field strengths can be reduced by the injection of gas into the evacuated volume. In this paper, the effects of H_{2}, He, N_{2}, and Ar on this “dark” current emitted from a tungsten carbide point cathode for 2 cm gap distance is studied. Exposure to any of these gases at pressures on the order of 10^{−3}–10^{−2}  Pa was found to reduce the emission current by up to 90% with a time constant on the order of ∼1  minute as compared to the current at 10^{−6}  Pa. The effect was strongly dependent on the gas nature, with Ar and N_{2} having larger effects at lower pressures than He and H_{2}. The reduction was reversible, with the current increasing to near its original value with a time constant on the order of ∼1–10  minutes after pumping down. The effect of the gas remained in the absence of electric field, whatever the gas pressure. Mechanisms for these and related phenomena are discussed.

  17. Experimental study of the reduction of field emission by gas injection in vacuum for accelerator applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaksour, K.; Kirkpatrick, M. J.; Dessante, Ph.; Odic, E.; Simonin, A.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Lepetit, B.; Alamarguy, D.; Bayle, F.; Teste, Ph.

    2014-10-01

    Field emission current from surfaces under vacuum and at high field strengths can be reduced by the injection of gas into the evacuated volume. In this paper, the effects of H2, He, N2, and Ar on this "dark" current emitted from a tungsten carbide point cathode for 2 cm gap distance is studied. Exposure to any of these gases at pressures on the order of 10-3-10-2 Pa was found to reduce the emission current by up to 90% with a time constant on the order of ˜1 minute as compared to the current at 10-6 Pa. The effect was strongly dependent on the gas nature, with Ar and N2 having larger effects at lower pressures than He and H2. The reduction was reversible, with the current increasing to near its original value with a time constant on the order of ˜1-10 minutes after pumping down. The effect of the gas remained in the absence of electric field, whatever the gas pressure. Mechanisms for these and related phenomena are discussed.

  18. Noise reduction improves memory for target language speech in competing native but not foreign language speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2015-01-01

    A hearing aid noise reduction (NR) algorithm reduces the adverse effect of competing speech on memory for target speech for individuals with hearing impairment with high working memory capacity. In the present study, we investigated whether the positive effect of NR could be extended to individuals with low working memory capacity, as well as how NR influences recall performance for target native speech when the masker language is non-native. A sentence-final word identification and recall (SWIR) test was administered to 26 experienced hearing aid users. In this test, target spoken native language (Swedish) sentence lists were presented in competing native (Swedish) or foreign (Cantonese) speech with or without binary masking NR algorithm. After each sentence list, free recall of sentence final words was prompted. Working memory capacity was measured using a reading span (RS) test. Recall performance was associated with RS. However, the benefit obtained from NR was not associated with RS. Recall performance was more disrupted by native than foreign speech babble and NR improved recall performance in native but not foreign competing speech. Noise reduction improved memory for speech heard in competing speech for hearing aid users. Memory for native speech was more disrupted by native babble than foreign babble, but the disruptive effect of native speech babble was reduced to that of foreign babble when there was NR.

  19. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; hide

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  20. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J; Hearty, Paul J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  1. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hansen

    Full Text Available We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  2. Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth’s measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today’s young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur “slow” feedbacks and eventual warming of 3–4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth’s energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568

  3. Reduction of CO2 emission by INCAM model in Malaysia biomass power plants during the year 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina; Talebian-Kiakalaieh, Amin

    2017-11-15

    As the world's second largest palm oil producer and exporter, Malaysia could capitalize on its oil palm biomass waste for power generation. The emission factors from this renewable energy source are far lower than that of fossil fuels. This study applies an integrated carbon accounting and mitigation (INCAM) model to calculate the amount of CO2 emissions from two biomass thermal power plants. The CO2 emissions released from biomass plants utilizing empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), as alternative fuels for powering steam and gas turbines, were determined using the INCAM model. Each section emitting CO2 in the power plant, known as the carbon accounting center (CAC), was measured for its carbon profile (CP) and carbon index (CI). The carbon performance indicator (CPI) included electricity, fuel and water consumption, solid waste and waste-water generation. The carbon emission index (CEI) and carbon emission profile (CEP), based on the total monthly carbon production, were determined across the CPI. Various innovative strategies resulted in a 20%-90% reduction of CO2 emissions. The implementation of reduction strategies significantly reduced the CO2 emission levels. Based on the model, utilization of EFB and POME in the facilities could significantly reduce the CO2 emissions and increase the potential for waste to energy initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Greenhouse gas emission reduction and environmental quality improvement from implementation of aerobic waste treatment systems in swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; Vives, C A

    2008-01-01

    Trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions is an attractive approach to help producers implement cleaner treatment technologies to replace current anaerobic lagoons. Our objectives were to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from implementation of aerobic technology in USA swine farms. Emission reductions were calculated using the approved United Nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC) methodology in conjunction with monitoring information collected during full-scale demonstration of the new treatment system in a 4360-head swine operation in North Carolina (USA). Emission sources for the project and baseline manure management system were methane (CH4) emissions from the decomposition of manure under anaerobic conditions and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during storage and handling of manure in the manure management system. Emission reductions resulted from the difference between total project and baseline emissions. The project activity included an on-farm wastewater treatment system consisting of liquid-solid separation, treatment of the separated liquid using aerobic biological N removal, chemical disinfection and soluble P removal using lime. The project activity was completed with a centralized facility that used aerobic composting to process the separated solids. Replacement of the lagoon technology with the cleaner aerobic technology reduced GHG emissions 96.9%, from 4972 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) to 153 tonnes CO2-eq/year. Total net emission reductions by the project activity in the 4360-head finishing operation were 4776.6 tonnes CO2-eq per year or 1.10 tonnes CO2-eq/head per year. The dollar value from implementation of this project in this swine farm was US$19,106/year using current Chicago Climate Exchange trading values of US$4/t CO2. This translates into a direct economic benefit to the producer of US$1.75 per finished pig. Thus, GHG emission reductions and credits can help compensate for the

  5. A 3 °C global RCP8.5 emission trajectory cancels benefits of European emission reductions on air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortems-Cheiney, A; Foret, G; Siour, G; Vautard, R; Szopa, S; Dufour, G; Colette, A; Lacressonniere, G; Beekmann, M

    2017-07-25

    Despite the international agreement to reduce global warming to below 2 °C, the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions submitted for the COP21 would lead to a global temperature rise of about 3 °C. The relative consequences of such a one-degree additional warming have not yet been investigated for regional air quality. Here we found that a + 3 °C global pollutant emission trajectory with respect to pre-industrial climate (reached along the 2040-2069 period under a RCP8.5 scenario) would significantly increase European ozone levels relative to a 2 °C one (reached along the 2028-2057 period under a RCP4.5 scenario). This increase is particularly high over industrial regions, large urban areas, and over Southern Europe and would annihilate the benefits of emission reduction policies. The regional ozone increase mainly stems from the advection of ozone at Europe's boundaries, themselves due to high global methane concentrations associated with the RCP8.5 emission scenario. These results make regional emission regulation, combined with emissions-reduction policies for global methane, of crucial importance.Current national pledges to reduce greenhouse gas emissions track to a temperature rise of about 3 °C. Here the authors use future projections to show that 3 °C warming under a business as usual scenario would result in large increases in ozone concentrations, off-setting any benefits from mitigation policies.

  6. Reduction of methyl isothiocyanate atmospheric emissions after application of metam sodium by shank injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajwa, Husein A; Sullivan, David A; Holdsworth, Mark T; Sullivan, Ryan D; Nelson, Shad D

    2013-11-01

    Regulatory initiatives in the United States have created the impetus to reassess application methods for metam sodium (sodium -methyldithiocarbamate), a methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) generator, to reduce flux to the atmosphere. This paper compares flux rates in the years 1990 through 2002 with flux rates based on four studies conducted during the period 2008 through 2010 in California, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Washington using current shank-injection/compaction methods. Up to a 100-fold reduction in peak flux rates and total loss of MITC have been observed. A combination of the following factors led to these reductions in flux: soil moisture goals set at 70% of the field water holding capacity; improved design of shank-injection systems to break up the voids after injection; effective shank compaction to further reduce volatilization; and the use of water sealing, where applicable. These refinements in the application methods for metam sodium provide a means to merge environmental and agricultural goals in the United States and in other countries that use metam sodium. This paper documents the reduced atmospheric emissions of MITC under commercial production conditions when applied using good agricultural practices. This research also shows that MITC flux can be effectively managed without the use of high barrier tarp material. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Pion emission in α-particle interactions with various targets of nuclear emulsion detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, A.; Abou-Moussa, Z.; Rashed, N.; M. Badawy, B.; A. Amer, H.; Osman, W.; M. El-Ashmawy, M.; Abdallah, N.

    2015-09-01

    The behavior of relativistic hadron multiplicity for 4He-nucleus interactions is investigated. The experiment is carried out at 2.1 A and 3.7 A GeV (Dubna energy) to search for the incident energy effect on the interactions inside different emulsion target nuclei. Data are presented in terms of the number of emitted relativistic hadrons in both forward and backward angular zones. The dependence on the target size is presented. For this purpose the statistical events are discriminated into groups according to the interactions with H, CNO, Em, and AgBr target nuclei. The separation of events, into the mentioned groups, is executed based on Glauber's multiple scattering theory approach. Features suggestive of a decay mechanism seem to be a characteristic of the backward emission of relativistic hadrons. The results strongly support the assumption that the relativistic hadrons may already be emitted during the de-excitation of the excited target nucleus, in a behavior like that of compound-nucleus disintegration. Regarding the limiting fragmentation hypothesis beyond 1 A GeV, the target size is the main parameter affecting the backward production of the relativistic hadron. The incident energy is a principal factor responsible for the forward relativistic hadron production, implying that this system of particle production is a creation system. However, the target size is an effective parameter as well as the projectile size considering the geometrical concept regarded in the nuclear fireball model. The data are analyzed in the framework of the FRITIOF model.

  8. Determination of the potential for utilising combined heat and power and of the target reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, inclusive of cost analysis (increased use of combined heat and power); Ermittlung der Potenziale fuer die Anwendung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und der erzielbaren Minderung der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen einschliesslich Bewertung der Kosten (Verstaerkte Nutzung der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Manfred; Ziesing, Hans-Joachim [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Matthes, Felix Christian; Harthan, Ralph [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Menzler, Gerald [VIK Verband der Industriellen Energie- und Kraftwirtschaft e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The report provides a statistical overview of CHP utilisation up to now in Germany, analyses the general economic and political conditions with a view to evaluating the competitiveness of CHP, discusses the effectiveness of the German CHP Act with respect to its contribution to meeting emissions-related goals, analyses the cost-effectiveness of investments in different types of new CHP installations, addresses mid- and longer term potential as well as impediments to the utilisation of CHP installations, presents model simulations of how CHP is expected to develop in the context of economic conditions subject to various general political conditions and makes recommendations with an eye to additional requirements and opportunities to support CHP, against the background of the findings of the analysis. (orig.)

  9. Effects of ferric iron reduction and regeneration on nitrous oxide and methane emissions in a rice soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Yu, Kewei; Gambrell, Robert P

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory soil slurry experiment and an outdoor pot experiment were conducted to study effects of ferric iron (Fe(III)) reduction and regeneration on nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)) emissions in a rice (Oryza sativa L.) soil. The anoxic slurry experiment showed that enhancing microbial Fe(III) reduction by ferrihydrite amendment (40 mol Fe g(-1)) transitionally stimulated N(2)O production and lowered CH(4) production by 16% during an initial 33-day incubation. Increased regeneration of Fe(III) through a 4-day aeration period in the Fe-amended slurry compared to the control slurry reduced CH(4) emission by 30% in the subsequent 15-day anaerobic incubation. The pot experiment showed that ferrihydrite amendment (63 micromol Fe g(-1)) stimulated N(2)O fluxes in the days following flooding. The Fe amendment suppression on CH(4) emission was obscured in the early season but became significant upon reflooding in the mid- and late-seasons. As a result, seasonal CH(4) emission in Fe-amended pots was 26% lower than the control with a single 2-day drainage and 69% lower with a double 2-day drainage. The reduction in CH(4) emission upon reflooding from the Fe-amended pots was mainly attributed to the increased Fe(III) regeneration during drainage showing a mechanism of Fe(III) regeneration in mitigating CH(4) emission by short-term drainage in flooded soils.

  10. Reduction of CO2 diffuse emissions from the traditional ceramic industry by the addition of Si-Al raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, I; Barba-Brioso, C; Campos, P; Romero, A; Galán, E

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of ceramics can produce the emission of several gases, denominated exhaust gases, and also vapours resulting from firing processes, which usually contain metals and toxic substances affecting the environment and the health of workers. Especially harmful are the diffuse emissions of CO2, fluorine, chlorine and sulphur from the ceramics industry, which, in highly industrialized areas, can suppose an important emission focus of dangerous effects. Concerning CO2, factories that use carbonate-rich raw materials (>30% carbonates) can emit high concentrations of CO2 to the atmosphere. Thus, carbonate reduction or substitution with other raw materials would reduce the emissions. In this contribution, we propose the addition of Al-shales to the carbonated ceramic materials (marls) for CO2 emission reduction, also improving the quality of the products. The employed shales are inexpensive materials of large reserves in SW-Spain. The ceramic bodies prepared with the addition of selected Al-shale to marls in variable proportions resulted in a 40%-65% CO2 emission reduction. In addition, this research underlines at the same time that the use of a low-price raw material can also contribute to obtaining products with higher added value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contribution of ICT to Climate Targets of Cities. Exploring the potential of Information and Communication Technologies in reducing emissions and energy use from buildings and travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramers, Anna

    2012-07-01

    This thesis examines how ICT solutions can assist in lowering energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from buildings and travel in order to help cities meet their climate targets. It also provides an overview of relevant research intended to furnish new knowledge about the issues involved and to find solutions to social problems. The first part of the thesis provides an analysis and compilation of critical system boundaries that need to be used for cities to set targets for energy use and GHG emissions. The climate targets of cities are dependent on setting system boundaries and establishing methods of calculations for monitoring whether the targets have been achieved. Today, there is no official standard for how the system boundaries must be set or what calculation methodologies to apply to evaluate the climate targets. Four main categories of system boundaries were identified: the temporal scope, the object of target setting, the unit of target setting, and the target range (e.g. consumer-producer and lifecycle perspective). Eight European cities were examined in relation to how they set climate targets. The examination showed that awareness of what is included in the targets is limited and that there is a need for standardised and consistent protocols and methods of setting climate targets for cities. In the second part of the thesis, leading Advanced Traveller Information Systems (ATIS) and their functionalities were investigated. The relationship between individual decisions on different travel modes and functionalities of ATIS was investigated through a systematic investigation of the functionality of nine ATIS, mainly from Sweden, Germany, UK and USA. This allowed decisions that could lead to lower energy use and emissions of GHG to be identified. It also resulted in a proposal on requirements for new and improved functionality that could support a reduction in energy use and GHG emissions and a shift to renewable energy sources if implemented in next

  12. Carbon emission reductions by substitution of improved cookstoves and cattle mosquito nets in a forest-dependent community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somanta Chan

    2015-07-01

    Substitution of conventional cookstoves with improved cookstoves and the use of mosquito nets instead of fuelwood burning could result in using less fuelwood for the same amount of energy needed and thereby result in reduction of carbon emissions and deforestation. To realize this substitution, approximately US$ 15–25 MgCO2−1 is needed depending on discount rates and amounts of emission reduction. Substitution of cookstoves will have direct impacts on the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities and on forest protection. Financial incentives under voluntary and mandatory schemes are needed to materialize this substitution.

  13. The impact of transportation control measures on emission reductions during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wu, Ye; Yang, Liu; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming; Chen, Jinchuan; Li, Chunyan

    2010-01-01

    Traffic congestion and air pollution were two major challenges for the planners of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. The Beijing municipal government implemented a package of temporary transportation control measures during the event. In this paper, we report the results of a recent research project that investigated the effects of these measures on urban motor vehicle emissions in Beijing. Bottom-up methodology has been used to develop grid-based emission inventories with micro-scale vehicle activities and speed-dependent emission factors. The urban traffic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) during the 2008 Olympics were reduced by 55.5%, 56.8%, 45.7% and 51.6%, respectively, as compared to the grid-based emission inventory before the Olympics. Emission intensity was derived from curbside air quality monitoring at the North 4th Ring Road site, located about 7 km from the National Stadium. Comparison between the emission intensity before and during the 2008 Olympics shows a reduction of 44.5% and 49.0% in daily CO and NO x emission from motor vehicles. The results suggest that reasonable traffic system improvement strategies along with vehicle technology improvements can contribute to controlling total motor vehicle emissions in Beijing after the Olympic Games.

  14. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the rape cultivation with special consideration of nitrogen fertilization; Minderung von Treibhausgasemissionen im Rapsanbau unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Stickstoffduengung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmann, Hubert [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow-Pruezen (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenproduktion und Betriebswirtschaft; Riemer, Doerte

    2017-08-01

    Involved into the research project ''Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in oilseed rape cropping with special consideration of nitrogen fertilizing'' regional specific GHG cropping emissions according to benchmark and regional experts are calculated by using a calculation method developed in cooperation with IFEU and according to IPCC (2006). The following results are achieved for 35 German NUTS2-regions: - nitrogen fertilization is the main influence for GHG emission reduction; - the use of low-emission nitrogen fertilizers is worth for GHG emission reduction; - without increasing the nutrient efficiency of organic fertilizers, GHG emission reductions are difficult to achieve in many regions; - GHG emission reduction/climate protection and realization of the WRRL or N-Saldo reduction come up to the same aim; - economic consequences of restrictive carbon mitigation can be compensated by slight price surcharges for certified raw material.

  15. Aerosol exposure versus aerosol cooling of climate: what is the optimal emission reduction strategy for human health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Löndahl

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Particles, climate change, and health have thought-provoking interactions. Air pollution is one of the largest environmental problems concerning human health. On the other hand, aerosol particles can have a cooling effect on climate and a reduction of those emissions may result in an increased temperature globally, which in turn may have negative health effects. The objective of this work was to investigate the "total health effects" of aerosol emissions, which include both exposure to particles and consequences for climate change initiated by particles. As a case study the "total health effect" from ship emissions was derived by subtracting the number of deaths caused by exposure with the estimated number of lives saved from the cooling effect of the emissions. The analysis showed that, with current level of scientific understanding, it could not be determined whether ship emissions are negative or positive for human health on a short time scale. This first attempt to approximate the combined effect of particle emissions on health shows that reductions of particulate air pollution will in some cases (black carbon have win-win effects on health and climate, but sometimes also cause a shift from particle exposure-related health effects towards an increasing risk of health consequences from climate change. Thus, measures to reduce aerosol emissions have to be coupled with climate change mitigation actions to achieve a full health benefit on a global level.

  16. Energy savings, emission reductions, and health co-benefits of the green building movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P, MacNaughton; X, Cao; J, Buonocore; J, Cedeno-Laurent; J, Spengler; A, Bernstein; J, Allen

    2018-01-30

    Buildings consume nearly 40% of primary energy production globally. Certified green buildings substantially reduce energy consumption on a per square foot basis and they also focus on indoor environmental quality. However, the co-benefits to health through reductions in energy and concomitant reductions in air pollution have not been examined.We calculated year by year LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification rates in six countries (the United States, China, India, Brazil, Germany, and Turkey) and then used data from the Green Building Information Gateway (GBIG) to estimate energy savings in each country each year. Of the green building rating schemes, LEED accounts for 32% of green-certified floor space and publically reports energy efficiency data. We employed Harvard's Co-BE Calculator to determine pollutant emissions reductions by country accounting for transient energy mixes and baseline energy use intensities. Co-BE applies the social cost of carbon and the social cost of atmospheric release to translate these reductions into health benefits. Based on modeled energy use, LEED-certified buildings saved $7.5B in energy costs and averted 33MT of CO 2 , 51 kt of SO 2 , 38 kt of NO x , and 10 kt of PM 2.5 from entering the atmosphere, which amounts to $5.8B (lower limit = $2.3B, upper limit = $9.1B) in climate and health co-benefits from 2000 to 2016 in the six countries investigated. The U.S. health benefits derive from avoiding an estimated 172-405 premature deaths, 171 hospital admissions, 11,000 asthma exacerbations, 54,000 respiratory symptoms, 21,000 lost days of work, and 16,000 lost days of school. Because the climate and health benefits are nearly equivalent to the energy savings for green buildings in the United States, and up to 10 times higher in developing countries, they provide an important and previously unquantified societal value. Future analyses should consider these co-benefits when weighing policy

  17. Modeling of municipal greenhouse gas emissions. Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions and the reduction possibilities of Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries de, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Summary Municipalities represent an active governmental layer in the Netherlands. They often have ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this way the municipalities take responsibility to reduce the threat of global warming. To implement effect

  18. HDAC4 reduction: a novel therapeutic strategy to target cytoplasmic huntingtin and ameliorate neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mielcarek

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC 4 is a transcriptional repressor that contains a glutamine-rich domain. We hypothesised that it may be involved in the molecular pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD, a protein-folding neurodegenerative disorder caused by an aggregation-prone polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein. We found that HDAC4 associates with huntingtin in a polyglutamine-length-dependent manner and co-localises with cytoplasmic inclusions. We show that HDAC4 reduction delayed cytoplasmic aggregate formation, restored Bdnf transcript levels, and rescued neuronal and cortico-striatal synaptic function in HD mouse models. This was accompanied by an improvement in motor coordination, neurological phenotypes, and increased lifespan. Surprisingly, HDAC4 reduction had no effect on global transcriptional dysfunction and did not modulate nuclear huntingtin aggregation. Our results define a crucial role for the cytoplasmic aggregation process in the molecular pathology of HD. HDAC4 reduction presents a novel strategy for targeting huntingtin aggregation, which may be amenable to small-molecule therapeutics.

  19. Targetting redox polymers as mediators for laccase oxygen reduction in a membrane-less biofuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriere, Frederic [Universite de Rennes I, Institut de Chimie, UMR CNRS 6510, 35042 Rennes (France); Ferry, Yvonne; Leech, Donal [Department of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Rochefort, Dominic [Departement de Chimie, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Que. (Canada)

    2004-03-01

    Electrodes modified with co-immobilized redox enzymes and redox polymers can be used to form membrane-less biofuel cells. In this communication, we report on our initial studies of a membrane-less biofuel cell concept using an osmium-based redox polymer for laccase-mediated reduction of oxygen coupled to glucose oxidase-mediated oxidation of glucose. We then present a thermodynamic examination of mediators of laccase oxygen reduction, and stemming from this, target two redox polymers of potential use, an osmium-based redox polymer (E{sup 0'}+0.40 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and a ruthenium-based redox polymer (E{sup 0'}+0.63 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The former shows promise for use in membrane-less biofuel cell cathodes, whilst the latter's redox potential is too high to be an effective mediator of oxygen reduction by the Trametes versicolor laccase used in this study.

  20. How are particle production, nucleon emission and target fragment evaporation processes interrelated in hadron-nucleus collisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Relations between particle production, nucleon emission, and fragment evaporation processes were searched for in hadron-nucleus collisions. It was stated that: (1) the nucleon emission and target fragment evaporation proceed independently of the particle production process; and (2) relation between multiplicities of the emitted protons and of the evaporated charged fragments is expressed by simple formula.

  1. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-08-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

  2. Multispectral radiation detection of small changes in target emissivity. [ice measurements on space shuttle external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, J. A.; Newton, J. M.; Schuchardt, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation into the multispectral radiation detection of small changes in target emissivity has been performed by Georgia Tech. A series of ice detection measurements on the shuttle external tank (ET) were performed using an advanced instrumentation radiometer operating at 35/95 GHz. Actual shuttle ET ice detection measurements were run at NASA's National Space Technology Laboratory (NSTL) during cryogenic fueling operations prior to orbiter engine firing tests. Investigations revealed that ET icing caused an increase in surface brightness temperature and the test results further demonstrated the usefulness of millimeter wave radiometry for the detection of ice on the ET.

  3. Elements for a policy of greenhouse effect gases reduction; Elements pour une politique de reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    In the framework of the ''Grenelle de l'environnement'' on the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, the authors aim to offer propositions and recommendations for the future energy policy. They explain the possible confusions. They discuss the economic efficiency of propositions of CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, the actions propositions in the different sectors and the axis of research and development. (A.L.B.)

  4. A survey of differentiation methods for national greenhouse gas reduction targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern; Godal, Odd

    1999-11-01

    The aim of the report is to contribute to exploring the potential differentiation methods for national greenhouse gas reduction targets. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) from 1997 established differentiation of targets among countries. A more systematic approach to differentiation would facilitate future negotiations. Three sources of methods or proposals are employed. The first are proposals from the Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate (AGBM) process from 1995 until the Kyoto Protocol was adopted in December 1997, in all 17 proposals were selected. The second source is the EU`s Triptique approach for differentiation of targets among its member states. The third source is recent academic literature where 8 contributions from the period 1992 to 1998 were included. The proposals are presented in a catalogue style. Based on 4 criteria on the usefulness of proposals or methods for future negotiations we have chosen 5 proposals, a Japanese, French, Norwegian, Brazilian in addition to the EU`s Triptique approach. Some numerical illustrations for the Baltic Sea region are presented. Given the joint Kyoto Protocol reduction target for the region we compare the burden sharing consequences for the proposals. For illustrations we employ the following fairness principles as differentiation methods: 1) The Sovereignty principle. 2) The Egalitarian principle. 3) The Ability to Pay principle. With the aim to evaluate the political feasibility of the various differentiation methods we compare the results across the countries in the Baltic Sea region and divide them into OECD and EIT countries. The outcome of the Kyoto Protocol is interpreted as an example of a politically feasible differentiation scheme. On the basis of the observations we find principles 1) and 2) less interesting. A ranking of the differentiation methods according to political feasibility is made and discussed. Among the countries in the Baltic Sea region

  5. Pion emission from the T2K replica target: method, results and application

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Argyriades, J.; Baatar, B.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Busygina, O.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Feofilov, G.A.; Fodor, Z.; Ferrero, A.; Fulop, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grabez, B.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hakobyan, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Idczak, R.; Igolkin, S.; Ivanov, Y.; Ivashkin, A.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Katrynska, N.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikola, D.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kiss, T.; Kleinfelder, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kochebina, O.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kurepin, A.; Lacey, R.; Larsen, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A.I.; Maletic, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Maris, I.; Marin, V.; Marton, K.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Messina, M.; Mrowczynski, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Paul, T.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Planeta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadala, M.; Pulawski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Robert, A.; Rohrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Savic, M.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Shibata, M.; Sipos, M.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Strabel, C.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tolyhi, T.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Wilczek, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Wyszynski, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.; Hartz, M.; Ichikawa, A.K.; Kubo, H.; Marino, A.D.; Matsuoka, K.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yuan, T.; Zimmerman, E.D.

    2013-01-01

    The T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan needs precise predictions of the initial neutrino flux. The highest precision can be reached based on detailed measurements of hadron emission from the same target as used by T2K exposed to a proton beam of the same kinetic energy of 30 GeV. The corresponding data were recorded in 2007-2010 by the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS using a replica of the T2K graphite target. In this paper details of the experiment, data taking, data analysis method and results from the 2007 pilot run are presented. Furthermore, the application of the NA61/SHINE measurements to the predictions of the T2K initial neutrino flux is described and discussed.

  6. FUGITIVE EMISSION REDUCTIONS DUE TO THE USE OF ENCLOSED DOCTOR BLADE SYSTEMS IN THE FLEXOGRAPHIC AND ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a quantification of the level of fugitive emission reductions resulting from the use of enclosed doctor blade (EDB) systems in place of traditional ink feed systems at flexographic and rotogravure printing operations. An EDB system is an innovative ink...

  7. 40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Continuous Compliance Demonstration Methods With the Emission Reduction and PM Concentration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Methods With the Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements 4 Table 4 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part... Concentration Requirements If you are demonstrating compliance with the * * * You must demonstrate continuous...) or an outlet concentration of 0.03 gr/dscf or less Using one of the following monitoring methods:a. A...

  8. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Initial Compliance Demonstration Methods With the Emission Reduction and PM Concentration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Methods With the Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements 2 Table 2 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part... Concentration Requirements If you are demonstrating compliance with the * * * You must demonstrate initial... (98 percent for new sources) or an outlet concentration of 0.03 gr/dscf or less. a. Perform a PM...

  9. Proceedings of IEA combustion 2010: IEA 32. task leaders meeting on energy conservation and emissions reduction in combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The 32nd task leaders meeting on energy conservation and emissions reduction in combustion was held in Nara, Japan, from July 25th to July 29th, 2010. This conference, organized by the International Energy Agency and entitled, IEA combustion 2010, gathered experts together to discuss the implementation of an agreement on energy conservation and emission reduction in the combustion sector. The conference was attended by people working on combustion applications, such as members from the industry and government representatives, who had the opportunity to listen to presentations given by experts and dealing with some of the newest technologies and research aimed at improving energy efficiency and thereby lowering gas emissions in combustion applications. Participants were given the opportunity to network with their peers and share their expertise. 30 out of the 39 papers presented during this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  10. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  11. Comparative study of radiation emission without and with target in a 2.2 kJ plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Muhammad Zubair, E-mail: mzubairkhan-um76@yahoo.com [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia and Department of Physics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Ling, Yap Seong; San, Wong Chiow [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-03-24

    The radiation emission in a 2.2 kJ Mather-type dense plasma focus device is investigated using a five channel BPX65 PIN diode spectrometer. Estimated X-ray associated with the hollow anode without and with target in Argon gas medium is compared. At optimum conditions, the radiation emission from the system is found to be strongly influenced with target in hollow anode and the filling gas pressure. The maximum X-ray yield in 4π sr was obtained in case of hollow anode in argon gas medium with target 'Lead' due to interaction of electron beam. Results indicated that an appropriate design of hollow anode with target could enhance the radiation emission by more intense interaction of expected electron beam with target. The outcomes are helpful in designing a plasma focus with enhanced X-ray radiation with improved shot to shot reproducibility in plasma focus device.

  12. Proton emission from thin hydrogenated targets irradiated by laser pulses at 1016 W/cm2a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Giuffrida, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Cirrone, P.; Picciotto, A.; Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Laska, L.; Ullschmied, J.; Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.; Rosinski, M.

    2012-02-01

    The iodine laser at PALS Laboratory in Prague, operating at 1315 nm fundamental harmonics and at 300 ps FWHM pulse length, is employed to irradiate thin hydrogenated targets placed in vacuum at intensities on the order of 1016 W/cm2. The laser-generated plasma is investigated in terms of proton and ion emission in the forward and backward directions. The time-of-flight technique, using ion collectors and semiconductor detectors, is used to measure the ion currents and the corresponding velocities and energies. Thomson parabola spectrometer is employed to separate the contribution of the ion emission from single laser shots. A particular attention is given to the proton production in terms of the maximum energy, emission yield, and angular distribution as a function of the laser energy, focal position, target thickness, and composition. Metallic and polymeric targets allow to generate protons with large energy range and different yield, depending on the laser, target composition, and target geometry properties.

  13. Alcohol harm reduction advertisements: a content analysis of topic, objective, emotional tone, execution and target audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstone, Kimberley; Brennan, Emily; Slater, Michael D; Dixon, Helen G; Durkin, Sarah J; Pettigrew, Simone; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2017-04-11

    Public health mass media campaigns may contribute to reducing the health and social burden attributed to alcohol consumption, but little is known about which advertising characteristics have been used, or have been effective, in alcohol harm reduction campaigns to date. As a first step towards encouraging further research to identify the impact of various advertising characteristics, this study aimed to systematically identify and examine the content of alcohol harm reduction advertisements (ads). Ads were identified through an exhaustive internet search of Google, YouTube, Vimeo, and relevant government and health agency websites. Eligible ads were: English language, produced between 2006 and 2014, not primarily focused on drink-driving or alcohol in pregnancy, and not alcohol industry funded. Systematic content analysis of all ads was performed; each ad was double-coded. In total, 110 individual ads from 72 different alcohol harm reduction campaigns were identified, with the main source countries being Australia (40%) and the United Kingdom (26%). The dominant topic for 52% of ads was short-term harms, while 10% addressed long-term harms, 18% addressed underage drinking, 17% communicated a how-to-change message, and 3% advocated for policy change. The behavioural objective of most ads was to motivate audiences to reduce their alcohol consumption (38%) or to behave responsibly and/or not get drunk when drinking (33%). Only 10% of all ads mentioned low-risk drinking guidelines. Eighty-seven percent of ads used a dramatisation execution style and 74% had a negative emotional tone. Ninety percent of ads contained messages or content that appeared to target adults, and 36% specifically targeted young adults. Some message attributes have been employed more frequently than others, suggesting several promising avenues for future audience or population-based research to compare the relative effectiveness of different characteristics of alcohol harm reduction ads. Given

  14. Alcohol harm reduction advertisements: a content analysis of topic, objective, emotional tone, execution and target audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Dunstone

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health mass media campaigns may contribute to reducing the health and social burden attributed to alcohol consumption, but little is known about which advertising characteristics have been used, or have been effective, in alcohol harm reduction campaigns to date. As a first step towards encouraging further research to identify the impact of various advertising characteristics, this study aimed to systematically identify and examine the content of alcohol harm reduction advertisements (ads. Method Ads were identified through an exhaustive internet search of Google, YouTube, Vimeo, and relevant government and health agency websites. Eligible ads were: English language, produced between 2006 and 2014, not primarily focused on drink-driving or alcohol in pregnancy, and not alcohol industry funded. Systematic content analysis of all ads was performed; each ad was double-coded. Results In total, 110 individual ads from 72 different alcohol harm reduction campaigns were identified, with the main source countries being Australia (40% and the United Kingdom (26%. The dominant topic for 52% of ads was short-term harms, while 10% addressed long-term harms, 18% addressed underage drinking, 17% communicated a how-to-change message, and 3% advocated for policy change. The behavioural objective of most ads was to motivate audiences to reduce their alcohol consumption (38% or to behave responsibly and/or not get drunk when drinking (33%. Only 10% of all ads mentioned low-risk drinking guidelines. Eighty-seven percent of ads used a dramatisation execution style and 74% had a negative emotional tone. Ninety percent of ads contained messages or content that appeared to target adults, and 36% specifically targeted young adults. Conclusions Some message attributes have been employed more frequently than others, suggesting several promising avenues for future audience or population-based research to compare the relative effectiveness of

  15. Efficiency and emissions improvement of gas-fired space heaters. Task 2. Unvented space heater emission reduction. Final report February-August 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawacki, T.S.; Cole, J.T.; Huang, V.M.S.; Banasiuk, H.; Macriss, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    The intent of this study was to investigate simple methods of reducing emissions, specifically NOx, in a typical unvented space heater. The basic design was to be retained, and changes limited to minor modifications to achieve the desired results. In this respect, it was determined that a significant reduction in the NOx levels was possible by relatively simple applications of appropriate burner inserts. However, GRI has been reviewing indoor air quality and has, subsequent to the completion of this work, added emphasis on the reduction of NO2 as well as NOx. In this light, the suitability of some of the reported techniques is questionable.

  16. Evaluation of carbon emission reductions promoted by private driving restrictions based on automatic fare collection data in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wandi; Chen, Feng; Wang, Zijia; Huang, Jianling; Wang, Bo

    2017-11-01

    Public transportation automatic fare collection (AFC) systems are able to continuously record large amounts of passenger travel information, providing massive, low-cost data for research on regulations pertaining to public transport. These data can be used not only to analyze characteristics of passengers' trips but also to evaluate transport policies that promote a travel mode shift and emission reduction. In this study, models combining card, survey, and geographic information systems (GIS) data are established with a research focus on the private driving restriction policies being implemented in an ever-increasing number of cities. The study aims to evaluate the impact of these policies on the travel mode shift, as well as relevant carbon emission reductions. The private driving restriction policy implemented in Beijing is taken as an example. The impact of the restriction policy on the travel mode shift from cars to subways is analyzed through a model based on metro AFC data. The routing paths of these passengers are also analyzed based on the GIS method and on survey data, while associated carbon emission reductions are estimated. The analysis method used in this study can provide reference for the application of big data in evaluating transport policies. Motor vehicles have become the most prevalent source of emissions and subsequently air pollution within Chinese cities. The evaluation of the effects of driving restriction policies on the travel mode shift and vehicle emissions will be useful for other cities in the future. Transport big data, playing an important support role in estimating the travel mode shift and emission reduction considered, can help related departments to estimate the effects of traffic jam alleviation and environment improvement before the implementation of these restriction policies and provide a reference for relevant decisions.

  17. Emissions and reduction of greenhouse gases from agriculture and food manufacturing -- A summary white paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.

    1999-12-01

    This paper summarizes the current scientific and technological knowledge about greenhouse gas emissions from various agricultural practices and the manufacturing of food. The study also provides estimates that compare agriculture-related alternatives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. The impacts of electricity dispatch protocols on the emission reductions due to wind power and carbon tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Rajagopal, Ram

    2015-02-17

    Two dispatch protocols have been adopted by electricity markets to deal with the uncertainty of wind power but the effects of the selection between the dispatch protocols have not been comprehensively analyzed. We establish a framework to compare the impacts of adopting different dispatch protocols on the efficacy of using wind power and implementing a carbon tax to reduce emissions. We suggest that a market has high potential to achieve greater emission reduction by adopting the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the static protocol when the wind energy in the market is highly uncertain or the market has enough adjustable generators, such as gas-fired combustion generators. Furthermore, the carbon-tax policy is more cost-efficient for reducing CO2 emission when the market operates according to the stochastic protocol rather than the static protocol. An empirical study, which is calibrated according to the data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas market, confirms that using wind energy in the Texas market results in a 12% CO2 emission reduction when the market uses the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the 8% emission reduction associated with the static protocol. In addition, if a 6$/ton carbon tax is implemented in the Texas market operated according to the stochastic protocol, the CO2 emission is similar to the emission level from the same market with a 16$/ton carbon tax operated according to the static protocol. Correspondingly, the 16$/ton carbon tax associated with the static protocol costs 42.6% more than the 6$/ton carbon tax associated with the stochastic protocol.

  19. Triton Emission Spectra in Some Target Nuclei Irradiated by Ultra-Fast Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Kaplan, A.; Aydın, A.; Büyükuslu, H.; Demirkol, İ.; Arasoğlu, A.

    2010-08-01

    High-current proton accelerator technologies make use of spallation neutrons produced in ( p,xn) and ( n,xn) nuclear reactions on high-Z targets. The produced neutrons are moderated by heavy water. These moderated neutrons are subsequently captured on 3He to produce tritium via the ( n,p) reaction. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. So, working out the systematics of ( n,t) reaction cross sections and triton emission differential data are important for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at different energies. In this study, triton emission spectra by using ultra-fast neutrons (incident neutron energy >50 MeV), the ( n,xt) reactions for some target nuclei as 16O, 27Al, 56Fe, 59Co, 208Pb and 209Bi have been investigated. In the calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been used. The calculated results have been compared with the experimental data taken from the literature.

  20. Positron emission tomography in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Towards targeting of molecular pathological hallmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willekens, Stefanie M.A.; Weehaeghe, Donatienne van [University Hospitals Leuven and KU Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Damme, Philip van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Neurosciences, Experimental Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Leuven Research Institute for Neuroscience and Disease (LIND), Leuven (Belgium); VIB, Vesalius Research Center, Laboratory of Neurobiology, Leuven (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospitals Leuven and KU Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Leuven Research Institute for Neuroscience and Disease (LIND), Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-03-15

    During the past decades, extensive efforts have been made to expand the knowledge of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, clinical translation of this research, in terms of earlier diagnosis and improved therapy, remains challenging. Since more than 30% of motor neurons are lost when symptoms become clinically apparent, techniques allowing non-invasive, in vivo detection of motor neuron degeneration are needed in the early, pre-symptomatic disease stage. Furthermore, it has become apparent that non-motor signs play an important role in the disease and there is an overlap with cognitive disorders, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Radionuclide imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), form an attractive approach to quantitatively monitor the ongoing neurodegenerative processes. Although [{sup 18}F]-FDG has been recently proposed as a potential biomarker for ALS, active targeting of the underlying pathologic molecular processes is likely to unravel further valuable disease information and may help to decipher the pathogenesis of ALS. In this review, we provide an overview of radiotracers that have already been applied in ALS and discuss possible novel targets for in vivo imaging of various pathogenic processes underlying ALS onset and progression. (orig.)

  1. The impact of German CO{sub 2}-reduction targets on the European electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.

    2016-07-01

    The topic ''CO{sub 2}-reduction within the electric power system'' should actually be preceded by a more general remark on the efficiency of energy policy from a macroeconomic perspective. An efficient and effective energy policy necessitates that the primary targets of such an energy policy, namely safeguarding a sustainable energy supply as well as considering environmental and climate objectives, are attained at the lowest possible costs. This corresponds to the general economic principle according to which given goals are to be achieved with relatively little effort and/or investments. That is beyond doubt because it means nothing else than to avoid any unnecessary waste of resources in order to reach such objectives.

  2. Misperceived climate friendliness of organic food and consumer willingness to pay for actual greenhouse gas emission reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Christensen, Tove; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    organic food production to be more climate friendly than conventional food production. In the present investigation it’s assumed that consumers also have access to foods from production systems with a documented climate action plan to reduce GHG emissions. We test the hypothesis that misperceptions about...... the climate friendliness of organic production negatively affect consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for food products with documented GHG emission reductions. Secondly, we aim to identify segments of consumers that are meaningful in terms of predicting which types of consumers are likely to be interested......, and whether it was produced at farms with contracts to reduce emissions of GHG. On average, consumers who perceived organic farming to be more climate friendly than conventional farming also had a higher WTP for beef from farms with documented reduced GHG emissions. Thus, the survey did not confirm...

  3. A Modeled Carbon Emission Analysis Of Rampal Power Plant In Bangladesh And A Review Of Carbon Reduction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gour Chand Mazumder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available todays most important concern of Bangladesh is power generation. Government has planned a 1320 MW coal-fired power station at Rampal near Sundarbans. Environmentalists have indicated that this plant will face environmental issues. So we tried finding the capability of Sundarbans to face carbon emissions. We figured out approximate carbon emission of that power plant using an arbitrary operational model. We found 3.16MKg of carbon emission daily. We used mangroves carbon sequestration rate to calculate the carbon tolerance level of Sundarbans and found approximately 4.2 MKg of carbon per day.The amount of emission we found here is marginal with the ability of Sundarbans as it is already contributing to sequester carbon from other sources. We studied and showed technology wise carbon reductions. It is possible to reduce 90 to 95 carbon emissioby using these technologies. We recommend these advanced technologies to ensure sundarbans environmental safety.

  4. Reduction of ruminant methane emissions - a win-win-win opportunity for business, development, and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, R. [Appropriate Technology International, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes research efforts of The Global Livestock Producers Program (GLPP) in establishing self-sustaining enterprises for cost-effective technologies (i.e., animal nutrition and genetic improvement) and global methane emissions reductions in developing world nations. The US Environmental Protection Agency has funded several studies to examine the possibilities of reducing ruminant methane emissions in India, Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Brazil. The results of the studies showed that: (1) many developing countries` production systems are inefficient, and (2) great potential exists for decreasing global methane emissions through increasing animal productivity. From this effort, the GLPP established livestock development projects in India, Zimbabwe, and Tanzania, and is developing projects for Bangladesh, Nepal, and Brazil. The GLPP has developed a proven methodology for assessing ruminant methane and incorporating methane emissions monitoring into viable projects.

  5. Measurement of ammonia emissions from three ammonia emission reduction systems for dairy cattle using a dynamic flux chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooren, van H.J.C.; Mosquera, J.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest among dairy farmers in The Netherlands for animal friendly housing systems that at the same moment reduce the ammonia emission compared to currently available systems. Therefore, there is a need for a relatively cheap and easy measuring method to investigate the

  6. Sensitivity of Surface Air Quality and Global Mortality to Global, Regional, and Sectoral Black Carbon Emission Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, S.; Talgo, K.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; Arunachalam, S.; West, J.

    2010-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) released during incomplete combustion, is associated with atmospheric warming and deleterious health impacts, including premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. A growing body of literature suggests that controlling emissions may therefore have dual benefits for climate and health. Several studies have focused on quantifying the potential impacts of reducing BC emissions from various world regions and economic sectors on radiative forcing. However, the impacts of these reductions on human health have been less well studied. Here, we use a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4) and a health impact function to quantify the surface air quality and human health benefits of controlling BC emissions. We simulate a base case and several emission control scenarios, where anthropogenic BC emissions are reduced by half globally, individually in each of eight world regions, and individually from the residential, industrial, and transportation sectors. We also simulate a global 50% reduction of both BC and organic carbon (OC) together, since they are co-emitted and both are likely to be impacted by actual control measures. Meteorology and biomass burning emissions are for the year 2002 with anthropogenic BC and OC emissions for 2000 from the IPCC AR5 inventory. Model performance is evaluated by comparing to global surface measurements of PM2.5 components. Avoided premature mortalities are calculated using the change in PM2.5 concentration between the base case and emission control scenarios and a concentration-response factor for chronic mortality from the epidemiology literature.

  7. Effectiveness of selective catalytic reduction systems on reducing gaseous emissions from an engine using diesel and biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borillo, Guilherme C; Tadano, Yara S; Godoi, Ana F L; Santana, Simone S M; Weronka, Fernando M; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Potgieter, Johannes H; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2015-03-03

    The aim of this investigation was to quantify organic and inorganic gas emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. Using a bench dynamometer, the emissions from the following mixtures were evaluated using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer: low-sulfur diesel (LSD), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20). For all studied fuels, the use of the SCR system yielded statistically significant (p < 0.05) lower NOx emissions. In the case of the LSD and ULSD fuels, the SCR system also significantly reduced emissions of compounds with high photochemical ozone creation potential, such as formaldehyde. However, for all tested fuels, the SCR system produced significantly (p < 0.05) higher emissions of N2O. In the case of LSD, the NH3 emissions were elevated, and in the case of ULSD and B20 fuels, the non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and total hydrocarbon of diesel (HCD) emissions were significantly higher.

  8. Air pollution emission reduction techniques in combustion plants; Technique de reduction des emissions de polluants atmospheriques dans les installations de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouscaren, R. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Separating techniques offer a large choice between various procedures for air pollution reduction in combustion plants: mechanical, electrical, filtering, hydraulic, chemical, physical, catalytic, thermal and biological processes. Many environment-friendly equipment use such separating techniques, particularly for dust cleaning and fume desulfurizing and more recently for the abatement of volatile organic pollutants or dioxins and furans. These processes are briefly described

  9. The costs of emission reduction policies, markets for emission rights: what can we learn from the models?; Couts des politiques de reduction, marches de droits d'emission: que disent les modeles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, O. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie, IEPE CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2001-01-01

    Several models have been developed to assess the economic impacts of the commitments undertaken at Kyoto by the various parties to the Framework Agreement on Climatic Change. Following a seminar organised by the European Commission, the task here is to take stock of the various points of agreement or the differences made apparent by the models concerning the economic challenges relating to the Kyoto protocol. Qualitatively, the results are similar on several points: the implementation of the Kyoto protocol within the countries of appendix B represents a cost for these economies, except for those countries possessing hot air compared to an autarkic situation, the exchange of emission rights leads to a gain for each of the participants in the market but the setting of a ceiling for these exchanges brings about a reduction in global gains from exchange and strongly affects the division of these gains between countries. Finally, the recognition of families of greenhouse gas other than CO{sub 2} reduces the costs of observing the Kyoto commitments. However, the quantitative results frequently diverge, both due to the type of model used (general or sector based balance) and the hypotheses chosen for the exogenous variables. It is therefore important to carry out awareness analyses, to propose sets of common hypotheses for certain exogenous variables and even to define a reference scenario common to all of the models in order to be able to re-examine the results, but this time on a common basis. The tasks of modelling should also be continued and enhanced in the following areas: What are the impacts of an emission rights market at a sector-based level (beginning with industry)? What is the exact effect of the inclusion of the six families of greenhouse gas and the absorption of carbon by the wells? Finally, what are the possibilities of differing objectives concerning a second round of commitments (post Kyoto)? (author)

  10. Targeting thioredoxin reductase 1 reduction in cancer cells inhibits self-sufficient growth and DNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hyuk Yoo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1 is a major redox regulator in mammalian cells. As an important antioxidant selenoprotein, TR1 is thought to participate in cancer prevention, but is also known to be over-expressed in many cancer cells. Numerous cancer drugs inhibit TR1, and this protein has been proposed as a target for cancer therapy. We previously reported that reduction of TR1 levels in cancer cells reversed many malignant characteristics suggesting that deficiency in TR1 function is antitumorigenic. The molecular basis for TR1's role in cancer development, however, is not understood. Herein, we found that, among selenoproteins, TR1 is uniquely overexpressed in cancer cells and its knockdown in a mouse cancer cell line driven by oncogenic k-ras resulted in morphological changes characteristic of parental (normal cells, without significant effect on cell growth under normal growth conditions. When grown in serum-deficient medium, TR1 deficient cancer cells lose self-sufficiency of growth, manifest a defective progression in their S phase and a decreased expression of DNA polymerase alpha, an enzyme important in DNA replication. These observations provide evidence that TR1 is critical for self-sufficiency in growth signals of malignant cells, that TR1 acts largely as a pro-cancer protein and it is indeed a primary target in cancer therapy.

  11. Reduction on NOx emissions on urban areas by changing specific vehicle fleets: effects on NO2 and O3 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, M.; Jimenez, P.; Baldasano, J.

    2007-12-01

    The largest amount of NOx emissions in urban areas comes from on-road traffic, which is the largest contributor to urban air pollution (Colvile et al., 2001). Currently different strategies are being tested in order to reduce its effects; many of them oriented to the reduction of the unitary vehicles emissions, by alternative fuels use (such as biofuels, natural gas or hydrogen) or introduction of new technologies (such as hybrid electric vehicles or fuel cells). Atmospheric modelling permits to predict their consequences on tropospheric chemistry (Vautard et al., 2007). Hence, this work assesses the changes on NO2 and O3 concentrations when substituting a 10 per cent of the urban private cars fleets by petrol hybrid electric cars (HEC) or by natural gas cars (NGC) in Madrid and Barcelona urban areas (Spain). These two cities are selected in order to highlight the different patterns of pollutants transport (inland vs. coastal city) and the different responses to emissions reductions. The results focus on a typical summertime episode of air pollution, by means of the Eulerian air quality model ARW- WRF/HERMES/CMAQ, applied with high resolution (1-hr, 1km2) since of the complexity of both areas under study. The detailed emissions scenarios are implemented in the HERMES traffic emissions module, based on the Copert III-EEA/EMEP-CORINAIR (Nztiachristos and Samaras, 2000) methodology. The HEC introduction reduces NOx emissions from on-road traffic in a 10.8 per cent and 8.2 per cent; and the NGC introduction in a 10.3 per cent and 7.8 per cent, for Madrid and Barcelona areas, respectively. The scenarios also affect the NMVOCs reduction (ranging from -3.1 to -6.9 per cent), influencing the tropospheric photochemistry through the NOx/NMVOCs ratio. The abatement of the NO photooxidation but also to the reduction on primary NO2 involves a decrease on NO2 levels centred on urban areas. For example, the NO2 24-hr average concentration in downtown areas reduces up to 8 per

  12. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ding [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Wenying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  13. A non-aqueous reduction process for purifying ¹⁵³Gd produced in natural europium targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Amanda M; Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2013-12-01

    Gadolinium-153 is a low-energy gamma-emitter used in nuclear medicine imaging quality assurance. Produced in nuclear reactors using natural Eu₂O₃ targets, ¹⁵³Gd is radiochemically separated from europium isotopes by europium reduction. However, conventional aqueous europium reduction produces hydrogen gas, a flammability hazard in radiological hot cells. We altered the traditional reduction method, using methanol as the process solvent to nearly eliminate hydrogen gas production. This new, non-aqueous reduction process demonstrates greater than 98% europium removal and gadolinium yields of 90%. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling study on the air quality impacts from emission reductions and atypical meteorological conditions during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jia; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Shuxiao; Liu, Xiaohuan; Cheng, Shuhui; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yaosheng; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Wenxing

    2011-04-01

    Understanding of the relative impacts of emission reductions and meteorological variations on air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics has an important policy implication. In this work, detailed process analyses and sensitivity simulations under different emission and meteorology scenarios were conducted using CMAQ and the Process Analysis tool to quantify the air quality benefits from emission reductions and meteorological variations in August 2008. The results indicate that emission-driven changes dominate surface concentration reductions of SO 2, NO 2, VOCs, daily maxima O 3 and PM 2.5 by -11% to -83%. The effect of meteorology-driven changes on species concentrations can be either ways (by -46% to 105%) at different locations. The dominant processes contributing to O 3, PM 2.5, SO 42-, NO 3-, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are identified. Gas-phase chemistry is a major process for O 3 production, and PM processes are dominant sources for PM 2.5 in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The reduced emissions weaken the source contributions of gas-phase chemistry to O 3 and those of PM processes to PM 2.5, with weaker vertical mixing processes and horizontal transport in the PBL. Compared with 2007, 2008 has a higher humidity, lower temperature and more precipitation that benefit O 3 reduction within the PBL, and a weaker vertical mixing that disbenefits reductions of all pollutants concentrations. Stronger process contributions of cloud processes (e.g., below- and in-cloud scavenging, and wet deposition) in 2008 help reduce concentrations of PM 2.5, NO 3-, and SOA, but they (e.g., aqueous-phase chemistry) enhance surface SO 42- concentrations. Smaller process contributions of aerosol processes help reduce the concentrations of SOA and SO 42- but enhance NO 3- and PM 2.5 in lower layers (1-6) due to the evaporation of NO 3-. The ratios of P O /P increase under the controlled simulation, indicating that the emission control actions enforced during the 2008

  15. Study of behavior incentive mechanism of energy conservation and emission reduction for China freshwater live fish supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper investigates the subject behavior of Energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER based on structured classification of the organization types of FLF supply chain, and explores reasonable behavior incentive mechanism for ECER of FLF supply chain in China. Design/methodology/approach: This paper classifies the organization subjects of FLF supply chain, and different characteristics of organization subjects are compared in detail. ECER behavior incentive mechanism modeling of FLF supply chain is explored by taking advantage of principal-agent model in view of asymmetry information. Incentives issue of different operating subjects is discussed as enlightenment of the model. Findings: Three types of the organization subjects of FLF supply chain in China have been identified as: loose organization, semi-compact organization and compact organization.Subjects of different types have different abilities to conduct ECER work. Government needs to propose differentiation polices of incentive compensation for different operating subjects, widen the gap of differentiated subsidies/rewards for different investment levels on ECER conducted by different operating subjects of FLF supply chain. Research limitations/implications: It will take long-term unremitting efforts to achieve the target of ECER work for FLF supply chain in China, the dynamic issues and simulation modeling on behavior incentive mechanism of ECER should be developed in future research. Practical implications: Clear understanding of structured classification of the organization subject types of FLF supply chain and the behavior incentive mechanism for ECER, will help government to improve the ECER work in an efficient and effective way. Originality/value: Research to behavior incentive mechanism of ECER has important theoretical value and practical significance. This paper contributes to distinguish three types of operating subjects of FLF supply chain in

  16. Study of behavior incentive mechanism of energy conservation and emission reduction for China freshwater live fish supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liming, C.; Fengjun, L.; Xiaohong, L.

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper investigates the subject behavior of Energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER) based on structured classification of the organization types of FLF supply chain, and explores reasonable behavior incentive mechanism for ECER of FLF supply chain in China. Design/methodology/approach: This paper classifies the organization subjects of FLF supply chain, and different characteristics of organization subjects are compared in detail. ECER behavior incentive mechanism modeling of FLF supply chain is explored by taking advantage of principal-agent model in view of asymmetry information. Incentives issue of different operating subjects is discussed as enlightenment of the model. Findings: Three types of the organization subjects of FLF supply chain in China have been identified as: loose organization, semi-compact organization and compact organization.Subjects of different types have different abilities to conduct ECER work. Government needs to propose differentiation polices of incentive compensation for different operating subjects, widen the gap of differentiated subsidies/rewards for different investment levels on ECER conducted by different operating subjects of FLF supply chain. Research limitations/implications: It will take long-term unremitting efforts to achieve the target of ECER work for FLF supply chain in China, the dynamic issues and simulation modeling on behavior incentive mechanism of ECER should be developed in future research. Practical implications: Clear understanding of structured classification of the organization subject types of FLF supply chain and the behavior incentive mechanism for ECER, will help government to improve the ECER work in an efficient and effective way... (Author)

  17. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, S. C.; Talgo, K.; Arunachalam, S.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m-3 (1.8 %) and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000-194 000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %), followed by South Asia (India; 31 %), however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times more avoided deaths when BC and organic carbon (OC) emissions are halved together, suggesting

  18. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Anenberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, black carbon (BC is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m−3 (1.8 % and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000–194 000 annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %, followed by South Asia (India; 31 %, however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times

  19. A 3??C global RCP8.5 emission trajectory cancels benefits of European emission reductions on air quality

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fortems-Cheiney; Foret, G.; G. Siour; Vautard, R.; Szopa, S.; Dufour, G.; Colette, A.; Lacressonniere, G.; M. Beekmann

    2017-01-01

    Despite the international agreement to reduce global warming to below 2??C, the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions submitted for the COP21 would lead to a global temperature rise of about 3??C. The relative consequences of such a one-degree additional warming have not yet been investigated for regional air quality. Here we found that a?+?3??C global pollutant emission trajectory with respect to pre-industrial climate (reached along the 2040?2069 period under a RCP8.5 scenario) would...

  20. The SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: final emission line galaxy target selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichoor, A.; Comparat, J.; Delubac, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Yèche, Ch; Dawson, K. S.; Percival, W. J.; Dey, A.; Lang, D.; Schlegel, D. J.; Gorgoni, C.; Bautista, J.; Brownstein, J. R.; Mariappan, V.; Seo, H.-J.; Tinker, J. L.; Ross, A. J.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, G.-B.; Moustakas, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Jullo, E.; Newmann, J. A.; Prada, F.; Zhu, G. B.

    2017-11-01

    We describe the algorithm used to select the emission line galaxy (ELG) sample at z ˜ 0.85 for the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV, using photometric data from the DECam Legacy Survey. Our selection is based on a selection box in the g - r versus r - z colour-colour space and a cut on the g-band magnitude, to favour galaxies in the desired redshift range with strong [O II] emission. It provides a target density of 200 deg-2 on the North Galactic Cap and of 240 deg-2 on the South Galactic Cap (SGC), where we use a larger selection box because of deeper imaging. We demonstrate that this selection passes the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey requirements in terms of homogeneity. About 50 000 ELGs have been observed since the observations have started in 2016, September. These roughly match the expected redshift distribution, though the measured efficiency is slightly lower than expected. The efficiency can be increased by enlarging the redshift range and with incoming pipeline improvement. The cosmological forecast based on these first data predict σ _{D_V}/D_V = 0.023, in agreement with previous forecasts. Lastly, we present the stellar population properties of the ELG SGC sample. Once observations are completed, this sample will be suited to provide a cosmological analysis at z ˜ 0.85, and will pave the way for the next decade of massive spectroscopic cosmological surveys, which heavily rely on ELGs. The target catalogue over the SGC will be released along with DR14.

  1. Reduction in NO(x) emission trends over China: regional and seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dasa; Wang, Yuhang; Smeltzer, Charles; Liu, Zhen

    2013-11-19

    We analyzed satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over China from 2005 to 2010 in order to estimate the top-down anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission trends. Since NOx emissions were affected by the economic slowdown in 2009, we removed one year of abnormal data in the analysis. The estimated average emission trend is 4.01 ± 1.39% yr(-1), which is slower than the trend of 5.8-10.8% yr(-1) reported for previous years. We find large regional, seasonal, and urban-rural variations in emission trends. The average NOx emission trend of 3.47 ± 1.07% yr(-1) in warm season (June-September) is less than the trend of 5.03 ± 1.92% yr(-1) in cool season (October-May). The regional annual emission trends decrease from 4.76 ± 1.61% yr(-1) in North China Plain to 3.11 ± 0.98% yr(-1) in Yangtze River Delta and further down to -4.39 ± 1.81% yr(-1) in Pearl River Delta. The annual emission trends of the four largest megacities, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen are -0.76 ± 0.29%, 0.69 ± 0.27%, -4.46 ± 1.22%, and -7.18 ± 2.88% yr(-1), considerably lower than the regional averages or surrounding rural regions. These results appear to suggest that a number of factors, including emission control measures of thermal power plants, increased hydro-power usage, vehicle emission regulations, and closure or migration of high-emission industries, have significantly reduced or even reversed the increasing trend of NOx emissions in more economically developed megacities and southern coastal regions, but their effects are not as significant in other major cities or less economically developed regions.

  2. The Left Atrial Appendage: Target for Stroke Reduction in Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlawi, Basel; Abu Saleh, Walid K; Edgerton, James

    2015-01-01

    A patient with atrial fibrillation (AF) has a greater than 5% annual risk of major stroke, a 5-fold increase compared to the general population. While anticoagulation remains the standard stroke prevention strategy, the nature of lifelong anticoagulation inevitably carries an increased risk of bleeding, increased stroke during periods of interruption, increased cost, and significant lifestyle modification. Many patients with atrial fibrillation have had their left atrial appendage (LAA) ligated or excised by surgeons during cardiac surgery, a decision based largely on intuition and with no clear evidence of efficacy in stroke risk reduction. The observation that 90% of the thrombi found in nonvalvular AF patients and 57% found in valvular AF are in the LAA, triggered significant interest in the LAA as a potential therapeutic target. Until recently, the results were inconsistent, and high rates of incomplete occlusions precluded the medical community from confirming a definite relationship between LAA and stroke. As a result, anticoagulation is still the recommended first-line stroke risk reduction in AF, and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend LAA exclusion only with surgical ablation of AF or in the context of concomitant mitral valve surgery. A handful of devices have been developed for LAA exclusion. This includes percutaneous options such as WATCHMAN™ Left Atrial Appendage Closure Device (Boston Scientific Corporation, Marlborough, MA), hybrid epicardial devices such as the LARIAT Suture Delivery Device (SentreHEART, Inc., Redwood City, CA), and epicardial surgical devices such as AtriClip® LAA Occlusion System (AtriCure, Inc., West Chester, OH). Studies of the Watchman device have shown noninferiority to Warfarin in stroke prevention and this device has recently gained approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) following lengthy delays due to safety concerns. The Lariat device, which received 510

  3. Axial Profile of Balmer-Alpha Emission near a Tungsten Target in the Compact PWI Simulator APSEDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashizono, Yuta; Sakamoto, Mizuki; Miyazaki, Toshimasa; Ogawa, Kazuma; Ozaki, Kazuki; Nakashima, Yousuke; Shoji, Tatsuo; Ashikawa, Naoko; Tokitani, Masayuki; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Masuzaki, Suguru; Ohya, Kaoru; Sagara, Akio; Sato, Kohnosuke

    The axial profile of Balmer-alpha emission near a tungsten target has been measured in the compact plasma wall interaction (PWI) simulator Advanced PWI Simulation Experimental Device and Analysis System (APSEDAS). Axial Hα emission decreases toward the target at two levels, a steep gradient within 10 mm of the target and a shallow gradient more than 10 mm away. The structure of the Hα profile within 40 mm of the target is the same even though the electron density changes by one order of magnitude and the neutral pressure changes by a factor of three. On the other hand, the Hα profile more than 40 mm from the target gradually increases with increasing hydrogen filling pressure, although it does not change with the density in the case of constant filling pressure.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION AND REDUCTION OF FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS FROM A LOW-VOC LATEX PAINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the measurment and analysis of the patterns of formaldehyde emission from a low volatile organic compound (VOC) latex paint applied to gypsum board, using small environmental chamber tests. The formaldehyde emissions resulted in sharp increase of chamber air...

  5. Economic Benefit and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of A Family-Scale Cowdung Anaerobic Biogas Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate economic benefit and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction potential of a family-scale anaerobic cowdung biogas digester. Research was conducted at two villages in Lampung Province, namely Marga Lestari, District of South Lampung and Pesawaran Indah, District of Pesawaran. Economic benefit and GHG emission reduction potential were evaluated from LPG saving due to biogas utilisation for cooking and fertilizer substitution by slurry digestate. Results showed that a family-scale anaerobic cowdung biogas digester demonstrated a good potential to reduce GHG emission, but not in economic. A digester with 4 heads of cow produced biogas at a rate of 1582 L/day. With average methane content of 53.6%, energy value of the biogas was equivalent to 167 kg LPG and able to substitute 52 bottles LPG annually. A family-scale biogas contributed 108.1 USD/year and potentially reduced GHG emission by 5292.5 kg CO2e/year resulted from biomethane potential, LPG, and fertilizer savings. Keywords: biogas; cowdung; greenhouse gas; economy; benefit Article History: Received November 15th 2016; Received in revised form January 16th 2017; Accepted February 2nd 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Haryanto, A., Cahyani, D., Triyono, S., Murdapa, F., and Haryono, D. (2 Economic Benefit and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of A Family-Scale Cowdung Anaerobic Biogas Digester. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development 6(1, 29-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.29-36

  6. Modelling study of boundary-layer ozone over northern China - Part II: Responses to emission reductions during the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guiqian; Zhu, Xiaowan; Xin, Jinyuan; Hu, Bo; Song, Tao; Sun, Yang; Wang, Lili; Wu, Fangkun; Sun, Jie; Cheng, Mengtian; Chao, Na; Li, Xin; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-09-01

    The implementation of emission reduction measures during the Olympics provided a valuable opportunity to study regional photochemical pollution over northern China. In this study, the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/National Centre for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model and Community Multiscale Air Quality model system was applied to conduct two sets of modelling analyses of the period from July 20 to September 20, 2008, to illustrate the influences of emission reduction measures on regional photochemical pollution over northern China during the Beijing Olympics. The results indicated that the implementation of emission control measures decreased the concentrations of ozone (O3) precursors, namely nitrogen oxide (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), throughout the boundary layer. The concentrations of these compounds were reduced by 45% in the central urban area of Beijing at the ground level. Although the average O3 concentration in the central urban area increased by more than 8 ppbv, the total oxidant concentration decreased significantly by more than 5 ppbv. Greater O3 concentrations mainly occurred during periods with weak photochemical reactions. During periods of strong photochemical production, the O3 concentration decreased significantly due to a weakening vertical circulation between the lower and upper boundary layer. Consequently, the number of days when the O3 concentration exceeded 100 ppbv decreased by 25% in Beijing. The emission control measures altered the sensitivity of the regional O3 production. The coordinated control region of NOx and VOCs expanded, and the control region of VOCs decreased in size. The reduction of non-point-source emissions, such as fugitive VOCs and vehicles, was more useful for controlling regional photochemical pollution over northern China.

  7. Reduction of Life Cycle CO2 Emission in Public Welfare Facilities Equipped with PV/Solar Heat/Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Shinichiro; Kemmoku, Yoshishige; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Sakakibara, Tateki

    The reduction effect of life cycle CO2 emission is examined in case of introducing a PV/solar heat/cogeneration system into public welfare facilities(hotel and hospital). Life cycle CO2 emission is calculated as the sum of that when operating and that when manufacturing equipments. The system is operated with the dynamic programming method, into which hourly data of electric and heat loads, solar insolation, and atmospheric temperature during a year are input. The proposed system is compared with a conventional system and a cogeneration system. The life cycle CO2 emission of the PV/solar heat/cogeneration system is lower than that of the conventional system by 20% in hotel and by 14% in hospital.

  8. Environmental effect of antioxidant additives on exhaust emission reduction in compression ignition engine fuelled with Annona methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R; Silambarasan, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyse the effect of antioxidant l-ascorbic acid on engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of Annona oil (MEAO). The antioxidant is mixed in various concentrations (100-400 mg) with MEAO. Result shows that the antioxidant additive mixture (MEAO+LA200) is effective in control of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC) emission of MEAO-fuelled engine without doing any engine modification. In this study by using MEAO, the NOx emission is reduced by about 23.38% at full load while compared with neat diesel fuel. Likewise there is a reduction in carbon monoxide, smoke, and HC by about 48%, 28.57% and 29.71% at full load condition compared with neat diesel fuel.

  9. The sensitivities of emissions reductions for the mitigation of UK PM2.5

    OpenAIRE

    M. Vieno; Heal, M R; M. L. Williams; E. J. Carnell; Nemitz, E.; J. R. Stedman; Reis, S.

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a key objective for air pollution control policies in the UK and elsewhere. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been identified as a major contributor to adverse human health effects in epidemiological studies and underpins ambient PM2.5 legislation. As a range of emission sources and atmospheric chemistry transport processes contribute to PM2.5 concentrations, atmospheric chemistry transport models ar...

  10. Kepentingan Indonesia Bekerjasama dengan Norwegia dalam Kerangka Reducting Emission From Deforestation And Degrada-tion (REDD) Tahun 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Pakpahan, Saiman; Sani, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    AbstactPenelitian ini akan menjelaskan kepentingan Indonesia dalam kerjasama lingkungan hidup dalam kerangka Reducting Emission From Deforestation and Degradation dengan Norwegia. Kerjasama yang tertuang dalam surat niat Indonesia terhadap Norwegia yang ditandatangani pada tahun 2010 merupakan salah satu wujud nyata kedua negara dalam menyelamatkan dunia dari kerusakan lingkungan hidup. Isu lingkungan hidup saat ini bukan-lah permasalahan yang dianggap mudah dan sangat mendapatkan perhatian d...

  11. Impacts of emission reduction and meteorological conditions on air quality improvement during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Wang, Tijian; Chen, Pulong; Huang, Xiaoxian; Zhu, Jialei; Zhuang, Bingliang

    2017-11-01

    As the holding city of the 2nd Youth Olympic Games (YOG), Nanjing is highly industrialized and urbanized, and faces several air pollution issues. In order to ensure better air quality during the event, the local government took great efforts to control the emissions from pollutant sources. However, air quality can still be affected by synoptic weather, not only emission. In this paper, the influences of meteorological factors and emission reductions were investigated using observational data and numerical simulations with WRF-CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting - Community Multiscale Air Quality). During the month in which the YOG were held (August 2014), the observed hourly mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, CO and O3 were 11.6 µg m-3, 34.0 µg m-3, 57.8 µg m-3, 39.4 µg m-3, 0.9 mg m-3 and 38.8 µg m-3, respectively, which were below China National Ambient Air Quality Standard (level 2). However, model simulation showed that the weather conditions, such as weaker winds during the YOG, were adverse for better air quality and could increase SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and CO by 17.5, 16.9, 18.5, 18.8, 7.8 and 0.8 %. Taking account of local emission abatement only, the simulated SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and CO decreased by 24.6, 12.1, 15.1, 8.1 and 7.2 %. Consequently, stringent emission control measures can reduce the concentrations of air pollutants in the short term, and emission reduction is very important for air quality improvement during the YOG. A good example has been set for air quality protection for important social events.

  12. Impacts of emission reduction and meteorological conditions on air quality improvement during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the holding city of the 2nd Youth Olympic Games (YOG, Nanjing is highly industrialized and urbanized, and faces several air pollution issues. In order to ensure better air quality during the event, the local government took great efforts to control the emissions from pollutant sources. However, air quality can still be affected by synoptic weather, not only emission. In this paper, the influences of meteorological factors and emission reductions were investigated using observational data and numerical simulations with WRF–CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting – Community Multiscale Air Quality. During the month in which the YOG were held (August 2014, the observed hourly mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, CO and O3 were 11.6 µg m−3, 34.0 µg m−3, 57.8 µg m−3, 39.4 µg m−3, 0.9 mg m−3 and 38.8 µg m−3, respectively, which were below China National Ambient Air Quality Standard (level 2. However, model simulation showed that the weather conditions, such as weaker winds during the YOG, were adverse for better air quality and could increase SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and CO by 17.5, 16.9, 18.5, 18.8, 7.8 and 0.8 %. Taking account of local emission abatement only, the simulated SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and CO decreased by 24.6, 12.1, 15.1, 8.1 and 7.2 %. Consequently, stringent emission control measures can reduce the concentrations of air pollutants in the short term, and emission reduction is very important for air quality improvement during the YOG. A good example has been set for air quality protection for important social events.

  13. Orally delivered polycurcumin responsive to bacterial reduction for targeted therapy of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hongzhi; Fang, Dong; Chen, Jing; Sun, Yuan; Kang, Chen; Di, Liuqing; Li, Junsong; Chen, Zhipeng; Chen, Jun; Gao, Yahan

    2017-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting nearly five million people worldwide. Among all drug delivery system, oral administration is the most preferable route for colon-specific targeting and the treatment of IBD. Herein, an amphiphilic curcumin polymer (PCur) composed of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydrophobic curcumin (Cur) linked by disulfide bond was synthesized and characterized. The sufficient solubility, nano-scaled size and close to the neutral surface potential of PCur lead to preferential accumulation of the active drug in the inflamed regions of the gut. Moreover, PCur showed limited drug release and enhanced robustness under the physiological pH of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and a significantly elevated release was observed when responding to a bacterial reduction in the colon. Furthermore, cellular studies confirmed PCur had low cytotoxicity and increased transmembrane permeability, resulting in improved oral bioavailability evidenced by in vivo pharmacokinetics of rats. Finally, with DSS-induced murine model of IBD, we demonstrated that orally administered PCur ameliorated the inflammatory progression in the colon and could protect mice from IBD. In conclusion, it is illustrated that the developed PCur conjugate could potentially be employed as a colon-specific candidate for IBD treatment.

  14. Evaluation of costs associated with atmospheric mercury emission reductions from coal combustion in China in 2010 and projections for 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Ye, Xuejie; Yang, Tianjun; Li, Jinling; Chen, Long; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2018-01-01

    Coal combustion is the most significant anthropogenic mercury emission source in China. In 2013, China signed the Minamata Convention affirming that mercury emissions should be controlled more strictly. Therefore, an evaluation of the costs associated with atmospheric mercury emission reductions from China's coal combustion is essential. In this study, we estimated mercury abatement costs for coal combustion in China for 2010, based on a provincial technology-based mercury emission inventory. In addition, four scenarios were used to project abatement costs for 2020. Our results indicate that actual mercury emission related to coal combustion in 2010 was 300.8Mg, indicating a reduction amount of 174.7Mg. Under a policy-controlled scenario for 2020, approximately 49% of this mercury could be removed using air pollution control devices, making mercury emissions in 2020 equal to or lower than in 2010. The total abatement cost associated with mercury emissions in 2010 was 50.2×10(9) RMB. In contrast, the total abatement costs for 2020 under baseline versus policy-controlled scenarios, having high-energy and low-energy consumption, would be 32.0×10(9) versus 51.2×10(9), and 27.4×10(9) versus 43.9×10(9) RMB, respectively. The main expense is associated with flue gas desulfurization. The unit abatement cost of mercury emissions in 2010 was 288×10(3) RMB/(kgHg). The unit abatement costs projected for 2020 under a baseline, a policy-controlled, and an United Nations Environmental Programme scenario would be 143×10(3), 172×10(3) and 1066×10(3) RMB/(kgHg), respectively. These results are much lower than other international ones. However, the relative costs to China in terms of GPD are higher than in most developed countries. We calculated that abatement costs related to mercury emissions accounted for about 0.14% of the GDP of China in 2010, but would be between 0.03% and 0.06% in 2020. This decrease in abatement costs in terms of GDP suggests that various policy

  15. Is faster economic growth compatible with reductions in carbon emissions? The role of diminished population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Gregory; Galor, Oded

    2017-01-01

    We provide evidence that lower fertility can simultaneously increase income per capita and lower carbon emissions, eliminating a trade-off central to most policies aimed at slowing global climate change. We estimate the effect of lower fertility on carbon emissions, accounting for the fact that changes in fertility patterns affect carbon emissions through three channels: total population, the age structure of the population, and economic output. Our analysis proceeds in two steps. First, we estimate the elasticity of carbon emissions with respect to population and income per capita in an unbalanced yearly panel of cross-country data from 1950-2010. We demonstrate that the elasticity with respect to population is nearly seven times larger than the elasticity with respect to income per capita and that this difference is statistically significant. Thus, the regression results imply that 1% slower population growth could be accompanied by an increase in income per capita of nearly 7% while still lowering carbon emissions. In the second part of our analysis, we use a recently constructed economic-demographic model of Nigeria to estimate the effect of lower fertility on carbon emissions, accounting for the impacts of fertility on population growth, population age structure, and income per capita. We find that by 2100 C.E. moving from the medium to the low variant of the UN fertility projection leads to 35% lower yearly emissions and 15% higher income per capita. These results suggest that population policies could be part of the approach to combating global climate change.

  16. Control strategies for nitrous oxide emissions reduction on wastewater treatment plants operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, I; Barbu, M; Pedret, C; Vilanova, R

    2017-11-15

    The present paper focused on reducing greenhouse gases emissions in wastewater treatment plants operation by application of suitable control strategies. Specifically, the objective is to reduce nitrous oxide emissions during the nitrification process. Incomplete nitrification in the aerobic tanks can lead to an accumulation of nitrite that triggers the nitrous oxide emissions. In order to avoid the peaks of nitrous oxide emissions, this paper proposes a cascade control configuration by manipulating the dissolved oxygen set-points in the aerobic tanks. This control strategy is combined with ammonia cascade control already applied in the literature. This is performed with the objective to take also into account effluent pollutants and operational costs. In addition, other greenhouse gases emissions sources are also evaluated. Results have been obtained by simulation, using a modified version of Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2, which takes into account greenhouse gases emissions. This is called Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 Gas. The results show that the proposed control strategies are able to reduce by 29.86% of nitrous oxide emissions compared to the default control strategy, while maintaining a satisfactory trade-off between water quality and costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effectiveness of Light Rail transit in achieving regional CO2 emissions targets is linked to building energy use: insights from system dynamics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cities worldwide face the challenges of accommodating a growing population, while reducing emissions to meet climate mitigation targets. Public transit investments are often proposed as a way to curb emissions while maintaining healthy urban economies. However, cities face a syst...

  18. The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030. Reviving the EU emissions trading system and bringing EU greenhouse gas emissions on a 2C track. Policy brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Gilbert, A.; Hagemann, M.; Fekete, H.; Lam, Long; De Vos, R. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    This paper explains how setting 2030 targets will reinvigorate the ETS and will put EU emissions on track to limit global temperature increase below two degrees Celsius (2C). This paper describes four key findings for EU policymakers engaged in preparing EU energy and climate measures for 2030 and for the longer term. The European Commission estimates that by 2020, the companies participating in the ETS will have accumulated a surplus of 1.5 to 2.3 billion allowances, which may be banked and used beyond 2020. This is about the same size as the annual emissions budget of ETS companies (just below 2 billion tonnes). Applying equity principles to the global distribution of efforts in reaching the 2C goal, an indicative 'fair' EU contribution would be a reduction of EU greenhouse gas emissions by around 49% (median of a full range from 39 to 79%) by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The 2030 targets can be set in a way to also accommodate the surplus expected until 2020. If the entire surplus of allowances from the ETS were to be used after 2020, the 2030 target has to become around 7 percentage points more stringent to compensate for that. Alternatively, the trajectory of the target from 2021 to 2030 could be set to compensate for the surplus. In addition, a more ambitious trajectory towards 2030 would cast its shadow on the mitigation in the period 2013-2020. It would strengthen the ETS, in conjunction with any other ETS recalibration options such as shifting the auctioning ('backloading') or cancelling allowances before 2020.

  19. Reduction of harmful nitrogen oxide emission from low heat rejection diesel engine using carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasi Gopinathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, lanthanum aluminate is used as thermal barrier coating material for the first time in the internal combustion engine to convert the standard engine into low heat rejection engine. Initially, the biodiesel is prepared from sunflower oil by using trans-esterification process. The piton crown, cylinder head and valves of the engine is coated with lanthanum aluminate for a thickness of around 200 microns. However, the analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a standard diesel is carried out with diesel/biodiesel to compare with the low heat rejection engine. The lanthanum aluminate coated engine fueled with sunflower methyl ester shows better performance and emission. But the emission of NOx founds to be higher in the coated engine. Further, a small quantity of carbon nanotubes is added onto the biodiesel to carry out the experiments. Based on the results, the carbon nanotubes are added with the biodiesel to reduce the emission of NOx.

  20. LenoxKaplan_Role of natural gas in meeting electric sector emissions reduction strategy_dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is for an analysis that used the MARKAL linear optimization model to compare the carbon emissions profiles and system-wide global warming potential of...

  1. Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets: The role of land processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Donat, M.; Pitman, A.; Knutti, R.; Wilby, R.; Vogel, M.; Orth, R.

    2016-12-01

    Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted "2° and 1.5° targets", may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing CO2 emissions because they are disconnected from their implications. The translation of CO2 emissions into regional- and impact-related climate targets is more powerful because such targets are more directly aligned with individual national interests. A recent publication (Seneviratne et al. 2016, Nature) reveals that regional changes in extreme temperatures and precipitation scale robustly with global temperature across scenarios, and thus with cumulative CO2 emissions. They thus allow a better communication of implied regional impacts associated with global targets for CO2 emissions. However, the regional responses are very varied and display strong differences in regional temperature and hydrological sensitivity. Process-based based analyses explain these divergences and highlight avenues for reducing uncertainties in regional projections of extremes, in particular related to the role of land-atmosphere feedbacks. These results have important implications for the design of regional mitigation and climate adaptation policies, for instance related to land use changes. Reference: Seneviratne, S.I., M.G. Donat, A.J. Pitman, R. Knutti, and R. Wilby, 2016, Nature, 529, 477-483, doi:10.1038/nature16542

  2. Sustainability analysis of the electric vehicle use in Europe for CO2 emissions reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Canals Casals, Lluc; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Amante García, Beatriz; Nieto, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles are considered the most promising alternative to internal combustion engine vehicles towards a cleaner transportation sector. Having null tailpipe emissions, electric vehicles contribute to fight localized pollution, which is particularly important in overpopulated urban areas. However, the electric vehicle implies greenhouse gas emissions related to its production and to the electricity generation needed to charge its batteries. This study focuses the analysis on how the el...

  3. Options for Energy Conservation and Emission Reductions in Transportation Means for Goods Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries.......The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries....

  4. Weight reduction, energy loss and gaseous emissions for different collection systems for food waste from households; Viktreducering, energifoerlust och gasemissioner vid olika insamlingssystem av matavfall fraan hushaall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternald, Olle (and others)

    2010-09-15

    is significant for the biogas extraction levels and soil conditioner qualities. It is desirable that a large share of the biodegradable household waste is collected, both from an environmental perspective as well as in order to meet the Swedish national targets for biodegradable waste collection. Correlating existing data with data from the empirical experiments shows that 185 kg of biodegradable waste is collected from households using a paper bag-based system and 122 kg from household using a plastic bag-based system. This is equivalent to a 50% higher collection level for paper bag systems compared with plastic bag systems. The equivalent amount of bio waste is reduced in the combustible waste. Based on these numbers, the paper bag based systems offers 39% more methane per connected household than an optical plastic bag based system. Per kilogram incoming wet material, the there is a 23% methane advantage for the paper-based system. However, there is no significant difference in methane content per collected amount of bio waste between the methods. The data sample for bioplastic bags is too small in order to be included in the comparison. The carbon dioxide emissions show that a decomposition process of biodegradable waste is occurring in all types of collection systems. The nitrous oxide emissions are most likely negligible from an environmental perspective, although the results are not statistically verified. No measurable emission levels of methane can be detected, which is very encouraging from an environmental perspective

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration of...

  6. Sodium Reduction in Processed Foods in Brazil: Analysis of Food Categories and Voluntary Targets from 2011 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, Eduardo A F; Spaniol, Ana M; Gonçalves, Vivian S S; Moura, Iracema; Silva, Sara A; L'Abbé, Mary; Jaime, Patricia C

    2017-07-12

    Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, are responsible for over 70% of deaths in Brazil. Currently, over 25% of Brazilian adults are diagnosed as hypertensive; overall, current dietary sodium intake in Brazil (4700 mg/person) is over twice the international recommendations, and 70-90% of adolescents and adults consume excessive sodium. National sodium reduction strategies consider the main dietary sources of sodium to be added salt to foods, foods consumed outside of the household, and sodium in processed foods. The national voluntary strategy for sodium reduction in priority food categories has been continuously monitored over a 6-year period (2011-2017) and there was a significant 8-34% reduction in the average sodium content of over half food categories. Different food categories have undergone differing reductions in sodium over time, aiding gradual biannual targets to allow industries to develop new technologies and consumers to adapt to foods with less salt. By 2017, most products of all food categories had met the regional targets proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, showing that voluntary sodium reduction strategies can potentially contribute to food reformulation. Nevertheless, regulatory approaches may still be necessary in the future in order to reach all food producers and to allow stronger enforcement to meet more stringent regional targets.

  7. Sodium Reduction in Processed Foods in Brazil: Analysis of Food Categories and Voluntary Targets from 2011 to 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. F. Nilson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, are responsible for over 70% of deaths in Brazil. Currently, over 25% of Brazilian adults are diagnosed as hypertensive; overall, current dietary sodium intake in Brazil (4700 mg/person is over twice the international recommendations, and 70–90% of adolescents and adults consume excessive sodium. National sodium reduction strategies consider the main dietary sources of sodium to be added salt to foods, foods consumed outside of the household, and sodium in processed foods. The national voluntary strategy for sodium reduction in priority food categories has been continuously monitored over a 6-year period (2011–2017 and there was a significant 8–34% reduction in the average sodium content of over half food categories. Different food categories have undergone differing reductions in sodium over time, aiding gradual biannual targets to allow industries to develop new technologies and consumers to adapt to foods with less salt. By 2017, most products of all food categories had met the regional targets proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, showing that voluntary sodium reduction strategies can potentially contribute to food reformulation. Nevertheless, regulatory approaches may still be necessary in the future in order to reach all food producers and to allow stronger enforcement to meet more stringent regional targets.

  8. Can the envisaged reductions of fossil fuel CO2 emissions be detected by atmospheric observations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Ingeborg; Rödenbeck, Christian

    2008-03-01

    The lower troposphere is an excellent receptacle, which integrates anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions over large areas. Therefore, atmospheric concentration observations over populated regions would provide the ultimate proof if sustained emissions changes have occurred. The most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), also shows large natural concentration variations, which need to be disentangled from anthropogenic signals to assess changes in associated emissions. This is in principle possible for the fossil fuel CO(2) component (FFCO(2)) by high-precision radiocarbon ((14)C) analyses because FFCO(2) is free of radiocarbon. Long-term observations of (14)CO(2) conducted at two sites in south-western Germany do not yet reveal any significant trends in the regional fossil fuel CO(2) component. We rather observe strong inter-annual variations, which are largely imprinted by changes of atmospheric transport as supported by dedicated transport model simulations of fossil fuel CO(2). In this paper, we show that, depending on the remoteness of the site, changes of about 7-26% in fossil fuel emissions in respective catchment areas could be detected with confidence by high-precision atmospheric (14)CO(2) measurements when comparing 5-year averages if these inter-annual variations were taken into account. This perspective constitutes the urgently needed tool for validation of fossil fuel CO(2) emissions changes in the framework of the Kyoto protocol and successive climate initiatives.

  9. Multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for emission and cost reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant gases emitted from the civil jet are doing more and more harm to the environment with the rapid development of the global commercial aviation transport. Low environmental impact has become a new requirement for aircraft design. In this paper, estimation method for emission in aircraft conceptual design stage is improved based on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO aircraft engine emissions databank and the polynomial curve fitting methods. The greenhouse gas emission (CO2 equivalent per seat per kilometer is proposed to measure the emissions. An approximate sensitive analysis and a multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for tradeoff between greenhouse effect and direct operating cost (DOC are performed with five geometry variables of wing configuration and two flight operational parameters. The results indicate that reducing the cruise altitude and Mach number may result in a decrease of the greenhouse effect but an increase of DOC. And the two flight operational parameters have more effects on the emissions than the wing configuration. The Pareto-optimal front shows that a decrease of 29.8% in DOC is attained at the expense of an increase of 10.8% in greenhouse gases.

  10. CO{sub 2} emission reduction strategy and roles of nuclear energy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Osamu; Shimoda, Makoto; Takematsu, Kenji; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    An analysis was made on the potential and cost of reducing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from Japan`s long-term energy systems by using the MARKAL model, developed in the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) of International Energy Agency (IEA). Assuming future growths of GDP, the demand for energy services was estimated for the analytical time horizon 1990-2050. Assumptions were made also on prices and availability of fossil fuels, and on availability of nuclear and renewable energy. CO{sub 2} emissions and system costs were compared between energy demand and supply scenarios defined with different assumptions on nuclear energy, a CO{sub 2} disposal option, and natural gas imports. Main results were as follows. Without nuclear energy, the CO{sub 2} emissions will hardly be reduced because of the increases of coal utilization. CO{sub 2} disposal will be effective in reducing the emissions, however at much higher costs than the case with nuclear energy. The expansion of natural gas imports alone will not reduce the emissions at enough low levels. (author)

  11. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing

    2011-04-01

    China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

  12. Assessment of Co-benefits of vehicle emission reduction measures for 2015-2020 in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Hong; Liao, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Xiao-Fang; Li, Li; Zeng, Xue-Lan

    2017-04-01

    Vehicle emissions have become one of the key factors affecting the urban air quality and climate change in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, so it is important to design policies of emission reduction based on quantitative Co-benefits for air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG). Emissions of air pollutants and GHG by 2020 was predicted firstly based on the no-control scenario, and five vehicle emissions reduction scenarios were designed in view of the economy, technology and policy, whose emissions reduction were calculated. Then Co-benefits between air pollutants and GHG were quantitatively analyzed by the methods of coordinate system and cross-elasticity. Results show that the emissions reduction effects and the Co-benefits of different measures vary greatly in 2015-2020. If no control scheme was applied, most air pollutants and GHG would increase substantially by 20-64% by 2020, with the exception of CO, VOC and PM 2.5 . Different control measures had different reduction effects for single air pollutant and GHG. The worst reduction measure was Eliminating Motorcycles with average reducing rate 0.09% for air pollutants and GHG, while the rate from Updated Emission Standard was 41.74%. Eliminating Yellow-label Vehicle scenario had an obvious reduction effect for every single pollutant in the earlier years, but Co-benefits would descent to zero in later by 2020. From the perspective of emission reductions and co-control effect, Updated Emission Standard scenario was best for reducing air pollutants and GHG substantially (tanα=1.43 and Els=1.77). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Solar Energy as an Alternative to Energy Saving and Pollutant Emissions Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoițescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is analyzed thermal solar systems efficiency from the point of view of energy savings and pollutant emissions concentrations exhausted during these installations operation. For this purpose were taking into account four versions of solar panel systems combined with different types of conventional heating sources, for which were simulated the operation conditions. As a result of the simulation, there were obtained the values of energy savings and pollutant emissions during the four systems operation. By analyzing these values, the combined thermal system optimum solution was selected.

  14. Emission of energetic protons from relativistic intensity laser interaction with a cone-wire target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradkar, B S; Yabuuchi, T; Sawada, H; Higginson, D P; Link, A; Wei, M S; Stephens, R B; Krasheninnikov, S I; Beg, F N

    2012-11-01

    Emission of energetic protons (maximum energy ∼18 MeV) from the interaction of relativistic intensity laser with a cone-wire target is experimentally measured and numerically simulated with hybrid particle-in-cell code, lsp [D. R. Welch et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 063105 (2006)]. The protons originate from the wire attached to the cone after the OMEGA EP laser (670 J, 10 ps, 5 × 10^{18} W/cm^{2}) deposits its energy inside the cone. These protons are accelerated from the contaminant layer on the wire surface, and are measured in the radial direction, i.e., in a direction transverse to the wire length. Simulations show that the radial electric field, responsible for the proton acceleration, is excited by three factors, viz., (i) transverse momentum of the relativistic fast electrons beam entering into the wire, (ii) scattering of electrons inside the wire, and (iii) refluxing of escaped electrons by "fountain effect" at the end of the wire. The underlying physics of radial electric field and acceleration of protons is discussed.

  15. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lin, Elina

    2012-04-06

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. World cement demand and production are increasing significantly, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key for the cement industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report is an initial effort to compile available information on process description, energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for emerging technologies to reduce the cement industry's energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been commercialized, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on nineteen emerging technologies for the cement industry, with the goal of providing engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured database of information on these technologies.

  16. Reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO{sub 2}. Innovation an industrial stakes; Reduction des emissions et stockage geologique du CO{sub 2}. Innovation et enjeux industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C.; Podkanski, J.; Socolow, R.; Dron, D.; Reiner, D.; Horrocks, P.; Fernandez Ruiz, P.; Dechamps, P.; Stromberg, L.; Wright, I.; Gazeau, J.C.; Wiederkehr, P.; Morcheoine, A.; Vesseron, P.; Feron, P.; Feraud, A.; Torp, N.T.; Christensen, N.P.; Le Thiez, P.; Czernichowski, I.; Hartman, J.; Roulet, C.; Roberts, J.; Zakkour, P.; Von Goerne, G.; Armand, R.; Allinson, G.; Segalen, L.; Gires, J.M.; Metz, B.; Brillet, B

    2005-07-01

    An international symposium on the reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO{sub 2} was held in Paris from 15 to 16 September 2005. The event, jointly organized by IFP, ADEME and BRGM, brought together over 400 people from more than 25 countries. It was an opportunity to review the international stakes related to global warming and also to debate ways of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, taking examples from the energy and transport sectors. The last day was dedicated to technological advances in the capture and geological storage of CO{sub 2} and their regulatory and economic implications. This document gathers the available transparencies and talks presented during the colloquium: Opening address by F. Loos, French Minister-delegate for Industry; Session I - Greenhouse gas emissions: the international stakes. Outlook for global CO{sub 2} emissions. The global and regional scenarios: Alternative scenarios for energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions until 2050 by C. Mandil and J. Podkanski (IEA), The stabilization of CO{sub 2} emissions in the coming 50 years by R. Socolow (Princeton University). Evolution of the international context: the stakes and 'factor 4' issues: Costs of climate impacts and ways towards 'factor 4' by D. Dron (ENS Mines de Paris), CO{sub 2} emissions reduction policy: the situation in the United States by D. Reiner (MIT/Cambridge University), Post-Kyoto scenarios by P. Horrocks (European Commission), Possibilities for R and D in CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future FP7 program by P. Fernandez Ruiz and P. Dechamps (European Commission). Session II - CO{sub 2} emission reductions in the energy and transport sectors. Reducing CO{sub 2} emissions during the production and conversion of fossil energies (fixed installations): Combined cycles using hydrogen by G. Haupt (Siemens), CO{sub 2} emission reductions in the oil and gas industry by I. Wright (BP). Reducing CO{sub 2} emissions in the transport sector: Sustainable

  17. Reduction of NOx Emission of a Diesel Engine with a Multiple Injection Pump by SCR Catalytic Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with reduction of NOx-emission of a diesel engine with multiple injection pump by SCR catalytic converter. Main aim of the measurement was the detection of SCR catalyst converter efficiency. Tests were realized at the Research and Development workplace of Zetor Tractor a.s. Used engine was equipped with a multiple injection pump with electromagnetic regulator of a fuel charge. During the experiment selective catalytic reduction and diesel particulate filter were used as an after treatment of harmful pollutants reduction. Testing cycle of the eight-point test was chosen and Non-Road Steady Cycle (NRSC was maintained according to 97/68/EC directive. Results confirmed the dependencies between temperatures of SCR catalyst and exhaust gases and the volume of exhaust gases on efficiency of SCR catalyst. During the operation load of the engine, selective catalytic reduction reached efficiency over 90 %. Used after treatment system is suitable for reduction of harmful pollutants according to the Tier 4f norm.

  18. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO{sub 2} reductions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgaard, T., E-mail: tommy.dalgaard@agrsci.dk [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Petersen, B.M.; Jorgensen, U.; Kristensen, T.; Hutchings, N.J. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Gyldenkaerne, S. [Aarhus University, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hermansen, J.E. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: > GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. > Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. > Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. > A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. > Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO{sub 2} reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  19. Formulation of a Network and the Study of Reaction Paths for the Sustainable Reduction of CO2 Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Kongpanna, Pichayapan; Roh, Kosan

    co-reactants, catalysts necessary, operating conditions and reactions, is the next step. The products that are formed fall into categories: fuels, bulk chemicals and specialty chemicals. While fuels, such as methanol (MeOH), have the largest market, this network will include a variety......, primarily greenhouse gas emissions. Of these, carbon dioxide (CO2) is the largest source and, hence, the reduction of the amount emitted is primary focus of developments [1]. A new and promising process that reduces the emissions is the conversion of CO2 into useful products, such as methanol and dimethyl...... of thermodynamically feasible conversion paths [3]. From reviews of work previously done, there are ranges of possible products that are formed directly from CO2 and another co-reactant. Methanol, dimethyl ether, dimethyl carbonate and ethylene carbonate are just some of the products that can be formed...

  20. Boundaries matter: Greenhouse gas emission reductions from alternative waste treatment strategies for California’s municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergara, Sintana E.; Damgaard, Anders; Horvathc, Arpad

    2011-01-01

    is collected, and that our system boundary begins when waste is thrown away and ends with disposal or conversion to air emissions, reducing California’s residual waste by 40% can lead to a savings of 6 Mt (million metric tonnes) of CO2-e per year, and digesting California’s biogenic waste could save 0.6 Mt CO2......-e per year. Source reduction is the most robust means to mitigate GHG emissions from waste, though either increasing landfill gas capture rates within the current management plan or digesting biogenic waste (and designing landfills to maximize carbon sequestration) provide two other important means......How waste is managed – whether as a nuisance to be disposed of, or as a resource to be reused – directly affects local and global environmental quality. This analysis explores the GHG benefits of five treatment options for residual municipal solid waste (MSW) in California: Business As Usual...

  1. Prospects for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of emissions and life cycle costs for natural gas vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Terenchenko, A. S.; Luksho, V. A.; Karpukhin, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the experimental investigation of the possibilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency of engines that use natural gas as the main fuel and the analysis of economic efficiency of use of dual fuel engines in vehicles compared to conventional diesel. The results of experimental investigation of a 190 kW dual-fuel engine are presented; it is shown that quantitative and qualitative working process control may ensure thermal efficiency at the same level as that of the diesel engine and in certain conditions 5...8% higher. The prospects for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been assessed. The technical and economic evaluation of use of dual fuel engines in heavy-duty vehicles has been performed, taking into account the total life cycle. It is shown that it is possible to reduce life cycle costs by two times.

  2. Combustion efficiency: Greenhouse gas emission reductions from the power generation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, R.; South, D.W.; Fish, A.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Upton, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Concern for the possibility of an enhanced greenhouse effect and global climate change (GCC) has often been associated with energy use in general, and fossil fuel combustion in particular, because of associated emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases (GHG). Therefore, energy policies play a significant role in determining greenhouse gas emissions. The generation of electricity and power from more efficient fossil energy technologies provides an opportunity to significantly lower GHG emissions, together with other pollutants. The U.S. government oversees a broad-based program to facilitate the development, demonstration, and deployment of these technologies. Advanced fossil technologies offer other benefits as well, in that they permit continued use of widely available fuels such as coal. An international perspective is critical for assessing the role of these fuels, since countries differ in terms of their ability to maximize these benefits. Often, new technologies are considered the domain of industrialized countries. Yet more efficient technologies may have their greatest potential - to concurrently permit the utilization of indigenous fuels and to lower global GHG emissions in developing countries, especially those in the Asia-Pacific region.

  3. Air Emission Reduction Benefits of Biogas Electricity Generation at Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel Beryl; Mauter, Meagan S

    2017-11-01

    Conventional processes for municipal wastewater treatment facilities are energy and materially intensive. This work quantifies the air emission implications of energy consumption, chemical use, and direct pollutant release at municipal wastewater treatment facilities across the US and assesses the potential to avoid these damages by generating electricity and heat from the combustion of biogas produced during anaerobic sludge digestion. We find that embedded and on-site air emissions from municipal wastewater treatment imposed human health, environmental, and climate (HEC) damages on the order of $1.26 billion USD in 2012, with 83% of these damages attributed to electricity consumption by treatment processes. An additional 9.8 million tons of biogenic CO2 are directly emitted by wastewater treatment and sludge digestion processes currently installed at plants. Retrofitting existing wastewater treatment facilities with anaerobic sludge digestion for biogas production and biogas-fueled heat and electricity generation has the potential to reduce HEC damages by up to 24.8% relative to baseline emissions. Retrofitting only large plants (>5 MGD), where biogas generation is more likely to be economically viable, would generate HEC benefits of $205 annually. These findings reinforce the importance of accounting for use-phase embedded air emissions and spatially-resolved marginal damage estimates when designing sustainable infrastructure systems.

  4. Fumigation efficacy and emission reduction using low-permeability film in orchard soil fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Suduan; Sosnoskie, Lynn M; Cabrera, Jose Alfonso; Qin, Ruijun; Hanson, Bradley D; Gerik, James S; Wang, Dong; Browne, Greg T; Thomas, John E

    2016-02-01

    Many orchards use fumigation to control soilborne pests prior to replanting. Controlling emissions is mandatory to reduce air pollution in California. This research evaluated the effects of plastic film type [polyethylene (PE) or totally impermeable film (TIF)], application rate of Telone C35 [full (610 kg ha(-1) ), 2/3 or 1/3 rates] and carbonation at 207 kPa on fumigant transport (emission and in soil) and efficacy. While increasing fumigant concentrations under the tarp, TIF reduced emissions >95% (∼2% and effects from the carbonation. TIF can effectively reduce fumigant emissions. Carbonation under the studied conditions did not improve fumigant dispersion and pest control. The 2/3 rate with TIF controlled nematodes as effectively as the full rate in bare soil or under the PE film to 100 cm soil depth. However, control of nematodes in deeper soil remains a challenge for perennial crops. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Incentives for subcontractors to adopt CO2 emission reporting and reduction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Kleinsmann, Renske

    We investigate the incentives for subcontractors (couriers) of a transport and logistics company to report about their CO2 emissions and to implement CO2 reducing technologies. Furthermore, we try to find out whether these incentives differ between British and Dutch couriers. We find that several

  6. Policy Attribute Framing: A Comparison between Three Policy Instruments for Personal Emissions Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parag, Yael; Capstick, Stuart; Poortinga, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    A comparative experiment in the UK examined people's willingness to change energy consumption behavior under three different policy framings: energy tax, carbon tax, and personal carbon allowances (PCA). PCA is a downstream cap-and-trade policy proposed in the UK, in which emission rights are allocated to individuals. We hypothesized that due to…

  7. Proton emission from thin hydrogenated targets irradiated by laser pulses at 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Messina, V.le F.S. D' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Giuffrida, L.; Cirrone, P. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cutroneo, M. [Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Messina, V.le F.S. D' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Picciotto, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler-IRST, Via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Laska, L.; Ullschmied, J. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.; Rosinski, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 23 Hery Str. 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-02-15

    The iodine laser at PALS Laboratory in Prague, operating at 1315 nm fundamental harmonics and at 300 ps FWHM pulse length, is employed to irradiate thin hydrogenated targets placed in vacuum at intensities on the order of 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}. The laser-generated plasma is investigated in terms of proton and ion emission in the forward and backward directions. The time-of-flight technique, using ion collectors and semiconductor detectors, is used to measure the ion currents and the corresponding velocities and energies. Thomson parabola spectrometer is employed to separate the contribution of the ion emission from single laser shots. A particular attention is given to the proton production in terms of the maximum energy, emission yield, and angular distribution as a function of the laser energy, focal position, target thickness, and composition. Metallic and polymeric targets allow to generate protons with large energy range and different yield, depending on the laser, target composition, and target geometry properties.

  8. Proton emission from thin hydrogenated targets irradiated by laser pulses at 10(16) W∕cm2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L; Giuffrida, L; Cutroneo, M; Cirrone, P; Picciotto, A; Krasa, J; Margarone, D; Velyhan, A; Laska, L; Ullschmied, J; Wolowski, J; Badziak, J; Rosinski, M

    2012-02-01

    The iodine laser at PALS Laboratory in Prague, operating at 1315 nm fundamental harmonics and at 300 ps FWHM pulse length, is employed to irradiate thin hydrogenated targets placed in vacuum at intensities on the order of 10(16) W∕cm(2). The laser-generated plasma is investigated in terms of proton and ion emission in the forward and backward directions. The time-of-flight technique, using ion collectors and semiconductor detectors, is used to measure the ion currents and the corresponding velocities and energies. Thomson parabola spectrometer is employed to separate the contribution of the ion emission from single laser shots. A particular attention is given to the proton production in terms of the maximum energy, emission yield, and angular distribution as a function of the laser energy, focal position, target thickness, and composition. Metallic and polymeric targets allow to generate protons with large energy range and different yield, depending on the laser, target composition, and target geometry properties.

  9. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs emission reductions in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs emissions by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding generated the highest GHGs emissions. By scope, the emission from purchased electricity (scope 2 is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR, vertical roller mills (VRM, gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 reduction of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and

  10. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat

    2015-12-01

    There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission reductions in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs emissions by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e) per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding) generated the highest GHGs emissions. By scope, the emission from purchased electricity (scope 2) is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR), vertical roller mills (VRM), gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies) that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 reduction of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and practice were

  11. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, III, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-03

    India’s cement industry is the second largest in the world behind China with annual cement production of 168 Mt in 2010 which accounted for slightly greater than six percent of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. To produce that amount of cement, the industry consumed roughly 700 PJ of fuel and 14.7 TWh of electricity. We identified and analyzed 22 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the Indian cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model and compared to an electricity price forecast the cumulative cost-effective plant-level electricity savings potential for the Indian cement industry for 2010- 2030 is estimated to be 83 TWh, and the cumulative plant-level technical electricity saving potential is 89 TWh during the same period. The grid-level CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 82 Mt CO2 and the electric grid-level CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 88 Mt CO2. Compared to a fuel price forecast, an estimated cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 1,029 PJ with associated CO2 emission reduction of 97 Mt CO2 during 2010-2030 is possible. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Indian cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost over the next twenty years.

  12. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    China’s annual cement production (i.e., 1,868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese cement industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 279 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 144 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 161 Mt CO2. The fuel CSC model for the cement industry suggests cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 4,326 PJ which is equivalent to the total technical potential with associated CO2 emission reductions of 406 Mt CO2. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. We also developed a scenario in which instead of only implementing the international technologies in 2010-2030, we implement both international and Chinese domestic technologies during the analysis period and calculate the saving and cost of conserved energy accordingly. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  13. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  14. Efficiency Analysis of Technological Methods for Reduction of NOx Emissions while Burning Hydrocarbon Fuels in Heat and Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kabishov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a comparative efficiency analysis pertaining to application of existing technological methods for suppression of nitric oxide formation in heating boilers of heat generators. A special attention has been given to investigation of NOx  emission reduction while burning hydrocarbon fuel with the help of oxygen-enriched air. The calculations have demonstrated that while enriching oxidizer with the help of oxygen up to 50 % (by volume it is possible to reduce volume of NOx formation (while burning fuel unit by 21 %.

  15. China's Pathways to Achieving 40% ~ 45% Reduction in CO{sub 2} Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Ke, Jing

    2011-09-30

    Achieving China’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO{sub 2} per unit of GDP) by 40% to 45% percent below 2005 levels by 2020 will require the strengthening and expansion of energy efficiency policies across the buildings, industries and transport sectors. This study uses a bottom-up, end-use model and two scenarios -- an enhanced energy efficiency (E3) scenario and an alternative maximum technically feasible energy efficiency improvement (Max Tech) scenario – to evaluate what policies and technical improvements are needed to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity reduction target. The findings from this study show that a determined approach by China can lead to the achievement of its 2020 goal. In particular, with full success in deepening its energy efficiency policies and programs but following the same general approach used during the 11th Five Year Plan, it is possible to achieve 49% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP (CO{sub 2} emissions intensity) in 2020 from 2005 levels (E3 case). Under the more optimistic but feasible assumptions of development and penetration of advanced energy efficiency technology (Max Tech case), China could achieve a 56% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions intensity in 2020 relative to 2005 with cumulative reduction of energy use by 2700 Mtce and of CO{sub 2} emissions of 8107 Mt CO{sub 2} between 2010 and 2020. Energy savings and CO{sub 2} mitigation potential varies by sector but most of the energy savings potential is found in energy-intensive industry. At the same time, electricity savings and the associated emissions reduction are magnified by increasing renewable generation and improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring the dual importance of end-use efficiency improvements and power sector decarbonization.

  16. Emission reduction measures in biowaste fermentation plants; Emissionsmindernde Massnahmen bei Bioabfallvergaerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raussen, Thomas; Koj, Ulla; Sprick, Werner; Lootsma-Hallerberg, Auke [Witzenhausen-Institut fuer Abfall, Umwelt und Energie GmbH, Witzenhausen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Like many other biological processes, the biological processes of an integrated biowaste fermentation and composting plant involve gaseous emissions. Planners have many options to minimize the hazardous fraction of the gaseous emissions. Early optimization of the plans for materials flow management, constructional and process-related measures and operating schedules are particularly important. The contribution presents important fields of action and discusses their relevance. (orig.) [German] Die biologischen Prozesse einer integrierten Bioabfallvergaerungs- und Kompostierungsanlage sind, wie viele andere biologische Prozesse auch, mit gasfoermigen Emissionen verbunden. Anlagenplaner und Betreiber haben aber vielfaeltige Moeglichkeiten, den schaedlichen Anteil dieser Emissionen deutlich zu minimieren. Die fruehzeitige Optimierung der Planungen in den Bereichen Stoffstrommanagement, bauliche und verfahrenstechnische Massnahmen sowie betrieblicher Ablaeufe besitzt dabei besondere Bedeutung. Wichtige Handlungsfelder werden in diesem Beitrag uebersichtsartig dargestellt und in ihrer Relevanz diskutiert. (orig.)

  17. Uncertain long-run emissions targets, CO{sub 2} price and global energy transition: A general equilibrium approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand-Lasserve, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.durand@uclouvain.b [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), CORE, Voie du Roman Pays 34, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Pierru, Axel, E-mail: axel.pierru@ifp.f [IFP, Economics Department, 232 Avenue Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Smeers, Yves, E-mail: yves.smeers@uclouvain.ac.b [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), CORE, Voie du Roman Pays 34, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2010-09-15

    The persistent uncertainty about mid-century CO{sub 2} emissions targets is likely to affect not only the technological choices that energy-producing firms will make in the future but also their current investment decisions. We illustrate this effect on CO{sub 2} price and global energy transition within a MERGE-type general-equilibrium model framework, by considering simple stochastic CO{sub 2} policy scenarios. In these scenarios, economic agents know that credible long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets will be set in 2020, with two possible outcomes: either a 'hard cap' or a 'soft cap'. Each scenario is characterized by the relative probabilities of both possible caps. We derive consistent stochastic trajectories-with two branches after 2020-for prices and quantities of energy commodities and CO{sub 2} emissions permits. The impact of uncertain long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets on prices and technological trajectories is discussed. In addition, a simple marginal approach allows us to analyze the Hotelling rule with risk premia observed for certain scenarios.

  18. Uncertain long-run emissions targets, CO{sub 2} price and global energy transition. A general equilibrium approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand-Lasserve, Olivier; Smeers, Yves [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), CORE, Voie du Roman Pays 34, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Pierru, Axel [IFP, Economics Department, 232 Avenue Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2010-09-15

    The persistent uncertainty about mid-century CO{sub 2} emissions targets is likely to affect not only the technological choices that energy-producing firms will make in the future but also their current investment decisions. We illustrate this effect on CO{sub 2} price and global energy transition within a MERGE-type general-equilibrium model framework, by considering simple stochastic CO{sub 2} policy scenarios. In these scenarios, economic agents know that credible long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets will be set in 2020, with two possible outcomes: either a hard cap or a soft cap. Each scenario is characterized by the relative probabilities of both possible caps. We derive consistent stochastic trajectories - with two branches after 2020 - for prices and quantities of energy commodities and CO{sub 2} emissions permits. The impact of uncertain long-run CO{sub 2} emissions targets on prices and technological trajectories is discussed. In addition, a simple marginal approach allows us to analyze the Hotelling rule with risk premia observed for certain scenarios. (author)

  19. Optimizing emissions targets for residential recycling programmes: Why 'more' is not necessarily better with respect to diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Calvin

    2016-11-01

    This study highlights the economic and environmental challenges of recycling in Ontario, specifically examining the effect of attempting to increase the emissions target for the province's household recycling programme. The findings from the cost model analysis found that Ontario's Blue Box programme reduces overall carbon emissions by approximately 1.8 million tonnes every year. This study also found that targeting specific materials for recovery could result in a scenario where the province could improve both overall diversion and emissions offsets while reducing material management costs. Under our modelled scenario, as the tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) avoided increases, the system cost per tonne of GHG avoided initial declines. However, after avoiding 2.05 million tonnes of GHGs, the system cost/tonne GHG avoided increases. To achieve an emissions target in excess of 2.05 million tonnes, the province will have to start recycling higher cost non-core materials (composite materials, other plastics, etc.). © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Design and testing of an independently controlled urea SCR retrofit system for the reduction of NOx emissions from marine diesels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek R; Bedick, Clinton R; Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L

    2009-05-15

    Diesel engine emissions for on-road, stationary and marine applications are regulated in the United States via standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A major component of diesel exhaust that is difficult to reduce is nitrogen oxides (NOx). Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been in use for many years for stationary applications, including external combustion boilers, and is promising for NOx abatement as a retrofit for mobile applications where diesel compression ignition engines are used. The research presented in this paper is the first phase of a program focused on the reduction of NOx by use of a stand-alone urea injection system, applicable to marine diesel engines typical of work boats (e.g., tugs). Most current urea SCR systems communicate with engine controls to predict NOx emissions based on signals such as torque and engine speed, however many marine engines in use still employ mechanical injection technology and lack electronic communication abilities. The system developed and discussed in this paper controls NOx emissions independentof engine operating parameters and measures NOx and exhaust flow using the following exhaust sensor inputs: absolute pressure, differential pressure, temperature, and NOx concentration. These sensor inputs were integrated into an independent controller and open loop architecture to estimate the necessary amount of urea needed, and the controller uses pulse width modulation (PWM) to power an automotive fuel injector for airless urea delivery. The system was tested in a transient test cell on a 350 hp engine certified at 4 g/bhp-hr of NOx, with a goal of reducing the engine out NOx levels by 50%. NOx reduction capabilities of 41-67% were shown on the non road transient cycle (NRTC) and ICOMIA E5 steady state cycles with system optimization during testing to minimize the dilute ammonia slip to cycle averages of 5-7 ppm. The goal of 50% reduction of NOx can be achieved dependent upon cycle. Further

  1. Monitoring Persistent Volcanic Emissions from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia: A Community Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic and geothermal emissions are known natural sources of volatiles to the atmosphere. Volcanogenic air pollutants known to cause the most serious impact are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Some studies into the potential for volcanic emissions to produce chronic diseases in humans indicate that areas of major concern include respiratory problems, particularly silicosis (Allen et al. 2000; Baxter et al. 1999; Buist et al. 1986), psychological stress (Shore et al. 1986), and chemical impacts of gas or ash (Giammanco et al. 1998). Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia has a very high recreational value with >200,000 visitors annually, while the nearby town of Soufrière has >8,400 residents. Residents and visitors have raised concerns about the volcanic emissions and its health effects. As part of the volcanic surveillance programme undertaken by the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in Saint Lucia, a new monitoring network has been established for quantifying the ambient SO2 in air, to which staff and visitors at the volcanic park are exposed to. The implementation and continued operation of this network has involved the training of local personnel in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations, using a low cost monitor as well as commercial passive samplers. This approach recognizes that environmental hazards are a usual part of life and productive livelihoods, and to minimize post-disaster response and recovery it is beneficial to promote preparedness and mitigation, which is best achieved at the local level with community involvement. It is also intended that the volcanic emissions monitoring network could be used as a method to establish and maintain community-based initiatives that would also be helpful when volcanic threat manifests.

  2. Heat emission inventories in urban areas reduction of transmission losses of district heating pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Wenk, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Heat emission from buildings as a result of inadequate thermal insulation leads to energy loss and thus unnecessary costs. In long-distance heating lines thermal transfer also often causes undetected transmission losses. The knowledge of the sources of such loss would help increase energy efficiency significantly, decrease global energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gases and cut energy cost at the same time. A technological approach based on infrared thermography is presented in the followi...

  3. The reduction of dioxin emissions from the processes of heat and power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgosiński, Grzegorz

    2011-05-01

    The first reports that it is possible to emit dioxins from the heat and power generation sector are from the beginning of the 1980s. Detailed research proved that the emission of dioxins might occur during combustion of hard coal, brown coal, and furnace oil as well as coke-oven gas. The emission of dioxins occurs in wood incineration; wood that is clean and understood as biomass; or, in particular, wood waste (polluted). This paper thoroughly discusses the mechanism of dioxin formation in thermal processes, first and foremost in combustion processes. The parameters influencing the quantity of dioxins formed and the dependence of their quantity on the conditions of combustion are highlighted. Furthermore, the methods of reducing dioxin emissions from combustion processes (primary and secondary) are discussed. The most efficacious methods that may find application in the heat and power generation sector are proposed; this is relevant from the point of view of the implementation of the Stockholm Convention resolutions in Poland with regard to persistent organic pollutants.

  4. Potentials of NO{sub X} emission reduction methods in SI hydrogen engines: Simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, H.; Jazayeri, S.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, No.15, Pardis Street, Vanak Square, Tehran (Iran); Ebrahimi, R. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, 4th Tehranpars Square, East Vafadar Street, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    The ever increasing cost of hydrocarbon fuels and more stringent emission standards may resolve challenges in producing hydrogen and using it as an alternative fuel in industries. Internal combustion engines are well-established technology and hydrogen fuel in such engines is considered as an attractive choice in exploiting clean, efficient and renewable hydrogen energy. This work presents an improved thermo-kinetics model for simulation of hydrogen combustion in SI engines. The turbulent propagating flame is modeled using turbulent burning velocity model. During combustion the charge is divided into three zones containing unburned charge, flame and burned gas. The adiabatic flame is assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium while the detailed chemical kinetics scheme is considered for burned and unburned zones. The results were first validated against published experiments. Good agreements were obtained between simulation and experiment for varying equivalence ratio, ignition timing and compression ratio. Detailed analysis of engine NO{sub X} emission was performed afterward. The lean-burn and EGR strategies' potentials were examined by the current model. The effects of different amounts of cooled dry EGR and hot wet EGR on the NO{sub X} emission, engine power output and indicated thermal efficiency were investigated and compared theoretically. (author)

  5. Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

  6. The contribution of Slovenian biogas plants to the reduction of agricultural sector green house emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana MARINŠEK LOGAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a source of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane into the environment. These emissions can be reduced by appropriate storage of animal slurry and manure, with proper fertilization and processing of organic agricultural waste into biogas, where methane is captured and used as an energy source. Biogas is a renewable source of energy that is produced by microbial anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. As a substrate in biogas plants using different types of organic biomass such as animal manure and slurry, crop residues, spoilt silage, waste from food processing industry and biodegradable industrial and municipal waste. Biogas can be used to produce heat and electricity or purified to biomethane as a fuel for vehicles. Digestate can be used as a high-quality fertilizer. Biogas as a renewable energy source represents a replacement for fossil fuels, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil sources. The system of financial supports for electricity produced from biogas is applied in Slovenia. There were 24 operating biogas plants in Slovenia in year 2014. Slovenian biogas plants currently produce the majority of biogas from energy crops. As only the minority of biogas is produced from animal excrements we will primarily support the development of agricultural microbiogas plants that will use animal excrements and organic waste biomass from agri-food sector as substrates.

  7. Direct reduction process using fines and with reduced CO2 emission

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Morrison, A

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available be sourced from tunnel kiln product. This would allow the production of ferromanganese without the very high export gas volumes associated with a blast furnace type operation. Life cycle analysis Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a powerful tool... then be charged to a blast furnace N direct reduction of in-plant waste oxide materials for recycling, adding to plant productivity N nitriding of titanium bearing slags and minerals for the recovery of TiO2 N reduction of sulphates (e.g. precipitated...

  8. Reductions in Goal-Directed Cognition as a Consequence of Being the Target of Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorauer, Jacquie D; Quesnel, Matthew; St Germain, Sara L

    2016-01-01

    Although empathy is widely promoted as a beneficial practice across both intergroup and interpersonal contexts, the implications of being the target of empathy for the target's own psychological state are unclear. Three experiments examined how being the target of empathy affects goal-directed cognition outcomes related to a psychological sense of power, namely, the ability to maintain goal focus and readiness to ask for more in negotiations. We reasoned that because individuals typically empathize with others they perceive as disadvantaged and needing support, trying to empathize would raise individuals up in terms of such outcomes at the same time as it pushed the targets of their empathy down in a complementary fashion. Results were consistent with these predictions across intergroup and intragroup interaction. The findings thus suggest that individuals' efforts to empathize can undermine the targets of their empathy in a subtle manner by hindering their ability to pursue their goals. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Economic gains from targeted measures related to non-point pollution in agriculture based on detailed nitrate reduction maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Brian H; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2016-06-15

    From 1990 to 2003, Denmark reduced N-leaching from the root zone by 50%. However, more measures are required, and in recent years, the focus has been on how to differentiate measures in order to ensure that they are implemented where the effect on N-loss reductions per ha is the greatest. The purpose of the NiCA project has been to estimate the natural nitrate reduction in the groundwater more precisely than before using a plot size down to 1ha. This article builds on these findings and presents the possible economic gains for the farmer when using this information to reach a given N-loss level. Targeted measures are especially relevant where the subsurface N-reduction varies significantly within the same farm and national analyses have shown that a cost reduction of around 20-25% using targeted measures is likely. The analyses show an increasing potential with increasing variation in N-reduction in the catchment. In this analysis, the knowledge of spatial variation in N-reduction potential is used to place measures like catch crops or set-a-side at locations with the greatest effect on 10 case farms in the Norsminde Catchment, Denmark. The findings suggest that the gains are from 0 to 32€/ha and the average farm would gain approximately 14-21€/ha/year from the targeted measures approach. The analysis indicates that the economic gain is greater than the costs of providing the detailed maps of 5-10€/ha/year. When N-loss reduction requirements are increased, the economic gains are greater. When combined with new measures like mini-wetlands and early sowing the economic advantage is increased further. The paper also shows that not all farms can use the detailed information on N-reduction and there is not a clear link between spatial variation in N-reduction at the farm level and possible economic gains for all these 10 farms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of local government investment on the carbon emissions reduction effect: An empirical analysis of panel data from 30 provinces and municipalities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingyun; Yin, Fang; Zhong, Zhangqi; Ding, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Among studies of the factors that influence carbon emissions and related regulations, economic aggregates, industrial structures, energy structures, population levels, and energy prices have been extensively explored, whereas studies from the perspective of fiscal leverage, particularly of local government investment (LGI), are rare. Of the limited number of studies on the effect of LGI on carbon emissions, most focus on its direct effect. Few studies consider regulatory effects, and there is a lack of emphasis on local areas. Using a cointegration test, a panel data model and clustering analysis based on Chinese data between 2000 and 2013, this study measures the direct role of LGI in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction. First, overall, within the sample time period, a 1% increase in LGI inhibits carbon emissions by 0.8906% and 0.5851% through its influence on the industrial structure and energy efficiency, respectively, with the industrial structure path playing a greater role than the efficiency path. Second, carbon emissions to some extent exhibit inertia. The previous year's carbon emissions impact the following year's carbon emissions by 0.5375%. Thus, if a reduction in carbon emissions in the previous year has a positive effect, then the carbon emissions reduction effect generated by LGI in the following year will be magnified. Third, LGI can effectively reduce carbon emissions, but there are significant regional differences in its impact. For example, in some provinces, such as Sichuan and Anhui, economic growth has not been decoupled from carbon emissions. Fourth, the carbon emissions reduction effect in the 30 provinces and municipalities sampled in this study can be classified into five categories-strong, relatively strong, medium, relatively weak and weak-based on the degree of local governments' regulation of carbon emissions. The carbon emissions reduction effect of LGI is significant in the western and central regions of China but not in the

  11. Coordinated EV adoption: double-digit reductions in emissions and fuel use for $40/vehicle-year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Gu; Kreikebaum, Frank; Thomas, Valerie M; Divan, Deepak

    2013-09-17

    Adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) would affect the costs and sources of electricity and the United States efficiency requirements for conventional vehicles (CVs). We model EV adoption scenarios in each of six regions of the Eastern Interconnection, containing 70% of the United States population. We develop electricity system optimization models at the multidecade, day-ahead, and hour-ahead time scales, incorporating spatial wind energy modeling, endogenous modeling of CV efficiencies, projections for EV efficiencies, and projected CV and EV costs. We find two means to reduce total consumer expenditure (TCE): (i) controlling charge timing and (ii) unlinking the fuel economy regulations for CVs from EVs. Although EVs provide minimal direct GHG reductions, controlled charging provides load flexibility, lowering the cost of renewable electricity. Without EVs, a 33% renewable electricity standard (RES) would cost $193/vehicle-year more than the reference case (10% RES). Combining a 33% RES, EVs with controlled charging and unlinking would reduce combined electric- and vehicle-sector CO2 emissions by 27% and reduce gasoline consumption by 59% for $40/vehicle-year more than the reference case. Coordinating EV adoption with adoption of controlled charging, unlinked fuel economy regulations, and renewable electricity standards would provide low-cost reductions in emissions and fuel usage.

  12. Parameterizing soil emission and atmospheric oxidation-reduction in a model of the global biogeochemical cycle of mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Ikemoto, Hisatoshi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Hasome, Hisashi; Ueda, Hiromasa

    2013-01-01

    Using the GEOS-Chem atmosphere-land-ocean coupled mercury model, we studied the significances of two processes, soil emission and atmospheric oxidation-reduction, in the global biogeochemical cycling of mercury and their parametrization to improve model performance. Implementing an empirical equation for soil emission flux (Esoil) including soil mercury concentration, solar radiation, and surface air temperature as parameters enabled the model to reproduce the observed seasonal variations of Esoil, whereas the default setting, which uses only the former two parameters, failed. The modified setting of Esoil also increased the model-simulated atmospheric concentration in the summertime surface layer of the lower- and midlatitudes and improved the model reproducibility for the observations in Japan and U.S. in the same period. Implementing oxidation of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) by ozone with an updated rate constant, as well as the oxidation by bromine atoms (Br) in the default setting, improved the model reproducibility for the dry deposition fluxes observed in Japan. This setting, however, failed to reproduce the observed seasonal variations of atmospheric concentrations in the Arctic sites due to the imbalance between oxidation and reduction, whereas the model with Br as the sole Hg(0) oxidant in the polar atmosphere could capture the variations.

  13. Co-benefits from CO{sub 2}-emission reduction measurements in Shanxi, China - a first assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, Kristin; Fang, Jinghua; Li, Guanghai; Seip, Hans Martin; Vennemo, Haakon

    2000-05-01

    The largest local and regional air pollution problems are usually found in countries without emission reduction obligations in the Kyoto protocol. Thus, in many Chinese cities the concentrations of SO{sub 2} and particulates in the air by far exceed the WHO air quality guidelines. This report analyses a set of CO{sub 2}-reducing abatement options related to coal consumption in Shanxi, China. The costs and potential for abatement are investigated for different economic sectors and the entailed emission reductions are estimated in terms of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and particles. The present population-weighted exposure level for particles and SO{sub 2} is estimated and the reduced population exposure resulting from the abatement measures is assessed. Exposure-response functions from Chinese and international epidemiology are used to indicate the health effects of applying the measures. An economic evaluation of the reduced health effect is made by applying unit prices of health impacts based on the damage cost approach. The present agricultural crop loss due to enhanced levels of surface ozone are estimated. It is found that the CO{sub 2}-reducing abatement options in Shanxi are profitable in a socioeconomic sense. But there is a certain lack of synergy between the options with respect to their effectiveness in meeting local, regional and global environmental concerns.

  14. Comparative analyses of built environment exposures relevant to health of greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategies in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Sandra P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents comparative analysis of residential indoor air pollutant concentration change over future specified time horizon, implementing building physical and thermal retrofit measures, thus creating pollution mitigation scenarios for existing Belgrade and Nis housing stock followed by greenhouse gas emission reduction scenarios up to 2050. Regarding specified mitigation scenarios, the set of typical housing unit models has been generated which define existing housing stock of Belgrade and Nis. Extensive monitoring of physical and thermal parameters as well as detailed socio-technical survey of selected households was performed and used as an initial modeling input. Relationship between environment pollution and building performances was investigated, with respect to indooroutdoor sources of pollution, thermal and physical properties of the stock samples and occupant’s behavior. As a final output, indoor pollutant concentrations for each of the modelled cases was obtained and validated against the available data. This housing modelling framework has been created in order to develop an assessment of present and future exposure and health impact quantity regarding single/multiple scenario interventions introduced to the housing stock. This paper provides each strategy guidelines for taking measures towards achieving the healthier indoor environments. [FP7-ENV-2010: PURGE-Public health impacts in urban environments of greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategies, Project number: 265325, financed by the European Commission

  15. EFFECTIVNESS OF TARGET ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY OF SEVERE CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS PART I: REDUCTION OF GINGIVAL INFLAMATION AND ACTIVE PERIODONTAL DISEASE SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamen Kotsilkov

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between recurrent bleeding on probing and the progression of periodontal destruction is suggested in many studies. One of the main goals of the periodontal treatment is the achievement of good control of the gingival inflammation and the reduction of the active periodontal sites.Aim: Evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment of severe chronic periodontitis with additional target antibiotic administration in comparison with the therapy with adjunctive antimicrobial combination amoxicillin + metronidazole and conventional mechanical periodontal treatment regarding the achieved control of the gingival inflammation and BoP.Results: Significant reduction of the gingival bleeding and the BoP is achieved in all groups. In the group with target antibiotic administration the final mean values of the GB (gingival bleeding and BoP (bleeding on probing are the lowest and could suggest a low risk for progression of the periodontal disease.

  16. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.V. [Global Environmental Solutions, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  17. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Arens, Marlene [Fraunhofer Inst. for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-31

    Iron and steel manufacturing is among the most energy-intensive industries and accounts for the largest share, approximately 27 percent, of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the manufacturing sector. The ongoing increase in world steel demand means that this industry’s energy use and CO2 emissions continue to grow, so there is significant incentive to develop, commercialize and adopt emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for steel production. Although studies from around the world have identified a wide range of energy-efficiency technologies applicable to the steel industry that have already been commercialized, information is limited and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on 56 emerging iron and steel industry technologies, with the intent of providing a well-structured database of information on these technologies for engineers, researchers, investors, steel companies, policy makers, and other interested parties. For each technology included, we provide information on energy savings and environmental and other benefits, costs, and commercialization status; we also identify references for more information.

  18. Recent increases in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired electric generating units equipped with selective catalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNevin, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    The most effective control technology available for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from coal-fired boilers is selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Installation of SCR on coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs) has grown substantially since the onset of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) first cap and trade program for oxides of nitrogen in 1999, the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program. Installations have increased from 6 units present in 1998 in the states that encompass the current Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) ozone season program to 250 in 2014. In recent years, however, the degree of usage of installed SCR technology has been dropping significantly at individual plants. Average seasonal NOx emission rates increased substantially during the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) program. These increases coincided with a collapse in the cost of CAIR allowances, which declined to less than the cost of the reagent required to operate installed SCR equipment, and was accompanied by a 77% decline in delivered natural gas prices from their peak in June of 2008 to April 2012, which in turn coincided with a 390% increase in shale gas production between 2008 and 2012. These years also witnessed a decline in national electric generation which, after peaking in 2007, declined through 2013 at an annualized rate of -0.3%. Scaling back the use of installed SCR on coal-fired plants has resulted in the release of over 290,000 tons of avoidable NOx during the past five ozone seasons in the states that participated in the CAIR program. To function as designed, a cap and trade program must maintain allowance costs that function as a disincentive for the release of the air pollutants that the program seeks to control. If the principle incentive for reducing NOx emissions is the avoidance of allowance costs, emissions may be expected to increase if costs fall below a critical value, in the absence of additional state or federal

  19. Furnace devices aerodynamics optimization for fuel combustion efficiency improvement and nitrogen oxide emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, E. P.; Prokhorov, V. B.; Arkhipov, A. M.; Chernov, S. L.; Kirichkov, V. S.; Kaverin, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    MPEI conducts researches on physical and mathematical models of furnace chambers for improvement of power-generation equipment fuel combustion efficiency and ecological safety. Results of these researches are general principles of furnace aerodynamics arrangement for straight-flow burners and various fuels. It has been shown, that staged combustion arrangement with early heating and igniting with torch distribution in all furnace volume allows to obtain low carbon in fly ash and nitrogen oxide emission and also to improve boiler operation reliability with expand load adjustment range. For solid fuel combustion efficiency improvement it is practical to use high-placed and strongly down-tilted straight-flow burners, which increases high-temperature zone residence time for fuel particles. In some cases, for this combustion scheme it is possible to avoid slag-tap removal (STR) combustion and to use Dry-bottom ash removal (DBAR) combustion with tolerable carbon in fly ash level. It is worth noting that boilers with STR have very high nitrogen oxide emission levels (1200-1800 mg/m3) and narrow load adjustment range, which is determined by liquid slag output stability, so most industrially-developed countries don’t use this technology. Final decision about overhaul of boiler unit is made with regard to physical and mathematical modeling results for furnace and zonal thermal calculations for furnace and boiler as a whole. Overhaul of boilers to provide staged combustion and straight-flow burners and nozzles allows ensuring regulatory nitrogen oxide emission levels and corresponding best available technology criteria, which is especially relevant due to changes in Russian environmental regulation.

  20. Contribution to Quality of Air Traffic Due to Reduction of Gaseous Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melichar Kopas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are described basic principles of jet engine construction and operation in the presented paper, taking into consideration question of gaseous emissions produced in exhaust gases of turbojet engines. The innovative aircraft jet engines are the most important power units of modern planes nowadays and therefore it is necessary to analyse their environmental impacts, with regard to quality of living environment. This paper integrates technical and environmental factors of up-to-date jet engines. It demonstrates an important fact that modern airplanes equipped by sophisticated turbo-jet engines are environment friendly with regard to reduced amount of pollutants in their exhaust gases.

  1. Emission reduction in SI engine using ethanol – gasoline blends on thermal barrier coated pistons

    OpenAIRE

    C.Ananda Srinivasan and C.G.Saravanan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of ethanol and unleaded gasoline with Isoheptanol blends on multi- cylinder SI engine were investigated. The test fuels were prepared using 99.9% pure ethanol and unleaded gasoline with Isoheptanol blend, in the ratio of E 60 + 2.0 Isoheptanol, E 50 + 1.0 Isoheptanol. In this work the performance, emission and combustion tests were conducted in multi-cylinder petrol engine. The experimental results reveal an increase in brake thermal efficiency on the use of test fu...

  2. Moab, Utah: Using Energy Data to Target Carbon Reductions from Building Energy Efficiency (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs

    2017-11-01

    This fact sheet "Moab, Utah: Using Energy Data to Target Carbon Reductions from Building Energy Efficiency" explains how the City of Moab used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  3. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

  4. Combined heat and power systems for commercial buildings: investigating cost, emissions, and primary energy reduction based on system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda D.

    Combined heat and power (CHP) systems produce electricity and useful heat from fuel. When power is produced near a building which consumes power, transmission losses are averted, and heat which is a byproduct of power production may be useful to the building. That thermal energy can be used for hot water or space heating, among other applications. This dissertation focuses on CHP systems using natural gas, a common fuel, and systems serving commercial buildings in the United States. First, the necessary price difference between purchased electricity and purchased fuel is analyzed in terms of the efficiencies of system components by comparing CHP with a conventional separate heat and power (SHP) configuration, where power is purchased from the electrical grid and heat is provided by a gas boiler. Similarly, the relationship between CDE due to electricity purchases and due to fuel purchases is analyzed as well as the relationship between primary energy conversion factors for electricity and fuel. The primary energy conversion factor indicates the quantity of source energy necessary to produce the energy purchased at the site. Next, greenhouse gas emissions are investigated for a variety of commercial buildings using CHP or SHP. The relationship between the magnitude of the reduction in emissions and the parameters of the CHP system is explored. The cost savings and reduction in primary energy consumption are evaluated for the same buildings. Finally, a CHP system is analyzed with the addition of a thermal energy storage (TES) component, which can store excess thermal energy and deliver it later if necessary. The potential for CHP with TES to reduce cost, emissions, and primary energy consumption is investigated for a variety of buildings. A case study is developed for one building for which TES does provide additional benefits over a CHP system alone, and the requirements for a water tank TES device are examined.

  5. Emission of low-energetic electrons in collisions of heavy ions with solid targets; Emission niederenergetischer Elektronen in Stoessen von schweren Ionen mit Festkoerpertargets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineva, Natallia

    2008-07-15

    At the UNILAC accelerator, we have initiated a project with the objective to investigate lowenergy electrons, emitted from solid, electrically conductive targets after the impact of swift light and heavy ions. For this purposes, we have installed, optimized, and put into operation an electrostatic toroidal electron spectrometer. First, investigations of electrons, emitted from solid-state targets after the bombardment with a monochromatic electron beam from an electron gun, has been carried out. The proposed method combines the results of the measurements with the results of dedicated Monte Carlo simulations. The method has been elaborated in a case study for carbon targets. The findings have been instrumental for the interpretation of our measurements of electrons emitted in collisions of swift ions with the same carbon targets. Our investigations focused on following ion beams: protons and (H{sup +}{sub 3})-molecules of the same energy, as well as on carbon ions with two different energies. Thin carbon, nickel, argon and gold foils has been used as targets. Electrons in the energy range between 50 eV and 1 keV have been investigated. The measured electron distributions, both integral as well as differential with respect to the polar angle, have been compared to simple standard theories for gases as well as to the results of TRAX simulations, the latter being based on data from gaseous targets. Dedicated TRAX simulations have been performed only for the carbon targets, applying the method mentioned above. Within our experimental uncertainties, we observe a good agreement of the measured and TRAX simulated data. That leads us to the conclusion that - as a first order approximation - the electron emission pattern from ion-atom collisions in solid-state targets and the one from single collisions in gases are similar. (orig.)

  6. Disproportionality as a Framework to Target Pollution Reduction from Urban Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Horgan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available New federal water quality regulations regarding impaired waters and urban stormwater, alongside a growing need to reverse eutrophication of urban lakes, are creating demand to decrease nutrient export from urban landscapes, particularly lawns. We propose that Nowak et al.’s (2006 disproportionality framework could be used to target specific households likely to generate disproportionate levels of nutrient export. The biophysical dimension would be based on landscape vulnerability (slope, soil type, proximity to lakes; the social dimension would target “inappropriate” lawn management behaviors leading to high nutrient export on these vulnerable landscapes. Understanding of lawn nutrient cycling (biophysical dimension and homeowner beliefs and attitudes (social dimension would be used to develop targeted, specific messages for homeowners practicing inappropriate management. A lawn management program developed with this disproportionality framework would probably be very effective, highly economical and fair, targeting only homeowners who are creating a disproportionate impact.

  7. Influence of fuel type, dilution and equivalence ratio on the emission reduction from the auto-ignition in an Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim [UPMC Universite Paris 06, ENSCP, 11 rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Universite Libre de Bruxelles, TIPs - Fluid Physics, CP165/67, 50 Avenue F.D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, ENSCP, 11 rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Amouroux, Jacques [UPMC Universite Paris 06, ENSCP, 11 rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2010-04-15

    One technology that seems to be promising for automobile pollution reduction is the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). This technology still faces auto-ignition and emission-control problems. This paper focuses on the emission problem, since it is incumbent to realize engines that pollute less. For this purpose, this paper presents results concerning the measurement of the emissions of CO, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and hydrocarbons. HCCI conditions are used, with equivalence ratios between 0.26 and 0.54, inlet temperatures of 70 C and 120 C and compression ratios of 10.2 and 13.5, with different fuel types: gasoline, gasoline surrogate, diesel, diesel surrogate and mixtures of n-heptane/toluene. The effect of dilution is considered for gasoline, while the effect of the equivalence ratio is considered for all the fuels. No significant amount of NO{sub x} has been measured. It appeared that the CO, O{sub 2} and hydrocarbon emissions were reduced by decreasing the toluene content of the fuel and by decreasing the dilution. The opposite holds for CO{sub 2}. The reduction of the hydrocarbon emission appears to compete with the reduction of the CO{sub 2} emission. Diesel seemed to produce less CO and hydrocarbons than gasoline when auto-ignited. An example of emission reduction control is presented in this paper. (author)

  8. Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions for a 175-MWe boiler by micronized coal reburning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, E.D.; Bradshaw, D.T.; Butler, T.F.; Kazemersky, P.M. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has been selected for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology IV program to demonstrate Micronized Coal Reburn technology for control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions on a 175 MWe wall-fired steam generator at its Shawnee Fossil Plant. TVA has selected MicroFuel Division of Fuller Power Corporation as the prime contractor for the project and partner in the commercialization of this technology. The project will demonstrate the technology with which Microfuel can produce micro fine coal. This retrofit demonstration is expected to decrease NO[sub x] emissions by 50 to 60 percent. Up to 30 percent of the total fuel fired in the furnace will be micronized coal injected in the upper furnace creating a fuel-rich reburn zone. Overfire will be injected above the reburn zone at high velocity for good furnace gas mixing above the reburn zone to ensure complete combustion. TVA Shawnee Steam Plant, comprised of 10 units of 175-MW[sub e] each, is indicative of a large portion of boilers in TVA's and the nation's utility operating base. Micronized coal Reburn technology compares favourably with other NO[sub x] control technologies and yet offers additional performance benefits. This paper focuses on Micronized Coal Reburn technology and the schedule and activities for implementing a full-scale demonstration at Shawnee. 6 figs.

  9. Unanticipated benefits of automotive emission control: reduction in fatalities by motor vehicle exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, M

    1994-05-23

    In 1970, before the implementation of strict controls on emissions in motor vehicle exhaust gas (MVEG), the annual USA incidence of fatal accidents by carbon monoxide in the MVEG was approximately 800 and that of suicides approximately 2000 (somewhat less than 10% of total suicides). In 1987, there were approximately 400 fatal accidents and approximately 2700 suicides by MVEG. Accounting for the growth in population and vehicle registration, the yearly lives saved in accidents by MVEG were approximately 1200 in 1987 and avoided suicides approximately 1400. The decrease in accidents continues unabated while the decrease in expected suicides by MVEG reached a plateau in 1981-1983. The reasons for this disparity are discussed. Juxtaposition of these results with the projected cancer risk avoidance of less than 500 annually in 2005 (as compared with 1986) plainly shows that, in terms of mortality, the unanticipated benefits of emission control far overshadow the intended benefits. With the spread of MVEG control these benefits will accrue worldwide.

  10. Reduction of CO(2)-emissions by using biomass in combustion and digestion plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gaston; Schingnitz, Daniel; Schnapke, Antje; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Climate protection is one of the main aims of environmental policy. One way to advance and push the progress is to reduce the use of fossil fuels for energy production through an increasing production of renewable and CO(2)-neutral energy for example through application of biomass. This paper sets the focus on biomass streams that can be used both thermal and biological for energy production like grass or energy crops. To calculate the potentials of decrease of CO(2)-emissions for treatment of biomass in either combustion or digestion plants some scenarios were set up with different assumptions regarding degree of efficiency of treatment plants which depends on size of plants and the treatment process itself. The energetic utilisation of the considered biomass streams is divided in different utilisation scenarios: combined heat and power generation (CHP) and heat generation or power generation only. Additionally four groups of plant sizes referring to electrical power (from 0.1 up to 10.0MW) were taken into consideration. The calculations of potential savings of CO(2)-emission in both types of treatment scenarios lead to the result that in comparison to biological technologies thermal processes show a much higher utilisation of the energy content in biomass. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

    2010-10-01

    Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

  12. PM2.5 from the Guanzhong Plain: Chemical composition and implications for emission reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xinyi; Cao, Junji; Shen, Zhenxing; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Tie, Xuexi; Zhao, Shuyu; Xu, Hongmei; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Rujin

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) affects important environmental issues including air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. A one-year sampling campaign for PM2.5 was conducted at six locations in Guanzhong Plain, including the cities of Xi'an, Weinan and Baoji, from March 2012 to March 2013. The 24-h average PM2.5 mass concentration was 134.7 μg m-3, that substantially exceeds the National Ambient Air Quality Standard level of 35 μg m-3. The highest loadings of both organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) occurred in winter: EC co-varied with OC but showed less variability, presumably due to more stable emissions. The greatest contributions of secondary inorganic ions (SO42-, NO3- and NH4+) to the total quantified ions also were seen in winter, presumably due to gaseous precursors from coal combustion and biomass burning. Two high PM episodes occurred, one in the autumn and the other in winter. During the autumn episode, regional pollution from biomass burning raised the concentrations of secondary ions while coal combustion was a strong influence during the winter episode. Modeling simulations suggest that the control measures on both primary emissions and secondary aerosol precursors including SO2, NOx, and NH3 are needed to reduce the PM levels of the region.

  13. Reduction of nitrous oxide emissions from partial nitrification process by using innovative carbon source (mannitol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinwen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Wei, Dong; Lan, Wei; Hu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mannitol as carbon source on nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during partial nitrification (PN) process. Laboratory-scale PN sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated with mannitol and sodium acetate as carbon sources, respectively. Results showed that mannitol could remarkably reduce N2O-N emission by 41.03%, without influencing the removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N. However, it has a significant influence on nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) and TN removal, which were 19.97% and 13.59% lower than that in PN with sodium acetate, respectively. Microbial analysis showed that the introduction of mannitol could increase the abundance of bacteria encoding nosZ genes. In addition, anti-oxidant enzymes (T-SOD, POD and CAT) activities were significantly reduced and the dehydrogenase activity had an obvious increase in mannitol system, indicating that mannitol could alleviate the inhibition of N2O reductase (N2OR) activities caused by high NO2(-)-N concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Laboratory investigations on sorbents for control and reduction of acid emissions from atmospheric fluidised bed combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmal, D.; Ligtvoet, A.C.P.

    1991-06-10

    One of the main problems in the combustion of solid fuels is the formation and emission of sulfur-, nitrogen-, and halogen-based acidic gaseous compounds. In the framework of the TNO (Dutch organization for applied scientific research) research program on fluidized bed combustion of coal for industrial heat and electricity generation, laboratory investigations were carried out on the physical and chemical aspects of the removal of various acidic gas emissions. Attention is paid to acidic compounds that can be converted or removed by reaction at high temperatures with appropriate solid sorbents to be added at the installation. The acids investigated are SO{sub 2}, HCl, HF, and N{sub 2}O. Relatively simple methods were developed for sulfur dioxide to decrease the quantity of limestone needed for effective removal. The investigations on hydrochloric acid were directed towards the development of methods which can be easily incorporated in existing installations if in the future removal of these compounds should be required. For nitrous oxide, some orientating investigations were performed on the reaction with calcium cyanamide. The experiments showed that it is possible to use this compound to remove nitrous oxide. 20 figs., 7 tabs., 19 refs.

  15. Assessment of Current and Future Air Pollutant Emission Reduction Technologies for Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    exhaust gases, fuel oxidation catalysis , and other diesel engine enhancements. 4. Identify innovative technologies that may find applications in...injector into the exhaust stream. The injected urea is distributed throughout the exhaust stream in a mixing pipe before reaching the reactor (SCR), where...the catalytic reduction takes place. The reactor houses the catalyst elements, soot blowing outlets, and NOx monitoring equipment. The catalyst

  16. A fair compromise to break the climate impasse. A major economies forum approach to emissions reductions budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, Marco [Univ. of Milan-Bicocca (Italy). International Environmental Policy; J. Roberts, Timmons [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Environmental Studies and Sociology; The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Key messages of the study are: Given the stalemate in U.N. climate negotiations, the best arena to strike a workable deal is among the members the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate (MEF); The 13 MEF members—including the EU-27 (but not double-counting the four EU countries that are also individual members of the MEF)—account for 81.3 percent of all global emissions; This proposal devises a fair compromise to break the impasse to develop a science-based approach for fairly sharing the carbon budget in order to have a 75 percent chance of avoiding dangerous climate change; To increase the likelihood of a future climate agreement, carbon accounting must shift from production-based inventories to consumption-based ones; The shares of a carbon budget to stay below 2 deg C through 2050 are calculated by cumulative emissions since 1990, i.e. according to a short-horizon polluter pays principle, and national capability (income), and allocated to MEF members through emission rights. This proposed fair compromise addresses key concerns of major emitters; According to this accounting, no countries have negative carbon budgets, there is substantial time for greening major developing economies, and some developed countries need to institute very rapid reductions in emissions; and, To provide a 'green ladder' to developing countries and to ensure a fair global deal, it will be crucial to agree how to extend sufficient and predictable financial support and the rapid transfer of technology.

  17. Detection and reduction of diffuse liquid and gas emissions in chemical and petrochemical industries; Ermittlung und Verminderung diffuser fluessiger und gasfoermiger Emissionen in der chemischen und petrochemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppke, K.E. [Witten-Herdecke Univ. gGmbH, Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Management; Cuhls, C. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik

    2002-09-01

    In order to improve environmental protection, VOC emissions from diffuse sources are of growing importance. For the first time in Germany the present research report gives a detailed presentation of: constructive measures for the avoidance and reduction of diffuse emissions, adequate assembling procedures for equipments and installations, technical possibilities of leak detection and, different methods for the estimation of total emissions from chemical and petrochemical production plants. On the basis of own investigations and monitoring measures taken at various plants of chemical and petrochemical industries different measuring techniques for leak detection as well as methods for the estimation of total emissions from diffuse sources are analysed and their limits are described. (orig.)

  18. Strong soft X-ray emission from a double-stream gas puff target irradiated with a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Rakowski, R.; Szczurek, M. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Optoelectronics; Daido, H.; Suzuki, M.; Yamagami, S.; Choi, I.W.; Tang, H.J. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Soft X-ray emission from a new double-stream gas puff target irradiated with a nanosecond, high-power Nd:YAG laser pulse has been studied. The target was formed by pulsed injection of gas into a hollow gas stream made from helium by using a double-nozzle setup. Strong X-ray emissions near 10 nm from the double-stream krypton/helium, near 11 nm from the xenon/helium, and at 13 nm from the oxygen/helium targets were observed. The emission from the double-stream gas puff target was several times higher as compared to the ordinary gas puff targets, and comparable to the emission from the solid targets irradiated in the same conditions. (orig.)

  19. Targeted design of α-MnO2 based catalysts for oxygen reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtimaeki, Matti; Hoffmannova, Hana; Boytsova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on theoretical and experimental aspects of an oxide surface optimization for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Various doped α-MnO2 based electrocatalysts were prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemically characterized to validate density functional...

  20. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  1. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

  2. Something from nothing: Estimating consumption rates using propensity scores, with application to emissions reduction policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Nicholas; Büchs, Milena; Schnepf, Sylke V

    2017-01-01

    Consumption surveys often record zero purchases of a good because of a short observation window. Measures of distribution are then precluded and only mean consumption rates can be inferred. We show that Propensity Score Matching can be applied to recover the distribution of consumption rates. We demonstrate the method using the UK National Travel Survey, in which c.40% of motorist households purchase no fuel. Estimated consumption rates are plausible judging by households' annual mileages, and highly skewed. We apply the same approach to estimate CO2 emissions and outcomes of a carbon cap or tax. Reliance on means apparently distorts analysis of such policies because of skewness of the underlying distributions. The regressiveness of a simple tax or cap is overstated, and redistributive features of a revenue-neutral policy are understated.

  3. Marked reduction of cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with advanced cirrhosis; A positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatoko, Toshiharu; Murai, Koichiro; Ibayashi, Setsurou; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nomiyama, Kensuke; Sadoshima, Seizo; Eujishima, Masatoshi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO{sub 2}), and oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) were measured using positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with cirrhosis (two males and two females, aged 57 to 69 years) in comparison with those in five age matched controls with previous transient global amnesia. PET studies were carried out when the patients were fully alert and oriented after the episodes of encephalopathy. In the patients, rCBF tended to be lower, while rCMRO{sub 2} was significantly lowered in almost all hemisphere cortices, more markedly in the frontal cortex. Our results suggest that the brain oxygen metabolism is diffusely impaired in patients with advanced cirrhosis, and the frontal cortex seems to be more susceptible to the systemic metabolic derangements induced by chronic liver disease. (author).

  4. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Songolzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); DeFlorio, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); McKenzie, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Tao, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. Emission pathways to achieve 2.0°C and 1.5°C climate targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xuanming; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Kato, Etsushi; Shiogama, Hideo; Masui, Toshihiko; Emori, Seita

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the feasibilities of 2.0°C and 1.5°C climate targets by considering the abatement potentials of a full suite of greenhouse gases, pollutants, and aerosols. We revised the inter-temporal dynamic optimization model DICE-2013R by introducing three features as follows. First, we applied a new marginal abatement cost curve derived under moderate assumptions regarding future socioeconomic development—the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways 2 (SSP2) scenario. Second, we addressed emission abatement for not only industrial CO2 but also land-use CO2, CH4, N2O, halogenated gases, CO, volatile organic compounds, SOx, NOx, black carbon and organic carbon. Third, we improved the treatment of the non-CO2 components in the climate module based on MAGICC 6.0. We obtained the following findings: (1) It is important to address the individual emissions in an analysis of low stabilization scenarios because abating land-use CO2, non-CO2 and aerosol emissions also contributes to maintaining a low level of radiative forcing and substantially affects the climate costs. (2) The 2.0°C target can be efficiently reached under the assumptions of the SSP2 scenario. (3) The 1.5°C target can be met with early deep cuts under the assumption of a temperature overshoot, and it will triple the carbon price and double the mitigation cost compared with the 2.0°C case.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Due to Improvement of Biodegradable Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendere, R.; Teibe, I.; Arina, D.; Lapsa, J.

    2014-12-01

    To reduce emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) from landfills, the European Union (EU) Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC requires that there be a progressive decrease in the municipal biodegradable waste disposal. The main problem of waste management (WM) in Latvia is its heavy dependence on the waste disposal at landfills. The poorly developed system for the sorted municipal waste collection and the promotion of landfilling as a major treatment option led to the disposal of 84% of the total collected municipal waste in 2012, with a high biodegradable fraction. In Latvia, the volume of emissions due to activities of the WM branch was 5.23% (632.6 CO2 eq.) of the total GHG emissions produced in the National economy in 2010 (12 097 Gg CO2 eq., except the land use, land-use change and forestry). Having revised the current situation in the management of biodegradable waste in Latvia, the authors propose improvements in this area. In the work, analysis of environmental impact was carried out using Waste Management Planning System (WAMPS) software in the WM modelling scenarios. The software computes the emissions, energy and turnover of waste streams for the processes within the WM system such as waste collection and transportation, composting, anaerobic digestion, and the final disposal (landfilling or incineration). The results of WAMPS modelling are presented in four categories associated with the environmental impact: acidification, global warming, eutrophication and photo-oxidant formation, each characterised by a particular emission. These categories cover an integrated WM system, starting with the point when products turn to waste which is then thrown into the bin for waste at its generation source, and ending with the point where the waste transforms either into useful material (recycled material, biogas or compost) or contributes to emissions into environment after the final disposal at a landfill or an incineration plant Rakstā veikts pašvaldības bioloģiski no

  9. Bridging the Emissions Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Blok, K.

    2012-01-01

    The analyses in Chapters 2 and 3 of this report concluded that the emissions gap in 2020 will likely be between 8 and 13 GtCO2e. The chapters also estimated the difference between BaU emissions in 2020 and the emissions level consistent with a “likely” chance of staying within the 2°C target to be 14 GtCO2e. This chapter explores the potential for bridging this gap using a sector policy approach. Firstly, the chapter provides a summary and update of the estimated emission reduction potential ...

  10. Focus on cumulative emissions, global carbon budgets and the implications for climate mitigation targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon Matthews, H.; Zickfeld, Kirsten; Knutti, Reto; Allen, Myles R.

    2018-01-01

    The Environmental Research Letters focus issue on ‘Cumulative Emissions, Global Carbon Budgets and the Implications for Climate Mitigation Targets’ was launched in 2015 to highlight the emerging science of the climate response to cumulative emissions, and how this can inform efforts to decrease emissions fast enough to avoid dangerous climate impacts. The 22 research articles published represent a fantastic snapshot of the state-or-the-art in this field, covering both the science and policy aspects of cumulative emissions and carbon budget research. In this Review and Synthesis, we summarize the findings published in this focus issue, outline some suggestions for ongoing research needs, and present our assessment of the implications of this research for ongoing efforts to meet the goals of the Paris climate agreement.

  11. Computer-tailored weight reduction interventions targeting adults: a narrative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Leonie M; Milat, Andrew J; O'Hara, Blythe

    2009-04-01

    Potentially modifiable risk factors such as high body mass, physical inactivity and poor nutrition are, when combined, the largest contributors to the preventable burden of disease in Australia. Computer-tailoring has shown promise in modifying lifestyle risk factors. This paper describes a narrative systematic review examining the evidence for 'second' generation computer-tailored primary prevention weight reduction interventions. Studies published from January 1996-2008 were identified through electronic databases and searches of reference lists of relevant articles. Only randomised controlled trials or quasi-experimental designs with pretest and post-test weight reduction outcome data were included. Six articles were identified, three of which reported significant positive effects. The intervention intensity and duration, method of tailoring and theory used differed. The internal validity was good but external validity poor for the majority of studies. The evidence of effectiveness for computer-tailored primary prevention interventions for weight reduction is limited to a small number of heterogeneous studies. There is uncertainty whether reported effects are generalisable and sustained. The relative success of different components of efficacious interventions and the optimal intervention intensity and tailoring methods are unclear.

  12. Analysis on carbon dioxide emission reduction during the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology of sludge and kitchen waste: Taking kitchen waste synergetic digestion project in Zhenjiang as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qia; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-11-01

    With the popularization of municipal sewage treatment facilities, the improvement of sewage treatment efficiency and the deepening degree of sewage treatment, the sludge production of sewage plant has been sharply increased. Carbon emission during the process of municipal sewage treatment and disposal has become one of the important sources of greenhouse gases that cause greenhouse effect. How to reduce carbon dioxide emissions during sewage treatment and disposal process is of great significance for reducing air pollution. Kitchen waste and excess sludge, as two important organic wastes, once uses anaerobic synergetic digestion technology in the treatment process can on the one hand, avoid instability of sludge individual anaerobic digestion, improve sludge degradation rate and marsh gas production rate, and on the other hand, help increase the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to a great extent. The paper uses material balance method, analyzes and calculates the carbon dioxide emissions from kitchen waste and sludge disposed by the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology, compares the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology with traditional sludge sanitary landfill technology and works out the carbon dioxide emission reductions after synergetic digestion. It takes the kitchen waste and sludge synergetic digestion engineering project of Zhenjiang city in Jiangsu province as an example, makes material balance analysis using concrete data and works out the carbon dioxide daily emission reductions. The paper analyzes the actual situation of emission reduction by comparing the data, and found that the synergetic digestion of kitchen waste and sludge can effectively reduce the carbon dioxide emission, and the reduction is obvious especially compared with that of sludge sanitary landfill, which has a certain effect on whether to promote the use of the technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical investigation of the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir: a case study of the Daming geothermal field in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuyang; Song, Hongqing; Killough, John; Du, Li; Sun, Pengguang

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of geothermal energy is clean and has great potential worldwide, and it is important to utilize geothermal energy in a sustainable manner. Mathematical modeling studies of geothermal reservoirs are important as they evaluate and quantify the complex multi-physical effects in geothermal reservoirs. However, previous modeling efforts lack the study focusing on the emission reduction efficiency and the deformation at geothermal wellbores caused by geothermal water extraction/circulation. Emission efficiency is rather relevant in geothermal projects introduced in areas characterized by elevated air pollution where the utilization of geothermal energy is as an alternative to burning fossil fuels. Deformation at geothermal wellbores is also relevant as significant deformation caused by water extraction can lead to geothermal wellbore instability and can consequently decrease the effectiveness of the heat extraction process in geothermal wells. In this study, the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir in Daming County, China, are numerically investigated based on a coupled multi-physical model. Relationships between the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction, deformation at geothermal well locations, and geothermal field parameters including well spacing, heat production rate, re-injection temperature, rock stiffness, and geothermal well placement patterns are analyzed. Results show that, although large heat production rates and low re-injection temperatures can lead to decreased heat production in the last 8 years of heat extraction, they still improve the overall heat production capacity and emission reduction capacity. Also, the emission reduction capacity is positively correlated with the heat production capacity. Deformation at geothermal wellbore locations is alleviated by smaller well spacing, lower heat production rates, and smaller numbers of injectors in the well pattern, and by

  14. Robust, Responsive, and Targeted PLGA Anticancer Nanomedicines by Combination of Reductively Cleavable Surfactant and Covalent Hyaluronic Acid Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jintian; Zhang, Jian; Deng, Chao; Meng, Fenghua; Cheng, Ru; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2017-02-01

    PLGA-based nanomedicines have enormous potential for targeted cancer therapy. To boost their stability, targetability, and intracellular drug release, here we developed novel multifunctional PLGA anticancer nanomedicines by combining a reductively cleavable surfactant (RCS), vitamin E-SS-oligo(methyl diglycol l-glutamate), with covalent hyaluronic acid (HA) coating. Reduction-sensitive HA-coated PLGA nanoparticles (rHPNPs) were obtained with small sizes of 55-61 nm and ζ potentials of -26.7 to -28.8 mV at 18.4-40.3 wt % RSC. rHPNPs were stable against dilution and 10% FBS while destabilized under reductive condition. The release studies revealed significantly accelerated docetaxel (DTX) release in the presence of 10 mM glutathione. DTX-rHPNPs exhibited potent and specific antitumor effect to CD44 + A549 lung cancer cells (IC50 = 0.52 μg DTX equiv/mL). The in vivo studies demonstrated that DTX-rHPNPs had an extended circulation time and greatly enhanced tolerance in mice. Strikingly, DTX-rHPNPs completely inhibited growth of orthotopic human A549-Luc lung tumor in mice, leading to a significantly improved survival rate and reduced adverse effect as compared to free DTX. This study highlights that advanced nanomedicines can be rationally designed by combining functional surfactants and surface coating.

  15. A Stackelberg Game Approach in an Integrated Inventory Model with Carbon-Emission and Setup Cost Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Sarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an integrated inventory model that allows Stackelberg game policy for optimizing joint total cost of a vendor and buyer system. After receiving the lot, the buyer commences an inspection process to determine the defective items. All defective items the buyer sends to vendor during the receiving of the next lot. Due to increasing number of shipments fixed and variable transportation, as well as carbon emissions, are considered, which makes the model sustainable integrated model forever. To reduce the setup cost for the vendor, a discrete setup reduction is considered for maximization more profit. The players of the integrated model are with unequal power (as leader and follower and the Stackelberg game strategy is utilized to solve this model for obtaining global optimum solution over the finite planning horizon. An illustrative numerical example is given to understand this model clearly.

  16. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Iron and Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, III, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-03

    India’s 2010 annual crude steel production was 68 Mt which accounted for nearly five percent of the world’s annual steel production in the same year. In 2007, roughly 1600 PJ were consumed by India’s iron and steel industry to produce 53 Mt of steel. We identified and analyzed 25 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the Indian iron and steel industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model and compared to an electricity price forecast the cumulative plant-level cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Indian iron and steel industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 66 TWh, and the cumulative plant-level technical electricity saving potential is only slightly greater than 66 TWh for the same period. The primary energy related CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 65 Mt CO2. Compared to a fuel price forecast, an estimated cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 768 PJ with associated CO2 emission reduction of 67 Mt CO2 during 2010-2030 is possible. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Indian iron and steel industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  17. Study on Laws, Regulations and Standards on Energy Efficiency, Energy Conserving and Emission Reduction of Industrial Boilers in EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Chen, Haihong; Liang, Xiuying; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Industrial boilers are widely applied in such fields as factory power, building heating, and people’s lives; China is the world’s largest producer and user of industrial boilers, with very high annual energy consumption; clear requirements have been put forward by China on the energy efficiency since the “11th Five-year Plan” with the hope to save energy and reduce emission by means of energy efficiency standards and regulations on the supervision and control of various special equipment. So far, the energy efficiency of industrial boilers in China has been improved significantly but there is still a gap with the EU states. This paper analyzes the policies of energy efficiency, implementation models and methods of supervision and implementation at the EU level from laws, regulations, directives as well as standards; the paper also puts forward suggestions of energy conserving and emission reduction on the improvement of energy conserving capacity of industrial boilers in China through studying the legislations and measures of the developed countries in energy conserving of boilers.

  18. Green house gas emissions reduction in Brazilian industry; Reducao das emissoes de gases causadores do efeito estufa na industria brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Neto, Raymundo Moniz de [Programa GERBI - Reducao da Emissao de Gases Causadores do Efeito Estufa na Industria Brasileira, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The recent crisis in electricity supply raised in all Brazilians the necessity in improving energy resources. The expansion of generation capacity cannot be seen as the unique solution: optimise what is available already is at least so important than to expand. The rational use of energy resources brings additional benefits as reduced environmental impacts, replacement of equipment and following incentives to industry and employment. Promote coordinated actions has been challenging in several places. In Brazil, GERBI Program aims to address several market barriers, developing activities in different fronts: service suppliers' qualification, preparation of financial agents and, mainly, engage industrial end users for improved solutions. The paper presents GERBI Program structure as an incentive to rational energy use in industrial facilities, focused on GHG emissions reduction. The Program is structured in three main components: energy efficiency projects development, supporting industries to implement better practices and efficient technologies, development of CDM candidate projects, making use of 'carbon credits' resulted from reduced emissions, and training and qualification. (author)

  19. Health cobenefits and transportation-related reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the San Francisco Bay area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlish, Neil; Woodcock, James; Co, Sean; Ostro, Bart; Fanai, Amir; Fairley, David

    2013-04-01

    We quantified health benefits of transportation strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). Statistics on travel patterns and injuries, physical activity, fine particulate matter, and GHGE in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, were input to a model that calculated the health impacts of walking and bicycling short distances usually traveled by car or driving low-emission automobiles. We measured the change in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on dose-response relationships and the distributions of physical activity, particulate matter, and traffic injuries. Increasing median daily walking and bicycling from 4 to 22 minutes reduced the burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes by 14% (32,466 DALYs), increased the traffic injury burden by 39% (5907 DALYS), and decreased GHGE by 14%. Low-carbon driving reduced GHGE by 33.5% and cardiorespiratory disease burden by less than 1%. Increased physical activity associated with active transport could generate a large net improvement in population health. Measures would be needed to minimize pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. Together, active transport and low-carbon driving could achieve GHGE reductions sufficient for California to meet legislative mandates.

  20. Prepulse and amplified spontaneous emission effects on the interaction of a petawatt class laser with thin solid targets

    CERN Document Server

    Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Sunahara, Atsushi; Morita, Toshimasa; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kageyama, Kei; Nagatomo, Hideo; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Sagisaka, Akito; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Fukuda, Yuji; Okada, Hajime; Pirozhkov, Alexander; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Kiminori; Kando, Masaki; Bulanov, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    When a finite contrast petawatt laser pulse irradiates a micron-thick foil, a prepulse (including amplified spontaneous emission) creates a preplasma, where an ultrashort relativistically strong portion of the laser pulse (the main pulse) acquires higher intensity due to relativistic self-focusing and undergoes fast depletion transferring energy to fast electrons. If the preplasma thickness is optimal, the main pulse can reach the target generating fast ions more efficiently than an ideal, infinite contrast, laser pulse. A simple analytical model of a target with preplasma formation is developed and the radiation pressure dominant acceleration of ions in this target is predicted. The preplasma formation by a nanosecond prepulse is analyzed with dissipative hydrodynamic simulations. The main pulse interaction with the preplasma is studied with multi-parametric particle-in-cell simulations. The optimal conditions for hundreds of MeV ion acceleration are found with accompanying effects important for diagnostics,...

  1. Climate-driven increase of natural wetland methane emissions offset by human-induced wetland reduction in China over the past three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Liu, Jinxun; Jiang, Hong; Fang, Xiuqin; Chen, Huai; Niu, Zhichun; Gong, Peng; Lin, Guanghui; Wang, Meng; Yang, Yanzheng; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying; Xiang, Wenhua; Deng, Xiangwen; He, Jin-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Both anthropogenic activities and climate change can affect the biogeochemical processes of natural wetland methanogenesis. Quantifying possible impacts of changing climate and wetland area on wetland methane (CH4) emissions in China is important for improving our knowledge on CH4 budgets locally and globally. However, their respective and combined effects are uncertain. We incorporated changes in wetland area derived from remote sensing into a dynamic CH4 model to quantify the human and climate change induced contributions to natural wetland CH4 emissions in China over the past three decades. Here we found that human-induced wetland loss contributed 34.3% to the CH4 emissions reduction (0.92 TgCH4), and climate change contributed 20.4% to the CH4 emissions increase (0.31 TgCH4), suggesting that decreasing CH4 emissions due to human-induced wetland reductions has offset the increasing climate-driven CH4 emissions. With climate change only, temperature was a dominant controlling factor for wetland CH4 emissions in the northeast (high latitude) and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (high altitude) regions, whereas precipitation had a considerable influence in relative arid north China. The inevitable uncertainties caused by the asynchronous for different regions or periods due to inter-annual or seasonal variations among remote sensing images should be considered in the wetland CH4 emissions estimation.

  2. Creating rigorous pathways to monetize methane and nitrous oxide emission reductions at small scale rice farms in three states of semi-arid peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritee, K.; Tiwari, R.; Nair, D.; Adhya, T. K.; Rudek, J.

    2014-12-01

    As a part of a joint undertaking by Environmental Defense Fund and the Fair Climate Network, we have measured reduction in methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to alternate "low carbon" rice cultivation practices for three ago-ecological zones in India for the past two years. Sampling for nitrous oxide and methane emissions was done on approximately 60-80% of the total number of days in a growing season and was based on modified GRACEnet protocol. In recognition of farmer's economic interest and global food security demands, we also measured the effect of rice cultivation practices on farm economics and yields. Our data from three agro-ecological zones for 2012-2014 suggest that, for semi-arid peninsular India, low-carbon rice cultivation practices offer large range of emission reduction potential (0.5-5 metric tons CO2e/acre/year). The regions with sandy soils (Alfisols) had high rates of nitrous oxide emissions even under baseline "flooded" rice cultivation regimes and, thus, the Tier 1 IPCC emissions factors grossly underestimate both the amount of nitrous oxide emission from conventional rice cultivation practices, and the extent to which it can be reduced through better fertilizer management. Also, the IPCC factors overestimate the methane emission reduction possible due to water management for rice paddies. Therefore, it is crucial to customize N and water management to each region such that yields and net GHG emission reduction are maximized. These practices also have the potential to decrease water use by 10-30% and improve long term soil health by optimizing organic matter and increasing water-holding capacity. In addition, through GPS based demarcation of farmer plots, recording baseline practices through extensive surveys, documenting the parameters required to aggregate and prove implementation of low carbon rice farming practices, and to model the GHG emission reduction over large scales, we have put forward a path for better monetization of GHG

  3. Emissions of N2O from organic soils managed by agriculture in North Western Denmark (Possible production and reduction spots)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Elsgaard, Lars; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Clough, Tim J.; Petersen, Søren O.

    2017-04-01

    table in spring, but also when the water table raised to near the surface due to precipitation. On several occasions N2O also accumulated at shallow depth, and with elevated emissions, in connection with rainfall. Total reactive iron and sulfur content, including AVS and CRS, showed great heterogeneity in the profiles of both grassland and potato fields, and no clear relationships have been found between reactive iron or sulfur compounds and N2O concentrations in soil profile. However, controlled incubation experiments are on-going to identify possible mechanisms behind the accumulation and extremely high emissions of N2O from potato fields, especially whether acidifying processes can be linked to soil nitrate or nitrite reduction (e.g., through oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, and sulfide to sulfate). Key words: Acid sulfate soils, organic soils, agricultural management, nitrous oxide emissions, environmental variables

  4. Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilau, Asmerom M.

    This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 /m3 and 1.00 /m3, respectively. By international standards, these costs are competitive. The results of renewable energy powered commercial tilapia production indicate that a wind-diesel system has high potential for intensive tilapia production as well as carbon dioxide emission reductions. The study also investigates aeration failures in renewable energy powered tilapia production systems. With respect to the ice-making plant, unlike previous studies which consider nighttime operation only, we have found that a nighttime PV powered ice-making system is more expensive (1/kWh) than daytime ice-making system (0.70/kWh). Our optimal energy options analysis at project scale which includes SWRO, ice-making plant and household energy consumption for about 100 households shows that compared to diesel only energy option, PV-D, W-D, and PV-W-D hybrids are very cost-effective energy options. Moreover, energy options with high levels of renewable energy including 100% renewables have the lowest net present cost and they are already cost-effective without CDM. On the other hand, while the removal of about 87% carbon dioxide emissions could be achieved at negative cost, initial investment could increase by a factor of 40, which is one of the primary barriers hindering wider renewable energy applications in developing countries. Thus in order to increase developing countries' participation in the carbon market, CDM policy should shift from a purely market oriented

  5. Reduction of Non-CO2 Gas Emissions Through The In Situ Bioconversion of Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The primary objectives of this research were to seek previously unidentified anaerobic methanotrophs and other microorganisms to be collected from methane seeps associated with coal outcrops. Subsurface application of these microbes into anaerobic environments has the potential to reduce methane seepage along coal outcrop belts and in coal mines, thereby preventing hazardous explosions. Depending upon the types and characteristics of the methanotrophs identified, it may be possible to apply the microbes to other sources of methane emissions, which include landfills, rice cultivation, and industrial sources where methane can accumulate under buildings. Finally, the microbes collected and identified during this research also had the potential for useful applications in the chemical industry, as well as in a variety of microbial processes. Sample collection focused on the South Fork of Texas Creek located approximately 15 miles east of Durango, Colorado. The creek is located near the subsurface contact between the coal-bearing Fruitland Formation and the underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The methane seeps occur within the creek and in areas adjacent to the creek where faulting may allow fluids and gases to migrate to the surface. These seeps appear to have been there prior to coalbed methane development as extensive microbial soils have developed. Our investigations screened more than 500 enrichments but were unable to convince us that anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) was occurring and that anaerobic methanotrophs may not have been present in the samples collected. In all cases, visual and microscopic observations noted that the early stage enrichments contained viable microbial cells. However, as the levels of the readily substrates that were present in the environmental samples were progressively lowered through serial transfers, the numbers of cells in the enrichments sharply dropped and were eliminated. While the results were disappointing we acknowledge that

  6. Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions during anoxic wastewater treatment by strengthening nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ru; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Hao; Jiang, Liping; Ru, Dongyun

    2017-07-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is a recently discovered process performed by NC10 phylum, which plays an important role in greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction. In this study, co-existence of n-damo bacteria and methanogens was successfully achieved by using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Reactor with inorganic carbon source (CO 2 /H 2 ) showed the highest abundance of n-damo bacteria and the highest n-damo potential activity, resulted in its highest nitrogen removal rate. Significant reduction in GHG was obtained after introduction of n-damo process, especially for N 2 O. Furthermore, GHG emissions decreased with the increase of n-damo bacteria abundance. Community structure analysis found carbon source could influence the diversity of n-damo bacteria indirectly. And phylogenetic analysis showed that all the obtained sequences were assigned to group B, mainly due to in situ production and consumption of CH 4 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EU limits for CO2 emissions of passenger cars. Roads to the 95 g/km target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smokers, R.; Fraga, F.; Verbeek, M.; Bleuanus, S.; Sharpe, R.; Dekker, D.; Verbeek, R.; Willems, F.; Foster, D. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Hill, N.; Norris, J.; Brannigan, C. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom); Kampman, B.; Den Boer, E.; Van Essen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Schilling, S.; Gruhlke, A. [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik Oekopol, Hamburg (Netherlands); Breemersch, T.; De Ceuster, G.; Vanherle, K. [Transport and Mobility Leuven TML, Leuven (Belgium); Wrigley, S.; Owen, N.; Johnson, A. [Ricardo UK, Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex (United Kingdom); De Vleesschauwer, T.; Valla, V.; Anand, G. [IHS Global Insight, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The aim of this project is to support and advise the European Commission on options for lowering of the CO2 limit values of passenger cars and how they can be realised. The following main tasks were performed: (1) state-of-the-art vehicle emission reduction options for 2020; (2) evaluation of other utility parameters in addition to vehicle mass; (3) modalities for achieving 95 g/km; and (4) further aspects, including borrowing and banking of credits, life cycle aspects and rebound aspects.

  8. Implications of a Reduction in the Hemoglobin Target in Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent-Treated Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V. Nguyen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs to a hemoglobin (Hb level >12.0 g/dl have increased risk of multiple complications, including death. The optimal Hb target for ESA use has not been established. We hypothesized that reducing the target Hb would prevent levels >12 g/dl and lead to significant cost savings. Methods: Our target Hb range was reduced to 9–11 g/dl from 10–12 g/dl. Thirty-five chronic hemodialysis (HD patients received erythropoietin (EPO and intravenous iron from January to December 2009. Data analysis included: Hb level, EPO dose, transferrin saturation and ferritin levels. EPO was administered via subcutaneous injection weekly or twice weekly. Results: The mean monthly Hb level changed from 11.2 to 10.6 g/dl. The percentages of patients with mean Hb >10.0, 12.0 and 13.0 g/dl were 82 ± 6.5, 10 ± 5.6 and 1.8 ± 1.9%, respectively. Weekly EPO dose decreased from 9,500 to 5,600 units, a 40% reduction per dose per patient and costs. The savings exceeded USD 60,000 per year for 35 patients. More than 80% of patients had transferrin saturation >20% and ferritin >200 ng/ml throughout the entire period. Conclusions: Lowering the target Hb range to 9–11 g/dl in HD patients achieved quality anemia management, avoided values >12.0 g/dl and resulted in cost savings. A minimal reduction in quality of life and no change in cardiovascular morbidity or mortality would be expected. The study has important implications in the new American bundled reimbursement model.

  9. Reducing emissions from agriculture to meet the 2 °C target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenberg, Eva; Richards, Meryl; Smith, Pete; Havlík, Petr; Obersteiner, Michael; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Herold, Martin; Gerber, Pierre; Carter, Sarah; Reisinger, Andrew; Vuuren, van Detlef P.; Dickie, Amy; Neufeldt, Henry; Sander, Björn O.; Wassmann, Reiner; Sommer, Rolf; Amonette, James E.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Herrero, Mario; Opio, Carolyn; Roman-cuesta, Rosa Maria; Stehfest, Elke; Westhoek, Henk; Ortiz-Monasterio, Ivan; Sapkota, Tek; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thornton, Philip K.; Verchot, Louis V.; West, Paul C.; Soussana, Jean-François; Baedeker, Tobias; Sadler, Marc; Vermeulen, Sonja; Campbell, Bruce M.

    2016-01-01

    More than 100 countries pledged to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 2015 Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Yet technical information about how much mitigation is needed in the sector vs. how much is feasible remains poor. We

  10. Reducing emissions from agriculture to meet the 2 °C target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenberg, Eva; Richards, Meryl; Smith, Pete; Havlík, Petr; Obersteiner, Michael; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Herold, Martin; Gerber, Pierre; Carter, Sarah; Reisinger, Andrew; van Vuuren, Detlef P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Dickie, Amy; Neufeldt, Henry; Sander, Björn O.; Wassmann, Reiner; Sommer, Rolf; Amonette, James E.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Herrero, Mario; Opio, Carolyn; Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria; Stehfest, Elke; Westhoek, Henk; Ortiz-Monasterio, Ivan; Sapkota, Tek; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thornton, Philip K.; Verchot, Louis; West, Paul C.; Soussana, Jean François; Baedeker, Tobias; Sadler, Marc; Vermeulen, Sonja; Campbell, Bruce M.

    2016-01-01

    More than 100 countries pledged to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 2015 Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Yet technical information about how much mitigation is needed in the sector vs. how much is feasible remains poor. We

  11. Zero emission targets as long-term global goals for climate protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, M.; Meinshausen, M.; Knutti, R.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, assessments have robustly linked stabilization of global-mean temperature rise to the necessity of limiting the total amount of emitted carbon-dioxide (CO2). Halting global warming thus requires virtually zero annual CO2 emissions at some point. Policymakers have now incorporated this

  12. Novel targets for positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical tracers for visualization of neuroinflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepetkin, I.; Shvedova, M.; Anfinogenova, Y.; Litvak, M.; Atochin, D.

    2017-08-01

    Non-invasive molecular imaging techniques can enhance diagnosis of neurological diseases to achieve their successful treatment. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging can identify activated microglia and provide detailed functional information based on molecular biology. This imaging modality is based on detection of isotope labeled tracers, which emit positrons. The review summarizes the developments of various radiolabeled ligands for PET imaging of neuroinflammation.

  13. Anaerobic Co-digestion for Enhanced Renewable Energy and Green House Gas Emission Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navaratnam, Navaneethan; Zitomer, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The need to develop renewable energy is important for replacing fossil fuel, which is limited in quantity and also tends to increase in price over time. The addition of high strength organic wastes in municipal anaerobic digesters is growing and tends to increase renewable energy production. In addition, conversion of wastes to energy significantly reduces uncontrolled greenhouse gas emissions. Co-digestion of municipal sludge with any combination of wastes can result in synergistic, antagonistic or neutral outcomes. The objectives of this study were to identify potential co-digestates, determine synergistic, antagonistic and neutral effects, determine economic benefits, quantify performance of bench scale co-digesters, identify influence of co-digestion on microbial communities and implement appropriate co-digestion, if warranted, after full-scale testing. A market study was used to identify promising co-digestates. Most promising wastes were determined by biochemical methane potential (BMP) and other testing followed by a simple economic analysis. Performance was investigated using bench-scale digesters receiving synthetic primary sludge with and without co-digestates. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were performed on the gene encoding the α subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) to compare methanogen communities among the digesters. One significant band contributing to the greatest difference in banding patterns was excised, cloned, amplified and sequenced. Full- scale co-digestion was conducted using the most promising co-digestate at South Shore Wastewater Reclamation Facility (Oak Creek, WI). Over 80 wastes were identified from 54 facilities within 160 km of an existing municipal digester. A simple economic comparison identified the greatest benefits for seven co-digestates. Methane production rates of two co- digester systems increased by 105% and 66% in comparison to a control

  14. Edge placement error reduction and ringing effect suppression using model based targeting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Chris; Li, Xiaohai; Jang, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    With the delay in commercialization of EUV and the abandonment of high index immersion, Fabs are trying to put half nodes into production by pushing the k1 factor of the existing scanner tool base as low as possible. A main technique for lowering lithographic k1 factor is by moving to very strong offaxis illumination (i.e., illumination with high outer sigma and a narrow range of illumination angles), such as Quadrapole (e.g., C-Quad), custom or even dipole illumination schemes. OPC has generally succeeded to date with rule-based techniques for dissecting edges into segments and placing target points. Very strong off-axis illumination, however, creates pronounced ringing effects on 2D layout and this makes these simpler dissection techniques problematic. In particular, it is hard to prevent overshoot of the contour around corners while simultaneously dampening out the ringing further down the feature length. In principle, a sufficiently complex set of rules could be defined to solve this issue, but in practice this starts to become un-manageable as the time needed to generate a usable recipe becomes too long. Previous implementations of inverse lithography demonstrated that good CD control is possible, but at the expense of the mask costs and other mask synthesis complications/limitations. This paper first analyzes the phenomenon of ringing and the limitations seen with existing simpler target placement techniques. Then, different methods of compensation are discussed. Finally, some encouraging results are shown with some model based techniques that the authors have investigated, some of which only demand incremental changes to the existing OPC framework. The results show that new OPC techniques can be used to enable successful use of very strong off-axis illumination conditions in many cases, to further reduce lithographic k1 limits.

  15. An Experimental Benchmark for Improved Simulation of Absolute Soft X-Ray Emission from Polystyrene Targets Irradiated With the Nike Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weaver, J. L; Busquet, M; Colombant, D. G; Mostovych, A. N; Feldman, U; Klapisch, M; Seely, J. F; Brown, C; Holland, G

    2005-01-01

    Absolutely calibrated, time-resolved spectral intensity measurements of soft x-ray emission from laser-irradiated polystyrene targets are compared to radiation-hydrodynamic simulations that include...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL RADIATIVELY/CONDUCTIVELY STABILIZED BURNER FOR SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSIONS AND FOR ADVANCING THE MODELING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noam Lior; Stuart W. Churchill

    2003-10-01

    the Gordon Conference on Modern Development in Thermodynamics. The results obtained are very encouraging for the development of the RCSC as a commercial burner for significant reduction of NO{sub x} emissions, and highly warrants further study and development.

  17. Development and Refinement of a Targeted Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Women With a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Braksmajer, Amy; Hutchins, Heidi; Carey, Michael P

    2017-11-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Traditional sexual risk reduction interventions do not meet the unique needs of women who have been sexually abused. In the current paper, we describe the four-stage process we followed to develop and refine a targeted sexual risk reduction intervention for this population. First, initial quantitative work revealed that the intervention should address how maladaptive thoughts related to traumatic sexualization, trust, powerlessness, and guilt/shame (traumagenic dynamics constructs) influence current sexual behavior. Second, qualitative interviews with 10 women who reported a history of CSA (M age = 34 years; 90% African American) as well as current sexual risk behavior provided support for targeting maladaptive thoughts associated with these traumagenic dynamics constructs. Third, based on the qualitative and quantitative results, we developed a 5-session, group-delivered intervention to address the maladaptive thoughts that occurred as a result of CSA, as well as the cognitive-behavioral determinants of sexual risk behavior. This intervention drew heavily on cognitive behavioral techniques to address cognitions associated with CSA and the links between these cognitions and current sexual risk behavior. Techniques from trauma-based therapies, as well as motivational techniques, were also incorporated into the intervention. Finally, we refined the intervention with 24 women (M age = 33 years; 79% African American), and assessed feasibility and acceptability. These women reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention. The resultant intervention is currently being evaluated in a small, randomized controlled trial.

  18. Sectoral CO2 emissions in the Netherlands up to 2010. Update of the Reference Projection for Policy-making on Indicative Targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp PGM; Daniels BW; Dril AWN van; Kroon P; Ybema JR; Wijngaart RA van den; ECN; KMD

    2004-01-01

    The Dutch government intends to formulate indicative targets for maximum sectoral CO2- emission levels in the year 2010. To this end the expected future emission levels have been determined for four sectors: Build Environment, Agriculture, Transportation and Industry/ Energy. The study relies

  19. EUV emission stimulated by use of dual laser pulses from continus liquid microjet targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Rajyaguru, Chirag; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2004-11-01

    A continuous water-jet or water-jet mixed with LiF with several tens μm diameter was formed in a vacuum chamber through a small capillary nozzle. Usage of two laser pulses is an efficient way to produce EUV emission, since a density and temperature of a plasma formed by the first laser pulse are regulated by the second laser pulse. By adjusting the delay of the second pulse, one could maximize the EUV emission. A subpicosecond Ti:Sapphire laser at a wavelength of 800 nm produced a maximum energy around 30 mJ. The beam was divided by a Michelson interferometer, which produced two laser pulses with energies of 5 mJ. The pulse duration was adjusted around 300 fs (FWHM). Both beams were focused on a micro-jet using a lens with a focal length of 15 cm. The delay time between the two pulses was varied from 100 to 800 ps by use of an optical delay line. Clear enhancement of the EUV emission yield was observed when the delay between the two pulses was around 500 ps. The experimentally observed delay agrees reasonably well with that of a plasma to expand to its critical density of 10^21 cm-3.

  20. Community-Based Mindfulness Program for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: Targeting Stress Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Brian M; O'Reilly, Gillian A; Kitil, M Jennifer; Smalley, Susan L; Black, David S

    2015-01-01

    Poorly managed stress leads to detrimental physical and psychological consequences that have implications for individual and community health. Evidence indicates that U.S. adults predominantly use unhealthy strategies for stress management. This study examines the impact of a community-based mindfulness training program on stress reduction. This study used a one-group pretest-posttest design. The study took place at the UCLA Mindful Awareness Research Center in urban Los Angeles. A sample of N = 127 community residents (84% Caucasian, 74% female) were included in the study. Participants received mindfulness training through the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) for Daily Living I. Mindfulness, self-compassion, and perceived stress were measured at baseline and postintervention. Paired-sample t-tests were used to test for changes in outcome measures from baseline to postintervention. Hierarchical regression analysis was fit to examine whether change in self-reported mindfulness and self-compassion predicted postintervention perceived stress scores. There were statistically significant improvements in self-reported mindfulness (t = -10.67, p < .001, d = .90), self-compassion (t = -8.50, p < .001, d = .62), and perceived stress (t = 9.28, p < .001, d = -.78) at postintervention. Change in self-compassion predicted postintervention perceived stress (β = -.44, t = -5.06, p < .001), but change in mindfulness did not predict postintervention perceived stress (β = -.04, t = -.41, p = .68). These results indicate that a community-based mindfulness training program can lead to reduced levels of psychological stress. Mindfulness training programs such as MAPs may offer a promising approach for general public health promotion through improving stress management in the urban community.

  1. Estimating energy intensity and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potentials in the manufacturing sectors in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangskarn, P.; Khummongkol, P.; Schrattenholzer, L. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The final energy consumption in Thailand increased at about ten percent annually within the last 10 years. To slow the energy demand growth rate while maintaining the country`s economic advance and environmental sustainability, the Energy Conservation Promotion Act (ECPA) was adopted in 1992. With this Act, a comprehensive Energy Conservation Program (ENCON) was initiated. ENCON commits the government to promoting energy conservation, to developing appropriate regulations, and to providing financial and organizational resources for program implementation. Due to this existing ENCON program a great benefit is expected not only to reducing energy consumption, but also to decreasing GHGs emissions substantially. This study is a part of the ENCON research program which was supported by the German Federal Government under the program called Prompt-Start Measures to Implement the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The basic activities carried out during the project included (1) An assessment of Thailand`s total and specific energy consumption in the industrial sectors and commercial buildings; (2) Identification of existing and candidate technologies for GHG emission reduction and energy efficiency improvements in specific factories and commercial buildings; and (3) Identification of individual factories and commercial buildings as candidates for detailed further study. Although the energy assessment had been carried out for the commercial buildings also, this paper will cover only the work on the manufacturing sector. On the basis of these steps, 14 factories were visited by the project team and preliminary energy audits were performed. As a result, concrete measures and investments were proposed and classified into two groups according to their economic characteristics. Those investments with a payback time of less than four years were considered together in a Moderate scenario, and those with longer payback times in an Intensive scenario.

  2. Abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions: IFP's solutions; Reduction des emissions de CO{sub 2}: les solutions IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In a context of increasing energy consumption and world economic growth, the fight against greenhouse gases has become a major technological challenge for the coming years. The capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the underground is a promising solution in terms of environmental impact, especially in places and sectors characterized by a strong concentration of CO{sub 2} emissions (power generation plants, big industries). However, such a solution requires important R and D efforts to reduce the costs and warrant the long-term reliability of the storage. The French institute of petroleum (IFP) will play an important role in the implementation of the geological sequestration. This press kit comprises 7 documents: a press release from November 4, 2003; a press conference with a series of slides presenting the stakes, solutions and actions proposed by the IFP in collaboration with several foreign partners (CO{sub 2} capture, storage in depleted hydrocarbon deposits, saline aquifers or abandoned coal seams, storage potential, reduction of costs); a summary of the stakes and solutions for CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep underground; a similar document presented at the Panorama 2003 colloquium; the CO{sub 2} constraint in France and in Europe (international consensus on climatic change, Kyoto protocol, European directive about tradable carbon permits, voluntary commitment of companies in the fight against greenhouse effects (AERES)); the European project Castor (CO{sub 2} from capture to storage); and the IFP brochure 'innovating for a sustainable development in the energy domain'. (J.S.)

  3. An intensive nurse-led, multi-interventional clinic is more successful in achieving vascular risk reduction targets than standard diabetes care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacMahon Tone, J

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether an intensive, nurse-led clinic could achieve recommended vascular risk reduction targets in patients with type 2 diabetes as compared to standard diabetes management.

  4. Potential benefits of a spatially targeted regulation based on detailed N-reduction maps to decrease N-load from agriculture in a small groundwater dominated catchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A L; Refsgaard, J C; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2017-01-01

    Denmark must further decrease the N-load to coastal waters from agricultural areas to comply with the Baltic Sea Action Plan and the EU Water Framework Directive. A new spatially targeted regulation is under development that focuses on locating N-mitigation measures in areas with low natural...... reduction of nitrate (N-reduction). A key tool in this respect is N-reduction maps showing how much N is removed by natural reduction processes, i.e. the ratio between the N-load out of the catchment and the N-leaching from the root zone for each spatial unit within the catchment. For the 85 km2 groundwater...... dominated Norsminde catchment in Denmark we have analysed the potential benefits of a spatially targeted regulation and how its efficiency is affected by uncertainty in the N-reduction map. Our results suggest that there are potential benefits of implementing a spatially targeted regulation compared...

  5. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to wo