WorldWideScience

Sample records for emissions long-range transport

  1. Incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long range transportation planning.

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be an important focus area for state, local, and federal : agencies. The transportation sector is the second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in the U.S., and : Texas contributes the highest emissions am...

  2. 0-6696 : incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long-range transportation planning : [project summary].

    2013-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be : an important focus area for state, local, and : federal agencies. The transportation sector is the : second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in : the United States, and Texas contributes the : highe...

  3. Atmospheric emissions and long-range transport of persistent organic chemicals

    Scheringer M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic chemicals include several groups of halogenated compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs, and polyfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs. These chemicals remain for long times (years to decades in the environment and cycle between different media (air, water, sediment, soil, vegetation, etc.. The environmental distribution of this type of chemicals can conveniently be analyzed by multimedia models. Multimedia models consist of a set of coupled mass balance equations for the environmental media considered; they can be set up at various scales from local to global. Two applications of multimedia models to airborne chemicals are discussed in detail: the day-night cycle of PCBs measured in air near the surface, and the atmospheric long-range transport of volatile precursors of PFCAs, formation of PFCAs by oxidation of these precursors, and subsequent deposition of PFCAs to the surface in remote regions such as the Arctic.

  4. Particulate monitoring, modeling, and management: natural sources, long-range transport, and emission control options: a case study of Cyprus

    Kleanthous, Savvas; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Christofides, Ioannis; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Achilleos, Constantia; Akylas, Evangelos; Demetriadou, Chrystalla; Christodoulides, Pavlos; Douros, Ioannis; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Panayiotou, Charalambos; Gregoris, Charalambous; Fedra, Kurt; Kubat, Milan; Mihalopoulos, Nicolaos

    2013-08-01

    The LIFE+ Project PM3: Particulate Monitoring, Modeling, Management is coordinated by the Department of Labour Inspection in Cyprus and funded in part by LIFE+ Environment Policy & Governance. The project aims at the analysis of dust emissions, transport, and control options for Cyprus, as well as at the identification of "natural" contributions (Directive 2008/50/EC). The ultimate objective is to provide inputs for the design of a dust management plan to improve compliance to EC Directives and minimise impacts to human health and environment. This paper presents a short analysis of historical monitoring data and their patterns as well as a description of a dynamic dust entrainment model. The pyrogenic PM10 emissions combined with the wind driven emissions, are subject to a two phase non-linear multi-criteria emission control optimization procedure. The resulting emission scenarios with an hourly resolution provide input to the Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) 3D fate and transport model, implemented for the 4,800 km master domain and embedded subdomains (270 km around the island of Cyprus and embedded smaller city domains of up to 30 km down to street canyon modeling). The models test the feasibility of candidate emission control solutions over a range of weather conditions. Model generated patterns of local emissions and long-range transport are discussed compared with the monitoring data, remote sensing (MODIS derived AOT), and the chemical analysis of dust samples.

  5. Are changing emission patterns across the Northern Hemisphere influencing long-range transport contributions to background air pollution?

    Mathur, R.; Kang, D.; Napelenok, S. L.; Xing, J.; Hogrefe, C.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution reduction strategies for a region are complicated not only by the interplay of local emissions sources and several complex physical, chemical, dynamical processes in the atmosphere, but also hemispheric background levels of pollutants. Contrasting changes in emission patterns across the globe (e.g. declining emissions in North America and Western Europe in response to implementation of control measures and increasing emissions across Asia due to economic and population growth) are resulting in heterogeneous changes in the tropospheric chemical composition and are likely altering long-range transport impacts and consequently background pollution levels at receptor regions. To quantify these impacts, the WRF-CMAQ model is expanded to hemispheric scales and multi-decadal model simulations are performed for the period spanning 1990-2010 to examine changes in hemispheric air pollution resulting from changes in emissions over this period. Simulated trends in ozone and precursor species concentrations across the U.S. and the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades are compared with those inferred from available measurements during this period. Additionally, the decoupled direct method (DDM) in CMAQ, a first- and higher-order sensitivity calculation technique, is used to estimate the sensitivity of O3 to emissions from different source regions across the Northern Hemisphere. The seasonal variations in source region contributions to background O3 are then estimated from these sensitivity calculations and will be discussed. These source region sensitivities estimated from DDM are then combined with the multi-decadal simulations of O3 distributions and emissions trends to characterize the changing contributions of different source regions to background O3 levels across North America. This characterization of changing long-range transport contributions is critical for the design and implementation of tighter national air quality standards

  6. Impact of Emissions and Long-Range Transport on Multi-Decadal Aerosol Trends: Implications for Air Quality and Climate

    Chin, Mian

    2012-01-01

    We present a global model analysis of the impact of long-range transport and anthropogenic emissions on the aerosol trends in the major pollution regions in the northern hemisphere and in the Arctic in the past three decades. We will use the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to analyze the multi-spatial and temporal scale data, including observations from Terra, Aqua, and CALIPSO satellites and from the long-term surface monitoring stations. We will analyze the source attribution (SA) and source-receptor (SR) relationships in North America, Europe, East Asia, South Asia, and the Arctic at the surface and free troposphere and establish the quantitative linkages between emissions from different source regions. We will discuss the implications for regional air quality and climate change.

  7. Long range transport of fine particle windblown soils and coal fired power station emissions into Hanoi between 2001 to 2008

    Cohen, D.D.; Crawford, J.; Stelcer, E.; Vuong, T.B. [Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC, NSW (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), source fingerprints and their contributions have been measured and reported previously at Hanoi, Vietnam, from 25 April 2001 to 31 December 2008. In this study back trajectories are used to identify long range transport into Hanoi for two of these sources, namely, windblown dust (Soil) from 12 major deserts in China and emissions from 33 coal fired power plants (Coal) in Vietnam and China. There were 28 days of extreme Soil events with concentrations greater than 6 {mu} g m{sup -3} and 25 days of extreme Coal with concentrations greater than 30 {mu} g m{sup -3} from a total of 748 sampling days during the study period. Through the use of back trajectories it was found that long range transport of soil from the Taklamakan and Gobi desert regions (more than 3000 km to the north west) accounted for 76% of the extreme events for Soil. The three local Vietnamese power stations contributed to 15% of the extreme Coal events, while four Chinese power stations between 300 km and 1700 km to the north-east of Hanoi contributed 50% of the total extreme Coal events measured at the Hanoi sampling site.

  8. Long-range transport biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    Xu, J.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Shichang, K.; Ma, Y.

    2017-12-01

    An intensive measurement was conducted at a remote, background, and high-altitude site (Qomolangma station, QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with other collocated instruments. The field measurement was performed from April 12 to May 12, 2016 to chemically characterize high time-resolved submicron particulate matter (PM1) and obtain the influence of biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas, frequently transported from south Asia during pre-monsoon season. Two high aerosol loading periods were observed during the study. Overall, the average (± 1σ) PM1 mass concentration was 4.44 (± 4.54) µg m-3 for the entire study, comparable with those observed at other remote sites worldwide. Organic aerosols (OA) was the dominant PM1 species (accounting for 54.3% of total PM1 mass on average) and its contribution increased with the increase of total PM1 mass loading. The average size distributions of PM1 species all peaked at an overlapping accumulation mode ( 500 nm), suggesting that aerosol particles were internally well-mixed and aged during long-range transportations. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis on the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified three distinct OA factors, including a biomass burning related OA (BBOA, 43.7%) and two oxygenated OA (Local-OOA and LRT-OOA; 13.9% and 42.4%) represented sources from local emissions and long-range transportations, respectively. Two polluted air mass origins (generally from the west and southwest of QOMS) and two polluted episodes with enhanced PM1 mass loadings and elevated BBOA contributions were observed, respectively, suggesting the important sources of wildfires from south Asia. One of polluted aerosol plumes was investigated in detail to illustrate the evolution of aerosol characteristics at QOMS driving by different impacts of wildfires, air mass origins, meteorological conditions and

  9. Long range transport and air quality impacts of SO2 emissions from Holuhraun (Bárdarbunga, Iceland)

    Schmidt, Anja; Witham, Claire; Leadbetter, Susan; Theys, Nicholas; Hort, Matthew; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Stevenson, John; Shepherd, Janet; Sinnott, Richard; Kenny, Patrick; Barsotti, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Gas emissions from the Holuhraun eruption site in Iceland resulted in increases in observed ground level concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the UK and Ireland during two occasions in September 2014. We present data from the Irish and UK monitoring networks along with satellite imagery which describes the temporal and spatial evolution of these pollution episodes. During both events increases in concentration were significant compared to ambient levels. The peaks were short lived, 6-12 hours, and below the World Health Organisation's 10-minute air quality standard for SO2 of 500 µg/m3, but these events show that gas from relatively low altitude volcanic emissions in Iceland can pose a hazard to north west Europe. The two pollution events serve as excellent case studies and observations from the events provide us with a unique dataset for the verification of atmospheric dispersion models. We use the atmospheric dispersion model NAME to simulate the long-range transport, removal and chemical conversion of the volcanic SO2 during September 2014. We evaluate a range of model simulations, using varying model input and physical parameters, against ground based measurements and satellite retrievals of SO2. Simulations demonstrate that the long-range ground concentrations are strongly dependent on the emission flux and the height of emission at source. This relationship is well known from similar studies of other pollution events. However this work also demonstrates a dependence on the model's vertical turbulence parameterisation and the height of the boundary layer determined from the input Numerical Weather Prediction meteorological data. For the pollution events in September 2014, we find that using a mass flux of 40 kilotons per day of SO2 gives best agreement with vertical column retrievals of SO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument, which is in good agreement with initial estimates made by the Icelandic Meteorological Office. "This work is distributed under

  10. Injection in the lower stratosphere of biomass fire emissions followed by long-range transport: a MOZAIC case study

    J.-P. Cammas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a stratospheric injection by deep convection of biomass fire emissions over North America (Alaska, Yukon and Northwest Territories on 24 June 2004 and its long-range transport over the eastern coast of the United States and the eastern Atlantic. The case study is based on airborne MOZAIC observations of ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and water vapour during the crossing of the southernmost tip of an upper level trough over the Eastern Atlantic on 30 June and on a vertical profile over Washington DC on 30 June, and on lidar observations of aerosol backscattering at Madison (University of Wisconsin on 28 June. Attribution of the observed CO plumes to the boreal fires is achieved by backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART. A simulation with the Meso-NH model for the source region shows that a boundary layer tracer, mimicking the boreal forest fire smoke, is lofted into the lowermost stratosphere (2–5 pvu layer during the diurnal convective cycle at isentropic levels (above 335 K corresponding to those of the downstream MOZAIC observations. It is shown that the order of magnitude of the time needed by the parameterized convective detrainment flux to fill the volume of a model mesh (20 km horizontal, 500 m vertical above the tropopause with pure boundary layer air would be about 7.5 h, i.e. a time period compatible with the convective diurnal cycle. Over the area of interest, the maximum instantaneous detrainment fluxes deposited about 15 to 20% of the initial boundary layer tracer concentration at 335 K. According to the 275-ppbv carbon monoxide maximum mixing ratio observed by MOZAIC over Eastern Atlantic, such detrainment fluxes would be associated with a 1.4–1.8 ppmv carbon monoxide mixing ratio in the boundary layer over the source region.

  11. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC) emission in Europe: Influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.F.; Nordmann, S.; Birmili, W.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Ma, N.; Wolke, R.; Wehner, B.; Sun, J.; Spindler, G.; Mu, Q.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Elemental Carbon (EC) has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather

  12. Record high peaks in PCB concentrations in the Arctic atmosphere due to long-range transport of biomass burning emissions

    S. Eckhardt

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils and forests in the boreal region of the Northern Hemisphere are recognised as having a large capacity for storing air-borne Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Following reductions of primary emissions of various legacy POPs, there is an increasing interest and debate about the relative importance of secondary re-emissions on the atmospheric levels of POPs. In spring of 2006, biomass burning emissions from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe were transported to the Zeppelin station on Svalbard, where record-high levels of many air pollutants were recorded (Stohl et al., 2007. Here we report on the extremely high concentrations of PCBs that were also measured during this period. 21 out of 32 PCB congeners were enhanced by more than two standard deviations above the long-term mean concentrations. In July 2004, about 5.8 million hectare of boreal forest burned in North America, emitting a pollution plume which reached the Zeppelin station after a travel time of 3–4 weeks (Stohl et al., 2006. Again, 12 PCB congeners were elevated above the long-term mean by more than two standard deviations, with the less chlorinated congeners being most strongly affected. We propose that these abnormally high concentrations were caused by biomass burning emissions. Based on enhancement ratios with carbon monoxide and known emissions factors for this species, we estimate that 130 and 66 μg PCBs were released per kilogram dry matter burned, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study relating atmospheric PCB enhancements with biomass burning. The strong effects on observed concentrations far away from the sources, suggest that biomass burning is an important source of PCBs for the atmosphere.

  13. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 1: Short-term changes in ozone air quality

    J. J. West

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations and models demonstrate that ozone and its precursors can be transported between continents and across oceans. We model the influences of 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions on surface ozone air quality in that region and all other regions. In doing so, we quantify the relative importance of long-range transport between all source-receptor pairs, for direct short-term ozone changes. We find that for population-weighted concentrations during the three-month "ozone-season", the strongest inter-regional influences are from Europe to the Former Soviet Union, East Asia to Southeast Asia, and Europe to Africa. The largest influences per unit of NOx reduced, however, are seen for source regions in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, which we attribute mainly to greater sensitivity to changes in NOx in the lower troposphere, and secondarily to increased vertical convection to the free troposphere in tropical regions, allowing pollutants to be transported further. Results show, for example, that NOx reductions in North America are ~20% as effective per unit NOx in reducing ozone in Europe during summer, as NOx reductions from Europe itself. Reducing anthropogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs and carbon monoxide (CO by 10% in selected regions, can have as large an impact on long-range ozone transport as NOx reductions, depending on the source region. We find that for many source-receptor pairs, the season of greatest long-range influence does not coincide with the season when ozone is highest in the receptor region. Reducing NOx emissions in most source regions causes a larger decrease in export of ozone from the source region than in ozone production outside of the source region.

  14. Are Changing Emission Patterns Across the Northern Hemisphere Influencing Long-range Transport Contributions to Background Air Pollution?

    Air pollution reduction strategies for a region are complicated not only by the interplay of local emissions sources and several complex physical, chemical, dynamical processes in the atmosphere, but also hemispheric background levels of pollutants. Contrasting changes in emissio...

  15. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC emission in Europe: influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    Y. Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Elemental Carbon (EC has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model (WRF-Chem at a resolution of 2 km focusing on a region in Germany, in conjunction with a high-resolution EC emission inventory. The ground meteorology conditions, vertical structure and wind pattern were well reproduced by the model. The simulations of particle number and/or mass size distributions were evaluated with observations at the central European background site Melpitz. The fine mode particle concentration was reasonably well simulated, but the coarse mode was substantially overestimated by the model mainly due to the plume with high EC concentration in coarse mode emitted by a nearby point source. The comparisons between simulated EC and Multi-angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP measurements at Melpitz, Leipzig-TROPOS and Bösel indicated that the coarse mode EC (ECc emitted from the nearby point sources might be overestimated by a factor of 2–10. The fraction of ECc was overestimated in the emission inventory by about 10–30 % for Russia and 5–10 % for Eastern Europe (e.g., Poland and Belarus. This incorrect size-dependent EC emission results in a shorter atmospheric life time of EC particles and inhibits the long-range transport of EC. A case study showed that this effect caused an underestimation of 20–40 % in the EC mass concentration in Germany under eastern wind pattern.

  16. Effects of emissions change, climate change and long-range transport on regional modeling of future U.S. particulate matter pollution and speciation

    He, Hao; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the future U.S. PM2.5 pollution under multiple emissions scenarios, climate states, and long-range transport (LRT) effects using the regional Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model integrated with a regional climate model. CMAQ with fixed chemical lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) successfully reproduces the present-day PM2.5 pollution and its major species in rural and suburban areas, but has some discrepancies in urban areas such as the Los Angeles Basin, where detailed emissions and meteorology conditions cannot be resolved by the 30 km grid. Its performance is slightly worsened when using dynamic chemical LBCs from global chemical transport model (CTM) simulations, which provide cleaner conditions into the CMAQ lateral boundaries. Under future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios, CMAQ projects large PM2.5 reductions (∼40% for A1B and ∼20% for A1Fi scenario) in the eastern United States, but slight to moderate increases (∼5% for A1B and ∼10% for A1Fi) in the western United States. The projected increases are particularly large (up to 30%) near the Mexico-U.S. border, suggesting that Mexico is a major source for future U.S. PM2.5 pollution. The effect from climate change alone is estimated to increase PM2.5 levels ubiquitously (∼5% for both A1B and A1Fi) over the United States, except for a small decrease in the Houston, Texas area, where anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions dominate. This climate penalty, however, is substantially smaller than effects of emissions change, especially in the eastern United States. Future PM2.5 pollution is affected substantially (up to -20%) by changes in SO2 emissions and moderately (3-5%) by changes in NOx and NH3 emissions. The long-range transport (LRT) effects, which are estimated by comparing CMAQ simulations with fixed and dynamic LBCs, are regional dependent, causing up to 10-20% decrease over the western United

  17. Modeling regional aerosol and aerosol precursor variability over California and its sensitivity to emissions and long-range transport during the 2010 CalNex and CARES campaigns

    Fast, J. D.; Allan, J.; Bahreini, R.; Craven, J.; Emmons, L.; Ferrare, R.; Hayes, P. L.; Hodzic, A.; Holloway, J.; Hostetler, C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jonsson, H.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Metcalf, A.; Middlebrook, A.; Nowak, J.; Pekour, M.; Perring, A.; Russell, L.; Sedlacek, A.; Seinfeld, J.; Setyan, A.; Shilling, J.; Shrivastava, M.; Springston, S.; Song, C.; Subramanian, R.; Taylor, J. W.; Vinoj, V.; Yang, Q.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-09-01

    The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting regional model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) in simulating the spatial and temporal variations in aerosol mass, composition, and size over California is quantified using the extensive meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected during the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Experiment (CalNex) and the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) conducted during May and June of 2010. The overall objective of the field campaigns was to obtain data needed to better understand processes that affect both climate and air quality, including emission assessments, transport and chemical aging of aerosols, aerosol radiative effects. Simulations were performed that examined the sensitivity of aerosol concentrations to anthropogenic emissions and to long-range transport of aerosols into the domain obtained from a global model. The configuration of WRF-Chem used in this study is shown to reproduce the overall synoptic conditions, thermally driven circulations, and boundary layer structure observed in region that controls the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols. Reducing the default emissions inventory by 50% led to an overall improvement in many simulated trace gases and black carbon aerosol at most sites and along most aircraft flight paths; however, simulated organic aerosol was closer to observed when there were no adjustments to the primary organic aerosol emissions. We found that sulfate was better simulated over northern California whereas nitrate was better simulated over southern California. While the overall spatial and temporal variability of aerosols and their precursors were simulated reasonably well, we show cases where the local transport of some aerosol plumes were either too slow or too fast, which adversely affects the statistics quantifying the differences between observed and simulated quantities. Comparisons with lidar and in situ measurements indicate

  18. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 2: Steady-state changes in ozone air quality and impacts on human mortality

    J. J. West

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale changes in ozone precursor emissions affect ozone directly in the short term, and also affect methane, which in turn causes long-term changes in ozone that affect surface ozone air quality. Here we assess the effects of changes in ozone precursor emissions on the long-term change in surface ozone via methane, as a function of the emission region, by modeling 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions. Reductions in NOx emissions from all world regions increase methane and long-term surface ozone. While this long-term increase is small compared to the intra-regional short-term ozone decrease, it is comparable to or larger than the short-term inter-continental ozone decrease for some source-receptor pairs. The increase in methane and long-term surface ozone per ton of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, exceeding that from temperate Northern Hemisphere regions by roughly a factor of ten. We also assess changes in premature ozone-related human mortality associated with regional precursor reductions and long-range transport, showing that for 10% regional NOx reductions, the strongest inter-regional influence is for emissions from Europe affecting mortalities in Africa. Reductions of NOx in North America, Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and Australia are shown to reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, NOx reductions in India cause the greatest number of avoided mortalities per ton, mainly in India itself. Finally, by increasing global methane, NOx reductions in one hemisphere tend to cause long-term increases in ozone concentration and mortalities in the opposite hemisphere. Reducing emissions of methane, and to a lesser extent carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds, alongside NOx reductions would

  19. Chemical characterization of the long-range transport of firework/firecracker emissions over the Korean Peninsula: A novel indicator of Asian continental outflows

    Jung, Jinsang; Lee, Dahee; Jeong, Hyeonjin; Lee, Sangil; Oh, SangHyub

    2018-04-01

    The long-range transport (LRT) of pollutants between countries in Northeast Asia is a serious issue. However, reliable quantification of LRT pollutants has not been performed due to a lack of clear evidence of the transport between countries. Hourly chemical composition of PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter of ≤2.5 μm) was measured continuously at a suburban site in Daejeon, Korea during the Lunar New Year festival period to investigate the influence of firework/firecracker emissions from China over areas downwind subject to LRT. Elevated PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 μm) and PM2.5 mass concentrations were observed over the Korean Peninsula during the third day of the Lunar New Year festival (30 January 2017) when air masses originated from the northern part of China. Water-soluble potassium (K+), an indicator of both firework/firecracker and biomass burning, increased significantly during the third day of the Lunar New Year festival with an episode to non-episode ratio of 7.5, whereas no increase in levoglucosan, an indicator of biomass burning, was observed. Because firework/firecracker activities do not typically occur over the Korean Peninsula during the Lunar New Year festival, elevated K+ indicates that haze plumes mixed with firework/firecracker emissions in China impacted the Korean Peninsula through the LRT. This study finds, for the first time, clear evidence of the LRT of pollutants between source and receptor countries in Northeast Asia under Asian continental outflow.

  20. Chemical characterization of long-range transport biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

    Zhang, Xinghua; Xu, Jianzhong; Kang, Shichang; Liu, Yanmei; Zhang, Qi

    2018-04-01

    An intensive field measurement was conducted at a remote, background, high-altitude site (Qomolangma Station, QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with other collocated instruments. The field measurement was performed from 12 April to 12 May 2016 to chemically characterize the high time-resolved submicron particulate matter (PM1) and obtain the dynamic processes (emissions, transport, and chemical evolution) of biomass burning (BB), frequently transported from South Asia to the Himalayas during pre-monsoon season. Overall, the average (±1σ) PM1 mass concentration was 4.44 (±4.54) µg m-3 for the entire study, which is comparable with those observed at other remote sites worldwide. Organic aerosol (OA) was the dominant PM1 species (accounting for 54.3 % of total PM1 on average) followed by black carbon (BC) (25.0 %), sulfate (9.3 %), ammonium (5.8 %), nitrate (5.1 %), and chloride (0.4 %). The average size distributions of PM1 species all peaked at an overlapping accumulation mode (˜ 500 nm), suggesting that aerosol particles were internally well-mixed and aged during long-range transport. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis on the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified three distinct OA factors, including a BB-related OA (BBOA, 43.7 %), a nitrogen-containing OA (NOA, 13.9 %) and a more-oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA, 42.4 %). Two polluted episodes with enhanced PM1 mass loadings and elevated BBOA contributions from the west and southwest of QOMS during the study were observed. A typical BB plume was investigated in detail to illustrate the chemical evolution of aerosol characteristics under distinct air mass origins, meteorological conditions, and atmospheric oxidation processes.

  1. Chemical characterization of long-range transport biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

    X. Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An intensive field measurement was conducted at a remote, background, high-altitude site (Qomolangma Station, QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l. in the northern Himalayas, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS along with other collocated instruments. The field measurement was performed from 12 April to 12 May 2016 to chemically characterize the high time-resolved submicron particulate matter (PM1 and obtain the dynamic processes (emissions, transport, and chemical evolution of biomass burning (BB, frequently transported from South Asia to the Himalayas during pre-monsoon season. Overall, the average (±1σ PM1 mass concentration was 4.44 (±4.54 µg m−3 for the entire study, which is comparable with those observed at other remote sites worldwide. Organic aerosol (OA was the dominant PM1 species (accounting for 54.3 % of total PM1 on average followed by black carbon (BC (25.0 %, sulfate (9.3 %, ammonium (5.8 %, nitrate (5.1 %, and chloride (0.4 %. The average size distributions of PM1 species all peaked at an overlapping accumulation mode (∼ 500 nm, suggesting that aerosol particles were internally well-mixed and aged during long-range transport. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis on the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified three distinct OA factors, including a BB-related OA (BBOA, 43.7 %, a nitrogen-containing OA (NOA, 13.9 % and a more-oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA, 42.4 %. Two polluted episodes with enhanced PM1 mass loadings and elevated BBOA contributions from the west and southwest of QOMS during the study were observed. A typical BB plume was investigated in detail to illustrate the chemical evolution of aerosol characteristics under distinct air mass origins, meteorological conditions, and atmospheric oxidation processes.

  2. Long-range transport and deposition of sulfur in Asia

    Arndt, R.L.; Carmichael, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The long range transport of sulfur in Asia is analyzed through the use of a multi-dimensional acid deposition model. The air quality of this region is heavily influenced by the combination of Asia's growing population, its expanding economy, and the associated systems of energy consumption and production. These factors combined with a shift to using indigenous coal as the primary fuel source for the region, will result in increased emissions of pollutants into the environment. By the year 2020 sulfur emissions from Asia are projected to exceed the combined emissions from Europe and North America. The authors have estimated sulfur deposition in Asia on a one-by-one degree spatial resolution in the region from Pakistan to Japan and from Indonesia to Mongolia using a 3-layer Lagrangian model. Deposition in excess of 10 g S/m 2 is predicted in south-central China. The relationship between emission source and receptor has been developed into a deposition matrix and examples of the source-receptor relationship are presented. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Boundary layer parameterizations and long-range transport

    Irwin, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    A joint work group between the American Meteorological Society (AMS) and the EPA is perusing the construction of an air quality model that incorporates boundary layer parameterizations of dispersion and transport. This model could replace the currently accepted model, the Industrial Source Complex (ISC) model. The ISC model is a Gaussian-plume multiple point-source model that provides for consideration of fugitive emissions, aerodynamic wake effects, gravitational settling and dry deposition. A work group of several Federal and State agencies is perusing the construction of an air quality modeling system for use in assessing and tracking visibility impairment resulting from long-range transport of pollutants. The modeling system is designed to use the hourly vertical profiles of wind, temperature and moisture resulting from a mesoscale meteorological processor that employs four dimensional data assimilation (FDDA). FDDA involves adding forcing functions to the governing model equations to gradually ''nudge'' the model state toward the observations (12-hourly upper air observations of wind, temperature and moisture, and 3-hourly surface observations of wind and moisture). In this way it is possible to generate data sets whose accuracy, in terms of transport, precipitation, and dynamic consistency is superior to both direct interpolation of synoptic-scale analyses of observations and purely predictive mode model result. (AB) ( 19 refs.)

  4. Efficient Long-Range Hole Transport Through G-Quadruplexes.

    Wu, Jingyuan; Meng, Zhenyu; Lu, Yunpeng; Shao, Fangwei

    2017-10-09

    DNA offers a means of long-range charge transport for biology and electric nanodevices. Here, a series of tetra-stranded G-quadruplexes were assembled within a dendritic DNA architecture to explore oxidative charge transport (hole transport) through the G-quadruplex. Efficient charge transport was achieved over 28 Å upon UV irradiation. Over a longer G-quadruplex bridge, hole transport was escalated to a higher efficiency, which resulted in a higher yield than that of the optimal duplex DNA for charge transport, that is, the adenine tract. Efficient long-range hole transport suggests tetra-stranded G-quadruplexes, instead of an oxidation hotspot, hold better potential as an electron conduit than duplex DNA. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The impact of North American anthropogenic emissions and lightning on long-range transport of trace gases and their export from the continent during summers 2002 and 2004

    Martini, Matus

    2011-04-07

    We analyze the contribution of North American (NA) lightning and anthropogenic emissions to ozone concentrations, radiative forcing, and export fluxes from North America during summers 2002 and 2004 using the University of Maryland Chemical Transport Model (UMD-CTM) driven by GEOS-4 reanalysis. Reduced power plant emissions (NOx SIP Call) and cooler temperatures in 2004 compared to 2002 resulted in lower ambient ozone concentrations over the eastern United States. Lightning flash rates in early summer 2004 were 50% higher than 2002 over the United States. Over the North Atlantic, changes in ozone column between early summer 2002 and 2004 due to changes in lightning and meteorology exceeded the change due to emission reductions by a factor of 7. Late summer changes in lightning had a much smaller impact on ozone columns. In summer 2004, net downward radiative flux at the tropopause due to ozone produced from anthropogenic emissions ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 W m−2 across the North Atlantic, while that due to ozone produced from lightning NO emissions ranged from 0.20 to 0.50 W m−2. Enhanced lofting of polluted air followed by stronger westerly winds led to more net export of NOx, NOy, and ozone in early summer 2004 than 2002 despite reduced anthropogenic emissions. Ozone export fluxes across the eastern NA boundary due to anthropogenic emissions were factors of 1.6 and 2 larger than those due to lightning in 2004 and 2002, respectively. Doubling the NA lightning NO source increased downwind ozone enhancements due to lightning NO emissions by one third.

  6. The impact of North American anthropogenic emissions and lightning on long-range transport of trace gases and their export from the continent during summers 2002 and 2004

    Martini, Matus; Allen, Dale J.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Richter, Andreas; Hyer, Edward J.; Loughner, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the contribution of North American (NA) lightning and anthropogenic emissions to ozone concentrations, radiative forcing, and export fluxes from North America during summers 2002 and 2004 using the University of Maryland Chemical Transport Model (UMD-CTM) driven by GEOS-4 reanalysis. Reduced power plant emissions (NOx SIP Call) and cooler temperatures in 2004 compared to 2002 resulted in lower ambient ozone concentrations over the eastern United States. Lightning flash rates in early summer 2004 were 50% higher than 2002 over the United States. Over the North Atlantic, changes in ozone column between early summer 2002 and 2004 due to changes in lightning and meteorology exceeded the change due to emission reductions by a factor of 7. Late summer changes in lightning had a much smaller impact on ozone columns. In summer 2004, net downward radiative flux at the tropopause due to ozone produced from anthropogenic emissions ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 W m−2 across the North Atlantic, while that due to ozone produced from lightning NO emissions ranged from 0.20 to 0.50 W m−2. Enhanced lofting of polluted air followed by stronger westerly winds led to more net export of NOx, NOy, and ozone in early summer 2004 than 2002 despite reduced anthropogenic emissions. Ozone export fluxes across the eastern NA boundary due to anthropogenic emissions were factors of 1.6 and 2 larger than those due to lightning in 2004 and 2002, respectively. Doubling the NA lightning NO source increased downwind ozone enhancements due to lightning NO emissions by one third.

  7. Regional and long-range transport of air pollution

    Sandroni, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Course lectures presented are organised in four sections: atmospheric transport, conversion, deposition of atmospheric trace constituents and associated problems; conventional and sophisticated techniques for atmospheric sounding (e.g., Sodar, Lidar, Cospec, tetroons, instrument-carrying aircraft) and simulation techniques (non-reactive tracers); models available for various applications (long-range episodes, long-term averages, photochemical and deposition processes); a comparison of performances of different models and the linearity problem in the formation of acid deposition

  8. Fast long-range connections in transportation networks

    Palhares Viana, Matheus; Fontoura Costa, Luciano da

    2011-01-01

    Multidimensional scaling is applied in order to visualize an analogue of the small-world effect implied by edges having different displacement velocities in transportation networks. Our findings are illustrated for two real-world systems, namely the London urban network (streets and underground) and the US highway network enhanced by some of the main US airlines routes. We also show that the travel time in these two networks is drastically changed by attacks targeting the edges with large displacement velocities. - Highlights: → Multidimensional scaling used to visualize the effects of fast long-range connections. → Fast long-range connections are important to decrease the average travel time. → The average travel time diverges quickly when the network is under target attacks.

  9. Evaluation of long-range transport models in NOVANA

    Frohn, L.M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J.H.; Geels, C.; Hertel, O.; Skjoeth, C.A.; Ellemann, T.

    2007-01-01

    as good as the performance of the ACDEP model, and for the majority of the chemical parameters the performance of DEHM is better than the performance of ACDEP when model results are compared to measurements. This result is expected since the description of the long-range transport of air pollution, which contributes significantly to the concentration levels in Denmark, is better in DEHM. (BA)

  10. Studies for determining the optimum propulsion system characteristics for use in a long range transport aircraft

    Brines, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of propulsion systems for the next generation of near-sonic long range transport aircraft indicates that socially responsive noise and emission goals can be achieved within the probable limits of acceptable airplane performance and economics. Technology advances needed in the 1975-1985 time period to support the development of these propulsion systems are identified and discussed. The single most significant result is the low noise, high performance potential of a low tip speed, spaced, two-stage fan.

  11. 25 CFR 170.410 - What is the purpose of tribal long-range transportation planning?

    2010-04-01

    ... Program Facilities Long-Range Transportation Planning § 170.410 What is the purpose of tribal long-range... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the purpose of tribal long-range transportation planning? 170.410 Section 170.410 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND...

  12. RETADDII: modeling long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides

    Murphy, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    A versatile model is described which estimates atmospheric dispersion based on plume trajectories calculated for the mixed layer. This model allows the treatment of the dispersal from a source at an arbitrary height while taking account of plume depletion by dry and wet deposition together with the decay of material to successor species. The plume depletion, decay and growth equations are solved in an efficient manner which can accommodate up to eight pollutants (i.e. a parent and seven serial decay products). The code is particularly suitable for applications involving radioactive chain decay or for cases involving chemical species with successor decay products. Arbitrary emission rates can be specified for the members of the chain or, as is commonly the case, a sole emission rate can be specified for the first member. The code, in its current configuration, uses readily available upper-air wind data for the North American continent

  13. Global transportation cost modeling for long-range planning

    Pope, R.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Singley, P.T.; Lester, P.B.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing to perform significant remediation activities of the sites for which it is responsible. To accomplish this, it is preparing a corporate global plan focused on activities over the next decade. Significant in these planned activities is the transportation of the waste arising from the remediation. The costs of this transportation are expected to be large. To support the initial assessment of the plan, a cost estimating model was developed, peer-reviewed against other available packaging and transportation cost data, and applied to a significant number of shipping campaigns of radioactive waste. This cost estimating model, known as the Ten-year Plan Transportation Cost Model (TEPTRAM), can be used to model radioactive material shipments between DOE sites or from DOE sites to non-DOE destinations. The model considers the costs for (a) recovering and processing of the wastes, (b)packaging the wastes for transport, and (c) the carriage of the waste. It also provides a rough order of magnitude estimate of labor costs associated with preparing and undertaking the shipments. At the user's direction, the model can also consider the cost of DOE's interactions with its external stakeholders (e.g., state and local governments and tribal entities) and the cost associated with tracking and communicating with the shipments. By considering all of these sources of costs, it provides a mechanism for assessing and comparing the costs of various waste processing and shipping campaign alternatives to help guide decision-making. Recent analyses of specific planned shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste which consider alternative packaging options are described. These analyses show that options are available for significantly reducing total costs while still satisfying regulatory requirements

  14. Global transportation cost modeling for long range planning

    Pope, R.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Singley, P.T.; Lester, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing to perform significant remediation activities of the sites for which it is responsible. To accomplish this, it is preparing a corporate global plan focused on activities over the next decade. Significant in these planned activities is the transportation of the waste arising from the remediation. The costs of this transportation are expected to be large. To support the initial assessment of the plan, a cost-estimating model was developed, peer-reviewed against other available packaging and transportation cost data, and applied to significant number of shipping campaigns of radioactive waste. This cost-estimating model, known as the TEn-year Plan TRAnsportation cost Model (TEPTRAM), can be used to model radioactive material shipments between DOE sites or from DOE sites to non-DOE destinations. The model considers the costs for recovering and processing of the wastes, packaging the wastes for transport, and the carriage of the waste. It also provides a rough order-of-magnitude estimate of labor costs associated with preparing nd undertaking the shipments. At the user's direction, the model can also consider the cost of DOE's interactions with its external stakeholders (e.g., state and local governments and tribal entities) and the cost associated with tracking and communicating with the shipments. By considering all of these sources of costs, it provides a mechanism for assessing and comparing the costs of various waste processing and shipping campaign alternatives to help guide decision-making. Recent analyses of specific planned shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste which consider alternative packaging options are described. These analyses show that options are available for significantly reducing total costs while still satisfying regulatory requirements. (authors)

  15. A long range transport model of Rn-222

    Ikebe, Y.; Kojima, S.; Shimo, M.

    1993-01-01

    In this report, we propose an analytical treatment about temporal variation of 222 Rn concentration in the atmosphere with an aim to clarify origin and transport of 222 Rn. Based on the results of numerical simulation of radon, we separate the 222 Re concentration measured at Nagoya into the following two components : (1) 222 Rn atom originated near from the measuring site, which is denoted by 'diurnal variation component'. From numerical simulation of radon, it has been shown that the measured diurnal variation can be explained by this component. (2) 222 Rn atoms originated far from the measuring site (including Chinese Continent), which is denoted by 'background component'. For this component, we propose here a one layer transport model using air mass trajectory technique. By this model we can explain the temporal variation of background component and seasonal variation of 222 Rn at Nagoya. (3 figs.)

  16. What moves you Arizona : long-range transportation plan : 2010-2035.

    2011-11-01

    "What Moves You Arizona is the Arizona Department of Transportations (ADOT) Long-Range Transportation Plan (LRTP). The LRTP, or Plan, defines visionary, yet pragmatic, investment choices Arizona will make over the next 25 years to maintain a...

  17. Interannual variability of long-range transport as seen at the Mt. Bachelor observatory

    D. R. Reidmiller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interannual variations in background tropospheric trace gases (such as carbon monoxide, CO are largely driven by variations in emissions (especially wildfires and transport pathways. Understanding this variability is essential to quantify the intercontinental contribution to US air quality. We investigate the interannual variability of long-range transport of Asian pollutants to the Northeast Pacific via measurements from the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO: 43.98° N, 121.69° W; 2.7 km a.s.l. and GEOS-Chem chemical transport model simulations in spring 2005 vs. the INTEX-B campaign during spring 2006. Measurements of CO at MBO were significantly enhanced during spring 2005 relative to the same time in 2006 (the INTEX-B study period; a decline in monthly mean CO of 41 ppbv was observed between April 2005 and April 2006. A backtrajectory-based meteorological index shows that long-range transport of CO from the heavily industrialized region of East Asia was significantly greater in early spring 2005 than in 2006. In addition, spring 2005 was an anomalously strong biomass burning season in Southeast Asia. Data presented by Yurganov et al. (2008 using MOPITT satellite retrievals from this area reveal an average CO burden anomaly (referenced to March 2000–February 2002 mean values between October 2004 through April 2005 of 2.6 Tg CO vs. 0.6 Tg CO for the same period a year later. The Naval Research Laboratory's global aerosol transport model, as well as winds from NCEP reanalysis, show that emissions from these fires were efficiently transported to MBO throughout April 2005. Asian dust transport, however, was substantially greater in 2006 than 2005, particularly in May. Monthly mean aerosol light scattering coefficient at 532 nm (σsp at MBO more than doubled from 2.7 Mm−1 in May 2005 to 6.2 Mm−1 in May 2006. We also evaluate CO interannual variability throughout the western US via Earth System

  18. Long-range transport and global fractionation of POPs: insights from multimedia modeling studies

    Scheringer, M.; Salzmann, M.; Stroebe, M.; Wegmann, F.; Fenner, K.; Hungerbuehler, K.

    2004-01-01

    The long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is investigated with two multimedia box models of the global system. ChemRange is a purely evaluative, one-dimensional steady-state (level III) model; CliMoChem is a two-dimensional model with different temperatures, land/water ratios and vegetation types in different latitudinal zones. Model results are presented for three case studies: (i) the effect of atmospheric aerosol particles on the long-range transport of POPs, (ii) the effect of oceanic deposition on the long-range transport of different PCB congeners, (iii) the global fractionation of different PCB congeners. The model results for these case studies show: (i) the low atmospheric half-lives estimated for several organochlorine pesticides are likely to be inconsistent with the observed long-range transport of these compounds; (ii) export to the deep sea reduces the potential for long-range transport of highly hydrophobic compounds (but does not remove these chemicals from the biosphere); (iii) there are different meanings of the term global fractionation that refer to different aspects of the fractionation process and need to be distinguished. The case-study results further indicate that the influences of varying environmental conditions on the physicochemical properties and the degradation rate constants of POPs need to be determined. - Multimedia box models are applied to case studies of the behavior of POPs

  19. 25 CFR 170.411 - What may a long-range transportation plan include?

    2010-04-01

    ...) Social and economic development planning to identify transportation improvements or needs to accommodate... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What may a long-range transportation plan include? 170.411 Section 170.411 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN...

  20. Evidence for the 'grasshopper' effect and fractionation during long-range atmospheric transport of organic contaminants

    Gouin, T.; Mackay, D.; Jones, K.C.; Harner, T.; Meijer, S.N.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is indisputable evidence that long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of organic contaminants occurs on a global scale, uncertainties remain about the detailed mechanism and extent of this phenomenon as well as the physical-chemical properties which facilitate LRAT. In this study, we discuss how mass balance models and monitoring data can contribute to a fuller understanding of the mechanism and extent of LRAT. Specifically we address the issues of 'grasshopping' or 'hopping' (the extent to which molecules are subject to multiple hops as distinct from a single emission-deposition event) and 'global fractionation' (the differing behavior of chemicals as they are transported). It is shown that simple mass balance models can be used to assist the interpretation of monitoring data while also providing an instrument that can be used to assess the LRAT potential and the extent of hopping that organic substances may experience. The available evidence supports the notion that many persistent organic pollutants experience varying degrees of 'hopping' during their environmental journey and as a consequence become fractionated with distance from source. - Evidence for global scale fractionation and hopping of POPs is reviewed

  1. 25 CFR 170.413 - What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan?

    2010-04-01

    ... Roads Program Facilities Long-Range Transportation Planning § 170.413 What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan? BIA or the tribe must solicit public involvement. If there are... newspapers when the draft long-range transportation plan is complete. In the absence of local public...

  2. Predicting long-range transport: a systematic evaluation of two multimedia transport models.

    Bennett, D H; Scheringer, M; McKone, T E; Hungerbühler, K

    2001-03-15

    The United Nations Environment Program has recently developed criteria to identify and restrict chemicals with a potential for persistence and long-range transport (persistent organic pollutants or POPs). There are many stakeholders involved, and the issues are not only scientific but also include social, economic, and political factors. This work focuses on one aspect of the POPs debate, the criteria for determining the potential for long-range transport (LRT). Our goal is to determine if current models are reliable enough to support decisions that classify a chemical based on the LRT potential. We examine the robustness of two multimedia fate models for determining the relative ranking and absolute spatial range of various chemicals in the environment. We also consider the effect of parameter uncertainties and the model uncertainty associated with the selection of an algorithm for gas-particle partitioning on the model results. Given the same chemical properties, both models give virtually the same ranking. However, when chemical parameter uncertainties and model uncertainties such as particle partitioning are considered, the spatial range distributions obtained for the individual chemicals overlap, preventing a distinct rank order. The absolute values obtained for the predicted spatial range or travel distance differ significantly between the two models for the uncertainties evaluated. We find that to evaluate a chemical when large and unresolved uncertainties exist, it is more informative to use two or more models and include multiple types of uncertainty. Model differences and uncertainties must be explicitly confronted to determine how the limitations of scientific knowledge impact predictions in the decision-making process.

  3. Identification of long-range transport of aerosols over Austria using EARLINET lidar measurements

    Camelia, Talianu

    2018-04-01

    The aims of the study is to identify the paths of the long-range transported aerosols over Austria and their potential origin, and to estimate their properties, using lidar measurements from EARLINET stations closest to Austria from Germany and Romania and aerosol transport models. As of now, there is no lidar station in Austria. The study is part of a project to estimate the usefulness of a lidar station located in Vienna, Austria.

  4. Enhancing Transportation Equity Analysis for Long Range Planning and Decision Making

    Bills, Tierra Suzan

    2013-01-01

    Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) regularly perform equity analyses for their long-range transportation plans, as this is required by Environmental Justice regulations. These regional-level plans may propose hundreds of transportation infrastructure and policy changes (e.g. highway and transit extensions, fare changes, pricing schemes, etc.) as well as land-use policy changes. The challenge is to assess the distribution of impacts from all the proposed changes across different popula...

  5. Quantum transport with long-range steps on Watts-Strogatz networks

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Xin-Jian

    2016-07-01

    We study transport dynamics of quantum systems with long-range steps on the Watts-Strogatz network (WSN) which is generated by rewiring links of the regular ring. First, we probe physical systems modeled by the discrete nonlinear schrödinger (DNLS) equation. Using the localized initial condition, we compute the time-averaged occupation probability of the initial site, which is related to the nonlinearity, the long-range steps and rewiring links. Self-trapping transitions occur at large (small) nonlinear parameters for coupling ɛ=-1 (1), as long-range interactions are intensified. The structure disorder induced by random rewiring, however, has dual effects for ɛ=-1 and inhibits the self-trapping behavior for ɛ=1. Second, we investigate continuous-time quantum walks (CTQW) on the regular ring ruled by the discrete linear schrödinger (DLS) equation. It is found that only the presence of the long-range steps does not affect the efficiency of the coherent exciton transport, while only the allowance of random rewiring enhances the partial localization. If both factors are considered simultaneously, localization is greatly strengthened, and the transport becomes worse.

  6. Effect of disorder with long-range correlation on transport in graphene nanoribbon

    Zhang, G P; Gao, M; Shangguan, M H; Zhang, Y Y; Liu, N; Qin, Z J

    2012-01-01

    Transport in disordered armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGR) with long-range correlation between quantum wire contacts is investigated by a transfer matrix combined with Landauer’s formula. The metal-insulator transition is induced by disorder in neutral AGR. Therein, the conductance is one conductance quantum for the metallic phase and exponentially decays otherwise, when the length of AGR approaches infinity and far longer than its width. Similar to the case of long-range disorder, the conductance of neutral AGR first increases and then decreases while the conductance of doped AGR monotonically decreases, as the disorder strength increases. In the presence of strong disorder, the conductivity depends monotonically and non-monotonically on the aspect ratio for heavily doped and slightly doped AGR, respectively. For edge disordered graphene nanoribbon, the conductance increases with the disorder strength of long-range correlated disordered while no delocalization exists, since the edge disorder induces localization. (paper)

  7. Metal Contamination of the Natural Environment in Norway from Long Range Atmospheric Transport

    Steinnes, E.

    2001-01-01

    Long range atmospheric transport is the most important source of contamination to the natural environment in Norway with many heavy metals. Investigations based on aerosol studies, bulk deposition measurements and moss analysis show that airborne transport from other parts of Europe is the major mode for supply of vanadium, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin,antimony, tellurium, thallium, lead, and bismuth, whereas metals such as chromium, nickel, and copper are mainly derived from point sources within Norway and in northwestern Russia close to the Norwegian border. Elements associated with long range transport show substantial enrichment in the humus horizon of natural soils in southern Norway, sometimes to levels suspected to cause effects on soil microbial processes. E.g. lead concentration values of 150-200 ppm are observed in the most contaminated areas in the south as compared to about 5 ppm in the far north. Elements such as lead and cadmium also show enrichment in some terrestrial food chains. These elements also show considerably elevated levels over background concentrations in the water and sediment of small lakes in the southern part of the country. Retrospective studies based on ombrogenous peatcores indicate that long range transport has been a significant source of heavy metal contamination in southern Norway for the last couple of centuries. The deposition of most heavy metals in Norway has been considerably reduced over the last 20 yr, with the exception of contributions in the north from Russian smelters

  8. TRADOS - an air trajectory dose model for long range transport of radioactive release to the atmosphere

    Rossi, J.; Valkama, I.

    1985-01-01

    A model for estimating radiation doses resulting from long range atmospheric transport of released radionuclides in accidents is precented. The model (TRADOS) is able to treat changing diffusion conditions. For example the plume can be exposed to temporary rain, changes in turbulence and mixing depth. This can result in considerable changes in individual doses. The method is applied to an example trajectory and the doses caused by a serious reactor accident are calculated

  9. Long-range transport of air pollution under light gradient wind conditions

    Kurita, H.; Sasaki, K.; Muroga, H.; Ueda, H.; Wakamatsu, S.

    1985-01-01

    The long-range transport of air pollution on clear days under light gradient wind conditions is investigated from an analysis of all days with high oxidant concentrations in 1979 at locations in central Japan that are far from pollutant sources. Surface-level wind and pressure distributions over a 300 x 300 km area were analyzed, together with concentration isopleths of oxidants and suspended particles produced by photochemical reactions

  10. Long-range volcanic ash transport and fallout during the 2008 eruption of Chaiten volcano, Chile

    Durant, A. J.; Prata, A. J.; Villarosa, G.; Rose, W. I.; Delmelle, P.; Viramonte, J.

    2012-04-01

    The May 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile, provided a rare opportunity to measure the long-range transport of volcanic emissions and characteristics of a widely-dispersed terrestrial ash deposit. Airborne ash mass, quantified using thermal infrared satellite remote sensing, ranged between 0.2-0.4 Tg during the period 3-7 May 2008. A high level of spatiotemporal correspondence was observed between cloud trajectories and changes in surface reflectivity, which was inferred to indicate ash deposition. The evolution of the deposit was mapped for the first time using satellite-based observations of surface reflectivity. The distal (>80 km) ash deposit was poorly sorted and fine grained, and mean particle size varied very little beyond a distance >300 km. There were 3 consistent particle size subpopulations in fallout at distances >300 km which suggests that aggregation influenced particle settling. Discrete temporal sampling and characterisation of fallout demonstrated contributions from specific eruptive phases. Some evidence for winnowing was identified through comparison of samples collected at the time of deposition to bulk samples collected months after deposition. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed surface enrichments in Ca, Na and Fe and the presence of coatings of mixed Ca-, Na- and Fe-rich salts on ash particles prior to deposition. XPS analyses revealed strong surface Fe enrichments (in contrast to the results from bulk leachate analyses), which indicates that surface analysis techniques should be applied to investigate potential influences on ocean productivity in response to volcanic ash fallout over oceans. Low S:Cl ratios in leachates indicate that the eruption had a low S content, and high Cl:F ratios imply gas-ash interaction within a Cl-rich environment. We estimate that ash fallout had potential to scavenge ~42 % of total S released into the atmosphere prior to deposition.

  11. Long-range spatial dependence in fractured rock. Empirical evidence and implications for tracer transport

    Painter, S.

    1999-02-01

    Nonclassical stochastic continuum models incorporating long-range spatial dependence are evaluated as models for fractured crystalline rock. Open fractures and fracture zones are not modeled explicitly in this approach. The fracture zones and intact rock are modeled as a single stochastic continuum. The large contrasts between the fracture zones and unfractured rock are accounted for by making use of random field models specifically designed for highly variable systems. Hydraulic conductivity data derived from packer tests in the vicinity of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory form the basis for the evaluation. The Aespoe log K data were found to be consistent with a fractal scaling model based on bounded fractional Levy motion (bfLm), a model that has been used previously to model highly variable sedimentary formations. However, the data are not sufficient to choose between this model, a fractional Brownian motion model for the normal-score transform of log K, and a conventional geostatistical model. Stochastic simulations conditioned by the Aespoe data coupled with flow and tracer transport calculations demonstrate that the models with long-range dependence predict earlier arrival times for contaminants. This demonstrates the need to evaluate this class of models when assessing the performance of proposed waste repositories. The relationship between intermediate-scale and large-scale transport properties in media with long-range dependence is also addressed. A new Monte Carlo method for stochastic upscaling of intermediate-scale field data is proposed

  12. Fractional quantum mechanics on networks: Long-range dynamics and quantum transport.

    Riascos, A P; Mateos, José L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we study the quantum transport on networks with a temporal evolution governed by the fractional Schrödinger equation. We generalize the dynamics based on continuous-time quantum walks, with transitions to nearest neighbors on the network, to the fractional case that allows long-range displacements. By using the fractional Laplacian matrix of a network, we establish a formalism that combines a long-range dynamics with the quantum superposition of states; this general approach applies to any type of connected undirected networks, including regular, random, and complex networks, and can be implemented from the spectral properties of the Laplacian matrix. We study the fractional dynamics and its capacity to explore the network by means of the transition probability, the average probability of return, and global quantities that characterize the efficiency of this quantum process. As a particular case, we explore analytically these quantities for circulant networks such as rings, interacting cycles, and complete graphs.

  13. 25 CFR 170.412 - How is the tribal IRR long-range transportation plan developed and approved?

    2010-04-01

    ...-range transportation plan developed and approved? (a) The tribal IRR long-range transportation plan is... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the tribal IRR long-range transportation plan developed and approved? 170.412 Section 170.412 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  14. Control of long range turbulent transport with biasing in the tokamak scrape-off-layer

    Figarella, C.F.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Sarazin, Y.; Attuel, G.; Benkadda, S.; Beyer, P.; Falchetto, G.; Fleurence, E.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-field transport in the SOL influences tokamak performance in particular regarding the divertor efficiency. Recent experiment evidence emphasizes non-exponential and/or flat SOL profiles that suggest a large perpendicular transport. A 2D fluid model based on the interchange instability to simulate the SOL turbulence was found to exhibits intermittent dynamics of the particle flux. We propose a control method that prevents long range transport events from reaching the far SOL: It consists in biasing the far SOL leading to a transport barrier which stops the propagation of these intermittent events. The best trade off is to localize the biased toroidal ring around the baffles. We show that such a control is achievable providing the strength of the barrier is strong enough. The investigation of the minimal biasing power required to achieve the control as well as its experimental estimate is performed

  15. Periodic long-range transport in a large volume dc glow discharge dusty plasma

    Thomas, Edward Jr.; Amatucci, William E.; Compton, Christopher; Christy, Brian; Jackson, Jon David

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper, the authors reported on observations of a variety of particle transport phenomena observed in DUPLEX--the DUsty PLasma EXperiment at the Naval Research Laboratory [E. Thomas, Jr., W. E. Amatucci, C. Compton, and B. Christy, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3154 (2002)]. DUPLEX is a large, transparent polycarbonate cylinder that is 40 cm in radius and 80 cm in height. dc glow discharge argon plasmas are generated in DUPLEX. In this paper, the authors expand upon one particular feature of particle transport in DUPLEX, the long-range (i.e., greater than 15 cm), periodic (T∼2.5 min) transport of suspended alumina particles through the plasma. A detailed description of this particle motion through the plasma is presented. Finally, a qualitative model describing the phenomena that lead to this transport is also given

  16. Control of long range turbulent transport with biasing in the tokamak scrape-off-layer

    Figarella, C.F.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Sarazin, Y.; Attuel, G.; Falchetto, G.; Fleurence, E.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.

    2004-01-01

    Cross field transport in the SOL (scrape-off-layer) influences tokamak performance in particular regarding the divertor efficiency. Recent experiment evidence emphasizes non-exponential and/or flat SOL profiles that suggest a large perpendicular transport. A 2-dimensional fluid model based on the interchange instability to simulate the SOL turbulence was found to exhibits intermittent dynamics of the particle flux. We propose a control method that prevents long range transport events from reaching the far SOL: It consists in biasing the far SOL leading to a transport barrier which stops the propagation of these intermittent events. The best trade off is to localize the biased toroidal ring around the baffles. We show that such a control is achievable providing the strength of the barrier is strong enough. The investigation of the minimal biasing power required to achieve the control as well as its experimental estimate is performed. (authors)

  17. Worldwide status of long range atmospheric transportation models for use in emergency situations

    Tveten, U.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains the results of the work of a working group put together in order to summarize the status of long range atmospheric transportation models for use in an emergency situation in real-time mode. The most important characteristics of the various models are summarized. The models in use in the Nordic countries as well as a couple of non-Nordic models are presented in more detail. A discussion of the desired characteristics of real-time models (also referred to as Emergency Response Assisting Systems) is included

  18. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees (Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs (Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  19. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees ( Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs ( Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  20. Long-range transport of persistent pollutants into Arctic regions; Schadstoff-Ferntransport in die Arktis

    Kallenborn, R.; Herzke, D. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, The Polar Environmental Centre, Tromso (Norway)

    2001-07-01

    In recent years, high concentrations of persistent pollutants (organic chemicals, metals) were detected in top predators of the Arctic food chain and indigenous peoples from the Canadian and Greenland Arctic, although no local contamination sources are known. The comprehensive, scientific investigations of the past 20 years confirmed that the combination of atmospheric and waterborne long-range transport is the major source of the high concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the pristine Arctic environment. However, also pelagic marine organisms (e.g. Atlantic cod, marine mammals) can transport large amounts of persistent pollutants in their lipids and introduce contaminants into the Arctic food web. Thus, the pollutants are transported into the Arctic and subsequently accumulated through the short and unbranched Arctic food web of the top predators. The most accepted theory nowadays describes the long-range transport of persistent pollutants as a combination of atmospheric and sea current transport, or as a 'global distillation' process. Depending on such physical properties of the substances as vapour pressure and the ambient temperature, persistent (semivolatile) contaminants are transported over different distances prior to deposition (sea surface, sediment, soil). After the deposition, however, and depending on the weather conditions and surrounding temperature, persistent pollutants will be re-evaporated into the atmosphere and undergo further atmospheric transport to the Arctic region. This process is also called the 'grasshopper effect'. The global transport of persistent pollutants into Arctic regions can be described as a repeatedly occurring combination of atmospheric and waterborne transport in which the main transport vehicle depends on the physical properties of the transported compound. The role of characteristic meteorological conditions in the respective climate zones through which the contaminant is

  1. An approach to improving transporting velocity in the long-range ultrasonic transportation of micro-particles

    Meng, Jianxin; Mei, Deqing; Yang, Keji; Fan, Zongwei

    2014-01-01

    In existing ultrasonic transportation methods, the long-range transportation of micro-particles is always realized in step-by-step way. Due to the substantial decrease of the driving force in each step, the transportation is lower-speed and stair-stepping. To improve the transporting velocity, a non-stepping ultrasonic transportation approach is proposed. By quantitatively analyzing the acoustic potential well, an optimal region is defined as the position, where the largest driving force is provided under the condition that the driving force is simultaneously the major component of an acoustic radiation force. To keep the micro-particle trapped in the optimal region during the whole transportation process, an approach of optimizing the phase-shifting velocity and phase-shifting step is adopted. Due to the stable and large driving force, the displacement of the micro-particle is an approximately linear function of time, instead of a stair-stepping function of time as in the existing step-by-step methods. An experimental setup is also developed to validate this approach. Long-range ultrasonic transportations of zirconium beads with high transporting velocity were realized. The experimental results demonstrated that this approach is an effective way to improve transporting velocity in the long-range ultrasonic transportation of micro-particles

  2. Long-range Transport Modeling System and its Application over the Northeast Asia

    Il-Soo Park

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Comprehensive Acid Deposition Modeling (CADM was developed at the National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER and Yonsei University in South Korea in order to simulate the long-range transboundary air pollutants and regional acid deposition processes over the Northeast Asia. The modeling system CADM is composed of a real-time numerical weather forecasting model (RAMS and an Eulerian air pollution transport/dispersion/deposition model including gas- and aqueous-phase atmospheric chemical processes for the real-time acquisition of model results and prediction of acidic pollutants. The main objective of CADM is to facilitate an efficient assessment tools by providing the explicit information on the acidic deposition processes. This paper introduces the components of CADM, and describes the comprehensive atmospheric modeling system including atmospheric chemistry for the simulation of acidic processes over the Eastern Asia. The presently developed modeling system CADM has been used to simulate long-range transport over the Northeast Asian region during the spring season from March 5 to 15 2002. For the model validation, the simulated results are compared with both aircraft measurements and surface monitoring observations, and discussed for its operational consideration in Korea

  3. Biogeochemical Impact of Long-Range Transported Dust over Northern South China Sea

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Wang, S. H.; Hsu, N. C.

    2011-01-01

    Transpacific transport and impact of Asian dust aerosols have been well documented (e.g., results from ACE-Asia and regional follow-on campaigns), but little is known about dust invasion to the South China Sea (SCS). On 19-21 March 2010, a fierce Asian dust storm affected large areas from the Gobi deserts to the West Pacific, including Taiwan and Hong Kong. As a pilot study of the 7-SEAS (Seven South East Asian Studies) in the northern SCS, detailed characteristics of long-range transported dust aerosols were first observed by a comprehensive set of ground-based instruments deployed at the Dongsha islands (20deg42'52" N, 116deg43'51" E). Aerosol measurements such as particle mass concentrations, size distribution, optical properties, hygroscopicity, and vertical profiles help illustrate the evolution of this dust outbreak. Our results indicate that these dust particles were mixed with anthropogenic and marine aerosols, and transported near the surface. Satellite assessment of biogeochemical impact of dust deposition into open oceans is hindered by our current inability in retrieving areal dust properties and ocean colors over an extensive period of time, particularly under the influence of cloudy conditions. In this paper, we analyze the changes of retrieved Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration over the northern SCS, considered as oligotophic waters in the spring, from long-term SeaWiFS measurements since 1997. Over the past decade, six long-range transported dust events are identified based on spatiotemporal evolutions of PM10 measurements from regional monitoring stations, with the aid of trajectory analysis. Multi-year composites of Chl-a imagery for dust event and non-dust background during March-April are applied to overcome insufficient retrievals of Chl-a due to cloudy environment. Due to anthropogenic modification within a shallow boundary layer off the densely populated and industrial southeast coast of China, the iron ion activation of deliquescent dust

  4. Long-range correlations in a simple stochastic model of coupled transport

    Larralde, Hernan; Sanders, David P

    2009-01-01

    We study coupled transport in the nonequilibrium stationary state of a model consisting of independent random walkers, moving along a one-dimensional channel, which carry a conserved energy-like quantity, with density and temperature gradients imposed by reservoirs at the ends of the channel. In our model, walkers interact with other walkers at the same site by sharing energy at each time step, but the amount of energy carried does not affect the motion of the walkers. We find that already in this simple model long-range correlations arise in the nonequilibrium stationary state which are similar to those observed in more realistic models of coupled transport. We derive an analytical expression for the source of these correlations, which we use to obtain semi-analytical results for the correlations themselves assuming a local-equilibrium hypothesis. These are in very good agreement with results from direct numerical simulations.

  5. Long-range cargo transport on crowded microtubules: The motor jamming mechanism

    Rossi, Lucas W.; Radtke, Paul K.; Goldman, Carla

    2014-05-01

    The hopping model for cargo transport by molecular motors introduced in Goldman and Sena (2009), Goldman (2010) is extended here in order to incorporate the movement of cargo-motor complexes (C-MC). Hopping processes in this context express the possibility for cargo to be exchanged between neighboring motors at a microtubule where the transport takes place. Jamming of motors is essential for cargos to execute long-range movement in this way. Results from computer simulations accompanied by a mean-field analysis of the extended model confirm our previous analytical results and suggests that an interplay between cargo hopping and the movement of the C-MC’s would control the efficiency of cargo transfer and cargo delivery in these model systems.

  6. Airborne lidar observations of long-range transport in the free troposphere

    Shipley, S. T.; Browell, E. V.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Orndorff, B. L.; Haagenson, P.

    1984-01-01

    Airborne lidar measurements of ozone and aerosols in the lower troposphere show the presence of pollutant layers above the mixed layer. Two case studies are analyzed to identify probable source regions and mechanisms for material injection into the free troposphere above local mixed layers. An elevated haze/oxidant layer observed over South Carolina on Aug. 2, 1980, was found to originate in cumulus convection over Georgia on Aug. 1, 1980. An extensive haze/oxidant layer observed over southeastern Virginia on July 31, 1981, is shown to have been in contact with the New England mixed layer on July 30, 1981. This transported air mass is estimated to contribute approximately 30 percent of the ozone maximum measured at the surface in the Norfolk, VA, area on July 31, 1981. Such elevated 'reservoir' layers are transported over long ranges and are not detected by sensors which are confined to the surface.

  7. Long-range charge transport in single G-quadruplex DNA molecules

    Livshits, Gideon I.; Stern, Avigail; Rotem, Dvir

    2014-01-01

    DNA and DNA-based polymers are of interest in molecular electronics because of their versatile and programmable structures. However, transport measurements have produced a range of seemingly contradictory results due to differences in the measured molecules and experimental set-ups, and transport......DNA and DNA-based polymers are of interest in molecular electronics because of their versatile and programmable structures. However, transport measurements have produced a range of seemingly contradictory results due to differences in the measured molecules and experimental set......-ups, and transporting significant current through individual DNA-based molecules remains a considerable challenge. Here, we report reproducible charge transport in guanine-quadruplex (G4) DNA molecules adsorbed on a mica substrate. Currents ranging from tens of picoamperes to more than 100 pA were measured in the G4......-DNA over distances ranging from tens of nanometres to more than 100 nm. Our experimental results, combined with theoretical modelling, suggest that transport occurs via a thermally activated long-range hopping between multi-tetrad segments of DNA. These results could re-ignite interest in DNA...

  8. Application of Back Trajectory Model to Predict Long Range Transport of Pollutant

    Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Mohd Suhaimi Elias

    2011-01-01

    Trans-boundary haze pollution in Malaysia has become an issue that created a public attention over the past several years. The presence of haze not only caused by internal and external sources but it sometime coincided with the El Nino phenomenon which prolonged the dry season during the southwest monsoon in May to September. In this study fine particulate data (PM 2.5) of Klang Valley region covering the period from 1997 to 2008 were used to investigate the source location that responsible for the long range transport of pollutant. Back trajectory model the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) was used to calculate the air mass backward trajectories up to 120 hours (5 days) for the days when fine particle were sampled. (author)

  9. Long-range atmospheric transport and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Changbai Mountain.

    Zhao, Xiangai; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Zhu, Weihong; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Source apportionment of the particulate PAHs at Seoul, Korea: impact of long range transport to a megacity

    J. Y. Lee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Northeast Asia including China, Korea, and Japan is one of the world's largest fossil fuel consumption regions. Seoul, Korea, is a megacity in Northeast Asia. Its emissions of air pollutants can affect the region, and in turn it is also affected by regional emissions. To understand the extent of these influences, major sources of ambient particulate PAHs in Seoul were identified and quantified based on measurements made between August 2002 and December 2003. The chemical mass balance (CMB model was applied. Seven major emission sources were identified based on the emission data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, residential coal use, coke ovens, coal power plants, biomass burning, and natural gas (NG combustion. The major sources of particulate PAHs in Seoul during the whole measurement period were gasoline and diesel vehicles, together accounted for 31% of the measured particulate PAHs levels. However, the source contributions showed distinct daily and seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven were observed in fall and winter, accounting for 63% and 82% of the total concentration of PAHs, respectively. Since these sources were not strong in and around Seoul, they are likely to be related to transport from outside of Seoul, from China and/or North Korea. This implies that the air quality in a mega-city such as Seoul can be influenced by the long range transport of air pollutants such as PAHs.

  11. Radiation doses due to long-range transport of airborne radionuclides

    Nordlund, G.; Valkama, I.; Rossi, J.; Savolainen, I.

    1985-12-01

    Within the framework of this study a model for estimating the long range transport of radioactive material and for calculating the resultant doses is developed. In the model initially the dispersion paths, i.e. trajectories, of the radioactive matter are calculated from the assumed source areas as well as the dispersion conditions along the trajectories. The trajectories are calculated at three-hour intervals in a two-dimensional grid using numerically analysed winds at a constant pressure level of 850 mb. The dispersion condition parameters applied are: the stability of the atmospheric boundary layer, the so-called mixing height, occurrence of precipitation and the character of the terrain. For each trajectory a type-index value is computed, describing the severity of the possible effects of radioactivity transported by the particular trajectory. The dispersion model uses the information on dispersion conditions provided by the trajectory model to compute the remaining radioactivity in the cloud, the deposition, as well as the doses due to different dose pathways. The pathways used are the external radiation from the cloud and from the activity deposited on the ground, inhalation of radioactive material and ingestion of contaminated food products (milk, meat, green vegetables, grain and roots). In addition to the effects of individual transport incidents, the cumulative probability distributions of the effects of accidental releases of radioactive matter can also be calculated using trajectory statistics and the trajectory type index

  12. Surface Plasmon Polariton-Assisted Long-Range Exciton Transport in Monolayer Semiconductor Lateral Heterostructure

    Shi, Jinwei; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Tong; Estakhri, Nasim Mohammadi; Tseng, Guo-Wei; Wang, Yanrong; Chen, Hung-Ying; Chen, Chun-An; Shih, Chih-Kang; Alã¹, Andrea; Li, Xiaoqin; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Gwo, Shangjr

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructures, i.e., atomically thin lateral heterostructures (LHSs) based on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been demonstrated. In an optically excited LHS, exciton transport is typically limited to a rather short spatial range ( 1 micron). Furthermore, additional losses may occur at the lateral interfacial regions. Here, to overcome these challenges, we experimentally implement a planar metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure by placing a monolayer of WS2/MoS2 LHS on top of an Al2O3 capped Ag single-crystalline plate. We found that the exciton transport range can be extended to tens of microns. The process of long-range exciton transport in the MOS structure is confirmed to be mediated by an exciton-surface plasmon polariton-exciton conversion mechanism, which allows a cascaded energy transfer process. Thus, the planar MOS structure provides a platform seamlessly combining 2D light-emitting materials with plasmonic planar waveguides, offering great potential for developing integrated photonic/plasmonic functionalities.

  13. Evidence for long-range transport of carbon monoxide in the Southern Hemisphere from SCIAMACHY observations

    Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; de Laat, A.T.J.; van der Werf, G.R.; Schrijver, H.; van den Broek, M.M.P.; Aben, I.

    2006-01-01

    The SCIAMACHY satellite instrument shows enhanced carbon monoxide (CO) columns in the Southern Hemisphere during the local Spring. Chemistry-transport model simulations using the new GFEDv2 biomass-burning emission database show a similar temporal and spatial CO distribution, indicating that the

  14. Forecasting long-range atmospheric transport episodes of polychlorinated biphenyls using FLEXPART

    Halse, Anne Karine; Eckhardt, Sabine; Schlabach, Martin; Stohl, Andreas; Breivik, Knut

    2013-06-01

    The analysis of concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ambient air is costly and can only be done for a limited number of samples. It is thus beneficial to maximize the information content of the samples analyzed via a targeted observation strategy. Using polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as an example, a forecasting system to predict and evaluate long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) episodes of POPs at a remote site in southern Norway has been developed. The system uses the Lagrangian particle transport model FLEXPART, and can be used for triggering extra ("targeted") sampling when LRAT episodes are predicted to occur. The system was evaluated by comparing targeted samples collected over 12-25 h during individual LRAT episodes with monitoring samples regularly collected over one day per week throughout a year. Measured concentrations in all targeted samples were above the 75th percentile of the concentrations obtained from the regular monitoring program and included the highest measured values of all samples. This clearly demonstrates the success of the targeted sampling strategy.

  15. Long range transport of CO and ozone from source regions in Asia

    Jaffe, D.; Mahura, A. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)]|[Institute of Northern Ecological Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novelli, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Merrill, J. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narraganset, RI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Based on current understanding of the atmosphere, CO and photochemically produced ozone can be transported thousands of kilometers prior to being removed. Emissions from Asia have a possible impact on the CO and ozone concentrations over the U.S. west coast following transport across the Pacific Ocean. If this is correct, then there are implications for ozone control strategies in the downwind region. Evidence includes: (1) Global 3D chemical transport models indicating a monthly mean enhancement of 10-20% on the US west coast for both CO and ozone during winter-spring due to emissions from Asia; and (2) CO and O{sub 3} data from several Pacific sites which demonstrate that Asian pollutants can be transported great distances. The weekly flask data clearly define a CO seasonal cycle. In the present analysis we use a locally weighted smoothing technique to identify individual data outliers from the smoothed seasonal cycle. We hypothesize that these outliers represent periods when continental emissions influenced the atmospheric mixing ratios at these locations. Using isentropic back trajectories we try to identify a possible source region or pathway for each event and present a distribution of the trajectory types for the events. For the events at Midway, Mauna Loa, Guam and Shemya, we are able to identify a source region for elevated CO in 82, 72, 65 and 50% of the events, respectively. At Mauna Loa and Midway a majority of the events occur during spring and are mostly associated with transport from Asia. These events bring the highest CO mixing ratios observed at any time during the year to these sites, with CO enhancements up to 46 ppb. For Mauna Loa, a small number of events during summer are due to transport from North and Central America. In-situ ozone from Mauna Loa also demonstrates an impact from Asian emissions.

  16. Brown snow: A long-range transport event in the Canadian Arctic

    Welch, H.E.; Muir, D.C.G.; Billeck, B.N.; Lockhart, W.L.; Brunskill, G.J.; Kling, H.J.; Olson, M.P.; Lemoine, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors document the occurrence of a long-range transport event that deposited thousands of tons of fine particulates on the District of Keewatin, central Canadian Arctic, ∼63 N. Air mass trajectories, clay mineral composition, soot particles, and visible organic remains point to Asian sources for the brown snow material, probably western China. Semivolatile organic pollutants detected in the brown snow included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH), PCB congeners, and DDT-related compounds (ΣDDT), polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs), as well as the herbicide trifuluralin and insecticides methoxychlor, endosulfan, and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). ΣPAH, PCB, and PCC concentrations were within the range reported in other studies of Arctic snow but ΣDDT levels were 2-10 times higher than previous reports. High molecular weight PAH may have been associated with soot particles in the brown snow but evidence for Asian sources of the pesticides was not strong because of unknown source signal strengths and possible atmospheric transformations of the compounds. Fluxes of these pollutants were also determined by analyzing sediment cores from two small headwater lakes near the sampling site. The quantities of pollutants deposited in this single event may have comprised a significant fraction (>10%) of total annual input ΣPAH and ΣDDT, as determined from lake sedimentation records

  17. The importance of long range atmospheric transport in probabilistic accident consequence assessment

    ApSimon, H.M.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Wilson, J.J.N.

    1988-01-01

    The disaster at the Chernobyl-4 reactor has demonstrated that severe nuclear accidents can give rise to significant radiological consequences several thousand kilometres from the source. The subsequent dispersion of the release over much of Western Europe further demonstrated the importance of synoptic scale weather patterns in determining the magnitude of the consequences of such accidents. A version of the MESOS-II European scale trajectory model, which is able to simulate large scale variations in weather conditions through the use of spatially and temporally variable meteorological input data, has been used to simulate the pattern of dispersion from Chernobyl with some success. This paper presents the results of probabilistic consequence assessments for a number of West European sites, made using the MESOS-II model. The results illustrate the effects, on probabilistic assessments, of using a more realistic treatment of long range atmospheric transport than the Gaussian plume model and also the spatial variation in the distributions of consequences arising from the variation in synoptic scale weather conditions across Western Europe

  18. Long-range transport of radioisotopes in the atmosphere and the calculation of collective dose

    Apsimon, H.M.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Wrigley, J.

    1980-01-01

    In estimating the long range (up to 1000 km) transport and dispersal of atmospheric pollutants, the meteorological conditions at the source become less relevant as the distance from the source increases, making it difficult to extrapolate to larger distances using short range modelling techniques. The MESOS model has therefore been developed to take into account the temporal and spatial changes in the atmospheric boundary layer along the trajectory of a pollutant release, including the effects of diurnal cycle and lateral dispersion in the synoptic scale windfield. The model is described together with the associated data base incorporating a year's meteorological data from synoptic stations and ships across Western Europe. A simulation of dispersal following the Windscale release of 1957 is compared with measurements. The use of the model is further illustrated by application to a hypothetical site both for routine continuous releases and short term accidental releases. This work has been carried out within the framework of a research contract between the EURATOM-CEA Association and Imperial College. (H.K.)

  19. Long-range transport of Asian pollution to the northeast Pacific: Seasonal variations and transport pathways of carbon monoxide

    Liang, Qing; Jaeglé, Lyatt; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Heckman, Anna; Snow, Julie A.

    2004-12-01

    Continuous CO measurements were obtained at Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO, 48.3°N, 124.6°W, 480 m), a coastal site in Washington state, between 9 March 2001 and 31 May 2002. We analyze these observations as well as CO observations at ground sites throughout the North Pacific using the GEOS-CHEM global tropospheric chemistry model to examine the seasonal variations of Asian long-range transport. The model reproduces the observed CO levels, their seasonal cycle and day-to-day variability, with a 5-20 ppbv negative bias in winter/spring and 5-10 ppbv positive bias during summer. Asian influence on CO levels in the North Pacific troposphere maximizes during spring and minimizes during summer, ranging from 91 ppbv (44% of total CO) to 52 ppbv (39%) along the Asian Pacific Rim and from 44 ppbv (30%) to 24 ppbv (23%) at CPO. Maximum export of Asian pollution to the western Pacific occurs at 20°-50°N during spring throughout the tropospheric column, shifting to 30°-60°N during summer, mostly in the upper troposphere. The model captures five particularly strong transpacific transport events reaching CPO (four in spring, one in winter) resulting in 20-40 ppbv increases in observed CO levels. Episodic long-range transport of pollutants from Asia to the NE Pacific occurs throughout the year every 10, 15, and 30 days in the upper, middle, and lower troposphere, respectively. Lifting ahead of cold fronts followed by transport in midlatitude westerlies accounts for 78% of long-range transport events reaching the NE Pacific middle and upper troposphere. During summer, convective injection into the upper troposphere competes with frontal mechanisms in this export. Most events reaching the NE Pacific lower troposphere below 2 km altitude result from boundary layer outflow behind cold fronts (for spring) or ahead of cold fronts (for other seasons) followed by low-level transpacific transport.

  20. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Tian, Lide; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH_4"+ in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7 ng L"−"1, with an average of 12.5 ng L"−"1. The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH_4"+. The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. - Highlights: • The low pH/high electronic conductivity was found in atmospheric water vapor. • Anthropogenic NH_4"+ was higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa. • Elevated Hg and major ions levels were usually associated with weak acidic samples. • Hg in atmospheric water vapor was largely influenced by transboundary transport. • Below-cloud scavenging accounted for most Hg in precipitation.

  1. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet

    Huang, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); Kang, Shichang, E-mail: shichang.kang@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Tian, Lide [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Junming [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); and others

    2016-10-01

    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH{sub 4}{sup +} in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7 ng L{sup −1}, with an average of 12.5 ng L{sup −1}. The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. - Highlights: • The low pH/high electronic conductivity was found in atmospheric water vapor. • Anthropogenic NH{sub 4}{sup +} was higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa. • Elevated Hg and major ions levels were usually associated with weak acidic samples. • Hg in atmospheric water vapor was largely influenced by transboundary transport. • Below-cloud scavenging accounted for most Hg in precipitation.

  2. Contribution of long-range transport to the ozone levels recorded in the Northeast of Portugal

    Gama, C.; Nunes, T.; Marques, M. C.; Ferreira, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the past four years (2004-2007), measurements carried out at Lamas de Olo, the only air quality monitoring background station in the Northeast of Portugal, showed high ozone concentrations (97,7±29,7 g.m-3). This remote site, located in the middle of Alvão Natural Park, in Portugal, 1086 m asl, plays a significant role on the total amount of exceedances registered in the national air quality network. The analysis of the data recorded at this monitoring station revealed an annual cycle of ozone concentrations similar to the ones observed in other background sites of the Northern Hemisphere (Monks, 2000; Vingarzan and Taylor, 2003). This common feature comprises a distinct maximum during spring (peaking during the month of April). Nevertheless it is during the summer that the hourly concentrations are higher, due to the typical atmospheric and meteorological conditions that promote photochemical pollution episodes. Photochemical pollution episodes can be related with production of ozone in a local scale or in a global scale due to the transportation of polluted air masses. For this reason analysing these events is crucial to fully understand the behaviour of ozone in the Northeast of Portugal, in order to adopt the correct long-term policies. With the purpose of studying the influence of long-range transport on the ozone levels recorded at Lamas de Olo, a cluster analysis was performed on 96-hour back trajectories air masses. Different trajectory clusters represent air masses with different source regions of atmospheric pollutants and the influence of these regions on the atmospheric composition at the arrival point (receptor) of the trajectories can therefore be assessed (EMPA, 2008). The back trajectories were simulated 4 times per day, using HYSPLIT model. A "bottom-up" cluster methodology was used to group trajectories into clusters according to their characteristics, for several time periods with similar ozone levels and/or distributions. Ozone average

  3. Modification of Local Urban Aerosol Properties by Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosol

    Iwona S. Stachlewska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During August 2016, a quasi-stationary high-pressure system spreading over Central and North-Eastern Europe, caused weather conditions that allowed for 24/7 observations of aerosol optical properties by using a complex multi-wavelength PollyXT lidar system with Raman, polarization and water vapour capabilities, based at the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET network urban site in Warsaw, Poland. During 24–30 August 2016, the lidar-derived products (boundary layer height, aerosol optical depth, Ångström exponent, lidar ratio, depolarization ratio were analysed in terms of air mass transport (HYSPLIT model, aerosol load (CAMS data and type (NAAPS model and confronted with active and passive remote sensing at the ground level (PolandAOD, AERONET, WIOS-AQ networks and aboard satellites (SEVIRI, MODIS, CATS sensors. Optical properties for less than a day-old fresh biomass burning aerosol, advected into Warsaw’s boundary layer from over Ukraine, were compared with the properties of long-range transported 3–5 day-old aged biomass burning aerosol detected in the free troposphere over Warsaw. Analyses of temporal changes of aerosol properties within the boundary layer, revealed an increase of aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent accompanied by an increase of surface PM10 and PM2.5. Intrusions of advected biomass burning particles into the urban boundary layer seem to affect not only the optical properties observed but also the top height of the boundary layer, by moderating its increase.

  4. Current transport properties and phase diagram of a Kitaev chain with long-range pairing

    Giuliano, Domenico; Paganelli, Simone; Lepori, Luca

    2018-04-01

    We describe a method to probe the quantum phase transition between the short-range topological phase and the long-range topological phase in the superconducting Kitaev chain with long-range pairing, both exhibiting subgap modes localized at the edges. The method relies on the effects of the finite mass of the subgap edge modes in the long-range regime (which survives in the thermodynamic limit) on the single-particle scattering coefficients through the chain connected to two normal leads. Specifically, we show that, when the leads are biased at a voltage V with respect to the superconducting chain, the Fano factor is either zero (in the short-range correlated phase) or 2 e (in the long-range correlated phase). As a result, we find that the Fano factor works as a directly measurable quantity to probe the quantum phase transition between the two phases. In addition, we note a remarkable "critical fractionalization effect" in the Fano factor, which is exactly equal to e along the quantum critical line. Finally, we note that a dual implementation of our proposed device makes it suitable as a generator of large-distance entangled two-particle states.

  5. Long-range Transport of Aerosol at a Mountain Site in the Western Mediterranean Basin

    Roberts, Greg; Corrigan, Craig; Ritchie, John; Pont, Véronique; Claeys, Marine; Sciare, Jean; Dulac, François

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Region has been identified as sensitive to changes in the hydrological cycle, which could affect the water resources for millions of people by the turn of the century. However, prior to recent observations, most climate models have not accounted for the impacts of aerosol in this region. Past airborne studies have shown that aerosol sources from Europe and Africa are often transported throughout the lower troposphere; yet, because of their complex vertical distribution, it is a challenge to capture the variability and quantify the contribution of these sources to the radiative budget and precipitation processes. The PAEROS ChArMEx Mountain Experiment (PACMEx) complemented the regional activities by collecting aerosol data from atop a mountain on the island of Corsica, France in order to assess boundary layer / free troposphere atmospheric processes. In June/July 2013, PACMEx instruments were deployed at 2000 m.asl near the center of Corsica, France to complement ground-based aerosol observations at 550 m.asl on the northern peninsula, as well as airborne measurements. Comparisons between the peninsula site and the mountain site show similar general trends in aerosol properties; yet, differences in aerosol properties reveal the myriad transport mechanisms over the Mediterranean Basin. Using aerosol physicochemical data coupled with back trajectory analysis, different sources have been identified including Saharan dust transport, residual dust mixed with sea salt, anthropogenic emissions from Western Europe, and a period of biomass burning from Eastern Europe. Each period exhibits distinct signatures in the aerosol related to transport processes above and below the boundary layer. In addition, the total aerosol concentrations at the mountain site revealed a strong diurnal cycling the between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere, which is typical of mountain-top observations. PACMEx was funded by the National Science Foundation

  6. Impact of Atmospheric Long Range Transport of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium on the Swedish Forest Environment

    Johansson, K.; Bergbaeck, B.; Tyler, G.

    2001-01-01

    Emissions of Hg, Pb, and Cd to air are transported over wide areas in Europe and deposited far away from their sources. About 80% of the atmospheric deposition of these metals in south Sweden originate from emissions in other countries. As a result of the increased anthropogenic deposition the concentrations of Hg, Pb, and Cd in the morlayer of forest soils have increased considerably, mainly during the 20th century. Although the atmospheric deposition of these elements has declined during the most recent decades, the reduction of the input of Hg and Pb is not sufficient to prevent a further accumulation. The concentrations of Hg and Pb are still increasing by ca. 0.5and ca. 0.2% annually in the surface layer of forest soils.In contrast, the Cd concentration is currently decreasing in a large part of Sweden as a result of both deposition decreases and enhanced leaching induced by soil acidification. The accumulation factors of Hg and Pb, especially in the forest topsoils of south Sweden, are already above those at which adverse effects on soil biological processes and organisms have been demonstrated in studies of gradients from local emission sources and laboratory assessment. There are also indications of such effects at the current regional concentrations of Hg and Pbin mor layers from south Sweden, judging from observations in field and laboratory studies. There is an apparent risk of Pb induced reduction in microbial activity over parts of south Sweden. This might cause increased accumulation of organic matter and a reduced availability of soil nutrients. At current concentrations of Hg in Swedish forest soils,effects similar to those of Pb are likely. Increased concentrations of these elements in organs of mammals and birds have also been measured, though decreases have been demonstrated in recent years, related to changes in atmospheric deposition rates. As a result of current and past deposition in south Sweden, concentrations of Hg in fish have increased

  7. A probabilistic dispersion model applied to the long-range transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident

    Lauritzen, B.; Mikkelsen, T.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range atmospheric transport of radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident is modelled as an Eulerian diffusion process. From observations of the gross deposition pattern of particulate radiocaesium an effective long-range Eddy diffusivity K of the order of 10(6) m(2) s(-1) is inferred....... A corresponding effective deposition length for caesium, R-Cs, defined las the effective distance from Chernobyl to where the aerosols have been deposited, is found to be R-Cs approximate to 1000 km. From the observations of the regional variability of the Chernobyl fallout a simple probabilistic assessment...

  8. Studies of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutant using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Appendix 7

    Yang Shaojin

    1995-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol and rainwater samples collected in the different Western Pacific areas were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation and proton induced x-ray emission to (1) determine the atmospheric concentrations of trace elements over the Western Pacific and (2) to estimate the atmospheric deposition of trace elements and dust-soil material to this region. High abundance of pollutant and crustal elements relative to oceanic sources was observed. Some characteristics of marine atmosphere relating to long-range transport of crustal and anthropogenic elements from continent to the remote ocean are discussed. The total dust-soil particle mass is estimated to be 0.066-1.2 μg/m 3 over the Western Pacific Ocean areas. Atmospheric inputs of dust-soil particles control the marine particle concentrations of crustal elements. A total of 99 atmospheric samples with the 'Gent' filter unit were collected during October 1993 and September 1994 at a western suburb of Beijing, China (40 deg. N,116 deg. E), and completed the analysis of these filters by both INAA and PIXE. (author)

  9. Ice cloud formation potential by free tropospheric particles from long-range transport over the Northern Atlantic Ocean

    China, Swarup; Alpert, Peter A.; Zhang, Bo; Schum, Simeon; Dzepina, Katja; Wright, Kendra; Owen, R. Chris; Fialho, Paulo; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2017-03-01

    Long-range transported free tropospheric particles can play a significant role on heterogeneous ice nucleation. Using optical and electron microscopy we examine the physicochemical characteristics of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Particles were collected on substrates from the free troposphere at the remote Pico Mountain Observatory in the Azores Islands, after long-range transport and aging over the Atlantic Ocean. We investigate four specific events to study the ice formation potential by the collected particles with different ages and transport patterns. We use single-particle analysis, as well as bulk analysis to characterize particle populations. Both analyses show substantial differences in particle composition between samples from the four events; in addition, single-particle microscopy analysis indicates that most particles are coated by organic material. The identified INPs contained mixtures of dust, aged sea salt and soot, and organic material acquired either at the source or during transport. The temperature and relative humidity (RH) at which ice formed, varied only by 5% between samples, despite differences in particle composition, sources, and transport patterns. We hypothesize that this small variation in the onset RH may be due to the coating material on the particles. This study underscores and motivates the need to further investigate how long-range transported and atmospherically aged free tropospheric particles impact ice cloud formation.

  10. Long-range transport and multimedia partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds: a case study on two modern agrochemicals

    Lammel, G.; Feichter, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Leip, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    2001-08-01

    The global environmental fate of two modern pesticides was studied using a multimedia model based on a three-dimensional atmosphere general circulation model. The emissions are predicted dynamically based on agricultural application inventories. The insecticide methyl parathion, when assuming properties at the high mobility end of the respective data uncertainties, was found to be distributed on continental and even global scales. This finding implies that based on present knowledge one cannot exclude that methyl parathion reaches regions as far from the sources as e.g. the Arctic. Two scenarios of the environmental cycling of the herbicide atrazine were studied which reflect a lower and an upper estimate of the substance' mobility. Atrazine largely remains in the source (application) regions and the neighbouring seas. But also atrazine seems to have an albeit limited potential for long-range transport. The findings on substance mobilities are quantified by indicators which address spatial range in the zonal direction in individual media. The seasonal variability of the total environmental burden of both pesticides is governed by the degradation in soil and vegetation which together host 73% of methyl parathion and 90-99% of atrazine. Also, the cycling between compartments was studied. Methyl parathion undergoes more deposition and re-emission cycles than atrazine, a characteristics of the environmental fate of semivolatile substances. Persistence is addressed by determination of global total environmental decay times during periods without introduction of new substance into the environment. These are in the range 4-7 months. It is found that the seasonal variability of persistence is pronounced. (orig.)

  11. Long-range Transport of Asian Dust Storms: A Satellite/Surface Perspective on Societal and Scientific Influence

    2007-01-01

    Among the many components contributing to air pollution, airborne mineral dust plays an important role due to its biogeochemical impact on the ecosystem and its radiative forcing effect on the weather/climate system. As much as one-third to half of the global dust emissions, estimated about 800 Tg, are introduced annually into Earth's atmosphere from various deserts in China. Asian dust storm outbreaks are believed to have persisted for hundreds and thousands years over the vast territory of north and northwest China, but not until recent decades that many studies reveal the compelling evidence in recognizing the importance of these eolian dust particles for forming Chinese Loess Plateau and for biogeochemical cycling in the North Pacific Ocean to as far as in the Greenland ice-sheets through long-range transport. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites and its evolution monitored by satellite and surface network. In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of a new satellite algorithm, called Deep Blue, to retrieve aerosol properties, particularly but not limited to, over bright-reflecting surfaces such as urban areas and deserts. Recently, many field campaigns were designed and executed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. We will provide an overview of the outbreak of Asian dust storms, near source/sink and their evolution along transport pathway, from space and surface observations. The climatic effects and societal impacts of the Asian dusts will be addressed in depth. (to be presented in the International Workshop on Semi-Arid Land Surface-

  12. Theoretical analysis of long range turbulent transport in the scrape-off-layer

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Sarazin, Y.; Attuel, G.; Clement, C.; Falchetto, G.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Ottaviani, M.

    2002-12-01

    2-D fluid simulations of Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) turbulence with non constrained energy content (flux driven) are characterized by profile relaxation and strong outward bursts of density. The ballistic propagation extends well beyond the e-folding length of the SOL with a Mach number ∼ 0.04. Turbulence stabilisation is achieved by biasing part of the limiter surface. The critical radial extent to achieve this stabilisation is derived. This effect governs the size of the biased ring required to insulate the wall from the long range bursts of matter. The same characteristic scale also governs the critical size of Langmuir probe tips. For probe tips in excess of this size, the flux tube to the probe is found to be decoupled from the background plasma. (authors)

  13. 23 CFR 450.214 - Development and content of the long-range statewide transportation plan.

    2010-04-01

    ...., transportation, safety, economic development, social and environmental effects, or energy) that were relevant to... time of adoption, that provides for the development and implementation of the multimodal transportation... consultation with affected non-metropolitan officials with responsibility for transportation using the State's...

  14. Quantification of the sources of long-range transport of PM2.5 pollution in the Ordos region, Inner Mongolia, China

    Khuzestani, Reza Bashiri; Schauer, James J.; Wei, Yongjie; Zhang, Lulu; Cai, Tianqi; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2017-01-01

    The Ordos region of Inner Mongolia is rapidly developing and suffers from poor air quality and unhealthy levels of fine particulate matter. PM 2.5 concentrations in the Ordos region were found to exceed 75 μg/m 3 on average, annually, with peak pollution days in excess of 350 μg/m 3 , but local air pollution emissions from surrounding sources are not sufficient to drive pollution levels to these concentrations. The current study was designed to quantify sources of PM 2.5 and assess the local source contributions and effects of regional transport on local pollution. The results show that the Ordos region is primarily impacted by regional long-range transport of pollutants from anthropogenic sources located outside of the Inner Mongolia in Shanxi province areas but is also largely affected by regional dust transported from the deserts located in western Inner Mongolia. The analysis proved that approximately 77% of PM 2.5 mass is transported long-range from the sites exterior to the study area and contributes 59.32 μg/m 3 on average, annually, while the local sources contribute 17.41 μg/m 3 (23%) on annual average to the PM 2.5 mass in the study area. High spatial correlation coefficients (R 2  > 0.6) were observed for most of the factors pointing to the transport of external emissions into the area. Spatial correlation analysis, bivariate polar plots and hybrid trajectory models for industrial and secondary inorganic factors provide evidence for the impact of long-range transport from Shanxi province areas. In addition, the deserts in western Inner Mongolia were found to be the source regions for dust. Finally, our analysis shows that the source of oil combustion and mobile factors are impacted by local sources in the Ordos region; however, some regional impacts from other regions were also observed for mobile source in the area. - Dominance of the regional long-range transport of PM 2.5 sources in the Ordos region. Around 77% of PM 2.5 mass is transported

  15. Analysis of aircraft and satellite measurements from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B to quantify long-range transport of East Asian sulfur to Canada

    A. van Donkelaar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We interpret a suite of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based measurements over the North Pacific Ocean and western North America during April–May 2006 as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B campaign to understand the implications of long-range transport of East Asian emissions to North America. The Canadian component of INTEX-B included 33 vertical profiles from a Cessna 207 aircraft equipped with an aerosol mass spectrometer. Long-range transport of organic aerosols was insignificant, contrary to expectations. Measured sulfate plumes in the free troposphere over British Columbia exceeded 2 μg/m3. We update the global anthropogenic emission inventory in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem and use it to interpret the observations. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD retrieved from two satellite instruments (MISR and MODIS for 2000–2006 are analyzed with GEOS-Chem to estimate an annual growth in Chinese sulfur emissions of 6.2% and 9.6%, respectively. Analysis of aircraft sulfate measurements from the NASA DC-8 over the central Pacific, the NSF C-130 over the east Pacific and the Cessna over British Columbia indicates most Asian sulfate over the ocean is in the lower free troposphere (800–600 hPa, with a decrease in pressure toward land due to orographic effects. We calculate that 56% of the measured sulfate between 500–900 hPa over British Columbia is due to East Asian sources. We find evidence of a 72–85% increase in the relative contribution of East Asian sulfate to the total burden in spring off the northwest coast of the United States since 1985. Campaign-average simulations indicate anthropogenic East Asian sulfur emissions increase mean springtime sulfate in Western Canada at the surface by 0.31 μg/m3 (~30% and account for 50% of the overall regional sulfate burden between 1 and 5 km. Mean measured daily surface sulfate concentrations taken in the Vancouver area increase by

  16. Identification of long-range transport of air pollutants using a Potential Source Contribution Function in Baengyeong Island, Korea

    Ban, J.; Park, T.; Atwood, S. A.; Soo, C. J.; Ahn, J.; Lee, T.

    2017-12-01

    To understand the influence of long-range transport, Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis is widely used in many studies. PSCF is a region containing a source for a particular constituent estimated by looking at the percentage of back-trajectories that pass over that region which contain high concentrations of the constituent. Aerosol concentration, wind direction, wind speed and back trajectory from NOAA HYSPLIT model in Baengyeong Island were used as input data for PSCF to consider the retention time of aerosol. Non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1) concentrations were measured by an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and meteorological variables were also measured in Baengnyeong Island, Korea during 2013 to 2015. We will investigate the influence of long-range transport and compare with AMS data from eastern China in November 2013. It will be provided the overview of long-range transport of NR-PM1 including inorganics and organics species to South Korea.

  17. Merging long range transportation planning with public health: a case study from Utah's Wasatch Front.

    Burbidge, Shaunna K

    2010-01-01

    US transportation systems have been identified as a problem for public health, as they often encourage automobile transportation and discourage physical activity. This paper provides a case study examination of the Public Health Component of the Wasatch Front Regional Council's Regional Transportation Plan. This plan provides an example of what transportation planners at Utah's largest metropolitan planning organization (MPO) are doing to encourage physical activity through transportation. Existing active living research was used to guide recommendations using a process that included a comprehensive literature review and a review of existing state programs, advisory group and stakeholder meetings, and policy recommendations based on existing local conditions. Stakeholders from a diversity of background and interests came together with one common goal: to improve public health. Based on this collaborative process, nine policy approaches were specifically recommended for approval and integration in the Wasatch Front Regional Transportation Plan. By using current research as a guide and integrating a variety of interests, the Wasatch Front Regional Council is setting a new standard for a collaborative multi-modal focus in transportation planning, which can be replicated nationwide.

  18. Quantification of chemical and physical processes influencing ozone during long-range transport using a trajectory ensemble

    M. Cain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During long-range transport, many distinct processes – including photochemistry, deposition, emissions and mixing – contribute to the transformation of air mass composition. Partitioning the effects of different processes can be useful when considering the sensitivity of chemical transformation to, for example, a changing environment or anthropogenic influence. However, transformation is not observed directly, since mixing ratios are measured, and models must be used to relate changes to processes. Here, four cases from the ITCT-Lagrangian 2004 experiment are studied. In each case, aircraft intercepted a distinct air mass several times during transport over the North Atlantic, providing a unique dataset and quantifying the net changes in composition from all processes. A new framework is presented to deconstruct the change in O3 mixing ratio (Δ O3 into its component processes, which were not measured directly, taking into account the uncertainty in measurements, initial air mass variability and its time evolution.

    The results show that the net chemical processing (Δ O3chem over the whole simulation is greater than net physical processing (Δ O3phys in all cases. This is in part explained by cancellation effects associated with mixing. In contrast, each case is in a regime of either net photochemical destruction (lower tropospheric transport or production (an upper tropospheric biomass burning case. However, physical processes influence O3 indirectly through addition or removal of precursor gases, so that changes to physical parameters in a model can have a larger effect on Δ O3chem than Δ O3phys. Despite its smaller magnitude, the physical processing distinguishes the lower tropospheric export cases, since the net photochemical O3 change is −5 ppbv per day in all three cases.

    Processing is quantified using a Lagrangian

  19. Long range transport of air pollutants in Europe and acid precipitation in Norway

    Jack Nordo

    1976-01-01

    Observations show that pollutants from large emission sources may cause significant air concentrations 500 to 1000 miles away. Very acid precipitation occurs in such periods. The scavenging is often intensified by the topography. Case studies will be presented, with special emphasis on acid precipitation in Scandinavia. Large scale dispersion models have been developed...

  20. Long-range transport of airborne microbes over the global tropical and subtropical ocean

    Mayol, Eva; Arrieta, J M; Jimé nez, Maria A.; Martí nez-Asensio, Adriá n; Garcias Bonet, Neus; Dachs, Jordi; Gonzá lez-Gaya, Belé n; Royer, Sarah-J.; Bení tez-Barrios, Veró nica M.; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    The atmosphere plays a fundamental role in the transport of microbes across the planet but it is often neglected as a microbial habitat. Although the ocean represents two thirds of the Earth's surface, there is little information on the atmospheric microbial load over the open ocean. Here we provide a global estimate of microbial loads and air-sea exchanges over the tropical and subtropical oceans based on the data collected along the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition. Total loads of airborne prokaryotes and eukaryotes were estimated at 2.2 × 1021 and 2.1 × 1021 cells, respectively. Overall 33-68% of these microorganisms could be traced to a marine origin, being transported thousands of kilometres before re-entering the ocean. Moreover, our results show a substantial load of terrestrial microbes transported over the oceans, with abundances declining exponentially with distance from land and indicate that islands may act as stepping stones facilitating the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes.The extent to which the ocean acts as a sink and source of airborne particles to the atmosphere is unresolved. Here, the authors report high microbial loads over the tropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans and propose islands as stepping stones for the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes..

  1. Long-range transport of airborne microbes over the global tropical and subtropical ocean

    Mayol, Eva

    2017-07-28

    The atmosphere plays a fundamental role in the transport of microbes across the planet but it is often neglected as a microbial habitat. Although the ocean represents two thirds of the Earth\\'s surface, there is little information on the atmospheric microbial load over the open ocean. Here we provide a global estimate of microbial loads and air-sea exchanges over the tropical and subtropical oceans based on the data collected along the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition. Total loads of airborne prokaryotes and eukaryotes were estimated at 2.2 × 1021 and 2.1 × 1021 cells, respectively. Overall 33-68% of these microorganisms could be traced to a marine origin, being transported thousands of kilometres before re-entering the ocean. Moreover, our results show a substantial load of terrestrial microbes transported over the oceans, with abundances declining exponentially with distance from land and indicate that islands may act as stepping stones facilitating the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes.The extent to which the ocean acts as a sink and source of airborne particles to the atmosphere is unresolved. Here, the authors report high microbial loads over the tropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans and propose islands as stepping stones for the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes..

  2. Aerosol transport from Chiang Mai, Thailand to Mt. Lulin, Taiwan - Implication of aerosol aging during long-range transport

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Engling, Guenter; Chang, Shih-Yu; Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Chang, You-Jia; Hong, Guo-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The transport of biomass burning (BB) aerosol from Indochina may cause a potential effect on climate change in Southeast Asia, East Asia, and the Western Pacific. Up to now, the understanding of BB aerosol composition modification during long-range transport (LRT) is still very limited due to the lack of observational data. In this study, atmospheric aerosols were collected at the Suthep/Doi Ang Khang (DAK) mountain sites in Chiang Mai, Thailand and the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (Mt. Lulin) in central Taiwan from March to April 2010 and from February to April 2013, respectively. During the study period, an upwind and downwind relationship between the Suthep/DAK and Lulin sites (2400 km apart) was validated by backward trajectories. Comprehensive aerosol properties were resolved for PM2.5 water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous content, water-soluble/insoluble organic carbon (WSOC/WIOC), dicarboxylic acids and their salts (DCAS), and anhydrosugars. A Modification Factor (MF) is proposed by employing non-sea-salt potassium ion (nss-K+) or fractionalized elemental carbon evolved at 580 °C after pyrolized OC correction (EC1-OP) as a BB aerosol tracer to evaluate the mass fraction changes of aerosol components from source to receptor regions during LRT. The MF values of nss-SO42-, NH4+, NO3-, OC1 (fractionalized organic carbon evolved from room temperature to 140 °C), OP (pyrolized OC fraction), DCAS, and WSOC were above unity, which indicated that these aerosol components were enhanced during LRT as compared with those in the near-source region. In contrast, the MF values of anhydrosugars ranged from 0.1 to 0.3, indicating anhydrosugars have degraded during LRT.

  3. Can clouds enhance long-range transport of low volatile, ionizable and surface-active chemicals?

    Franco, Antonio; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric partitioning and transport of low volatile organic compounds is strongly influenced by the presence of water (e.g. clouds) and its deposition velocity (e.g. rainfall, snow). It was identified that the assumption of continuous rainfall underestimates the residence time and the transport....... The longer residence time predicted for some compounds in the LMT is due to the capacity of clouds to sorb non-volatile molecules in the liquid water and at the interface of cloud droplets. The efficiency of wet deposition to remove low volatile organic pollutants from the atmosphere is limited primarily...

  4. Modelling the long-range transport of secondary PM 10 to the UK

    Malcolm, A. L.; Derwent, R. G.; Maryon, R. H.

    The fine fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM 10) is known to be harmful to human health. In order to establish how current air quality standards can best be met now and in the future, it is necessary to understand the cause of PM 10 episodes. The UK Met Office's dispersion model, NAME, has been used to model hourly concentrations of sulphate aerosol for 1996 at a number of UK locations. The model output has been compared with measured values of PM 10 or sulphate aerosol at these sites and used to provide attribution information. In particular two large PM 10 episodes in March and July 1996 have been studied. The March episode has been shown to be the result of imported pollution from outside the UK, whereas the July case was dominated by UK emissions. This work highlights the need to consider trans-boundary pollution when setting air quality standards and when making policy decisions on emissions.

  5. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols in Ile-de-France: Local contribution and Long range transport

    Cuesta, J.E.

    2006-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosols interact directly in a great number of processes related to climate change and public health, modifying the energy budget and partly determining the quality of the air we breathe. In my PhD, I chose to study the perturbation, if not the aggravation, of the living conditions in Ile-de-France associated to aerosol transport episodes in the free troposphere. This situation is rather frequent and still badly known. To achieve my study, I developed the observation platform 'TReSS' Transportable Remote Sensing Station, whose instruments were developed at the Laboratoire de Meteorology Dynamique by the LiMAG team. 'TReSS' consists of a new high-performance 'Mini-Lidar' and of two standard radiometers: a sun photometer and a thermal infrared radiometer. The principle of my experimental approach is the synergy of the vertical Lidar profiles and the particle size distributions over the column, obtained by the 'Almucantar' inversion of sun photometer data. The new 'Lidar and Almucantar' method characterizes the vertical distribution by layer and the optical micro-physical properties of the local and transported aerosols. Firstly, I undertook the characterization of the Paris aerosol, mainly of anthropogenic origin. Their radiative properties were analyzed in the daily and yearly scales. Then, I conducted a statistical multi-year study of transport episodes and a two-week study case, representative of a succession of desert dust intrusion in Ile-de-France. My PhD work concludes by a study on the impact of biomass burning aerosols during the heat wave on August 2003. I study the impact of the transported aerosols into the local radiative budget and the possible consequences on the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer. (author)

  6. Seasonal Fluctuations in Air Pollution in Dazaifu, Japan, and Effect of Long-Range Transport from Mainland East Asia.

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Minami, Hiroki; Abe, Maho; Hasei, Tomohiro; Sera, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Honda, Naoko; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the seasonal fluctuations in air pollution and the effect of long-range transport, we collected airborne particles (n=118) at Dazaifu in Fukuoka, Japan, from June 2012 to May 2013 and measured Pb and SO4(2-), which are indicators of the long-range transport of anthropogenic air pollutants, as well as their mutagenicity, and other factors. The levels of airborne particles, Pb, and SO4(2-) were very high on March 4, 8, 9, and 19, and May 13, 21, and 22, 2013. The backward trajectories indicated that air masses had arrived from the Gobi Desert and northern China on those days. The mutagenicity of airborne particles was examined using the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium YG1024. Highly mutagenic airborne particles were mostly collected in winter, and most of them showed high activity both with and without S9 mix. High levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found in many samples that showed high mutagenicity. For the samples collected on January 30, February 21, and March 4, the levels of Pb, SO4(2-), PAHs, and mutagenicity were high, and the backward trajectories indicated that air masses present on those days had passed through northern or central China. The Japan Meteorological Agency registered Asian dust events at Fukuoka on March 8, 9, and 19, 2013. The results of the present study suggest that high levels of anthropogenic air pollutants were transported with Asian dust. Similarly, long-range transport of air pollutants including mutagens occurred on days when Asian dust events were not registered.

  7. Direct Observation of Long-Range Transport Using Continuously Sounding Balloons and Near-Real-Time Trajectory Modeling

    Voss, P. B.; Zaveri, R. A.; Berkowitz, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    Controlled Meteorological (CMET) balloons have been used in several recent studies to measure long-range transport over periods as long as 30 hours and distances up to 1000 kilometers. By repeatedly performing shallow soundings as they drift, CMET balloons can quantify evolving atmospheric structure, mixing events, shear advection, and dispersion during transport. In addition, the quasi-Lagrangian wind profiles can be used to drive a multi-layer trajectory model in which the advected air parcels follow the underlying terrain, or are constrained by altitude, potential temperature, or tracer concentration. Data from a coordinated balloon-aircraft study of long range transport over Texas (SETTS 2005) show that the reconstructed trajectories accurately track residual-layer urban outflow (and at times even its fine-scale structure) over distances of many hundreds of kilometers. The reconstructed trajectories and evolving profile visualizations are increasingly being made available in near-real time during balloon flights, supporting data-driven flight planning and sophisticated process studies relevant to atmospheric chemistry and climate. Multilayer trajectories (black grids) derived from CMET balloon flight paths (grey lines) for a transport event across Texas in 2005.

  8. Local and distant residence times of contaminants in multi-compartment models. Part II: Application to assessing environmental mobility and long-range atmospheric transport

    Reid, Liisa; Mackay, Don

    2008-01-01

    In Part I, the concepts of inherent, local and distant residence times (DRTs) were reviewed as metrics of the extent to which chemical discharges or emissions in one region or box are transported to distant regions. In this second part, the concepts are applied to geographically relevant systems to illustrate their applicability to the assessment of chemicals for long-range transport potential (LRTP). It is shown that the relative ranking of chemicals as characterized by the DRT method is similar to that of the characteristic travel distance concept. A DRT source-receptor matrix is developed that can express the chemical-specific potential of source regions to contaminate a specific receptor region of concern such as the Arctic. The matrix can be modified to identify for a specific source region the likely destinations of emissions as well as to assess the relative vulnerability of regions in the global environment to contaminants of concern. - The DRT concept is applied to multi-box and geographically explicit models to assess the long-range transport potential of 10 chemicals

  9. Long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants to the Eastern Mediterranean basin

    Tuncel, G.; Tuncel, S.

    1994-01-01

    A permanent stations has been established in the Eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey for continuous monitoring of aerosols and precipitation. The station is part of the MED-POL programme which includes all countries that have coasts in the Mediterranean Sea and attempts to determine the role of the atmospheric fluxes of pollutants on the pollution of the Mediterranea Sea. Aerosol and deposition samples have been collected since early 1992. Concentrations of SO 4 , NO 3 , Cl, Li, Pb, K, Ca, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Se, Zn and Na were determined by ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry. Daily samples will be screened to select the ones which correspond to transport from Europe and will be analyzed for a larger number of parameters using INAA. Method development took most of the time in 1992, and analysis are still in progress. Available data have shown that concentrations of anthropogenic elements are smaller in the Eastern Mediterranean atmosphere compared to other rural sites in the Europe. (author). 21 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  10. Phonon transport in a one-dimensional harmonic chain with long-range interaction and mass disorder

    Zhou, Hangbo; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2016-11-01

    Atomic mass and interatomic interaction are the two key quantities that significantly affect the heat conduction carried by phonons. Here, we study the effects of long-range (LR) interatomic interaction and mass disorder on the phonon transport in a one-dimensional harmonic chain with up to 105 atoms. We find that while LR interaction reduces the transmission of low-frequency phonons, it enhances the transmission of high-frequency phonons by suppressing the localization effects caused by mass disorder. Therefore, LR interaction is able to boost heat conductance in the high-temperature regime or in the large size regime, where the high-frequency modes are important.

  11. Long-range transport of stratospheric aerosols in the Southern Hemisphere following the 2015 Calbuco eruption

    N. Bègue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available After 43 years of inactivity, the Calbuco volcano, which is located in the southern part of Chile, erupted on 22 April 2015. The space–time evolutions (distribution and transport of its aerosol plume are investigated by combining satellite (CALIOP, IASI, OMPS, in situ aerosol counting (LOAC OPC and lidar observations, and the MIMOSA advection model. The Calbuco aerosol plume reached the Indian Ocean 1 week after the eruption. Over the Reunion Island site (21° S, 55.5° E, the aerosol signal was unambiguously enhanced in comparison with background conditions, with a volcanic aerosol layer extending from 18 to 21 km during the May–July period. All the data reveal an increase by a factor of  ∼  2 in the SAOD (stratospheric aerosol optical depth with respect to values observed before the eruption. The aerosol mass e-folding time is approximately 90 days, which is rather close to the value ( ∼  80 days reported for the Sarychev eruption. Microphysical measurements obtained before, during, and after the eruption reflecting the impact of the Calbuco eruption on the lower stratospheric aerosol content have been analyzed over the Reunion Island site. During the passage of the plume, the volcanic aerosol was characterized by an effective radius of 0.16 ± 0.02 µm with a unimodal size distribution for particles above 0.2 µm in diameter. Particle concentrations for sizes larger than 1 µm are too low to be properly detected by the LOAC OPC. The aerosol number concentration was  ∼  20 times higher that observed before and 1 year after the eruption. According to OMPS and lidar observations, a tendency toward conditions before the eruption was observed by April 2016. The volcanic aerosol plume is advected eastward in the Southern Hemisphere and its latitudinal extent is clearly bounded by the subtropical barrier and the polar vortex. The transient behavior of the aerosol layers observed above Reunion Island

  12. Modelling the Contribution of Long-range Transport of Ammonium Nitrates to Urban Air Pollution and Human Exposure in the United Kingdom

    Reis, S.; Vieno, M.; Beck, R.; Ots, R.; Moring, A.; Steinle, S.; Heal, M. R.; Doherty, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Urban air pollution and its effects on human health remain to be a challenge in spite of substantial reductions in the emissions of air pollutants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) over the past decades in Europe. While primary pollutants play a vital role in urban air pollution, recent model studies highlight and quantify the relevance of long-range transport of secondary pollution (e.g. secondary inorganic aerosols such as ammonium sulphates and nitrates, or ground level ozone) for the exceedance of local air quality limit values in urban areas across Europe. This contribution can be seen in recurring episodes, for instance in spring 2014, with very high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Paris, London and other European cities, as well as in elevated background levels throughout the year. While we will focus on the contribution to exceedances of PM2.5 limit values here, this transboundary transport has wider implications for the deposition of reactive nitrogen far from the source as well. As local authorities are tasked with ensuring the attainment of air quality limit values, exceedances caused by long-range transport, with emissions originating from sources outside of their jurisdiction present substantial challenges. Furthermore, while policy measures have successfully addressed emissions from large point sources in the past, and made progress towards reducing pollution from road vehicles, emissions of ammonia from agricultural sources - a key component for the long-range transport of secondary inorganic aerosols - have remained relatively stable in Europe. Using the example of Europe and the UK, we demonstrate in our presentation how atmospheric chemistry transport modelling across different scales (from regional to local) can provide vital insight in the mechanisms of and relative contributions to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols. In addition, we illustrate how this modelling capability can inform the design of efficient control

  13. Spectral optical properties of long-range transport Asian dust and pollution aerosols over Northeast Asia in 2007 and 2008

    J. Jung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the IGAC (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Mega-cities program, aerosol physical and optical properties were continuously measured from March 2007 to March 2008 at an urban site (37.57° N, 126.94° E in Seoul, Korea. Spectral optical properties of long-range transported Asian dust and pollution aerosols have been investigated based on the year long measurement data. Optically measured black carbon/thermally measured elemental carbon (BC/EC ratio showed clear monthly variation with high values in summer and low values in winter mainly due to the enhancement of light attenuation by the internal mixing of EC. Novel approach has been suggested to retrieve the spectral light absorption coefficient (babs from Aethalometer raw data by using BC/EC ratio. Mass absorption efficiency, σabs (=babs/EC at 550 nm was determined to be 9.0±1.3, 8.9±1.5, 9.5±2.0, and 10.3±1.7 m2 g−1 in spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively with an annual mean of 9.4±1.8 m2 g−1. Threshold values to classify severe haze events were suggested in this study. Increasing trend of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA with wavelength was observed during Asian dust events while little spectral dependence of SSA was observed during long-range transport pollution (LTP events. Satellite aerosol optical thickness (AOT and Hysplit air mass backward trajectory analyses as well as chemical analysis were performed to characterize the dependence of spectral optical properties on aerosol type. Results from this study can provide useful information for studies on regional air quality and aerosol's effects on climate change.

  14. Airborne lidar measurements to investigate the impact of long-range transported dust on shallow marine trade wind convection

    Gross, S.; Gutleben, M.; Wirth, M.; Ewald, F.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols and clouds are still main contributors to uncertainties in estimates and interpretation of the Earth's changing energy budget. Their interaction with the Earth's radiation budged has a direct component by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation, and an indirect component, e.g. as aerosols modify the properties and thus the life-time of clouds or by changing the atmosphere's stability. Up to know now sufficient understanding in aerosol-cloud interaction and climate feedback is achieved. Thus studies with respect to clouds, aerosols, their interaction and influence on the radiation budged are highly demanded. In August 2016 the NARVAL-II (Next-generation airborne remote sensing for validation studies) mission took place. Measurements with a combined active (high spectral resolution and water vapor differential absorption lidar and cloud radar) and passive remote sensing (microwave radiometer, hyper spectral imager, radiation measurements) payload were performed with the German high altitude and long-range research aircraft HALO over the subtropical North-Atlantic Ocean to study shallow marine convection during the wet and dusty season. With this, NARVAL-II is follow-up of the NARVAL-I mission which took place during the dry and dust free season in December 2013. During NARVAL-II the measurement flights were designed the way to sample dust influenced areas as well as dust free areas in the trades. One main objective was to investigate the optical and macro physical properties of the dust layer, differences in cloud occurrence in dusty and non-dusty areas, and to study the influence of aerosols on the cloud properties and formation. This allows comparisons of cloud and aerosol distribution as well as their environment between the dry and the wet season, and of cloud properties and distribution with and without the influence of long-range transported dust across the Atlantic Ocean. In our presentation we will give an overview of the NARVAL

  15. Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol

    Shrivastava, Manish; Lou, Silja; Zelenyuk, Alla; Easter, Richard C.; Corley, Richard A.; Thrall, Brian D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on humans and ecosystems. One of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), is efficiently bound to and transported with atmospheric particles. Laboratory measurements show that particle-bound BaP degrades in a few hours by heterogeneous reaction with ozone, yet field observations indicate BaP persists much longer in the atmosphere, and some previous chemical transport modeling studies have ignored heterogeneous oxidation of BaP to bring model predictions into better agreement with field observations. We attribute this unexplained discrepancy to the shielding of BaP from oxidation by coatings of viscous organic aerosol (OA). Accounting for this OA viscosity-dependent shielding, which varies with temperature and humidity, in a global climate/chemistry model brings model predictions into much better agreement with BaP measurements, and demonstrates stronger long-range transport, greater deposition fluxes, and substantially elevated lung cancer risk from PAHs. Model results indicate that the OA coating is more effective in shielding BaP in the middle/high latitudes compared with the tropics because of differences in OA properties (semisolid when cool/dry vs. liquid-like when warm/humid). Faster chemical degradation of BaP in the tropics leads to higher concentrations of BaP oxidation products over the tropics compared with higher latitudes. This study has profound implications demonstrating that OA strongly modulates the atmospheric persistence of PAHs and their cancer risks.

  16. Trace gas composition in the free and upper troposphere over Asia: Examining the influence of long-range transport and convection of local pollution

    Baker, A. K.; Traud, S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Hoor, P. M.; Neumaier, M.; Oram, D.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Schloegl, S.; Sprung, D.; Slemr, F.; van Velthoven, P.; Wernli, H.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2013-12-01

    Between May 2005 and March 2008 the CARIBIC observatory (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) was deployed to make atmospheric observations during 21 round-trip flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Manila, the Philippines with a stopover in Guangzhou, China. This nearly 3 year flight series provides us with information about atmospheric composition in the free and upper troposphere over Asia during all seasons and was used to investigate seasonal and regional differences in trace gas distributions and the relative influences of long range transport and convected local air masses on composition. The flight route was separated into three different regions having unique characteristics in transport and composition; these were Western Asia (5°E to 70°E), Central Asia (70°E to 100°E) and East Asia (100°E to 125°E). The region over Western Asia was heavily influenced by long range transport of air masses from North America and had elevated levels of NOy and acetone, while the region over East Asia was mostly influenced by convected local (South East Asian) pollution, particularly from biomass/biofuel burning as indicated by high levels of acetonitrile and carbon monoxide. Air masses over Central Asia were found to be influenced by both recently convected air masses from the Indian subcontinent and mid-range transport from Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Elevated levels of propane and other non-methane hydrocarbons, both with and without concommitant elevations in other trace gases (i.e. carbon monoxide, acetonitrile) were a persisent feature of this region in all seasons except summer, and were particularly prominent in fall. Influences on composition over Central Asia were investigated more thoroughly in a case study from a series of flights in October 2006, and elevated levels of pollutants were found to be the result of convective transport of both biomass/biofuel burning and urban emissions from

  17. Long-range transport of mutagens and other air pollutants from mainland East Asia to western Japan.

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Minami, Hiroki; Abe, Maho; Hasei, Tomohiro; Oro, Tadashi; Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Honda, Naoko; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2015-01-01

    Asian dust events, transport of dust particles from arid and semi-arid areas in China and Mongolia to the east by prevailing westerlies, are often observed in Japan in spring. In recent decades, consumption of fossil fuels has markedly increased in mainland East Asia with rapid economic growth, and severe air pollution has occurred. A part of air pollutants including mutagens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), generated in mainland East Asia are thought to be transported to Japan by the prevailing westerlies, like Asian dust, and winter monsoon. The objective of this study was to clarify the long-range transport of mutagens and other air pollutants in East Asia. Thus, we collected total suspended particles (TSP) at a rural town in western Japan, namely, Yurihama in Tottori Prefecture, for 1 year (June 2012-May 2013), and investigated their chemical constituents and mutagenicity. Many TSP collected from January to March showed high mutagenicity toward Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 with and without S9 mix, and high levels of lead (Pb) and sulfate ions (SO4 (2-)), which are indicators of transboundary air pollutions from mainland East Asia, were detected in those TSP. A large amount of iron, which is an indicator of sand, was found in highly mutagenic TSP collected in March, but not in TSP collected in January and February. High levels of PAHs were detected in highly mutagenic TSP collected from January to March. The ratios of the concentration of fluoranthene to those of fluoranthene and pyrene suggested that the main source of PAHs in TSP collected in winter and spring was coal and biomass combustion. Backward trajectories of air masses on days when high levels of mutagenicity were found indicated that these air masses had traveled from eastern or northern China to Yurihama. These results suggest that high levels of mutagens were transported from mainland East Asia to western Japan, and this transportation accompanied Asian dust in March, but not in

  18. Decabrominated Diphenyl Ethers (BDE-209) in Chinese and Global Air: Levels, Gas/Particle Partitioning, and Long-Range Transport: Is Long-Range Transport of BDE-209 Really Governed by the Movement of Particles?

    Li, Yi-Fan; Qiao, Li-Na; Ren, Nan-Qi; Sverko, Ed; Mackay, Donald; Macdonald, Robie W

    2017-01-17

    In this paper, we report air concentrations of BDE-209 in both gas- and particle-phases across China. The annual mean concentrations of BDE-209 were from below detection limit (BDL) to 77.0 pg·m -3 in the gas-phase and 1.06-728 pg·m -3 in the particle-phase. Among the nine PBDEs measured, BDE-209 is the dominant congener in Chinese atmosphere in both gas and particle phases. We predicted the partitioning behavior of BDE-209 in air using our newly developed steady state equation, and the results matched the monitoring data worldwide very well. It was found that the logarithm of the partition quotient of BDE-209 is a constant, and equal to -1.53 under the global ambient temperature range (from -50 to +50 °C). The gaseous fractions of BDE-209 in air depends on the concentration of total suspended particle (TSP). The most important conclusion derived from this study is that, BDE-209, like other semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), cannot be sorbed entirely to atmospheric particles; and there is a significant amount of gaseous BDE-209 in global atmosphere, which is subject to long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). Therefore, it is not surprising that BDE-209 can enter the Arctic through LRAT mainly by air transport rather than by particle movement. This is a significant advancement in understanding the global transport process and the pathways entering the Arctic for chemicals with low volatility and high octanol-air partition coefficients, such as BDE-209.

  19. Free troposphere as a major source of CCN for the equatorial pacific boundary layer: long-range transport and teleconnections

    A. D. Clarke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Airborne aerosol measurements in the central equatorial Pacific during PASE (Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment revealed that cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activated in marine boundary layer (MBL clouds were strongly influenced by entrainment from the free troposphere (FT. About 65% entered at sizes effective as CCN in MBL clouds, while ~25% entered the MBL too small to activate but subsequently grew via gas to particle conversion. The remaining ~10% were inferred to be sea salt aerosol. FT aerosols at low carbon monoxide (CO mixing ratios ( The observed FT transport over thousands of kilometers indicates teleconnections between MBL CCN and cloud-scavenged sources of both natural and/or residual combustion origin. Nonetheless, in spite of its importance, this source of CCN number is not well represented in most current models and is generally not detectable by satellite because of the low aerosol scattering in such layers as a result of cloud scavenging. In addition, our measurements confirm nucleation in the MBL was not evident during PASE and argue against a localized linear relation in the MBL between dimethyl sulfide (DMS and CCN suggested by the CLAW hypothesis. However, when the FT is not impacted by long-range transport, sulfate aerosol derived from DMS pumped aloft in the ITCZ (Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone can provide a source of CCN to the boundary layer via FT teleconnections involving more complex non-linear processes.

  20. Distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances in the Arctic, Atlantic Ocean and Antarctic coast

    Zhao Zhen; Xie Zhiyong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang Jianhui; Zhang Gan; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The global distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated using seawater samples collected from the Greenland Sea, East Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean in 2009–2010. Elevated levels of ΣPFASs were detected in the North Atlantic Ocean with the concentrations ranging from 130 to 650 pg/L. In the Greenland Sea, the ΣPFASs concentrations ranged from 45 to 280 pg/L, and five most frequently detected compounds were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). PFOA (15 pg/L) and PFOS (25–45 pg/L) were occasionally found in the Southern Ocean. In the Atlantic Ocean, the ΣPFASs concentration decreased from 2007 to 2010. The elevated PFOA level that resulted from melting snow and ice in Greenland Sea implies that the Arctic may have been driven by climate change and turned to be a source of PFASs for the marine ecosystem. - Highlights: ► PFOA is released from the Arctic snow and ice and might be transport southwards to the Atlantic. ► Decline temporal trends of PFASs are present in the Northern Hemisphere in the Atlantic. ► PFOS has elevate concentration in comparison to PFOA in the Southern Ocean. - Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been reported for the Arctic, Atlantic and the Southern Ocean, which improves understanding the fate of PFASs in the global oceans.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - fate and long-range atmospheric transport studied using a global model, EMAC-SVOC

    Octaviani, Mega; Tost, Holger; Lammel, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are emitted by incomplete combustion from fossil fuel, vehicles, and biomass burning. They may persist in environmental compartments, pose a health hazard and may bio accumulate along food chains. The ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model had been used to simulate global tropospheric, stratospheric chemistry and climate. In this study, we improve the model to include simulations of the transport and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC). The EMAC-SVOC model takes into account essential environmental processes including gas-particle partitioning, dry and wet deposition, chemical and bio-degradation, and volatilization from sea surface, soils, vegetation, and snow. The model was evaluated against observational data in the Arctic, mid-latitudes, and tropics, and further applied to study total environmental lifetime and long-range transport potential (LRTP) of PAHs. We selected four compounds for study, spanning a wide range of volatility, i.e., phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Several LRTP indicators were investigated, including the Arctic contamination potential, meridional spreading, and zonal and meridional fluxes to remote regions.

  2. Prediction of overall persistence and long-range transport potential with multimedia fate models: robustness and sensitivity of results

    Fenner, Kathrin; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    The hazard indicators persistence (P) and long-range transport potential (LRTP) are used in chemicals assessment to characterize chemicals with regard to the temporal and spatial extent of their environmental exposure. They are often calculated based on the results of multimedia fate models. The environmental and substance-specific input parameters of such models are subject to a range of methodological uncertainties and also influenced by natural variability. We employed probabilistic uncertainty analysis to quantify variance in P and LRTP predictions for chemicals with different partitioning and transport behavior. Variance found in the results is so large that it prevents a clear distinction between chemicals. Additionally, only small improvements are observed when evaluating the results relative to a benchmark chemical. This can be explained by the dominance of substance-specific parameters and the only small direct influence of environmental parameters on P and LRTP as model outcomes. The findings underline the importance of learning how environmental conditions cause variability in substance behavior for improved substance ranking and classification. - Environmental conditions cause variability in substance behavior which need to be considered in chemical ranking schemes

  3. Long-range atmospheric transport of volatile monocarboxylic acids with Asian dust over a high mountain snow site, central Japan

    T. Mochizuki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand the long-range transport of monocarboxylic acids from the Asian continent to the Japanese islands, we collected snowpack samples from a pit sequence (depth ca. 6 m at the Murodo-Daira snowfield near the summit of Mt. Tateyama, central Japan, in 2009 and 2011. Snow samples (n = 16 were analyzed for normal (C1–C10, branched chain (iC4–iC6, aromatic (benzoic and toluic acid isomers, and hydroxyl (glycolic and lactic monocarboxylic acids, together with inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. Acetic acid (C2 was found to be a dominant species (average 125 ng g−1, followed by formic acid (C1 (85.7 ng g−1 and isopentanoic acid (iC5 (20.0 ng g−1. We found a strong correlation (r =  0.88 between formic plus acetic acids and non-sea-salt Ca2+ that is a proxy of Asian dust. Contributions of total monocarboxylic acids to DOC in 2009 (21.2 ± 11.6 % were higher than that in 2011 (3.75 ± 2.62 %, being consistent with higher intensity of Asian dust in 2009 than in 2011. Formic plus acetic acids also showed a positive correlation (r =  0.90 with benzoic acid that is a tracer of automobile exhaust, indicating that monocarboxylic acids and their precursors are largely emitted from anthropogenic sources in China and/or secondarily produced in the atmosphere by photochemical processing. In addition, the ratio of formic plus acetic acids to nss–Ca2+ (0.27 was significantly higher than those (0.00036–0.0018 obtained for reference dust materials of Chinese loess deposits from the Tengger and Gobi deserts. This result suggests that volatile and semi-volatile organic acids are adsorbed on the alkaline dust particles during long-range atmospheric transport. Entrainment of organic acids by dusts is supported by a good correlation (r = 0.87 between formic plus acetic acids and pH of melt snow samples. Our study suggests that Asian alkaline dusts may be a carrier of volatile monocarboxylic

  4. A Case Study On the Relative Influence of Free Tropospheric Subsidence, Long Range Transport and Local Production in Modulating Ozone Concentrations over Qatar

    Ayoub, Mohammed; Ackermann, Luis; Fountoukis, Christos; Gladich, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) operates a network of air quality monitoring stations (AQMS) around the Doha metropolitan area and an ozonesonde station with regular weekly launches and occasional higher frequency launch experiments (HFLE). Six ozonesondes were launched at 0700 LT/0400 UTC and 1300 LT/1000 UTC over a three day period between 10-12 September, 2013. We present the analysis of the ozonesonde data coupled with regional chemical transport modeling over the same time period using WRF-Chem validated against both the ozonesonde and surface AQMS measurements. The HFLE and modeling show evidence of both subsidence and transboundary transport of ozone during the study period, coupled with a strong sea breeze circulation on the 11th of September resulting in elevated ozone concentrations throughout the boundary layer. The development of the sea breeze during the course of the day and influence of the early morning residual layer versus daytime production is quantified. The almost complete titration of ozone in the morning hours of 11 September, 2013 is attributed to local vehicular emissions of NOx and stable atmospheric conditions prevailing over the Doha area. The relative contribution of long range transport of ozone along the Arabian Gulf coast and local urban emissions are discussed.

  5. Distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances in the Arctic, Atlantic Ocean and Antarctic coast.

    Zhao, Zhen; Xie, Zhiyong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    The global distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated using seawater samples collected from the Greenland Sea, East Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean in 2009-2010. Elevated levels of ΣPFASs were detected in the North Atlantic Ocean with the concentrations ranging from 130 to 650 pg/L. In the Greenland Sea, the ΣPFASs concentrations ranged from 45 to 280 pg/L, and five most frequently detected compounds were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). PFOA (15 pg/L) and PFOS (25-45 pg/L) were occasionally found in the Southern Ocean. In the Atlantic Ocean, the ΣPFASs concentration decreased from 2007 to 2010. The elevated PFOA level that resulted from melting snow and ice in Greenland Sea implies that the Arctic may have been driven by climate change and turned to be a source of PFASs for the marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of winter air pollution episodes using long-range transport modeling in Hangzhou, China, during World Internet Conference, 2015.

    Ni, Zhi-Zhen; Luo, Kun; Zhang, Jun-Xi; Feng, Rui; Zheng, He-Xin; Zhu, Hao-Ran; Wang, Jing-Fan; Fan, Jian-Ren; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2018-05-01

    A winter air pollution episode was observed in Hangzhou, South China, during the Second World Internet Conference, 2015. To study the pollution characteristics and underlying causes, the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model was used to simulate the spatial and temporal evolution of the pollution episode from December 8 to 19, 2015. In addition to scenario simulations, analysis of the atmospheric trajectory and synoptic weather conditions were also performed. The results demonstrated that control measures implemented during the week preceding the conference reduced the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution level to some extent, with a decline in the total PM 2.5 concentration in Hangzhou of 15% (7%-25% daily). Pollutant long-range transport, which occurred due to a southward intrusion of strong cold air driven by the Siberia High, led to severe pollution in Hangzhou on December 15, 2015, accounting for 85% of the PM 2.5 concentration. This study provides new insights into the challenge of winter pollution prevention in Hangzhou. For adequate pollution prevention, more regional collaborations should be fostered when creating policies for northern China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fine-particle sodium tracer for long-range transport of the Kuwaiti oil-fire smoke

    Lowenthal, D.H.; Borys, R.D.; Rogers, C.F.; Chow, J.C.; Stevens, R.K.

    1993-04-23

    Evidence for long-range transport of the Kuwaiti oil-fire smoke during the months following the Persian Gulf War has been more or less indirect. However, more-recent data on the aerosol chemistry of Kuwaiti oil-fire plumes provides a direct link between those fires and aerosols collected at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) during the late spring and summer of 1991. By itself, temporal covariation of fine-particle concentrations of elemental carbon, sulfur, and the noncrustal V/Zn ratio in MLO aerosols suggested a link to large-scale oil-combustion sources, but not necessarily to Kuwait. However, high concentrations of fine-particle (0.1-1.0 microm diameter) NaCl were observed in the 'white' oil-fire plumes over Kuwait during the summer of 1991. In the absence of other demonstratable sources of fine-particle Na, these relationships provide a direct link between the Kuwaiti oil-fires and aerosol composition observed at MLO. (Copyright (c) 1993 American Geophysical Union.)

  8. Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol

    Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Lou, Sijia; Zelenyuk-Imre, Alla; Easter, Richard C.; Corley, Richard A.; Thrall, Brian D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-23

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on ecosystems and human health. Laboratory measurements show that one of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene, which is adsorbed on surfaces of soot particles, reacts very quickly with atmospheric oxidants like ozone within ~2 hours. Yet, field observations indicate that it actually persists for much longer periods in the atmosphere, and this large discrepancy is not well understood. Driven by novel experimental understanding, we develop a new modelling approach, whereby particle-bound BaP is shielded from oxidation by a coating of viscous organic aerosol (OA). We show that application of this new approach in a global climate model leads to higher atmospheric BaP concentrations that agree much better with measurements, compared to the default model, as well as stronger long-range transport and greater deposition fluxes. This new approach also predicts elevated lung-cancer risk from PAHs. Predicted oxidation of BaP is highest over a tropical belt where OA is liquid-like.

  9. Long-range tropospheric transport of uranium and plutonium weapons fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site to Norway.

    Wendel, Cato Christian; Fifield, L Keith; Oughton, Deborah H; Lind, Ole Christian; Skipperud, Lindis; Bartnicki, Jerzy; Tims, Stephen G; Høibråten, Steinar; Salbu, Brit

    2013-09-01

    A combination of state-of-the-art isotopic fingerprinting techniques and atmospheric transport modelling using real-time historical meteorological data has been used to demonstrate direct tropospheric transport of radioactive debris from specific nuclear detonations at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan to Norway via large areas of Europe. A selection of archived air filters collected at ground level at 9 stations in Norway during the most intensive atmospheric nuclear weapon testing periods (1957-1958 and 1961-1962) has been screened for radioactive particles and analysed with respect to the concentrations and atom ratios of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Digital autoradiography screening demonstrated the presence of radioactive particles in the filters. Concentrations of (236)U (0.17-23nBqm(-3)) and (239+240)Pu (1.3-782μBqm(-3)) as well as the atom ratios (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.237) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.7) varied widely indicating several different sources. Filter samples from autumn and winter tended to have lower atom ratios than those sampled in spring and summer, and this likely reflects a tropospheric influence in months with little stratospheric fallout. Very high (236)U, (239+240)Pu and gross beta activity concentrations as well as low (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.077), (241)Pu/(239)Pu (0.00025-0.00062) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.046) atom ratios, characteristic of close-in and tropospheric fallout, were observed in filters collected at all stations in Nov 1962, 7-12days after three low-yield detonations at Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan). Atmospheric transport modelling (NOAA HYSPLIT_4) using real-time meteorological data confirmed that long range transport of radionuclides, and possibly radioactive particles, from Semipalatinsk to Norway during this period was plausible. The present work shows that direct tropospheric transport of fallout from atmospheric nuclear detonations periodically may have

  10. Organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere of Guangzhou and Hong Kong: Regional sources and long-range atmospheric transport

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Guo, Lingli; Xu, Weihai; Li, Xiangdong; Lee, Celine S. L.; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the atmosphere over the period of December 2003-December 2004 at four sampling sites in Guangzhou and Hong Kong. Gas phase and particle phase concentrations of 8 OCP species, including trans-chlordane ( t-CHL), cis-chlordane ( c-CHL), p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDT, α-endosulfan, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), were studied. OCPs were found predominantly in the gas phase in all seasons. t-CHL, c-CHL, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDT and α-endosulfan had significantly ( pGuangzhou could be attributed to the present usage of lindane and dicofol in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. The very high concentrations of p, p'-DDT and α-endosulfan were observed at all sampling sites. The results of 7 days air back trajectory analysis indicated that the unusual high p, p'-DDT levels in summer in both cities could be related to the seasonal usage of DDT containing antifouling paints for fishing ships in the upwind seaports of the region. The high concentrations of α-endosulfan in winter in the study area suggested an atmospheric transport by the winter monsoon from the East China, where endosulfan is being used as insecticide in cotton fields. The consistency of the seasonal variation of concentrations and isomeric ratios of DDTs and α-endosulfan with the alternation of winter monsoon and summer monsoon suggested that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in the long-range atmospheric transport of OCPs.

  11. Evaluation of long-range transport potential of selected brominated flame retardants with measured 1-octanol-air partition coefficients

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kwon, Jung Hwan [Div. of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Various alternative flame retardants are used in many countries since polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, difficulties in the evaluation of the long-range transport potential (LRTP) of the alternatives are related to the lack of information on their physicochemical properties, which govern their environmental fates and transport. Based on the simulation of LRTP using OECD P{sub OV} and LRTP Screening Tool, five alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (hexabromobenzene [HBB], 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene [PBT], 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethylbenzene [PBEB], 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate [TBB], and 1,2,4,5-tetrabromo-3,6-dimethylbenzene [TBX]), and 3 PBDEs (BDE-28, BDE-47, and BDE-99) were chosen to perform a refined assessment. This was done using an experimentally measured 1-octanol–air partition coefficient (K{sub OA}) for the calculation of the air–water partition coefficient (K{sub AW}) required for the model. The four selected alternative BFRs (HBB, PBT, PBEB, TBX) have K{sub OA} values close to the in silico estimation used in the screening evaluation. On the other hand, the measured K{sub OA} value for TBB was two orders of magnitude lower than the estimated value used in the screening simulation. The refined simulation showed that characteristic travel distance (CTD) and transfer efficiency (TE) for HBB, PBT, PBEB, and TBX were greater than those for BDE-28, whereas CTD and TE for TBB were lower than those for BDE-28. This suggested that TBB has a lower LRTP than BDE-28, considering the refined partition coefficients.

  12. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2010. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Sandmo, Trond (ed.)

    2010-06-15

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency (Klif) and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emissions models like e.g. the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2010) for documentation on this topic. This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model, (Sandmo 2009), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: Emissions of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from well testing of crude oil off shore have been included - these have previously not been estimated Emissions of CH{sub 4} from enteric fermentation have increased for the whole

  13. Impact of Convection and Long Range Transport on Short-Lived Trace Gases in the UT/LS

    Atlas, E. L.; Schauffler, S.; Navarro, M. A.; Lueb, R.; Hendershot, R.; Ueyama, R.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical composition of the air in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere is controlled by a balance of transport, photochemistry, and physical processes, such as interactions with clouds, ice, and aerosol. The chemistry of the air masses that reach the upper troposphere can potentially have profound impacts on the chemistry in the near tropopause region. For example, the transport of reactive organic halogens and their transformation to inorganic halogen species, e.g., Br, BrO, etc., can have a significant impact on ozone budgets in this region and even deeper the stratosphere. Trace gas measurements in the region near the tropopause can also indicate potential sources of surface emissions that are transported to high altitudes. Measurement of trace gases, including such compounds as non-methane hydrocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, halogenated solvents, methyl halides, etc., can be used to characterize source emissions from industrial, urban, biomass burning, or marine origins. Recent airborne research campaigns have been conducted to better characterize the chemical composition and variations in the UT/LS region. This presentation will discuss these measurements, with a special emphasis on the role of convection and transport in modifying the chemical composition of the UT/LS.

  14. Simulation of long-range transport aerosols from the Asian Continent to Taiwan by a southward Asian high-pressure system.

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Fu, Joshua S; Jang, Carey J; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Ni, Pei-Cheng; Lee, Chung-Te

    2008-11-15

    Aerosol is frequently transported by a southward high-pressure system from the Asian Continent to Taiwan and had been recorded a 100% increase in mass level compared to non-event days from 2002 to 2005. During this time period, PM2.5 sulfate was found to increase as high as 155% on event days as compared to non-event days. In this study, Asian emission estimations, Taiwan Emission Database System (TEDS), and meteorological simulation results from the fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) were used as inputs for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate a long-range transport of PM2.5 event in a southward high-pressure system from the Asian Continent to Taiwan. The simulation on aerosol mass level and the associated aerosol components were found within a reasonable accuracy. During the transport process, the percentage of semi-volatile PM2.5 organic carbon in PM2.5 plume only slightly decreased from 22-24% in Shanghai to 21% near Taiwan. However, the percentage of PM2.5 nitrate in PM2.5 decreased from 16-25% to 1%. In contrast, the percentage of PM2.5 sulfate in PM2.5 increased from 16-19% to 35%. It is interesting to note that the percentage of PM2.5 ammonium and PM2.5 elemental carbon in PM2.5 remained nearly constant. Simulation results revealed that transported pollutants dominate the air quality in Taipei when the southward high-pressure system moved to Taiwan. Such condition demonstrates the dynamic chemical transformation of pollutants during the transport process from continental origin over the sea area and to the downwind land.

  15. Natural Radioactivity Accumulated in the Arctic from Long-range Atmospheric Transport - Observations in Canadian Monitoring Stations

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Weihua [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In the environment, the main sources of naturally occurring radionuclides come from radionuclides in the uranium decay series. Activity concentrations of uranium decay series radionuclides may vary considerably from place to place depending on the geological characteristics at the location. Their releases to the atmosphere are mainly through radon ({sup 222}Rn), a radioactive noble gas occurring naturally as an indirect decay product of uranium in soils and rocks. Due to the abundance of uranium, radon continuously emanates from continental land masses. With radon as the main source of naturally occurring radioactivity in the environment, one would think that the Arctic should be an area of low background radiation, because a considerable area of the Arctic is covered by glaciers and permafrost, and radon emanation rate has been reported to be negligible from those glacier and permafrost areas. However, available data have shown the opposite. The elevated level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the Arctic is due to natural sources outside of the Arctic, mainly through long-range atmospheric transport of radon and radon progeny. In some cases, natural radioactivity can accumulate to relatively high levels and become a health concern or a limiting factor of country food consumption. By definition, contaminants are undesirable substances which can cause harm to the environment, the biota, and humans. We can call these naturally accumulating radiological burdens to the Arctic 'natural contaminants' to distinguish them from the traditional meaning of contamination, the 'artificial contaminants' which are attributable to industrial or man-made sources. This paper reviews information available in the literature, analyses long-term atmospheric monitoring data in the Canadian high Arctic, sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites, and provides discussion on research needed to address questions, such as how heavily the Arctic has been impacted by the

  16. Long-range Transported African Dust in the Caribbean Region: Dust Concentrations and Water-soluble Ions

    Santos-Figueroa, G.; Avilés-Piñeiro, G. M.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2017-12-01

    Long-range transported African dust (LRTAD) particles reach the Caribbean region every year during the summer months causing an increase in PM10 concentrations and by consequence degradation of air quality. During African dust (AD) incursions at the Caribbean region, PM10 concentration could exceeds the exposure limit of 50 µg/m³ 24-hour mean established by the World Health Organization (WHO). To have a better understanding of the impacts of AD particles to climate and public health at the Caribbean region it is necessary to study and determine the spatial and temporal distribution of dust particles. In order to address this, aerosols samples were collected during and absence of AD incursions during the summer of 2017 using a Hi-Volume (Hi-Vol) sampler for total suspended particles (TSP) at two sampling stations in Puerto Rico. The first station is a marine site located at Cabezas de San Juan (CSJ) Nature Reserve in Fajardo, and the second station is an urban site located at the Facundo Bueso (FB) building at the University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras. Aerosol samples were collected using Whatman 41 grade filters from which we determined the concentration of dust particles and the water-soluble ions (e.g., Na+, NH4+, Ca+2, Cl-, SO4-2) in the presence and absence of LRTAD particles. Saharan Air Layer (SAL) imagery, the results from the air mass backward trajectories calculated with the NOAA Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), and the spectral coefficients from measurements at CSJ were used to monitor and confirm the presence of air masses coming from North Africa. Average dust concentrations using the Stacked-Filter Units (SFUs) at CSJ are around 4 μg/m3. LRTAD concentrations and ionic speciation results using the Hi-Vol for the marine and urban sites will be presented at the conference.

  17. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    J. Sciare

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term (5-year measurements of Elemental Carbon (EC and Organic Carbon (OC in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island. A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques was applied for these EC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols were shown to poorly contribute (+12% on a yearly average to light absorption coefficient (babs measurements performed by an optical method (aethalometer. Long-range transport of agricultural waste burning from European countries surrounding the Black Sea was shown for each year during two periods (March–April and July–September. The contribution of biomass burning to the concentrations of EC and OC was shown to be rather small (20 and 14%, respectively, on a yearly basis, although this contribution could be much higher on a monthly basis and showed important seasonal and interannual variability. By removing the biomass burning influence, our data revealed an important seasonal variation of OC, with an increase by almost a factor of two for the spring months of May and June, whereas BC was found to be quite stable throughout the year. Preliminary measurements of Water Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC have shown that the monthly mean WSOC/OC ratio remains stable throughout the year (0.45±0.12, suggesting that the partitioning between water soluble and water insoluble organic matter is not significantly affected by biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. A chemical mass closure performed in the fine mode (Aerodynamic Diameter, A.D.<1.5μm showed that the mass contribution of organic matter (POM was found to be essentially invariable during the year (monthly average of 26±5%.

  18. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    Sciare, J.; Oikonomou, K.; Favez, O.; Cachier, H.; Liakakou, E.; Markaki, Z.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term (5-year) measurements of Elemental Carbon (EC) and Organic Carbon (OC) in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island). A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques) was applied for these EC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols were shown to poorly contribute (+12% on a yearly average) to light absorption coefficient (b(abs)) measurements performed by an optical method (aethalometer). Long-range transport of agricultural waste burning from European countries surrounding the Black Sea was shown for each year during two periods (March-April and July-September). The contribution of biomass burning to the concentrations of EC and OC was shown to be rather small (20 and 14%, respectively, on a yearly basis), although this contribution could be much higher on a monthly basis and showed important seasonal and inter annual variability. By removing the biomass burning influence, our data revealed an important seasonal variation of OC, with an increase by almost a factor of two for the spring months of May and June, whereas BC was found to be quite stable throughout the year. Preliminary measurements of Water Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC) have shown that the monthly mean WSOC/ OC ratio remains stable throughout the year (0.45 ± 0.12), suggesting that the partitioning between water soluble and water insoluble organic matter is not significantly affected by biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. A chemical mass closure performed in the fine mode (Aerodynamic Diameter, A. D.≤ 1.5 μm) showed that the mass contribution of organic matter (POM) was found to be essentially invariable during the year (monthly average of 26 ± 5%). (authors)

  19. The impact of local winds and long-range transport on the continuous carbon dioxide record at Mount Waliguan, China

    Lingxi Zhou; Jie Tang; Yupu Wen; Peng Yan; Jinlong Li

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the continuous measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mt. Waliguan (36 deg 17 min N, 100 deg 54 min E, 3816 m asl) in western China over the period 1994-2000. The CO 2 hourly mixing ratios were segregated by horizontal wind direction/speed and vertical winds, respectively, merged by season over the entire measurement period. The short-term variability in CO 2 was examined mainly from the point of view of local winds observed at this station and isobaric back trajectory cluster-concentration analysis as for local and long-range transport influence, to permit the selection of hourly average data that is representative of background conditions. From the selected hourly data, daily, monthly and annual averages that are not influenced by local CO 2 sources and sinks be computed by discriminating the local and regional impact on the Waliguan CO 2 records. On the basis of these results, background CO 2 data were then analyzed to evaluate the averaged diurnal variation, monthly mean time series, CO 2 mixing ratio distribution in different seasons as well as averaged seasonal cycle. Annual mean and growth rate of CO 2 at Waliguan during the period of 1991 to 2000 were further discussed by supplement with NOAA/CMDL flask air sampling records at this station and other monitoring stations located at similar latitudinal band in the Northern Hemisphere. The results from this study can provide atmospheric CO 2 characteristics in Asian inland regions, and be used in other studies to improve the understanding of carbon source and sink distributions

  20. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2012. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Sandmo, Trond (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry) is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2012) for documentation on this topic.This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2011), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: Minor NOx emissions from production of rock wool, which previously not have been estimated, have been included, Some factors for estimation of N2O from agriculture have been altered

  1. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2012. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Sandmo, Trond [ed.

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry) is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2012) for documentation on this topic.This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2011), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: Minor NOx emissions from production of rock wool, which previously not have been estimated, have been included, Some factors for estimation of N2O from agriculture have been altered, The

  2. Dissolved iron anomaly in the deep tropical-subtropical Pacific: Evidence for long-range transport of hydrothermal iron

    Wu, Jingfeng; Wells, Mark L.; Rember, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved iron profiles along a north-south transect along 158°W in the tropical Pacific show evidence of two deepwater anomalies. The first extends from Station ALOHA (22.78°N) to the equator at ˜1000-1500 m and lies below the maximum apparent oxygen utilization and nutrient (N, P) concentrations. The feature is not supported by vertical export processes, but instead corresponds with the lateral dilution field of δ 3He derived from the Loihi seamount, Hawaii, though a sediment source associated with the Hawaiian Island Chain cannot be entirely ruled out. The second, deeper (2000-3000 m) anomaly occurs in tropical South Pacific waters (7°S) and also does not correlate with the depths of maximum nutrient concentrations or apparent oxygen utilization, but it does coincide closely with δ 3He emanating from the East Pacific Rise, more than 5000 km to the east. We hypothesize that these anomalies represent the long-range (>2000 km) transport of hydrothermal iron residuals, stabilized against scavenging by complexation with excess organic ligands in the plume source regions. Such trace leakage of hydrothermal iron to distal plume regions would have been difficult to identify in most hydrothermal vent mapping studies because low analytical detection limits were not needed for the proximal plume regions. These findings suggest that hydrothermal activity may represent a major source of dissolved iron throughout the South Pacific deep basin today, as well as other regions having high mid-ocean spreading rates in the geologic past. In particular, we hypothesize that high spreading rates along the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean mid-oceanic ridges, combined with the upwelling ventilation of these distal hydrothermal plumes, may have increased ocean productivity and carbon export in the Southern Ocean. Assessing the magnitude and persistence of dissolved hydrothermal iron in basin scale deep waters will be important for understanding the marine biogeochemistry of iron

  3. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2011. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Sandmo, Trond

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2011b) for documentation on this topic. This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2010), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: To define the different economic sectors in the Norwegian emission model, the standard industrial classification SIC2007 has replaced the previous SIC2002 (Appendix F) A new model for calculating emissions to air (HBEFA

  4. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2011. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Sandmo, Trond

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2011b) for documentation on this topic. This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2010), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: To define the different economic sectors in the Norwegian emission model, the standard industrial classification SIC2007 has replaced the previous SIC2002 (Appendix F) A new model for calculating emissions to air (HBEFA) from

  5. Long range transport of smoke particles from Canadian forest fires to the Mediterranean basin during June 2013

    Di Iorio, T.; Anello, F.; Bommarito, C.; Cacciani, M.; Denjean, C.; De Silvestri, L.; Di Biagio, C.; di Sarra, A.; Ellul, R.; Formenti, P.; Gómez-Amo, J.; Martinez-Lozano, J. A.; Meloni, D.; Monteleone, F.; Pace, G.; Piacentino, S.; Schioppo, R.; Sferlazzo, D.

    2013-12-01

    23, as also revealed by MODIS, OMI, and CALIOP images and data. The circulation systems of those days was favorable to the long range eastward transport of these aerosol plumes towards Europe, down to the Mediterranean Sea. A further confirmation of the advection of Canadian airmasses over the Mediterranean central region during this period is provided by measurements made at Gozo. The Gozo AERONET Cimel data analysis on June 27 shows a single scattering albedo with spectral characteristics typical of biomass burning, with the contribution of fine particles to the total AOD growing progressively up to 92% in the early afternoon. At Capo Granitola the AOD peaked at about 0.8 in the late afternoon of June 27, with elevated values (> 2) of the AE. The ATR42 overflew the area on those days and additional observational evidence will be sought in its data.

  6. Processes Influencing Ozone Levels in Alaskan Forest Fires Plumes during Long-Range Transport over the North Atlantic

    Real, E.; Law, K. S.; Wienzierl, B.; Fiebig, M.; Petzold, A.; Wild, O.; Methven, J.; Arnold, S.; Stohl, A.; Huntrieser, H.; hide

    2006-01-01

    A case of long-range transport of a biomass burning plume from Alaska to Europe is analyzed using a Lagrangian approach. This plume was sampled several times in the free troposphere over North America, the North Atlantic and Europe by 3 different aircraft during the IGAC Lagrangian 2K4 experiment which was part of the ICARTT/ITOP measurement intensive in summer 2004. Measurements in the plume showed enhanced values of CO, VOCs and NOy, mainly in form of PAN. Observed O3 levels increased by 17 ppbv over 5 days. A photochemical trajectory model, CiTTyCAT, is used to examine processes responsible for the chemical evolution of the plume. The model was initialized with upwind data, and compared with downwind measurements. The influence of high aerosol loading on photolysis rates in the plume is investigated using in-situ aerosol measurements in the plume and lidar retrievals of optical depth as input into a photolysis code (Fast-J), run in the model. Significant impacts on photochemistry are found with a decrease of 18 percent in O3 production and 24 percent in O3 destruction over 5 days when including aerosols. The plume is found to be chemically active with large O3 increases attributed primarily to PAN decomposition during descent of the plume towards Europe. The predicted O3 changes are very dependent on temperature changes during transport, and also, on water vapor levels in the lower troposphere which can lead to O3 destruction. Simulation of mixing/dilution was necessary to reproduce observed pollutants level in the plume. Mixing was simulated using background concentrations from measurements in air masses in close proximity to the plume, and mixing timescales (averaging 6.25 days) were derived from CO changes. Observed and simulated O3/CO correlations in the plume are also compared in order to evaluate the photochemistry in the model. Observed slopes changed from negative to positive over 5 days. This change, which can be attributed largely to photochemistry, is

  7. Influence of long-range atmospheric transportation (LRAT) on mono-to octa-chlorinated PCDD/Fs levels and distributions in soil around Qinghai Lake, China

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2016-01-01

    Long-range atmospheric transportation (LRAT) of persistent organic pollutants followed by their deposition in cold, arid regions is of wide concern. This problem occurs at Qinghai Lake in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, a sparsely populated area with extreme weather conditions and little curren...

  8. Effects of long-range transported acidification on the bio-diversity in terrestrial ecosystems; Effekter av langtransporterte forsuringer paa biodiversitet i terrestriske oekosystemer

    Hoeiland, K [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the environmental effects of long-range transported pollutants on the biodiversity in the terrestrial ecosystems. The paper discusses different chemical substances existing in the atmosphere and their influence on vegetation together with the effects on biodiversity from acidification. 4 refs.

  9. Long-range transported dissolved organic matter, ions and black carbon deposited on Central Asian snow covered glaciers

    Schmale, Julia; Kang, Shichang; Peltier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ninety percent of the Central Asian population depend on water precipitated in the mountains stored in glaciers and snow cover. Accelerated melting of the snow and ice can be induced by the deposition of airborne impurities such as mineral dust, black carbon and co-emitted species leading to significant reductions of the surface albedo. However, Central Asia is a relatively understudied region and data on the source regions, chemical and microphysical characteristics as well as modelling studies of long-range transported air pollution and dust to the Tien Shan mountains is very scarce. We studied the atmospheric aerosol deposited most likely between summer 2012 and summer 2013on three different glaciers in the Kyrgyz Republic. Samples were taken from four snow pits on the glaciers Abramov (2 pits, 39.59 °N, 71.56 °E, 4390 m elevation, 240 cm deep, and 39.62°N, 71.52 °E, 4275 m elevation, 125 cm deep), Ak-Shiirak (41.80 °N, 78.18 °E, 4325 m elevation, 75 cm deep) and Suek (41.78 °N, 77.75 °E, 4341 m elevation, 200 cm deep). The latter two glaciers are located roughly within 6 and 38 km of an operating gold mine. The snow was analyzed for black carbon, ions, metals and organic carbon. We here focus on the results of inorganic ion measurements and organic carbon speciation based on analysis with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and potential pollution sources that can be deduced from the chemical information as well as back trajectories. Average contributions of snow impurities measured by the HR-ToF-AMS were dominated by organic carbon. Relative concentrations of organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in snow were 86 %, 3 %, 9 % and 2 % respectively for Abramov, 92 %, 1 %, 5 % and 1 % for Suek, and 95 %, 1 %, 3 % and 1 % for Ak-Shiirak. Generally, impurities on Suek and Ak-Shiirak were three and five times higher than on Abramov. Mass concentrations of organic carbon were on average 6 times higher in samples

  10. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Yi, Kan; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George; Zhang, Jiachen; Tao, Wei; Cheng, Yanli; Tao, Shu

    2017-07-01

    The response of surface ozone (O3) concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR) analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage between basin-scale SST

  11. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    K. Yi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of surface ozone (O3 concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM. Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage

  12. Analyses of the long-range transport of nitrogeneous species through the atmosphere from the Asian continent using observational data at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, and CMAQ postanalyses

    Sadanaga, Y.; Bandow, H.; Uno, I.; Sera, T.; Yuba, A.; Takenaka, N.; Takami, A.; Kurokawa, J.; Hatakeyama, S.

    2010-12-01

    The long-term monitoring of air quality has been continuing at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa, Japan in terms of assessing the environmental impact and biogeochemical effect to the marine-surface activities by the economic growth of Asian continent. Among the monitoring data, total odd nitrogen oxides (NOy), HNO3, particulate nitrate (NO3-(p)), NH3, NH4+ and SO42- were analyzed for the period from 16 March to 13 April 2008 as well as the postanalyses of those species by the Community Muti-scale Air Quality model (CMAQ) of those species. NOy and total nitrate (TN = HNO3 + NO3-(p)) concentrations from China (CH) air mass origin were high during the observational period in both observed and model-calculated result. The long-range transport of odd nitrogen species from the Asian continent is supported with respect to both the CMAQ postanalyses and the observations. HNO3 and NO3-(p) concentrations from CH air mass origin were also high during the observational period. However, the HNO3 diurnal variation with daytime peak and nighttime lows suggests that HNO3 around the CHAAMS forms photochemically in situ or in areas relatively close to the CHAAMS. The maximum and minimum concentrations of NH3 were observed at Pacific Ocean (PO) and Middle China air mass origins, respectively, and the observed NH3 concentrations from PO air mass origin were highest. NH3 concentration calculated by the CMAQ failed to reproduce observed variation, this is because the horizontal resolution of CMAQ (-20km) is not sufficient to allocate the land surface/vegetation base NH3 emission. NH4+ and SO42- concentrations from CH air mass origin were high during the observational period for both the observation and the CMAQ calculation. As well as the case of NOy and TN, the long-range transport of ammonium and sulfur compounds from the Asian continent is also supported in terms of both the CMAQ postanalyses and the observations.

  13. European Union emission inventory report 1990 - 2011 under the UNECE convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    Under the LRTAP Convention, Parties (including the European Union) are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur oxides (SO{sub X}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), primary particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}), heavy metals (among which lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg)) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (among which polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). This report describes: 1) the institutional arrangements that underpin the European Union's emission inventory; 2) emission trends for the EU-27 as a whole, and individual Member States, and the contribution made by important individual emission sources to emissions; 3) sector emission trends for key pollutants; 4) information on recalculations and future planned improvements. Emissions data presented in this report are included as accompanying annexes and are also available for direct download through the EEA's dataservice. (LN)

  14. European Union emission inventory report 1990 - 2010 under the UNECE convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    2012-07-15

    Under the LRTAP Convention, Parties (including the European Union) are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur oxides (SO{sub X}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), primary particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}), heavy metals (among which lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg)) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (among which polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). This report describes: 1) the institutional arrangements that underpin the European Union's emission inventory; 2) emission trends for the EU.27 as a whole, and individual Member States, and the contribution made by important individual emission sources to emissions; 3) sector emission trends for key pollutants; 4) information on recalculations and future planned improvements. Emissions data presented in this report are included as accompanying annexes and are also available for direct download through the EEA's dataservice. (LN)

  15. European Union emission inventory report 1990 - 2009 under the UNECE convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    2011-05-15

    Under the LRTAP Convention, Parties (including the European Union) are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), sulphur oxides (SO{sub X}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), primary particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}), heavy metals (among which lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg)) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (among which polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)). This report describes: 1) the institutional arrangements that underpin the European Union's emission inventory; 2) emission trends for the EU.27 as a whole (2), and individual Member States, and the contribution made by important individual emission sources to emissions; 3) sector emission trends for key pollutants; 4) information on recalculations and future planned improvements. Emissions data presented in this report are included as accompanying annexes and are also available for direct download through the EEA's dataservice. (LN)

  16. The use of the long-range alpha detector (LRAD) for alpha emission surveys at active and inactive firing sites

    Mason, C.F.V.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Garner, S.E.; Walter, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Surveys were carried out at five different firing sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure residual alpha emissions in earth contaminated with natural and depleted uranium. This contamination is caused by controlled experimental explosions during testing of the non fissile components of nuclear weapons. Two conclusions were reached: the first is that post shot clearing of the experimental areas is effective at removing contamination and the second is that the diminution of alpha emissions due to aging is small

  17. Investigating the influence of long-range transport on surface O{sub 3} in Nevada, USA, using observations from multiple measurement platforms

    Fine, Rebekka, E-mail: rebekkafine@gmail.com [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Miller, Matthieu B. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T. [Atmospheric Science Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gustin, Mae Sexauer, E-mail: mgustin@cabnr.unr.edu [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The current United States (US) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O{sub 3} (75 ppb) is expected to be revised to between 60 and 70 ppb. As the NAAQS becomes more stringent, characterizing the extent of O{sub 3} and precursors transported into the US is increasingly important. Given the high elevation, complex terrain, and location in the Intermountain West, the State of Nevada is ideally situated to intercept air transported into the US. Until recently, measurements of O{sub 3} and associated pollutants were limited to areas in and around the cities of Las Vegas and Reno. In 2011, the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative began and through this project 13 surface monitoring sites were established. Also in 2011, the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) began making routine aircraft measurements of O{sub 3} and other greenhouse gases in Nevada. The availability of aircraft and surface measurements in a relatively rural, remote setting in the Intermountain West presented a unique opportunity to investigate sources contributing to the O{sub 3} observed in Nevada. Our analyses indicate that stratosphere to troposphere transport, long-range transport of Asian pollution, and regional emissions from urban areas and wildfires influence surface observations. The complexity of sources identified here along with the fact that O{sub 3} frequently approaches the threshold being considered for a revised NAAQS indicate that interstate and international cooperation will be necessary to achieve compliance with a more stringent regulatory standard. Further, on a seasonal basis we found no significant difference between daily 1-h maximum O{sub 3} at surface sites, which ranged in elevation from 888 to 2307 m, and aircraft measurements of O{sub 3} < 2500 m which suggests that similar processes influence daytime O{sub 3} across rural Nevada and indicates that column measurements from Railroad Valley, NV are useful in understanding these processes. - Highlights:

  18. Can the confidence in long range atmospheric transport models be increased? The pan European experience of ensemble

    Galmarini, S.; Bianconi, R.; Mikkelsen, T.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In the unfortunate event of an accidental release of radioactive material to the environment, the first concern for early-phase emergency response is atmospheric dispersion. For this purpose, several countries worldwide use operational Long Range Atmospheric Transport (LRAT) models to produce predictions of the event evolution over the continental scale to determine whether, when and how the radioactive cloud is going to hit their country. While presenting the multi-model ensemble dispersion forecast system (ENSEMBLE), the paper seeks to answer the following questions: is atmospheric dispersion forecasting an important asset of the early-phase emergency response management?; Is there a 'Perfect Atmospheric Dispersion Model'?; Is there a way to make the results of dispersion models more reliable and trustworthy? Several activities conducted during the 1990's, sought to estimate quantitatively the capability of LRAT models to forecast the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere. The results obtained clearly demonstrated that: the predictions of the various operational LRAT models used worldwide do not systematically agree (mainly due to conceptual differences in model structure and differences in the meteorological forecasts used to simulate the dispersion); none of the models used in the various countries is better than others under all circumstances and therefore there is no objective indication that shows one or few models to be the 'perfect model/s'. Given the realistic scenario that an accident can take place any time, any national authority is however faced with the practical need of managing the emergency and therefore with the dilemma: 'shall one rely an a LRAT model or only an the now cast provided by a monitoring network?' and 'to what extent are a model predictions going to be deceptive in the decision making process?' Since it goes without saying that even a vague idea an the future evolution of a dispersion process is better

  19. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with a long-range transported biomass burning plume

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L. J.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2015-05-01

    that the aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory had undergone cloud processing before reaching the site. Finally, the air masses of 9/25 were more aged and influenced by marine emissions, as indicated by the presence of organosulfates and other species characteristic of marine aerosol. The change in the air masses for the two samples was corroborated by the changes in ethane, propane, and ozone, morphology of particles, as well as by the FLEXPART retroplume simulations. This paper presents the first detailed molecular characterization of free tropospheric aged aerosol intercepted at a lower free troposphere remote location and provides evidence of low oxygenation after long-range transport. We hypothesize this is a result of the selective removal of highly aged and polar species during long-range transport, because the aerosol underwent a combination of atmospheric processes during transport facilitating aqueous-phase removal (e.g., clouds processing) and fragmentation (e.g., photolysis) of components.

  20. Long-range transport of gaseous 131I and other radionuclides from Fukushima accident to Southern Poland

    Mietelski, Jerzy W.; Kierepko, Renata; Brudecki, Kamil; Janowski, Paweł; Kleszcz, Krzysztof; Tomankiewicz, Ewa

    2014-07-01

    A serious accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi NPP triggered radioactive emission to the atmosphere on 12 March 2011. The results of gamma spectrometric measurements of both gaseous and aerosol fraction of the air, collected in Krakow over the period from March 21 till the end of May 2011, as well as wet and dry deposition recorded from March till the end of October 2011, are presented in this paper. Krakow happened to be the first Polish location where radioactive isotopes characteristic for reactor releases, such as 131I, 132I, 129mTe, 132Te, 134Cs, 136Cs, and 137Cs, were detected. The maximum activity for aerosols equal to (5.73 ± 0.35) mBq/m3, (0.461 ± 0.041) mBq/m3 and (0.436 ± 0.038) mBq/m3 for 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs, respectively, was recorded for March 29, 2011. The data on the fallout are also given. The results of the radiochemical analysis of aerosol samples showed no traces of plutonium or americium isotopes associated with the disaster to be detected. The results of air activity concentration from Fukushima accident observed in Central Europe, Poland, in comparison to those of Chernobyl accident observed in Japan are presented and discussed. The comparison has revealed a discrepancy in the recognized relative scale of both accidents, and important difference in long distance transport of contamination, to exist. An attempt to explain the variation in the activity ratios between the aerosol fraction for 131I and 137Cs as resulting from exchange between the gaseous and aerosol fractions of 131I while the contamination had been propagating, is made.

  1. Areal-averaged trace gas emission rates from long-range open-path measurements in stable boundary layer conditions

    K. Schäfer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of land-surface emission rates of greenhouse and other gases at large spatial scales (10 000 m2 are needed to assess the spatial distribution of emissions. This can be readily done using spatial-integrating micro-meteorological methods like flux-gradient methods which were evaluated for determining land-surface emission rates of trace gases under stable boundary layers. Non-intrusive path-integrating measurements are utilized. Successful application of a flux-gradient method requires confidence in the gradients of trace gas concentration and wind, and in the applicability of boundary-layer turbulence theory; consequently the procedures to qualify measurements that can be used to determine the flux is critical. While there is relatively high confidence in flux measurements made under unstable atmospheres with mean winds greater than 1 m s−1, there is greater uncertainty in flux measurements made under free convective or stable conditions. The study of N2O emissions of flat grassland and NH3 emissions from a cattle lagoon involves quality-assured determinations of fluxes under low wind, stable or night-time atmospheric conditions when the continuous "steady-state" turbulence of the surface boundary layer breaks down and the layer has intermittent turbulence. Results indicate that following the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST flux-gradient methods that assume a log-linear profile of the wind speed and concentration gradient incorrectly determine vertical profiles and thus flux in the stable boundary layer. An alternative approach is considered on the basis of turbulent diffusivity, i.e. the measured friction velocity as well as height gradients of horizontal wind speeds and concentrations without MOST correction for stability. It is shown that this is the most accurate of the flux-gradient methods under stable conditions.

  2. Effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India: A study using satellite data and model simulations

    Vijayakumar, K.; Safai, P. D.; Devara, P. C. S.; Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning in the tropics is a major source of the global atmospheric aerosols and monitoring their long-range transport is an important element in climate change studies. In this paper, we study the effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India during a smoke event that occurred between 09 and 17 November 2013, with the help of satellite measurements and model simulation data. Satellite data observations on aerosol properties suggested transport of particles from agriculture crop residue burning in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) over large regions. Additionally, ECMWF winds at 850 hPa have been used to trace the source, path and spatial extent of smoke events. Most of the smoke aerosols, during the study period, travel from a west-to-east pathway from the source-to-sink region. Furthermore, aerosol vertical profiles from CALIPSO show a layer of thick smoke extending from surface to an altitude of about 3 km. Smoke aerosols emitted from biomass burning activity from Punjab have been found to be a major contributor to the deterioration of local air quality over the NE Indian region due to their long range transport.

  3. Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution vs. long-range transported dust

    J. Fan; L. R. Leung; P. J. DeMott; J. M. Comstock; B. Singh; D. Rosenfeld; J. M. Tomlinson; A. White; K. A. Prather; P. Minnis; J. K. Ayers; Q. Min

    2013-01-01

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter/spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical mode...

  4. Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust

    Fan, J.; Leung, L. R.; DeMott, P. J.; Comstock, J. M.; Singh, B.; Rosenfeld, D.; Tomlinson, J. M.; White, A.; Prather, K. A.; Minnis, P.; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and the Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical mod...

  5. A new approach to the combination of IBA techniques and wind back trajectory data to determine source contributions to long range transport of fine particle air pollution

    Cohen, David D., E-mail: dcz@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Crawford, Jagoda; Stelcer, Eduard; Atanacio, Armand [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2012-02-15

    A new approach to link HYSPLIT back trajectories to the source of fine particle pollution as characterised by standard IBA techniques is discussed. The example of the long range transport of desert dust from inland Australia across the eastern coast is used to show that over a 10-year period extreme soil events originated from major agricultural regions some 30% of the time and that dust from known deserts are not always the problem.

  6. Rehearsal for Assessment of atmospheric optical Properties during biomass burning Events and Long-range transportation episodes at Metropolitan Area of São Paulo-Brazil (RAPEL)

    Lopes, Fábio J. S.; Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Juan; Benavent-Oltra, Jose A.; Román, Roberto; Moreira, Gregori A.; Marques, Marcia T. A.; da Silva, Jonatan J.; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Artaxo, Paulo; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    During the period of August-September 2016 an intensive campaign was carried out to assess aerosol properties in São Paulo-Brazil aiming to detect long-range aerosol transport events and to characterize the instrument regarding data quality. Aerosol optical properties retrieved by the GALION - LALINET SPU lidar station and collocated AERONET sunphotometer system are presented as extinction/ backscatter vertical profiles with microphysical products retrieved with GRASP inversion algorithm.

  7. Trapped-ion quantum simulation of excitation transport: Disordered, noisy, and long-range connected quantum networks

    Trautmann, N.; Hauke, P.

    2018-02-01

    The transport of excitations governs fundamental properties of matter. Particularly rich physics emerges in the interplay between disorder and environmental noise, even in small systems such as photosynthetic biomolecules. Counterintuitively, noise can enhance coherent quantum transport, which has been proposed as a mechanism behind the high transport efficiencies observed in photosynthetic complexes. This effect has been called "environment-assisted quantum transport". Here, we propose a quantum simulation of the excitation transport in an open quantum network, taking advantage of the high controllability of current trapped-ion experiments. Our scheme allows for the controlled study of various different aspects of the excitation transfer, ranging from the influence of static disorder and interaction range, over the effect of Markovian and non-Markovian dephasing, to the impact of a continuous insertion of excitations. Our paper discusses experimental error sources and realistic parameters, showing that it can be implemented in state-of-the-art ion-chain experiments.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of radioactive contaminant transport in fractured geologic media: Disorder and long-range correlations

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Cushman, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The geologic media near Yucca mountain site consist of fractured welded tuffs along with less fractured unwelded tuff. Numerical simulation of flow and transport in such media poses a number of challenging problems, due mainly to the heterogeneities and disorder in the media. In addition, because of different dominant transport mechanisms in different regions of the media, investigations need to be carried out at different time-scales. Time-marching will pose a considerable problem in analyzing such multi-scale transient problems. The authors develop a field-scale network model of fractures and study transport of radionuclides through geologic media as a function of disorder and correlated fracture-permeabilities

  9. Influence of Intense secondary aerosol formation and long range transport on aerosol chemistry and properties in the Seoul Metropolitan Area during spring time: Results from KORUS-AQ

    Kim, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Non-refractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was measured in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea, using an HR-ToF-AMS from April 14 to June 15, 2016, as a part of the KORUS-AQ campaign. The average concentration of PM1 was 22.1 µg m-3, which was composed of 44% organics, 20% SO4, 17% NO3, and 12 % NH4. Organics had an average O/C ratio of 0.49 and an average OM/OC ratio of 1.82. Four distinct sources of OA were identified via PMF analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data: hydrocarbon like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA),semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and a low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Our results indicate that air quality in SMA during KORUS-AQ was influenced strongly by secondary aerosol formation with SO4, NO3, NH4, SV-OOA, and LV-OOA together accounting for 76% of the PM1 mass. Due to high temperature and elevated ozone concentrations, photochemical reactions during daytime promoted the formation of SV-OOA, LV-OOA and SO4. In addition, aqueous-phase or heterogeneous reactions likely promoted efficient formation of NO3 whereas gas-to-particle partitioning processes appeared to have enhanced nighttime SV-OOA and NO3 formation. From May 20 to May 23, LV-OOA was significantly enhanced and accounted for up to 41% of the PM1 mass. Since this intense LV-OOA formation event was associated with large enhancement of VOCs, high concentration of Ox , strong solar radiation, and stagnant conditions, it appeared to be related to local photochemical formation. We also have investigated the formation and evolution mechanisms of severe haze episodes. Unlike the cases observed in winter when haze episodes were mainly caused by intense local emissions coupled with stagnant meteorological conditions, the spring haze events observed in this study appeared to be attributed by both regional and local factors. For example, episodes of long range transport of plumes were followed by calm meteorology conditions, which promoted the formation and accumulation of local

  10. Effects of long-range transported air pollution from vegetation fires on daily mortality and hospital admissions in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland.

    Kollanus, Virpi; Tiittanen, Pekka; Niemi, Jarkko V; Lanki, Timo

    2016-11-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) emissions from vegetation fires can be transported over long distances and may cause significant air pollution episodes far from the fires. However, epidemiological evidence on health effects of vegetation-fire originated air pollution is limited, particularly for mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. We examined association between short-term exposure to long-range transported PM 2.5 from vegetation fires and daily mortality due to non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory causes and daily hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. Days significantly affected by smoke from vegetation fires between 2001 and 2010 were identified using air quality measurements at an urban background and a regional background monitoring station, and modelled data on surface concentrations of vegetation-fire smoke. Associations between daily PM 2.5 concentration and health outcomes on i) smoke-affected days and ii) all other days (i.e. non-smoke days) were analysed using Poisson time series regression. All statistical models were adjusted for daily temperature and relative humidity, influenza, pollen, and public holidays. On smoke-affected days, 10µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 was associated with a borderline statistically significant increase in cardiovascular mortality among total population at a lag of three days (12.4%, 95% CI -0.2% to 26.5%), and among the elderly (≥65 years) following same-day exposure (13.8%, 95% CI -0.6% to 30.4%) and at a lag of three days (11.8%, 95% CI -2.2% to 27.7%). Smoke day PM 2.5 was not associated with non-accidental mortality or hospital admissions due to cardiovascular causes. However, there was an indication of a positive association with hospital admissions due to respiratory causes among the elderly, and admissions due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma among the total population. In contrast, on non-smoke days PM 2.5 was

  11. 76 FR 64376 - Long Range Transportation Plan for Fish and Wildlife Service Lands in Hawai`i, Idaho, Northern...

    2011-10-18

    ... the Draft LRTP. You may request a copy or submit comments by any of the following methods. E-mail: [email protected] . U.S. mail: Jeff Holm, Regional Transportation Coordinator, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... delivery, operations, and maintenance. Objective 2: Reduce the Service's carbon footprint by improving...

  12. Influence of tropical storms in the Northern Indian Ocean on dust entrainment and long-range transport.

    Ramaswamy, V.

    to the winter and summer Shamal Winds, tropical cyclones are an important mechanism of dust entrainment and transport of dust in this region. Elevated dust levels were observed in the northern Arabian Sea during most tropical cyclone events. During the study...

  13. Aerosol Optical Properties at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station in Taiwan and the Influences of Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants

    Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chen, Wei-Nai; Ye, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lin, Tang-Huang; Lee, Chung-Te; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Pantina, Peter; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    The Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS, 23.47 deg. N 120.87 deg. E, 2862 m ASL) in Central Taiwan was constructed in 2006 and is the only high-altitude background station in the western Pacific region for studying the influence of continental outflow. In this study, extensive optical properties of aerosols, including the aerosol light scattering coefficient [Sigma(sub s)] and light absorption coefficient [Sigma(sub a)], were collected from 2013 to 2014. The intensive optical properties, including mass scattering efficiency [Sigma(sub s)], mass absorption efficiency [Sigma(sub a)] single scattering albedo (Omega), scattering Angstrom exponent (A), and backscattering fraction (b), were determined and investigated, and the distinct seasonal cycle was observed. The value of [Alpha(sub a)] began to increase in January and reached a maximum in April; the mean in spring was 5.89 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1) with a standard deviation (SD) of 4.54 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1) and a 4.48 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1) interquartile range (IQR: 2.95-7.43 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1). The trend was similar in [Sigma(sub a)], with a maximum in March and a monthly mean of 0.84 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1). The peak values of Omega (Mean = 0.92, SD = 0.03, IQR: 0.90 - 0.93) and A (Mean = 2.22, SD = 0.61, IQR: 2.12 = 2.47) occurred in autumn. These annual patterns of optical properties were associated with different long-range transport patterns of air pollutants such as biomass burning (BB) aerosol in spring and potential anthropogenic emissions in autumn. The optical measurements performed at LABS during spring in 2013 were compared with those simultaneously performed at the Doi Ang Kang Meteorology Station, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand (DAK, 19.93 deg. N, 99.05 deg. E, 1536 m a.s.l.), which is located in the Southeast Asia BB source region. Furthermore, the relationships among [Sigma(sub s)], [Sigma(sub a)], and (b) were used to characterize the potential aerosol types transported to LABS during different

  14. Aerosol optical properties at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station in Taiwan and the influences of long-range transport of air pollutants

    Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chen, Wei-Nai; Ye, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lin, Tang-Huang; Lee, Chung-Te; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Pantina, Peter; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang

    2017-02-01

    The Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS, 23.47°N 120.87°E, 2862 m ASL) in Central Taiwan was constructed in 2006 and is the only high-altitude background station in the western Pacific region for studying the influence of continental outflow. In this study, extensive optical properties of aerosols, including the aerosol light scattering coefficient (σs) and light absorption coefficient (σa), were collected from 2013 to 2014. The intensive optical properties, including mass scattering efficiency (αs), mass absorption efficiency (αa), single scattering albedo (ω), scattering Ångstrӧm exponent (Å), and backscattering fraction (b), were determined and investigated, and the distinct seasonal cycle was observed. The value of αs began to increase in January and reached a maximum in April; the mean in spring was 5.89 m2 g-1 with a standard deviation (SD) of 4.54 m2 g-1 and a 4.48 m2 g-1 interquartile range (IQR: 2.95-7.43 m2 g-1). The trend was similar in αa, with a maximum in March and a monthly mean of 0.84 m2 g-1. The peak values of ω (Mean = 0.92, SD = 0.03, IQR: 0.90-0.93) and Å (Mean = 2.22, SD = 0.61, IQR: 2.12-2.47) occurred in autumn. These annual patterns of optical properties were associated with different long-range transport patterns of air pollutants such as biomass burning (BB) aerosol in spring and potential anthropogenic emissions in autumn. The optical measurements performed at LABS during spring in 2013 were compared with those simultaneously performed at the Doi Ang Kang Meteorology Station, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand (DAK, 19.93°N, 99.05°E, 1536 m a.s.l.), which is located in the Southeast Asia BB source region. Furthermore, the relationships among αs, αa, and b were used to characterize the potential aerosol types transported to LABS during different seasons, and the data were inspected according to the HYSPLIT 5-day backward trajectories, which differentiate between different regions of air mass origin.

  15. Monitoring of long range transported pollutants. Annual report for 1997; Overvaaking av langtransportert forurenset luft og nedboer. Atmosfaerisk tilfoersel, 1997

    Luekewille, A.; Manoe, S.; Toerseth, K

    1998-05-01

    The report includes the 1997 monitoring results from the rural air and precipitation chemistry network in Norway. In 1997, main components in precipitation were measured at 33 sites. Trace elements were determined at 14 sites, air concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds at 13 sites and ozone concentrations at 14 sites. An overview of the measurement programme is given in appendix B2. The highest mean volume weighted concentrations of sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and strong acid in precipitation were found along the southern Norwegian coast. The lowest values were measured in the central and northern parts of Norway. In almost all parts of the country the mean pollutant concentrations in precipitation were generally lower in 1997 compared to 1996. At most places in Norway pollutant deposition was generally the lowest measured so far. The annual mean concentrations of sulphate and strong acid in precipitation have been decreasing since the end of the 1970's. Since 1980 the content of sulphate has decreased by about 40-55% in southern Norway and by about 50-60% in northern Norway. The observed reductions in concentration levels are in agreement with reported downwards trends in pollutant emissions in Europe. There is no significant decrease in nitrogen compounds in precipitation. Sea salts deposited along the western coast was measured. The highest content of particulate sulphate and of nitrogen components in air and precipitation were measured in southern Norway. Due to emissions from nickel smelters in Russia the mean concentrations of sulphur dioxide were highest in Finnmark. The annual mean air concentrations of particulate sulphate have generally decreased by 45 to 60% compared to those measured in 1980. At Ny-Aalesund, annual mean concentrations of sulphur dioxide and sulphate have decreased by 58% and 54%, respectively. Since the late 1970's, the mean concentrations have shown similar developments in all parts of Norway. Due to emission

  16. Monitoring of long range transported pollutants. Annual report for 1997; Overvaaking av langtransportert forurenset luft og nedboer. Atmosfaerisk tilfoersel, 1997

    Luekewille, A; Manoe, S; Toerseth, K

    1998-05-01

    The report includes the 1997 monitoring results from the rural air and precipitation chemistry network in Norway. In 1997, main components in precipitation were measured at 33 sites. Trace elements were determined at 14 sites, air concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds at 13 sites and ozone concentrations at 14 sites. An overview of the measurement programme is given in appendix B2. The highest mean volume weighted concentrations of sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and strong acid in precipitation were found along the southern Norwegian coast. The lowest values were measured in the central and northern parts of Norway. In almost all parts of the country the mean pollutant concentrations in precipitation were generally lower in 1997 compared to 1996. At most places in Norway pollutant deposition was generally the lowest measured so far. The annual mean concentrations of sulphate and strong acid in precipitation have been decreasing since the end of the 1970's. Since 1980 the content of sulphate has decreased by about 40-55% in southern Norway and by about 50-60% in northern Norway. The observed reductions in concentration levels are in agreement with reported downwards trends in pollutant emissions in Europe. There is no significant decrease in nitrogen compounds in precipitation. Sea salts deposited along the western coast was measured. The highest content of particulate sulphate and of nitrogen components in air and precipitation were measured in southern Norway. Due to emissions from nickel smelters in Russia the mean concentrations of sulphur dioxide were highest in Finnmark. The annual mean air concentrations of particulate sulphate have generally decreased by 45 to 60% compared to those measured in 1980. At Ny-Aalesund, annual mean concentrations of sulphur dioxide and sulphate have decreased by 58% and 54%, respectively. Since the late 1970's, the mean concentrations have shown similar developments in all parts of Norway. Due to emission reductions in

  17. Long range transport of acidic and polluted events from eastern Europe to the remote regions of Scotland

    Landsberger, S.; Davies, T.D.; Jickells, T.D.; Tranter, M.

    1991-01-01

    More than 60 daily snowfall samples were collected throughout a snow season at an altitude of 1,100 meters in Cairngorm Mountains in Scotland. Concentrations of major ions, trace metals, rare-earths, carbon and pH were measured in the aqueous and particulate phase. The techniques of neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography were employed. Factor analysis indicated a marine and a combined anthropogenic and crustal source. Classification of back-trajectories showed that the events are heavily sector dependent: Eastern Europe and the Baltic dominating the transport of the polluted events. A very strong correlation was observed between low pH and high carbon concentrations in the particulate matter

  18. Assessment of the announced North Korean nuclear test using long-range atmospheric transport and dispersion modelling.

    De Meutter, Pieter; Camps, Johan; Delcloo, Andy; Termonia, Piet

    2017-08-18

    On 6 January 2016, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea announced to have conducted its fourth nuclear test. Analysis of the corresponding seismic waves from the Punggye-ri nuclear test site showed indeed that an underground man-made explosion took place, although the nuclear origin of the explosion needs confirmation. Seven weeks after the announced nuclear test, radioactive xenon was observed in Japan by a noble gas measurement station of the International Monitoring System. In this paper, atmospheric transport modelling is used to show that the measured radioactive xenon is compatible with a delayed release from the Punggye-ri nuclear test site. An uncertainty quantification on the modelling results is given by using the ensemble method. The latter is important for policy makers and helps advance data fusion, where different nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty monitoring techniques are combined.

  19. Aerosol ionic components at Mt. Heng in central southern China: abundances, size distribution, and impacts of long-range transport.

    Gao, Xiaomei; Xue, Likun; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Yuan, Chao; Gao, Rui; Zhou, Yang; Nie, Wei; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2012-09-01

    Water-soluble ions in PM(2.5) were continuously measured, along with the measurements of many other species and collection of size-resolved aerosol samples, at the summit of Mt. Heng in the spring of 2009, to understand the sources of aerosols in rural central southern China. The mean concentrations of SO(4)(2-), NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) in PM(2.5) were 8.02, 2.94 and 1.47 μg/m(3), indicating a moderate aerosol pollution level at Mt. Heng. Water-soluble ions composed approximately 40% of the PM(2.5) mass on average. PM(2.5) was weakly acidic with about 66% of the samples being acidic. SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+) exhibited similar diurnal patterns with a broad afternoon maximum. SO(4)(2-) and NH(4)(+) were mainly present in the fine aerosols with a peak in the droplet mode of 0.56-1 μm, suggesting the important role of cloud processing in the formation of aerosol sulfate. NO(3)(-) was largely distributed in the coarse particles with a predominant peak in the size-bin of 3.2-5.6 μm. Long-distance transport of processed air masses, dust aerosols, and cloud/fog processes were the major factors determining the variations of fine aerosol at Mt. Heng. The results at Mt. Heng were compared with those obtained from our previous study at Mt. Tai in north China. The comparison revealed large differences in the aerosol characteristics and processes between southern and northern China. Backward trajectories indicated extensive transport of anthropogenic pollution from the coastal regions of eastern/northern China and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) to Mt. Heng in spring, highlighting the need for regionally coordinated control measures for the secondary pollutants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Long Range Transport was a Bigger NSS Source than DMS in the Remote Tropical MBL during PASE

    Huebert, B. J.; Simpson, R. M.; Howell, S. G.; Blomquist, B.

    2013-12-01

    DMS was not the principal source of non-sea salt sulfate (NSS) mass in the remote marine boundary layer during the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment (PASE), according to an Eulerian sulfur budget model based on chemical concentrations measured from the NCAR C-130 in the tropical Pacific. Each of our three (DMS, SO2, and NSS) self-consistent monthly- average budgets includes terms for surface exchange, entrainment, divergence, chemical formation, and chemical loss. The budget-derived DMS emission was (2.7 × 0.5 μmol m-2 d-1, our budget 'units'). SO2 sources include DMS + OH (1.4 × 0.4 units, assuming γ = 0.75) and entrainment from the free troposphere (FT) (0.8 × 0.2 units). Clouds were the most important chemical reactors for SO2 (-1.0 × 0.5 units). SO2 loss terms also include divergence (-0.9 × 0.3 units), dry deposition (-0.5 × 0.2 units), and OH + SO2 (-0.22 × 0.05 units). The total SO2 loss balanced the SO2 source. We found negligible NSS on particles from 2.6 μm to 10 μm diameter, the sea salt mass peak. Fine-particle NSS sources include in-cloud oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 (1.0 × 0.5 units), OH + SO2 (0.19 × 0.05 units), and entrainment (1.1 × 0.3 units in clean conditions; twice that when continental pollution is present). Only about 1/4 of emitted DMS becomes NSS. The NSS sources from entrainment and from DMS are similar in magnitude.

  1. The impact of long-range-transport on PM1 and PM2.5 at a Central Mediterranean site

    Perrone, M. R.; Becagli, S.; Garcia Orza, J. A.; Vecchi, R.; Dinoi, A.; Udisti, R.; Cabello, M.

    2013-06-01

    Water soluble ions, methanesulfonate, organic and elemental carbon, and metals in PM2.5 and PM1 samples were analysed by Positive Matrix Factorization to identify and quantify major sources of fine particles at a Central Mediterranean site. The cluster analysis of four-day back trajectories was used to determine the dependence of PM2.5 and PM1 levels and composition on air-flows. The cluster analysis has identified six, six, and seven distinct air-flow types arriving at 500, 1500, and 3000 m above sea level (asl), respectively. Slow-west (Wslow) and north-eastern (NE) flows at 500 and 1500 m asl were the most frequent and were associated with the highest PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations. The PM concentrations from combustion sources including biomass burning were at their maximum under north-western (NW) flows. Similarly, the ammonium sulphate source was enhanced under Wslow and NE flows. South-eastern Mediterranean Sea air-flows were associated with the highest PM2.5 concentrations due to the heavy-oil-combustion source and the highest PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations due to the secondary marine source. PM2.5 concentrations due to the reacted dust and traffic source and PM1 concentrations due to the nitrate with reacted dust and mixed anthropogenic source showed no clear dependence on air-flows. This work highlights the different impact of aerosol sources on PM2.5 and PM1 fractions, being PM1 more adequate to control anthropogenic emissions from combustion sources.

  2. Investigating Ozone Sources in California Using AJAX Airborne Measurements and Models: Implications for Stratospheric Intrusion and Long Range Transport

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Johnson, Matthew S.; Iraci, Laura T.; Yates, Emma L.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Gore, Warren

    2016-01-01

    High ozone concentrations at low altitudes near the surface were detected from airborne Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) measurements on May 30, 2012. We investigate the causes of the elevated ozone concentrations using the airborne measurements and various models. GEOSchem and WRF-STILT model simulations show that the contribution from local sources is small. From MERRA reanalysis, it is found that high potential vorticity (PV) is observed at low altitudes. This high PV appears to be only partially coming through the stratospheric intrusions because the air inside the high PV region is moist, which shows that mixing appears to be enhanced in the low altitudes. Considering that diabatic heating can also produce high PV in the lower troposphere, high ozone is partially coming through stratospheric intrusion, but this cannot explain the whole ozone concentration in the target areas of the western U.S. A back-trajectory model is utilized to see where the air masses originated. The air masses of the target areas came from the lower stratosphere (LS), upper (UT), mid- (MT), and lower troposphere (LT). The relative number of trajectories coming from LS and UT is low (7.7% and 7.6%, respectively) compared to that from LT (64.1%), but the relative ozone concentration coming from LS and UT is high (38.4% and 20.95%, respectively) compared to that from LT (17.7%). The air mass coming from LT appears to be mostly coming from Asia. Q diagnostics show that there is sufficient mixing along the trajectory to indicate that ozone from the different origins is mixed and transported to the western U.S. This study shows that high ozone concentrations can be detected by airborne measurements, which can be analyzed by integrated platforms such as models, reanalysis, and satellite data.

  3. Investigation of Ozone Sources in California Using AJAX Airborne Measurements and Models: Implications for Stratospheric Intrusion and Long Range Transport

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Johnson, Matthew S.; Iraci, Laura T.; Yates, Emma L.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Gore, Warren

    2015-01-01

    High ozone concentrations at low altitudes near the surface were detected from airborne Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) measurements on May 30, 2012. We investigate the causes of the elevated ozone concentrations using the airborne measurements and various models. GEOS-chem and WRF-STILT model simulations show that the contribution from local sources is small. From MERRA reanalysis, it is found that high potential vorticity (PV) is observed at low altitudes. This high PV appears to be only partially coming through the stratospheric intrusions because the air inside the high PV region is moist, which shows that mixing appears to be enhanced in the low altitudes. Considering that diabatic heating can also produce high PV in the lower troposphere, high ozone is partially coming through stratospheric intrusion, but this cannot explain the whole ozone concentration in the target areas of the western U.S. A back-trajectory model is utilized to see where the air masses originated. The air masses of the target areas came from the lower stratosphere (LS), upper (UT), mid- (MT), and lower troposphere (LT). The relative number of trajectories coming from LS and UT is low (7.7 and 7.6, respectively) compared to that from LT (64.1), but the relative ozone concentration coming from LS and UT is high (38.4 and 20.95, respectively) compared to that from LT (17.7). The air mass coming from LT appears to be mostly coming from Asia. Q diagnostics show that there is sufficient mixing along the trajectory to indicate that ozone from the different origins is mixed and transported to the western U.S. This study shows that high ozone concentrations can be detected by airborne measurements, which can be analyzed by integrated platforms such as models, reanalysis, and satellite data.

  4. Radiocarbon analysis of BC and OC in PM10 aerosols at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan, during long-range transport events from East Asian countries

    Handa, Daishi; Nakajima, Hitomi; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Masao

    2010-01-01

    We determined the 14 C/ 12 C ratio and concentrations of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) in airborne particulate matter (APM) with diameter 10 ) collected in Okinawa, Japan, between March and June 2008. During Asian dust events in March and April, APM and OC concentrations in PM 10 aerosols were approximately threefold and twofold higher than those during the non-Asian-dust period in June. 'Refractory' BC concentrations (i.e., because of refraction, 10 aerosols collected during the Asian dust events (mean = 41.5% and 62.3%, respectively) than for those collected in the non-Asian-dust period (mean = 67.2% and 93.8%, respectively), indicating a strong influence of fossil-fuel-derived carbon during Asian dust events. One sample showed high OC concentration but relatively low BC concentration, suggesting formation during the long-range transport of biogenic organic compounds. The results suggest that not only fossil-fuel-derived air pollutants but also organic compounds derived from biomass in Asia should be considered to better characterize long-range transported aerosols.

  5. Occurrence, bioaccumulation and long-range transport of short-chain chlorinated paraffins on the Fildes Peninsula at King George Island, Antarctica.

    Li, Huijuan; Fu, Jianjie; Zhang, Aiqian; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Yawei

    2016-09-01

    As a candidate persistent organic pollutant of the Stockholm Convention, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have recently received particular attention. In this study, we investigated, for the first time, the concentrations of SCCPs in biota samples collected from the Fildes Peninsula at King George Island and Ardley Island, Antarctica. The concentrations of SCCPs ranged from 3.5 to 256.6ng/g (dry weight, dw), with a mean of 76.6±61.8ng/g dw, which was lower than those detected in mid- and low-latitude regions. The long-range transport behaviour of SCCPs was confirmed by both the detection of SCCPs in Antarctic remote areas and their special congener profiles. Short carbon chain (C10) congeners predominated in the Antarctic samples, which accounted for 56.1% of the total SCCP contamination. Such enrichment of C10 congeners indicated the high potential for the long-range transport of shorter chain congeners. In addition, SCCPs tended to be enriched in the species with high lipid contents. The biomagnification potential of SCCPs was found between Archeogastropoda (Agas) and Neogastropoda (Ngas), and the biomagnification factors of shorter chain congeners of SCCPs were higher than that of the longer chain ones. Considering that the endemic species in polar regions may be sensitive and vulnerable to the adverse effects of environmental contaminants, more attention should be paid on the bioaccumulation and toxicological risks of SCCPs in polar environments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Long-range antigravity

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  7. Long-range antigravity

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  8. Updating long-range transport model predictions using real-time monitoring data in case of nuclear accidents with release to the atmosphere

    Raes, Frank; Tassone, Caterina; Grippa, Gianni; Zarimpas, Nicolas; Graziani, Giovanni

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is developed to reduce the uncertainties of long-range transport model predictions, in case of a large scale nuclear accident. It is based on the availability in 'real time' of the concentrations of airborne radioactive aerosols from automatic on-line monitors, which are presently being installed throughout Europe. Essentially, the procedure consists of: (1) constructing new (area) source terms from the measured field data as they become available; and (2) restart the prediction with these sources, rather than with the original (point) source. The procedure is applied to the Chernobyl accident. It is shown that the procedure is feasible and might result in an improvement of the prediction of the location of the cloud by several hundreds of kilometers and the actual levels with an order of magnitude. The weak point is the treatment of the vertical structure and transport of the cloud, which can only be solved when 'real-time' upper air observations are also available. (author)

  9. Colorado air quality impacted by long-range-transported aerosol: a set of case studies during the 2015 Pacific Northwest fires

    J. M. Creamean

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning plumes containing aerosols from forest fires can be transported long distances, which can ultimately impact climate and air quality in regions far from the source. Interestingly, these fires can inject aerosols other than smoke into the atmosphere, which very few studies have evidenced. Here, we demonstrate a set of case studies of long-range transport of mineral dust aerosols in addition to smoke from numerous fires (including predominantly forest fires and a few grass/shrub fires in the Pacific Northwest to Colorado, US. These aerosols were detected in Boulder, Colorado, along the Front Range using beta-ray attenuation and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and corroborated with satellite-borne lidar observations of smoke and dust. Further, we examined the transport pathways of these aerosols using air mass trajectory analysis and regional- and synoptic-scale meteorological dynamics. Three separate events with poor air quality and increased mass concentrations of metals from biomass burning (S and K and minerals (Al, Si, Ca, Fe, and Ti occurred due to the introduction of smoke and dust from regional- and synoptic-scale winds. Cleaner time periods with good air quality and lesser concentrations of biomass burning and mineral metals between the haze events were due to the advection of smoke and dust away from the region. Dust and smoke present in biomass burning haze can have diverse impacts on visibility, health, cloud formation, and surface radiation. Thus, it is important to understand how aerosol populations can be influenced by long-range-transported aerosols, particularly those emitted from large source contributors such as wildfires.

  10. Emissions of road transport

    Maekelae, K.; Tuominen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NO x , particulates, SO 2 , CO 2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  11. Long-range pollution transport during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign: a case study of a major Mexico City outflow event using free-floating altitude-controlled balloons

    P. B. Voss

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major objectives of the Megacities Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations (MILAGRO-2006 campaign was to investigate the long-range transport of polluted Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA outflow and determine its downwind impacts on air quality and climate. Six research aircraft, including the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C-130, made extensive chemical, aerosol, and radiation measurements above MCMA and more than 1000 km downwind in order to characterize the evolution of the outflow as it aged and dispersed over the Mesa Alta, Sierra Madre Oriental, Coastal Plain, and Gulf of Mexico. As part of this effort, free-floating Controlled-Meteorological (CMET balloons, commanded to change altitude via satellite, made repeated profile measurements of winds and state variables within the advecting outflow. In this paper, we present an analysis of the data from two CMET balloons that were launched near Mexico City on the afternoon of 18 March 2006 and floated downwind with the MCMA pollution for nearly 30 h. The repeating profile measurements show the evolving structure of the outflow in considerable detail: its stability and stratification, interaction with other air masses, mixing episodes, and dispersion into the regional background. Air parcel trajectories, computed directly from the balloon wind profiles, show three transport pathways on 18–19 March: (a high-altitude advection of the top of the MCMA mixed layer, (b mid-level outflow over the Sierra Madre Oriental followed by decoupling and isolated transport over the Gulf of Mexico, and (c low-level outflow with entrainment into a cleaner northwesterly jet above the Coastal Plain. The C-130 aircraft intercepted the balloon-based trajectories three times on 19 March, once along each of these pathways; in all three cases, peaks in urban tracer concentrations and LIDAR backscatter are consistent with MCMA pollution. In comparison with the transport models

  12. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  13. Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants, I: description of surface-atmosphere exchange modules and implementation in EUROS.

    Jacobs, C.M.J.; Pul, van W.A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Concerns a description of a model for the exchange of gaseous Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) at land and sea surfaces and its application in the Eulerian air pollution transport model EUROS. Sample simulations of the net deposition of lindane over Europe are discussed. For non-emission areas

  14. Long range trajectories

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  15. Change of iron species and iron solubility in Asian dust during the long-range transport from western China to Japan

    Y. Takahashi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the North Pacific, transport and deposition of mineral dust from Asia appear to be one of major sources of iron which can regulate growth of phytoplankton in the ocean. In this process, it is essential to identify chemical species of iron contained in Asian dust, because bioavailability of iron in the ocean is strongly influenced by the solubility of iron, which in turn is dependent on iron species in the dust. Here, we report that clay minerals (illite and chlorite in the dusts near the source collected at Aksu (western China can be transformed into ferrihydrite by atmospheric chemical processes during their long-range transport to eastern China (Qingdao and Japan (Tsukuba based on the speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS and other methods such as X-ray diffraction and chemical extraction. As a result, Fe molar ratio in Aksu (illite : chlorite : ferrihydrite = 70 : 25 : 5 was changed to that in Tsukuba (illite : chlorite : ferrihydrite = 65 : 10 : 25. Moreover, leaching experiments were conducted to study the change of iron solubility. It was found that the iron solubility for the dust in Tsukuba (soluble iron fraction: 11.8 % and 1.10 % for synthetic rain water and seawater, respectively was larger than that in Aksu (4.1 % and 0.28 %, respectively, showing that iron in the dust after the transport becomes more soluble possibly due to the formation of ferrihydrite in the atmosphere. Our findings suggested that secondary formation of ferrihydrite during the transport should be considered as one of important processes in evaluating the supply of soluble iron to seawater.

  16. Do Cloud Properties in a Puerto Rican Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Depend on Occurrence of Long-Range Transported African Dust?

    Spiegel, Johanna K.; Buchmann, Nina; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, Luis A.; Valle Díaz, Carlos J.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Mertes, Stephan; Eugster, Werner

    2014-09-01

    We investigated cloud properties of warm clouds in a tropical montane cloud forest at Pico del Este (1,051 m a.s.l.) in the northeastern part of Puerto Rico to address the question of whether cloud properties in the Caribbean could potentially be affected by African dust transported across the Atlantic Ocean. We analyzed data collected during 12 days in July 2011. Cloud droplet size spectra were measured using the FM-100 fog droplet spectrometer that measured droplet size distributions in the range from 2 to 49 µm, primarily during fog events. The droplet size spectra revealed a bimodal structure, with the first peak ( D < 6 µm) being more pronounced in terms of droplet number concentrations, whereas the second peak (10 µm < D < 20 µm) was found to be the one relevant for total liquid water content (LWC) of the cloud. We identified three major clusters of characteristic droplet size spectra by means of hierarchical clustering. All clusters differed significantly from each other in droplet number concentration (), effective diameter (ED), and median volume diameter (MVD). For the cluster comprising the largest droplets and the lowest droplet number concentrations, we found evidence of inhomogeneous mixing in the cloud. Contrastingly, the other two clusters revealed microphysical behavior, which could be expected under homogeneous mixing conditions. For those conditions, an increase in cloud condensation nuclei—e.g., from processed African dust transported to the site—is supposed to lead to an increased droplet concentration. In fact, one of these two clusters showed a clear shift of cloud droplet size spectra towards smaller droplet diameters. Since this cluster occurred during periods with strong evidence for the presence of long-range transported African dust, we hypothesize a link between the observed dust episodes and cloud characteristics in the Caribbean at our site, which is similar to the anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect.

  17. POP and PAH contamination in the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (Himalaya, Nepal): Long-range atmospheric transport, glacier shrinkage, or local impact of tourism?

    Guzzella, Licia; Salerno, Franco; Freppaz, Michele; Roscioli, Claudio; Pisanello, Francesca; Poma, Giulia

    2016-02-15

    Due to their physico-chemical properties, POPs and PAHs are subjected to long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and may be deposited in remote areas. In this study, the contamination with DDx, PCBs, PBDEs, and PAHs was investigated in sediments and soils collected on the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (Himalaya, Nepal) in two different sampling campaigns (2008 and 2012). The results showed a limited contamination with POPs and PAHs in both soil and sediment samples. Therefore, the southern slopes of Mt. Everest can be considered a remote area in almost pristine condition. The LRAT mechanism confirmed its primary role in the transfer of contaminants to remote regions, while the gradual melting of glaciers, due to global warming, and the subsequent release of contaminants was suggested to be a secondary source of pollution of the lake sediments. In addition, the increase of tourism in this area during the last decades might have influenced the present concentrations of PAHs in the sediments and soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-range transport and mixing of aerosol sources during the 2013 North American biomass burning episode: analysis of multiple lidar observations in the western Mediterranean basin

    G. Ancellet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of biomass burning (BB aerosols between North America and the Mediterranean region took place in June 2013. A large number of ground-based and airborne lidar measurements were deployed in the western Mediterranean during the Chemistry-AeRosol Mediterranean EXperiment (ChArMEx intensive observation period. A detailed analysis of the potential North American aerosol sources is conducted including the assessment of their transport to Europe using forward simulations of the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model initialized using satellite observations by MODIS and CALIOP. The three-dimensional structure of the aerosol distribution in the ChArMEx domain observed by the ground-based lidars (Minorca, Barcelona and Lampedusa, a Falcon-20 aircraft flight and three CALIOP tracks, agrees very well with the model simulation of the three major sources considered in this work: Canadian and Colorado fires, a dust storm from western US and the contribution of Saharan dust streamers advected from the North Atlantic trade wind region into the westerlies region. Four aerosol types were identified using the optical properties of the observed aerosol layers (aerosol depolarization ratio, lidar ratio and the transport model analysis of the contribution of each aerosol source: (i pure BB layer, (ii weakly dusty BB, (iii significant mixture of BB and dust transported from the trade wind region, and (iv the outflow of Saharan dust by the subtropical jet and not mixed with BB aerosol. The contribution of the Canadian fires is the major aerosol source during this episode while mixing of dust and BB is only significant at an altitude above 5 km. The mixing corresponds to a 20–30 % dust contribution in the total aerosol backscatter. The comparison with the MODIS aerosol optical depth horizontal distribution during this episode over the western Mediterranean Sea shows that the Canadian fire contributions were as large as the direct

  19. The effect of long-range air mass transport pathways on PM10 and NO2 concentrations at urban and rural background sites in Ireland: Quantification using clustering techniques.

    Donnelly, Aoife A; Broderick, Brian M; Misstear, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    The specific aims of this paper are to: (i) quantify the effects of various long range transport pathways nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with diameter less than 10μm (PM10) concentrations in Ireland and identify air mass movement corridors which may lead to incidences poor air quality for application in forecasting; (ii) compare the effects of such pathways at various sites; (iii) assess pathways associated with a period of decreased air quality in Ireland. The origin of and the regions traversed by an air mass 96h prior to reaching a receptor is modelled and k-means clustering is applied to create air-mass groups. Significant differences in air pollution levels were found between air mass cluster types at urban and rural sites. It was found that easterly or recirculated air masses lead to higher NO2 and PM10 levels with average NO2 levels varying between 124% and 239% of the seasonal mean and average PM10 levels varying between 103% and 199% of the seasonal mean at urban and rural sites. Easterly air masses are more frequent during winter months leading to higher overall concentrations. The span in relative concentrations between air mass clusters is highest at the rural site indicating that regional factors are controlling concentration levels. The methods used in this paper could be applied to assist in modelling and forecasting air quality based on long range transport pathways and forecast meteorology without the requirement for detailed emissions data over a large regional domain or the use of computationally demanding modelling techniques.

  20. Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organochlorinated compounds from south and mainland south-eastern Asia to a remote mountain site in south-western China.

    Xu, Yue; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Chakraborty, Paromita; Li, Hua; Liu, Xiang

    2011-11-01

    A range of organochlorinated compounds have been consumed in China, India and the countries of mainland southeast Asia (MSA). Considering their persistence in the environment and ability in long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT), the potential outflow of these compounds from this region is therefore of great concern in the context of the global distribution of toxic chemicals. As part of a monitoring campaign aimed at investigating the LRAT of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from southern China, MSA and northern India, atmospheric levels of OCPs and PCBs were measured once a week from October 2005 through December 2006 at Tengchong Mountain (TM), a remote site located in south-western China. The average concentrations of OCPs were found to be higher than those in other remote stations in the Arctic and the Tibetan plateau, except for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH). A high level of β-HCH and low α-HCH/β-HCH ratio was attributed to an accidental release of β-HCH from unknown sources, besides obvious evidence of lindane (γ-HCH) and technical HCH usage. Temporal variations of chlordanes and endosulfan were related to the usage pattern of these compounds, as well as LRAT. In contrast, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exhibited a relatively minor seasonal variation. The OCP levels at the monitoring site were found to be related to the air parcel back trajectories on the basis of four distinct clusters. Elevated levels of HCHs and DDTs were observed when air parcels originated from northern India where considerable OCP usage was reported recently, while high levels of γ-HCH and TC (trans-chlordane) were mainly associated with air masses from southern China and northern MSA. The study highlighted the high background level of OCPs as well as their temporal patterns of trans-boundary LRAT in the MSA region.

  1. Seasonal progression of atmospheric particulate matter over an urban coastal region in peninsular India: Role of local meteorology and long-range transport

    Mahapatra, P. S.; Sinha, P. R.; Boopathy, R.; Das, T.; Mohanty, S.; Sahu, S. C.; Gurjar, B. R.

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of particulate matter (PM) over an urban site with relatively high concentration of aerosol particles is critically important owing to its adverse health, environmental and climate impact. Here we present a 3 years' worth of measurements (January 2012 to December 2014) of PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm) and PM10 (aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm) along with meteorological parameters and seasonal variations at Bhubaneswar an urban-coastal site, in eastern India. The concentrations of PM were determined gravimetrically from the filter samples of PM2.5 and PM10. It revealed remarkable seasonal variations with winter values (55.0 ± 23.4 μg/m3; 147.3 ± 42.4 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) about 3.5 times higher than that in pre-monsoon (15.7 ± 6.2 μg/m3; 41.8 ± 15.3 μg/m3). PM2.5 and PM10 were well correlated while PM2.5/PM10 ratios were found to be 0.38 and 0.32 during winter and pre-monsoon, indicating the predominance of coarse particles, mainly originating from long range transport of pollutants from northern and western parts of India and parts of west Asia as well. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis revealed the IGP and North Western Odisha as the most potential sources of PM2.5 and PM10 during winter. The PM concentrations at Bhubaneswar were comparable with those at other coastal sites of India reported in the literature, but were lower than few polluted urban sites in India and Asia. Empirical model reproduced the observed seasonal variation of PM2.5 and PM10 very well over Bhubaneswar.

  2. Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution vs. long-range transported dust

    Fan, J.; Leung, L. R.; DeMott, P. J.; Comstock, J. M.; Singh, B.; Rosenfeld, D.; Tomlinson, J. M.; White, A.; Prather, K. A.; Minnis, P.; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Q.

    2013-07-01

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter/spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on 16 February (FEB16) and 2 March (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust or dust/biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust/biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a 40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet, and cloud dynamics. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental conditions for

  3. Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust

    Fan, J.; Leung, L. R.; DeMott, P. J.; Comstock, J. M.; Singh, B.; Rosenfeld, D.; Tomlinson, J. M.; White, A.; Prather, K. A.; Minnis, P.; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and the Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in order to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases (from the CalWater 2011 field campaign) with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on 16 February (FEB16) and 2 March (MAR02). In both cases, observations show the presence of dust and biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust and biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by a few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present, but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology, including cloud dynamics and the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental

  4. Inventories of atmospheric pollutants emissions in France under the convention framework on the long range transboundary air pollution; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques en France au titre de la convention sur la pollution atmospherique tranfrontaliere a longue distance

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France, concerning all the substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), on behalf of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The substances covered are sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2,5}), heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Data are reported according to new specifications adopted in Autumn 2001 regarding substances and source coverage. Parties to the convention have to report annually emissions of these substances. (author)

  5. Source identification and airborne chemical characterisation of aerosol pollution from long-range transport over Greenland during POLARCAT summer campaign 2008

    J. Schmale

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We deployed an aerosol mass spectrometer during the POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport summer campaign in Greenland in June/July 2008 on the research aircraft ATR-42. Online size resolved chemical composition data of submicron aerosol were collected up to 7.6 km altitude in the region 60 to 71° N and 40 to 60° W. Biomass burning (BB and fossil fuel combustion (FF plumes originating from North America, Asia, Siberia and Europe were sampled. Transport pathways of detected plumes included advection below 700 hPa, air mass uplifting in warm conveyor belts, and high altitude transport in the upper troposphere. By means of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, trace gas analysis of O3 and CO, particle size distributions and aerosol chemical composition 48 pollution events were identified and classified into five chemically distinct categories. Aerosol from North American BB consisted of 22% particulate sulphate, while with increasing anthropogenic and Asian influence aerosol in Asian FF dominated plumes was composed of up to 37% sulphate category mean value. Overall, it was found that the organic matter fraction was larger (85% in pollution plumes than for background conditions (71%. Despite different source regions and emission types the particle oxygen to carbon ratio of all plume classes was around 1 indicating low-volatility highly oxygenated aerosol. The volume size distribution of out-of-plume aerosol showed markedly smaller modes than all other distributions with two Aitken mode diameters of 24 and 43 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg of 1.12 and 1.22, respectively, while another very broad mode was found at 490 nm (σg = 2.35. Nearly pure BB particles from North America exhibited an Aitken mode at 66 nm (σg = 1.46 and an accumulation mode diameter of 392 nm (σg = 1

  6. Source identification and airborne chemical characterisation of aerosol pollution from long-range transport over Greenland during POLARCAT summer campaign 2008

    Schmale, J.; Schneider, J.; Ancellet, G.; Quennehen, B.; Stohl, A.; Sodemann, H.; Burkhart, J. F.; Hamburger, T.; Arnold, S. R.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Borrmann, S.; Law, K. S.

    2011-10-01

    We deployed an aerosol mass spectrometer during the POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport) summer campaign in Greenland in June/July 2008 on the research aircraft ATR-42. Online size resolved chemical composition data of submicron aerosol were collected up to 7.6 km altitude in the region 60 to 71° N and 40 to 60° W. Biomass burning (BB) and fossil fuel combustion (FF) plumes originating from North America, Asia, Siberia and Europe were sampled. Transport pathways of detected plumes included advection below 700 hPa, air mass uplifting in warm conveyor belts, and high altitude transport in the upper troposphere. By means of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, trace gas analysis of O3 and CO, particle size distributions and aerosol chemical composition 48 pollution events were identified and classified into five chemically distinct categories. Aerosol from North American BB consisted of 22% particulate sulphate, while with increasing anthropogenic and Asian influence aerosol in Asian FF dominated plumes was composed of up to 37% sulphate category mean value. Overall, it was found that the organic matter fraction was larger (85%) in pollution plumes than for background conditions (71%). Despite different source regions and emission types the particle oxygen to carbon ratio of all plume classes was around 1 indicating low-volatility highly oxygenated aerosol. The volume size distribution of out-of-plume aerosol showed markedly smaller modes than all other distributions with two Aitken mode diameters of 24 and 43 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg of 1.12 and 1.22, respectively, while another very broad mode was found at 490 nm (σg = 2.35). Nearly pure BB particles from North America exhibited an Aitken mode at 66 nm (σg = 1.46) and an accumulation mode diameter of 392 nm (σg = 1.76). An aerosol lifetime, including all processes from emission to

  7. Long-range alpha detector

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha-particle and alpha-contamination detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity even if the particles are intercepted. Alpha detectors have had to be operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. Alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of ∼30,000 ion pairs per mega-electron-volt of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) offers several advantages over more traditional alpha detectors. First and foremost, it can operate efficiently even if the contamination is not easily accessible. Second, ions generated by contamination in crevices and other unmonitorable locations can be detected if the airflow penetrates those areas. Third, all of the contamination on a large surface will generate ions that can be detected in a single detector; hence, the detector's sensitivity to distributed sources is not limited by the size of the probe. Finally, a simple ion chamber can detect very small electric currents, making this technique potentially quite sensitive

  8. Health effects from long-range transported contaminants in Arctic top predators: An integrated review based on studies of polar bears and relevant model species.

    Sonne, Christian

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a thorough overview of the health effects from the complexed biomagnified mixture of long-range transported industrial organochlorines (OCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and mercury (Hg) on polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health. Multiple scientific studies of polar bears indicate negative relationships between exposure to these contaminants and health parameters; however, these are all of a correlative nature and do not represent true cause-and-effects. Therefore, information from controlled studies of farmed Norwegian Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and housed East and West Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) were included as supportive weight of evidence in the clarification of contaminant exposure and health effects in polar bears. The review showed that hormone and vitamin concentrations, liver, kidney and thyroid gland morphology as well as reproductive and immune systems of polar bears are likely to be influenced by contaminant exposure. Furthermore, exclusively based on polar bear contaminant studies, bone density reduction and neurochemical disruption and DNA hypomethylation of the brain stem seemed to occur. The range of tissue concentration, at which these alterations were observed in polar bears, were ca. 1-70,000 ng/g lw for OCs (blood plasma concentrations of some PCB metabolites even higher), ca. 1-1000 ng/g lw for PBDEs and for PFCs and Hg 114-3052 ng/g ww and 0.1-50 microg/g ww, respectively. Similar concentrations were found in farmed foxes and housed sledge dogs while the lack of dose response designs did not allow an estimation of threshold levels for oral exposure and accumulated tissue concentrations. Nor was it possible to pinpoint a specific group of contaminants being more important than others nor analyze their interactions. For East Greenland polar bears the corresponding daily SigmaOC and SigmaPBDE oral exposure was estimated to be 35 and 0.34 microg/kg body

  9. Characterization, Long-Range Transport and Source Identification of Carbonaceous Aerosols during Spring and Autumn Periods at a High Mountain Site in South China

    Hong-yan Jia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PM10 (particulate matter samples were collected at Mount Lu, a high elevation mountain site in south China (August and September of 2011; and March, April and May of 2012. Eight carbonaceous fractions of particles were analyzed to characterize the possible carbonaceous emission sources. During the sampling events, daily average concentrations of PM10 at Mount Lu were 97.87 μg/m3 and 73.40 μg/m3 in spring and autumn, respectively. The observed mean organic carbon (OC and element carbon (EC concentrations during spring in PM10 were 10.58 μg/m3 and 2.58 μg/m3, respectively, and those in autumn were 6.89 μg/m3 and 2.40 μg/m3, respectively. Secondary organic carbon concentration was 4.77 μg/m3 and 2.93 μg/m3 on average, accounting for 28.0% and 31.0% of the total OC in spring and autumn, respectively. Relationships between carbonaceous species and results of principal component analysis showed that there were multiple sources contributing to the carbonaceous aerosols at the observation site. Through back trajectory analysis, it was found that air masses in autumn were mainly transported from the south of China, and these have the highest OC but lowest EC concentrations. Air masses in spring transported from northwest China bring 7.77 μg/m3 OC and 2.28 μg/m3 EC to the site, with lower levels coming from other sites. These air mass sources were featured by the effective carbon ratio (ECR.

  10. Heteronuclear Long-Range Correlation

    Sørensen, Ole W.

    The lecture will cover heteronuclear long-range correlation techniques like HMBC, H2BC, and HAT HMBC with the emphasis on determining the number of covalent bonds between two spins being correlated. H2BC and HMBC spectra are quite complementary as a peak can be strong in one of the two spectra...

  11. Long-range correlations from colour confinement

    Jurkiewicz, J.; Zenczykowski, P.

    1979-01-01

    A class of independent parton emission models is generalized by the introduction of the colour degrees of freedom. In the proposed models colour confinement extorts strong long-range forward-backward correlations, the rise of one-particle inclusive distribution and the KNO scaling. It leads to the analytically calculable definite asymptotic predictions for the D/ ratio which depends only on the choice of the colour group. Multiplicity distribution develops a remarkably long tail. (author)

  12. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  13. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  14. Total and mesoscale long-range offshore transport of organic carbon from the Canary Upwelling System to the open North Atlantic

    Lovecchio, Elisa; Gruber, Nicolas; Münnich, Matthias; Byrne, David; Lachkar, Zouhair

    2017-04-01

    The ocean's biological pump is often simplified to a purely vertical process. Nevertheless, the horizontal transport of organic carbon can be substantial, especially in coastal regions such as the Canary Upwelling System (CanUS), one of the four major Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems, characterized by high shelf productivity and an intense lateral exchange of mass and tracers with the adjacent oligotrophic waters. Despite its importance, the magnitude of this lateral flux has not yet been constrained. Here, we quantify the lateral export of organic carbon from the CanUS to the open North Atlantic using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) coupled to a biogeochemical ecosystem module. The model is run on an Atlantic telescopic grid with a strong refinement towards the north-western African shelf, to combine an eddy-resolving resolution in the region of study with a full Atlantic basin perspective. Our results reveal that over the whole CanUS more than a third of the Net Community Production (NCP) in the nearshore 100 km is transported offshore, amounting to about 19 Tg C yr-1. The offshore transport dominates the lateral fluxes up to 1500 km into the subtropical North Atlantic, along the way adding organic carbon to the upper 100 m at rates of between 8% and 34% of the alongshore average NCP. The remineralization at depth of this extra organic carbon leads to strongly negative vertically-integrated NCP throughout the whole offshore region of the CanUS, i.e. it makes the offshore region net heterotrophic. Substantial subregional variability shapes the spatial pattern of the fluxes in the CanUS. In particular, the central subregion surrounding Cape Blanc is the most efficient in terms of collecting and laterally exporting the organic carbon, resulting in a sharp peak of watercolumn heterotrophy. A decomposition of the organic carbon fluxes into a time-mean component and a time-variable, i.e., mesoscale component reveals a large contribution of the mesoscale

  15. Electron Transport in a Dioxygenase-Ferredoxin Complex: Long Range Charge Coupling between the Rieske and Non-Heme Iron Center.

    Wayne K Dawson

    Full Text Available Dioxygenase (dOx utilizes stereospecific oxidation on aromatic molecules; consequently, dOx has potential applications in bioremediation and stereospecific oxidation synthesis. The reactive components of dOx comprise a Rieske structure Cys2[2Fe-2S]His2 and a non-heme reactive oxygen center (ROC. Between the Rieske structure and the ROC, a universally conserved Asp residue appears to bridge the two structures forming a Rieske-Asp-ROC triad, where the Asp is known to be essential for electron transfer processes. The Rieske and ROC share hydrogen bonds with Asp through their His ligands; suggesting an ideal network for electron transfer via the carboxyl side chain of Asp. Associated with the dOx is an itinerant charge carrying protein Ferredoxin (Fdx. Depending on the specific cognate, Fdx may also possess either the Rieske structure or a related structure known as 4-Cys-[2Fe-2S] (4-Cys. In this study, we extensively explore, at different levels of theory, the behavior of the individual components (Rieske and ROC and their interaction together via the Asp using a variety of density function methods, basis sets, and a method known as Generalized Ionic Fragment Approach (GIFA that permits setting up spin configurations manually. We also report results on the 4-Cys structure for comparison. The individual optimized structures are compared with observed spectroscopic data from the Rieske, 4-Cys and ROC structures (where information is available. The separate pieces are then combined together into a large Rieske-Asp-ROC (donor/bridge/acceptor complex to estimate the overall coupling between individual components, based on changes to the partial charges. The results suggest that the partial charges are significantly altered when Asp bridges the Rieske and the ROC; hence, long range coupling through hydrogen bonding effects via the intercalated Asp bridge can drastically affect the partial charge distributions compared to the individual isolated

  16. NMHC emissions from Asia: sources and transport

    Shirai, T.; Blake, D. R.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Chan, J. C.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.; Takigawa, M.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    2002-12-01

    Recent rapid industrialization and economic growth in Asia changed the industrial structure, land use, and people's lifestyle resulting in a dramatic change in the amount and composition of the gas emissions from Asia. Because emissions can be transported very rapidly once convected to the free troposphere, Asian emissions can affect both local and regional air quality and climate. To access the impact of changing emission from Asia, an airborne observation campaign PEACE (the Pacific Exploration of Asian Continental Emission) phase-A and B were conducted in January and April - May 2002, respectively, sponsored by NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan). The concentrations of NMHCs (nonmethanehydrocarbons) and halocarbons were obtained by whole air sampling and subsequent gas chromatography analyses in the laboratory. Quantified onboard the aircraft were CO, CO2, O3, NO, NO2, NOy, H2O, SO2, aerosols, and condensation nuclei. The experiment was conducted in the vicinity of Japan and PEACE-A and B represent the local winter and spring weather conditions. The trace gas distributions in the lower troposphere were often influenced by local pollution (i.e. from Japan, Korea) while those of the long-range transport (i.e. from Europe) were occasionally seen in the upper troposphere. This is confirmed by the airmass age estimation using the ratios of short-lived gases (i.e. C2H4) vs. more stable compounds (i.e. CO). Emissions from China were distinguished using data obtained from ground-based sampling and measurements. Transport from China was seen both in the lower troposphere and upper troposphere. Some case studies on source identification will be discussed.

  17. Long-range transport of dust aerosols over the Arabian Sea and Indian region – A case study using satellite data and ground-based measurements

    Badarinath, K.V.S.; Kharol, S.K.; Kaskaoutis, D.G.; Sharma, A; Ramaswamy, V.; Kambezidis, H.D.

    The present study addresses an intense dust storm event over the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea (AS) region and its transport over the Indian subcontinent using multi-satellite observations and ground-based measurements. A time series of Indian...

  18. Measurements of ozone and nonmethane hydrocarbons at Chichi-jima island, a remote island in the western Pacific: long-range transport of polluted air from the Pacific rim region

    Kato, Shungo; Pochanart, Pakpong; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    Chichi-jima island is located in the Pacific about 1000 km from the Japanese main island and is an ideal remote observatory from which to assess the long-range transport of polluted air from East Asia. The ozone concentration was measured from August 1997 to August 1998. Owing to the air mass change, the seasonal variation of ozone shows a distinct character: low concentration (about 13 ppbv) for the maritime air mass during the summer, and high concentration (about 40 ppbv) for the continental air mass during the winter. To assess the contribution of the long-range transport of polluted air during winter, nonmethane hydrocarbons were also measured in December 1999. Using backward trajectory analysis, the transport time of the air mass from the source area in the Pacific rim region was calculated for each sample. The concentration of hydrocarbons shows a clear negative correlation against the transport time. This analysis clearly shows the transport of polluted air, emitted in East Asia, to the Pacific during the winter. The plots of suitable hydrocarbon pairs showed that the decrease of hydrocarbon concentrations during winter is mainly caused by the mixing with clean background air.

  19. Long-range correlated percolation

    Weinrib, A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a study of the percolation problem with long-range correlations in the site or bond occupations. An extension of the Harris criterion for the relevance of the correlations is derived for the case that the correlations decay as x/sup -a/ for large distances x. For a d the correlations are relevant if dν-2<0. Applying this criterion to the behavior that results when the correlations are relevant, we argue that the new behavior will have ν/sub long/ = 2/a. It is shown that the correlated bond percolation problem is equivalent to a q-state Potts model with quenched disorder in the limit q→1. With the use of this result, a renormalization-group study of the problem is presented, expanding in epsilon = 6-d and in delta = 4-a. In addition to the normal percolation fixed point, we find a new long-range fixed point. The crossover to this new fixed point follows the extended Harris criterion, and the fixed point has exponents ν/sub long/ = 2/a (as predicted) and eta/sub long/ = (1/11)(delta-epsilon). Finally, several results on the percolation properties of the Ising model at its critical point are shown to be in agreement with the predictions of this paper

  20. Receptor modeling of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in different seasons and long-range transport analysis at a coastal site of Tianjin, China.

    Kong, Shaofei; Han, Bin; Bai, Zhipeng; Chen, Li; Shi, Jianwu; Xu, Zhun

    2010-09-15

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP) were sampled synchronously during three monitoring campaigns from June 2007 to February 2008 at a coastal site in TEDA of Tianjin, China. Chemical compositions including 19 elements, 6 water-solubility ions, organic and elemental carbon were determined. principle components analysis (PCA) and chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) were applied to determine the PM sources and their contributions with the assistance of NSS SO(4)(2)(-), the mass ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) and OC to EC. Air mass backward trajectory model was compared with source apportionment results to evaluate the origin of PM. Results showed that NSS SO(4)(2)(-) values for PM(2.5) were 2147.38, 1701.26 and 239.80 ng/m(3) in summer, autumn and winter, reflecting the influence of sources from local emissions. Most of it was below zero in summer for PM(10) indicating the influence of sea salt. The ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) was 0.19 for PM(2.5), 0.18 for PM(10) and 0.19 for TSP in winter indicating high amounts of coal consumed for heating purpose. Higher OC/EC values (mostly larger than 2.5) demonstrated that secondary organic aerosol was abundant at this site. The major sources were construction activities, road dust, vehicle emissions, marine aerosol, metal manufacturing, secondary sulfate aerosols, soil dust, biomass burning, some pharmaceutics industries and fuel-oil combustion according to PCA. Coal combustion, marine aerosol, vehicular emission and soil dust explained 5-31%, 1-13%, 13-44% and 3-46% for PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP, respectively. Backward trajectory analysis showed air parcels originating from sea accounted for 39% in summer, while in autumn and winter the air parcels were mainly related to continental origin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-Range Energy Propagation in Nanometer Arrays of Light Harvesting Antenna Complexes

    Escalantet, Maryana; Escalante Marun, M.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Zhao, Yiping; Tas, Niels Roelof; Huskens, Jurriaan; Hunter, C. Neil; Subramaniam, Vinod; Otto, Cornelis

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the first observation of long-range transport of excitation energy within a biomimetic molecular nanoarray constructed from LH2 antenna complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Fluorescence microscopy of the emission of light after local excitation with a diffraction-limited light beam

  2. Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia

    Chuan-Yao Lin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning produces aerosols and air pollutants during springtime in Southeast Asia. At the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS (elevation 2862 m in central Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3 and particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 were found to be 135–200 ppb, 40–56 ppb and 13–26 µg/m3, respectively, in the springtime (February–April between 2006 and 2009, which are 2–3 times higher than those in other seasons. Simulation results indicate that higher concentrations during springtime are related to biomass-burning plumes transported from the Indochinese peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosol optical depth (AOD was identified by satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15–18 March 2008. Simulated AOD reached as high as 0.8–1.2 in Indochina situated between 10–22°N and 95–107°E. According to the simulation results, 34% of the AOD was attributed to organic carbon over Indochina, while the contribution of black carbon to AOD was about 4%. During the study period, biomass-burning aerosols over Indochina have a net negative effect (−26.85 W·m−2 at ground surface, a positive effect (22.11 W·m−2 in the atmosphere and a negative forcing (−4.74 W·m−2 at the top of atmosphere. Under the influence of biomass-burning aerosol plume transported by strong wind, there is a NE−SW zone stretching from southern China to Taiwan with reduction in shortwave radiation of about 20 W·m−2 at ground surface. Such significant reduction in radiation attributed to biomass-burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia merit attention.

  3. Monitoring of long-range transported air pollutants, Annual report for 1996; Overvaaking av langtransportert forurenset luft og nedboer. Atmosfaerisk tilfoersel, 1996

    Toerseth, K.; Manoe, S.

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the results from the rural air- and precipitation chemistry network in Norway. In 1996, main components in precipitation were measured at 32 sites and trace elements were determined at 13 sites. The concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in air were determined at 12 sites, and concentrations of ozone at 15 sites. The highest mean concentrations of sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and strong acid in precipitation occurred along the southern coast. Low values were found from Moere og Romsdal to Troms counties. The largest wet deposition of sulphate, nitrogen components and strong acid occurred along the coast of the southernmost tip of the country. All over the country the mean concentrations of sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and strong acid in precipitation had in general increased from 1995 to 1996. Because of small annual precipitation amounts the wet depositions were the lowest measured so far at most places in Norway. The highest content of particulate sulphate and of nitrogen components in air and in precipitation were measured in Southern Norway. The mean concentrations of sulphur dioxide were highest in Finnmark due to the nickel smelters in Russia. The largest annual mean concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc in precipitation were measured in Southern Norway. Mercury in air decreased from 1992 to 1996 while the concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc increased. This is opposite to the trend observed in precipitation chemistry and is probably due to emissions in Eastern Europe. 47 refs., 34 figs., 37 tabs.

  4. Dimethyl sulfide: Less important than long-range transport as a source of sulfate to the remote tropical Pacific marine boundary layer

    Simpson, Rebecca M. C.; Howell, Steven G.; Blomquist, Byron W.; Clarke, Antony D.; Huebert, Barry J.

    2014-07-01

    During the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment (PASE), dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was not the principal source of non-sea salt sulfate (NSS) mass in the remote marine boundary layer (MBL), according to an Eulerian sulfur budget based on observations of chemical concentrations from the NCAR C-130 in relatively dry, subsiding regions of the tropical Pacific. Our three (DMS, SO2, and NSS) monthly-average budgets are mutually consistent. The PASE-average DMS emission was 3.0 ± 0.5μmol m-2 d-1 (our budget "units"). SO2 sources include DMS + OH (1.4 ± 0.4 units, assuming 75% of reacted DMS forms SO2) and entrainment from the free troposphere (FT) (0.8 ± 0.2 units). Clouds were the most important chemical reactors for SO2 (-1.0 ± 0.5 units). SO2 loss terms also include divergence (-0.9 ± 0.3 units), dry deposition (-0.5 ± 0.2 units), and OH + SO2 (-0.22 ± 0.05 units). The total SO2 loss balanced the SO2 source. We assume that no SO2 was lost to ozone oxidation on sea salt particles; we found negligible NSS on particles from 2.6 μm (the sea salt mass peak) to 10 μm diameter. Fine-particle NSS sources include in-cloud oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 (1.0 ± 0.5 units), OH + SO2 (0.19 ± 0.05 units), and entrainment (1.1 ± 0.3 units in clean conditions; twice that when continental pollution is present). NSS sources balance NSS loss to divergence. Only about one fourth of emitted DMS becomes NSS. FT entrainment supplied two thirds and DMS oxidation produced one third of MBL NSS, rather similar source terms.

  5. Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Trace Metals in Arctic Aerosols: Long-Range Atmospheric Transport, Photochemical Degradation/Production at Polar Sunrise.

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Yanase, Ayako; Barrie, Leonard A

    2017-08-15

    The distributions, correlations, and source apportionment of aromatic acids, aromatic ketones, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace metals were studied in Canadian high Arctic aerosols. Nineteen PAHs including minor sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAH (dibenzothiophene) and major 6 carcinogenic PAHs were detected with a high proportion of fluoranthene followed by benzo[k]fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene. However, in the sunlit period of spring, their concentrations significantly declined likely due to photochemical decomposition. During the polar sunrise from mid-March to mid-April, benzo[a]pyrene to benzo[e]pyrene ratios significantly dropped, and the ratios diminished further from late April to May onward. These results suggest that PAHs transported over the Arctic are subjected to strong photochemical degradation at polar sunrise. Although aromatic ketones decreased in spring, concentrations of some aromatic acids such as benzoic and phthalic acids increased during the course of polar sunrise, suggesting that aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidized to result in aromatic acids. However, PAHs do not act as the major source for low molecular weight (LMW) diacids such as oxalic acid that are largely formed at polar sunrise in the arctic atmosphere because PAHs are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less abundant than LMW diacids. Correlations of trace metals with organics, their sources, and the possible role of trace transition metals are explained.

  6. Influence of intense secondary aerosol formation and long-range transport on aerosol chemistry and properties in the Seoul Metropolitan Area during spring time: results from KORUS-AQ

    Kim, Hwajin; Zhang, Qi; Heo, Jongbae

    2018-05-01

    semivolatile species and formation of SV-OOA and nitrate. During a period of 4 days (from 20 to 23 May ), LV-OOA increased dramatically and accounted for up to 41 % of the PM1 mass. This intense LV-OOA formation event was associated with large enhancements of both anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs (e.g., isoprene and toluene), high concentration of Ox ( = O3 + NO2), strong solar radiation, and stagnant conditions, suggesting that it was mainly driven by local photochemical formation. We have also investigated the formation and evolution mechanisms of severe haze episodes. Unlike the winter haze events which were mainly caused by intense local emissions coupled with stagnant meteorological conditions, the spring haze events appeared to be influenced by both regional and local factors. For example, there were episodes of long-range transport of plumes followed by calm meteorology conditions, which promoted the formation and accumulation of local secondary species, leading to high concentrations of PM. Overall, our results indicate that PM pollutants in urban Korea originate from complex emission sources and atmospheric processes and that the concentrations and composition of PM are controlled by various factors, including meteorological conditions, local anthropogenic emissions, and upwind sources.

  7. Influence of long-range atmospheric transport pathways and climate teleconnection patterns on the variability of surface 210Pb and 7Be concentrations in southwestern Europe.

    Grossi, C; Ballester, J; Serrano, I; Galmarini, S; Camacho, A; Curcoll, R; Morguí, J A; Rodò, X; Duch, M A

    2016-12-01

    The variability of the atmospheric concentration of the 7 Be and 210 Pb radionuclides is strongly linked to the origin of air masses, the strength of their sources and the processes of wet and dry deposition. It has been shown how these processes and their variability are strongly affected by climate change. Thus, a deeper knowledge of the relationship between the atmospheric radionuclides variability measured close to the ground and these atmospheric processes could help in the analysis of climate scenarios. In the present study, we analyze the atmospheric variability of a 14-year time series of 7 Be and 210 Pb in a Mediterranean coastal city using a synergy of different indicators and tools such as: the local meteorological conditions, global and regional climate indexes and a lagrangian atmospheric transport model. We particularly focus on the relationships between the main pathways of air masses and sun spots occurrence, the variability of the local relative humidity and temperature conditions, and the main modes of regional climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO). The variability of the observed atmospheric concentrations of both 7 Be and 210 Pb radionuclides was found to be mainly positively associated to the local climate conditions of temperature and to the pathways of air masses arriving at the station. Measured radionuclide concentrations significantly increase when air masses travel at low tropospheric levels from central Europe and the western part of the Iberian Peninsula, while low concentrations are associated with westerly air masses. We found a significant negative correlation between the WeMO index and the atmospheric variability of both radionuclides and no significant association was observed for the NAO index. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-Range Neutron Detection

    Peurrung, A.J.; Stromswold, D.C.; Hansen, R.R.; Reeder, P.L.; Barnett, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    A neutron detector designed for detecting neutron sources at distances of 50 to 100 m has been constructed and tested. This detector has a large surface area (1 m 2 ) to enhance detection efficiency, and it contains a collimator and shielding to achieve direction sensitivity and reduce background. An unusual feature of the detector is that it contains no added moderator, such as polyethylene, to moderate fast neutrons before they reach the 3 He detector. As a result, the detector is sensitive mainly to thermal neutrons. The moderator-free design reduces the weight of the detector, making it more portable, and it also aids in achieving directional sensitivity and background reduction. Test results show that moderated fission-neutron sources of strength about 3 x 10 5 n/s can be detected at a distance out to 70 m in a counting time of 1000 s. The best angular resolution of the detector is obtained at distances of 30 m or less. As the separation .distance between the source and detector increases, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the measured signal increases with a resultant decrease in the ability to detect the direction to a distant source. Applications for which the long-range detector appears to be suitable include detecting remote neutron sources (including sources in moving vehicles) and monitoring neutron storage vaults for the intrusion of humans and the effects they make on the detected neutron signal. Also, the detector can be used to measure waste for the presence of transuranic material in the presence of high gamma-ray background. A test with a neutron source (3 x 10 5 n/s) in a vehicle showed that the detector could readily measure an increase in count rate at a distance of 10 m for vehicle speeds up to 35 mph (the highest speed tested). These results. indicate that the source should be detectable at this distance at speeds up to 55 mph

  9. Thermochemical cycles for the heat and cold long-range transport. Final report of the PRI 9.2 Cold transport. Annual report of the PR 2-8; Cycles thermochimiques pour le transport de chaleur et de froid a longue distance. Rapport final du PRI 9.2. Transport de froid. Rapport annuel du PR 2-8

    Luo, L.; Tondeur, D. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique (LSGC), 54 - Nancy (France); Mazet, N.; Neveu, P.; Stitou, D.; Spinner, B. [Institut de Science et de Genie des Materiaux et Procedes (IMP), 66 - Perpignan (France)

    2004-07-01

    This PRI deals with the use of thermochemical processes, based on solid-gas reversible transformation, to transfer heat of cold at long-range distance (> 10 km), in order to enhance the energy efficiency. Four main aspects have been studied to confirm the process feasibility: the process identification and the operating conditions, the selection of compatible reagents, the design of an auto-thermal reactor and the gas transport impact on the global performances. (A.L.B.)

  10. Monitoring of long-range transported air pollutants and precipitation. Monitoring programme for forest damage. Abstract of annual reports 1996; Overvaaking av langtransportert forurenset luft og nedboer. Overvaakingsprogram for skogskader. Sammendrag av aarsrapporter 1996

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report sums up the results for 1996 of two monitoring programmes: `` Norwegian Monitoring Programme for Long-Range Transported Air Pollutants`` and ``Norwegian forest monitoring programme``. The atmospheric pollution is monitored by measurements of chemical main components in the air and in precipitation. The effects of the pollutants on water quality are followed by monitoring of rivers, lakes and field research areas. The effects on fish are followed by regional investigations on benthic organisms, zooplankton and fish populations in rivers and lakes. Water chemical samples are taken each month from 16 rivers and acid material is monitored at seven field research areas. Samples are also taken from 200 lakes every autumn. The biological monitoring programme comprises fish in lakes and streams and benthic animals in lakes. The monitoring of forest damage uses three nation-wide areas from which registrations have been taken over a period of ten years. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Emissions allocation in transportation routes

    Leenders, B.P.J.; Velázquez Martínez, J.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the allocation of CO2 emissions to a specific shipment in routing transportation. The authors show that this problem differs from a cost allocation problem specifically because the concavity condition does not hold necessarily in the CO2 allocation problem. This implies that a

  12. PCDD/F measurement at a high-altitude station in Central Taiwan: evaluation of long-range transport of PCDD/Fs during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event.

    Chi, Kai Hsien; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Yang, Chang-Feng Ou; Wang, Jia-Lin; Lin, Neng-Heui; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lee, Chung-Te

    2010-04-15

    Recent biomass burning in Southeast Asia has raised global concerns over its adverse effects on visibility, human health, and global climate. The concentrations of total suspended particles (TSPs) and other vapor-phase pollutants (CO and ozone) were monitored at Lulin, an atmospheric background station in central Taiwan in 2008. To evaluate the long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event, the atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were also measured at Lulin station. The atmospheric PCDD/F and TSP concentrations measured at Lulin station ranged from 0.71-3.41 fg I-TEQ/m(3) and 5.32-55.6 microg/m(3), respectively, during the regular sampling periods. However, significantly higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs, TSPs, CO, and ozone were measured during the spring season. These high concentrations could be the result of long-range transport of the products of Southeast Asia biomass burning. During the Southeast Asia biomass burning event (March 18-24, 2008), an intensive observation program was also carried out at the same station. The results of this observation program indicated that the atmospheric PCDD/F concentration increased dramatically from 2.33 to 390 fg I-TEQ/m(3) (March 19, 2008). The trace gas (CO) of biomass burning also significantly increased to 232 ppb during the same period, while the particle-bound PCDD/Fs in the TSP increased from 28.7 to 109 pg I-TEQ/g-TSP at Lulin station during the burning event. We conclude that there was a significant increase in the PCDD/F concentration in ambient air at a high-altitude background station in central Taiwan during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event.

  13. Long-range alpha detector (LRAD)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity, even if the particles are intercepted. Of necessity, these detectors are operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. In our new long-range alpha detector (LRAD), alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of about 30,000 ion pairs per MeV of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The LRAD-based monitor is more sensitive and more thorough than conventional monitors. We present current LRAD sensitivity limits and results, practical monitor designs, and proposed uses for LRAD monitors. 4 refs., 7 figs

  14. Comparison of the Chemical Composition of Mineral Particles Collected in Dunhuang, China and those Collected in the Free Troposphere over Japan: Possible Chemical Modification during Long-Range Transport

    Trochkine, D.; Iwasaka, Y.; Matsuki, A.; Yamada, M.; Kim, Y.-S.; Zhang, D.; Shi, G.-Y.; Shen, Z.; Li, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Asian continent is recognized as one of the most important sources of mineral (or soil) particles. These particles have a large potential to effect global changes through the biogeochemical cycle of particulates and through radiative balance (IPCC Third Assessment Report, 2001). Therefore, comparison of particle compositions near the source region and those after long-range transport is important in understanding the long-range particle transport phenomenon. Individual aerosol particles were collected in Dunhuang (40 o 09'N; 94 o 41'E), China. Particles were collected at the campus of the Meteorological Bureau of Dunhuang City (17 August 2001) and near the Mogao Grots, located approximately 30 km from Dunhuang (18 August 2001, 18 October 2001 and 13 January 2002) using a two-stage low-volume impactor. The morphology of individual aerosol particles and their elemental compositions were examined via a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi, S-3000N) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer (Horiba, EMAX-500). The particles collected at these locations were comprised primarily of minerals, with the exception of sulphate particles in the submicron range that were contained in the sample collected on 18 October 2001 (likely, ammonium sulphate). The most abundant elements were found to be Si and Al. Approximately 46-77% of the collected particles were Si-rich particles (composed primarily of quartz and aluminosilicate),and 13-41% of the collected particles were Ca-rich particles,such as calcite (CaCO 3 ), dolomite (CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 ),and gypsum (CaSO 4 c2H 2 O). The fractions of Fe-rich, Mg-rich, Ti-rich, K-rich, and Cl-rich were 3-10, 0-7, 0-3, 0-1, and 0-1%, respectively. Similar types of mineral particles were found in the free troposphere over Japan(Trochkine et al., 2002). A number of differences were found to exist between the particles collected in China and those collected in Japan, and these differences can be explained by chemical modification of

  15. Tropospheric Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical, Microphysical and Concentration Properties in the Frame of the Hygra-CD Campaign (Athens, Greece 2014: A Case Study of Long-Range Transport of Mixed Aerosols

    Papayannis Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined multi-wavelength aerosol Raman lidar and sun photometry measurements were performed during the HYGRA-CD campaign over Athens, Greece during May-June 2014. The retrieved aerosol optical properties (3 aerosol backscatter at 355-532-1064 nm and 2 aerosol extinction profiles at 355-532 nm were used as input to an inversion code to retrieve the aerosol microphysical properties (effective radius reff and number concentration N using regularization techniques. Additionally, the volume concentration profile was derived for fine particles using the LIRIC code. In this paper we selected a complex case study of long-range transport of mixed aerosols (biomass burning particles mixed with dust arriving over Athens between 10-12 June 2014 in the 1.5-4 km height. Between 2-3 km height we measured mean lidar ratios (LR ranging from 45 to 58 sr (at 355 and 532 nm, while the Ångström exponent (AE aerosol extinction-related values (355nm/532nm ranged between 0.8-1.3. The retrieved values of reff and N ranged from 0.19±0.07 to 0.22±0.07 μm and 460±230 to 2200±2800 cm-3, respectively. The aerosol linear depolarization ratio (δ at 532 nm was lower than 5-7% (except for the Saharan dust cases, where δ~10-15%.

  16. Long-range-transported bioaerosols captured in snow cover on Mount Tateyama, Japan: impacts of Asian-dust events on airborne bacterial dynamics relating to ice-nucleation activities

    T. Maki

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The westerly wind travelling at high altitudes over eastern Asia transports aerosols from the Asian deserts and urban areas to downwind areas such as Japan. These long-range-transported aerosols include not only mineral particles but also microbial particles (bioaerosols, that impact the ice-cloud formation processes as ice nuclei. However, the detailed relations of airborne bacterial dynamics to ice nucleation in high-elevation aerosols have not been investigated. Here, we used the aerosol particles captured in the snow cover at altitudes of 2450 m on Mt Tateyama to investigate sequential changes in the ice-nucleation activities and bacterial communities in aerosols and elucidate the relationships between the two processes. After stratification of the snow layers formed on the walls of a snow pit on Mt Tateyama, snow samples, including aerosol particles, were collected from 70 layers at the lower (winter accumulation and upper (spring accumulation parts of the snow wall. The aerosols recorded in the lower parts mainly came from Siberia (Russia, northern Asia and the Sea of Japan, whereas those in the upper parts showed an increase in Asian dust particles originating from the desert regions and industrial coasts of Asia. The snow samples exhibited high levels of ice nucleation corresponding to the increase in Asian dust particles. Amplicon sequencing analysis using 16S rRNA genes revealed that the bacterial communities in the snow samples predominately included plant associated and marine bacteria (phyla Proteobacteria during winter, whereas during spring, when dust events arrived frequently, the majority were terrestrial bacteria of phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundances of Firmicutes (Bacilli showed a significant positive relationship with the ice nucleation in snow samples. Presumably, Asian dust events change the airborne bacterial communities over Mt Tateyama and carry terrestrial bacterial populations, which

  17. Long-range-transported bioaerosols captured in snow cover on Mount Tateyama, Japan: impacts of Asian-dust events on airborne bacterial dynamics relating to ice-nucleation activities

    Maki, Teruya; Furumoto, Shogo; Asahi, Yuya; Lee, Kevin C.; Watanabe, Koichi; Aoki, Kazuma; Murakami, Masataka; Tajiri, Takuya; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Mashio, Asami; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2018-06-01

    The westerly wind travelling at high altitudes over eastern Asia transports aerosols from the Asian deserts and urban areas to downwind areas such as Japan. These long-range-transported aerosols include not only mineral particles but also microbial particles (bioaerosols), that impact the ice-cloud formation processes as ice nuclei. However, the detailed relations of airborne bacterial dynamics to ice nucleation in high-elevation aerosols have not been investigated. Here, we used the aerosol particles captured in the snow cover at altitudes of 2450 m on Mt Tateyama to investigate sequential changes in the ice-nucleation activities and bacterial communities in aerosols and elucidate the relationships between the two processes. After stratification of the snow layers formed on the walls of a snow pit on Mt Tateyama, snow samples, including aerosol particles, were collected from 70 layers at the lower (winter accumulation) and upper (spring accumulation) parts of the snow wall. The aerosols recorded in the lower parts mainly came from Siberia (Russia), northern Asia and the Sea of Japan, whereas those in the upper parts showed an increase in Asian dust particles originating from the desert regions and industrial coasts of Asia. The snow samples exhibited high levels of ice nucleation corresponding to the increase in Asian dust particles. Amplicon sequencing analysis using 16S rRNA genes revealed that the bacterial communities in the snow samples predominately included plant associated and marine bacteria (phyla Proteobacteria) during winter, whereas during spring, when dust events arrived frequently, the majority were terrestrial bacteria of phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundances of Firmicutes (Bacilli) showed a significant positive relationship with the ice nucleation in snow samples. Presumably, Asian dust events change the airborne bacterial communities over Mt Tateyama and carry terrestrial bacterial populations, which possibly induce ice

  18. Estimation of Turkish road transport emissions

    Soylu, Seref

    2007-01-01

    Using the COPERT III program, an inventory of Turkish road transport emissions was calculated and the contributions of road transport to global and local air pollutant emissions were examined for the year 2004. It was observed that passenger cars are the main source of CO, HC, and Pb emissions while heavy duty vehicles are mainly responsible for NO x , particulate matter (PM), and SO 2 emissions. Taking the emissions for the year 2004 as the baseline, a parametric study was conducted to determine the emission reduction potentials of different road transport strategies. The results indicated that the following road transport strategies; fleet renewal, promotion of public transportation, and faster urban traffic speed are very effective strategies for reducing regulated emissions and fuel consumption (FC) from a technical point of view. It was also noted that replacement of two-stroke motorcycles with four-stroke motorcycles is as effective as fleet renewal in reducing HC emissions

  19. Long-Range WindScanner System

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  20. Heavy metals and Pb isotopic composition of aerosols in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, South China—Evidence of the long-range transport of air contaminants

    Lee, Celine S. L.; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Ding, Ai-Jun; Wang, Tao

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization in South China has placed great strain on the environment and on human health. In the present study, the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, the two largest urban centres in South China, was sampled from December 2003 to January 2005. The samples were analysed for the concentrations of major elements (Al, Fe, Mg and Mn) and trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and Zn), and for Pb isotopic composition. Elevated concentrations of metals, especially Cd, Pb, V and Zn, were observed in the urban and suburban areas of Guangzhou, showing significant atmospheric trace element pollution. Distinct seasonal patterns were observed in the heavy metal concentrations of aerosols in Hong Kong, with higher metal concentrations during the winter monsoon period, and lower concentrations during summertime. The seasonal variations in the metal concentrations of the aerosols in Guangzhou were less distinct, suggesting the dominance of local sources of pollution around the city. The Pb isotopic composition in the aerosols of Hong Kong had higher 206Pb/ 207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios in winter, showing the influence of Pb from the northern inland areas of China and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, and lower 206Pb/ 207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios in summer, indicating the influence of Pb from the South Asian region and from marine sources. The back trajectory analysis showed that the enrichment of heavy metals in Hong Kong and Guangzhou was closely associated with the air mass from the north and northeast that originated from northern China, reflecting the long-range transport of heavy metal contaminants from the northern inland areas of China to the South China coast.

  1. Long range diffusion of hydrogen in yttrium

    Anderson, I.S.; Scherrer, P.; Ross, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    The diffusion of H in single crystals of YH 0.2 is investigated by means of Quasielastic neutron scattering between 593 K and 695 K. Individual jump rates giving rise to long range and local diffusion are determined. (orig.)

  2. Long-range spin deformations around quasiparticles

    Godfrey, M.; Gunn, M.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-particle formed by a hole in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet has an associated long-range spin distortion whose amplitude increases with the velocity of the hole. The authors show that the existence and properties of this distortion follow from simple classical arguments based on the long-wavelength equations of motion for the spin system. A similar long-range distortion is found in the quantum-mechanical problem of an electron exchange coupled to a Heisenberg antiferromagnet

  3. Size distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls, sugars, WSOC, OC, EC and inorganic ions in atmospheric particles over Northern Japan: implication for long-range transport of Siberian biomass burning and East Asian polluted aerosols

    Agarwal, S.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Okuzawa, K.; Kawamura, K.

    2010-07-01

    To better understand the size-segregated chemical composition of aged organic aerosols in the western North Pacific rim, day- and night-time aerosol samples were collected in Sapporo, Japan during summer 2005 using an Andersen impactor sampler with 5 size bins: Dp7.0 μm. Samples were analyzed for the molecular composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls, and sugars, together with water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and inorganic ions. Based on the analyses of backward trajectories and chemical tracers, we found that during the campaign, air masses arrived from Siberia (a biomass burning source region) on 8-9 August, from China (an anthropogenic source region) on 9-10 August, and from the East China Sea/Sea of Japan (a mixed source receptor region) on 10-11 August. Most of the diacids, ketoacids, dicarbonyls, levoglucosan, WSOC, and inorganic ions (i.e., SO42-, NH4+ and K+) were enriched in fine particles (PM1.1) whereas Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- peaked in coarse sizes (>1.1 μm). Interestingly, OC, most sugar compounds and NO3- showed bimodal distributions in fine and coarse modes. In PM1.1, diacids in biomass burning-influenced aerosols transported from Siberia (mean: 252 ng m-3) were more abundant than those in the aerosols originating from China (209 ng m-3) and ocean (142 ng m-3), whereas SO42- concentrations were highest in the aerosols from China (mean: 3970 ng m-3) followed by marine- (2950 ng m-3) and biomass burning-influenced (1980 ng m-3) aerosols. Higher loadings of WSOC (2430 ng m-3) and OC (4360 ng m-3) were found in the fine mode, where biomass-burning products such as levoglucosan are abundant. This paper presents a case study of long-range transported aerosols illustrating that biomass burning episodes in the Siberian region have a significant influence on the chemical composition of carbonaceous aerosols in the western North Pacific rim.

  4. Inferring wavelength dependence of AOD and Ångström exponent over a sub-tropical station in South Africa using AERONET data: Influence of meteorology, long-range transport and curvature effect

    Kumar, K. Raghavendra, E-mail: kanike.kumar@gmail.com [Discipline of Physics, School of Chemistry and Physics, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Sivakumar, V. [Discipline of Physics, School of Chemistry and Physics, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Reddy, R.R.; Gopal, K. Rama [Department of Physics, Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur 515 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Adesina, A. Joseph [Discipline of Physics, School of Chemistry and Physics, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2013-09-01

    aerosol properties that are derived from the ocean, desert, and anthropogenic activities that include biomass burning and industrial pollution. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in AOD, Ångström exponent, and columnar water vapor were studied. • Maximum (minimum) AOD was observed during the spring (autumn) season. • The impact of meteorology and signatures of long-range transport were determined. • We statistically evaluated the effect of meteorology and curvature on optical properties.

  5. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols in Ile-de-France: Local contribution and Long range transport; Caracteisation des aeosols atmospheiques en Ile-de-France: contribution locale et transport a longues distances

    Cuesta, J.E

    2006-06-15

    Atmospheric aerosols interact directly in a great number of processes related to climate change and public health, modifying the energy budget and partly determining the quality of the air we breathe. In my PhD, I chose to study the perturbation, if not the aggravation, of the living conditions in Ile-de-France associated to aerosol transport episodes in the free troposphere. This situation is rather frequent and still badly known. To achieve my study, I developed the observation platform 'TReSS' Transportable Remote Sensing Station, whose instruments were developed at the Laboratoire de Meteorology Dynamique by the LiMAG team. 'TReSS' consists of a new high-performance 'Mini-Lidar' and of two standard radiometers: a sun photometer and a thermal infrared radiometer. The principle of my experimental approach is the synergy of the vertical Lidar profiles and the particle size distributions over the column, obtained by the 'Almucantar' inversion of sun photometer data. The new 'Lidar and Almucantar' method characterizes the vertical distribution by layer and the optical micro-physical properties of the local and transported aerosols. Firstly, I undertook the characterization of the Paris aerosol, mainly of anthropogenic origin. Their radiative properties were analyzed in the daily and yearly scales. Then, I conducted a statistical multi-year study of transport episodes and a two-week study case, representative of a succession of desert dust intrusion in Ile-de-France. My PhD work concludes by a study on the impact of biomass burning aerosols during the heat wave on August 2003. I study the impact of the transported aerosols into the local radiative budget and the possible consequences on the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer. (author)

  6. Long range correlations in condensed matter

    Bochicchio, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Off diagonal long range order (ODLRO) correlations are strongly related with the generalized Bose-Einstein condensation. Under certain boundary conditions, one implies the other. These phenomena are of great importance in the description of quantum situations with a macroscopic manifestation (superfluidity, superconductivity, etc.). Since ion pairs are not bosons, the definition of ODLRO is modified. The information contained with the 2-particle propagator (electron pairs) and the consequences that lead to pairs statistics are shown in this presentation. The analogy between long range correlations and fluids is also analyzed. (Author). 17 refs

  7. Passive long range acousto-optic sensor

    Slater, Dan

    2006-08-01

    Alexander Graham Bell's photophone of 1880 was a simple free space optical communication device that used the sun to illuminate a reflective acoustic diaphragm. A selenium photocell located 213 m (700 ft) away converted the acoustically modulated light beam back into sound. A variation of the photophone is presented here that uses naturally formed free space acousto-optic communications links to provide passive multichannel long range acoustic sensing. This system, called RAS (remote acoustic sensor), functions as a long range microphone with a demonstrated range in excess of 40 km (25 miles).

  8. Heavy metal emissions for Danish road transport

    Winther, M.; Slentoe, E.

    2010-04-15

    This report presents new heavy metal emission factors for cars, vans, trucks, buses, mopeds and motorcycles for each of the emission sources fuel consumption, engine oil, tyre wear, brake wear and road abrasion. The emission components covered are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn), all of them relevant for emission reporting to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long Range Transboundary Pollutants) convention. The report also presents a new Danish inventory for the year 2007. The following emissions in total TSP (in brackets) are calculated for the year 2007: As (8 kg), Cd (48 kg), Cr (197 kg), Cu (51 779 kg), Hg (28 kg), Ni (158 kg), Pb (6 989 kg), Se (33 kg) and Zn (28 556 kg). Per vehicle type cars are the most important source of emission for all heavy metal species, followed by vans, trucks, buses and 2-wheelers. By using the detailed emission factors and inventory calculation methods established in the present project, estimates of heavy metal emissions can be made for other years than 2007. (author)

  9. Size distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls, sugars, WSOC, OC, EC and inorganic ions in atmospheric particles over Northern Japan: implication for long-range transport of Siberian biomass burning and East Asian polluted aerosols

    S. Agarwal

    2010-07-01

    levoglucosan are abundant. This paper presents a case study of long-range transported aerosols illustrating that biomass burning episodes in the Siberian region have a significant influence on the chemical composition of carbonaceous aerosols in the western North Pacific rim.

  10. Long-range terms in atomic collisions

    McGuire, J.H.; Weaver, O.L.

    1986-01-01

    Various separations, or ''gauge choices,'' are possible for the decomposition of the total Hamiltonian into electronic and internuclear terms. We show that, for one particular choice, all long-range Coulomb terms are associated with the internuclear motion. The potential then associated with electronic transitions is non-Coulombic. Some practical consequences of this gauge choice are discussed

  11. Resources and Long-Range Forecasts

    Smith, Waldo E.

    1973-01-01

    The author argues that forecasts of quick depletion of resources in the environment as a result of overpopulation and increased usage may not be free from error. Ignorance still exists in understanding the recovery mechanisms of nature. Long-range forecasts are likely to be wrong in such situations. (PS)

  12. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  13. Long range diffusion of hydrogen in yttrium

    Anderson, I S; Scherrer, P [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland); Ross, D K [Birmingham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics; Bonnet, J E [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE), Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1989-01-01

    The diffusion of H in single crystals of YH{sub 0.2} is investigated by means of Quasielastic neutron scattering between 593 K and 695 K. Individual jump rates giving rise to long range and local diffusion are determined. (orig.).

  14. Comparison of fission probabilities with emission of long range particles under the action of slow and fast neutrons on various materials; Probabilites comparees de fission avec emission de particules de long parcours pour divers materiaux sous l'action des neutrons lents et rapides

    Netter, F; Faraggi, H; Garin-Bonnet, A; Julien, J; Corge, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Turkiewicz, J [Institut de Recherches Nucleaire de Varsovie (Poland)

    1958-07-01

    The authors describe relative cross-section measurements of fission of the isotopes of uranium and plutonium (more particularly {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu), with emission of long range particles, under the action of neutrons of various energies: thermal neutrons, pile neutrons, neutrons produced with the Van de Graaff accelerator by reaction of protons on tritium. The measurements are carried out: 1) with the aid of photographic plates, by submitting to the action of the neutrons a layer of fissile material coupled with an Ilford nuclear emulsion of 200 microns; a tin sheet laying between the plate and the layer stops the {alpha} particles and the fission fragments. By an appropriate development the tracks of the long range particles can be distinguished in the emulsion, from the tracks of the recoil protons resulting of fission neutrons, or of the last primary neutrons. For neutrons of energy under 1 MeV, the compared frequency of the tracks of long range particles and of the recoils caused by the fission neutrons gives a measurement of the fission cross-section with emission of long range particles relative to the product of the fission cross-section by the mean number of neutrons emitted by fission. For neutrons of higher energy, one measures only the frequency of the tracks of long range particles, comparatively with the flux of primary neutrons. Some precautions are taken to eliminate the action of thermal neutrons in the measurements with fast neutrons. 2) with the aid of a system of ionization chamber and proportional counter, the rate of coincidence between the impulsions caused by the long range particles and the impulsions provided by one of the fission fragments is measured comparatively with the counting rate of fission fragme (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent des mesures relatives a la section efficace de fission des isotopes de l'uranium et du plutonium (notamment {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu) avec emission de particules de long

  15. Gauge hierarchy and long range forces

    Pal, P.B.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Chang, D.

    1990-01-01

    With the aid of simple examples, we show how a long range attractive force can arise in a gauge theory with a hierarchy. The force is due to the exchange of a Higgs boson whose mass and matter couplings are both naturally suppressed by the hierarchical mass ratio. Such bosons appear if there is an accidental global symmetry in the low-energy renormalizable Lagrangian after the high energy symmetry breaking. 6 refs

  16. Long-range interaction between spins

    Naik, P.C.; Pradhan, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that invariance of Lagrangian field theory under a class of the coordinate-dependent Lorentz group of transformations requires the introduction of a massless axial vector gauge field which gives rise to a super-weak long-range spin-spin force between particles in vacuum. Recent experiments demonstrating repulsion and attraction between circularly polarised laser beams are interpreted to be due to such a force enhanced by spin polarisation of sodium vapour, through which these beams pass. (author)

  17. Rapidly solidified long-range-ordered alloys

    Lee, E.H.; Koch, C.C.; Liu, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of rapid solidification processing on the microstructure of long-range-ordered alloys in the (Fe, Co, Ni) 3 V system has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. The main microstructural feature of the as-quenched alloys was a fine cell structure (approx. 300 nm diameter) decorated with carbide particles. This structure was maintained aftr annealing treatments which develop the ordered crystal structure. Other features of the microstructures both before and after annealing are presented and discussed. 6 figures

  18. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; G. Z. Heller; D. M. Stasinopoulos; R. A. Rigby

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine th...

  19. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; G. Z. Heller; D. M. Stasinopoulos; R. A. Rigby

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a probabilistic statistical model to forecast streamflow 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probabil...

  20. Imaging using long range dipolar field effects

    Gutteridge, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis has been undertaken by the author, except where indicated in reference, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre, at the University of Nottingham during the period from October 1998 to March 2001. This thesis details the different characteristics of the long range dipolar field and its application to magnetic resonance imaging. The long range dipolar field is usually neglected in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, as molecular tumbling decouples its effect at short distances. However, in highly polarised samples residual long range components have a significant effect on the evolution of the magnetisation, giving rise to multiple spin echoes and unexpected quantum coherences. Three applications utilising these dipolar field effects are documented in this thesis. The first demonstrates the spatial sensitivity of the signal generated via dipolar field effects in structured liquid state samples. The second utilises the signal produced by the dipolar field to create proton spin density maps. These maps directly yield an absolute value for the water content of the sample that is unaffected by relaxation and any RF inhomogeneity or calibration errors in the radio frequency pulses applied. It has also been suggested that the signal generated by dipolar field effects may provide novel contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the third application, the effects of microscopic susceptibility variation on the signal are studied and the relaxation rate of the signal is compared to that of a conventional spin echo. (author)

  1. Smart Transportation CO2 Emission Reduction Strategies

    Tarulescu, S.; Tarulescu, R.; Soica, A.; Leahu, C. I.

    2017-10-01

    Transport represents the sector with the fastest growing greenhouse gas emissions around the world. The main global objective is to reduce energy usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. For this study it was analyzed the road transportation system from Brasov Metropolitan area. The study was made for the transportation route that connects Ghimbav city to the main surrounding objectives. In this study ware considered four optimization measures: vehicle fleet renewal; building the detour belt for the city; road increasing the average travel speed; making bicycle lanes; and implementing an urban public transport system for Ghimbav. For each measure it was used a mathematical model to calculate the energy consumption and carbon emissions from the road transportation sector. After all four measures was analyzed is calculated the general energy consumption and CO2 reduction if this are applied from year 2017 to 2020.

  2. The feasibility of long range battery electric cars in New Zealand

    Duke, Mike; Andrews, Deborah; Anderson, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand transport accounts for over 40% of the carbon emissions with private cars accounting for 25%. In the Ministry of Economic Development's recently released 'New Zealand Energy Strategy to 2050', it proposed the wide scale deployment of electric vehicles as a means of reducing carbon emissions from transport. However, New Zealand's lack of public transport infrastructure and its subsequent reliance on private car use for longer journeys could mean that many existing battery electric vehicles (BEVs) will not have the performance to replace conventionally fuelled cars. As such, this paper discusses the potential for BEVs in New Zealand, with particular reference to the development of the University of Waikato's long-range UltraCommuter BEV. It is shown that to achieve a long range at higher speeds, BEVs should be designed specifically rather than retrofitting existing vehicles to electric. Furthermore, the electrical energy supply for a mixed fleet of 2 million BEVs is discussed and conservatively calculated, along with the number of wind turbines to achieve this. The results show that approximately 1350 MW of wind turbines would be needed to supply the mixed fleet of 2 million BEVs, or 54% of the energy produced from NZ's planned and installed wind farms.

  3. Mott scattering as a probe of long range QCD

    Bertulani, C.A.; Balantekin, A.B.

    1993-12-01

    We investigate the possibility of using the Mott scattering between identical nuclei to assess the existence of long range QCD, e.g., a color Van der Waals interaction, as suggested recently. Among other effects which were not considered before, the tail of the nuclear potential, emission of radiation by Bremsstrahlung, atomic screening, emission of delta-electrons, and the quasi-molecule binding are included in our calculations. We show that the sum of these effects can explain the observed shift in the Mott oscillations in a recent experiment. (orig.)

  4. Long-range order in canary song.

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Ivie, Elizabeth; Kligler, Laura; Gardner, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Bird songs range in form from the simple notes of a Chipping Sparrow to the rich performance of the nightingale. Non-adjacent correlations can be found in the syntax of some birdsongs, indicating that the choice of what to sing next is determined not only by the current syllable, but also by previous syllables sung. Here we examine the song of the domesticated canary, a complex singer whose song consists of syllables, grouped into phrases that are arranged in flexible sequences. Phrases are defined by a fundamental time-scale that is independent of the underlying syllable duration. We show that the ordering of phrases is governed by long-range rules: the choice of what phrase to sing next in a given context depends on the history of the song, and for some syllables, highly specific rules produce correlations in song over timescales of up to ten seconds. The neural basis of these long-range correlations may provide insight into how complex behaviors are assembled from more elementary, stereotyped modules.

  5. European initiatives for modeling emissions from transport

    Joumard, Robert; Hickman, A. John; Samaras, Zissis

    1998-01-01

    In Europe there have been many cooperative studies into transport emission inventories since the late 80s. These cover the scope of CORINAIR program involving experts from seven European Community laboratories addressing only road transport emissions at national level. These also include the latest...... covered are the composition of the vehicle fleets, emission factors, driving statistics and the modeling approach. Many of the European initiatives aim also at promoting further cooperation between national laboratories and at defining future research needs. An assessment of these future needs...... is presented from a European point of view....

  6. Long-range correlations and universality in plasma edge turbulence

    Milligen, B.Ph. van; Pedrosa, M.A.; Carreras, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range correlations in turbulence, associated with self-similarity of the fluctuations, are a signature of transport by avalanches as occurs in Self-Organized Critical systems. We have investigated long-range correlations in plasma edge fluctuations in a variety of fusion devices, using the Rescaled-Range and similar techniques. We find that the degree of self-similarity in confining devices is high and similar between devices, and much different from non-confining devices where it is low. Likewise, we find that turbulent spectra show a high degree of similarity between devices. These findings strongly indicate the existence of universality in plasma edge (ohmic) turbulence, and demonstrate its non-Gaussian character. (author)

  7. Chemical characterisation and source apportionment of PM1 during massive loading at an urban location in Indo-Gangetic Plain: impact of local sources and long-range transport

    Prashant Rajput

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses temporal variability and source contributions of PM1 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm samples (n=51; November 2009–February 2010 from an urban location at Kanpur (26.30°N; 80.13°E; 142 m above mean sea-level in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP. A study period from November to February is preferred owing to massive loading of particulate matter in entire IGP. PM1 varies from 18 to 348 (Avg±SD: 113±72 µg m−3 in this study. A total of 11 trace metals, five major elements and four water-soluble inorganic species (WSIS have been measured. Mass fraction of total metals (∑metals=trace+major centres at 18±14 %, of which nearly 15 % is contributed by major elements. Furthermore, ∑WSIS contributes about 26 % to PM1 mass concentration. Abundance pattern among assessed WSIS in this study follows the order: ≈> > Cl−. The K-to-PM1 mass fraction (Avg: 2 % in conjunction with air-mass back trajectories (AMBT indicates that the prevailing north-westerly winds transport biomass burning derived pollutants from upwind IGP. A recent version of positive matrix factorisation (PMF 5.0 has been utilised to quantify the contribution of fine-mode aerosols from various sources. The contribution from each source is highly variable and shows a strong dependence on AMBT. Events with predominant contribution from biomass burning emission (>70 % indicate origin of air-masses from source region upwind in IGP. One of the most interesting features of our study relates to the observation that secondary aerosols (contributing as high as ~60 % to PM1 loading are predominantly derived from stationary combustion sources (/ ratio: 0.30±0.23. Thus, our study highlights a high concentration of PM1 loading and atmospheric fog prevalent during wintertime can have a severe impact on atmospheric chemistry in the air-shed of IGP.

  8. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    Zhang, Junyi

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  9. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    Zhang, Junyi; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  10. Long range inductive power transfer system

    Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver

  11. Effects of long-range transported pollutants on vegetation in boreal coniferous forests: Results from an five year investigation in the Solholmfjell area, Gjerstad, Aust-Agder; Effekter av langtransporterte luftforurensninger i boreal barskog: resultater av fem aars undersoekelser i Solhomfjell-omraadet, Gjerstad, Aust-Agder

    Oekland, R H

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper relates to a project on investigating the effects of long-range transported pollutants in Norway. The paper gives a brief description of the more important results obtained in the project. The aim of the project was to investigate the pollution load in vegetation, soils and trees in Norwegian forest areas of the coniferous type. The project included the collection of samples from 200 test areas in a period of five years. 11 refs.

  12. Stochastic processes and long range dependence

    Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    2016-01-01

    This monograph is a gateway for researchers and graduate students to explore the profound, yet subtle, world of long-range dependence (also known as long memory). The text is organized around the probabilistic properties of stationary processes that are important for determining the presence or absence of long memory. The first few chapters serve as an overview of the general theory of stochastic processes which gives the reader sufficient background, language, and models for the subsequent discussion of long memory. The later chapters devoted to long memory begin with an introduction to the subject along with a brief history of its development, followed by a presentation of what is currently the best known approach, applicable to stationary processes with a finite second moment. The book concludes with a chapter devoted to the author’s own, less standard, point of view of long memory as a phase transition, and even includes some novel results. Most of the material in the book has not previously been publis...

  13. Long range position and Orientation Tracking System

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    The long range Position and Orientation Tracking System is an active triangulation-based system that is being developed to track a target to a resolution of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) and 0.009 degrees(32.4 arcseconds) over a range of 13.72 m (45 ft.). The system update rate is currently set at 20 Hz but can be increased to 100 Hz or more. The tracking is accomplished by sweeping two pairs of orthogonal line lasers over infrared (IR) sensors spaced with known geometry with respect to one another on the target (the target being a rigid body attached to either a remote vehicle or a remote manipulator arm). The synchronization and data acquisition electronics correlates the time that an IR sensor has been hit by one of the four lasers and the angle of the respective mirror at the time of the hit. This information is combined with the known geometry of the IR sensors on the target to determine position and orientation of the target. This method has the advantage of allowing the target to be momentarily lost due to occlusions and then reacquired without having to return the target to a known reference point. The system also contains a camera with operator controlled lighting in each pod that allows the target to be continuously viewed from either pod, assuming their are no occlusions

  14. Long-range Rocky Flats utilization study

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this Study was to provide information concerning the Rocky Flats Plant and its operations that will be useful to the Nation's decision-makers in determining the long-range future of the Plant. This Study was conducted under the premise that national defense policy must be supported and, accordingly, the capabilities at Rocky Flats must be maintained there or at some other location(s). The Study, therefore, makes no attempt to speculate on how possible future changes in national defense policy might affect decisions regarding the utilization of Rocky Flats. Factors pertinent to decisions regarding Rocky Flats, which are included in the Study, are: physical condition of the Plant and its vulnerabilities to natural phenomena; risks associated with plutonium to Plant workers and the public posed by postulated natural phenomena and operational accidents; identification of alternative actions regarding the future use of the Rocky Flats Plant with associated costs and time scales; local socioeconomic impacts if Rocky Flats operations were relocated; and potential for other uses if Rocky Flats facilities were vacated. The results of the tasks performed in support of this Study are summarized in the context of these five factors

  15. Long range position and orientation tracking system

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.; Bernacki, B.E.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The long range position and orientation tracking system (LRPOTS) will consist of two measurement pods, a VME-based computer system, and a detector array. The system is used to measure the position and orientation of a target that may be attached to a robotic arm, teleoperated manipulator, or autonomous vehicle. The pods have been designed to be mounted in the man-ways of the domes of the Fernald K-65 waste silos. Each pod has two laser scanner subsystems as well as lights and camera systems. One of the laser scanners will be oriented to scan in the pan direction, the other in the tilt direction. As the lasers scan across the detector array, the angles of incidence with each detector are recorded. Combining measurements from each of the four lasers yields sufficient data for a closed-form solution of the transform describing the location and orientation of the Content Mobilization System (CMS). Redundant detectors will be placed on the CMS to accommodate occlusions, to provide improved measurement accuracy, and to determine the CMS orientation

  16. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    van Ogtrop, F. F.; Vervoort, R. W.; Heller, G. Z.; Stasinopoulos, D. M.; Rigby, R. A.

    2011-11-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth) of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  17. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    F. F. van Ogtrop

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  18. Modelling the long-range transport. Atmospheric model from the Oslo EMEP-W center; Modelisation du transfert a longue distance modele atmospherique du centre Emep-W- a Oslo

    Joffre, S. [Institut Meteorolique de Finlande Geographical Research Vuorikatu, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) concerning transfrontier air pollution in Europe, a model has been developed which gives, based on pollution emission and meteorological data, monthly and annual values for the atmospheric content of ten major pollutants, the deposited dry and wet compounds, and the source allocations. Physical principles of the model and its validation are described

  19. Trends in onroad transportation energy and emissions.

    Frey, H Christopher

    2018-06-01

    trends are addressed with regard to technology, emissions controls, vehicle operations, emission measurements, impacts on exposure, and impacts on public health. Without specific policies to the contrary, fossil fuels are likely to continue to be the major source of on-road vehicle energy consumption. Fuel economy and emission standards are generally effective in achieving reductions per unit of vehicle activity. However, the number of vehicles and miles traveled will increase. Total energy use and emissions depend on factors such as fuels, technologies, land use, demographics, economics, road design, vehicle operation, societal values, and others that affect demand for transportation, mode choice, energy use, and emissions. Thus, there are many opportunities to influence future trends in vehicle energy use and emissions.

  20. Williamsport Area Community College Long Range Planning: The Long Range Plan, Update 1987.

    Williamsport Area Community Coll., PA.

    This update to Williamsport Area Community College's (WACC's) 1984-89 long-range plan offers a status report on each of the plan's 78 objectives, reassigns responsibility for specific objectives to make the plan responsive to the current organizational structure of the college, and offers 11 new objectives for the 1986-87 academic year. After…

  1. Modeling of pollutant emissions from road transport; Modelisation des emissions de polluants par le transport routier

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    COPERT III (computer programme to calculate emissions from road transport) is the third version of an MS Windows software programme aiming at the calculation of air pollutant emissions from road transport. COPERT estimates emissions of all regulated air pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM) produced by different vehicle categories as well as CO{sub 2} emissions on the basis of fuel consumption. This research seminar was organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) around the following topics: the uncertainties and sensitiveness analysis of the COPERT III model, the presentation of case studies that use COPERT III for the estimation of road transport emissions, and the future of the modeling of road transport emissions: from COPERT III to ARTEMIS (assessment and reliability of transport emission models and inventory systems). This document is a compilation of 8 contributions to this seminar and dealing with: the uncertainty and sensitiveness analysis of the COPERT III model; the road mode emissions of the ESCOMPTE program: sensitivity study; the sensitivity analysis of the spatialized traffic at the time-aggregation level: application in the framework of the INTERREG project (Alsace); the road transport aspect of the regional air quality plan of Bourgogne region: exhaustive consideration of the road network; intercomparison of tools and methods for the inventory of emissions of road transport origin; evolution of the French park of vehicles by 2025: new projections; application of COPERT III to the French context: a new version of IMPACT-ADEME; the European ARTEMIS project: new structural considerations for the modeling of road transport emissions. (J.S.)

  2. Urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential: A case study for Tianjin, China

    Peng, Binbin; Du, Huibin; Ma, Shoufeng; Fan, Ying; Broadstock, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential to reduce urban passenger transport is projected between 2010 and 2040. • Four scenarios reflecting different policy mixes are considered. • The potential for energy conservation and emission reductions are obtained. • Vehicle population regulation is most effective in energy saving and reducing overall GHG. • Emission standards are the most effective measure to reduce pollutant emissions. - Abstract: With rapid growth of the vehicle population, urban passenger transport in China is largely responsible for increases in energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and also atmospheric pollutants (NO x , CO, HC, PM). In this paper, we first develop an urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential evaluation model using the “Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP)” tool; and then take Tianjin city as an empirical case to evaluate the reduction potential of final energy consumption, GHG emissions and pollutants emissions of Tianjin’s urban passenger transport sector between 2010 and 2040 under four scenarios, i.e. BAU (business as usual) scenario, PP (the 12th five-year plan policy) scenario, CP (comprehensive policy) scenario and HP (hybrid policy of PP and CP) scenario. The results show that due to the public transport promotion, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in 2040 can be reduced by 22% and 22.6% in the PP scenario, compared to BAU. The largest reductions in energy consumption, CO 2 and atmospheric pollutants emissions can be achieved under CP scenario, in which vehicle population regulation is the most effective to be implemented. Emissions standard regulation is the most effective measure to reduce atmospheric pollutant emissions in all the scenarios and green energy promotion is especially effective to reduce NO x and PM

  3. Long-range air transport of dioxin from North American sources to ecologically vulnerable receptors in Nunavut, Arctic Canada. Final report to the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation

    Commoner, B.; Woods Bartlett, P.; Eisl, H.; Couchot, K. [City University of New York, Queens College, Center for Biology of Natural Systems, New York, NY (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This study was commissioned by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (NACEC). It was designed to model on a continental scale the rates of deposition of airborne dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDD/PCDF) in the Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut and to identify the major contributing North American sources. The study was commissioned in response to findings showing twice the level of dioxin concentration in the milk of Inuit mothers than that observed in southern Quebec, despite the fact that there are no significant sources of dioxin in Nunavut or within 500 kms of its boundaries. This high concentration is attributed to indigenous diet, i. e. traditional foods such as caribou, fish and marine mammals, which in turn ingest it from airborne sources through the terrestrial food chain, chiefly through lichen, mosses, shrubs and marine algae. Since these avenues of entry into the food chain cannot be protected from airborne pollutants, remedial action must be directed at the sources that emit dioxin. Results of the study show that of the total North American annual emission of airborne dioxin (4,713 grams toxicity equivalent quotient (TEQ)), Canadian sources account for 364 grams TEQ, United States sources for 2,937 TEQ, Mexican sources 1.412 grams TEQ, and emissions from sources within Nunavut a total of 0.12 grams TEQ. The North American national dioxin inventories include 44,091 sources, of which 5,343 are individual facilities such as trash-burning incinerators, the rest are sources such as backyard trash-burning in the United States and Mexico, but only a handful of sources are responsible for the deposition in Nunavut. The overall conclusion of the study confirm that atmospheric and ecological processes that carry dioxin from its numerous sources through terrestrial and marine food chains to human beings is a problem of continental dimensions. The challenge is to establish analytical methods and

  4. Investigation of tracer emission and transport in GEOS-5 during ARCTAS

    Bian, H.; Chin, M.; Kawa, S. R.; Colarco, P. R.; Nielsen, E.; Pawson, S.; Kucsera, T.; da Silva, A.; Chu, A. D.

    2009-12-01

    We examine the emission and transport of trace gases and their impact on the Arctic environment during two ARCTAS flights. One captures Asian anthropogenic pollution and one focuses on the impact of biomass burning. Three approaches are used in our study. First, the comparison of GEOS5 CO and aerosol with observations from the two ARCTAS flights provides evaluation of the model’s sources, sinks, chemistry, and transport. Second, backward trajectories from the aircraft measurements trace the pollutant samples to their source regions and forward trajectories applied to the emissions at the pollutant origin target the final destination of the pollutant. Third, a high meridonal index (HMI) approach, which emphasizes the part of a blocking where the jet stream curves northwards, will be used to link the long-range pollutant transport from northern hemispheric mid-latitudes to the Arctic region.

  5. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical and Microphysical Properties During a Rare Case of Long-range Transport of Mixed Biomass Burning-polluted Dust Aerosols from the Russian Federation-kazakhstan to Athens, Greece

    Papayannis Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-wavelength aerosol Raman lidar measurements with elastic depolarization at 532 nm were combined with sun photometry during the HYGRA-CD campaign over Athens, Greece, on May-June 2014. We retrieved the aerosol optical [3 aerosol backscatter profiles (baer at 355-532-1064 nm, 2 aerosol extinction (aaer profiles at 355-532 nm and the aerosol linear depolarization ratio (δ at 532 nm] and microphysical properties [effective radius (reff, complex refractive index (m, single scattering albedo (ω]. We present a case study of a long distance transport (~3.500-4.000 km of biomass burning particles mixed with dust from the Russian Federation-Kazakhstan regions arriving over Athens on 21-23 May 2014 (1.7-3.5 km height. On 23 May, between 2-2.75 km we measured mean lidar ratios (LR of 35 sr (355 nm and 42 sr (532 nm, while the mean Ångström exponent (AE aerosol backscatter-related values (355nm/532nm and 532nm/1064nm were 2.05 and 1.22, respectively; the mean value of δ at 532 nm was measured to be 9%. For that day the retrieved mean aerosol microphysical properties at 2-2.75 km height were: reff=0.26 μm (fine mode, reff=2.15 μm (coarse mode, m=1.36+0.00024i, ω=0.999 (355 nm, fine mode, ω=0.992(355 nm, coarse mode, ω=0.997 (532 nm, fine mode, and ω=0.980 (532 nm, coarse mode.

  6. Atmospheric emissions from road transportation in India

    Baidya, S.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.

    2009-01-01

    India has become one of the biggest emitters of atmospheric pollutants from the road transportation sector globally. Here we present an up-to-date inventory of the exhaust emissions of ten species. This inventory has been calculated bottom-up from the vehicle mileage, differentiating by seven vehicle categories, four age/technology layers and three fuel types each, for the seven biggest cities as well as for the whole nation. The age composition of the rolling fleet has been carefully modelled, deducting about one quarter of vehicles still registered but actually out-of-service. The vehicle mileage is calibrated to the national fuel consumption which is essential to limit uncertainties. Sensitivity analyses reveal the primary impact of the emission factors and the secondary influence of vehicle mileage and stock composition on total emissions. Emission estimates since 1980 are reviewed and qualified. A more comprehensive inspection and maintenance is essential to limit pollutant emissions; this must properly include commercial vehicles. They are also the most important vehicle category to address when fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions shall be contained. (author)

  7. Using long-term ground-based HSRL and geostationary observations in combination with model re-analysis to help disentangle local and long-range transported aerosols in Seoul, South Korea

    Phillips, C.; Holz, R.; Eloranta, E. W.; Reid, J. S.; Kim, S. W.; Kuehn, R.; Marais, W.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) has been continuously operating at Seoul National University as part of the Korea-United States Air Quality Study (KORUS-AQ). The instrument was installed in March of 2016 and continues to operate as of August 2017, providing a truly unique data set to monitor aerosol and cloud properties. With its capability to separate the molecular and particulate scattering, the HSRL is able to detect extremely thin aerosol layers with sub-molecular scattering sensitivity. The system deployed in Seoul has depolarization measurements at 532 nm as well as a near IR channel at 1064 nm providing discrimination between dust, smoke, pollution, water clouds, and ice clouds. As will be presented, these capabilities can be used to produce three channel combined RGB images that provide visualization of small changes in the aerosol properties. A primary motivation of KORUS-AQ was to determine the relative effects of transported pollution and local pollution on air quality in Seoul. We hypothesize that HSRL-based image analysis algorithms combined with satellite and model re-analysis has the potential to identify cases when remote sources of aerosols and pollution are advected into the boundary layer with impacts to the surface air quality. To facilitate this research we have developed the capability to combine ten-minute geostationary imagery from Himawari-8, nearby radiosondes, model output, surface PM measurements, and AERONET data over the HSRL site. On a case-by-case basis, it is possible to separate layers of aerosols with different scattering properties using these tools. Additionally, a preliminary year-long aerosol climatology with integrated geo-stationary retrievals and modeling data will be presented. The focus is on investigating correlations between the HSRL aerosol measurements (depolarization, color ratio, extinction, and lidar ratio) with the model output and aerosol sources. This analysis will use recently

  8. Switching transport modes to meet voluntary carbon emission targets

    Hoen, K.M.R.; Tan, T.; Fransoo, J.C.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2014-01-01

    The transport sector is the second largest carbon emissions contributor in Europe and its emissions continue to increase. Many producers are committing themselves to reducing transport emissions voluntarily, possibly in anticipation of increasing transport prices. In this paper we study a producer

  9. Switching transport modes to meet voluntary carbon emission targets

    Hoen, K.M.R.; Tan, T.; Fransoo, J.C.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2011-01-01

    The transport sector is the second largest carbon emissions contributor in Europe and its emissions continue to increase. Many shippers are committing themselves to reducing transport emissions voluntarily, possibly in anticipation of increasing transport prices. In this paper we study a shipper

  10. Long-range alpha detector for contamination monitoring

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity, even if the particles are intercepted. Of necessity, these detectors are operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. In our new long-range alpha detector (LRAD), alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of about 30,000 ion pairs per MeV of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The LRAD-based monitor is more sensitive and more thorough than conventional monitors. We present current LRAD sensitivity limits and results, practical monitor designs, and proposed uses for LRAD monitors. 4 refs., 6 figs

  11. Long-range outlook of energy demands and supplies

    1984-01-01

    An interim report on the long-range outlook of energy demands and supplies in Japan as prepared by an ad hoc committee, Advisory Committee for Energy was given for the period up to the year 2000. As the energy demands in terms of crude oil, the following figures are set: 460 million kl for 1990, 530 million kl for 1995, and 600 million kl for 2000. In Japan, without domestic energy resources, over 80% of the primary energy has been imported; the reliance on Middle East where political situation is unstable, for petroleum is very large. The following things are described. Background and policy; energy demands in industries, transports, and people's livelihood; energy supplies by coal, nuclear energy, petroleum, etc.; energy demand/supply outlook for 2000. (Mori, K.)

  12. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  13. Continuous limit of discrete systems with long-range interaction

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2006-01-01

    Discrete systems with long-range interactions are considered. Continuous medium models as continuous limit of discrete chain system are defined. Long-range interactions of chain elements that give the fractional equations for the medium model are discussed. The chain equations of motion with long-range interaction are mapped into the continuum equation with the Riesz fractional derivative. We formulate the consistent definition of continuous limit for the systems with long-range interactions. In this paper, we consider a wide class of long-range interactions that give fractional medium equations in the continuous limit. The power-law interaction is a special case of this class

  14. Long-range correlation and market segmentation in bond market

    Wang, Zhongxing; Yan, Yan; Chen, Xiaosong

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the long-range auto-correlations and cross-correlations in bond market. Based on Detrended Moving Average (DMA) method, empirical results present a clear evidence of long-range persistence that exists in one year scale. The degree of long-range correlation related to maturities has an upward tendency with a peak in short term. These findings confirm the expectations of fractal market hypothesis (FMH). Furthermore, we have developed a method based on a complex network to study the long-range cross-correlation structure and applied it to our data, and found a clear pattern of market segmentation in the long run. We also detected the nature of long-range correlation in the sub-period 2007-2012 and 2011-2016. The result from our research shows that long-range auto-correlations are decreasing in the recent years while long-range cross-correlations are strengthening.

  15. Atmospheric long range transport of lead to Denmark

    Hovmand, Mads Frederik

    1980-01-01

    Lead in bulk precipitation (rain water + dustfall) was measured in 42 randomly taken 24-hour samples from Keldsnor, Langeland, Denmark. Trajectories were computed to find the origin of the rain-bearing air masses. It is shown that the mean lead concentrations of bulk precipitation in cases with air...

  16. Long range transport of hydrocarbons in the Southern Ocean

    Pinturier, L.; Leureillard, J.; Arnold, M.; Tisnerat, N.; Pichon, J.J.; Gireaudau, J.

    1999-01-01

    We report here the first results for hydrocarbon analyses of deep surface sediments collected in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples were taken along a north-south transect ranging from 43 deg. S to 55 deg. S in the southwestern Crozet Basin. In order to identify these compounds and elucidate their origins, various techniques were used: gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry; Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (Tandetron: mass spectrometer coupled with a Tandem accelerator allowing the measure of 14 C/ 12 C ratio)

  17. Theory of advection-driven long range biotic transport

    We propose a simple mechanistic model to examine the effects of advective flow on the spread of fungal diseases spread by wind-blown spores. The model is defined by a set of two coupled non-linear partial differential equations for spore densities. One equation describes the long-distance advectiv...

  18. The 1979 convention on long range transfrontier air pollution; La convention sur la pollution atmospherique transfrontiere a longue distance de 1979

    Jagusiewicz, A. [UNECE, Palais des Nations, Geneve (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Applied in March 1983, the 1979 international Convention have induced five protocols related to sulfur, nitrogen oxide and VOC emissions. After 1994, three new protocols are under study, concerning the reduction of nitrogenous and related compounds, heavy metals and long-lasting organic pollutants. Works and organization of the European EMEP program for the continuous monitoring and evaluation of the long range air pollution transport in Europe, are presented

  19. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasts

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Galmarini, S.; Bianconi, R.; French, S.

    2003-01-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparatenational forecasts for long-range dispersion. ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an a...

  20. Resonant long-range interactions between polar macromolecules

    Preto, Jordane; Pettini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by its prospective biological relevance, the issue of resonant long-range interactions between two molecules displaying oscillating dipole moments is reinvestigated within the framework of classical electrodynamics. In particular, our findings shed new light on Fröhlich's theory of selective long-range interactions between biomolecules. First, terms of a very long-range kind – which have never been reported so far – are found in the interaction potential, due to field retardation. Second, at variance with a long-standing belief, it is shown that sizable resonant long-range interactions may exist only if the interacting system is out of thermal equilibrium.

  1. A Model for Long Range Planning for Seminole Community College.

    Miner, Norris

    A model for long-range planning designed to maximize involvement of college personnel, to improve communication among various areas of the college, to provide a process for evaluation of long-range plans and the planning process, to adjust to changing conditions, to utilize data developed at a level useful for actual operations, and to have…

  2. Report of the Long-Range Planning Committee

    1984-01-01

    This is the final report of the Long-Range Planning Committee of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It describes the make-up, purpose, working assumptions, and activities of the Committee and discusses the work done by the Committee on defense matters, energy, a number of additional topics, and future long-range planning activities

  3. Down the Road...Long Range Planning for Automation.

    Texas State Library, Austin. Dept. of Library Development.

    The materials in this manual/workbook were prepared to assist participants in a workshop on long-range planning for library automation. Chapters cover the following topics: (1) "What Is Long-Range Planning?" (2) "Why Plan?" (3) "Who Needs to Participate?" (4) "Planning to Plan"; (5) "Determining Needs"; (6) "Description and Introduction"; (7)…

  4. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources

    Winther, Morten

    for road transport increased by 30 %, and CH4 emissions have decreased by 74 %. A N2O emission increase of 29 % is related to the relatively high emissions from older gasoline catalyst cars. The 1985-2010 emission decrease for NOX, NMVOC, CO and particulates (exhaust only: Size is below PM2.5) -52, -84...

  5. Degeneracy and long-range correlation: A simulation study

    Marmelat Vivien

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a simulation study that aimed at evidencing a causal relationship between degeneracy and long-range correlations. Long-range correlations represent a very specific form of fluctuations that have been evidenced in the outcomes time series produced by a number of natural systems. Long-range correlations are supposed to sign the complexity, adaptability and flexibility of the system. Degeneracy is defined as the ability of elements that are structurally different to perform the same function, and is presented as a key feature for explaining the robustness of complex systems. We propose a model able to generate long-range correlated series, and including a parameter that account for degeneracy. Results show that a decrease in degeneracy tends to reduce the strength of long-range correlation in the series produced by the model.

  6. CO2 emissions from the transport of China's exported goods

    Andersen, Otto; Goessling, Stefan; Simonsen, Morten; Walnum, Hans Jakob; Peeters, Paul; Neiberger, Cordula

    2010-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases in many European countries are declining, and the European Union (EU) believes it is on track in achieving emission reductions as agreed upon in the Kyoto Agreement and the EU's more ambitious post-Kyoto climate policy. However, a number of recent publications indicate that emission reductions may also have been achieved because production has been shifted to other countries, and in particular China. If a consumption perspective is applied, emissions in industrialized countries are substantially higher, and may not have declined at all. Significantly, emissions from transports are omitted in consumption-based calculations. As all trade involves transport, mostly by cargo ship, but also by air, transports add considerably to overall emissions growth incurred in production shifts. Consequently, this article studies the role of transports in creating emissions of CO 2 , based on the example of exports from China. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for global emission reductions and post-Kyoto negotiations.

  7. Panorama 2009 - greenhouse gas emissions and the transport sector

    2008-01-01

    The fact that the transport sector is growing quickly brings advantages, such as quick access to any geographical location on earth, but also disadvantages: noise, congestion and polluting emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), the greenhouse gas (GHG) primarily responsible for global warming. In the effort to bring GHG emissions under control, improving results in the transport sector is a prime long-term objective. What proportion of CO 2 emissions generated at global and national level are due to the road, air, maritime and rail transport sectors, respectively? What mechanisms can be used to reduce GHG emissions in the transport sector at large?

  8. Long range implantation by MEVVA metal ion source

    Zhang Tonghe; Wu Yuguang; Ma Furong; Liang Hong

    2001-01-01

    Metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source ion implantation is a new technology used for achieving long range ion implantation. It is very important for research and application of the ion beam modification of materials. The results show that the implanted atom diffusion coefficient increases in Mo implanted Al with high ion flux and high dose. The implanted depth is 311.6 times greater than that of the corresponding ion range. The ion species, doses and ion fluxes play an important part in the long-range implantation. Especially, thermal atom chemistry have specific effect on the long-range implantation during high ion flux implantation at transient high target temperature

  9. Spectral long-range interaction of temporal incoherent solitons.

    Xu, Gang; Garnier, Josselin; Picozzi, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    We study the interaction of temporal incoherent solitons sustained by a highly noninstantaneous (Raman-like) nonlinear response. The incoherent solitons exhibit a nonmutual interaction, which can be either attractive or repulsive depending on their relative initial distance. The analysis reveals that incoherent solitons exhibit a long-range interaction in frequency space, which is in contrast with the expected spectral short-range interaction described by the usual approach based on the Raman-like spectral gain curve. Both phenomena of anomalous interaction and spectral long-range behavior of incoherent solitons are described in detail by a long-range Vlasov equation.

  10. Scintillation mitigation for long-range surveillance video

    Delport, JP

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric turbulence is a naturally occurring phenomenon that can severely degrade the quality of long-range surveillance video footage. Major effects include image blurring, image warping and temporal wavering of objects in the scene. Mitigating...

  11. Long-Range Nondestructive Testing System, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of a long range, multi-point non-destructive system for the detection of subsurface flaws in metallic and composite materials of...

  12. Interim report on long range plan for nuclear physics

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The interim report on the updated NSAC Long Range Plan for Nuclear Physics will be presented to the community for discussion and comment before submission to the funding agencies. The presentation will be coordinated by E. Moniz chair of NSAC

  13. Observed Orbit Effects during Long Range Beam-Beam Studies

    Alemany, R; Buffat, X; Calaga, R; Fitterer, M; Giachino, R; Hemelsoet, GH; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Poyer, M; Schaumann, M; Trad, G; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    Possible limitations due to long range beam-beam effects at the LHC have been studied and are presented in this note. With a larger number of bunches and collisions in all interaction points, the crossing angles were reduced to enhance long range beam-beam effects. The analysis of the effects on the dynamic aperture and losses are documented in [1]. This note concentrates on the bunch-by-bunch orbit effects observed during the experiment.

  14. Long-range eye tracking: A feasibility study

    Jayaweera, S.K.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-08-24

    The design considerations for a long-range Purkinje effects based video tracking system using current technology is presented. Past work, current experiments, and future directions are thoroughly discussed, with an emphasis on digital signal processing techniques and obstacles. It has been determined that while a robust, efficient, long-range, and non-invasive eye tracking system will be difficult to develop, such as a project is indeed feasible.

  15. Testing for long-range dependence in world stock markets

    Cajueiro, Daniel Oliveira; Tabak, Benjamin Miranda

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we show a novel approach to rank stock market indices in terms of weak form efficiency using state of the art methodology in statistical physics. We employ the R/S and V/S methodologies to test for long-range dependence in equity returns and volatility. Empirical results suggests that although emerging markets possess stronger long-range dependence in equity returns than developed economies, this is not true for volatility. In the case of volatility, Hurst exponents...

  16. Carbon dioxide emissions from passenger transport in China since 1949: Implications for developing sustainable transport

    Loo, Becky P.Y.; Li, Linna

    2012-01-01

    This paper traces the historical evolution and spatial disparity of CO 2 emissions from passenger transport in China. The general trends of CO 2 emissions from four passenger transport modes are estimated by both the distance-based and fuel-based methods. The results suggest that CO 2 emissions from road transport represented the leading source of passenger transport CO 2 emissions in China. Moreover, they have continued to grow rapidly. Air transport was the second largest contributor since 1998. Emissions from rail and water transport have remained relatively stable with lower emission intensity. At the provincial level, great regional disparity was noticeable, especially in road transport. Moreover, the decomposition analysis shows that income growth was the principal factor leading to the growth of passenger transport CO 2 emissions in China for both the 1949–1979 and 1980–2009 periods. The second most important factor was increased transport intensity and modal shifts for the former and the latter period, respectively. The main factor contributed to emission reduction was the lower emission intensity supported by policies, although the effect was weak. In the future, more policies to encourage modal shifts toward sustainable transport modes and travel reduction should be encouraged. - Highlights: ► CO 2 emissions from passenger transport in China were estimated. ► Road transport was the largest contributor to CO 2 emission. Air transport followed. ► Factors influencing CO 2 emissions growth are analyzed by decomposition analysis. ► Income growth, higher travel intensity and modal shift were driving CO 2 emissions up. ► Policies to promote modal shifts and travel demand reduction should be encouraged.

  17. Epidemic spreading in networks with nonrandom long-range interactions

    Estrada, Ernesto; Kalala-Mutombo, Franck; Valverde-Colmeiro, Alba

    2011-09-01

    An “infection,” understood here in a very broad sense, can be propagated through the network of social contacts among individuals. These social contacts include both “close” contacts and “casual” encounters among individuals in transport, leisure, shopping, etc. Knowing the first through the study of the social networks is not a difficult task, but having a clear picture of the network of casual contacts is a very hard problem in a society of increasing mobility. Here we assume, on the basis of several pieces of empirical evidence, that the casual contacts between two individuals are a function of their social distance in the network of close contacts. Then, we assume that we know the network of close contacts and infer the casual encounters by means of nonrandom long-range (LR) interactions determined by the social proximity of the two individuals. This approach is then implemented in a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model accounting for the spread of infections in complex networks. A parameter called “conductance” controls the feasibility of those casual encounters. In a zero conductance network only contagion through close contacts is allowed. As the conductance increases the probability of having casual encounters also increases. We show here that as the conductance parameter increases, the rate of propagation increases dramatically and the infection is less likely to die out. This increment is particularly marked in networks with scale-free degree distributions, where infections easily become epidemics. Our model provides a general framework for studying epidemic spreading in networks with arbitrary topology with and without casual contacts accounted for by means of LR interactions.

  18. Epidemic spreading in networks with nonrandom long-range interactions.

    Estrada, Ernesto; Kalala-Mutombo, Franck; Valverde-Colmeiro, Alba

    2011-09-01

    An "infection," understood here in a very broad sense, can be propagated through the network of social contacts among individuals. These social contacts include both "close" contacts and "casual" encounters among individuals in transport, leisure, shopping, etc. Knowing the first through the study of the social networks is not a difficult task, but having a clear picture of the network of casual contacts is a very hard problem in a society of increasing mobility. Here we assume, on the basis of several pieces of empirical evidence, that the casual contacts between two individuals are a function of their social distance in the network of close contacts. Then, we assume that we know the network of close contacts and infer the casual encounters by means of nonrandom long-range (LR) interactions determined by the social proximity of the two individuals. This approach is then implemented in a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model accounting for the spread of infections in complex networks. A parameter called "conductance" controls the feasibility of those casual encounters. In a zero conductance network only contagion through close contacts is allowed. As the conductance increases the probability of having casual encounters also increases. We show here that as the conductance parameter increases, the rate of propagation increases dramatically and the infection is less likely to die out. This increment is particularly marked in networks with scale-free degree distributions, where infections easily become epidemics. Our model provides a general framework for studying epidemic spreading in networks with arbitrary topology with and without casual contacts accounted for by means of LR interactions.

  19. Prospects for bioenergy use in Ghana using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning model

    Kemausuor, Francis; Nygaard, Ivan; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    biomass sources, through the production of biogas, liquid biofuels and electricity. Analysis was based on moderate and high use of bioenergy for transportation, electricity generation and residential fuel using the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) model. Results obtained indicate...

  20. Inventory and Policy Reduction Potential of Greenhouse Gas and Pollutant Emissions of Road Transportation Industry in China

    Ye Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, emissions from the road transportation industry in China have been increasing rapidly. To evaluate the reduction potential of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions of the industry in China, its emission inventory was calculated and scenario analysis was created for the period between 2012 and 2030 in this paper. Based on the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP model, the development of China’s road transportation industry in two scenarios (the business-as-usual (BAU scenario and the comprehensive-mitigation (CM scenario was simulated. In the Comprehensive Mitigation scenario, there are nine various measures which include Fuel Economy Standards, Auto Emission Standards, Energy-saving Technology, Tax Policy, Eco-driving, Logistics Informatization, Vehicle Liquidation, Electric Vehicles, and Alternative Fuels. The cumulative energy and emission reductions of these specific measures were evaluated. Our results demonstrate that China’s road transportation produced 881 million metric tons of CO2 and emitted 1420 thousand tons of CO, 2150 thousand tons of NOx, 148 thousand tons of PM10, and 745 thousand tons of HC in 2012. The reduction potential is quite large, and road freight transportation is the key mitigation subsector, accounting for 85%–92% of the total emission. For energy conservation and carbon emission mitigation, logistics informatization is the most effective method, potentially reducing 1.80 billion tons of coal equivalent and 3.83 billion tons of CO2 from 2012 to 2030. In terms of air pollutant emission mitigation, the auto emission standards measure performs best with respect to NOx, PM10, and HC emission mitigation, and logistic informatization measure is the best in CO emission reduction. In order to maximize the mitigation potential of China’s road transportation industry, the government needs to implement various measures in a timely and strict fashion.

  1. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasts

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Galmarini, S.; Bianconi, R.

    2003-01-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparatenational forecasts for long-range dispersion...... emergency and meteorological forecasting centres, which may choose to integrate them directly intooperational emergency information systems, or possibly use them as a basis for future system development.......ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparatenational forecasts for long-range dispersion....... ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an accidentalatmospheric release of radioactive material. A series of new decision-making “ENSEMBLE” procedures...

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading for the Transport Sector

    Holmgren, Kristina; Belhaj, Mohammed; Gode, Jenny; Saernholm, Erik; Zetterberg, Lars; Aahman, Markus

    2006-12-01

    In this study we have analysed different options to apply emissions trading for greenhouse gas emissions to the transport sector. The main focus has been on the EU transport sector and the possibility to include it in the current EU ETS in the trading period beginning in 2013. The purpose was to study how different alternatives will affect different actors. Focus has been on three sub-sectors; road transport, aviation and shipping. The railway sector has only been treated on a general level. The study includes the following three parts: 1. An economic analysis of the consequences of greenhouse gas emissions trading for the transport sector including an analysis of how the total cost for reaching an emission target will be affected by an integrated emissions trading system for the transport sector and the industry (currently included sectors) compared to separate systems for the sectors, 2. An analysis of design possibilities for the different sub-sectors. Discussion of positive and negative aspects with different choices of design parameters, such as trading entity, covered greenhouse gases, allocation of emission allowances and monitoring systems, 3. Examination of the acceptance among different actors for different options of using greenhouse gas emissions trading in the transport sector. When setting up an emissions trading scheme there are a number of design parameters that have to be analysed in order to find an appropriate system, with limited administrative and transaction costs and as small distortions as possible to competitiveness

  3. Memory and long-range correlations in chess games

    Schaigorodsky, Ana L.; Perotti, Juan I.; Billoni, Orlando V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report the existence of long-range memory in the opening moves of a chronologically ordered set of chess games using an extensive chess database. We used two mapping rules to build discrete time series and analyzed them using two methods for detecting long-range correlations; rescaled range analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis. We found that long-range memory is related to the level of the players. When the database is filtered according to player levels we found differences in the persistence of the different subsets. For high level players, correlations are stronger at long time scales; whereas in intermediate and low level players they reach the maximum value at shorter time scales. This can be interpreted as a signature of the different strategies used by players with different levels of expertise. These results are robust against the assignation rules and the method employed in the analysis of the time series.

  4. Long-range interactions in lattice field theory

    Rabin, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    Lattice quantum field theories containing fermions can be formulated in a chirally invariant way provided long-range interactions are introduced. It is established that in weak-coupling perturbation theory such a lattice theory is renormalizable when the corresponding continuum theory is, and that the continuum theory is indeed recovered in the perturbative continuum limit. In the strong-coupling limit of these theories one is led to study an effective Hamiltonian describing a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with long-range interactions. Block-spin renormalization group methods are used to find a critical rate of falloff of the interactions, approximately as inverse distance squared, which separates a nearest-neighbor-antiferromagnetic phase from a phase displaying identifiable long-range effects. A duality-type symmetry is present in some block-spin calculations.

  5. Long-range interactions in lattice field theory

    Rabin, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    Lattice quantum field theories containing fermions can be formulated in a chirally invariant way provided long-range interactions are introduced. It is established that in weak-coupling perturbation theory such a lattice theory is renormalizable when the corresponding continuum theory is, and that the continuum theory is indeed recovered in the perturbative continuum limit. In the strong-coupling limit of these theories one is led to study an effective Hamiltonian describing a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with long-range interactions. Block-spin renormalization group methods are used to find a critical rate of falloff of the interactions, approximately as inverse distance squared, which separates a nearest-neighbor-antiferromagnetic phase from a phase displaying identifiable long-range effects. A duality-type symmetry is present in some block-spin calculations

  6. Density of states and magnetotransport in Weyl semimetals with long-range disorder

    Pesin, D. A.; Mishchenko, E. G.; Levchenko, A.

    2015-11-01

    We study the density of states and magnetotransport properties of disordered Weyl semimetals, focusing on the case of a strong long-range disorder. To calculate the disorder-averaged density of states close to nodal points, we treat exactly the long-range random potential fluctuations produced by charged impurities, while the short-range component of disorder potential is included systematically and controllably with the help of a diagram technique. We find that, for energies close to the degeneracy point, long-range potential fluctuations lead to a finite density of states. In the context of transport, we discuss that a self-consistent theory of screening in magnetic field may conceivably lead to nonmonotonic low-field magnetoresistance.

  7. Netherlands Army Long Range Anti Armour Study - Status Report

    Schagen, P.A.B. van

    1989-01-01

    At the end of the nineties the munition for the TOW weapon system in use at The Netherlands army, has to be replaced. The Life of Type of The Tow carrier ends in 2005. The long range anti armour study is to gain insight into the possibilities and limitations for the Netherlands army to deploy future (time period 1995-2000) weapon systems in the long range anti armour battle. The first study results are expected at the end of 1989. The study is sponsored by the Netherlands army and is carried ...

  8. Long-range interactions among three alkali-metal atoms

    Marinescu, M.; Starace, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    The long-range asymptotic form of the interaction potential surface for three neutral alkali-metal atoms in their ground states may be expressed as an expansion in inverse powers of inter-nuclear distances. The first leading powers are proportional to the dispersion coefficients for pairwise atomic interactions. They are followed by a term responsible for a three body dipole interaction. The authors results consist in evaluation of the three body dipole interaction coefficient between three alkali-metal atoms. The generalization to long-range n atom interaction terms will be discussed qualitatively

  9. Study of beam-beam long range compensation with octupoles

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Tambasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Long range beam-beam effects are responsible for particle losses and define fundamental operational parameters of colliders (i.e. crossing angles, intensities, emittances, ${\\beta}$${^∗}$). In this study we propose octuple magnets as a possible scheme to efficiently compensate long-range beam-beam interactions with a global correction scheme. The impact and improvements on the dynamic aperture of colliding beams together with estimates of the luminosity potentials are dis- cussed for the HL-LHC upgrade and extrapolations made for the FCC project.

  10. Long-range correlations and asymmetry in the Bitcoin market

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Rodriguez, E.; Ibarra-Valdez, C.

    2018-02-01

    This work studies long-range correlations and informational efficiency of the Bitcoin market for the period from June 30, 2013 to June 3rd, 2017. To this end, the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was implemented over sliding windows to estimate long-range correlations for price returns. It was found that the Bitcoin market exhibits periods of efficiency alternating with periods where the price dynamics are driven by anti-persistence. The pattern is replicated by prices samples at day, hour and second frequencies. The Bitcoin market also presents asymmetric correlations with respect to increasing and decreasing price trending, with the former trend linked to anti-persistence of returns dynamics.

  11. Long-range correlation in cosmic microwave background radiation.

    Movahed, M Sadegh; Ghasemi, F; Rahvar, Sohrab; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the statistical anisotropy and gaussianity of temperature fluctuations of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe survey, using the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Rescaled Range, and Scaled Windowed Variance methods. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis shows that CMB fluctuations has a long-range correlation function with a multifractal behavior. By comparing the shuffled and surrogate series of CMB data, we conclude that the multifractality nature of the temperature fluctuation of CMB radiation is mainly due to the long-range correlations, and the map is consistent with a gaussian distribution.

  12. Long-range plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic cladding

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    waveguides. We show that the proposed structures support long-range surface plasmon modes, which exist when the permittivity of the core matches the transverse effective permittivity component of the metamaterial cladding. In this regime, the surface plasmon polaritons of each cladding layer are strongly...

  13. Nanoimprinted reflecting gratings for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    Pedersen, Rasmus Haugstrup; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Johansen, Dan Mario

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel design, fabrication, and characterization of reflecting gratings for long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) at telecom wavelengths. LR-SPP waveguides consisting of a thin (12 nm) gold film embedded in a thick (45 μm) layer of dielectric polymer cladding are structured...

  14. Force induced unzipping of DNA with long range correlated noise

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We derive and solve a Fokker–Planck equation for the stationary distribution of the free energy, in a model of unzipping of double-stranded DNA under external force. The autocorrelation function of the random DNA sequence can be of a general form, including long range correlations. In the case of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck noise, characterized by a finite correlation length, our result reduces to the exact result of Allahverdyan et al, with the average number of unzipped base pairs going as (X) ∼ 1/f 2 in the white noise limit, where f is the deviation from the critical force. In the case of long range correlated noise, where the integrated autocorrelation is divergent, we find that (X) is finite at f = 0, with its value decreasing as the correlations become of longer range. This shows that long range correlations actually stabilize the DNA sequence against unzipping. Our result is also in agreement with the findings of Allahverdyan et al obtained using numerical generation of the long range correlated noise

  15. Netherlands Army Long Range Anti Armour Study - Status Report

    Schagen, P.A.B. van

    1989-01-01

    At the end of the nineties the munition for the TOW weapon system in use at The Netherlands army, has to be replaced. The Life of Type of The Tow carrier ends in 2005. The long range anti armour study is to gain insight into the possibilities and limitations for the Netherlands army to deploy future

  16. Long range forces and limits on unparticle interactions

    Deshpande, N.G.; Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Jiang Jing

    2008-01-01

    Couplings between standard model particles and unparticles from a nontrivial scale invariant sector can lead to long range forces. If the forces couple to quantities such as baryon or lepton (electron) number, stringent limits result from tests of the gravitational inverse square law. These limits are much stronger than from collider phenomenology and astrophysics

  17. Long range node-strut analysis of trabecular bone microarchitecture

    Schmah, Tanya; Marwan, Norbert; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We present a new morphometric measure of trabecular bone microarchitecture, called mean node strength (NdStr), which is part of a newly developed approach called long range node-strut analysis. Our general aim is to describe and quantify the apparent "latticelike" microarchitecture of th...

  18. Helioseismology with long-range dark matter-baryon interactions

    Lopes, I.; Panci, Paolo; Silk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, we study how long-range dark matter (DM)-baryon interactions, induced by the kinetic mixing of a new U(1) gauge boson and a photon, affect the evolution of the Sun and, in turn, the sound speed the profile obtained from...

  19. Long-range interactions in dilute granular systems

    Müller, M.K

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, on purpose, we focussed on the most challenging, longest ranging potentials. We analyzed granular media of low densities obeying 1/r long-range interaction potentials between the granules. Such systems are termed granular gases and differ in their behavior from ordinary gases by

  20. Singularities of elastic scattering amplitude by long-range potentials

    Kvitsinsky, A.A.; Komarov, I.V.; Merkuriev, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    The angular peculiarities and the zero energy singularities of the elastic scattering amplitude by a long-range potential are described. The singularities of the elastic (2 → 2) scattering amplitude for a system of three Coulomb particles are considered [ru

  1. Long-range contributions to double beta decay revisited

    Helo, J.C. [Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Centro-Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso,Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena, Avenida Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Hirsch, M. [HEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular,C.S.I.C./Universitat de València Edificio Institutos de Investigacion,Parc Cientific de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Ota, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University,Shimo-Okubo 255, 338-8570 Saitama-Sakura (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the systematic decomposition of all dimension-7 (d=7) lepton number violating operators. These d=7 operators produce momentum enhanced contributions to the long-range part of the 0νββ decay amplitude and thus are severely constrained by existing half-live limits. In our list of possible models one can find contributions to the long-range amplitude discussed previously in the literature, such as the left-right symmetric model or scalar leptoquarks, as well as some new models not considered before. The d=7 operators generate Majorana neutrino mass terms either at tree-level, 1-loop or 2-loop level. We systematically compare constraints derived from the mass mechanism to those derived from the long-range 0νββ decay amplitude and classify our list of models accordingly. We also study one particular example decomposition, which produces neutrino masses at 2-loop level, can fit oscillation data and yields a large contribution to the long-range 0νββ decay amplitude, in some detail.

  2. Strategic Long Range Planning for Universities. AIR Forum 1980 Paper.

    Baker, Michael E.

    The use of strategic long-range planning at Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) is discussed. A structure for strategic planning analysis that integrates existing techniques is presented, and examples of planning activities at CMU are included. The key concept in strategic planning is competitive advantage: if a university has a competitive…

  3. Long range planning of radiotherapy facilities in the Netherlands

    Postma, T.J.B.M.; Terpstra, S.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this paper is long range planning or policy development for healthcare in the Netherlands. Especially the co-ordinating function of planning will be discussed. In healthcare different actors or stakeholders are involved. Each of these actors may have their own interests, expectations,

  4. Reduction emissions from transport sector - EU action against climate change

    2009-08-01

    This paper explores and discusses the initiation and development of the EU's policies and strategies against climate change and the share experiences in the EU transport sector to reduce CO2 emission.

  5. Assessment of biodiesel scenarios for Midwest freight transport emission reduction.

    2010-04-01

    There are trade-offs when attempting to reduce both greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutants for freight transport, as the control : strategies are not necessarily complimentary. While emission controls can remove ozone precursors and particulate f...

  6. Prospects for bioenergy use in Ghana using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning model

    Kemausuor, Francis; Nygaard, Ivan; Mackenzie, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    As Ghana's economy grows, the choice of future energy paths and policies in the coming years will have a significant influence on its energy security. A Renewable Energy Act approved in 2011 seeks to encourage the influx of renewable energy sources in Ghana's energy mix. The new legal framework combined with increasing demand for energy has created an opportunity for dramatic changes in the way energy is generated in Ghana. However, the impending changes and their implication remain uncertain. This paper examines the extent to which future energy scenarios in Ghana could rely on energy from biomass sources, through the production of biogas, liquid biofuels and electricity. Analysis was based on moderate and high use of bioenergy for transportation, electricity generation and residential fuel using the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) model. Results obtained indicate that introducing bioenergy to the energy mix could reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions by about 6 million tonnes CO_2e by 2030, equivalent to a 14% reduction in a business-as-usual scenario. This paper advocates the use of second generation ethanol for transport, to the extent that it is economically exploitable. Resorting to first generation ethanol would require the allocation of over 580,000 ha of agricultural land for ethanol production. - Highlights: • This paper examines modern bioenergy contribution to Ghana's future energy mix. • Three scenarios are developed and analysed. • Opportunities exist for modern bioenergy to replace carbon intensive fuels. • Introducing modern bioenergy to the mix could result in a 14% reduction in GHG.

  7. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2014-06-01

    Mobile source emission inventories serve as critical input for atmospheric chemical transport models, which are used to simulate air quality and understand the role of mobile source emissions. The significance of mobile sources is even more important in China because the country has the largest vehicle population in the world, and that population continues to grow rapidly. Estimating emissions from diesel trucks is a critical work in mobile source emission inventories due to the importance and difficulties associated with estimating emissions from diesel trucks. Although diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), there are still more obstacles on the existing estimation of diesel truck emissions compared with that of cars; long-range freight transportation activities are complicated, and much of the basic data remain unclear. Most of existing inventories were based on local registration number. However, according to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance inter-city or inter province transportation. Instead of the local registration number based approach, a road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected. Both the questionnaire answers and GPS monitoring results indicated that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. We present estimated emissions of NOx and primary PM2.5 from diesel freight trucks for China in 2011. Using the REIB approach, the activity level and distribution data are obtained from the questionnaire answers. Emission factors are calculated with the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model that interpolated local on-board measurement results in China according to the GPS

  8. Modelling Emission of Pollutants from transportation using mobile sensing data

    Lehmann, Anders

    The advent and the proliferation of the smartphone has promised new possibilities for researchers to gain knowledge about the habits and behaviour of people, as the ubiqui- tous smartphone with an array of sensors is capable of deliver a wealth of information. This dissertation addresses methods...... to use data acquired from smartphones to im- prove transportation related air quality models and models for climate gas emission from transportation. These models can be used for planning of transportation net- works, monitoring of air quality, and automate transport related green accounting. More...... database imple- mentations are a subfield of computer science. I have worked to bring these diverse research fields together to solve the challenge of improving modelling of transporta- tion related air quality emissions as well as modelling of transportation related climate gas emissions. The main...

  9. GHG emission estimates for road transport in national GHG inventories

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Yang, H.

    2011-01-01

    The annual reporting procedures of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have now produced greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories from 40 so-called Annex I countries for 18 years. This article analyses a subset of these data: emissions from road transport. The article

  10. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from u.s. transportation

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the prospects for substantially reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. transportation sector, which accounts for 27 percent of the GHG emissions of the entire U.S. economy and 30 percent of the world's transpor...

  11. Probing the role of long-range interactions in the dynamics of a long-range Kitaev chain

    Dutta, Anirban; Dutta, Amit

    2017-09-01

    We study the role of long-range interactions (more precisely, the long-range superconducting gap term) on the nonequilibrium dynamics considering a long-range p -wave superconducting chain in which the superconducting term decays with distance between two sites in a power-law fashion characterized by an exponent α . We show that the Kibble-Zurek scaling exponent, dictating the power-law decay of the defect density in the final state reached following a slow (in comparison to the time scale associated with the minimum gap in the spectrum of the Hamiltonian) quenching of the chemical potential μ across a quantum critical point, depends nontrivially on the exponent α as long as α 2 , we find that the exponent saturates to the corresponding well-known value of 1 /2 expected for the short-range model. Furthermore, studying the dynamical quantum phase transitions manifested in the nonanalyticities in the rate function of the return possibility I (t ) in subsequent temporal evolution following a sudden change in μ , we show the existence of a new region; in this region, we find three instants of cusp singularities in I (t ) associated with a single sector of Fisher zeros. Notably, the width of this region shrinks as α increases and vanishes in the limit α →2 , indicating that this special region is an artifact of the long-range nature of the Hamiltonian.

  12. Review of maritime transportation air emission pollution and policy analysis

    Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Dahai; Dai, Guilin

    2009-09-01

    The study of air emission in maritime transportation is new, and the recognition of its importance has been rising in the recent decade. The emissions of CO2, SO2, NO2 and particulate matters from maritime transportation have contributed to climate change and environmental degradation. Scientifically, analysts still have controversies regarding how to calculate the emissions and how to choose the baseline and methodologies. Three methods are generally used, namely the ‘bottom up’ approach, the ‘top down’ approach and the STEEM, which produce very different results, leading to various papers with great uncertainties. This, in turn, results in great difficulties to policy makers who attempt to regulate the emissions. A recent technique, the STEEM, is intended to combine the former two methods to reduce their drawbacks. However, the regulations based on its results may increase the costs of shipping companies and cause the competitiveness of the port states and coastal states. Quite a few papers have focused on this area and provided another fresh perspective for the air emission to be incorporated in maritime transportation regulations; these facts deserve more attention. This paper is to review the literature on the debates over air emission calculation, with particular attention given to the STEEM and the refined estimation methods. It also reviews related literature on the economic analysis of maritime transportation emission regulations, and provides an insight into such analysis. At the end of this paper, based on a review and analysis of previous literature, we conclude with the policy indications in the future and work that should be done. As the related regulations in maritime transportation emissions are still at their beginning stage in China, this paper provides specific suggestions on how China should regulate emissions in the maritime transportation sector.

  13. Long-Range Research Plan, FY 1985-FY 1989

    1984-09-01

    The Long-Range Research Plan (LRRP) was prepared by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to assist the NRC in coordinating its long-range research planning with the short-range budget cycles. The LRRP lays out programmatic approaches for research to help resolve regulatory issues. The plan will be updated annually. This document is divided into the following sections: operating reactor inspection, maintenance, and repair; equipment qualification; seismic research; reactor operations and risk; thermal-hydraulic transients; severe accidents; advanced concepts; radiation protection and health effects; and waste management. The following are also listed as appendices: unresolved safety issues and TMI action plan items, priorities for research program, research program outline, and research utilization report. A glossary of acronyms is included

  14. Conformal Invariance in the Long-Range Ising Model

    Paulos, Miguel F; van Rees, Balt C; Zan, Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  15. Conformal invariance in the long-range Ising model

    Miguel F. Paulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  16. Long-range hybrid ridge and trench plasmonic waveguides

    Bian, Yusheng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong, Qihuang, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-23

    We report a class of long-range hybrid plasmon polariton waveguides capable of simultaneously achieving low propagation loss and tight field localization at telecommunication wavelength. The symmetric (quasi-symmetric) hybrid configurations featuring high-refractive-index-contrast near the non-uniform metallic nanostructures enable significantly improved optical performance over conventional hybrid waveguides, exhibiting considerably longer propagation distances and dramatically enhanced figure of merits for similar degrees of confinement. Compared to their traditional long-range plasmonic counterparts, the proposed hybrid waveguides put much less stringent requirements on index-matching conditions, demonstrating nice performance under a wide range of physical dimensions and robust characteristics against certain fabrication imperfections. Studies concerning crosstalk between adjacent identical waveguides further reveal their potential for photonic integrations. In addition, alternative configurations with comparable guiding properties to the structures in our case studies are also proposed, which can potentially serve as attractive prototypes for numerous high-performance nanophotonic components.

  17. Long range order and giant components of quantum random graphs

    Ioffe, D

    2006-01-01

    Mean field quantum random graphs give a natural generalization of classical Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi percolation model on complete graph $G_N$ with $p =\\beta /N$. Quantum case incorporates an additional parameter $\\lambda\\geq 0$, and the short-long range order transition should be studied in the $(\\beta ,\\lambda)$-quarter plane. In this work we explicitly compute the corresponding critical curve $\\gamma_c$, and derive results on two-point functions and sizes of connected components in both short and long range order regions. In this way the classical case corresponds to the limiting point $(\\beta_c ,0) = (1,0)$ on $\\gamma_c$.

  18. Long-range analysis of density fitting in extended systems

    Varga, Scarontefan

    Density fitting scheme is analyzed for the Coulomb problem in extended systems from the correctness of long-range behavior point of view. We show that for the correct cancellation of divergent long-range Coulomb terms it is crucial for the density fitting scheme to reproduce the overlap matrix exactly. It is demonstrated that from all possible fitting metric choices the Coulomb metric is the only one which inherently preserves the overlap matrix for infinite systems with translational periodicity. Moreover, we show that by a small additional effort any non-Coulomb metric fit can be made overlap-preserving as well. The problem is analyzed for both ordinary and Poisson basis set choices.

  19. Conformal invariance in the long-range Ising model

    Paulos, Miguel F. [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Rychkov, Slava, E-mail: slava.rychkov@lpt.ens.fr [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l' École Normale Supérieure (LPTENS), Paris (France); Faculté de Physique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris (France); Rees, Balt C. van [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Zan, Bernardo [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.

  20. Travel: a long-range goal of retired women.

    Staats, Sara; Pierfelice, Loretta

    2003-09-01

    The authors surveyed retired persons (predominately women) with regard to their immediate, intermediate, and long-range activities following retirement. As predicted, leisure travel emerged as a frequent long-range goal for persons retired more than 5 years. The travel activity preferences of long-retired older women present challenges and opportunities to both researchers and marketers. Length of trips and frequency of trips have been predicted from regression models, with trip length in particular being well predicted by the problem of daily life hassles. A theoretical model of continued post-retirement travel is presented as a variant of Solomon's opponent process theory of affect (R. L. Solomon, 1980). The authors suggest that to the degree that places traveled to are varied and different, older people may remain stimulated and continue to enjoy retirement.

  1. SEGMENTATION AND QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LONG RANGE CAPTURED IRIS IMAGE

    Anand Deshpande

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The iris segmentation plays a major role in an iris recognition system to increase the performance of the system. This paper proposes a novel method for segmentation of iris images to extract the iris part of long range captured eye image and an approach to select best iris frame from the iris polar image sequences by analyzing the quality of iris polar images. The quality of iris image is determined by the frequency components present in the iris polar images. The experiments are carried out on CASIA-long range captured iris image sequences. The proposed segmentation method is compared with Hough transform based segmentation and it has been determined that the proposed method gives higher accuracy for segmentation than Hough transform.

  2. Long-range correlation analysis of urban traffic data

    Peng, Sheng; Jun-Feng, Wang; Shu-Long, Zhao; Tie-Qiao, Tang

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates urban traffic data by analysing the long-range correlation with detrended fluctuation analysis. Through a large number of real data collected by the travel time detection system in Beijing, the variation of flow in different time periods and intersections is studied. According to the long-range correlation in different time scales, it mainly discusses the effect of intersection location in road net, people activity customs and special traffic controls on urban traffic flow. As demonstrated by the obtained results, the urban traffic flow represents three-phase characters similar to highway traffic. Moreover, compared by the two groups of data obtained before and after the special traffic restrictions (vehicles with special numbered plates only run in a special workday) enforcement, it indicates that the rules not only reduce the flow but also avoid irregular fluctuation. (general)

  3. Long range correlations, event simulation and parton percolation

    Pajares, C.

    2011-01-01

    We study the RHIC data on long range rapidity correlations, comparing their main trends with different string model simulations. Particular attention is paid to color percolation model and its similarities with color glass condensate. As both approaches corresponds, at high density, to a similar physical picture, both of them give rise to a similar behavior on the energy and the centrality of the main observables. Color percolation explains the transition from low density to high density.

  4. Long range anti-ferromagnetic spin model for prebiotic evolution

    Nokura, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    I propose and discuss a fitness function for one-dimensional binary monomer sequences of macromolecules for prebiotic evolution. The fitness function is defined by the free energy of polymers in the high temperature random coil phase. With repulsive interactions among the same kind of monomers, the free energy in the high temperature limit becomes the energy function of the one-dimensional long range anti-ferromagnetic spin model, which is shown to have a dynamical phase transition and glassy states

  5. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasting

    Mikkelsen, T; Galmarini, S; Bianconi, R; French, S [eds.

    2003-11-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparate national forecasts for long-range dispersion. ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an accidental atmospheric release of radioactive material. A series of new decision-making 'ENSEMBLE' procedures and Web-based software evaluation and exchange tools have been created for real-time reconciliation and harmonisation of real-time dispersion forecasts from meteorological and emergency centres across Europe during an accident. The new ENSEMBLE software tools is available to participating national emergency and meteorological forecasting centres, which may choose to integrate them directly into operational emergency information systems, or possibly use them as a basis for future system development. (au)

  6. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasting

    Mikkelsen, T.; Galmarini, S.; Bianconi, R.; French, S. (eds.)

    2003-11-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparate national forecasts for long-range dispersion. ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an accidental atmospheric release of radioactive material. A series of new decision-making 'ENSEMBLE' procedures and Web-based software evaluation and exchange tools have been created for real-time reconciliation and harmonisation of real-time dispersion forecasts from meteorological and emergency centres across Europe during an accident. The new ENSEMBLE software tools is available to participating national emergency and meteorological forecasting centres, which may choose to integrate them directly into operational emergency information systems, or possibly use them as a basis for future system development. (au)

  7. Laser long-range remote-sensing program experimental results

    Highland, Ronald G.; Shilko, Michael L.; Fox, Marsha J.; Gonglewski, John D.; Czyzak, Stanley R.; Dowling, James A.; Kelly, Brian; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Ruffatto, Donald; Loando, Sharon; Matsuura, Chris; Senft, Daniel C.; Finkner, Lyle; Rae, Joe; Gallegos, Joe

    1995-12-01

    A laser long range remote sensing (LRS) program is being conducted by the United States Air Force Phillips Laboratory (AF/PL). As part of this program, AF/PL is testing the feasibility of developing a long path CO(subscript 2) laser-based DIAL system for remote sensing. In support of this program, the AF/PL has recently completed an experimental series using a 21 km slant- range path (3.05 km ASL transceiver height to 0.067 km ASL target height) at its Phillips Laboratory Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) facility located on Maui, Hawaii. The dial system uses a 3-joule, (superscript 13)C isotope laser coupled into a 0.6 m diameter telescope. The atmospheric optical characterization incorporates information from an infrared scintillometer co-aligned to the laser path, atmospheric profiles from weather balloons launched from the target site, and meteorological data from ground stations at AMOS and the target site. In this paper, we report a description of the experiment configuration, a summary of the results, a summary of the atmospheric conditions and their implications to the LRS program. The capability of such a system for long-range, low-angle, slant-path remote sensing is discussed. System performance issues relating to both coherent and incoherent detection methods, atmospheric limitations, as well as, the development of advanced models to predict performance of long range scenarios are presented.

  8. Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations

    Bernaola-Galván, P.; Oliver, J.L.; Hackenberg, M.; Coronado, A.V.; Ivanov, P.Ch.; Carpena, P.

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome. PMID:23645997

  9. Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations.

    Bernaola-Galván, P; Oliver, J L; Hackenberg, M; Coronado, A V; Ivanov, P Ch; Carpena, P

    2012-06-01

    Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome.

  10. Long-Range Piping Inspection by Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    Joo, Young Sang; Lim, Sa Hoe; Eom, Heung Seop; Kim, Jae Hee

    2005-01-01

    The ultrasonic guided waves are very promising for the long-range inspection of large structures because they can propagate a long distance along the structures such as plates, shells and pipes. The guided wave inspection could be utilized for an on-line monitoring technique when the transmitting and receiving transducers are positioned at a remote point on the structure. The received signal has the information about the integrity of the monitoring area between the transmitting and receiving transducers. On-line monitoring of a pipe line using an ultrasonic guided wave can detect flaws such as corrosion, erosion and fatigue cracking at an early stage and collect useful information on the flaws. However the guided wave inspection is complicated by the dispersive characteristics for guided waves. The phase and group velocities are a function of the frequency-thickness product. Therefore, the different frequency components of the guided waves will travel at different speeds and the shape of the received signal will changed as it propagates along the pipe. In this study, we analyze the propagation characteristics of guided wave modes in a small diameter pipe of nuclear power plant and select the suitable mode for a long-range inspection. And experiments will be carried out for the practical application of a long-range inspection in a 26m long pipe by using a high-power ultrasonic inspection system

  11. Modeling emissions for three-dimensional atmospheric chemistry transport models.

    Matthias, Volker; Arndt, Jan A; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Denier Van Der Gon, Hugo; Kranenburg, Richard; Kuenen, Jeroen; Neumann, Daniel; Pouliot, George; Quante, Markus

    2018-01-24

    Poor air quality is still a threat for human health in many parts of the world. In order to assess measures for emission reductions and improved air quality, three-dimensional atmospheric chemistry transport modeling systems are used in numerous research institutions and public authorities. These models need accurate emission data in appropriate spatial and temporal resolution as input. This paper reviews the most widely used emission inventories on global and regional scale and looks into the methods used to make the inventory data model ready. Shortcomings of using standard temporal profiles for each emission sector are discussed and new methods to improve the spatio-temporal distribution of the emissions are presented. These methods are often neither top-down nor bottom-up approaches but can be seen as hybrid methods that use detailed information about the emission process to derive spatially varying temporal emission profiles. These profiles are subsequently used to distribute bulk emissions like national totals on appropriate grids. The wide area of natural emissions is also summarized and the calculation methods are described. Almost all types of natural emissions depend on meteorological information, which is why they are highly variable in time and space and frequently calculated within the chemistry transport models themselves. The paper closes with an outlook for new ways to improve model ready emission data, for example by using external databases about road traffic flow or satellite data to determine actual land use or leaf area. In a world where emission patterns change rapidly, it seems appropriate to use new types of statistical and observational data to create detailed emission data sets and keep emission inventories up-to-date. Emission data is probably the most important input for chemistry transport model (CTM) systems. It needs to be provided in high temporal and spatial resolution and on a grid that is in agreement with the CTM grid. Simple

  12. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  13. Tourism Transport, Technology, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Peeters, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Technological development from horse-drawn carriages to the new Airbus A380 has led to a remarkable increase in both the capacity and speed of tourist travel. This development has an endogenous systemic cause and will continue to increase carbon dioxide emissions/energy consumption if left

  14. Effects and control of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    1994-01-01

    This tenth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the eleventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 1 to 3 December 1993. Part One is the Annual Review of Strategies and Policies for Air Pollution Abatement. National emission data and forecasts for sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from 1980 to 2005 are presented. Conclusions are drawn concerning the status of implementation of the sulphur and nitrogen oxides protocols on the basis of these data. Part Two is an executive summary of the 1992 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe. The main objective of this report is to give a condensed description of the condition of forests in Europe, as it has been assessed by the transnational and national annual surveys, carried out jointly by the ECE under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the European Community (EC). Part Three is a summary report that focuses on the reduction of air pollution from heat and electric energy production. It is based on discussion papers submitted to the fifth ECE Seminar on Emission Control Technology for Stationary Sources, held in Nuremberg (Germany) from 10 to 14 June 1991. This chapter presents the main control techniques to reduce emissions from fuel combustion, which is a major contribution in most ECE countries to air pollution by sulphur and nitrogen compounds, carbon oxides, organic compounds, as well as heavy metals. Three principal abatement options are reviewed: fuel cleaning and fuel conversion, low-emission combustion processes, and flue gas cleaning processes. Both technical and economic aspects of the different measures are discussed

  15. Reducing the Green House Gas Emissions from the Transportation Sector

    Oyewande Akinnikawe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, two thirds of the carbon monoxide and about one third of carbon dioxide emissions come from the transportation sector. Ways to reduce these emissions in the future include replacing gasoline and diesel by biofuels, or by blend of biofuels with conventional gasoline and diesel, or by compressed natural gas (CNG, or by replacing internal combustion engines by electric motors powered by hydrogen fuel cells or battery-powered electric vehicles recharged from the electric grid. This presentation will review these technologies the fuel production pathways, when they are likely to be available, and by what fraction transportation sector green house gas emissions could be reduced by each. A well-to-wheels (WTW analysis is performed on each vehicle/ fuel technology using the GREET model and the total energy use, the CO 2 emissions, NO x emissions, SO x emissions for the life cycle of the vehicle technologies are calculated. Prospects for reducing foreign oil dependence as well as mitigating green house gases emission from the transportation sector will be considered in the analysis.

  16. Modelling control of epidemics spreading by long-range interactions.

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Kleczkowski, Adam; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2009-10-06

    We have studied the spread of epidemics characterized by a mixture of local and non-local interactions. The infection spreads on a two-dimensional lattice with the fixed nearest neighbour connections. In addition, long-range dynamical links are formed by moving agents (vectors). Vectors perform random walks, with step length distributed according to a thick-tail distribution. Two distributions are considered in this paper, an alpha-stable distribution describing self-similar vector movement, yet characterized by an infinite variance and an exponential power characterized by a large but finite variance. Such long-range interactions are hard to track and make control of epidemics very difficult. We also allowed for cryptic infection, whereby an infected individual on the lattice can be infectious prior to showing any symptoms of infection or disease. To account for such cryptic spread, we considered a control strategy in which not only detected, i.e. symptomatic, individuals but also all individuals within a certain control neighbourhood are treated upon the detection of disease. We show that it is possible to eradicate the disease by using such purely local control measures, even in the presence of long-range jumps. In particular, we show that the success of local control and the choice of the optimal strategy depend in a non-trivial way on the dispersal patterns of the vectors. By characterizing these patterns using the stability index of the alpha-stable distribution to change the power-law behaviour or the exponent characterizing the decay of an exponential power distribution, we show that infection can be successfully contained using relatively small control neighbourhoods for two limiting cases for long-distance dispersal and for vectors that are much more limited in their dispersal range.

  17. INEL D&D long-range plan

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; LaBuy, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and policy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. Appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information, a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current D&D surplus facility, and a summary database of all INEL contaminated facilities awaiting or undergoing the facility transition process.

  18. DIII-D tokamak long range plan. Revision 3

    1992-08-01

    The DIII-D Tokamak Long Range Plan for controlled thermonuclear magnetic fusion research will be carried out with broad national and international participation. The plan covers: (1) operation of the DIII-D tokamak to conduct research experiments to address needs of the US Magnetic Fusion Program; (2) facility modifications to allow these new experiments to be conducted; and (3) collaborations with other laboratories to integrate DIII-D research into the national and international fusion programs. The period covered by this plan is 1 November 19983 through 31 October 1998

  19. Photonic bandgap structures for long-range surface plasmon polaritons

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along periodically thickness-modulated metal stripes embedded in dielectric is studied both theoretically and experimentally for light wavelengths in the telecom range. We demonstrate that symmetric (with respect to the film surface) nm......-size thickness variations result in the pronounced band gap effect, and obtain very good agreement between measured and simulated (transmission and reflection) spectra. This effect is exploited to realize a compact wavelength add-drop filter with the bandwidth of -20 nm centered at 1550 nm. The possibilities...

  20. Long-range interaction between dust grains in plasma

    D.Yu. Mishagli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The nature of long-range interactions between dust grains in plasma is discussed. The dust grain interaction potential within a cell model of dusty plasma is introduced. The attractive part of inter-grain potential is described by multipole interaction between two electro-neutral cells. This allowed us to draw an analogy with molecular liquids where attraction between molecules is determined by dispersion forces. Also main ideas of the fluctuation theory for electrostatic field in cell model are formulated, and the dominating contribution to attractive part of inter-grain potential is obtained.

  1. INEL D ampersand D Long-Range Plan

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; Preussner, D.H.

    1993-10-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D ampersand D Program objectives, management criteria, and philosophy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D ampersand D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. appendices are included that provide INEL D ampersand D project historical information and a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current surplus facility

  2. INEL D ampersand D long-range plan

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; LaBuy, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D ampersand D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D ampersand D Program objectives, management criteria, and policy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D ampersand D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. Appendices are included that provide INEL D ampersand D project historical information, a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current D ampersand D surplus facility, and a summary database of all INEL contaminated facilities awaiting or undergoing the facility transition process

  3. Political Mechanisms for Long-Range Survival and Development

    Marshall, W.

    As the first species aware of extinction and capable of proactively ensuring our long-term survival and development, it is striking that we do not do so with the rigor, formality, and foresight it requires. Only from a reactive posture have we responded to the challenges of global warfare, human rights, environmental concerns, and sustainable development. Despite our awareness of the possibility for extinction and apocalyptic set-backs to our evolution, and despite the existence of long-range studies-which must still be dramatically increased-proactive global policy implementation regarding our long-term survival and development is arguably non-existent. This lack of long-term policy making can be attributed in part to the lack of formal political mechanisms to facilitate longer-range policy making that extends 30 years or more into the future. Political mechanisms for infusing long-range thinking, research, and strategic planning into the policy-making process can help correct this shortcoming and provide the motivation needed to adequately address long-term challenges with the political rigor required to effectively establish and implement long-term policies. There are some efforts that attempt to address longer-range issues, but those efforts often do not connect to the political process, do not extend 30 or more years into the future, are not well-funded, and are not sufficiently systemic. Political mechanisms for long-range survival and prosperity could correct these inadequacies by raising awareness, providing funding, and most importantly, leveraging political rigor to establish and enforce long-range strategic planning and policies. The feasibility of such mechanisms should first be rigorously studied and assessed in a feasibility study, which could then inform implementation. This paper will present the case for such a study and suggest some possible political mechanisms that should be investigated further in the proposed study. This work is being further

  4. Cross-correlation of long-range correlated series

    Arianos, Sergio; Carbone, Anna

    2009-01-01

    A method for estimating the cross-correlation C xy (τ) of long-range correlated series x(t) and y(t), at varying lags τ and scales n, is proposed. For fractional Brownian motions with Hurst exponents H 1 and H 2 , the asymptotic expression for C xy (τ) depends only on the lag τ (wide-sense stationarity) and scales as a power of n with exponent H 1 +H 2 for τ→0. The method is illustrated on: (i) financial series, to show the leverage effect; (ii) genomic sequences, to estimate the correlations between structural parameters along the chromosomes

  5. Finite temperature CPN-1 model and long range Neel order

    Ichinose, Ikuo; Yamamoto, Hisashi.

    1989-09-01

    We study in d space-dimensions the finite temperature behavior of long range Neel order (LRNO) in CP N-1 model as a low energy effective field theory of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model. For d≤1, or d≤2 at any nonzero temperature, LRNO disappears, in agreement with Mermin-Wagner-Coleman's theorem. For d=3 in the weak coupling region, LRNO exists below the critical temperature T N (Neel temperature). T N decreases as the interlayer coupling becomes relatively weak compared with that within Cu-O layers. (author)

  6. Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nikolajsen, Thomas; Leosson, Kristjan

    2005-01-01

    New optical waveguide technology for integrated optics, based on propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in dielectric, is presented. Guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded......), and a bend loss of ~5 dB for a bend radius of 15 mm are evaluated for 15-nm-thick and 8-mm-wide stripes at the wavelength of 1550 nm. LR-SPP-based 3-dB power Y-splitters, multimode interference waveguides, and directional couplers are demonstrated and investigated. At 1570 nm, coupling lengths of 1.9 and 0...

  7. Report on long range alpha detector (LRAD) performance tests

    Kobayashi, Hirohide; Unno, Motoyoshi; Ishikawa, Hisashi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi

    2002-10-01

    At present, alpha contamination measurement on objects is conducted with ZnS scintillation survey meter (direct method) and smear test (indirect method). But it is difficult to measure large and complicated objects by direct method. Long Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) was produced as a solution for this problem. We carried out performance tests of this LRAD. As a result of the performance tests, we confirmed the linear relation between the measurement values of LRAD and alpha-radioactivity on the surface of objects. (author)

  8. Long-range dependence and sea level forecasting

    Ercan, Ali; Abbasov, Rovshan K

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that the Caspian Sea level time series possess long range dependence even after removing linear trends, based on analyses of the Hurst statistic, the sample autocorrelation functions, and the periodogram of the series. Forecasting performance of ARMA, ARIMA, ARFIMA and Trend Line-ARFIMA (TL-ARFIMA) combination models are investigated. The forecast confidence bands and the forecast updating methodology, provided for ARIMA models in the literature, are modified for the ARFIMA models. Sample autocorrelation functions are utilized to estimate the differencing lengths of the ARFIMA

  9. A comparative analysis of several vehicle emission models for road freight transportation

    Demir, E.; Bektas, T.; Laporte, G.

    2011-01-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in freight transportation requires using appropriate emission models in the planning process. This paper reviews and numerically compares several available freight transportation vehicle emission models and also considers their outputs in relations to field studies.

  10. Fluctuation-induced long-range interactions in polymer systems

    Semenov, A N; Obukhov, S P

    2005-01-01

    We discover a new universal long-range interaction between solid objects in polymer media. This polymer-induced interaction is directly opposite to the van der Waals attraction. The predicted effect is deeply related to the classical Casimir interactions, providing a unique example of universal fluctuation-induced repulsion rather than normal attraction. This universal repulsion comes from the subtracted soft fluctuation modes in the ideal counterpart of the real polymer system. The effect can also be interpreted in terms of subtracted (ghost) large-scale polymer loops. We establish the general expressions for the energy of polymer-induced interactions for arbitrary solid particles in a concentrated polymer system. We find that the correlation function of the polymer density in a concentrated solution of very long chains follows a scaling law rather than an exponential decay at large distances. These novel universal long-range interactions can be of importance in various polymer systems. We discuss the ways to observe/simulate these fluctuation-induced effects

  11. The Use of Principal Components in Long-Range Forecasting

    Chern, Jonq-Gong

    Large-scale modes of the global sea surface temperatures and the Northern Hemisphere tropospheric circulation are described by principal component analysis. The first and the second SST components well describe the El Nino episodes, and the El Nino index (ENI), suggested in this study, is consistent with the winter Southern Oscillation index (SOI), where this ENI is a composite component of the weighted first and second SST components. The large-scale interactive modes of the coupling ocean-atmosphere system are identified by cross-correlation analysis The result shows that the first SST component is strongly correlated with the first component of geopotential height in lead time of 6 months. In the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolution, the El Nino mode strongly influences the winter tropospheric circulation in the mid -latitudes for up to three leading seasons. The regional long-range variation of climate is investigated with these major components of the SST and the tropospheric circulation. In the mid-latitude, the climate of the central United States shows a weak linkage with these large-scale circulations, and the climate of the western United States appears to be consistently associated with the ENSO modes. These El Nino modes also show a dominant influence on Eastern Asia as evidenced in Taiwan Mei-Yu patterns. Possible regional long-range forecasting schemes, utilizing the complementary characteristics of the winter El Nino mode and SST anomalies, are examined with the Taiwan Mei-Yu.

  12. Helioseismology with long-range dark matter-baryon interactions

    Lopes, Ilídio [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Panci, Paolo [CP3-Origins and DIAS, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense (Denmark); Silk, Joseph, E-mail: ilidio.lopes@tecnico.ulisboa.pt, E-mail: panci@iap.fr, E-mail: silk@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis Blvd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-11-10

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, we study how long-range dark matter (DM)-baryon interactions, induced by the kinetic mixing of a new U(1) gauge boson and a photon, affect the evolution of the Sun and, in turn, the sound speed the profile obtained from helioseismology. Thanks to the explicit dependence on the exchanged momenta in the differential cross section (Rutherford-like scattering), we find that DM particles with a mass of ∼10 GeV, kinetic mixing parameter of the order of 10{sup –9}, and a mediator with a mass smaller than a few MeV improve the agreement between the best solar model and the helioseismic data without being excluded by direct detection experiments. In particular, the LUX detector will soon be able to either constrain or confirm our best-fit solar model in the presence of a dark sector with long-range interactions that reconcile helioseismology with thermal neutrino results.

  13. One-dimensional long-range percolation: A numerical study

    Gori, G.; Michelangeli, M.; Defenu, N.; Trombettoni, A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we study bond percolation on a one-dimensional chain with power-law bond probability C /rd +σ , where r is the distance length between distinct sites and d =1 . We introduce and test an order-N Monte Carlo algorithm and we determine as a function of σ the critical value Cc at which percolation occurs. The critical exponents in the range 0 values for Cc are compared with a known exact bound, while the critical exponent ν is compared with results from mean-field theory, from an expansion around the point σ =1 and from the ɛ -expansion used with the introduction of a suitably defined effective dimension deff relating the long-range model with a short-range one in dimension deff. We finally present a formulation of our algorithm for bond percolation on general graphs, with order N efficiency on a large class of graphs including short-range percolation and translationally invariant long-range models in any spatial dimension d with σ >0 .

  14. The Frontiers of Nuclear Science: A Long-Range Plan

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    In a letter dated July 17, 2006, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science for Nuclear Physics and the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Mathematical and Physical Sciences Directorate charged the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) to “conduct a study of the opportunities and priorities for U.S. nuclear physics research and recommend a long range plan that will provide a framework for coordinated advancement of the nation’s nuclear science research programs over the next decade.” This request set in motion a bottom-up review and forward look by the nuclear science community. With input from this community-wide process, a 59 member working group, which included the present NSAC members, gathered at the beginning of May, 2007, to develop guidance on how to optimize the future research directions for the field based on the projected resources outlined in the charge letter from DOE and NSF. A new long range plan—The Frontiers of Nuclear Science—grew out of this meeting. For the last decade, the top priority for nuclear science has been to utilize the flagship facilities that were built with investments by the nation in the 1980s and 1990s. Research with these facilities has led to many significant new discoveries that have changed our understanding of the world in which we live. But new discoveries demand new facilities, and the successes cannot continue indefinitely without new investment.

  15. Social Learning and the Mitigation of Transport CO2 Emissions

    Maha Al Sabbagh

    2017-01-01

    Social learning, a key factor in fostering behavioural change and improving decision making, is considered necessary for achieving substantial CO2 emission reductions. However, no empirical evidence exists on how it contributes to mitigation of transport CO2 emissions, or the extent of its influence on decision making. This paper presents evidence addressing these knowledge gaps. Social learning-oriented workshops were conducted to gather the views and preferences of participants from the gen...

  16. Empirical study of long-range connections in a road network offers new ingredient for navigation optimization models

    Wang, Pu; Liu, Like; Li, Xiamiao; Li, Guanliang; González, Marta C

    2014-01-01

    Navigation problem in lattices with long-range connections has been widely studied to understand the design principles for optimal transport networks; however, the travel cost of long-range connections was not considered in previous models. We define long-range connection in a road network as the shortest path between a pair of nodes through highways and empirically analyze the travel cost properties of long-range connections. Based on the maximum speed allowed in each road segment, we observe that the time needed to travel through a long-range connection has a characteristic time T h  ∼ 29 min, while the time required when using the alternative arterial road path has two different characteristic times T a  ∼ 13 and 41 min and follows a power law for times larger than 50 min. Using daily commuting origin–destination matrix data, we additionally find that the use of long-range connections helps people to save about half of the travel time in their daily commute. Based on the empirical results, we assign a more realistic travel cost to long-range connections in two-dimensional square lattices, observing dramatically different minimum average shortest path 〈l〉 but similar optimal navigation conditions. (paper)

  17. Empirical study of long-range connections in a road network offers new ingredient for navigation optimization models

    Wang, Pu; Liu, Like; Li, Xiamiao; Li, Guanliang; González, Marta C.

    2014-01-01

    Navigation problem in lattices with long-range connections has been widely studied to understand the design principles for optimal transport networks; however, the travel cost of long-range connections was not considered in previous models. We define long-range connection in a road network as the shortest path between a pair of nodes through highways and empirically analyze the travel cost properties of long-range connections. Based on the maximum speed allowed in each road segment, we observe that the time needed to travel through a long-range connection has a characteristic time Th ˜ 29 min, while the time required when using the alternative arterial road path has two different characteristic times Ta ˜ 13 and 41 min and follows a power law for times larger than 50 min. Using daily commuting origin-destination matrix data, we additionally find that the use of long-range connections helps people to save about half of the travel time in their daily commute. Based on the empirical results, we assign a more realistic travel cost to long-range connections in two-dimensional square lattices, observing dramatically different minimum average shortest path but similar optimal navigation conditions.

  18. Search for Long-Range Correlations in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions at SPS Energies

    Shakeel Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-range correlations are searched for by analysing the experimental data on 16O-AgBr and 32S-AgBr collisions at 200 A GeV/c and the results are compared with the predictions of a multi phase transport (AMPT model. The findings reveal that the observed forward-backward (F-B multiplicity correlations are mainly of short range in nature. The range of F-B correlations are observed to extend with increasing projectile mass. The observed extended range of F-B correlations might be due to overall multiplicity fluctuations arising because of nuclear geometry. The findings are not sufficient for making any definite conclusions regarding the presence of long-range correlations.

  19. Characterizing short-range vs. long-range spatial correlations in dislocation distributions

    Chevy, Juliette, E-mail: juliette.chevy@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement-CNRS, 54 rue Moliere, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres (France)] [Laboratoire Science et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes, Grenoble INP-CNRS-UJF, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Fressengeas, Claude; Lebyodkin, Mikhail; Taupin, Vincent [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz/CNRS, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex (France); Bastie, Pierre [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)] [Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Duval, Paul [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement-CNRS, 54 rue Moliere, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres (France)

    2010-03-15

    Hard X-ray diffraction experiments have provided evidence of a strongly heterogeneous distribution of dislocation densities along the axis of cylindrical ice single crystals oriented for basal slip in torsion creep. The dislocation arrangements showed a complex scale-invariant character, which was analyzed by means of statistical and multifractal techniques. A trend to decreasing autocorrelation of the dislocation distribution was observed as deformation proceeds. At low strain levels, long-range spatial correlations control the distribution, but short-range correlations in relation with cross-slip progressively prevail when strain increases. This trend was reproduced by a model based on field dislocation dynamics, a theory accounting for both long-range elastic interactions and short-range interactions through transport of dislocation densities.

  20. Characterizing short-range vs. long-range spatial correlations in dislocation distributions

    Chevy, Juliette; Fressengeas, Claude; Lebyodkin, Mikhail; Taupin, Vincent; Bastie, Pierre; Duval, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Hard X-ray diffraction experiments have provided evidence of a strongly heterogeneous distribution of dislocation densities along the axis of cylindrical ice single crystals oriented for basal slip in torsion creep. The dislocation arrangements showed a complex scale-invariant character, which was analyzed by means of statistical and multifractal techniques. A trend to decreasing autocorrelation of the dislocation distribution was observed as deformation proceeds. At low strain levels, long-range spatial correlations control the distribution, but short-range correlations in relation with cross-slip progressively prevail when strain increases. This trend was reproduced by a model based on field dislocation dynamics, a theory accounting for both long-range elastic interactions and short-range interactions through transport of dislocation densities.

  1. Draft protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone

    NONE

    1999-10-15

    The draft Protocol to be tabled as item 2 of the seventeenth session of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, (29 November - 3 December 1999) has the objective of controlling and reducing emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds caused by anthropogenic activities and likely to cause adverse effects due to acidification, eutrophication or ground-level ozone as a result of long-range transboundary atmospheric transport and to ensure that atmospheric depositions or concentrations do not exceed, for Parties within the geographical scope of EMEP (the programme for monitoring and evaluation of long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe), and Canada, the critical loads of acidity for EMEP countries as described in Annex I of the document; the critical loads of nutrient nitrogen as described in Annex I, and, for ozone, the critical levels as described in Annex I for EMEP countries, for Canada, the Canada-wide Standard for ozone, and for the USA, the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone. It specifies limit values for boilers rated at {gt} 50 MW{sub th}. 9 apps.

  2. Emissions from the transport sector in Denmark

    Fenhann, J; Kilde, N [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    By combustion of fossil fuels; CO{sub 2} is emitted to the atmosphere. The new assessment report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1996) reveals that scientific uncertainty - a major barrier to action - is being steadily reduced. The report goes further than ever before by stating that scientists now believe that `the balance of evidence suggest a discernible human influence on global climate`. This significant conclusion will certainly contribute to mobilizing political support for stronger commitments. Denmark already have decided on strong reduction targets. It is the goal of the government to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from the energy consuming sectors by 20% in 2005 compared to 1988 and to reach further reducations up to the year 2030. (EG) 16 refs.

  3. Position-insensitive long range inductive power transfer

    Kwan, Christopher H; Lawson, James; Yates, David C; Mitcheson, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results of an improved inductive wireless power transfer system for reliable long range powering of sensors with milliwatt-level consumption. An ultra-low power flyback impedance emulator operating in open loop is used to present the optimal load to the receiver's resonant tank. Transmitter power modulation is implemented in order to maintain constant receiver power and to prevent damage to the receiver electronics caused by excessive received voltage. Received power is steady up to 3 m at around 30 mW. The receiver electronics and feedback system consumes 3.1 mW and so with a transmitter input power of 163.3 W the receiver becomes power neutral at 4.75 m. Such an IPT system can provide a reliable alternative to energy harvesters for supplying power concurrently to multiple remote sensors

  4. Long-Range Big Quantum-Data Transmission

    Zwerger, M.; Pirker, A.; Dunjko, V.; Briegel, H. J.; Dür, W.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce an alternative type of quantum repeater for long-range quantum communication with improved scaling with the distance. We show that by employing hashing, a deterministic entanglement distillation protocol with one-way communication, one obtains a scalable scheme that allows one to reach arbitrary distances, with constant overhead in resources per repeater station, and ultrahigh rates. In practical terms, we show that, also with moderate resources of a few hundred qubits at each repeater station, one can reach intercontinental distances. At the same time, a measurement-based implementation allows one to tolerate high loss but also operational and memory errors of the order of several percent per qubit. This opens the way for long-distance communication of big quantum data.

  5. Pad A treatability study long-range project plan

    Mousseau, J.D.

    1991-06-01

    This plan addresses the work to be accomplished by the Pad A Treatability Study Project. The purpose of this project is to investigate potential treatment and separation technologies, identify the best technologies, and to demonstrate by both lab- and pilot-scale demonstration, the most applicable remedial technologies for treating plutonium-contaminated salts at the Pad A site located at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) a the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The conduct of this project will be supported by other DOE laboratories, universities, and private industries, who will provide support for near-term demonstrations of treatment and separation technologies. The purpose of this long-range planning document is to present the detailed plan for the implementation of the Pad A Treatability Study Project

  6. Challenges in miniaturized automotive long-range lidar system design

    Fersch, Thomas; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current technical limitations posed on endeavors to miniaturize lidar systems for use in automotive applications and how to possibly extend those limits. The focus is set on long-range scanning direct time of flight LiDAR systems using APD photodetectors. Miniaturization evokes severe problems in ensuring absolute laser safety while maintaining the systems' performance in terms of maximum range, signal-to-noise ratio, detection probability, pixel density, or frame rate. Based on hypothetical but realistic specifications for an exemplary system the complete lidar signal path is calculated. The maximum range of the system is used as a general performance indicator. It is determined with the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to detect an object. Various system parameters are varied to find their impact on the system's range. The reduction of the laser's pulse width and the right choice for the transimpedance amplifier's amplification have shown to be practicable measures to double the system's range.

  7. Short, intermediate and long range order in amorphous ices

    Martelli, Fausto; Torquato, Salvatore; Giovanbattista, Nicolas; Car, Roberto

    Water exhibits polyamorphism, i.e., it exists in more than one amorphous state. The most common forms of glassy water are the low-density amorphous (LDA) and the high-density amorphous (HDA) ices. LDA, the most abundant form of ice in the Universe, transforms into HDA upon isothermal compression. We model the transformation of LDA into HDA under isothermal compression with classical molecular dynamics simulations. We analyze the molecular structures with a recently introduced scalar order metric to measure short and intermediate range order. In addition, we rank the structures by their degree of hyperuniformity, i.e.,the extent to which long range density fluctuations are suppressed. F.M. and R.C. acknowledge support from the Department of Energy (DOE) under Grant No. DE-SC0008626.

  8. Sensor Control And Film Annotation For Long Range, Standoff Reconnaissance

    Schmidt, Thomas G.; Peters, Owen L.; Post, Lawrence H.

    1984-12-01

    This paper describes a Reconnaissance Data Annotation System that incorporates off-the-shelf technology and system designs providing a high degree of adaptability and interoperability to satisfy future reconnaissance data requirements. The history of data annotation for reconnaissance is reviewed in order to provide the base from which future developments can be assessed and technical risks minimized. The system described will accommodate new developments in recording head assemblies and the incorporation of advanced cameras of both the film and electro-optical type. Use of microprocessor control and digital bus inter-face form the central design philosophy. For long range, high altitude, standoff missions, the Data Annotation System computes the projected latitude and longitude of central target position from aircraft position and attitude. This complements the use of longer ranges and high altitudes for reconnaissance missions.

  9. Long-range interactions in antiferromagnetic quantum spin chains

    Bravo, B.; Cabra, D. C.; Gómez Albarracín, F. A.; Rossini, G. L.

    2017-08-01

    We study the role of long-range dipolar interactions on antiferromagnetic spin chains, from the classical S →∞ limit to the deep quantum case S =1 /2 , including a transverse magnetic field. To this end, we combine different techniques such as classical energy minima, classical Monte Carlo, linear spin waves, bosonization, and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). We find a phase transition from the already reported dipolar ferromagnetic region to an antiferromagnetic region for high enough antiferromagnetic exchange. Thermal and quantum fluctuations destabilize the classical order before reaching magnetic saturation in both phases, and also close to zero field in the antiferromagnetic phase. In the extreme quantum limit S =1 /2 , extensive DMRG computations show that the main phases remain present with transition lines to saturation significatively shifted to lower fields, in agreement with the bosonization analysis. The overall picture maintains a close analogy with the phase diagram of the anisotropic XXZ spin chain in a transverse field.

  10. Radiation protection criteria in the long-range view

    Snihs, J.O.; Bergman, C.

    1989-01-01

    The report presents by way of introduction radiation protection criteria applied to radiological activities and to disposal of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. In these cases it is primarily short-range views that are relevant, up to a few thousand years as a maximum. In the case of high-level wastes where the views may extend to more than hundreds of thousands years, there are not for the present any equally well stablished criteria. Based upon preliminary results from a Nordic team for criteria for high-level radioactive wastes, dose estimates in the long-range view and alternative assessment criteria are discussed. Proposals are also presented for 12 criteria that may be applicable. As the work is not yet finshed, the criteria are however merely preliminary

  11. On the origin of long-range correlations in texts.

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Esposti, Mirko Degli

    2012-07-17

    The complexity of human interactions with social and natural phenomena is mirrored in the way we describe our experiences through natural language. In order to retain and convey such a high dimensional information, the statistical properties of our linguistic output has to be highly correlated in time. An example are the robust observations, still largely not understood, of correlations on arbitrary long scales in literary texts. In this paper we explain how long-range correlations flow from highly structured linguistic levels down to the building blocks of a text (words, letters, etc..). By combining calculations and data analysis we show that correlations take form of a bursty sequence of events once we approach the semantically relevant topics of the text. The mechanisms we identify are fairly general and can be equally applied to other hierarchical settings.

  12. Structure function analysis of long-range correlations in plasma turbulence

    Yu, C.X.; Gilmore, M.; Peebles, W.A.; Rhodes, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    Long-range correlations (temporal and spatial) have been predicted in a number of different turbulence models, both analytical and numerical. These long-range correlations are thought to significantly affect cross-field turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. The Hurst exponent, H - one of a number of methods to identify the existence of long-range correlations in experimental data - can be used to quantify self-similarity scalings and correlations in the mesoscale temporal range. The Hurst exponent can be calculated by several different algorithms, each of which has particular advantages and disadvantages. One method for calculating H is via structure functions (SFs). The SF method is a robust technique for determining H with several inherent advantages that has not yet been widely used in plasma turbulence research. In this article, the SF method and its advantages are discussed in detail, using both simulated and measured fluctuation data from the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. In addition, it is shown that SFs used in conjunction with rescaled range analysis (another method for calculating H) can be used to mitigate the effects of coherent modes in some cases

  13. In-flight sleep, pilot fatigue and Psychomotor Vigilance Task performance on ultra-long range versus long range flights.

    Gander, Philippa H; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Jay, Sarah M; Jim Mangie, Captain

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated whether pilot fatigue was greater on ultra-long range (ULR) trips (flights >16 h on 10% of trips in a 90-day period) than on long range (LR) trips. The within-subjects design controlled for crew complement, pattern of in-flight breaks, flight direction and departure time. Thirty male Captains (mean age = 54.5 years) and 40 male First officers (mean age = 48.0 years) were monitored on commercial passenger flights (Boeing 777 aircraft). Sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 days before the first study trip to 3 days after the second study trip. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Samn-Perelli fatigue ratings and a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task were completed before, during and after every flight. Total sleep in the 24 h before outbound flights and before inbound flights after 2-day layovers was comparable for ULR and LR flights. All pilots slept on all flights. For each additional hour of flight time, they obtained an estimated additional 12.3 min of sleep. Estimated mean total sleep was longer on ULR flights (3 h 53 min) than LR flights (3 h 15 min; P(F) = 0.0004). Sleepiness ratings were lower and mean reaction speed was faster at the end of ULR flights. Findings suggest that additional in-flight sleep mitigated fatigue effectively on longer flights. Further research is needed to clarify the contributions to fatigue of in-flight sleep versus time awake at top of descent. The study design was limited to eastward outbound flights with two Captains and two First Officers. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating to different operations. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Effective quantum theories with short- and long-range forces

    Koenig, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    At low energies, nonrelativistic quantum systems are essentially governed by their wave functions at large distances. For this reason, it is possible to describe a wide range of phenomena with short- or even finite-range interactions. In this thesis, we discuss several topics in connection with such an effective description and consider, in particular, modifications introduced by the presence of additional long-range potentials. In the first part we derive general results for the mass (binding energy) shift of bound states with angular momentum L ≥ 1 in a periodic cubic box in two and three spatial dimensions. Our results have applications to lattice simulations of hadronic molecules, halo nuclei, and Feshbach molecules. The sign of the mass shift can be related to the symmetry properties of the state under consideration. We verify our analytical results with explicit numerical calculations. Moreover, we discuss the case of twisted boundary conditions that arise when one considers moving bound states in finite boxes. The corresponding finite-volume shifts in the binding energies play an important role in the study of composite-particle scattering on the lattice, where they give rise to topological correction factors. While the above results are derived under the assumption of a pure finite-range interaction - and are still true up to exponentially small correction in the short-range case - in the second part we consider primarily systems of charged particles, where the Coulomb force determines the long-range part of the potential. In quantum systems with short-range interactions, causality imposes nontrivial constraints on low-energy scattering parameters. We investigate these causality constraints for systems where a long-range Coulomb potential is present in addition to a short-range interaction. The main result is an upper bound for the Coulomb-modified effective range parameter. We discuss the implications of this bound to the effective feld theory (EFT) for

  15. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

    1999-10-01

    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation

  16. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01

    This report documents changes to the methods and data in a recently revised version of the greenhouse-gas emissions model originally documented in Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity, ANL/ESD/TM-22, Volumes 1 and 2, Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (ANL), Illinois (DeLuchi, 1991, 1993). The revised Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM) calculates energy use, air-pollutant emissions, and CO2-equivalent emissions o...

  17. Long-range alpha detection applied to soil surface monitoring

    Caress, R.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Catlett, M.M.; MacArthur, D.W.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique depends on the detection of ion pairs generated by alpha particles losing energy in air rather than on detection of the alpha particles themselves. Typical alpha particles generated by uranium will travel less than 3 cm in air. In contrast, the ions have been successfully detected many inches or feet away from the contamination. Since LRAD detection systems are sensitive to all ions simultaneously, large LRAD soil surface monitors (SSMS) can be used to collect all of the ions from a large sample. The LRAD SSMs are designed around the fan-less LRAD detector. In this case a five-sided box with an open bottom is placed on the soil surface. Ions generated by alpha decays on the soil surface are collected on a charged copper plate within the box. These ions create a small current from the plate to ground which is monitored with a sensitive electrometer. The current measured is proportional to the number of ions in the box, which is, in turn, proportional to the amount of alpha contamination on the surface of the soil. This report includes the design and construction of a 1-m by 1-m SSM as well as the results of a study at Fernald, OH, as part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

  18. Functional Sites Induce Long-Range Evolutionary Constraints in Enzymes.

    Benjamin R Jack

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional residues in proteins tend to be highly conserved over evolutionary time. However, to what extent functional sites impose evolutionary constraints on nearby or even more distant residues is not known. Here, we report pervasive conservation gradients toward catalytic residues in a dataset of 524 distinct enzymes: evolutionary conservation decreases approximately linearly with increasing distance to the nearest catalytic residue in the protein structure. This trend encompasses, on average, 80% of the residues in any enzyme, and it is independent of known structural constraints on protein evolution such as residue packing or solvent accessibility. Further, the trend exists in both monomeric and multimeric enzymes and irrespective of enzyme size and/or location of the active site in the enzyme structure. By contrast, sites in protein-protein interfaces, unlike catalytic residues, are only weakly conserved and induce only minor rate gradients. In aggregate, these observations show that functional sites, and in particular catalytic residues, induce long-range evolutionary constraints in enzymes.

  19. ORNL long-range environmental and waste management plan

    Baldwin, J.S.; Bates, L.D.; Brown, C.H.; Easterday, C.A.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Payne, T.L.; Pepper, C.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Smith, M.A.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1989-09-01

    This report, the ORNL Long-Range Environmental and Waste Management Plan, is the annual update in a series begun in fiscal year 1985. Its primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document; it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a pragmatic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts perceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. 55 figs., 72 tabs

  20. Measured long-range repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces

    Munday, J. N.; Capasso, Federico; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Quantum fluctuations create intermolecular forces that pervade macroscopic bodies1–3. At molecular separations of a few nanometres or less, these interactions are the familiar van der Waals forces4. However, as recognized in the theories of Casimir, Polder and Lifshitz5–7, at larger distances and between macroscopic condensed media they reveal retardation effects associated with the finite speed of light. Although these long-range forces exist within all matter, only attractive interactions have so far been measured between material bodies8–11. Here we show experimentally that, in accord with theoretical prediction12, the sign of the force can be changed from attractive to repulsive by suitable choice of interacting materials immersed in a fluid. The measured repulsive interaction is found to be weaker than the attractive. However, in both cases the magnitude of the force increases with decreasing surface separation. Repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces could allow quantum levitation of objects in a fluid and lead to a new class of switchable nanoscale devices with ultra-low static friction13–15. PMID:19129843

  1. Measured long-range repulsive Casimir-Lifshitz forces.

    Munday, J N; Capasso, Federico; Parsegian, V Adrian

    2009-01-08

    Quantum fluctuations create intermolecular forces that pervade macroscopic bodies. At molecular separations of a few nanometres or less, these interactions are the familiar van der Waals forces. However, as recognized in the theories of Casimir, Polder and Lifshitz, at larger distances and between macroscopic condensed media they reveal retardation effects associated with the finite speed of light. Although these long-range forces exist within all matter, only attractive interactions have so far been measured between material bodies. Here we show experimentally that, in accord with theoretical prediction, the sign of the force can be changed from attractive to repulsive by suitable choice of interacting materials immersed in a fluid. The measured repulsive interaction is found to be weaker than the attractive. However, in both cases the magnitude of the force increases with decreasing surface separation. Repulsive Casimir-Lifshitz forces could allow quantum levitation of objects in a fluid and lead to a new class of switchable nanoscale devices with ultra-low static friction.

  2. ORNL long-range environmental and waste management plan

    Baldwin, J.S.; Bates, L.D.; Brown, C.H.; Easterday, C.A.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Payne, T.L.; Pepper, C.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Smith, M.A.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1989-09-01

    This report, the ORNL Long-Range Environmental and Waste Management Plan, is the annual update in a series begun in fiscal year 1985. Its primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document; it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a pragmatic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts perceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. 55 figs., 72 tabs.

  3. Long-range goal setting in the nuclear utility industry

    Beard, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operation's (INPO's) programs support the industry's efforts to improve performance in nuclear plant safety and reliability. The success of these programs can best be measured by the progress of the industry. As utilities focused their attention on nuclear plant performance, the Institute's goal was to make sure its programs and activities provided the best possible support for these efforts. INPO continues to coordinate an industry-wide plant performance indicator program to assist member utilities in assessing station performance. Closely related to this effort is the nuclear industry's establishment of long-range plant performance goals. The US nuclear utility industry currently sends INPO quarterly data on 28 key performance indicators. INPO analyzes these data and provides periodic reports to its members and participants. Selected highlights of INPO's Performance Indicators for the US Nuclear Utility, dated June 1986, are discussed. Throughout 1985, INPO interacted with members, participants, and three external ad hoc review groups to refine the overall performance indicators and to develop background for each unit. By April 1986, each utility had developed long-term goals for each unit. By April 1986, each utility had developed long-term goals for most of the overall indicators. These goals represent a commitment to achievement of excellence when applied to the day-to-day conduct of plant operations, and provide a framework for action

  4. Examples and applications in long-range ocean acoustics

    Vera, M D

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic energy propagates effectively to long ranges in the ocean interior because of the physical properties of the marine environment. Sound propagation in the ocean is relevant to a variety of studies in communication, climatology and marine biology. Examples drawn from ocean acoustics, therefore, are compelling to students with a variety of interests. The dependence of sound speed on depth results in a waveguide that permits the detection of acoustic energy at ranges, in some experiments, of thousands of kilometres. This effect serves as an illustration of Snell's law with a continuously variable index of refraction. Acoustic tomography also offers a means for imaging the ocean's thermal structure, because of the dependence of sound speed on temperature. The ability to perform acoustic thermometry for large transects of the ocean provides an effective means of studying climate change. This application in an area of substantial popular attention allows for an effective introduction to concepts in ray propagation. Aspects of computational ocean acoustics can be productive classroom examples in courses ranging from introductory physics to upper-division mathematical methods courses

  5. Individual differences in long-range time representation.

    Agostino, Camila S; Caetano, Marcelo S; Balci, Fuat; Claessens, Peter M E; Zana, Yossi

    2017-04-01

    On the basis of experimental data, long-range time representation has been proposed to follow a highly compressed power function, which has been hypothesized to explain the time inconsistency found in financial discount rate preferences. The aim of this study was to evaluate how well linear and power function models explain empirical data from individual participants tested in different procedural settings. The line paradigm was used in five different procedural variations with 35 adult participants. Data aggregated over the participants showed that fitted linear functions explained more than 98% of the variance in all procedures. A linear regression fit also outperformed a power model fit for the aggregated data. An individual-participant-based analysis showed better fits of a linear model to the data of 14 participants; better fits of a power function with an exponent β > 1 to the data of 12 participants; and better fits of a power function with β discount rates in intertemporal choice to the compressed nature of subjective time must entail the characterization of subjective time on an individual-participant basis.

  6. Research on long-range grating interferometry with nanometer resolution

    Chu, Xingchun; Zhao, Shanghong; Lü, Haibao

    2008-01-01

    Grating interferometry that features long range and nanometer resolution is presented. The optical system was established based on a single long metrology grating. The large fringe multiplication was achieved by properly selecting two high-order diffraction beams to form a fringe pattern. The fringe pattern collected by a linear array was first tailored to a few multiples of fringes in order to suppress the effect of the energy leakage on phase-extracting precision when the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm was used to calculate its phase. Thus, the phase-extracting precision of a tailored fringe pattern by FFT was greatly improved. Based on this, a novel subdividing method, which exploited the time-shift property of FFT, was developed to subdivide the fringe with large multiple and high accuracy. Numerical results show that the system resolution reaches 1 nm. The experimental results obtained against a capacitive sensor in the sub-mm range show that the measurement precision of the system is less than 10 nm. (technical design note)

  7. Long-range position and orientation tracking system

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The long-range position and orientation tracking system will consist of two measurement pods, a VME-based computer system, and a detector array. The system is used to measure the position and orientation of a target that may be attached to a robotic arm, teleoperated manipulator, or autonomous vehicle. The pods have been designed to be mounted in the manways of the domes of the Fernald K-65 waste silos. Each pod has two laser scanner subsystems as well as lights and camera systems. One of the laser scanners will be oriented to scan in the pan direction, the other in the tilt direction. As the lasers scan across the detector array, the angles of incidence with each detector are recorded. Combining measurements from each of the four lasers yields sufficient data for a closed-form solution of the transform describing the location and orientation of the content mobilization system (CMS). Redundant detectors will be placed on the CMS to accommodate occlusions, to provide improved measurement accuracy, and to determine the CMS orientation

  8. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of systems with long-range interactions

    Levin, Yan, E-mail: levin@if.ufrgs.br; Pakter, Renato, E-mail: pakter@if.ufrgs.br; Rizzato, Felipe B., E-mail: rizzato@if.ufrgs.br; Teles, Tarcísio N., E-mail: tarcisio.teles@fi.infn.it; Benetti, Fernanda P.C., E-mail: fbenetti@if.ufrgs.br

    2014-02-01

    Systems with long-range (LR) forces, for which the interaction potential decays with the interparticle distance with an exponent smaller than the dimensionality of the embedding space, remain an outstanding challenge to statistical physics. The internal energy of such systems lacks extensivity and additivity. Although the extensivity can be restored by scaling the interaction potential with the number of particles, the non-additivity still remains. Lack of additivity leads to inequivalence of statistical ensembles. Before relaxing to thermodynamic equilibrium, isolated systems with LR forces become trapped in out-of-equilibrium quasi-stationary states (qSSs), the lifetime of which diverges with the number of particles. Therefore, in the thermodynamic limit LR systems will not relax to equilibrium. The qSSs are attained through the process of collisionless relaxation. Density oscillations lead to particle–wave interactions and excitation of parametric resonances. The resonant particles escape from the main cluster to form a tenuous halo. Simultaneously, this cools down the core of the distribution and dampens out the oscillations. When all the oscillations die out the ergodicity is broken and a qSS is born. In this report, we will review a theory which allows us to quantitatively predict the particle distribution in the qSS. The theory is applied to various LR interacting systems, ranging from plasmas to self-gravitating clusters and kinetic spin models.

  9. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory long-range alarm system

    DesJardin, R.; Machanik, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Long-Range Alarm System is described. The last few years have brought significant changes in the Department of Energy regulations for protection of classified documents and special nuclear material. These changes in regulations have forced a complete redesign of the LASL security alarm system. LASL covers many square miles of varying terrain and consists of separate technical areas connected by public roads and communications. A design study over a period of 2 years produced functional specifications for a distributed intelligence, expandable alarm system that will handle 30,000 alarm points from hundreds of data concentrators spread over a 250-km 2 area. Emphasis in the design was on nonstop operation, data security, data communication, and upward expandability to incorporate fire alarms and the computer-aided dispatching of security and fire vehicles. All aspects of the alarm system were to be fault tolerant from the central computer system down to but not including the individual data concentrators. Redundant communications lines travel over public domain from the alarmed area to the central alarm station

  10. Long-range epidemic spreading in a random environment.

    Juhász, Róbert; Kovács, István A; Iglói, Ferenc

    2015-03-01

    Modeling long-range epidemic spreading in a random environment, we consider a quenched, disordered, d-dimensional contact process with infection rates decaying with distance as 1/rd+σ. We study the dynamical behavior of the model at and below the epidemic threshold by a variant of the strong-disorder renormalization-group method and by Monte Carlo simulations in one and two spatial dimensions. Starting from a single infected site, the average survival probability is found to decay as P(t)∼t-d/z up to multiplicative logarithmic corrections. Below the epidemic threshold, a Griffiths phase emerges, where the dynamical exponent z varies continuously with the control parameter and tends to zc=d+σ as the threshold is approached. At the threshold, the spatial extension of the infected cluster (in surviving trials) is found to grow as R(t)∼t1/zc with a multiplicative logarithmic correction and the average number of infected sites in surviving trials is found to increase as Ns(t)∼(lnt)χ with χ=2 in one dimension.

  11. Two general models that generate long range correlation

    Gan, Xiaocong; Han, Zhangang

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we study two models that generate sequences with LRC (long range correlation). For the IFT (inverse Fourier transform) model, our conclusion is the low frequency part leads to LRC, while the high frequency part tends to eliminate it. Therefore, a typical method to generate a sequence with LRC is multiplying the spectrum of a white noise sequence by a decaying function. A special case is analyzed: the linear combination of a smooth curve and a white noise sequence, in which the DFA plot consists of two line segments. For the patch model, our conclusion is long subsequences leads to LRC, while short subsequences tend to eliminate it. Therefore, we can generate a sequence with LRC by using a fat-tailed PDF (probability distribution function) of the length of the subsequences. A special case is also analyzed: if a patch model with long subsequences is mixed with a white noise sequence, the DFA plot will consist of two line segments. We have checked known models and actual data, and found they are all consistent with this study.

  12. Long-range interaction between heterogeneously charged membranes.

    Jho, Y S; Brewster, R; Safran, S A; Pincus, P A

    2011-04-19

    Despite their neutrality, surfaces or membranes with equal amounts of positive and negative charge can exhibit long-range electrostatic interactions if the surface charge is heterogeneous; this can happen when the surface charges form finite-size domain structures. These domains can be formed in lipid membranes where the balance of the different ranges of strong but short-ranged hydrophobic interactions and longer-ranged electrostatic repulsion result in a finite, stable domain size. If the domain size is large enough, oppositely charged domains in two opposing surfaces or membranes can be strongly correlated by the electrostatic interactions; these correlations give rise to an attractive interaction of the two membranes or surfaces over separations on the order of the domain size. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate the existence of strong attractions at separations of tens of nanometers. Large line tensions result in larger domains but also increase the charge density within the domain. This promotes correlations and, as a result, increases the intermembrane attraction. On the other hand, increasing the salt concentration increases both the domain size and degree of domain anticorrelation, but the interactions are ultimately reduced due to increased screening. The result is a decrease in the net attraction as salt concentration is increased. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. EDGARv4 Gridded Anthropogenic Emissions of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) from Power Generation, Residential and Transport Sectors: Regional Trends Analysis in East Asia.

    Muntean, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Guizzardi, D.; Crippa, M.; Schaaf, E.; Olivier, J. G.; Dentener, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances and so harmful for human health. Mitigation of these emissions are internationally addressed by the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and by the Stockholm Convention. A global insight on POPs emissions evolution is essential since they can be transported long distances, they bio-accumulate and damage the environment. The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4) is currently updated with POPs. We have estimated the global emissions of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcdP)) and Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from fuel combustion in the power generation, residential and transport sectors. This emissions inventory has been developed by using as input to the EDGAR technology-based emissions calculation algorithm the fossil fuel consumption data from International Energy Agency (2014) and the emission factors from EMEP/EEA (2013). We provide a complete emission time series for the period 1970-2010 and discuss the trends. A comprehensive analysis of the contribution of East Asia region to the total global will be provided for each substance of the POPs group. An example is presented in Figure 1 for BaP emissions from residential sector; with emissions mainly from China, the East Asia region has a great share (32%) in the total global. We distributed the POPs emissions on gridmaps of 0.1°x0.1° resolution. Areas with high emissions in East Asia will be presented and discussed; Figure 2 shows the hot-spots in East Asia for BaP emissions from the residential sector. These emission gridmaps, used as input for the chemical transport models, contribute to the improvement of impact evaluation, which is a key element in measuring the effectiveness of mitigation

  14. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  15. Sensitivity of electrospray molecular dynamics simulations to long-range Coulomb interaction models.

    Mehta, Neil A; Levin, Deborah A

    2018-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) electrospray simulations of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIM-BF_{4}) ion liquid were performed with the goal of evaluating the influence of long-range Coulomb models on ion emission characteristics. The direct Coulomb (DC), shifted force Coulomb sum (SFCS), and particle-particle particle-mesh (PPPM) long-range Coulomb models were considered in this work. The DC method with a sufficiently large cutoff radius was found to be the most accurate approach for modeling electrosprays, but, it is computationally expensive. The Coulomb potential energy modeled by the DC method in combination with the radial electric fields were found to be necessary to generate the Taylor cone. The differences observed between the SFCS and the DC in terms of predicting the total ion emission suggest that the former should not be used in MD electrospray simulations. Furthermore, the common assumption of domain periodicity was observed to be detrimental to the accuracy of the capillary-based electrospray simulations.

  16. Autonomous long-range open area fire detection and reporting

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.; Reardon, Patrick J.; Blackwell, Lisa; Warden, Lance; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2005-03-01

    Approximately 5 billion dollars in US revenue was lost in 2003 due to open area fires. In addition many lives are lost annually. Early detection of open area fires is typically performed by manned observatories, random reporting and aerial surveillance. Optical IR flame detectors have been developed previously. They typically have experienced high false alarms and low flame detection sensitivity due to interference from solar and other causes. Recently a combination of IR detectors has been used in a two or three color mode to reduce false alarms from solar, or background sources. A combination of ultra-violet C (UVC) and near infra-red (NIR) detectors has also been developed recently for flame discrimination. Relatively solar-blind basic detectors are now available but typically detect at only a few tens of meters at ~ 1 square meter fuel flame. We quantify the range and solar issues for IR and visible detectors and qualitatively define UV sensor requirements in terms of the mode of operation, collection area issues and flame signal output by combustion photochemistry. We describe innovative flame signal collection optics for multiple wavelengths using UV and IR as low false alarm detection of open area fires at long range (8-10 km/m2) in daylight (or darkness). A circular array detector and UV-IR reflective and refractive devices including cylindrical or toroidal lens elements for the IR are described. The dispersion in a refractive cylindrical IR lens characterizes the fire and allows a stationary line or circle generator to locate the direction and different flame IR "colors" from a wide FOV. The line generator will produce spots along the line corresponding to the fire which can be discriminated with a linear detector. We demonstrate prototype autonomous sensors with RF digital reporting from various sites.

  17. Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation

    Rohwetter, Ph.; Stelmaszczyk, K.; Woeste, L.; Ackermann, R.; Mejean, G.; Salmon, E.; Kasparian, J.; Yu, J.; Wolf, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate laser induced ablation and plasma line emission from a metallic target at distances up to 180 m from the laser, using filaments (self-guided propagation structures ∼ 100 μm in diameter and ∼ 5 x 10 13 W/cm 2 in intensity) appearing as femtosecond and terawatt laser pulses propagating in air. The remarkable property of filaments to propagate over a long distance independently of the diffraction limit opens the frontier to long range operation of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We call this special configuration of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy 'remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy'. Our results show main features of filament-induced ablation on the surface of a metallic sample and associated plasma emission. Our experimental data allow us to estimate requirements for the detection system needed for kilometer-range remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from aviation and marine transportation : mitigation potential and policies

    2009-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions : from aviation and marine transportation and the various mitigation options to reduce these emissions. Reducing global emissions by 50 to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050reduct...

  19. The long-range organization of a native photosynthetic membrane

    Frese, Raoul N.; Siebert, C. Alistair; Niederman, Robert A.; Hunter, C. Neil; Otto, Cees; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2004-01-01

    Photosynthesis relies on the delicate interplay between a specific set of membrane-bound pigment–protein complexes that harvest and transport solar energy, execute charge separation, and conserve the energy. We have investigated the organization of the light-harvesting (LH) and reaction-center (RC)

  20. The long-range organization of a native photosynthetic membrane

    Frese, R.N.; Siebert, C.A.; Niederman, R.A.; Hunter, C.N.; Otto, C.; van Grondelle, R.

    2004-01-01

    Photosynthesis relies on the delicate interplay between a specific set of membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes that harvest and transport solar energy, execute charge separation, and conserve the energy. We have investigated the organization of the light-harvesting (LH) and reaction-center (RC)

  1. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials, APPENDIX A: Energy Use and Emissions from the Lifecycle of Diesel-Like Fuels Derived From Biomass

    Delucchi, Mark; Lipman, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    An Appendix to the Report, “A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions From Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materialsâ€

  2. Zero emission vehicle for dense grid urban public transportation

    D' Ovidio, G. [University of l' Aquila, Faculty of Engineering, DAU (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    This paper reports the operating scheme of a public transportation vehicle with zero polluting emission, working in urban areas in a transport network which has short and regular stop spacing not greater than 400-500 m, and by segments covered by 'shuttle-type' vehicles with high operating frequencies. In particular, the traction of the vehicle, of electric type exclusively, is supported by the functional coupling of an accumulation and alimentation system composed respectively of Fuel Cell e Flywheel Energy Storage Unite. This study proposes and analyzes a typology of hybrid vehicle of which the configuration of traction is specialized for the exigency connected to the different phases of the motion. The study contains the analysis and the measurement of the principal components of the propulsion system to the vary of the loading capabilities of the vehicles and of the geometric characteristic of the transport network.

  3. The role of transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    The potential role of passenger transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The technologies considered in the report were those that affect ground transportation of passengers and were in at least the early stages of development in 1995. They were: (1) technologies to improve the fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks, (2) alternative fuels for internal combustion engines, (3) electric hybrid vehicles, (4) advanced technology transit buses, (5) intelligent transportation systems, (6) high speed rail, and (7) bicycles. For each option, the advantages and disadvantages were described. The feasibility of establishing a high-speed rail system serving Canada's most densely populated region, the Windsor to Quebec City corridor, was discussed. Economic and environmental studies of such a proposal are underway. tabs

  4. Estimation of the local and long-range contributions to particulate matter levels using continuous measurements in a single urban background site

    Diamantopoulou, Marianna; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-06-01

    The Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) algorithm is used together with PMCAMx, a regional chemical transport model, to develop a simple observation-based method (OBM) for the estimation of local and regional contributions of sources of primary and secondary pollutants in urban areas. We test the hypothesis that the minimum of the diurnal average concentration profile of the pollutant is a good estimate of the average contribution of long range transport levels. We use PMCAMx to generate "pseudo-observations" for four different European cities (Paris, London, Milan, and Dusseldorf) and PSAT to estimate the corresponding "true" local and regional contributions. The predictions of the proposed OBM are compared to the "true" values for different definitions of the source area. During winter, the estimates by the OBM for the local contributions to the concentrations of total PM2.5, primary pollutants, and sulfate are within 25% of the "true" contributions of the urban area sources. For secondary organic aerosol the OBM overestimates the importance of the local sources and it actually estimates the contributions of sources within 200 km from the receptor. During summer for primary pollutants and cities with low nearby emissions (ratio of emissions in an area extending 100 km from the city over local emissions lower than 10) the OBM estimates correspond to the city emissions within 25% or so. For cities with relatively high nearby emissions the OBM estimates correspond to emissions within 100 km from the receptor. For secondary PM2.5 components like sulfate and secondary organic aerosol the OBM's estimates correspond to sources within 200 km from the receptor. Finally, for total PM2.5 the OBM provides approximately the contribution of city emissions during the winter and the contribution of sources within 100 km from the receptor during the summer.

  5. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental ImpactReport

    Philliber, Jeff

    2007-01-22

    This environmental impact report (EIR) has been prepared pursuant to the applicable provisions of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and its implementing guidelines (CEQA Guidelines), and the Amended University of California Procedures for Implementation of the California Environmental Quality Act (UC CEQA Procedures). The University of California (UC or the University) is the lead agency for this EIR, which examines the overall effects of implementation of the proposed 2006 Long Range Development Plan (LRDP; also referred to herein as the 'project' for purposes of CEQA) for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL; also referred to as 'Berkeley Lab,' 'the Laboratory,' or 'the Lab' in this document). An LRDP is a land use plan that guides overall development of a site. The Lab serves as a special research campus operated by the University employees, but it is owned and financed by the federal government and as such it is distinct from the UC-owned Berkeley Campus. As a campus operated by the University of California, the Laboratory is required to prepare an EIR for an LRDP when one is prepared or updated pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 21080.09. The adoption of an LRDP does not constitute a commitment to, or final decision to implement, any specific project, construction schedule, or funding priority. Rather, the proposed 2006 LRDP describes an entire development program of approximately 980,000 gross square feet of new research and support space construction and 320,000 gross square feet of demolition of existing facilities, for a total of approximately 660,000 gross square feet of net new occupiable space for the site through 2025. Specific projects will undergo CEQA review at the time proposed to determine what, if any, additional review is necessary prior to approval. As described in Section 1.4.2, below, and in Chapter 3 of this EIR (the Project Description), the size of the project has been

  6. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Transport: All in One Basket?

    Nicholas Rivers

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis after analysis has shown consistently that if policy-makers aiming to meet climate goals are looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth, there is simply nothing better than abandoning all emissions regulations except for one: A straight, revenue-neutral carbon tax. Nothing works through more channels, at a lower cost. Alas, policy-makers are not always looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth. That’s because many of those same analyses show that in order to reach emissions targets, the price on carbon would have to be so punitive as to be politically unbearable, raising the price of gasoline, for example, by about a dollar a litre. That leads politicians to mix in other policies that are less visible to the consumer but also less efficient, less effective and more expensive in abating carbon dioxide. The recently negotiated Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change intends to follow that model, relying on a blend of different policies to help reach Canada’s Paris climate targets. But while the government seems therefore determined to rule out the possibility of a nothing-but-a-carbon-tax plan, it is possible, through the careful application of just the right sort of emission-reduction approaches, to reduce the costs of abatement in a key policy target — namely, road transportation — to a level that at least approaches the lower cost of a carbon tax. The government will likely consider several options in trying to reduce emissions from road transportation. Typical tools include requiring manufacturers to meet standards for new vehicles that mandate fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions; gasoline taxes; taxes on emissions-intensive vehicles; subsidies for low-emission or zero-emission vehicles; and subsidies for public transit. Indications are that a low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS will play a significant role in the Pan

  7. Low-Emission Transportation Sector in 2050 - Reality or Utopia

    Zidvo, B.

    2016-01-01

    In the European Union, transportation is identified as a consumer with the biggest share in the structure of final energy consumption in 2013. It is also responsible for more than 25 percent of the total carbon dioxide emissions, therefore positioning itself right next to the sector with the highest emissions percentage, energy transformations. Transportation sector is the only one with an increase of CO2 emissions in the last 25 years and that fact clearly shows how necessary it is to implement an unambiguous political framework that will result with the achievement of ambitious, strategic goals of the Union that entail an 80 percent emissions reduction by 2050, compared to 1990. Even though the approach doesn't take into consideration the emission emanated in the energy sources' life span, the calculations in the model attest to the fact that a middle term goal of a 30 percent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 (compared to 2005) is achievable (for sectors that aren't included in the emissions trade system), with the condition of achieving borderline goals defined by the current regulations that address road transport emissions. Despite the fact that, during 2015, a number of a million globally registered electric cars was surpassed, their influence on the transport emissions is minimal. For the achievement of the long-term goal, defined in the White Paper (2011, a 60 percent reduction of emissions by 2050), it is necessary to reduce an average TTW emission of the EU fleet to an amount below 40 g/km after 2030. Because of the limiting technological aspect of an internal combustion engine, alternative fuels become more prominent and biofuels of higher generations, fuel cells or batteries that charge on renewable energy are left as the only option. There is no question whether the aforementioned alternatives generate the avoided emissions in the last step of the exploitation because they do, but the results of the total sociological costs in this moment

  8. An Improved Cuckoo Search for a Patient Transportation Problem with Consideration of Reducing Transport Emissions

    Liyang Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many government agencies and business organizations have realized that it is necessary to consider not only the economic cost but also the road transport emissions when they determine the transport policies and operations. In this study, a patient transportation problem with the aim of reducing transport emissions has been formulated by implementing CVRP model. In order to determine the routes of patient transportation with optimized emissions for targeted hospital, an improved Cuckoo Search (ICS algorithm is proposed. In this study, a ‘split’ procedure has been implemented to simplify the individual’s representation. A new category of cuckoos has been introduced to improve the ICS’s search ability. Two heuristics have been applied to improve the quality of initial population. A local search mechanism has been embedded in the search procedure to improve the quality of solutions obtained at the end of each iteration. The computational results were encouraging and demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution method.

  9. A system for using the air radioactivity measurements in a long range model to forecast cloud evolution

    Galmarini, S.; Graziani, G. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre); Grippa, G.; De Cort, M. (Maind srl, Milan (Italy))

    1993-01-01

    A procedure was developed in the past to reduce uncertainties in long range transport model predictions mainly due to inputing windfield data to atmospheric transport models which are the result of the forecasts of global or regional circulation models. Measurements available in real-time of the air concentrations from national monitoring grids have been used to reduce the uncertainties. The system is based on a long range transport model which can run using a limited amount of meteorological information, and an interpolation routine which generates a new area source from the air measurements, available in real-time, at ground level. The procedure has now been fully automated and is available on a PC, with graphical output, to ease its use in emergency situations. The system requires a connection to the ECMWF network for meteorological input data and to a radiological data bank (ECURIE) or national monitoring networks for monitoring data. (author).

  10. UN ECE-Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Systematic cost-benefit analysis of mitigation measures for agricultural ammonia emissions, supporting national costing analysis; UN ECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Systematische Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse von Minderungsmassnahmen fuer Ammoniakemissionen in der Landwirtschaft fuer nationale Kostenabschaetzung

    Doehler, Helmut; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Roessler, Regina; Vandre, Robert; Wulf, Sebastian [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In this project, the methods for the determination of the expenses for the reduction of agricultural ammonia emissions were updated, and the costs of selected, representative mitigation measures suitable for Germany's agriculture were newly calculated. The reduction costs are determined based on the ratio of the extra costs for the reduction measure and the emission reduction in comparison with a reference system. Protein-adapted feeding in pig fattening generally leads to lower expenses for feedstuff, which provides negative reduction costs (- Euro 3.5 to - Euro 13.5 per kg of NH{sub 3} depending on the reference system). Pig fattening in naturally ventilated housing causes reduction costs of Euro 9.2 per kg of NH{sub 3} as compared with forced-ventilated animal houses. However, this amount cannot always be exclusively attributed to ammonia emission reduction (allocation) because naturally ventilated houses are generally built for the improvement of animal welfare and animal health. Single and multiple-stage air purification techniques in forced-ventilated pig fattening houses are a technically efficient, though costintensive reduction measure (Euro 4,6 - Euro 8,6 per kg of NH{sub 3}). Solid covers for pig slurry stores (concrete ceiling, tent) are characterized by high investment expenses and a long service life causes moderate reduction costs (Euro 1.1 - Euro 2.5 per kg of NH{sub 3}). Floating covers (plastic sheet, granules) are almost cost-neutral given reduction costs of Euro 0.3 to Euro 0.9 per kg of NH{sub 3} (pig slurry) if the fertilizer value of the conserved nitrogen is included in the calculation. Cattle slurry requires significantly higher extra costs for the covering of slurry stores because the natural floating cover itself reduces emissions (Euro 1.3 to Euro 12 per kg of NH{sub 3}). If annual spreading performances are low (1,000 to 3,000 m{sup 3}/a), only promptly incorporation of cattle and pig slurry is cost-effective. If spreading

  11. Passenger transport and CO 2 emissions: What does the French transport survey tell us?

    Nicolas, Jean-Pierre; David, Damien

    The aim of this article is to analyse CO 2 emissions caused by passenger transport in France: which socio-demographic groups travel, for what kinds of journey (local or long distance), how and why? Research focusing on the analysis of individual travel can improve the understanding of CO 2 emissions by identifying upstream socio-economic factors, and also enable a better assessment of the potential social impact of measures introduced to limit greenhouse gases due to transport. Calculations are based on the latest French national transport survey (1994). Distances covered and CO 2 emissions were estimated for each journey and for each surveyed individual. A socio-demographic characteristic typology was built and results were obtained through this analysis. If equity and accessibility issues are to be taken into account, planned policies cannot be of the same type if linked to mobility segments. An environmental tax system to limit CO 2 emission increases appears appropriate for long-distance trips. Results are more varied for local journeys, which are often more of a necessity. Nevertheless, income brackets, and measures concerning urban planning or the growth of new car fleets, seem more pertinent.

  12. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  13. Uncovering China’s transport CO2 emission patterns at the regional level

    Guo, Bin; Geng, Yong; Franke, Bernd; Hao, Han; Liu, Yaxuan; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic development, its transport sector has experienced a dramatic growth, leading to a large amount of related CO 2 emission. This paper aims to uncover China’s transport CO 2 emission patterns at the regional and provincial level. We first present the CO 2 emission features from transport sector in 30 Chinese provinces, including per capita emissions, emission intensities, and historical evolution of annual CO 2 emission. We then quantify the related driving forces by adopting both period-wise and time-series LMDI analysis. Results indicate that significant regional CO 2 emission disparities exist in China’s transport sector. The eastern region had higher total CO 2 emissions and per capita CO 2 emissions, but lower CO 2 emission intensities in its transport sector. The western region had higher CO 2 emission intensities and experienced a rapid CO 2 emission increase. The CO 2 emission increments in the eastern provinces were mainly contributed by both economic activity effect and population effect, while energy intensity partially offset the emission growth and energy structure had a marginal effect. However, in the central and western provinces, both economic activity effect and energy intensity effect induced the CO 2 emission increases, while the effects from population and energy structure change were limited. - Highlights: • The CO 2 emission features from transport sector in 30 Chinese provinces were presented. • The driving forces of CO 2 emissions from transport sector were quantified. • Regional disparities on China’s transport sector CO 2 emission exist. • Region-specific mitigation policies on transport sector CO 2 emission are needed

  14. Transport Emissions and Energy Consumption Impacts of Private Capital Investment in Public Transport

    Yunqiang Xue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducing private capital into the public transport system for its sustainable development has been increasing around the world. However, previous research ignores emissions and energy consumption impacts, which are important for private capital investment policy-making. To address this problem, the system dynamic (SD approach was used to quantitatively analyze the cumulative effects of different private capital investment models in public transport from the environmental perspective. The SD model validity was verified in the case study of Jinan public traffic. Simulation results show that the fuel consumption and emission reductions are obvious when the private capital considering passenger value invests in public transport compared with the no private capital investment and traditional investment models. There are obvious cumulative reductions for fuel consumption, CO2, CO, SO2, and PM10 emissions for 100 months compared with no private capital investment. This research verifies the superiority of the passenger value investment model in public transport from the environmental point of view, and supplies a theoretical tool for administrators to evaluate the private capital investment effects systematically.

  15. Electron transport effects in ion induced electron emission

    Dubus, A. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. FD Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: adubus@ulb.ac.be; Pauly, N. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. FD Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Roesler, M. [Karl-Pokern-Str. 12, D-12587 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Ion induced electron emission (IIEE) is usually described as a three-step process, i.e. electron excitation by the incident projectile, electron transport (and multiplication) and electron escape through the potential barrier at the surface. In many cases, the first step of the process has been carefully described. The second step of the process, i.e. electron transport and multiplication, has often been treated in a very rough way, a simple decreasing exponential law being sometimes used. It is precisely the aim of the present work to show the importance of a correct description of electron transport and multiplication in a theoretical calculation of IIEE. A short overview of the electron transport models developed for IIEE is given in this work. The so-called 'Infinite medium slowing-down model' often used in recent works is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, the importance of considering correctly the semi-infinite character of the medium and the boundary condition at the vacuum-medium interface is discussed. Quantities like the electron escape depth are also briefly discussed. This evaluation has been performed in the particular case of protons (25keV

  16. EG and G long-range hazardous waste program plan

    1985-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop and implement a program for safe, economic management of hazardous and radioactive mixed waste generated, transported, treated, stored, or disposed of by EG and G Idaho operated facilities. The initial part of this program involves identification and characterization of EG and G-generated hazardous and radioactive mixed waste, and activities for corrective action, including handling, packaging, and shipping of these wastes off site for treatment, storage, and/or disposal, or for interim remedial action. The documentation necessary for all areas of the plan is carefully defined, so as to ensure compliance, at every step, with the requisite orders and guidelines. A second part of this program calls for assessment, and possible development and implementation of a treatment, storage, and disposal (T/S/D) program for special hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes which cannot practically, economically, and safely be disposed of at off-site facilities. This segment of the plan addresses obtaining permits for the existing Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator and for the construction of an adjacent hazardous waste solidification facility and a storage area. The permitting and construction of a special hazardous waste treatment and storage facility is also explored. The report investigates permitting the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) as a permanent storage facility

  17. Calculation of Selected Emissions from Transport Services in Road Public Transport

    Konečný Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with road public transport and its impact on the environment. According to the methodology given in EN 16258, CO2 emission value has been calculated. The input data for the calculation and the results are shown in the tables. The declaration is created according to STN CEN / TR 14310, which contains recommendations for compiling environmental reports. Finally, the comparison of the environmental impact of a bus and a passenger car, when converted to one passenger, bus has a lower CO2 emission than a passenger car in that section.

  18. Boundary driven Kawasaki process with long-range interaction: dynamical large deviations and steady states

    Mourragui, Mustapha; Orlandi, Enza

    2013-01-01

    A particle system with a single locally-conserved field (density) in a bounded interval with different densities maintained at the two endpoints of the interval is under study here. The particles interact in the bulk through a long-range potential parametrized by β⩾0 and evolve according to an exclusion rule. It is shown that the empirical particle density under the diffusive scaling solves a quasilinear integro-differential evolution equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The associated dynamical large deviation principle is proved. Furthermore, when β is small enough, it is also demonstrated that the empirical particle density obeys a law of large numbers with respect to the stationary measures (hydrostatic). The macroscopic particle density solves a non-local, stationary, transport equation. (paper)

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Health and Safety Long-Range Plan: Fiscal years 1989--1995

    1989-06-01

    The health and safety of its personnel is the first concern of ORNL and its management. The ORNL Health and Safety Program has the responsibility for ensuring the health and safety of all individuals assigned to ORNL activities. This document outlines the principal aspects of the ORNL Health and Safety Long-Range Plan and provides a framework for management use in the future development of the health and safety program. Each section of this document is dedicated to one of the health and safety functions (i.e., health physics, industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, industrial safety, nuclear criticality safety, nuclear facility safety, transportation safety, fire protection, and emergency preparedness). Each section includes functional mission and objectives, program requirements and status, a summary of program needs, and program data and funding summary. Highlights of FY 1988 are included.

  20. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Health and Safety Long-Range Plan: Fiscal years 1989--1995

    1989-06-01

    The health and safety of its personnel is the first concern of ORNL and its management. The ORNL Health and Safety Program has the responsibility for ensuring the health and safety of all individuals assigned to ORNL activities. This document outlines the principal aspects of the ORNL Health and Safety Long-Range Plan and provides a framework for management use in the future development of the health and safety program. Each section of this document is dedicated to one of the health and safety functions (i.e., health physics, industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, industrial safety, nuclear criticality safety, nuclear facility safety, transportation safety, fire protection, and emergency preparedness). Each section includes functional mission and objectives, program requirements and status, a summary of program needs, and program data and funding summary. Highlights of FY 1988 are included

  1. Molecular Imaging of Transporters with Positron Emission Tomography

    Antoni, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Hall, Håkan

    Positron emission tomography (PET) visualization of brain components in vivo is a rapidly growing field. Molecular imaging with PET is also increasingly used in drug development, especially for the determination of drug receptor interaction for CNS-active drugs. This gives the opportunity to relate clinical efficacy to per cent receptor occupancy of a drug on a certain targeted receptor and to relate drug pharmacokinetics in plasma to interaction with target protein. In the present review we will focus on the study of transporters, such as the monoamine transporters, the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter, the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2, and the glucose transporter using PET radioligands. Neurotransmitter transporters are presynaptically located and in vivo imaging using PET can therefore be used for the determination of the density of afferent neurons. Several promising PET ligands for the noradrenaline transporter (NET) have been labeled and evaluated in vivo including in man, but a really useful PET ligand for NET still remains to be identified. The most promising tracer to date is (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2. The in vivo visualization of the dopamine transporter (DAT) may give clues in the evaluation of conditions related to dopamine, such as Parkinson's disease and drug abuse. The first PET radioligands based on cocaine were not selective, but more recently several selective tracers such as [11C]PE2I have been characterized and shown to be suitable as PET radioligands. Although there are a large number of serotonin transporter inhibitors used today as SSRIs, it was not until very recently, when [11C]McN5652 was synthesized, that this transporter was studied using PET. New candidates as PET radioligands for the SERT have subsequently been developed and [11C]DASB and [11C]MADAM and their analogues are today the most promising ligands. The existing radioligands for Pgp transporters seem to be suitable tools for the study of both peripheral and central drug

  2. Social Learning and the Mitigation of Transport CO2 Emissions

    Maha Al Sabbagh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social learning, a key factor in fostering behavioural change and improving decision making, is considered necessary for achieving substantial CO2 emission reductions. However, no empirical evidence exists on how it contributes to mitigation of transport CO2 emissions, or the extent of its influence on decision making. This paper presents evidence addressing these knowledge gaps. Social learning-oriented workshops were conducted to gather the views and preferences of participants from the general public in Bahrain on selected transport CO2 mitigation measures. Social preferences were inputted into a deliberative decision-making model and then compared to a previously prepared participative model. An analysis of the results revealed that social learning could contribute to changes in views, preferences and acceptance regarding mitigation measures, and these changes were statistically significant at an alpha level of 0.1. Thus, while social learning evidently plays an important role in the decision-making process, the impacts of using other participatory techniques should also be explored.

  3. Reducing CO2 emissions in temperature-controlled road transportation using the LDVRP model

    Stellingwerf, Helena M.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature-controlled transport is needed to maintain the quality of products such as fresh and frozen foods and pharmaceuticals. Road transportation is responsible for a considerable part of global emissions. Temperature-controlled transportation exhausts even more emissions than ambient

  4. Fire emission heights in the climate system – Part 2: Impact on transport, black carbon concentrations and radiation

    A. Veira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires represent a major source for aerosols impacting atmospheric radiation, atmospheric chemistry and cloud micro-physical properties. Previous case studies indicated that the height of the aerosol–radiation interaction may crucially affect atmospheric radiation, but the sensitivity to emission heights has been examined with only a few models and is still uncertain. In this study we use the general circulation model ECHAM6 extended by the aerosol module HAM2 to investigate the impact of wildfire emission heights on atmospheric long-range transport, black carbon (BC concentrations and atmospheric radiation. We simulate the wildfire aerosol release using either various versions of a semi-empirical plume height parametrization or prescribed standard emission heights in ECHAM6-HAM2. Extreme scenarios of near-surface or free-tropospheric-only injections provide lower and upper constraints on the emission height climate impact. We find relative changes in mean global atmospheric BC burden of up to 7.9±4.4 % caused by average changes in emission heights of 1.5–3.5 km. Regionally, changes in BC burden exceed 30–40 % in the major biomass burning regions. The model evaluation of aerosol optical thickness (AOT against Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP observations indicates that the implementation of a plume height parametrization slightly reduces the ECHAM6-HAM2 biases regionally, but on the global scale these improvements in model performance are small. For prescribed emission release at the surface, wildfire emissions entail a total sky top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiative forcing (RF of −0.16±0.06 W m−2. The application of a plume height parametrization which agrees reasonably well with observations introduces a slightly stronger negative TOA RF of −0.20±0.07 W m−2. The standard ECHAM6-HAM2 model in which 25 % of the

  5. Effects and control of long-range transboundary air pollution. Report prepared within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    1995-01-01

    This eleventh volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the twelfth session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 28 November to 1 December 1994. Part one focuses on the possible impact of acid deposition on the quality of groundwater in the ECE region. The objective of this report is to present an updated review of available knowledge on the possible impact of deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds on the status of groundwater, including a brief survey of recent research results in this field. It updates an earlier report on the effects of air pollutants on groundwater, prepared within the Convention (EB.AIR/WG.1/R.9). Part two is an executive summary of the 1993 Report on the Forest Condition in Europe (Forest Condition in Europe. Results of the 1993 Survey. 1994 Report, EC-UN/ECE, Brussels, Geneva, 1994). The report describes the results of both the national and the transnational surveys which are conducted annually within the International Cooperative Programme on the Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and under European Community Council Regulation (EEC) 3528/86 on the protection of the Community's Forests against Atmospheric Pollution. Part three is a summary report on the options for further reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from road heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). This report is primarily focused on reduction options for road HDVs, but some of the technical measures reviewed can, however, also be applied to some non-road diesel engines, such as machinery in construction, agriculture or forestry

  6. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions from transportation of Canadian oil sands to future markets

    Tarnoczi, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands transportation diversification is important for preventing discounted crude pricing. Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models that assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil transportation are linearly-scale and fail to account for project specific details. This research sets out to develop a detailed LCA model to compare the energy inputs and GHG emissions of pipeline and rail transportation for oil sands products. The model is applied to several proposed oils sands transportation routes that may serve as future markets. Comparison between transportation projects suggest that energy inputs and GHG emissions show a high degree of variation. For both rail and pipeline transportation, the distance over which the product is transported has a large impact on total emissions. The regional electricity grid and pump efficiency have the largest impact on pipeline emissions, while train engine efficiency and bitumen blending ratios have the largest impact on rail transportation emissions. LCA-based GHG regulations should refine models to account for the range of product pathways and focus efforts on cost-effective emission reductions. As the climate-change impacts of new oil sands transportation projects are considered, GHG emission boundaries should be defined according to operation control. -- Highlights: •A life cycle model is developed to compare transportation of oil sands products. •The model is applied to several potential future oil sands markets. •Energy inputs and GHG emissions are compared. •Model inputs are explored using sensitivity analysis. •Policy recommendations are provided

  7. Long-range energy transfer in self-assembled quantum dot-DNA cascades

    Goodman, Samuel M.; Siu, Albert; Singh, Vivek; Nagpal, Prashant

    2015-11-01

    The size-dependent energy bandgaps of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) can be utilized in converting broadband incident radiation efficiently into electric current by cascade energy transfer (ET) between layers of different sized quantum dots, followed by charge dissociation and transport in the bottom layer. Self-assembling such cascade structures with angstrom-scale spatial precision is important for building realistic devices, and DNA-based QD self-assembly can provide an important alternative. Here we show long-range Dexter energy transfer in QD-DNA self-assembled single constructs and ensemble devices. Using photoluminescence, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, current-sensing AFM measurements in single QD-DNA cascade constructs, and temperature-dependent ensemble devices using TiO2 nanotubes, we show that Dexter energy transfer, likely mediated by the exciton-shelves formed in these QD-DNA self-assembled structures, can be used for efficient transport of energy across QD-DNA thin films.The size-dependent energy bandgaps of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) can be utilized in converting broadband incident radiation efficiently into electric current by cascade energy transfer (ET) between layers of different sized quantum dots, followed by charge dissociation and transport in the bottom layer. Self-assembling such cascade structures with angstrom-scale spatial precision is important for building realistic devices, and DNA-based QD self-assembly can provide an important alternative. Here we show long-range Dexter energy transfer in QD-DNA self-assembled single constructs and ensemble devices. Using photoluminescence, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, current-sensing AFM measurements in single QD-DNA cascade constructs, and temperature-dependent ensemble devices using TiO2 nanotubes, we show that Dexter energy transfer, likely mediated by the exciton-shelves formed in these QD-DNA self-assembled structures, can be used for efficient

  8. An End-to-End Model of Plant Pheromone Channel for Long Range Molecular Communication.

    Unluturk, Bige D; Akyildiz, Ian F

    2017-01-01

    A new track in molecular communication is using pheromones which can scale up the range of diffusion-based communication from μm meters to meters and enable new applications requiring long range. Pheromone communication is the emission of molecules in the air which trigger behavioral or physiological responses in receiving organisms. The objective of this paper is to introduce a new end-to-end model which incorporates pheromone behavior with communication theory for plants. The proposed model includes both the transmission and reception processes as well as the propagation channel. The transmission process is the emission of pheromones from the leaves of plants. The dispersion of pheromones by the flow of wind constitutes the propagation process. The reception process is the sensing of pheromones by the pheromone receptors of plants. The major difference of pheromone communication from other molecular communication techniques is the dispersion channel acting under the laws of turbulent diffusion. In this paper, the pheromone channel is modeled as a Gaussian puff, i.e., a cloud of pheromone released instantaneously from the source whose dispersion follows a Gaussian distribution. Numerical results on the performance of the overall end-to-end pheromone channel in terms of normalized gain and delay are provided.

  9. Evolution of pollutants emissions by transports in france from 1970 to 2010; Evolution des emissions de polluants par les transports en France de 1970 a 2010

    Joumard, R; Lambert, J

    1996-07-01

    Fuel consumption and CO, CO{sub 2}, HC, NOx, particulates and PAH amounts released by all transport modes from 1970 to 2010 are calculated. A thorough analysis, using parc and pollen softwares, was performed for road traffic. Three scenarios of transport development from 1989 are simulated. Results show that there will not be any problem with CO and HC emissions for the following 20 years, but emissions of nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide will be significantly increased. Motorcycles and air transport are significantly polluting too, while duty vehicles, specifically diesel-engined cars, are the main polluting mode. Average unit emissions are analysed according to road type and vehicle type. (author)

  10. Long range ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna design

    Reynolds, Nathan D.

    There is an ever-increasing demand for radio frequency identification (RFID) tags that are passive, long range, and mountable on multiple surfaces. Currently, RFID technology is utilized in numerous applications such as supply chain management, access control, and public transportation. With the combination of sensory systems in recent years, the applications of RFID technology have been extended beyond tracking and identifying. This extension includes applications such as environmental monitoring and healthcare applications. The available sensory systems usually operate in the medium or high frequency bands and have a low read range. However, the range limitations of these systems are being overcome by the development of RFID sensors focused on utilizing tags in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) band. Generally, RFID tags have to be mounted to the object that is being identified. Often the objects requiring identification are metallic. The inherent properties of metallic objects have substantial effects on nearby electromagnetic radiation; therefore, the operation of the tag antenna is affected when mounted on a metallic surface. This outlines one of the most challenging problems for RFID systems today: the optimization of tag antenna performance in a complex environment. In this research, a novel UHF RFID tag antenna, which has a low profile, long range, and is mountable on metallic surfaces, is designed analytically and simulated using a 3-D electromagnetic simulator, ANSYS HFSS. A microstrip patch antenna is selected as the antenna structure, as patch antennas are low profile and suitable for mounting on metallic surfaces. Matching and theoretical models of the microstrip patch antenna are investigated. Once matching and theory of a microstrip patch antenna is thoroughly understood, a unique design technique using electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures is explored. This research shows that the utilization of an EBG structure in the patch antenna design yields

  11. Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO 2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO 2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO 2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO 2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO 2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  12. Transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    Timilsina, Govinda R., E-mail: gtimilsina@worldbank.or [Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Shrestha, Ashish [Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO{sub 2} emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO{sub 2} emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO{sub 2} emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  13. Transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Asia. Underlying factors and policy options

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO{sub 2} emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO{sub 2} emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO{sub 2} emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes. (author)

  14. Geared for change? CO2 emissions from South Africa’s road transport sector

    Padayachi, YR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Road transport is considered to be a growing source of atmospheric emissions in African countries. In South Africa, competition in the business sector, reduction in rail usage, deregulation of freight transportation and a growing middle income class...

  15. Options for Energy Conservation and Emission Reductions in Transportation Means for Goods Distribution

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries.......The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries....

  16. Radon monitoring using long-range alpha detector-based technology

    Bolton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Long-Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) technology is being studied for monitoring radon gas concentrations. LRAD-based instruments collect and measure the ionization produced in air by alpha decays. These ions can be moved to a collection grid via electrostatic ion-transport design collected approximately 95% of the radon produced ions, while instruments using an airflow transport design collected from 44% to 77% of these ions, depending on detector geometry. The current produced by collecting this ionization is linear with respect to 222 Rn concentration over the available test range of 0.07 to 820 pCi/L. In the absence of statistical limitations due to low radon concentrations, the speed of response of LRAD-based instruments is determined by the air exchange rate, and therefore changes in radon concentration can be detected in just a few seconds. Recent tests show that at radon concentrations below 20 pCi/L current pulses produced by individual alpha decays can be counted, thus improving detector sensitivity and stability even further. Because these detectors are simple, rugged, and do not consume much power, they are natural candidates for portable, battery operation

  17. Long-range beam-beam experiments in the relativistic heavy ion collider

    Calaga, R; Fischer, W; Milas, N; Robert-Demolaize, G

    2014-01-01

    Long-range beam-beam effects are a potential limit to the LHC performance with the nominal design parameters, and certain upgrade scenarios under discussion. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed and space is reserved in the LHC for such wires. Two current carrying wires were installed in RHIC to study the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects in a collider, as well as test the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The experimental data were used to benchmark simulations. We summarize this work

  18. Processor for Real-Time Atmospheric Compensation in Long-Range Imaging, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-range imaging is a critical component to many NASA applications including range surveillance, launch tracking, and astronomical observation. However,...

  19. Long-range terrain characterization for productive regolith excavation, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research will develop long-range terrain characterization technologies for autonomous excavation in planetary environments. This work will develop a...

  20. Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. This report deals specifically with the atmospheric transport model, Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET). RATCHET is a major rework of the MESOILT2 model used in the first phase of the HEDR Project; only the bookkeeping framework escaped major changes. Changes to the code include (1) significant changes in the representation of atmospheric processes and (2) incorporation of Monte Carlo methods for representing uncertainty in input data, model parameters, and coefficients. To a large extent, the revisions to the model are based on recommendations of a peer working group that met in March 1991. Technical bases for other portions of the atmospheric transport model are addressed in two other documents. This report has three major sections: a description of the model, a user's guide, and a programmer's guide. These sections discuss RATCHET from three different perspectives. The first provides a technical description of the code with emphasis on details such as the representation of the model domain, the data required by the model, and the equations used to make the model calculations. The technical description is followed by a user's guide to the model with emphasis on running the code. The user's guide contains information about the model input and output. The third section is a programmer's guide to the code. It discusses the hardware and software required to run the code. The programmer's guide also discusses program structure and each of the program elements

  1. Analysis of solute transport in plants using positron emission tomography

    Partelova, D.

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of the work, geometrically and radiochemically characterized standards (phantoms) imitating the plant tissues and allowing the exact quantification of visualised radioindicator in plant tissues were designed and prepared within the study of visual and analytical characteristics of used positron emission tomograph (microPET system) commercially developed for animal objects at visualization of thin objects. Individual experiments carried out by exposure of excised leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) or radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in solutions of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose labelled with positron emitter 18 F (2-[ 18 F]FDG) containing 10-, 100-, or 1000-times higher concentrations of D-glucose (c glu ) in comparison with the original 2-[ 18 F]FDG solution showed that the significant changes in visualisation of 2-[ 18 F]FDG distribution as well as in chemical portion of 2-[ 18 F]FDG within the leaf blade were observed as result of increased c glu . In the experiments with the whole plants of tobacco or radish exposed in 2-[ 18 F]FDG solution through the root system, only minimal translocation of 18 F radioactivity into the above-ground parts of plants, also in the case of increased c glu , was observed, which suggest the role of root system as a selective barrier of 2-[ 18 F]FDG transport from roots to the above-ground parts. On the basis of mentioned knowledge and analytical approaches (application of prepared phantoms), the dynamic study of 2-[ 18 F]FDG uptake and transport within the excised leaf of tobacco or whole radish plant was carried out. The description of these processes was realized through the 3D PET images and through the quantification of 2-[ 18 F]FDG distribution within the chosen regions of interest from the point of view of accumulated 18 F radioactivity (in Bq) or amount of D-glucose (in μg) as well. Application of methods of multivariate analysis allows to found the similarities between studied objects mainly from the point

  2. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources

    Winther, Morten

    have increased by 36 %, and CH4 emissions have decreased by 51 %. A N2O emission increase of 29 % is related to the relatively high emissions from older gasoline catalyst cars. The 1985-2006 emission decreases for PM (exhaust only), CO, NOX and NMVOC are 30, 69, 28 and 71 % respectively, due...

  3. Long range order in the ground state of two-dimensional antiferromagnets

    Neves, E.J.; Perez, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The existence of long range order is shown in the ground state of the two-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnet for S >= 3/2. The method yields also long range order for the ground state of a larger class of anisotropic quantum antiferromagnetic spin systems with or without transverse magnetic fields. (Author) [pt

  4. The third stage of hospital long-range planning: the marketing approach.

    Rynne, T J

    1980-01-01

    Today most hospital administrators are convinced they should implement long-range planning. The marketing approach to long-range planning is an effective strategy that is consumer oriented. It starts the planning process with the consumer, letting the consumer's needs and wants guide the organization's planning.

  5. Report of the seminar modeling of pollutants emissions by road transport; Compte-rendu du seminaire modelisation des emissions de polluants par le transport routier

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar was organised by A.D.E.M.E. around the following themes: uncertainties and sensitivity analysis of the C.O.P.E.R.T. 3 model (computer programme to calculate emissions from road transport), presentation of studies using the C.O.P.E.R.T. 3 model for the estimation of road transport emissions, the future of the modeling of transport emissions from C.O.P.E.R.T.3 to A.R.T.E.M.I.S. (assessment and reliability of transport emission models and inventory systems). The interventions were as follow: uncertainties and sensitivity analysis of the C.O.P.E.R.T. 3 model, emissions from road transport in the E.S.C.O.M.P.T.E. programme (study of sensitivity), analysis of sensitivity at the level of temporal aggregation of the spatialized traffic (to evaluate the sensitivity of an inventory at the level of temporal aggregation of traffic data on an important geographic area) application in the case of the I.N.T.E.R.R.E.G. project (Alsace), the road transport part of the regional plan for air quality in Bourgogne taking into account the road network, intercomparison of tools and inventory methods of road transport emissions, evolution of the French automobile park until 2005 and new projections, application of C.O.P.E.R.T. 3 to the French context a new version of I.M.P.A.C.T.- A.D.E.M.E., the European project A.R.T.E.M.I.S. structures novelties considered for the road transport emissions modeling. (N.C.)

  6. Strong asymmetry for surface modes in nonlinear lattices with long-range coupling

    Martinez, Alejandro J.; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.; Molina, Mario I.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the formation of localized surface modes on a nonlinear cubic waveguide array in the presence of exponentially decreasing long-range interactions. We find that the long-range coupling induces a strong asymmetry between the focusing and defocusing cases for the topology of the surface modes and also for the minimum power needed to generate them. In particular, for the defocusing case, there is an upper power threshold for exciting staggered modes, which depends strongly on the long-range coupling strength. The power threshold for dynamical excitation of surface modes increases (decreases) with the strength of long-range coupling for the focusing (defocusing) cases. These effects seem to be generic for discrete lattices with long-range interactions.

  7. Decoupling urban transport from GHG emissions in Indian cities-A critical review and perspectives

    Li Jun

    2011-01-01

    How to sustain rapid economic and urban growth with minimised detriment to environment is a key challenge for sustainable development and climate change mitigation in developing countries, which face constraints of technical and financial resources scarcity as well as dearth of infrastructure governance capacity. This paper attempts to address this question by investigating the driving forces of transport demand and relevant policy measures that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in the urban transport sector in Indian cities based on a critical review of the literature. Our overview of existing literature and international experiences suggests that it is critical to improve urban governance in transport infrastructure quality and develop efficient public transport, coupled with integrated land use/transport planning as well as economic instruments. This will allow Indian cities to embark on a sustainable growth pathway by decoupling transport services demand of GHG emissions in the longer term. Appropriate policy instruments need to be selected to reconcile the imperatives of economic and urban growth, aspiration to higher quality of life, improvements in social welfare, urban transport-related energy consumption and GHG emissions mitigation target in Indian cities. - Highlights: → Investigating the relevant policies that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in urban transport in Indian cities. → Determining the factors of increase in energy demand and carbon emissions in transport. → Improving urban governance in transport infrastructure with integrated transport planning. → Designing and implementing the policy and economic instruments for low-carbon urban transport in India.

  8. Emission, transport, and radiative effects of mineral dust from the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts: comparison of measurements and model results

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, Jianping; Kang, Litai; Wang, Hao; Ma, Xiaojun; He, Yongli; Yuan, Tiangang; Yang, Ben; Huang, Zhongwei; Zhang, Guolong

    2017-02-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model with chemistry (WRF-Chem model) was used to investigate a typical dust storm event that occurred from 18 to 23 March 2010 and swept across almost all of China, Japan, and Korea. The spatial and temporal variations in dust aerosols and the meteorological conditions over East Asia were well reproduced by the WRF-Chem model. The simulation results were used to further investigate the details of processes related to dust emission, long-range transport, and radiative effects of dust aerosols over the Taklimakan Desert (TD) and Gobi Desert (GD). The results indicated that weather conditions, topography, and surface types in dust source regions may influence dust emission, uplift height, and transport at the regional scale. The GD was located in the warm zone in advance of the cold front in this case. Rapidly warming surface temperatures and cold air advection at high levels caused strong instability in the atmosphere, which strengthened the downward momentum transported from the middle and low troposphere and caused strong surface winds. Moreover, the GD is located in a relatively flat, high-altitude region influenced by the confluence of the northern and southern westerly jets. Therefore, the GD dust particles were easily lofted to 4 km and were the primary contributor to the dust concentration over East Asia. In the dust budget analysis, the dust emission flux over the TD was 27.2 ± 4.1 µg m-2 s-1, which was similar to that over the GD (29 ± 3.6 µg m-2 s-1). However, the transport contribution of the TD dust (up to 0.8 ton d-1) to the dust sink was much smaller than that of the GD dust (up to 3.7 ton d-1) because of the complex terrain and the prevailing wind in the TD. Notably, a small amount of the TD dust (PM2.5 dust concentration of approximately 8.7 µg m-3) was lofted to above 5 km and transported over greater distances under the influence of the westerly jets. Moreover, the direct radiative forcing induced by dust

  9. Reduction of CO2 emissions from road transport in cities impact of dynamic route guidance system on greenhouse gas emission

    Markiewicz, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Michal Markiewicz presents the outcomes of his research regarding the influence of dynamic route guidance system on overall emission of carbon dioxide from road transport in rural areas. Sustainable transportation in smart cities is a big challenge of our time, but before electric vehicles replace vehicles that burn fossil fuels we have to think about traffic optimization methods that reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Contents Comparison of Travel Time Measurements Using Floating Car Data and Intelligent Infrastructure Integration of Cellular Automata Traffic Simulator with CO2 Emission Model Impact of Dynamic Route Guidance System on CO2 Emission Naxos Vehicular Traffic Simulator Target Groups Lecturers and students of computer science, transportation and logistics Traffic engineers The Author Dr. Michal Markiewicz defended his PhD thesis in computer science at the University of Bremen,TZI Technologie-Zentrum Informatik und Informationstechnik, Germany. Currently, he is working on commercializat...

  10. Long-range transmission of pollutants simulated by a two-dimensional pseudospectral dispersion model

    Prahm, L.P.; Christensen, O.

    1977-01-01

    The pseudospectral dispersion model (Christensen and Prahm, 1976) is adapted for simulation of the long-range transmission of sulphur pollutants in the European region, covering an area of about 4000 km x 4000 km. Regional ''background'' concentrations of sulphur oxides are found to be highly dependent on distant sources and to correlate poorly with local source strength during the considered three- and four-day episodes. The simulation is based on emission data, given in squares of about 50 km x 50 km and on synoptic wind fields derived from observed wind velocities of the 850 mb level and the surface level. The two-dimensional model includes a constant vertical mixing depth. Appropriate values for the deposition and the transformation rates of SO 2 and SO/sup 4 are used. The concentration of pollutants computed from the two-dimensional pseudospectral dispersion model reflects the variable meteorological conditions. Computed concentrations are compared with measurements, giving spatial correlations between 0.4 and 0.8 for more than 400 ground-based 24 h mean values, and a spatial correlation of 0.9 for eight aircraft samples averaged over approx.30 min. A discussion of the influence of different sources of error in the model simulation is given. The high numerical accuracy of the pseudospectral model is combined with a modest consumption of CPU computer time. This study is the first application of the pseudospectral dispersion model which compares computed concentrations with measured field data. The model has possible applications as a tool for assessment of the impact of both national and international emission regulation strategies

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports

    Fitzgerald, Warren B.; Howitt, Oliver J.A.; Smith, Inga J.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international maritime transport are exempt from liabilities under the Kyoto Protocol. Research into quantifying these emissions is ongoing, and influences policy proposals to reduce emissions. This paper presents a cargo-based analysis of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from New Zealand's international maritime transport of goods. Maritime transport moves 99.5% (by mass) of New Zealand's internationally traded products. It is estimated that 73% of visiting vessels' activity can be directly attributed to the movement of goods in and out of New Zealand. A cargo-based methodology was used to estimate that the international maritime transport of New Zealand's imports and exports consumed 2.5 million tonnes (Mt; 2.6 billion litres) of fuel during the year 2007, which generated 7.7 Mt of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Double-counting of emissions would occur if a similar method was applied to all New Zealand's trading partners. In contrast, since few large vessels refuel in New Zealand, the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory listed 2007 international maritime transportation emissions as 0.98 Mt of CO 2 , calculated from fuel bunkered for international transport. The results, therefore, show a significant difference between activity-based and bunker-fuel methodologies in quantifying New Zealand's emissions. International policy implications are discussed. - Research highlights: → Cargo-based analysis of GHG emissions from New Zealand's international maritime transport of goods. → 7.7 Mt of CO 2 estimated from international maritime transport of NZ's 2007 imports and exports. → 73% of visiting vessels' 2007 activity attributed to the movement of goods in and out of NZ. → The results were significantly different from NZ's GHG Inventory bunker-fuel derived emissions figure. → Detailed approach for international transport emissions regional/national assessments described.

  12. Consumer Travel Behaviors and Transport Carbon Emissions: A Comparative Study of Commercial Centers in Shenyang, China

    Jing Li; Kevin Lo; Pingyu Zhang; Meng Guo

    2016-01-01

    Current literature highlights the role of commercial centers in cities in generating shopping trips and transport carbon emissions. However, the influence of the characteristics of commercial centers on consumer travel behavior and transport carbon emissions is not well understood. This study addresses this knowledge gap by examining shopping trips to eight commercial centers in Shenyang, China, and the CO2 emissions of these trips. We found that the locations and types of commercial centers ...

  13. Quantifying the climate impact of emissions from land-based transport in Germany

    Hendricks, J.; Righi, M.; Dahlmann, K.; Gottschaldt, K.-D.; Grewe, V.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Heinrichs, D.; Winkler, C.; Wolfermann, A.; Kampffmeyer, T.; Friedrich, R; Klötzke, M.; Kugler, U.

    2017-01-01

    Although climate change is a global problem, specific mitigation measures are frequently applied on regional or national scales only. This is the case in particular for measures to reduce the emissions of land-based transport, which is largely characterized by regional or national systems with independent infrastructure, organization, and regulation. The climate perturbations caused by regional transport emissions are small compared to those resulting from global emissions. Consequently, they...

  14. RETADD-II: a long-range atmospheric trajectory model with consistent treatment of deposition loss and species growth and decay

    Murphy, B.D.; Ohr, S.Y.; Begovich, C.L.

    1984-08-01

    A versatile model is described which estimates long-range atmospheric dispersion based on plume trajectories. This model allows the treatment of the dispersal from a source at an arbitrary height while taking account of plume depletion by dry and wet deposition together with the decay of material to successor species. The plume depletion, decay and growth equations are solved in an efficient manner which can accommodate up to eight pollutants (i.e., a parent and seven serial decay products). The code is particularly suitable for applications involving radioactive chain decay or for cases involving chemical species with successor decay products. Arbitrary emission rates can be specified for the members of the chain or, as is commonly the case, a sole emission rate can be specified for the first member. The code uses readily available upper-air wind data for the North American continent and it is therefore intended for the estimation of regional or continental scale dispersion patterns. This code is one of a group of codes, the Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (Baes and Miller, 1981), designed to simulate the transport of radionuclides through environmental pathways. 24 references, 5 figures

  15. Differences in regional emissions in China's transport sector: Determinants and reduction strategies

    Xu, Bin; Lin, Boqiang

    2016-01-01

    With recent surge in the number of vehicles, particularly private vehicles, the transport sector has significantly contributed to the increase in energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in China. Most of the existing researches utilized time series data to investigate the factors influencing transport sector's carbon dioxide emission at the national level while neglecting the level of regional differences. This paper adopts provincial panel data from 2000 to 2012 and panel data models to examine the key driving forces of carbon dioxide emissions in the transport sector at the regional level in China. The estimation results show that the impacts of urbanization on carbon dioxide emissions in the transport sector vary across regions and decline continuously from the western region to the eastern and central regions. Private vehicles are more important than cargo turnover in emission reduction because of its relatively inefficient and excessive growth. The role of energy efficiency improvement in mitigating carbon dioxide emissions in the three regions varies due to significant differences in research and development investment and management efficiency. Hence, in order to effectively achieve emission reduction, local governments should consider all these factors as well as regional heterogeneity in developing appropriate mitigation policies. - Highlights: • The factors of carbon dioxide emissions in China's transport sector were explored. • The impact of urbanization on carbon dioxide emissions varies across regions. • Private vehicles are more critical than cargo turnover in emission reduction. • The role of energy efficiency in the three regions is exactly the opposite.

  16. Emission projections of the transport Sector in China: 2015-2040

    Yan, L.

    2016-12-01

    Driven by the significant growth freight and passenger transport demand, transport sector has become a sector that is largely responsible for increases in emissions of atmospheric pollutants (NOx, CO, HC, PM2.5) in China. Figuring out the emission trend in China's transport sector has great influence on formulating emission reduction measures in the future. In this work, both on-road and off-road transport emissions in China were estimated from 2015 to 2040 for CO, NOx, HC and PM2.5. The projection was conducted based on on the energy consumption structure forecast from IEA (International Energy Agency), the future national average annual distance traveled per vehicle and fuel consumption per distance derived from simulation results of the Fuel Economy and Environmental Impact (FEEI) model. The results show that the ownership of on-road vehicles in China increases rapidly during 2015 to 2030 and then the growth slows down. Finally, the total amount reaches up to 522 million in 2040 in which 84.5% turns out to be light-duty vehicles. Because current control legislations for the transport sector in China will continue to be strengthened in the future, the total emissions of China's transport sector were projected to peak around 2030, due to the improvement of vehicle emission standard and the retirement of old vehicles are the most effective measures. The off-road transport will become the main contributor to emissions from transport sector in China since 2030. This work provides a new perspective to understand emissions from both on-road and off-road transport in China, which can support the achievement of improving air quality promised by the Chinese government. This work provides a new perspective to understand the emission trends of on-road and off-road transport sector in China from 2015 to 2040, which can support the achievement of the air quality goal promised by the Chinese government. Driven by the significant growth freight and passenger transport demand

  17. Impacts of Urban Transportation Mode Split on CO2 Emissions in Jinan, China

    Kebin He

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s largest developing country, China currently is undergoing rapid urbanization and motorization, which will result in far-reaching impacts on energy and the environment. According to estimates, energy use and carbon emissions in the transportation sector will comprise roughly 30% of total emissions by 2030. Since the late 1990s, transportation-related issues such as energy, consumption, and carbon emissions have become a policy focus in China. To date, most research and policies have centered on vehicle technologies that promote vehicle efficiency and reduced emissions. Limited research exists on the control of greenhouse gases through mode shifts in urban transportation—in particular, through the promotion of public transit. The purpose of this study is to establish a methodology to analyze carbon emissions from the urban transportation sector at the Chinese city level. By using Jinan, the capital of China’s Shandong Province, as an example, we have developed an analytical model to simulate energy consumption and carbon emissions based on the number of trips, the transportation mode split, and the trip distance. This model has enabled us to assess the impacts of the transportation mode split on energy consumption and carbon emissions. Furthermore, this paper reviews a set of methods for data collection, estimation, and processing for situations where statistical data are scarce in China. This paper also describes the simulation of three transportation system development scenarios. The results of this study illustrate that if no policy intervention is implemented for the transportation mode split (the business-as-usual (BAU case, then emissions from Chinese urban transportation systems will quadruple by 2030. However, a dense, mixed land-use pattern, as well as transportation policies that encourage public transportation, would result in the elimination of 1.93 million tons of carbon emissions—approximately 50% of the BAU

  18. Analysis of CO2 emissions reduction in the Malaysian transportation sector: An optimisation approach

    Mustapa, Siti Indati; Bekhet, Hussain Ali

    2016-01-01

    The demand for transport services is expected to rise, causing the CO 2 emissions level to increase as well. In Malaysia, the transportation sector accounts for 28% of total CO 2 emissions, of which 85% comes from road transport. By 2020, Malaysia is targeting a reduction in CO 2 emissions intensity by up to 40% and in this effort the role of road transport is paramount. This paper attempts to investigate effective policy options that can assist Malaysia in reducing the CO 2 emissions level. An Optimisation model is developed to estimate the potential CO 2 emissions mitigation strategies for road transport by minimising the CO 2 emissions under the constraint of fuel cost and demand travel. Several mitigation strategies have been applied to analyse the effect of CO 2 emissions reduction potential. The results demonstrate that removal of fuel price subsidies can result in reductions of up to 652 ktonnes of fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions can be decreased by 6.55%, which would enable Malaysia to hit its target by 2020. CO 2 emissions can be reduced significantly, up to 20%, by employing a combination of mitigation policies in Malaysia. This suggests that appropriate mitigation policies can assist the country in its quest to achieve the CO 2 emissions reduction target. - Highlights: • An optimisation model for CO 2 emissions reduction in Malaysia's road transport is formulated. • Sensible policy options to achieve the CO 2 emissions reduction target are provided. • Increase in fuel price has induced shift towards fuel efficient vehicles. • The CO 2 emissions can be reduced up to 5.7 MtCO 2 with combination of mitigation policies.

  19. Long-range and rapid transport of individual nano-objects by a hybrid electrothermoplasmonic nanotweezer

    Ndukaife, Justus C.; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Nnanna, Agbai George Agwu

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon-enhanced optical trapping is being actively studied to provide efficient manipulation of nanometre-sized objects. However, a long-standing issue with previously proposed solutions is how to controllably load the trap on-demand without relying on Brownian diffusion. Here, we show that the ...

  20. Long-range Electron Transport in Geobacter sulfurreducens Biofilms is Redox Gradient-Driven

    2012-01-01

    modified version of the Nernst Equation (Eq. 2): ðXOxÞz=0; j = exp g nF RT Ej − Eo′ avg 1+ exp g nF RT Ej − Eo′ avg : [2] j= 1...www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1209829109 Snider et al. that follows directly from equation 21 in the work by Strycharz- Glaven et al. (14, 63