WorldWideScience

Sample records for emissions inventory version

  1. Building the Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) Smoke Emissions Inventory Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Luke; Ichoku, Charles; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) group's new coefficient of emission global gridded product at 1x1 resolution that directly relates fire readiative energy (FRE) to smoke aerosol release, FEERv1.0 Ce, made its public debut in August 2013. Since then, steps have been taken to generate corresponding maps and totals of total particulate matter (PM) emissions using different sources of FRE, and subsequently to simulate the resulting PM(sub 2.5) in the WRF-Chem 3.5 model using emission rates from FEERv1.0 as well as other standard biomass burning emission inventories. An flowchart of the FEER algorithm to calculate Ce is outlined here along with a display of the resulting emissions of total PM globally and also regionally. The modeling results from the WRF-Chem3.5 simulations are also shown.

  2. USER'S GUIDE TO THE PERSONAL COMPUTER VERSION OF THE BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (PC-BEIS2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document is a user's guide for an updated Personal Computer version of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (PC-BEIS2), allowing users to estimate hourly emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and soil nitrogen oxide emissions for any county in the contig...

  3. PC-BEIS: a personal computer version of the biogenic emissions inventory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, T.E.; Waldruff, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) has been adapted for use on IBM-compatible personal computers (PCs). PC-BEIS estimates hourly emissions of isoprene, α-pinene, other monoterpenes, and unidentified hydrocarbons for any county in the contiguous United States. To run the program, users must provide hourly data on ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and a code that identifies the particular county. This paper provides an overview of the method used to calculate biogenic emissions, shows an example application, and gives information on how to obtain a copy of the program

  4. Source attribution using FLEXPART and carbon monoxide emission inventories: SOFT-IO version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Bastien; Fontaine, Alain; Eckhardt, Sabine; Auby, Antoine; Boulanger, Damien; Petetin, Hervé; Paugam, Ronan; Athier, Gilles; Cousin, Jean-Marc; Darras, Sabine; Nédélec, Philippe; Stohl, Andreas; Turquety, Solène; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Thouret, Valérie

    2017-12-01

    Since 1994, the In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System (IAGOS) program has produced in situ measurements of the atmospheric composition during more than 51 000 commercial flights. In order to help analyze these observations and understand the processes driving the observed concentration distribution and variability, we developed the SOFT-IO tool to quantify source-receptor links for all measured data. Based on the FLEXPART particle dispersion model (Stohl et al., 2005), SOFT-IO simulates the contributions of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions from the ECCAD emission inventory database for all locations and times corresponding to the measured carbon monoxide mixing ratios along each IAGOS flight. Contributions are simulated from emissions occurring during the last 20 days before an observation, separating individual contributions from the different source regions. The main goal is to supply added-value products to the IAGOS database by evincing the geographical origin and emission sources driving the CO enhancements observed in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. This requires a good match between observed and modeled CO enhancements. Indeed, SOFT-IO detects more than 95 % of the observed CO anomalies over most of the regions sampled by IAGOS in the troposphere. In the majority of cases, SOFT-IO simulates CO pollution plumes with biases lower than 10-15 ppbv. Differences between the model and observations are larger for very low or very high observed CO values. The added-value products will help in the understanding of the trace-gas distribution and seasonal variability. They are available in the IAGOS database via http://www.iagos.org. The SOFT-IO tool could also be applied to similar data sets of CO observations (e.g., ground-based measurements, satellite observations). SOFT-IO could also be used for statistical validation as well as for intercomparisons of emission inventories using large amounts of data.

  5. National Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Emission Inventory contains measured, modeled, and estimated data for emissions of all known source categories in the US (stationary sources, fires,...

  6. Managing Air Quality - Emissions Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes the role of emission inventories in the air quality management process, a description of how emission inventories are developed, and where U.S. emission inventory information can be found.

  7. National Emission Inventory (NEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data exchange allows states to submit data to the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). NEI is a national database of air...

  8. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  9. Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegetation and nitric oxide (NO) emission from soils. Recent BEIS development has been restricted to the SMOKE system

  10. Quality manual for the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, O.-K.; Plejdrup, M.S.; Winther, M. [and others

    2013-02-15

    This report outlines the quality work undertaken by the emission inventory group at the Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University in connection with the preparation and reporting of the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. This report updates and expands on the first version of the quality manual published in 2005. The report fulfils the mandatory requirements for a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) plan as lined out in the UNFCCC reporting guidelines and the specifications related to reporting under the Kyoto Protocol. The report describes all elements of the internal QC procedures as well as the QA and verification activities carried out in connection with the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. (Author)

  11. Emission inventory; Inventaire des emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontelle, J.P. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    Statistics on air pollutant (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonium) emissions, acid equivalent emissions and their evolution since 1990 in the various countries of Europe and the USA, are presented. Emission data from the industrial, agricultural, transportation and power sectors are given, and comparisons are carried out between countries based on Gnp and population, pollution import/export fluxes and compliance to the previous emission reduction objectives

  12. Emission Inventory for Fugitive Emissions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Nielsen, Malene

    This report presents the methodology and data used in the Danish inventory of fugitive emissions from fuels for the years until 2007. The inventory of fugitive emissions includes CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2, dioxin, PAH and particulate matter. In 2007 the total Danish emission of greenhouse...... gasses was 66 641 Gg CO2-eqvivalents. Fugitive emissions from fuels account for 496 Gg CO2-eqvivalents or approximately 1 %. The major part of the fugitive emissions are emitted as CO2 (74 %) due to flaring of oil and gas. The major source of fugitive CH4 emission is extraction of oil and gas...... in the North Sea, refining of oil and loading of oil onto ships both offshore and onshore. The fugitive emissions of NMVOC originate for the major part from extraction, loading of ships, transmission and distribution of oil and to a much lesser degree from natural gas and fugitive emissions from gas stations...

  13. Danish emission inventory for particular matter (PM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Illerup, J.B.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2003-11-01

    The first Danish emission inventory that was reported in 2002 was a provisional-estimate based on data presently available. This report documents methodology, emission factors and references used for an improved Danish emission inventory for particulate matter. Further results of the improved emission inventory for the year 2000 are shown. The particulate matter emission inventory includes TSP, PM,, and PM, The report covers emission inventories for transport and stationary combustion. An appendix covering emissions from agriculture is also included. For the transport sector, both exhaust and non-exhaust emission such as tyre and break wear and road abrasion are included. (au)

  14. Global emissions inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dignon, J.

    1995-07-01

    Atmospheric chemistry determines the concentrations of most of the important greenhouse gases except for carbon dioxide. The rate of removal of the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere is also controlled by atmospheric chemistry. The indirect effects of chemical forcing resulting from the chemical interactions of other species can also affect the concentrations of radiatively important gases such as ozone. In order to establish the contribution of any possible climatic change attributable to individual greenhouse gases, spatially and temporally resolved estimates of their emissions need to be established. Unfortunately, for most of the radiatively important species the global magnitudes of their individual fluxes are not known to better than a factor of two and their spatial distributions are even more poorly characterized. Efforts to estimate future projections of potential impacts and to monitor international agreements will require continued research to narrow the uncertainties of magnitude and geographical distribution of emissions.

  15. Global emissions inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dignon, J.

    1995-07-01

    Atmospheric chemistry determines the concentrations of most of the important greenhouse gases except for carbon dioxide. The rate of removal of the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere is also controlled by atmospheric chemistry. The indirect effects of chemical forcing resulting from the chemical interactions of other species can also affect the concentrations of radiatively important gases such as ozone. In order to establish the contribution of any possible climatic change attributable to individual greenhouse gases, spatially and temporally resolved estimates of their emissions need to be established. Unfortunately, for most of the radiatively important species the global magnitudes of their individual fluxes are not known to better than a factor of two and their spatial distributions are even more poorly characterized. Efforts to estimate future projections of potential impacts and to monitor international agreements will require continued research to narrow the uncertainties of magnitude and geographical distribution of emissions

  16. The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2, version 2016 (ODIAC2016: a global monthly fossil fuel CO2 gridded emissions data product for tracer transport simulations and surface flux inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Oda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (ODIAC is a global high-spatial-resolution gridded emissions data product that distributes carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The emissions spatial distributions are estimated at a 1  ×  1 km spatial resolution over land using power plant profiles (emissions intensity and geographical location and satellite-observed nighttime lights. This paper describes the year 2016 version of the ODIAC emissions data product (ODIAC2016 and presents analyses that help guide data users, especially for atmospheric CO2 tracer transport simulations and flux inversion analysis. Since the original publication in 2011, we have made modifications to our emissions modeling framework in order to deliver a comprehensive global gridded emissions data product. Major changes from the 2011 publication are (1 the use of emissions estimates made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL by fuel type (solid, liquid, gas, cement manufacturing, gas flaring, and international aviation and marine bunkers; (2 the use of multiple spatial emissions proxies by fuel type such as (a nighttime light data specific to gas flaring and (b ship/aircraft fleet tracks; and (3 the inclusion of emissions temporal variations. Using global fuel consumption data, we extrapolated the CDIAC emissions estimates for the recent years and produced the ODIAC2016 emissions data product that covers 2000–2015. Our emissions data can be viewed as an extended version of CDIAC gridded emissions data product, which should allow data users to impose global fossil fuel emissions in a more comprehensive manner than the original CDIAC product. Our new emissions modeling framework allows us to produce future versions of the ODIAC emissions data product with a timely update. Such capability has become more significant given the CDIAC/ORNL's shutdown. The ODIAC data

  17. The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2, version 2016 (ODIAC2016): a global monthly fossil fuel CO2 gridded emissions data product for tracer transport simulations and surface flux inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Tomohiro; Maksyutov, Shamil; Andres, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (ODIAC) is a global high-spatial-resolution gridded emissions data product that distributes carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The emissions spatial distributions are estimated at a 1 × 1 km spatial resolution over land using power plant profiles (emissions intensity and geographical location) and satellite-observed nighttime lights. This paper describes the year 2016 version of the ODIAC emissions data product (ODIAC2016) and presents analyses that help guide data users, especially for atmospheric CO2 tracer transport simulations and flux inversion analysis. Since the original publication in 2011, we have made modifications to our emissions modeling framework in order to deliver a comprehensive global gridded emissions data product. Major changes from the 2011 publication are (1) the use of emissions estimates made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by fuel type (solid, liquid, gas, cement manufacturing, gas flaring, and international aviation and marine bunkers); (2) the use of multiple spatial emissions proxies by fuel type such as (a) nighttime light data specific to gas flaring and (b) ship/aircraft fleet tracks; and (3) the inclusion of emissions temporal variations. Using global fuel consumption data, we extrapolated the CDIAC emissions estimates for the recent years and produced the ODIAC2016 emissions data product that covers 2000-2015. Our emissions data can be viewed as an extended version of CDIAC gridded emissions data product, which should allow data users to impose global fossil fuel emissions in a more comprehensive manner than the original CDIAC product. Our new emissions modeling framework allows us to produce future versions of the ODIAC emissions data product with a timely update. Such capability has become more significant given the CDIAC/ORNL's shutdown. The ODIAC data product could play an important

  18. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  19. Austrian emission inventory for dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiwarter, W.; Trenker, C.; Hoeflinger, W.

    2001-09-01

    For the first time, Austrian emissions of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions to the atmosphere have been estimated. Results have been reported as total suspended particles (TSP) as well as for the fractions of particles smaller than 10 μm or 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 , PM 2.5 ), respectively. Base years for the inventory were 1990, 1995 and 1999. Excluded from this assessment is wind blown dust, which has been considered a natural source here. National statistics have been applied, specifically those also used previously in the Austrian air pollution inventory (OLI). Emission factors have been taken from literature compilations, only for exceptional cases specific Austrian assessments were performed or original literature on emission measurements was consulted. Resuspension of dust by road traffic emerged as the most important source. For the size fraction of PM 10 this source contributed about half of the emissions, when applying the calculation scheme by the U.S. EPA. While this scheme is widely used and well documented, its validity is currently subject of intense scientific debate. As these results do not seem to coincide with ambient air measurements, resuspension of road dust is considered separately and not now included in the national total. The sum of all other sources increases from 75,000 t of TSP in 1990 and 1995 to 77,000 t in 1999, while both PM 10 and PM 2.5 exhibit decreasing tendency (at 45,000 t and 26,000 t in 1999, respectively). The increase in TSP derives from increasing traffic and friction related emissions (tire wear, break wear), decrease of the finer particulate matter is due to reductions in firewood consumption for domestic heating. Most important source sectors are fugitive emissions from material transfer in industry as well as the building industry and the tilling of agricultural land. Common to these sources is the high uncertainty of available data. Wood combustion is the most important of the non

  20. The validity and reliability of tinnitus handicap inventory Thai version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limviriyakul, Siriporn; Supavanich, Walop

    2012-11-01

    Demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version (THI-T), a self-report measure of tinnitus. A cross-sectional psychometric validation study was used to determine internal consistency reliability and validity of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version at the Otoneurology clinic at Tertiary care center The cross-cultural adaptation of the Tinnitus Handicapped Inventory English version (Newman et al, 1996) was translated into Thai version following the steps indicated by Guillemin et al. The reliability was constructed by using Cronbach's coefficient alpha. The validity was analyzed by the correlation between Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai version and the 36-items short form health survey and visual analog scale using Spearman and Pearson test. The result showed good internal consistency reliabilities of total, functional, emotional, and catastrophic scale (a = 0.902, 0.804, 0.831 and 0.661, respectively) of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version. Spearman correlation showed the significant correlation of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory to 36-items short form health survey and visual analog scale. Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version will be a vigorous tool in evaluating tinnitus patients as well as monitoring the progress of their symptoms.

  1. Annual Danish emissions inventory report to UNECE. Inventory 1990 - 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.; Lyck, E.; Hoffmann, L.; Fauser, P.

    2004-05-01

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2004. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SOx for the years 1980-2002, (2) NOx, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2002; (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM2.5 for the years 2000-2002, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2002, and (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2002. Furthermore, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  2. Development and improvement of historical emission inventory in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, J. I.; Yumimoto, K.; Itahashi, S.; Maki, T.; Nagashima, T.; Ohara, T.

    2016-12-01

    Due to the rapid growth of economy and population, Asia becomes the largest emitter regions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases in the world. To tackle this problem, it is essential to understand the current status and past trend and to estimate effectiveness of mitigation measures using monitoring data, air quality and climate models, and emission inventories. We developed a historical emission inventory in Asia for 1950-2010 base on Regional Emission Inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2. In these 6 decades, emissions of all species in Asia showed remarkable increases. Recently, the largest emitter country in Asia is China. However, in 1960s, Japan is the largest emitter country for SO2 till about 1970 and NOx till about 1980, respectively. We surveyed effectiveness of abatement measures on NOx emissions in Japan and China. In Japan, the largest effective mitigation measure is regulation for motor vehicles. In 2010, reduced amounts of NOx emissions were estimated to be 2.7 time larger than actual emissions. For China, until 2010, the most effective mitigation measure is low-NOx burner installed in power plants. Regulation of motor vehicles also assumed to reduce NOx emissions from road transport by 40% compared to those without regulations in 2010. We roughly expanded the period of NOx emissions in China and Japan till 2012 and trend between 2008 and 2012 were compared with top-down emissions estimated using inverse modeling technique and satellite observations. Compared to top-down emissions, trends of the bottom-up emissions in China (Japan) overestimated increased (decreased) ratios in 2008-2012. For China, our emissions seem to underestimate the penetration rates of FGD for NOx installed in power plants. On the other hand, decreased rates of NOx emission factors for road vehicles in Japan might be overestimated in our emissions. These differences will be reconsidered to update our bottom-up emission inventory.

  3. Minnesota DNR Forest Stand Inventory Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer is a digital inventory of individual forest stands. The data is collected by DNR Foresters in each DNR Forestry Administrative Area, and is updated on a...

  4. 10 CFR 300.6 - Emissions inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reporting entity (although a reporting entity often makes these types of adjustments when calculating... without also reporting an inventory of the total emissions, but such entities should inventory and report... with the entity's initial entity statement. (2) After starting to report, each reporting entity that...

  5. Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emissions Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions inventories, modeling, and monitoring are the basis for understanding, controlling and tracking stationary sources of air pollution. This technical site provides access to tools and data to support those efforts.

  6. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory data asset contains measured summary compliance information on light-duty, heavy-duty, and non-road...

  7. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants. Inventories until 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, M.; Hjelgaard, K.

    2010-10-15

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMVOC, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO{sub 2} emission in 2008 was 16 % lower than in 1990. However, fluctuations in the emission level are large as a result of electricity import/export. The emission of CH{sub 4} has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in combined heating and power (CHP) plants. However, the emission has decreased in recent years due to structural changes in the Danish electricity market. The N{sub 2}O emission was higher in 2008 than in 1990 but the fluctuations in the time-series are significant. A considerable decrease of the SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably in recent years resulting in increased emission of PAH, particulate matter and CO. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased combustion of wood in residential plants and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The dioxin emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants. However in recent years the emission has increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential plants. (Author)

  8. Danish emission inventories for agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Albrektsen, Rikke; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    . This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2009. Furthermore, the report includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on national methodologies as well as international guidelines. For the Danish...... emissions calculations and data management an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA) is used. The emission from the agricultural sector includes emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic...... compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NOx, CO2, CO, SO2, heavy metals, dioxin and PAH. The ammonia emission from 1985 to 2009 has decreased from 119 300 tonnes of NH3 to 73 800 tonnes NH3, corresponding to a 38 % reduction. The emission...

  9. New possibilities of greenhouse gases emission inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Radkevich Maria Viktorovna; Salokhiddinov Abdulkhakim Temirhuzhaevich

    2015-01-01

    A method of inventory of greenhouse gas emissions from “road-car” complex depending on road cover evenness is offered. Calculations by IPCC methodology and offered methods give similar results, therefore worked out methods may serve as an alternative to IPCC methods and be used in stating the reasons of excess emissions by car-road complex.

  10. The ABAG biogenic emissions inventory project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson-Henry, C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The ability to identify the role of biogenic hydrocarbon emissions in contributing to overall ozone production in the Bay Area, and to identify the significance of that role, were investigated in a joint project of the Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) and NASA/Ames Research Center. Ozone, which is produced when nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons combine in the presence of sunlight, is a primary factor in air quality planning. In investigating the role of biogenic emissions, this project employed a pre-existing land cover classification to define areal extent of land cover types. Emission factors were then derived for those cover types. The land cover data and emission factors were integrated into an existing geographic information system, where they were combined to form a Biogenic Hydrocarbon Emissions Inventory. The emissions inventory information was then integrated into an existing photochemical dispersion model.

  11. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  12. Evaluating Bay Area Methane Emission Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jeong, Seongeun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    As a regulatory agency, evaluating and improving estimates of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area is an area of interest to the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). Currently, regional, state, and federal agencies generally estimate methane emissions using bottom-up inventory methods that rely on a combination of activity data, emission factors, biogeochemical models and other information. Recent atmospheric top-down measurement estimates of methane emissions for the US as a whole (e.g., Miller et al., 2013) and in California (e.g., Jeong et al., 2013; Peischl et al., 2013) have shown inventories underestimate total methane emissions by ~ 50% in many areas of California, including the SF Bay Area (Fairley and Fischer, 2015). The goal of this research is to provide information to help improve methane emission estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area. The research effort builds upon our previous work that produced methane emission maps for each of the major source sectors as part of the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project (http://calgem.lbl.gov/prior_emission.html; Jeong et al., 2012; Jeong et al., 2013; Jeong et al., 2014). Working with BAAQMD, we evaluate the existing inventory in light of recently published literature and revise the CALGEM CH4 emission maps to provide better specificity for BAAQMD. We also suggest further research that will improve emission estimates. To accomplish the goals, we reviewed the current BAAQMD inventory, and compared its method with those from the state inventory from the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the CALGEM inventory, and recent published literature. We also updated activity data (e.g., livestock statistics) to reflect recent changes and to better represent spatial information. Then, we produced spatially explicit CH4 emission estimates on the 1-km modeling grid used by BAAQMD. We present the detailed activity data, methods and derived emission maps by sector

  13. Validating the Chinese Version of the Inventory of School Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; Watkins, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the cross-cultural applicability of the Chinese version of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM; McInerney & Sinclair, 1991) in the Hong Kong context using both within-network and between-network approaches to construct validation. The ISM measures four types of achievement goals: mastery, performance,…

  14. Validation of a Chinese version of the dental anxiety inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, Sam K. S.; Stouthard, Marlies E. A.; Keung Leung, W.

    2005-01-01

    To translate the English version of Dental Anxiety Inventory (DAxI) and its short-form (SDAxI) and to validate their use in Hong Kong Chinese. The DAxI and SDAxI were translated into Chinese. A total of 500 adults (18-64 years) were interviewed, the Chinese DAxI, Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90),

  15. Air quality simulation over South Asia using Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory and Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Divya E.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, G.; Emmons, L. K.; Jena, Chinmay; Kumar, Rajesh; Pfister, G. G.; Chate, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the distribution of tropospheric ozone and related species for South Asia using the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4) and Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory. The model present-day simulated ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are evaluated against surface-based, balloon-borne and satellite-based (MOPITT and OMI) observations. The model systematically overestimates surface O3 mixing ratios (range of mean bias about: 1-30 ppbv) at different ground-based measurement sites in India. Comparison between simulated and observed vertical profiles of ozone shows a positive bias from the surface up to 600 hPa and a negative bias above 600 hPa. The simulated seasonal variation in surface CO mixing ratio is consistent with the surface observations, but has a negative bias of about 50-200 ppb which can be attributed to a large part to the coarse model resolution. In contrast to the surface evaluation, the model shows a positive bias of about 15-20 × 1017 molecules/cm2 over South Asia when compared to satellite derived CO columns from the MOPITT instrument. The model also overestimates OMI retrieved tropospheric column NO2 abundance by about 100-250 × 1013 molecules/cm2. A response to 20% reduction in all anthropogenic emissions over South Asia shows a decrease in the anuual mean O3 mixing ratios by about 3-12 ppb, CO by about 10-80 ppb and NOX by about 3-6 ppb at the surface level. During summer monsoon, O3 mixing ratios at 200 hPa show a decrease of about 6-12 ppb over South Asia and about 1-4 ppb over the remote northern hemispheric western Pacific region.

  16. Dioxin air emission inventory 1990-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capral Henriksen, T.; Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth [DMU, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    The present Danish dioxin air emission inventory shows that the emission has been reduced from 68.6 g I-TEQ in 1990 to 22.0 g I-TEQ in 2004, or about 68% over this period. Most of the significant reductions have been achieved in the industrial sector, where emissions have been reduced from 14.67 g I-TEQ in 1990 to 0.17 g I-TEQ in 2004; a reduction of almost 99%. Lower emissions from steel and aluminium reclamation industries form the major part of the reduction within industry. Emissions from waste incineration reduced from 32.5 g I-TEQ in 1990 to 2.1 g ITEQ in 2004; which is approx. 94%. This is due to installation of dioxin abatement equipment in incineration plants. The most important source of emission in 2004 is residential wood combustion, at 8.5 g I-TEQ, or around 40% of the total emission. In 2004, accidental fires, which are estimated to emit 6.1 g I-TEQ/year, are the second most important source, contributing with around 28% of the total emission. The present dioxin emission inventory for Denmark shows how emissions in 2004 come from sources other than waste incineration plants and industry, which were the largest sources in 1990. (au)

  17. Danish emission inventory for agriculture. Inventories 1985 - 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Albrektsen, R.; Gyldenkaerne, S.

    2011-02-15

    By regulations given in international conventions Denmark is obliged to work out an annual emission inventory and document the methodology. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) at Aarhus University (AU) in Denmark is responsible for calculating and reporting the emissions. This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2009. Furthermore, the report includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on national methodologies as well as international guidelines. For the Danish emissions calculations and data management an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA) is used. The emission from the agricultural sector includes emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, heavy metals, dioxin and PAH. The ammonia emission from 1985 to 2009 has decreased from 119 300 tonnes of NH{sub 3} to 73 800 tonnes NH{sub 3}, corresponding to a 38 % reduction. The emission of greenhouse gases has decreased by 25 % from 12.9 M tonnes CO{sub 2} equivalents to 9.6 M tonnes CO{sub 2} equivalents from 1985 to 2009. Improvements in feed efficiency and utilisation of nitrogen in livestock manure are the most important reasons for the reduction of both the ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions. (Author)

  18. Emission inventory for fugitive emissions from fuel in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Nielsen, Malene

    This report presents the methodology and data used in the Danish inventory of fugitive emissions from fuels for the years until 2013. The inventory of fugitive emissions includes CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CO, particulate matter, Black carbon, heavy metals, dioxin and PAHs. In 2013 the total...... Danish emission of greenhouse gasses was 54 584 Gg CO2 equivalents. Fugitive emissions from fuels account for 387 Gg CO2 equivalents or approximately 1 %. The major part of the fugitive emissions are emitted as CO2 (61 %) mainly from flaring in upstream oil and gas production. The major source...... of fugitive CH4 emission is production of oil and gas in the North Sea, refining of oil and loading of oil onto ships both offshore and onshore. The fugitive emissions of NMVOC originate for the major part from oil and gas production, loading of ships, transmission and distribution of oil, and to a less...

  19. Evaluating Global Emission Inventories of Biogenic Bromocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossaini, Ryan; Mantle, H.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Montzka, S. A.; Hamer, P.; Ziska, F.; Quack, B.; Kruger, K.; Tegtmeier, S.; Atlas, E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Emissions of halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are poorly constrained. However, their inclusion in global models is required to simulate a realistic inorganic bromine (Bry) loading in both the troposphere, where bromine chemistry perturbs global oxidizing capacity, and in the stratosphere, where it is a major sink for ozone (O3). We have performed simulations using a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) including three top-down and a single bottom-up derived emission inventory of the major brominated VSLS bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2). We perform the first concerted evaluation of these inventories, comparing both the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions. For a quantitative evaluation of each inventory, model output is compared with independent long-term observations at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ground-based stations and with aircraft observations made during the NSF (National Science Foundation) HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) project. For CHBr3, the mean absolute deviation between model and surface observation ranges from 0.22 (38 %) to 0.78 (115 %) parts per trillion (ppt) in the tropics, depending on emission inventory. For CH2Br2, the range is 0.17 (24 %) to 1.25 (167 %) ppt. We also use aircraft observations made during the 2011 Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere (SHIVA) campaign, in the tropical western Pacific. Here, the performance of the various inventories also varies significantly, but overall the CTM is able to reproduce observed CHBr3 well in the free troposphere using an inventory based on observed sea-to-air fluxes. Finally, we identify the range of uncertainty associated with these VSLS emission inventories on stratospheric bromine loading due to VSLS (Br(VSLS/y)). Our simulations show Br(VSLS/y) ranges from approximately 4.0 to 8.0 ppt depending on the inventory. We report an optimized estimate at the lower end of this range (approximately 4 ppt

  20. Calendar Year 2016 Stationary Source Emissions Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque (COA) Environmental Health Department Air Quality Program has issued stationary source permits and registrations the Department of Energy/Sandia Field Office for operations at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. This emission inventory report meets the annual reporting compliance requirements for calendar year (CY) 2016 as required by the COA.

  1. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  2. 40 CFR 52.2425 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consists of the 1990 base year stationary, area and off-road mobile and on-road mobile emission inventories... and on-road mobile source emission inventories in each area for the following pollutants: volatile... point, area, non-road mobile, biogenic and on-road mobile source emission inventories in each area for...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1075 - 1990 base year emission inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... year stationary, area, off-road mobile and on-road mobile emission inventories in the Baltimore...-road mobile emission inventories in the Washington Statistical Area for the pollutant, carbon monoxide...-road mobile, biogenic and on-road mobile source emission inventories for the following pollutants...

  4. 40 CFR 52.474 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mobile, non-road and biogenic source emission inventories in the area for the following pollutants... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory. 52... Emission Inventory. (a) EPA approves as a revision to the District of Columbia Implementation Plan the 1990...

  5. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  6. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  7. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  8. 40 CFR 52.423 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., area, non-road mobile, biogenic and on-road mobile source emission inventories in area for the...-road mobile source inventories in area for the following pollutants: Volatile organic compounds (VOC... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory. 52...

  9. 40 CFR 52.76 - 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... December 5, 1994, of the on-road mobile source portion of the 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory for Carbon... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1990 Base Year Emission Inventory. 52... Inventory. (a) EPA approves as a revision to the Alaska State Implementation Plan the 1990 Base Year Carbon...

  10. Understanding Emissions in East Asia - The KORUS 2015 Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Park, R.; Choi, Y.; Simpson, I. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Streets, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    The air quality over Northeast Asia have been deteriorated for decades due to high population and energy use in the region. Despite of more stringent air pollution control policies by the governments, air quality over the region seems not been improved as much - even worse sometimes. The needs of more scientific understanding of inter-relationship among emissions, transport, chemistry over the region are much higher to effectively protect public health and ecosystems. Two aircraft filed campaigns targeting year 2016, MAPS-Seoul and KORUS-AQ, have been organized to study the air quality of over Korea and East Asia relating to chemical evolution, emission inventories, trans-boundary contribution, and satellite application. We developed a new East-Asia emissions inventory, named KORUS2015, based on NIER/KU-CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment), in support of the filed campaigns. For anthropogenic emissions, it has 54 fuel classes, 201 sub-sectors and 13 pollutants, including CO2, SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10, and PM2.5. Since the KORUS2015 emissions framework was developed using the integrated climate and air quality assessment modeling framework (i.e. GAINS) and is fully connected with the comprehensive emission processing/modeling systems (i.e. SMOKE, KU-EPS, and MEGAN), it can be effectively used to support atmospheric field campaigns for science and policy. During the field campaigns, we are providing modeling emissions inventory to participating air quality models, such as CMAQ, WRF-Chem, CAMx, GEOS-Chem, MOZART, for forecasting and post-analysis modes. Based on initial assessment of those results, we are improving our emissions, such as VOC speciation, biogenic VOCs modeling. From the 2nditeration between emissions and modeling/measurement, further analysis results will be presented at the conference. Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change

  11. An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources for the period 1980─2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new emission inventory for Asia (Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS Version 1.1 for the period 1980–2020. REAS is the first inventory to integrate historical, present, and future emissions in Asia on the basis of a consistent methodology. We present here emissions in 2000, historical emissions for 1980–2003, and projected emissions for 2010 and 2020 of SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, black carbon (BC, and organic carbon (OC from fuel combustion and industrial sources. Total energy consumption in Asia more than doubled between 1980 and 2003, causing a rapid growth in Asian emissions, by 28% for BC, 30% for OC, 64% for CO, 108% for NMVOC, 119% for SO2, and 176% for NOx. In particular, Chinese NOx emissions showed a marked increase of 280% over 1980 levels, and growth in emissions since 2000 has been extremely high. These increases in China were mainly caused by increases in coal combustion in the power plants and industrial sectors. NMVOC emissions also rapidly increased because of growth in the use of automobiles, solvents, and paints. By contrast, BC, OC, and CO emissions in China showed decreasing trends from 1996 to 2000 because of a reduction in the use of biofuels and coal in the domestic and industry sectors. However, since 2000, Chinese emissions of these species have begun to increase. Thus, the emissions of air pollutants in Asian countries (especially China showed large temporal variations from 1980–2003. Future emissions in 2010 and 2020 in Asian countries were projected by emission scenarios and from emissions in 2000. For China, we developed three emission scenarios: PSC (policy success case, REF (reference case, and PFC (policy failure case. In the 2020 REF scenario, Asian total emissions of SO2, NOx, and NMVOC were projected to increase substantially by 22%, 44%, and 99%, respectively, over 2000 levels. The 2020 REF scenario showed a modest increase in CO (12%, a lesser increase in BC (1%, and a slight decrease in

  12. COMPILATION AND ANALYSES OF EMISSIONS INVENTORIES FOR THE NOAA ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY PROJECT. PROGRESS REPORT, AUGUST 1997.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENKOVITZ,C.M.

    1997-09-01

    Global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for circa 1985 and 1990 and Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) for circa 1990 have been compiled by this project. Work on the inventories has been carried out under the umbrella of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program. The 1985 NO{sub x} inventory was compiled using default data sets of global emissions that were refined via the use of more detailed regional data sets; this inventory is being distributed to the scientific community at large as the GEIA Version 1A inventory. Global emissions of NO{sub x} for 1985 are estimated to be 21 Tg N y{sup -1}, with approximately 84% originating in the Northern Hemisphere. The 1990 inventories of NO{sub x} and NMVOCs were compiled using unified methodologies and data sets in collaboration with the Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Rijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene, RIVM) and the Division of Technology for Society of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, (IMW-TNO); these emissions will be used as the default estimates to be updated with more accurate regional data. The NMVOC inventory was gridded and speciated into 23 chemical categories. The resulting global emissions for 1990 are 31 Tg N yr{sup -1} for NO{sub x} and 173 Gg NMVOC yr{sup -1}. Emissions of NO{sub x} are highest in the populated and industrialized areas of eastern North America and across Europe, and in biomass burning areas of South America, Africa, and Asia. Emissions of NMVOCs are highest in biomass burning areas of South America, Africa, and Asia. The 1990 NO{sub x} emissions were gridded to 1{sup o} resolution using surrogate data, and were given seasonal, two-vertical-level resolution and speciated into NO and NO{sub 2} based on proportions derived from the 1985 GEIA Version 1B inventory. Global NMVOC

  13. Intercomparison of NOx emission inventories over East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ding

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We compare nine emission inventories of nitrogen oxides including four satellite-derived NOx inventories and the following bottom-up inventories for East Asia: REAS (Regional Emission inventory in ASia, MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China, CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research. Two of the satellite-derived inventories are estimated by using the DECSO (Daily Emission derived Constrained by Satellite Observations algorithm, which is based on an extended Kalman filter applied to observations from OMI or from GOME-2. The other two are derived with the EnKF algorithm, which is based on an ensemble Kalman filter applied to observations of multiple species using either the chemical transport model CHASER and MIROC-chem. The temporal behaviour and spatial distribution of the inventories are compared on a national and regional scale. A distinction is also made between urban and rural areas. The intercomparison of all inventories shows good agreement in total NOx emissions over mainland China, especially for trends, with an average bias of about 20 % for yearly emissions. All the inventories show the typical emission reduction of 10 % during the Chinese New Year and a peak in December. Satellite-derived approaches using OMI show a summer peak due to strong emissions from soil and biomass burning in this season. Biases in NOx emissions and uncertainties in temporal variability increase quickly when the spatial scale decreases. The analyses of the differences show the importance of using observations from multiple instruments and a high spatial resolution model for the satellite-derived inventories, while for bottom-up inventories, accurate emission factors and activity information are required. The advantage of the satellite-derived approach is that the emissions are soon available after observation, while the strength of the bottom-up inventories is that they include

  14. Mapping the spatial distribution of global anthropogenic mercury atmospheric emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Simon J.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.

    This paper describes the procedures employed to spatially distribute global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere, prepared by Pacyna, E.G., Pacyna, J.M., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S. [2006. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.03.041], and briefly discusses the results of this work. A new spatially distributed global emission inventory for the (nominal) year 2000, and a revised version of the 1995 inventory are presented. Emissions estimates for total mercury and major species groups are distributed within latitude/longitude-based grids with a resolution of 1×1 and 0.5×0.5°. A key component in the spatial distribution procedure is the use of population distribution as a surrogate parameter to distribute emissions from sources that cannot be accurately geographically located. In this connection, new gridded population datasets were prepared, based on the CEISIN GPW3 datasets (CIESIN, 2004. Gridded Population of the World (GPW), Version 3. Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). GPW3 data are available at http://beta.sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/index.jsp). The spatially distributed emissions inventories and population datasets prepared in the course of this work are available on the Internet at www.amap.no/Resources/HgEmissions/

  15. African Anthropogenic Emissions Inventories for gases and particles from 1990 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liousse, Catherine; Keita, Sekou; N'Datchoch Touré, Evelyne 1; Doumbia, Thierno; Yoboué, Véronique; Assamoi, Eric; Haslett, Sophie; Roblou, Laurent; Léon, Jean-François; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Akpo, Aristide; Coe, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Presently, there is one African regional inventory dealing with biofuel and fossil fuel emissions (Liousse et al., 2014) and only global emission inventories including Africa. Developing a regional inventory for gases and particles is not an easy task: the DACCIWA project has allowed to organize a framework suitable for this development through regrouping several investigators. The aim is to set an African database on fuel consumption and new emission factor measurements and to include other sources of pollution than biofuel and fossil fuel such as flaring and waste burning yet not negligible in Africa. The inclusion of these sources in the new inventory and also new emissions factor measurements will reduce the uncertainties on anthropogenic emissions in Africa. This work will present the first version of African fossil fuel (FF), biofuel (BF), gas flaring and waste burning emission inventories for the 1990-2016 period for the major atmospheric compounds (gases and particles) provides up to date emission fields at 0.125° x 0.125° spatial resolution and yearly temporal resolution that can be used to model atmospheric composition and impacts over West Africa. New emission factor measurements on ground and in combustion chambers will be discussed. Temporal variability of emissions from 1990 to 2016 will be scrutinized. In parallel, uncertainties on existing biomass burning emission inventories will be presented. New emission inventories based on MODIS burnt area products and AMMABB methodology have been developed for the period 2000-2012. They will be compared with GFED and GFAS products. Finally, tests on these inventories in Regional Climate Model (RegCM) at African scale will be presented for different years.

  16. [A German version of the Eating Disorder Inventory EDI-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, A; Jacobi, C; Horstmann, S; Paul, T; Nutzinger, D O; Schüssler, G

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a German version of the second revised edition of the Eating Disorder Inventory EDI-2 (Garner 1991). The EDI-2 is a self-rating inventory (self-report measure) with 91 items and 11 subscales designed for the assessment of attitudinal and behavioural dimensions relevant to anorexia and bulimia nervosa. It consists of the eight original subscales: drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, ineffectiveness, perfectionism, interpersonal distrust, interoception and maturity fears, and the three new subscales: asceticism, impulse regulation and social insecurity. The German EDI-2 was given to 71 patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa, 30 patients with binge eating disorder, a control group of 186 women and a further control group of 102 men. In comparison to the female control group, patient groups showed significantly elevated means on all subscales. Item analysis revealed sufficient internal consistencies for all subscales except subscale 9 (asceticism) with Cronbachs alpha ranging from 0.58 to 0.90. Twelve of the 91 items showed poor item total scale correlations below 0.40. Factor analysis supported a six-factor-structure. Hence, the reliability and validity of the three new subscales was confirmed only partially. The use of the EDI-2 in therapy research and clinical practice is critically discussed.

  17. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory data asset contains measured summary compliance information on light-duty, heavy-duty, and non-road engine manufacturers by model, as well as fee payment data required by Title II of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, to certify engines for sale in the U.S. and collect compliance certification fees. Data submitted by manufacturers falls into 12 industries: Heavy Duty Compression Ignition, Marine Spark Ignition, Heavy Duty Spark Ignition, Marine Compression Ignition, Snowmobile, Motorcycle & ATV, Non-Road Compression Ignition, Non-Road Small Spark Ignition, Light-Duty, Evaporative Components, Non-Road Large Spark Ignition, and Locomotive. Title II also requires the collection of fees from manufacturers submitting for compliance certification. Manufacturers submit data on an annual basis, to document engine model changes for certification. Manufacturers also submit compliance information on already certified in-use vehicles randomly selected by the EPA (1) year into their life and (4) years into their life to ensure that emissions systems continue to function appropriately over time.The EPA performs targeted confirmatory tests on approximately 15% of vehicles submitted for certification. Confirmatory data on engines is associated with its corresponding submission data to verify the accuracy of manufacturer submission beyond standard business rules.Section 209 of the 1990 Amendments to the Clea

  18. Atmospheric emission inventory in Lombardy (Italy): results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caserini, S.; Fraccaroli, A.; Monguzzi, A.M.; Moretti, M.; Guidici, A.; Angelino, E.; Fossati, G.

    2005-01-01

    Methodologies and results of the Lombardy Region Atmospheric Emission Inventory are illustrated in this paper, together with some critical points and necessity of further research needed in order to improve emission inventories for fine particulate and greenhouse gases. The inventory is based on a database named INEMAR developed within the framework of the Air Quality Management Plan of the Lombardy Region and considers 1546 municipalities and 220 activities, according to the Corinair SNAP 97 and IPCC classifications [it

  19. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)

  20. Development and tests of short versions of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory and the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory-Child Version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baardewijk, Y.; Andershed, H.; Stegge, G.T.M.; Nilsson, K.W.; Scholte, E.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The adolescent Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) and its child version (YPI-CV) are sound but lengthy instruments for measuring psychopathic traits in youths. The current study develops psychometrically strong short versions of these instruments. Samples used for item reduction were

  1. Gridded National Inventory of U.S. Methane Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasakkers, Joannes D.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Turner, Alexander J.; Weitz, Melissa; Wirth, Tom; Hight, Cate; DeFigueiredo, Mark; Desai, Mausami; Schmeltz, Rachel; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a gridded inventory of US anthropogenic methane emissions with 0.1 deg x 0.1 deg spatial resolution, monthly temporal resolution, and detailed scale dependent error characterization. The inventory is designed to be onsistent with the 2016 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissionsand Sinks (GHGI) for 2012. The EPA inventory is available only as national totals for different source types. We use a widerange of databases at the state, county, local, and point source level to disaggregate the inventory and allocate the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions for individual source types. Results show large differences with the EDGAR v4.2 global gridded inventory commonly used as a priori estimate in inversions of atmospheric methane observations. We derive grid-dependent error statistics for individual source types from comparison with the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) regional inventory for Northeast Texas. These error statistics are independently verified by comparison with the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) grid-resolved emission inventory. Our gridded, time-resolved inventory provides an improved basis for inversion of atmospheric methane observations to estimate US methane emissions and interpret the results in terms of the underlying processes.

  2. Compilation and evaluation of a Paso del Norte emission inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, T.H.; Chinkin, L.R.; Roberts, P.T. [Sonoma Technology, Inc., 1360 Redwood Way, Suite C, 94954-1169 Petaluma, CA (United States); Saeger, M.; Mulligan, S. [Pacific Environmental Services, 5001 S. Miami Blvd., Suite 300, 27709 Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Paramo Figueroa, V.H. [Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, Avenue Revolucion 1425, Nivel 10, Col. Tlacopac San Angel, Delegacion Alvaro Obregon, C.P., 01040, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Yarbrough, J. [US Environmental Protection Agency - Region 6, 1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 1200, 75202-2733 Dallas, TX (United States)

    2001-08-10

    Emission inventories of ozone precursors are routinely used as input to comprehensive photochemical air quality models. Photochemical model performance and the development of effective control strategies rely on the accuracy and representativeness of an underlying emission inventory. This paper describes the tasks undertaken to compile and evaluate an ozone precursor emission inventory for the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez/Southern Dona Ana region. Point, area and mobile source emission data were obtained from local government agencies and were spatially and temporally allocated to a gridded domain using region-specific demographic and land-cover information. The inventory was then processed using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended Emissions Preprocessor System 2.0 (UAM-EPS 2.0) which generates emissions files compatible with the Urban Airshed Model (UAM). A top-down evaluation of the emission inventory was performed to examine how well the inventory represented ambient pollutant compositions. The top-down evaluation methodology employed in this study compares emission inventory ratios of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC)/nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO)/NO{sub x} ratios to corresponding ambient ratios. Detailed NMHC species comparisons were made in order to investigate the relative composition of individual hydrocarbon species in the emission inventory and in the ambient data. The emission inventory compiled during this effort has since been used to model ozone in the Paso del Norte airshed (Emery et al., CAMx modeling of ozone and carbon monoxide in the Paso del Norte airshed. In: Proc of Ninety-Third Annual Meeting of Air and Waste Management Association, 18-22 June 2000, Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 2000)

  3. Compilation and evaluation of a Paso del Norte emission inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, T H; Chinkin, L R; Roberts, P T; Saeger, M; Mulligan, S; Páramo Figueroa, V H; Yarbrough, J

    2001-08-10

    Emission inventories of ozone precursors are routinely used as input to comprehensive photochemical air quality models. Photochemical model performance and the development of effective control strategies rely on the accuracy and representativeness of an underlying emission inventory. This paper describes the tasks undertaken to compile and evaluate an ozone precursor emission inventory for the El Paso/Ciudad Juárez/Southern Doña Ana region. Point, area and mobile source emission data were obtained from local government agencies and were spatially and temporally allocated to a gridded domain using region-specific demographic and land-cover information. The inventory was then processed using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended Emissions Preprocessor System 2.0 (UAM-EPS 2.0) which generates emissions files compatible with the Urban Airshed Model (UAM). A top down evaluation of the emission inventory was performed to examine how well the inventory represented ambient pollutant compositions. The top-down evaluation methodology employed in this study compares emission inventory ratios of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC)/nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO)/NOx ratios to corresponding ambient ratios. Detailed NMHC species comparisons were made in order to investigate the relative composition of individual hydrocarbon species in the emission inventory and in the ambient data. The emission inventory compiled during this effort has since been used to model ozone in the Paso del Norte airshed (Emery et al., CAMx modeling of ozone and carbon monoxide in the Paso del Norte airshed. In: Proc of Ninety-Third Annual Meeting of Air & Waste Management Association, 18-22 June 2000, Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 2000).

  4. 75 FR 57275 - Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot AGENCY: Federal... Supplier Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory pilot. Public comments are particularly invited on... Supplier GHG Emissions Inventory pilot, and whether it will have practical utility; whether our estimate of...

  5. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources

  6. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  7. Exploratory factor analysis of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (German version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurre, Annette; Bastiaenen, Caroline Hg; van Gool, Christel Jaw; Gloor-Juzi, Thomas; de Bruin, Eling D; Straumann, Dominik

    2010-03-15

    The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) is a validated, self-report questionnaire which is widely used as an outcome measure. Previous studies supported the multidimensionality of the DHI, but not the original subscale structure. The objectives of this survey were to explore the dimensions of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory - German version, and to investigate the associations of the retained factors with items assessing functional disability and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Secondly we aimed to explore the retained factors according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Patients were recruited from a tertiary centre for vertigo, dizziness or balance disorders. They filled in two questionnaires: (1) The DHI assesses precipitating physical factors associated with dizziness/unsteadiness and functional/emotional consequences of symptoms. (2) The HADS assesses non-somatic symptoms of anxiety and depression. In addition, patients answered the third question of the University of California Los Angeles-Dizziness Questionnaire which covers the impact of dizziness and unsteadiness on everyday activities. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to explore the dimensions of the DHI. Associations were estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. One hundred ninety-four patients with dizziness or unsteadiness associated with a vestibular disorder, mean age (standard deviation) of 50.6 (13.6) years, participated. Based on eigenvalues greater one respectively the scree plot we analysed diverse factor solutions. The 3-factor solution seems to be reliable, clinically relevant and can partly be explained with the ICF. It explains 49.2% of the variance. Factor 1 comprises the effect of dizziness and unsteadiness on emotion and participation, factor 2 informs about specific activities or effort provoking dizziness and unsteadiness, and factor 3 focuses on self-perceived walking ability in relation to

  8. Exploratory factor analysis of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (German version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruin Eling D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI is a validated, self-report questionnaire which is widely used as an outcome measure. Previous studies supported the multidimensionality of the DHI, but not the original subscale structure. The objectives of this survey were to explore the dimensions of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory - German version, and to investigate the associations of the retained factors with items assessing functional disability and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Secondly we aimed to explore the retained factors according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Methods Patients were recruited from a tertiary centre for vertigo, dizziness or balance disorders. They filled in two questionnaires: (1 The DHI assesses precipitating physical factors associated with dizziness/unsteadiness and functional/emotional consequences of symptoms. (2 The HADS assesses non-somatic symptoms of anxiety and depression. In addition, patients answered the third question of the University of California Los Angeles-Dizziness Questionnaire which covers the impact of dizziness and unsteadiness on everyday activities. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed to explore the dimensions of the DHI. Associations were estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results One hundred ninety-four patients with dizziness or unsteadiness associated with a vestibular disorder, mean age (standard deviation of 50.6 (13.6 years, participated. Based on eigenvalues greater one respectively the scree plot we analysed diverse factor solutions. The 3-factor solution seems to be reliable, clinically relevant and can partly be explained with the ICF. It explains 49.2% of the variance. Factor 1 comprises the effect of dizziness and unsteadiness on emotion and participation, factor 2 informs about specific activities or effort provoking dizziness and unsteadiness, and factor 3 focuses on self

  9. Danish Emission Inventory for Waste Incineration and Other Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelgaard, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This report contains detailed methodological issues, activity data, emission factors, uncertainties and references for waste incineration without energy recovery and other waste source categories of the Danish emission inventories 2013. The emissions are calculated for the years 1980-2011 according...

  10. Ammonia emission inventory for the state of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Maser, Colette R.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2003-12-17

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is the only significant gaseous base in the atmosphere and it has a variety of impacts as an atmospheric pollutant, including the formation of secondary aerosol particles: ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. NH{sub 3} preferentially forms ammonium sulfate; consequently ammonium nitrate aerosol formation may be limited by the availability of NH{sub 3}. Understanding the impact of emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen on visibility, therefore, requires accurately determined ammonia emission inventories for use in air quality models, upon which regulatory and policy decisions increasingly depend. This report presents an emission inventory of NH{sub 3} for the state of Wyoming. The inventory is temporally and spatially resolved at the monthly and county level, and is comprised of emissions from individual sources in ten categories: livestock, fertilizer, domestic animals, wild animals, wildfires, soil, industry, mobile sources, humans, and publicly owned treatment works. The Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory was developed using the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Ammonia Model as framework. Current Wyoming-specific activity data and emissions factors obtained from state agencies and published literature were assessed and used as inputs to the CMU Ammonia Model. Biogenic emissions from soils comprise about three-quarters of the Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory, though emission factors from soils are highly uncertain. Published emission factors are scarce and based on limited measurements. In Wyoming, agricultural land, rangeland, and forests comprise 96% of the land area and essentially all of the estimated emissions from soils. Future research on emission rates of NH{sub 3} for these land categories may lead to a substantial change in the magnitude of soil emissions, a different inventory composition, and reduced uncertainty in the inventory. While many NH{sub 3} inventories include annual emissions, air quality modeling studies require finer temporal

  11. The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN): a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wiedinmyer; S. K. Akagi; R. J. Yokelson; L. K. Emmons; J. A. Al-Saadi; J. J. Orlando; A. J. Soja

    2010-01-01

    The Fire INventory from NCAR version 1.0 (FINNv1) provides daily, 1 km resolution, global estimates of the trace gas and particle emissions from open burning of biomass, which includes wildfire, agricultural fires, and prescribed burning and does not include 5 biofuel use and trash burning. Emission factors used in the calculations have been updated with recent data,...

  12. Contact Us About Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emissions Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions inventories, modeling, and monitoring are the basis for understanding, controlling and tracking stationary sources of air pollution. This technical site provides access to tools and data to support those efforts.

  13. Forgotten carbon: indirect CO2 in greenhouse gas emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael

    2008-01-01

    National governments that are Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are required to submit greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories accounting for the emissions and removals occurring within their geographic territories. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides inventory methodology guidance to the Parties of the UNFCCC. This methodology guidance, and national inventories based on it, omits carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmospheric oxidation of methane, carbon monoxide, and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions that result from several source categories. The inclusion of this category of 'indirect' CO 2 in GHG inventories increases global anthropogenic emissions (excluding land use and forestry) between 0.5 and 0.7%. However, the effect of inclusion on aggregate UNFCCC Annex I Party GHG emissions would be to reduce the growth of total emissions, from 1990 to 2004, by 0.2% points. The effect on the GHG emissions and emission trends of individual countries varies. The paper includes a methodology for calculating these emissions and discusses uncertainties. Indirect CO 2 is equally relevant for GHG inventories at other scales, such as global, regional, organizational, and facility. Similarly, project-based methodologies, such as those used under the Clean Development Mechanism, may need revising to account for indirect CO 2

  14. Developing Particle Emission Inventories Using Remote Sensing (PEIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chia-Hsi; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Di, Qian; Koutrakis, Petros

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding the magnitude and distribution of PM(sub 2.5) emissions is crucial in establishing effective PM regulations and assessing the associated risk to human health and the ecosystem. At present, emission data is obtained from measured or estimated emission factors of various source types. Collecting such information for every known source is costly and time consuming. For this reason, emission inventories are reported periodically and unknown or smaller sources are often omitted or aggregated at large spatial scale. To address these limitations, we have developed and evaluated a novel method that uses remote sensing data to construct spatially-resolved emission inventories for PM(sub 2.5). This approach enables us to account for all sources within a fixed area, which renders source classification unnecessary. We applied this method to predict emissions in the northeast United States during the period of 2002-2013 using high- resolution 1 km x 1 km Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). Emission estimates moderately agreed with the EPA National Emission Inventory (R(sup2) = 0.66 approx. 0.71, CV = 17.7 approx. 20%). Predicted emissions are found to correlate with land use parameters suggesting that our method can capture emissions from land use-related sources. In addition, we distinguished small-scale intra-urban variation in emissions reflecting distribution of metropolitan sources. In essence, this study demonstrates the great potential of remote sensing data to predict particle source emissions cost-effectively.

  15. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Illerup, J. B.

    decrease of the SO2, NOX and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The greenhouse gas emission has decreased 1,3% since 1990. The emission of CH4, however, has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in CHP...... plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated...

  16. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Illerup, J. B.

    decrease of the SO2, NOx and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The greenhouse gas emission has decreased 1,5% since 1990. The emission of CH4, however, has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in CHP...... plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated....

  17. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt

    % lower than in 1990. However fluctuations in the emission level are large as a result of electricity import/export. The emission of CH4 has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in combined heating and power (CHP) plants. However the emission has decreased in recent years due...... to structural changes in the Danish electricity market. The N2O emission was higher in 2007 than in 1990 but the fluctuations in the time-series are significant. A considerable decrease of the SO2, NOx and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste...

  18. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt

    was 16 % lower than in 1990. However, fluctuations in the emission level are large as a result of electricity import/export. The emission of CH4 has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in combined heating and power (CHP) plants. However, the emission has decreased in recent years due...... to structural changes in the Danish electricity market. The N2O emission was higher in 2008 than in 1990 but the fluctuations in the timeseries are significant. A considerable decrease of the SO2, NOx and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste...

  19. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants. Inventories until year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.

    2007-04-15

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOX, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. A considerable decrease of the SO2, NOX and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The emission of CH4 has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in CHP plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. The dioxin emission decreased due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated. (au)

  20. Learning and Study Strategies Inventory--High School Version (LASSI--HS) (Test Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, J. Lloyd

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory--High School Version (LASSI--HS). Notes strengths of the inventory--its focus on processes of learning rather than the products; its usefulness for low-achieving students; and its focus on issues related to motivation. Notes the lack of validity evidence. (RS)

  1. GHG emission estimates for road transport in national GHG inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Yang, H.

    2011-01-01

    The annual reporting procedures of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have now produced greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories from 40 so-called Annex I countries for 18 years. This article analyses a subset of these data: emissions from road transport. The article

  2. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions inventory of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lindeque

    Materials and Methods. The methodology utilized is based on the Australian national greenhouse account's National Inventory. Report (ANIR, 2010), which contains Australian country-specific and IPCC default methodologies and emission factors. Emission factors specific to South African conditions and management ...

  3. Compilation of a global inventory of emissions of nitrous oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    A global inventory with 1°x1° resolution was compiled of emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) to the atmosphere, including emissions from soils under natural vegetation, fertilized agricultural land, grasslands and animal excreta, biomass burning, forest clearing,

  4. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt

    was 30 % lower than in 1990. However, fluctuations in the emission level are large as a result of electricity import/export. The emission of CH4 has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in combined heating and power (CHP) plants. In recent years, the emission has declined. This is due...... to liberalisation of the Danish electricity market, which means that the fuel consumption in gas engines has decreased. The N2O emission was higher in 2011 than in 1990 but the fluctuations in the time series are significant. A considerable decrease of the SO2, NOx and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result...

  5. National inventory report. Greenhouse gas emissions 1990-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolshus, Hans H.; Gjerald, Eilev; Hoem, Britta; Ramberg, Simen Helgesen; Haugland, Hege; Valved, Hilde; Nelson, George Nicholas; Asphjell, Torgrim; Christophersen, Oeyvind; Gaustad, Alice; Rubaek, Birgitte; Hvalryg, Marte Monsen

    2012-07-01

    Emissions of the following greenhouse gases are covered in this report: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluoro carbons (PFCs), hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). In addition, the inventory includes calculations of emissions of the precursors NO{sub x}, NMVOC, and CO, as well as for SO{sub 2}. Indirect CO{sub 2} emissions originating from the fossil part of CH{sub 4} and NMVOC are calculated according to the reporting guidelines to the UNFCCC, and accounted for in the inventory.(eb)

  6. National inventory report. Greenhouse gas emissions 1990-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-15

    Emissions of the following greenhouse gases are covered in this report: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluoro carbons (PFCs), hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). In addition, the inventory includes calculations of emissions of the precursors NO{sub x}, NMVOC, and CO, as well as for SO{sub 2}. Indirect CO{sub 2} emissions originating from the fossil part of CH{sub 4} and NMVOC are calculated according to the reporting guidelines to the UNFCCC, and accounted for in the inventory. (AG)

  7. Inventory of primary particulates emissions; Inventaire des emissions de particules primaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    CITEPA carried out a national inventory on particulate emissions. This report presents the results of this study for a great number of sectors and it covers a larger number of sources than the previous CITEPA inventories on particles and some other inventories carried out by International organisms (TNO, IIASA). In particular, at the present time, fugitive dust emissions for some sources are rarely taken into account in inventories because of poor knowledge and they are still the subject of researches in order to validate the emission results. (author)

  8. The sectoral trends of multigas emissions inventory of India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, A.; Shukla, P.R.; Kapshe, M.

    2006-01-01

    as regional distribution patterns. Coal consumption in power sector dominates CO2 and SO2 emissions, while power and road transport equally contribute to NOX emissions. Rice cultivation and livestock-related emissions from the agriculture sector dominate CH4 emissions, while synthetic fertilizer use...... dominance from biomass burning. Particulate emissions are dominated by biomass burning (residential sector), road transport and coal combustion in large plants. These varied emission patterns provide interesting policy links and disjoints, such as-which and where mitigation flexibility for the Kyoto gases......, exploring co-benefits Of CO2 and SO2 mitigation, and technology and development pathway dependence of emissions. The'present inventory assessment is a pointer to the future emission pathways for India wherein local air pollutant and GHG emissions, although connected, may not move in synchronization...

  9. USERS MANUAL: LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS MODEL - VERSION 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document is a user's guide for a computer model, Version 2.0 of the Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM), for estimating air pollution emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The model can be used to estimate emission rates for methane, carbon dioxide, nonmet...

  10. Emissions inventories and options for control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, R.J.; Van Amstel, A.R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Kroeze, C. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    In 1990, little was known about the emissions of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands, notably those of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. Uncertainties included the causes, the emissions factors and the regional distribution of emissions. The main objectives of the project at that time were formulated as follows: (a) provide information for prioritizing greenhouse gas emissions research in the Netherlands; (b) provide input data for global models (later shifted to the EDGAR-project); and (c) support national and international policy development. The emphasis of the project was on non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases, notably methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). While state-of-the-art information from international research would be used and analyzed, the focus of the project was on the Dutch emissions and their causes. Information was drawn from literature research, discussions with national and international experts, and experimental information from several projects. 2 figs., 12 refs.

  11. Application of the emission inventory model TEAM: Uncertainties in dioxin emission estimates for central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Kok, H.; Quass, U.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses an improved emission inventory model to assess the uncertainties in emissions of dioxins and furans associated with both knowledge on the exact technologies and processes used, and with the uncertainties of both activity data and emission factors. The annual total emissions for the

  12. Narcissistic Personality Inventory : Structure of the adapted Dutch version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    The present study examined the structure of a Dutch adaptation of the 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) in a community sample (n = 460) and a student sample (n = 515). Altering the response format of the NPI to a Likert-scale had no apparent effect on the responses.

  13. GIS aided spatial disaggregation of emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orthofer, R.; Loibl, W.

    1995-10-01

    We have applied our method to produce detailed NMVOC and NO x emission density maps for Austria. While theoretical average emission densities for the whole country would be only 5 t NMVOC and 2.5 t NO x per km 2 , the actual emission densities range from zero in the many uninhabited areas up to more than 3,000 t/km 2 along major highways. In Austria, small scale disaggregation is necessary particularly for the differentiated topography and population patterns in alpine valleys. (author)

  14. Global radioxenon emission inventory based on nuclear power reactor reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Martin B; Tuma, Matthias P

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric radioactivity is monitored for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, with xenon isotopes 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe and 135Xe serving as important indicators of nuclear explosions. The treaty-relevant interpretation of atmospheric concentrations of radioxenon is enhanced by quantifying radioxenon emissions released from civilian facilities. This paper presents the first global radioxenon emission inventory for nuclear power plants, based on North American and European emission reports for the years 1995-2005. Estimations were made for all power plant sites for which emission data were unavailable. According to this inventory, a total of 1.3PBq of radioxenon isotopes are released by nuclear power plants as continuous or pulsed emissions in a generic year.

  15. 2000 emission inventory for the Lower Fraser Valley airshed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This emissions inventory is a compilation of all emissions in the Lower Fraser Valley International Airshed. Its objective is to harmonize the inventory data of Canada's Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD), the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD) and Whatcom County in the United States. It provides an idea of the current state of air emissions on both sides of the Canada-United States border. This inventory provides information regarding the types of emissions sources in the region, their location and the amount of air pollution emitted within a given time frame. It is designed to help manage air quality by identifying sectors which need to be more vigilant. The common air pollutants addressed in the inventory include total particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and ammonia. The greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The inventory distinguishes between point, area, and mobile sources. Carbon monoxide emissions are found to be dominated by cars, trucks and non-road engines. Nitrogen oxide emissions are also dominated by cars, trucks, marine vessels and non-road engines. Natural sources such as trees and vegetation contribute to volatile organic compounds, as do cars, lights trucks and solvent evaporation from industrial, commercial and consumer products. Marine vessels are the largest contributors of sulphur oxide emissions in the region. In addition, the petroleum industry emits 26 per cent of sulphur oxide emissions in the region. Significant amounts of particulate matter come from area sources such as wind erosion in the agricultural sector. Point sources for PM include bulk shipping terminals and the wood products industry. Agriculture contributes the largest amount of ammonia in the region. refs., tabs., figs

  16. 2000 emission inventory for the Lower Fraser Valley airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This emissions inventory is a compilation of all emissions in the Lower Fraser Valley International Airshed. Its objective is to harmonize the inventory data of Canada's Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD), the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD) and Whatcom County in the United States. It provides an idea of the current state of air emissions on both sides of the Canada-United States border. This inventory provides information regarding the types of emissions sources in the region, their location and the amount of air pollution emitted within a given time frame. It is designed to help manage air quality by identifying sectors which need to be more vigilant. The common air pollutants addressed in the inventory include total particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and ammonia. The greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. The inventory distinguishes between point, area, and mobile sources. Carbon monoxide emissions are found to be dominated by cars, trucks and non-road engines. Nitrogen oxide emissions are also dominated by cars, trucks, marine vessels and non-road engines. Natural sources such as trees and vegetation contribute to volatile organic compounds, as do cars, lights trucks and solvent evaporation from industrial, commercial and consumer products. Marine vessels are the largest contributors of sulphur oxide emissions in the region. In addition, the petroleum industry emits 26 per cent of sulphur oxide emissions in the region. Significant amounts of particulate matter come from area sources such as wind erosion in the agricultural sector. Point sources for PM include bulk shipping terminals and the wood products industry. Agriculture contributes the largest amount of ammonia in the region. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Compilation and analyses of emissions inventories for NOAA`s atmospheric chemistry project. Progress report, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovitz, C.M.; Mubaraki, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    Global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for circa 1985 and 1990 and Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) for circa 1990 have been compiled by this project. Work on the inventories has been carried out under the umbrella of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program. The 1985 NO{sub x} inventory was compiled using default data sets of global emissions that were refined via the use of more detailed regional data sets; this inventory is being distributed to the scientific community at large as the GEIA Version 1A inventory. Global emissions of NO{sub x} for 1985 are estimated to be 21 Tg N y{sup -1}, with approximately 84% originating in the Northern Hemisphere. The 1990 inventories of NO{sub x} and NMVOCs were compiled using unified methodologies and data sets in collaboration with the Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Rijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene, RIVM) and the Division of Technology for Society of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, (IMW-TNO); these emissions will be used as the default estimates to be updated with more accurate regional data. The NMVOC inventory was gridded and speciated into 23 chemical categories.

  18. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  19. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory--NPI. Validation of the Danish version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korner, A.; Lauritzen, Lotte; Lolk, A.

    2008-01-01

    psychiatric nurse interviewing the same caregiver. At visits 1 and 3, a psychogeriatrician assessed the participant using the ICD-10, the Geriatric Deterioration Scale (GDS) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) as well as the NPI in a visual analogue scale (VAS) version. These scores were blindly...... NPI and NPI-VAS were high; only two domains had coefficients below 0.60: depression and agitation/aggression. NPI-total scores increase with increasing severity of dementia. The NPI did not fulfil the scalability assessed by the Mokken and Loevinger coefficients. The NPI Danish version is valid...

  20. Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

  1. The Factor Structure and Validity of the Persian Version of the Baumrind Parenting Style Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    اصغر مینائی

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the factor structure and validity of the Persian version of the Baumrind parenting style inventory were evaluated among 576 mothers of elementary school students in Tehran who had been selected through multistage cluster sampling method. This study is, due to its subject and purposes a descriptive study based on psychometric methods. The factor structure of the inventory was tested by AMOS software based on the fitting and modification indicators in the confirmatory factor analysis. The results showed that all items of the parenting style inventory except the items of 24, 8, 13, 18, assess the previously determined factors of the inventory, and that the inventory’s questions have a relatively good validity. Also, stratified alpha was used to calculate the reliability of the whole inventory, and Guttman coefficient was utilized to calculate the reliability of subscales. The outcomes indicated that the inventory and its subscales possess a relatively good reliability.

  2. African anthropogenic combustion emission inventory: specificities and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekou, K.; Liousse, C.; Eric-michel, A.; Veronique, Y.; Thierno, D.; Roblou, L.; Toure, E. N.; Julien, B.

    2015-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of gases and particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to the growth of African cities. In addition, African large savannah fires occur each year during the dry season, mainly for socio-economical purposes. In this study, we will present the most recent developments of African anthropogenic combustion emission inventories, stressing African specificities. (1)A regional fossil fuel and biofuel inventory for gases and particulates will be presented for Africa at a resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° from 1990 to 2012. For this purpose, the original database of Liousse et al. (2014) has been used after modification for emission factors and for updated regional fuel consumption including new emitter categories (waste burning, flaring) and new activity sectors (i.e. disaggregation of transport into sub-sectors including two wheel ). In terms of emission factors, new measured values will be presented and compared to litterature with a focus on aerosols. They result from measurement campaigns organized in the frame of DACCIWA European program for each kind of African specific anthropogenic sources in 2015, in Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Cotonou (Benin) and in Laboratoire d'Aérologie combustion chamber. Finally, a more detailed spatial distribution of emissions will be proposed at a country level to better take into account road distributions and population densities. (2) Large uncertainties still remain in biomass burning emission inventories estimates, especially over Africa between different datasets such as GFED and AMMABB. Sensitivity tests will be presented to investigate uncertainties in the emission inventories, applying methodologies used for AMMABB and GFED inventories respectively. Then, the relative importance of each sources (fossil fuel, biofuel and biomass burning inventories) on the budgets of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, black and organic carbon, and volatile

  3. Emissions inventory for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, V.H.P.; Renteria, J.S. [Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Col. Tiacopac San Angel (Mexico); Hernandez, C.G. [Departamento del Distrito Federal, Col. Centro (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The emissions inventory bears a broad relationship to the energy balance, reflecting the dependence of the emissions with reference to the use of energy. Actually the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in the transport sector represents collectively, the greatest comparative expense of energy and the major contributor of the ozone precursor pollutants HC, NO{sub x} and CO, relative to the total volume of emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Also, the industrial sector introduces significant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} due to its energy consumption of fuel oils and natural gas. In contrast, the great majority of suspended particulate in the MCMA emanate from degradation processes of surface soil along the periphery of the urban zone. To the federal and local authorities charged with the design of strategies for prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the emissions inventory is a strategic tool that reflects the relative intensity of the various emitters to the load capacity of the atmosphere. A comprehensive inventory was compiled for 1995, categorizing the emissions generated by four sectors: industry, services, transport and surface soils and vegetation, considering the following pollutants: TSP, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HC and CO. The combined pollutant emissions are 4,009,628 tons/year of which 3% are generated by the industry, 10% by the services sector, 75% by the transport sector, and 12% by surface soils and vegetation.

  4. Uncertainties in the Finnish greenhouse gas emission inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monni, Suvi; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2004-01-01

    Reliable uncertainty estimates are a tool for increasing the quality of national emission inventories which are essential for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The first detailed uncertainty assessment was performed for the Finnish greenhouse gas emission inventory considering the years 1990 and 2001 using Monte Carlo simulation to combine uncertainties. In this work, uncertainty estimates were based on available measurement data, domestic and international literature, expert judgement and the recommendations of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Uncertainties were estimated at a more detailed level than in studies performed in many other countries, thus giving additional information on the most important emission sources in terms of uncertainty. The emissions of the most important greenhouse gas, CO 2 , are often well known, but the other gases contain higher uncertainties. The resulting total uncertainty in the year 2001 emissions was -5 to +6% and that of trend ±5%-points. The uncertainty range indicates that Finnish emissions were 75-84 Mt CO 2 equivalents in 2001. In countries with larger emissions the effect of uncertainty is even more significant. Countries which have performed an uncertainty estimate are able to use the information on most uncertain sources in allocation of resources for inventory improvements. In climate policy, information on uncertainty can be used in negotiations on the use of Kyoto mechanisms and in negotiations of inclusion of new sources or gases in future climate conventions. Integration of uncertainty aspects in decision making ensures that climate conventions are of real benefit in terms of mitigating climate change

  5. Verification of NOx emission inventories over North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Kyung; Kim, Yong Pyo; Morino, Yu; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the top-down NOx emissions estimated from satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities over North Korea from 1996 to 2009 were analyzed. Also, a bottom-up NOx emission inventory from REAS 1.1 from 1980 to 2005 was analyzed with several statistics. REAS 1.1 was in good agreement with the top-down approach for both trend and amount. The characteristics of NOx emissions in North Korea were quite different from other developed countries including South Korea. In North Korea, emissions from industry sector was the highest followed by transportation sector in the 1980s. However, after 1990, the NOx emissions from other sector, mainly agriculture, became the 2nd highest. Also, no emission centers such as urban areas or industrial areas were distinctively observed. Finally, the monthly NOx emissions were high during the warm season. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Verification of Agricultural Methane Emission Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, R. L.; Pattey, E.; Worth, D. E.; VanderZaag, A.; Mauder, M.; Srinivasan, R.; Worthy, D.; Sweeney, C.; Metzger, S.

    2017-12-01

    It is estimated that agriculture contributes more than 40% of anthropogenic methane (CH4) emissions in North America. However, these estimates, which are either based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology or inverse modeling techniques, are poorly validated due to the challenges of separating interspersed CH4 sources within agroecosystems. A flux aircraft, instrumented with a fast-response Picarro CH4 analyzer for the eddy covariance (EC) technique and a sampling system for the relaxed eddy accumulation technique (REA), was flown at an altitude of about 150 m along several 20-km transects over an agricultural region in Eastern Canada. For all flight days, the top-down CH4 flux density measurements were compared to the footprint adjusted bottom-up estimates based on an IPCC Tier II methodology. Information on the animal population, land use type and atmospheric and surface variables were available for each transect. Top-down and bottom-up estimates of CH4 emissions were found to be poorly correlated, and wetlands were the most frequent confounding source of CH4; however, there were other sources such as waste treatment plants and biodigesters. Spatially resolved wavelet covariance estimates of CH4 emissions helped identify the contribution of wetlands to the overall CH4 flux, and the dependence of these emissions on temperature. When wetland contribution in the flux footprint was minimized, top-down and bottom-up estimates agreed to within measurement error. This research demonstrates that although existing aircraft-based technology can be used to verify regional ( 100 km2) agricultural CH4 emissions, it remains challenging due to diverse sources of CH4 present in many regions. The use of wavelet covariance to generate spatially-resolved flux estimates was found to be the best way to separate interspersed sources of CH4.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Cities : Comparison of International Inventory Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Nadine; Sugar, Lorraine; Hoornweg, Dan; Kennedy, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Credibly and consistently reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cities and urban areas enables policy-makers and practitioners to contribute to addressing the challenge of climate change by meeting mitigation targets, and is critical to overall good municipal management. Good reporting allows for transparency, verification, and replication over time. This study provides an understanding of the GHG emissions inventory protocols and methodologies as they apply to cities. Though the inve...

  8. Inventory of U.S. 2012 dioxin emissions to atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Henri; Themelis, Nickolas J

    2015-12-01

    In 2006, the U.S. EPA published an inventory of dioxin emissions for the U.S. covering the period from 1987-2000. This paper is an updated inventory of all U.S. dioxin emissions to the atmosphere in the year 2012. The sources of emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), collectively referred to in this paper as "dioxins", were separated into two classes: controlled industrial and open burning sources. Controlled source emissions decreased 95.5% from 14.0 kg TEQ in 1987 to 0.6 kg in 2012. Open burning source emissions increased from 2.3 kg TEQ in 1987 to 2.9 kg in 2012. The 2012 dioxin emissions from 53 U.S. waste-to-energy (WTE) power plants were compiled on the basis of detailed data obtained from the two major U.S. WTE companies, representing 84% of the total MSW combusted (27.4 million metric tons). The dioxin emissions of all U.S. WTE plants in 2012 were 3.4 g TEQ and represented 0.54% of the controlled industrial dioxin emissions, and 0.09% of all dioxin emissions from controlled and open burning sources. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory--NPI. Validation of the Danish version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korner, A.; Lauritzen, Lotte; Lolk, A.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia has great clinical importance. The aim of the study was validation of the Danish version of the NPI, using assessments of 72 demented and 29 non-demented of age 65+ years and their caregivers at three visits. The NPI was administered by the same...... NPI and NPI-VAS were high; only two domains had coefficients below 0.60: depression and agitation/aggression. NPI-total scores increase with increasing severity of dementia. The NPI did not fulfil the scalability assessed by the Mokken and Loevinger coefficients. The NPI Danish version is valid...... and reliable in assessing neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia but not fully scalable. The use of single item scores and not total sum score is recommended Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  10. Emission inventory: An urban public policy instrument and benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Avignon, Alexander; Azevedo Carloni, Flavia; Lebre La Rovere, Emilio; Burle Schmidt Dubeux, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Global concern with climate change has led to the development of a variety of solutions to monitor and reduce emissions on both local and global scales. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), both developed and emerging countries have assumed responsibility for developing and updating national inventories of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropic sources. This creates opportunities and incentives for cities to carry out their own local inventories and, thereby, develop air quality management plans including both essential key players and stakeholders at the local level. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of local inventories as an urban public policy instrument and how this type of local instrument may bring advantages countrywide in enhancing the global position of a country. Local inventories have been carried out in many cities of the world and the main advantage of this is that it allows an overview of emissions produced by different municipal activities, thereby, helps decision makers in the elaboration of efficient air quality management plans. In that way, measures aimed at the reduction of fossil fuel consumption to lower local atmospheric pollution levels can also, in some ways, reduce GHG emissions.

  11. Inventory of greenhouse gases emissions from gasoline and diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emissions from fossil fuel combustion are of global concern due to their negative effects on public health and environment. This paper is an inventory of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) released into the environment through consumption of fuels (gasoline and diesel) in Nigeria from 1980 to 2014. The fuel consumption data ...

  12. 40 CFR 62.08 - Emission inventories and source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... surveillance. 62.08 Section 62.08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... General Provisions § 62.08 Emission inventories and source surveillance. (a) Each subpart identifies the plan provisions for source surveillance which are disapproved, and sets forth the Administrator's...

  13. Emissions inventories and options for control SUMMARY REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart RJ; Amstel AR van; Born GJ van den; Kroeze C; MTV; LAE

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project "Social causes of the greenhouse effect ; emissions inventories and options for control", funded by the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP) and the Environment Directorate of the Ministry of Housing,

  14. Psychometric test of the Team Climate Inventory-short version investigated in Dutch quality improvement teams

    OpenAIRE

    Nieboer Anna P; Strating Mathilde MH

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Although some studies have used the Team Climate Inventory within teams working in health care settings, none of these included quality improvement teams. The aim of our study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the 14-item version of the Team Climate Inventory in healthcare quality improvement teams participating in a Dutch quality collaborative. Methods This study included quality improvement teams participating in the Care for Better improvement program for...

  15. The Factor Structure and Validity of the Persian Version of the Baumrind Parenting Style Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    اصغر مینائی; سپیده نیک زاد

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the factor structure and validity of the Persian version of the Baumrind parenting style inventory were evaluated among 576 mothers of elementary school students in Tehran who had been selected through multistage cluster sampling method. This study is, due to its subject and purposes a descriptive study based on psychometric methods. The factor structure of the inventory was tested by AMOS software based on the fitting and modification indicators in the confirmatory factor anal...

  16. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants. Inventories until year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, M.; Hjelgaard, K.

    2009-10-15

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMVOC, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO{sub 2} emission in 2007 was 10% lower than in 1990. However fluctuations in the emission level are large as a result of electricity import/export. The emission of CH{sub 4} has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in combined heating and power (CHP) plants. However the emission has decreased in recent years due to structural changes in the Danish electricity market. The N{sub 2}O emission was higher in 2007 than in 1990 but the fluctuations in the timeseries are significant. A considerable decrease of the SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably in recent years resulting in increased emission of PAH, particulate matter and CO. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased combustion of wood in residential plants and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The dioxin emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants. However in recent years the emission has increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential plants. (author)

  17. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  18. IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) Emissions Scenarios Dataset Version 1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) Emissions Scenarios Dataset Version 1.1 consists of 40 global and...

  19. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants. Inventories until year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.; Boll Illerup, J.

    2004-01-01

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO 2 , NO X , NMVOC, CH 4 , CO, CO 2 , N 2 O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. Since 1990 the fuel consumption in stationary combustion has increased by 14% - the fossil fuel consumption however only by 8%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants has decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable decrease of the SO 2 , NO X and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The greenhouse gas emission has decreased 1,3% since 1990. The emission of CH 4 , however, has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in CHP plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated. (au)

  20. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants. Inventories until year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Boll Illerup, J.

    2004-12-01

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NMVOC, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. Since 1990 the fuel consumption in stationary combustion has increased by 14% - the fossil fuel consumption however only by 8%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants has decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable decrease of the SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The greenhouse gas emission has decreased 1,3% since 1990. The emission of CH{sub 4}, however, has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in CHP plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated. (au)

  1. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants. Inventories until year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Illerup, Jytte B.

    2006-01-15

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMVOC, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. Since 1990 the fuel consumption in stationary combustion has increased by 25% - the fossil fuel consumption, however, only by 18%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants has decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable decrease of the SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The greenhouse gas emission has increased by 11% since 1990 mainly due to increasing export of electricity. The emission of CH{sub 4} has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in CHP plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated. (au)

  2. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants. Inventories until year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Malene; Illerup, Jytte B.

    2006-01-01

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO 2 , NO x , NMVOC, CH 4 , CO, CO 2 , N 2 O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. Since 1990 the fuel consumption in stationary combustion has increased by 25% - the fossil fuel consumption, however, only by 18%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants has decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable decrease of the SO 2 , NO x and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The greenhouse gas emission has increased by 11% since 1990 mainly due to increasing export of electricity. The emission of CH 4 has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in CHP plants. The emission of PAH increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential boilers and stoves. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated. (au)

  3. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  4. Standardized emissions inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jose I; Camacho, Dumar A; Huertas, Maria E

    2011-08-01

    There is still interest in a unified methodology to quantify the mass of particulate material emitted into the atmosphere by activities inherent to open-pit mining. For the case of total suspended particles (TSP), the current practice is to estimate such emissions by developing inventories based on the emission factors recommended by the USEPA for this purpose. However, there are disputes over the specific emission factors that must be used for each activity and the applicability of such factors to cases quite different to the ones under which they were obtained. There is also a need for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM(10)) emission inventories and for metrics to evaluate the emission control programs implemented by open-pit mines. To address these needs, work was carried out to establish a standardized TSP and PM(10) emission inventory methodology for open-pit mining areas. The proposed methodology was applied to seven of the eight mining companies operating in the northern part of Colombia, home to the one of the world's largest open-pit coal mining operations (∼70 Mt/year). The results obtained show that transport on unpaved roads is the mining activity that generates most of the emissions and that the total emissions may be reduced up to 72% by spraying water on the unpaved roads. Performance metrics were defined for the emission control programs implemented by mining companies. It was found that coal open-pit mines are emitting 0.726 and 0.180 kg of TSP and PM(10), respectively, per ton of coal produced. It was also found that these mines are using on average 1.148 m(2) of land per ton of coal produced per year.

  5. Narcissistic Personality Inventory: structure of the adapted Dutch version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelds, Dick P H; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the structure of a Dutch adaptation of the 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) in a community sample (n = 460) and a student sample (n = 515). Altering the response format of the NPI to a Likert-scale had no apparent effect on the responses. Confirmatory factor analyses supported neither the four-factor structure reported by Emmons (1984), nor the seven-factor structure reported by Raskin and Terry (1988). Instead, exploratory factor analyses supported either a single-factor solution (general narcissism), or a two-factor solution (Authority/Power and Self-Admiration). The validity of the NPI was supported by its relations with sex, age, personality, self-esteem, shame, guilt and social desirability.

  6. The European Dioxin Emission Inventory. Stage II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quass, U.; Fermann, M.; Broeker, G.

    2001-07-01

    For Stage II of the European Dioxin Project the following objectives were set: - Amendment of existing emission data collected for most relevant emission sources in order to reduce uncertainties of emission estimates. Collecting first emission data from countries not yet performing dioxin emission measurement programs. Extending the inventory of dioxin emissions to ambient air produced in Stage I by a complementary study on emissions to land and water. Extending the regional scope of data collection to countries in Central Europe. The report of Stage II of the European Dioxin Project is presented in 3 Volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview on the background and approach of different activities carried out and on the results obtained. These results are put into a broader view regarding the dioxin reduction measures in Europe leading to conclusions and recommendation for future work. Volume 2 of the report contains a detailed presentation of the sub-projects carried out. The chapters of Volume 2 are structured in a similar manner and start with a short summary in order to allow for a fast cross-reading. In the case of the desk-top studies an overview of the main results or statements is given. Regarding emission measurements details on the experimental set-up and the facilities being investigated are presented. Volume 3 contains a re-evaluation of the dioxin emission inventory presented for the most relevant sources types in the Stage I report. New data gathered from the projects of Stage II as well as from independent activities in the European countries are considered for a revision of the 1995 emission estimates. Additionally, based on current trends and activities the PCDD/F emissions for the years 2000 and 2005 are estimated. Finally, an attempt is made to evaluate the PCDD/F emission reduction rates which might be possible to achieve by the year 2005 compared to 1985. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of CH4 emission inventory data and emission estimates from atmospheric transport models and concentration measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.H.J.M.; Olivier, J.G.J.; Amstel, van A.R.

    1999-01-01

    CH4 emissions from two sources of emission inventory data i.e. the National Communications and the EDGAR/GEIA database, are compared with emission estimates from six global and two regional atmospheric transport models. The emission inventories were compiled using emission process parameters to

  8. Uncertainties in the Norwegian greenhouse gas emission inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flugsrud, Ketil; Hoem, Britta

    2011-11-15

    The national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory is compiled from estimates based on emission factors and activity data and from direct measurements by plants. All these data and parameters will contribute to the overall inventory uncertainty. The uncertainties and probability distributions of the inventory input parameters have been assessed based on available data and expert judgements.Finally, the level and trend uncertainties of the national GHG emission inventory have been estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. The methods used in the analysis correspond to an IPCC tier 2 method, as described in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC 2000) (IPCC 2000). Analyses have been made both excluding and including the sector LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry). The uncertainty analysis performed in 2011 is an update of the uncertainty analyses performed for the greenhouse gas inventory in 2006 and 2000. During the project we have been in contact with experts, and have collected information about uncertainty from them. Main focus has been on the source categories where changes have occured since the last uncertainty analysis was performed in 2006. This includes new methodology for several source categories (for example for solvents and road traffic) as well as revised uncertainty estimates. For the installations included in the emission trading system, new information from the annual ETS reports about uncertainty in activity data and CO2 emission factor (and N2O emission factor for nitric acid production) has been used. This has improved the quality of the uncertainty estimates for the energy and manufacturing sectors. The results show that the uncertainty level in the total calculated greenhouse gas emissions for 2009 is around 4 per cent. When including the LULUCF sector, the total uncertainty is around 17 per cent in 2009. The uncertainty estimate is lower now than previous analyses have shown. This is partly due to a considerable work made to improve

  9. The case for refining bottom-up methane emission inventories using top-down measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Iverach, Charlotte P.; Ginty, Elisa; Bashir, Safdar; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2017-04-01

    Bottom-up global methane emission estimates are important for guiding policy development and mitigation strategies. Such inventories enable rapid and consistent proportioning of emissions by industrial sectors and land use at various scales from city to country to global. There has been limited use of top-down measurements to guide refining emission inventories. Here we compare the EDGAR gridmap data version 4.2 with over 5000 km of daytime ground level mobile atmospheric methane surveys in eastern Australia. The landscapes and industries surveyed include: urban environments, dryland farming, intensive livestock farming (both beef and lamb), irrigation agriculture, open cut and underground coal mining, and coal seam gas production. Daytime mobile methane surveys over a 2-year period show that at the landscape scale there is a high level of repeatability for the mole fraction of methane measured in the ground level atmosphere. Such consistency in the mole fraction of methane indicates that these data can be used as a proxy for flux. A scatter plot of the EDGAR emission gridmap Log[ton substance / 0.1 degree x 0.1 degree / year] versus the median mole fraction of methane / 0.1 degree x 0.1 degree in the ground level atmosphere highlights that the extent of elevated methane emissions associated with coal mining in the Hunter coalfields, which covers an area of 56 km by 24 km, has been under-represented in the EDGAR input data. Our results also show that methane emissions from country towns (population < 100,000) are underestimated in the EDGAR inventory. This is possibly due to poor information on the extent of urban gas leaks. Given the uncertainties associated with the base land use and industry data for each country, we generalise the Australian observations to the global inventory with caution. The extensive comparison of top-down measurements versus the EDGAR version 4.2 methane gridmaps highlights the need for adjustments to the base resource data and/or the

  10. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources. Inventories until year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, M.

    2007-01-01

    This report explains the parts of the Danish inventories related to road transport and other mobile sources. Emission results for CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SO 2 , NO X , NMVOC, CO, particulate matter (PM), heavy metals, dioxins and PAH are shown from 1985 to 2004. In this period the fuel use and CO 2 emissions for road transport have increased by 48%. The emission decreases for PM (exhaust only), CO, NO X and NMVOC are 35, 58, 34 and 66% respectively, due to the introduction of vehicles complying with gradually stricter emission standards. A N 2 O emission increase of 301% is related to the high emissions from gasoline catalyst cars. For other mobile sources the fuel use and CO 2 emissions have decreased by 15% from 1985 to 2004. The PM, NO x and NMVOC emission declines are 46, 14 and 10%, respectively. For SO 2 the emission drop is 74% from 1985 to 2004, due to gradually lower fuel sulphur contents. For CO the 1985 and 2004 emissions are the same. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated. (au)

  11. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources. Inventories until year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M. [DMU, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)

    2007-01-15

    This report explains the parts of the Danish inventories related to road transport and other mobile sources. Emission results for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NMVOC, CO, particulate matter (PM), heavy metals, dioxins and PAH are shown from 1985 to 2004. In this period the fuel use and CO{sub 2} emissions for road transport have increased by 48%. The emission decreases for PM (exhaust only), CO, NO{sub X} and NMVOC are 35, 58, 34 and 66% respectively, due to the introduction of vehicles complying with gradually stricter emission standards. A N{sub 2}O emission increase of 301% is related to the high emissions from gasoline catalyst cars. For other mobile sources the fuel use and CO{sub 2} emissions have decreased by 15% from 1985 to 2004. The PM, NO{sub x} and NMVOC emission declines are 46, 14 and 10%, respectively. For SO{sub 2} the emission drop is 74% from 1985 to 2004, due to gradually lower fuel sulphur contents. For CO the 1985 and 2004 emissions are the same. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated. (au)

  12. Emissions inventories and options for control. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, R.J.; Van Amstel, A.R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Kroeze, C.

    1995-10-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project `Social causes of the greenhouse effect, emissions inventories and options for control`. The objectives of the project, that started in 1990, were to support the development of a comprehensive Dutch climate policy and to identify gaps in the knowledge about sources of greenhouse gases. The four phases of the project are summarized. In the first phase, a first national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions was made, capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the ozone precursors carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). In the second phase, the acquired expertise was used to support the development of Guidelines for National Emissions Inventories by the joint OECD/IPCC programme through workshop organization and participation in the international planning group. In the third phase, a detailed analysis was performed of the sources of methane, its current and future emissions and the options for control. Finally, a similar analysis was performed for nitrous oxide. In these studies, it was found that policies not specifically aiming at mitigating climate change, would help to control the emissions of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. While for methane, national emissions would even decrease because of measures in the livestock management and waste disposal sectors, for nitrous oxide the reductions in agricultural emissions would be outweighed by increases, especially in the transportation sector. The project shows that the application of more detailed information leads to differences with the Guidelines, both because of the limited number of source categories in the Guidelines and because of different, locally specific emissions factors. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs.

  13. New national emission inventory for navigation in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Morten

    This article explains the new emission inventory for navigation in Denmark, covering national sea transport, fisheries and international sea transport. For national sea transport, the new Danish inventory distinguishes between regional ferries, local ferries and other national sea transport. Detailed traffic and technical data lie behind the fleet activity-based fuel consumption and emission calculations for regional ferries. For local ferries and other national sea transport, the new inventory is partly fleet activity based; fuel consumption estimates are calculated for single years, and full fuel consumption coverage is established in a time series by means of appropriate assumptions. For fisheries and international sea transport, the new inventory remains fuel based, using fuel sales data from the Danish Energy Authority (DEA). The new Danish inventory uses specific fuel consumption (sfc) and NO x emission factors as a function of engine type and production year. These factors, which are used directly for regional ferries and, for the remaining navigation categories, are derived by means of appropriate assumptions, serve as a major inventory improvement, necessary for making proper emission trend assessments. International sea transport is the most important fuel consumption and emission source for navigation, and the contributions are large even compared with the overall Danish totals. If the contributions from international sea transport were included in the Danish all-sector totals, the extra contributions in 2005 from fuel consumption (and CO 2), NO x and SO 2 would be 5%, 34% and 167%, respectively. The 1990-2005 changes in fuel consumption as well as NO x and SO 2 emissions for national sea transport (-45, -45, -81), fisheries (-18, 6, -18) and international sea transport (-14, 1, -14) reflect changes in fleet activity/fuel consumption and emission factors. The 2006-2020 emission forecasts demonstrate a need for stricter fuel quality and NO x emission

  14. Development of a brief version of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Roche, Michael J; Wetzel, Eunike; Pincus, Aaron L; Roberts, Brent W

    2015-12-01

    With theoretical and empirical interest in narcissism growing, there is a need for brief measures of pathological narcissism that can be used more practically while assessing the construct comprehensively. Data from four samples (total N = 3,851) collected across two separate research groups and representing undergraduate, community, and clinical populations were used to establish the reliability, validity, and utility of the Brief-Pathological Narcissism Inventory (B-PNI). Item response theory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to determine the best-performing 28 items from the original PNI and ensure that the B-PNI exhibited a factor structure consistent with the original PNI. Items were retained for all seven pathological narcissism facet scales. Additional results also support the criterion validity of the B-PNI, suggesting that it can be used in place of the original PNI to assess the various facets of pathological narcissism effectively and without loss of information, which may enhance the ability of researchers to investigate pathological narcissism in future work. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. U.S. Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories: State of the Practice and Recommendations for Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This document presents highlights from five research reports on airport greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories. It presents the most salient findings for policy makers and U.S. airports seeking to better understand and inventory airport GHG emiss...

  16. Determining Original Inventory Amount of Radioactive Substances from Unmonitored Radionuclide Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.T.; Blunt, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to determine the air emissions inventory of the Savannah River Site. To satisfy regulatory requirements, a new equation has been developed to determine original inventory amounts from unmonitored radionuclide emissions

  17. A comparative analysis of two highly spatially resolved European atmospheric emission inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.; Guevara, M.; Baldasano, J.M.; Tchepel, O.; Schaap, M.; Miranda, A.I.; Borrego, C.

    2013-01-01

    A reliable emissions inventory is highly important for air quality modelling applications, especially at regional or local scales, which require high resolutions. Consequently, higher resolution emission inventories have been developed that are suitable for regional air quality modelling.This

  18. Towards a detailed on-road vehicle emissions inventory: The use of a travel demand model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Mogesh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In terms of air quality management in the urban setting, an on-road vehicle emissions inventory is important, particularly in growing economies as private vehicle ownership increases. The basis of vehicle emissions inventory is an estimate...

  19. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Richard Doin; Lamb, Kenneth Mitchel; Matejka, Leon Anthony; Nenni, Joseph A

    2002-02-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  20. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, R.D.; Lamb, K.M.; Matejka, L.A.; Nenni, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5

  1. The Short Form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory: Psychometric Equivalence of the Turkish Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksi, Füsun

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to examine the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the short form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI-SF). The study group consists of a total of 526 university students (54% were female) whose ages range from 18 to 32. In the translational equivalence study made over a two-week interval, the FFNI-SF…

  2. Psychometric test of the Team Climate Inventory-short version investigated in Dutch quality improvement teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.H. Strating (Mathilde); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract BACKGROUND: Although some studies have used the Team Climate Inventory within teams working in health care settings, none of these included quality improvement teams. The aim of our study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the 14-item version of the Team Climate

  3. Development and Application of a Chinese Version of the Short Attitudes toward Mathematics Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Student attitudes toward mathematics play an important role in the teaching and learning processes of mathematics as positive attitudes correlate with higher student achievement. This paper aims to develop and explore the validity of a Chinese version of the short attitudes toward mathematics inventory (short ATMI) for Taiwanese undergraduates,…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the French Canadian Version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Lyse; Chartrand, Elise

    2003-01-01

    Examined the psychometric properties of a French version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC; C. Spielberger and others, 1973), administered to 288 French Canadian children in intermediate grades. Findings show that the STAIC is psychometrically sound. (SLD)

  5. Methane emissions by Chinese economy. Inventory and embodiment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, G.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Concrete inventories for methane emissions and associated embodied emissions in production, consumption, and international trade are presented in this paper for the mainland Chinese economy in 2007 with most recent availability of relevant environmental resources statistics and the input-output table. The total CH 4 emission by Chinese economy 2007 estimated as 39,592.70 Gg is equivalent to three quarters of China's CO 2 emission from fuel combustion by the global thermodynamic potentials, and even by the commonly referred lower IPCC global warming potentials is equivalent to one sixth of China's CO 2 emission from fuel combustion and greater than the CO 2 emissions from fuel combustion of many economically developed countries such as UK, Canada, and Germany. Agricultural activities and coal mining are the dominant direct emission sources, and the sector of Construction holds the top embodied emissions in both production and consumption. The emission embodied in gross capital formation is more than those in other components of final demand characterized by extensive investment and limited consumption. China is a net exporter of embodied CH 4 emissions with the emission embodied in exports of 14,021.80 Gg, in magnitude up to 35.42% of the total direct emission. China's exports of textile products, industrial raw materials, and primary machinery and equipment products have a significant impact on its net embodied emissions of international trade balance. Corresponding policy measures such as agricultural carbon-reduction strategies, coalbed methane recovery, export-oriented and low value added industry adjustment, and low carbon energy polices to methane emission mitigation are addressed. (author)

  6. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources. Inventories until the year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.

    2012-08-15

    This report explains the parts of the Danish emission inventories related to road transport and other mobile sources. Emission results are shown for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NMVOC, CO, particulate matter (PM), heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. From 1990-2010 the fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions for road transport increased by 30 %, and CH{sub 4} emissions have decreased by 74 %. A N{sub 2}O emission increase of 29 % is related to the relatively high emissions from older gasoline catalyst cars. The 1985-2010 emission decrease for NO{sub X}, NMVOC, CO and particulates (exhaust only: Size is below PM{sub 2.5}) -52, -84, -81, and -65 %, respectively, due to the introduction of vehicles complying with gradually stricter emission standards. For SO{sub 2} the emission drop 99 % (due to reduced sulphur content in the diesel fuel), whereas the NH{sub 3} emissions increased by 2232 % (due to the introduction of catalyst cars). For other mobile sources the calculated emission changes for CO{sub 2} (and fuel use), CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O were -2, 5 and -1 %, from 1990 to 2010. The emissions of SO{sub 2}, particulates (all size fractions), NO{sub X}, NMVOC and CO decreased by 88, 65, 17, 28 and 2 % from 1985 to 2010. For NH{sub 3} the emissions increased by 17 % in the same time period. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends were estimated. (Author)

  7. [Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory: Argentine version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Betina; Asenzo, Adriana I; Brusotti Paglia, Gabriela; Ferreri, Eliana; Gomez, Ramiro S; Laiz, Mariela M; Luques, María L; Mangoni, Ana P; Marazzi, Carla; Matesa, María A; Peker, Guillermo; Pratto, Romina A; Quiroga, Cecilia E; Rapela, Laura; Ruiz, Vanesa R; Sanchez, Noelia; Taglioretti, Célide L; Tana, Andrés M; Zandstra, Ingrid V

    2012-01-01

    The Dizziness Handicap Inventory is a useful tool for quantifying self-perceived handicap in patients with vertigo, dizziness or unsteadiness and its impact on daily living activities. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory identifies functional, physical and emotional disorders related to balance disturbance. Our objective was to cross-culturally adapt the Peninsular Spanish version of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory for use in Argentina and validate the adapted Argentinian version. We included both healthy subjects and patients with vertigo, dizziness or unsteadiness, aged 18 to 85 years, native Spanish-speaking Argentinians. We introduced linguistic and cultural modifications to the Peninsular Spanish version to obtain the Argentinian one. This version was given twice to 108 patients, 24 to 72 h apart. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity were assessed using a visual analogue scale, the Romberg test, the tandem Romberg test and the tandem gait test. We found high internal consistency (α=0.87) and very high test-retest reliability for the total Dizziness Handicap Inventory score (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.98) and its subscales. The total Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the functional subscale were found to correlate significantly with the Romberg and tandem Romberg tests. The emotional subscale showed a significant correlation with the Romberg test and the eyes-open tandem Romberg test (PHandicap Inventory proved to be a reliable and valid tool to quantify self-perceived handicap resulting from vertigo, dizziness or unsteadiness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of discrepancies between bottom-up and regional emission inventories in Norwegian urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, Susana; Guevara, Marc; Thunis, Philippe; Cuvelier, Kees; Tarrasón, Leonor

    2017-04-01

    This study shows the capabilities of a benchmarking system to identify inconsistencies in emission inventories, and to evaluate the reason behind discrepancies as a mean to improve both bottom-up and downscaled emission inventories. Fine scale bottom-up emission inventories for seven urban areas in Norway are compared with three regional emission inventories, EC4MACS, TNO_MACC-II and TNO_MACC-III, downscaled to the same areas. The comparison shows discrepancies in nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) when evaluating both total and sectorial emissions. The three regional emission inventories underestimate NOx and PM10 traffic emissions by approximately 20-80% and 50-90%, respectively. The main reasons for the underestimation of PM10 emissions from traffic in the regional inventories are related to non-exhaust emissions due to resuspension, which are included in the bottom-up emission inventories but are missing in the official national emissions, and therefore in the downscaled regional inventories. The benchmarking indicates that the most probable reason behind the underestimation of NOx traffic emissions by the regional inventories is the activity data. The fine scale NOx traffic emissions from bottom-up inventories are based on the actual traffic volume at the road link and are much higher than the NOx emissions downscaled from national estimates based on fuel sales and based on population for the urban areas. We have identified important discrepancies in PM2.5 emissions from wood burning for residential heating among all the inventories. These discrepancies are associated with the assumptions made for the allocation of emissions. In the EC4MACs inventory, such assumptions imply high underestimation of PM2.5 emissions from the residential combustion sector in urban areas, which ranges from 40 to 90% compared with the bottom-up inventories. The study shows that in three of the seven Norwegian cities there is need for further improvement of

  9. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources. Inventories until year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.

    2008-09-15

    This report explains the parts of the Danish inventories related to road transport and other mobile sources. Emission results are shown for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NMVOC, CO, particulate matter (PM), heavy metals, dioxins and PAH. From 1990-2006 the fuel use and CO{sub 2} emissions for road transport have increased by 36 %, and CH{sub 4} emissions have decreased by 51 %. A N{sub 2}O emission increase of 29 % is related to the relatively high emissions from older gasoline catalyst cars. The 1985-2006 emission decreases for PM (exhaust only), CO, NO{sub X} and NMVOC are 30, 69, 28 and 71 % respectively, due to the introduction of vehicles complying with gradually stricter emission standards. For SO{sub 2} the emission drop is 99% (due to reduced sulphur content in the diesel fuel), whereas the NH{sub 3} emissions increase by 3065% (due to the introduction of catalyst cars). For other mobile sources the calculated emission changes for CO{sub 2} (and fuel use), CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are -10, 5 and -11%, from 1990 to 2006. The emissions of SO{sub 2}, particulates (all size fractions), NO{sub X}, NMVOC and CO have decreased by 88, 56, 14, 12 and 9% from 1985 to 2006. For NH{sub 3} the emissions have increased by 8% in the same time period. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated. (au)

  10. Danish Emission Inventory for Solvent Use in Industries and Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik

    activities and consumer products. Emissions are calculated based on detailed information on chemical use, mainly derived from Statistics Denmark and the Nordic database: Substances in Preparations in the Nordic Countries (SPIN) and from communication with industries and related institutions in Europe...... responsible for their respective national inventories. Refinements have been implemented in the 2007 calculations based on results from a joint Nordic project where data and methodological principles were shared and a coupling of the many existing source codes were suggested....

  11. Inventory of volatile organic compound emissions in Finland, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroueh, U.M.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compile an inventory of the emissions of volatile organic compounds in Finland for the year 1985. The report was prepared for the ECE Task Force on Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Stationary Sources according to the classification given by the Task Force. It considers anthropogenic as well as natural sources. Mobile sources are excluded. The quantities as well as the main components are listed, as far as possible. The values given exclude methane which according to the present understanding is regarded as unreactive

  12. Developing Shipping Emissions Assessments, Inventories and Scenarios (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Inventories of shipping have been important contributions to scientific understanding of regional pollution and transboundary transport. These inventories have also been used to evaluate global scale environmental and climate effects and trends. However, these inventories also inform policy making decisions and this role is increasingly occurring within the timescale of scientific assessment. Shipping exhibits a growth trend for uncontrolled pollutants that is highly coupled to economic activity, and historically increasing faster than many other anthropogenic sources on a global and regional scale. Shipping emissions are being regulated asymmetrically in various dimensions. Some pollutants are being controlled more than others, some regions are subject to stricter controls, and correlated changes in operations are affecting unregulated pollutant emissions. Shipping inventories require more than current assessments, including historic and future scenarios. Generally conceived as sets of business-as-usual (BAU) and high-growth scenarios, ship inventories now also need regulatory control pathways and maximum feasible reduction (MFR) scenarios. In this context, shipping inventories also present other challenges to both scientists and policymakers. Systemic bias can occur in non-shipping assessments when emissions along well-traveled shipping lanes are ignored by far offshore scientific studies, even some campaigns that control very carefully the potential influence of the shipping platforms for their measurements. Examples where shipping may contribute understood and potential biases include: a. Health impacts from transboundary pollution b. Ozone trends over the Pacific c. Sulfur emissions from biogenic sources in Northern hemisphere d. Acidification of coastal waters (potential) e. Arctic impacts on snow and ice Other challenges exist. The fuels and technology used by ships are unique from other transportation, from other stationary sources - and these are changing

  13. The Psychometrics of the European Portuguese Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Paulo A S; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Rocha, Maria José; Oliveira, João Tiago; Ferreira, Noémia; Gonçalves, Daniel Maffasioli; Rózsa, Sándor

    2017-01-01

    Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality integrates contributions from behavioral genetics, neurobiology, and psychology in the description of the human personality. The temperament and character inventory (TCI) is its assessment instrument. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the TCI has shown good psychometric properties. However, Portuguese spoken in Brazil presents marked and substantial differences to that spoken in Portugal, and no study has yet described the psychometrics of the European Portuguese version. The objective of this study was thus to describe the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese adult version of the TCI (the temperament and character inventory-revised (TCI-R)). This study involved 1400 Portuguese adult participants. The factorial structure of the European Portuguese version was tested using four methods: exploratory factor analysis, orthogonal procrustes rotation analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and exploratory structural equation modeling. The integration of data coming from these methods suggested that the Portuguese version of the TCI-R presented good structural validity (as revealed by the emergence of the temperament and character structures predicted by theory) and high levels of congruence between the American and the Portuguese versions. An improvement in the goodness of fit of the models for the Portuguese population was achieved by using exploratory structural equation modeling over confirmatory factor analysis. Although some facets registered questionable consistency, all dimensions had acceptable to good consistency (all ≥ .79). These results confirm the validity of the Portuguese TCI-R and its adequacy for use in European Portuguese samples.

  14. Diagnostic validity and reliability of a Korean version of the Parent and Adolescent General Behavior Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Joo, Yeonho; Youngstrom, Eric A; Yum, Sun Young; Findling, Robert L; Kim, Hyo-Won

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a Korean version of the Parent General Behavior Inventory-10-item Mania Scale (P-GBI-10M) and the Adolescent General Behavior Inventory (A-GBI) for bipolar and depressive disorder in youths. Ninety-two subjects with mood disorder and their parents were recruited from September 2011 to June 2013 through the Department of Psychiatry at the Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. In addition, 125 community participants were recruited through two middle schools and one high school in Seoul. The parents of subjects completed the Parent-version Mood Disorder Questionnaire (P-MDQ), P-GBI-10M and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Rating Scale (ARS). Adolescents complete the 76-item A-GBI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Adolescent version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (A-MDQ). Different profiles were evident between the clinic-referred group and the community control, including different P-GBI-10M (t=3.07, p=0.003), A-GBI Depressive (t=4.99, pInventories showed excellent internal consistency, fair-to-good construct, and discriminant validity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. GHG emissions inventory for on-road transportation in the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    ), GHG emissions inventory at urban scale: the Sassari case study, Energy Procedia, No. 59, pp. 344 - 350. [2] Bellasio R, Bianconi R, Corda G, Cucca P. (2007), Emission inventory for the road transport sector in Sardinia (Italy), Atmospheric Environment, No. 41, pp. 677-691. [3] Gkatzoflias D., Kouridis C., Ntziachristos L. & Samaras Z. (2012), COPERT 4, Computer programme to calculate emissions from road transport, User manual (version 9.0), Emisia.

  16. [Development of biogenic VOC emissions inventory with high temporal and spatial resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Zhang, Y; Xie, S; Zeng, L

    2001-11-01

    A new method was developed to estimate biogenic VOC emissions with high temporal and spatial resolution by use of Mesoscale Meteorology Modeling System Version5 (MM5). In this method, the isoprene and monoterpene standard emission factors for some types of tree in China were given and the standard VOC emission factors and seasonally average densities of leaf biomass for all types of vegetation were determined. A biogenic VOC emissions inventory in South China was established which could meet the requirement of regional air quality modeling. Total biogenic VOC emissions in a typical summer day were estimated to be 1.12 x 10(4) metric tons in an area of 729 km x 729 km of South China. The results showed the temporal and spatial distributions of biogenic VOC emission rates in this area. The results also showed that the geographical distribution of biogenic VOC emission rates depended on vegetation types and their distributions and the diurnal variation mainly depended on the solar radiation and temperature. The uncertainties of estimating biogenic VOC emissions were also discussed.

  17. [Progress in research of urban greenhouse gas emission inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cao-Cao; Liu, Chun-Lan; Tian, Gang; Wang, Hai-Hua; Li, Zheng

    2010-11-01

    Urban areas carry main responsibility for consuming massive energy sources and make great contribution to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. City and local governments are seen to have a key role in climate mitigation. Hence,one of the important work concerns accounting for city greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because it plays significant role in setting reduction targets and evaluating success of local measures. However, open system architectures like city face many challenges for greenhouse gas accounting. Based on the review in details the methodology and case study, our study focuses on the difference and interconnection between country and city GHG accounts,and uncertainty of accounts. Further, we propose the valuable experience in order to improve domestic research on city GHG emission inventory.

  18. Isoprene emission inventory for the BOREAS southern study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westberg, H.; Lamb, B.; Kempf, K.; Allwine, G.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) was designed to measure trace gas fluxes, nutrient cycling, hydrologic budgets and other ecosystem features in order to establish relationships between ecosystem processes and various global climate change scenarios. During the 1994 BOREAS field study isoprene and terpene emissions have been measured at several sites in the Southern Study Area (SSA). Ambient measurements were also made to help establish the chemical importance of these biogenic species in boreal atmosphere. The data was used to test and improve algorithms for predicting emission rates as a function of species, environmental conditions and biomass dynamics and to provide an expanded database describing the relationship of volatile organic compounds emissions to ecosystem dynamics. The study also sought to provide the foundation for improved understanding of physical exchange processes, and define hydrocarbon reactivity in the boundary layer at high latitudes. Details of the biogenic emission rate measurements made in the SSA are also discussed, including the creation of an isoprene emission inventory for the area. The study has been helpful in eliminating major sources of uncertainty associated with estimates of carbon loss due to isoprene emission on the BOREAS SSA. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Italian Version of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolo, Claudia; Di Nuovo, Santo; Fulcheri, Mario; Lis, Adriana; Mazzeschi, Claudia; Zennaro, Alessandro

    2018-02-01

    The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) has been translated into different languages (e.g., Spanish, German, and Greek) and several authors investigated psychometric properties, internal structure, and the convergent validity of translated versions of the PAI. Recently, an Italian version of the test has been published, but its psychometric properties has never been explored. The aims of the present study were: (a) to examine the hypothesized subscale structure of scales that have subscales, (b) to evaluate the internal structure of the 22 PAI full scales, and (c) to report on the convergent validity of the PAI scales with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) scales. The sample consisted of 1,538 participants recruited from all over Italy. Our findings provided support to the cross-cultural applicability of the PAI and contributed to enhance confidence in the validity and utility of the PAI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Bem Sex-Role inventory: Validation of a short version for French teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Fontayne, Paul; Sarrazin, Philippe; Famose, Jean-Pierre

    2000-01-01

    International audience; Examined the validity and reliability of a French short version of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (S. Bem, 1974, BSRI) for adolescents, and the organization of gender-related self-schemata. Four studies involving 1,204 adolescents (average ages 14.91, 15.60, and 15.38 yrs) residing in France were carried out to translate BSRI items and evaluate their clarity; assess concurrent validity, construct validity, and reliability; and analyze the psychological construct correlates...

  1. Development and validation of the Spanish version of the Team Climate Inventory: a measurement invariance test

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Antino; Francisco Gil Rodriguez; Margarita Martí Ripoll; Angel Barrasa; Stefano Borzillo

    2014-01-01

    The present study analyzed the psychometric properties and the validity of the Spanish version of the Team Climate Inventory (TCI). The TCI is a measure of climate for innovation within groups at work and is based on the four-factor theory of climate for innovation (West, 1990). Cronbach's alpha and omega indexes revealed satisfactory reliabilities and exploratory factor analysis extracted the four original factors with the fifth factor as reported in other studies. Confirmatory factorial ana...

  2. Methodology for inventorying greenhouse gas emissions from global cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Christopher; Steinberger, Julia; Gasson, Barrie; Hansen, Yvonne; Hillman, Timothy; Havranek, Miroslav; Pataki, Diane; Phdungsilp, Aumnad; Ramaswami, Anu; Mendez, Gara Villalba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and data used to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions attributable to ten cities or city-regions: Los Angeles County, Denver City and County, Greater Toronto, New York City, Greater London, Geneva Canton, Greater Prague, Barcelona, Cape Town and Bangkok. Equations for determining emissions are developed for contributions from: electricity; heating and industrial fuels; ground transportation fuels; air and marine fuels; industrial processes; and waste. Gasoline consumption is estimated using three approaches: from local fuel sales; by scaling from regional fuel sales; and from counts of vehicle kilometres travelled. A simplified version of an intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) method for estimating the GHG emissions from landfill waste is applied. Three measures of overall emissions are suggested: (i) actual emissions within the boundary of the city; (ii) single process emissions (from a life-cycle perspective) associated with the city's metabolism; and (iii) life-cycle emissions associated with the city's metabolism. The results and analysis of the study will be published in a second paper.

  3. The Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yoonmi; Jeong, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Won Kee

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) in Korean children aged from 6 to 12 years old and the suitability of and potential for clinical application of the CSBI in Korean population. Methods The participants consisted of 158 typically growing children and 122 sexually abused children. The subjects were evaluated using the Korean version of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC). Internal consistency was examined as a measure of reliability. To investigate the concurrent validity, Pearson's correlations were calculated. One-way ANCOVA was used to demonstrate discriminant validity. Results The Cronbach's α value was 0.84. The CSBI total score was moderately correlated with the CBCL subscales and mildly correlated with the sexual concern subscale of the TSCYC. The total score of the CSBI for the sexually abused children group was significantly higher than that of typically growing children group. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the Korean version of the Child Sexual Abuse Inventory (CSBI) is a reliable and valid tool. It can be applied in the clinical field for assessing the sexual behavior of Korean children aged from 6 to 12 who are suspected to have been sexually abused. PMID:24474981

  4. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Oxford Happiness Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2008-08-01

    This study examined the reliability and preliminary evidence for validity of a Farsi (Persian) version of the Oxford Happiness Inventory with 309 undergraduate students (161 women and 148 men). Participants completed the Farsi versions of four subscales of the Oxford Happiness Inventory, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Depression-Happiness Scale. Analyses indicated that the Farsi version of the Oxford Happiness Scale has reliability as a measure of well-being and provided some preliminary evidence of construct validity.

  5. U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. S.; Casey, K. D.; Wheeler, E. F.; Xin, H.; Pescatore, A. J.

    Using recently published baseline ammonia emissions data for U.S. broiler chicken housing, we present a method of estimating their contribution to an annual ammonia budget that is different from that used by USEPA. Emission rate increases in a linear relationship with flock age from near zero at the start of the flock to a maximum at the end of the flock, 28-65 days later. Market weight of chickens raised for meat varies from "broilers" weighing about 2 kg to "roasters" weighing about 3 kg. Multiple flocks of birds are grown in a single house annually, with variable downtime to prepare the house between flocks. The method takes into account weight and number of chickens marketed. Uncertainty in baseline emissions estimates is used so that inventory estimates are provided with error estimates. The method also incorporates the condition of litter that birds are raised upon and the varying market weight of birds grown. Using 2003 USDA data on broiler production numbers, broiler housing is estimated to contribute 8.8-11.7 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, in Kentucky and 240-324 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, nationally. Results suggest that a 10% uncertainty in annual emission rate is expected for the market weight categories of broilers, heavy broilers, and roasters. A 27-47% reduction in annual housing emission rate is predicted if new rather than built-up litter were used for every flock. The estimating method can be adapted to other meat bird building emissions and future ammonia emission strategies, with suitable insertion of an age-dependent emission factor or slope into a predictive model equation. The method can be readily applied and is an alternative to that used by USEPA.

  6. Emissions Inventory for the Uinta Basin of Eastern Utah, Winter 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, D.; Hall, C. F.; Mansfield, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    We report the results of an emissions inventory for the Uinta Basin, Duchesne and Uintah Counties, Utah, focusing on emissions categories that are poorly represented by existing inventories. We have also focused on wintertime emissions in general and on the winter season of 2012, in particular, in order to have an inventory that is relevant to winter ozone events in the basin. The inventory includes categories such as major and minor point sources, produced water evaporation ponds, wood stoves, mobile emissions, biogenic and agricultural emissions, land fills, etc.

  7. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    An emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gases is essential for addressing climate change. This inventory adheres to both 1) a comprehensive and detailed set of methodolog...

  8. Greenhouse gas emission inventory based on full energy chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Hirschberg, S.; Knoepfel, I.

    1996-01-01

    Methodology, characteristics, features and results obtained for greenhouse gases within the recent Swiss LCA study 'Environmental Life-Cycle Inventories of Energy Systems' are presented. The focus of the study is on existing average Full Energy Chains (FENCHs) in the electricity generation mixes in Europe and in Switzerland. The systems, including coal (hard coal and lignite), oil, natural gas, nuclear and hydro, are discussed one by one as well as part of the electricity mixes. Photovoltaic systems are covered separately since they are not included in the electricity mixes. A sensitivity analysis on methane leakage during long-range transport via pipeline is shown. Whilst within the current study emissions are not attributed to specific countries, the main sectors contributing to the total GHGs emissions calculated for the various FENCHs are specified. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  9. Towards a comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions inventory for biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gaitan, J P; Short, Michael D; Lundie, Sven; Stuetz, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Effective handling and treatment of the solids fraction from advanced wastewater treatment operations carries a substantial burden for water utilities relative to the total economic and environmental impacts from modern day wastewater treatment. While good process-level data for a range of wastewater treatment operations are becoming more readily available, there remains a dearth of high quality operational data for solids line processes in particular. This study seeks to address this data gap by presenting a suite of high quality, process-level life cycle inventory data covering a range of solids line wastewater treatment processes, extending from primary treatment through to biosolids reuse in agriculture. Within the study, the impacts of secondary treatment technology and key parameters such as sludge retention time, activated sludge age and primary-to-waste activated sludge ratio (PS:WAS) on the life cycle inventory data of solids processing trains for five model wastewater treatment plant configurations are presented. BioWin(®) models are calibrated with real operational plant data and estimated electricity consumption values were reconciled against overall plant energy consumption. The concept of "representative crop" is also introduced in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with nitrous oxide emissions and soil carbon sequestration offsets under biosolids land application scenarios. Results indicate that both the treatment plant biogas electricity offset and the soil carbon sequestration offset from land-applied biosolids, represent the main greenhouse gas mitigation opportunities. In contrast, fertiliser offsets are of relatively minor importance in terms of the overall life cycle emissions impacts. Results also show that fugitive methane emissions at the plant, as well as nitrous oxide emissions both at the plant and following agricultural application of biosolids, are significant contributors to the overall greenhouse gas balance and combined are

  10. Development and validation of a Spanish version of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory, ACSI-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupera Sanz, José Luis; Ruiz Pérez, Luis Miguel; García Coll, Virginia; Smith, Ronald E

    2011-08-01

    This study involved the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI-28) for a Spanish-speaking sport environment. The sample was made up of 1,253 Spanish athletes, 967 males and 286 females. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that the 7-factor structure found in the English version was replicated in the Spanish translation in both males and females. Likewise, the reliability coefficients were similar to those of the English version, with values exceeding .80 for the total score. Several of the subscales correlated positively with sports experience and performance level. The Spanish version of the ACSI-28 thus maintains the factor structure of the original and exhibits similar psychometric properties. Consequently, it can reliably be applied to Spanish-speaking athletes for research and evaluation purposes.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Hebrew short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a short Hebrew version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory that can be easily administered by health professionals in research, therapy, and counseling. First, the empirical links of time perspective (TP) to subjective well-being and health protective and health risk behaviors are reviewed. Then, a brief account of the instrument's previous modifications is provided. Results of confirmatory factor analysis (N = 572) verified the five-factor structure of the short version and yielded acceptable internal consistency reliability for each factor. The correlation coefficients between the five subscales of the short (20 items) and the original (56 items) instruments were all above .79, indicating the suitability of the short version for assessing the five TP factors. Support for the discriminant and concurrent validity was also achieved, largely in agreement with previous findings. Finally, limitations and future directions are addressed, and potential applications in therapy and counseling are offered. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. [Short Spanish version of Team Climate Inventory (TCI-14): development and psychometric properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada-Grau, Joan; de Diego-Vallejo, Raúl; de Llanos-Serra, Emma; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present paper was to develop a Spanish adaptation of the reduced, 14-item version of the Team Climate Inventory (TCI-14), a questionnaire developed to evaluate team climate. To this end the English version was adapted and applied to a sample of 360 employees from Castilla-León and Catalonia (44.4% men and 55.6% women). The results indicated that the TCI-14 has the same structure as the original version, and confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify the existence of the factors Vision, Participative Safety, Task Orientation and Support for Innovation. The TCI-14 also presented good reliability coefficients considering the low number of items on each scale (alphas ranged between .75 and .82). The TCI-14 is a potentially useful instrument for evaluating the climate of work teams. It could be used by future research as a screening tool in conjunction with other instruments.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF SEASONAL AND ANNUAL BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORIES FOR THE U.S. AND CANADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the development of a biogenic emissions inventory for the U.S. and Canada, to assess the role of biogenic emissions in ozone formation. Emission inventories were developed at hourly and grid (1/4 x 116 degree) level from input data at the same scales. Emissio...

  14. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Turkish Version of the Cancer Behavior Inventory-Brief Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyigun, Emine; Tastan, Sevinc; Gezginci, Elif; Korkmaz, Serap; Demiral, Selcuk; Beyzadeoglu, Murat

    2017-12-01

    Cancer Behavior Inventory-Brief Version (CBI-B) is a simple and non-burdensome tool used to evaluate the self-efficacy of the cancer patients. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the CBI-B. This methodologic study was conducted on 143 cancer patients who received radiotherapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology at a Training and Research Hospital in Turkey. Data were collected using Medical and Demographic Information Form, CBI-B, Satisfaction With Life Scale, and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and correlation coefficients were used for the analysis of data. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed four-factor structure explaining 74.7% of the total variance: 1) Maintaining Independence and Positive Attitude, 2) Participating in Medical Care, 3) Coping and Stress Management, and 4) Managing Affect. The CBI-B had acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.87) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.961) and concurrent validity with Satisfaction With Life Scale and EORTC QLQ-C30 scores. The measures of life satisfaction and quality of life were positively correlated with CBI-B, whereas the symptom levels and the functions (with the exception of the role function) were negatively correlated. The CBI-B was found to be a valid and reliable inventory for assessing the self-efficacy of Turkish cancer patients. The CBI-B, is a simple and brief measure of self-efficacy for coping with cancer, could be easily used in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Team Climate Inventory as a Measure of Primary Care Teams' Processes: Validation of the French Version

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Dragieva, Nataliya; Del Grande, Claudio; Dawson, Jeremy; Haggerty, Jeannie L.; Barnsley, Jan; Hogg, William E.; Tousignant, Pierre; West, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the short 19-item Team Climate Inventory (TCI) and explore the contributions of individual and organizational characteristics to perceived team effectiveness.

  16. Nitrous oxide emission inventory of German forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Bisping, Hubert; Brumme, Rainer; Priesack, Eckart

    2003-02-01

    Annual fluxes of N2O trace gas emissions were assessed after stratifying German forest soils into Seasonal Emission Pattern (SEP) and Background Emission Pattern (BEP). Broad-leaved forests with soil pH(KCl) ≤ 3.3 were assigned to have SEP, broad-leaved forests with soil pH(KCl) > 3.3 and all needle-leaved forests to have BEP. BEPs were estimated by a relationship between annual N2O emissions and carbon content of the O-horizon. SEPs were primarily controlled by temperature and moisture and simulated by the model Expert-N after calibration to a 9-year record of N2O measurements. Analysis with different climate and soil properties indicated that the model reacts highly sensitive to changes in soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil texture. A geographic information system (ARC/INFO) was used for a spatial resolution of 1 km × 1 km grid where land cover, dominant soil units, and hygro climate classes were combined. The mean annual N2O emission flux from German forest soils was estimated as 0.32 kg ha-1 yr-1. Broad-leaved forests with SEP had the highest emissions (2.05 kg ha-1 yr-1) followed by mixed forests (0.38 kg ha-1 yr-1), broad-leaved forests (0.37 kg ha-1 yr-1), and needle-leaved forests with BEP (0.17 kg ha-1 yr-1). The annual N2O emission from German forest soils was calculated as 3.26 Gg N2O-N yr-1. Although needle-leaved trees cover about 57% of the entire forest area in Germany, their contribution is low (0.96 Gg N2O-N yr-1). Broad-leaved forests cover about 22% of the forest area but have 55% higher emissions (1.49 Gg N2O-N yr-1) than needle-leaved. Mixed forests cover 21% of the area and contribute 0.81 Gg N2O-N yr-1. Compared to the total N2O emissions in Germany of 170 Gg N yr-1, forest soils contribute only 1.9%. However, there are some uncertainties in this emission inventory, which are intensely discussed.

  17. Dyadic Coping in an Eastern European Context: Validity and Measurement Invariance of the Romanian Version of Dyadic Coping Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Petruta P.; Hilpert, Peter; Turliuc, Maria N.; Bodenmann, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Romanian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory with data from 510 married couples. The results confirm the theoretical factorial structure of the Dyadic Coping Inventory for both partners, indicating convergent validity, discriminate validity, and measurement invariance (across genders…

  18. Preliminary study of the bilingual version of the self-actualization value subscale of the Personal Orientation Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, A K

    1994-12-01

    A bilingual version of Shostrom's Self-actualization Value subscale of the Personal Orientation Inventory was administered to 62 Malaysian students. For the 26-item paired-opposite inventory, test-retest reliability over 6 mo. was .39 (for boys .42, for girls .37) and criterion validity was .57. Replication with other groups is recommended.

  19. Towards an Integrated Assessment Model for Tropospheric Ozone-Emission Inventories, Scenarios and Emission-control Options

    OpenAIRE

    Olsthoorn, X.

    1994-01-01

    IIASA intends to extend its RAINS model for addressing the issue of transboundary ozone air pollution. This requires the development of a VOC-emissions module, VOCs being precursors in ozone formation. The module should contain a Europe-wide emission inventory, a submodule for developing emission scenarios and a database of measures for VOC-emission control, including data about control effectiveness and control costs. It is recommended to use the forthcoming CORINAIR90 inventory for construc...

  20. Air Emissions Inventory Guidance Document for Mobile Sources at Air Force Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, Robert

    2002-01-01

    .... Inventories are also used in the implementation of various environmental programs, including pollution prevention opportunities, emissions trading, risk assessments, and environmental auditing...

  1. McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI: Proposal of an abbreviate version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamarrita Farkas Klein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI assesses language development en children, through a significant caregiver report. The first inventory assesses verbal and non verbal language in infants who are from 8 to 18 months old and it is composed of 949 items distributed in 6 scales. This study proposes an abbreviate form of this instrument, and was tested on families and educators of 130 Chilean children of 11-15 months old. Analyses related to the items, reliability and validity of the instrument and factorial analyses of subscales were realized. The abbreviate version consider 241 items distributed in 4 scales. The evaluation of the psychometric properties of the instrument was acceptable, demonstrating adequate reliability and validity.

  2. Toward validating the Italian version of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory": a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Viotti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVEThe aim of this study was to develop the Italian version of the Spanish Burnout Inventory (SBI and to examine its psychometric properties within a sample of nursing staff.METHODThe study was cross-sectional and not randomized. The data were gathered using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. The sample consisted of 391 staff nurses employed in three hospitals in the Northern Region of Italy To evaluate burnout, the SBI and the Maslach Burnout Inventory were administered.RESULTSAn Exploratory Factor Analysis showed a four-factor structure close to the expected one. All Cronbach's alpha values were satisfactory. Furthermore, correlations support the concurrent validity.CONCLUSIONOverall, the results of this study provided evidence that the SBI is an adequate instrument to study burnout in the Italian nursing sample and indicated the feeling of guilt as an important dimension to gauge the structure of this phenomenon.

  3. [Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Dimensions of Discipline Inventory (DDI) in university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Orue, Izaskun; Calvete, Esther; Carrobles, José A; Muñoz-Rivas, Marina; Almendros, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Dimensions of Discipline Inventory (DDI) in university students. Discipline is a central aspect of parenting that includes the behaviors that parents use to correct children's misbehavior or to achieve their compliance. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Dimensions of Discipline Inventory (DDI), a multidimensional instrument to measure parental discipline, in a sample of 1097 Spanish university students. Results support the 9-factor structure originally proposed by the DDI authors, clustered in four second-order scales. In order to analyze the convergent validity, the relationship between the types of parental discipline and the presence of physical abuse in childhood were examined. Lastly, practical applications of the DDI were discussed and it was concluded that this instrument is a useful tool to assess the disciplinary techniques used by parents.

  4. Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire: psychometric properties of Thai language versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanglakmankhong, Kamonthip; Perrin, Nancy A; Lowe, Nancy K

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report of the psychometric properties of the Thai language versions of the Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire, and the equivalence of the Thai and English versions of these instruments. The Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire were developed to measure women's abilities to cope with labour and fear of childbirth. Consistent with Bandura's Self-Efficacy Theory, women who have greater confidence in their ability to cope with labour have reported having less fear in childbirth. However, research is needed to validate the measures and this relationship in countries other than the United States of America, where the tools were developed. Back-translation was used. Content validity was examined by experts. The psychometric properties were estimated with internal consistency reliability, construct validity, contrasted groups and criterion-related validity with 148 pregnant women at a hospital in Thailand in 2008. Both measures were shown to have high internal consistency. Contrasting group and criterion-related validity were consistent with self-efficacy theory and findings in the United States. Differences between the stages of labour across expectancies in the Childbirth Self-Efficacy inventory were found only for second stage. Support for good validity and reliability of the instruments when used with Thai women was demonstrated. It may be appropriate for Thai women to use The Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory only in relation to the second stage of labour. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Annual Danish informative inventory report to UNECE. Emission inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Nielsen, Malene.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Fauser, P.; Plejdrup, M.S.; Albrektsen, R.; Hjelgaard, K.

    2010-03-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SOX for the years 1980-2008, (2) NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2008, (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2008, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2008, (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3- cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2008 and (6) Dioxin and HCB. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (author)

  6. Annual Danish emission inventory report to UNECE. Inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Nielsen, Malene; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Fauser, P.; Tranekjaer Jensen, M.; Plejdrup, M.S.; Boll Illerup, J.

    2008-06-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2008. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub X} for the years 1980-2006, (2) NO{sub X}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2006; (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2006, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2006, and (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2006. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  7. Annual Danish emission inventory report to UNECE. Inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Nielsen, O.-K.; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Nielsen, Malene; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Fauser, P.; Tranekjaer Jensen, M.; Gundorph Bruun, H.

    2007-07-01

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2007. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub x} for the years 1980-2005, (2) NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2005; (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2005, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2005, and (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2005. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  8. Annual Danish informative inventory report to UNECE. Emission inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Nielsen, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Fauser, P.; Plejdrup, M.S.; Albrektsen, R.; Hjelgaard, K.

    2009-04-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2009. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub X} for the years 1980-2007, (2) NO{sub X}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2007, (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2007, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2007, (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2007 and (6) Dioxin and HCB. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  9. Annual Danish informative inventory report to UNECE. Emission inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Nielsen, Malene; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Fauser, P.; Plejdrup, M.S.; Albrektsen, R.; Hjelgaard, K.; Bruun, H.G.

    2011-04-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2011. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub x} for the years 1980-2009, (2) NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2009, (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2009, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2009, (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2009 and (6) Dioxin and HCB. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (Author)

  10. Annual Danish emission inventory report o UNECE. Inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Hjort Mikkensen, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Fauser, P.

    2006-12-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub x} for the years 1980-2004, (2) NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2004; (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2004, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2004, and (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2004. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  11. Annual Danish emission inventory report to UNECE. Inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Malene; Winther, Morten; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Fauser, P.; Nielsen, O.K.

    2005-12-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2005. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub x} for the years 1980-2003, (2) NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2003; (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM2.5 for the years 2000-2003, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2003, and(5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2003. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  12. Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE. Emission inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M. (and others)

    2012-05-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2012. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub X} for the years 1980-2010 (2) NO{sub X} CO NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2010 (3) Particulate matter: TSP PM{sub 10} PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2010 (L) Heavy Metals: Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se and Zn for the years 1990-2010 (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene benzo(b)fluoranthene benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1 2 3-cd)pyrene PCDD/F and HCB for the years 1990-2010. Further the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (Author)

  13. Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE. Emission inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M. [and others

    2013-03-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2013. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub X} for the years 1980-2011, (2) NO{sub X}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2011, (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2011, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2011, (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, PCDD/F and HCB for the years 1990-2011. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (Author)

  14. Characteristics of Biogenic VOCs Emission and its High-Resolution Emission Inventory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Li, Y.; Xie, S.

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), with high emission and reactivity, can have substantial impacts on the haze and photochemical pollution. It is essential to establish an accurate high-resolution BVOC emission inventory in China for air quality simulation and decision making. Firstly, a semi-static enclosure technique is developed for the field measurements of BVOC emission rates from 50 plant species in China. Using the GC-MS/FID system, 103 VOC species for each plant species are measured. Based on the field measurements in our study and the reported emission rates at home and abroad, a methodology for determining the emission categories of BVOCs is developed using statistical analysis. The isoprene and monoterpene emission rates of 192 plant species/genera in China are determined based on the above emission categories. Secondly, a new vegetation classification with 82 plant functional types (PFTs) is developed based on the most detailed and latest vegetation investigations, China's official statistical data and Vegetation Atlas of China (1:1,000,000). The leaf biomass is estimated based on provincial vegetation volume and production with biomass-apportion models. The WRF model is used to determine meteorological variables at a high spatio-temporal resolution. Using MEAGNv2.1 and the determined emission rates in our study, the high-resolution emission inventories of isoprene, 37 monoterpene species, 32 sesquiterpene species, and other VOCs (OVOCs) from 82 PFTs in China for 1981-2013 are established. The total annual BVOC emissions in 2013 are 55.88 Tg, including 33.87 Tg isoprene, 6.36 Tg monoterpene, 1.29 Tg sesquiterpene, and 14.37 Tg OVOCs. The distribution of isoprene emission fluxes is consistent with the distribution of broadleaf trees, especially tree species with high or higher emission potential. During 1981-2013, China's BVOC emissions have increased by 47.48% at an average rate of 1.80% yr-1. Emissions of isoprene have the largest enhancement

  15. Compilation and analyses of emissions inventories for the NOAA atmospheric chemistry project. Progress report, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1997-09-01

    Global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of oxides of nitrogen for circa 1985 and 1990 and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) for circa 1990 have been compiled by this project. Work on the inventories has been carried out under the umbrella of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry program. Global emissions of NOx for 1985 are estimated to be 21 Tg N/yr, with approximately 84% originating in the Northern Hemisphere. The global emissions for 1990 are 31 Tg N/yr for NOx and 173 Gg NMVOC/yr. Ongoing research activities for this project continue to address emissions of both NOx and NMVOCs. Future tasks include: evaluation of more detailed regional emissions estimates and update of the default 1990 inventories with the appropriate estimates; derivation of quantitative uncertainty estimates for the emission values; and development of emissions estimates for 1995.

  16. UW Inventory of Freight Emissions (WIFE3) heavy duty diesel vehicle web calculator methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as an overview and technical documentation for the University of Wisconsin Inventory of : Freight Emissions (WIFE3) calculator. The WIFE3 web calculator rapidly estimates future heavy duty diesel : vehicle (HDDV) roadway emission...

  17. Validation of the Malay Version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhayati Mohd Noor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth (IFSAC. Design. A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods. A total of 108 postpartum mothers attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia, were involved. Construct validity and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content validity, and face validity process. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 18 and Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences version 20. Results. The final model consists of four constructs, namely, infant care, personal care, household activities, and social and community activities, with 18 items demonstrating acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation, and best fit (Chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.678; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.923; comparative fit index = 0.936; and root mean square error of approximation = 0.080. Composite reliability and average variance extracted of the domains ranged from 0.659 to 0.921 and from 0.499 to 0.628, respectively. Conclusion. The study suggested that the four-factor model with 18 items of the Malay version of IFSAC was acceptable to be used to measure functional status after childbirth because it is valid, reliable, and simple.

  18. Influence of updating global emission inventory of black carbon on evaluation of the climate and health impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Tao, Shu; Balkanski, Yves; Ciais, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Black carbon (BC) is an air component of particular concern in terms of air quality and climate change. Black carbon emissions are often estimated based on the fuel data and emission factors. However, large variations in emission factors reported in the literature have led to a high uncertainty in previous inventories. Here, we develop a new global 0.1°×0.1° BC emission inventory for 2007 with full uncertainty analysis based on updated source and emission factor databases. Two versions of LMDz-OR-INCA models, named as INCA and INCA-zA, are run to evaluate the new emission inventory. INCA is built up based on a regular grid system with a resolution of 1.27° in latitude and 2.50° in longitude, while INCA-zA is specially zoomed to 0.51°×0.66° (latitude×longitude) in Asia. By checking against field observations, we compare our inventory with ACCMIP, which is used by IPCC in the 5th assessment report, and also evaluate the influence of model resolutions. With the newly calculated BC air concentrations and the nested model, we estimate the direct radiative forcing of BC and the premature death and mortality rate induced by BC exposure with Asia emphasized. Global BC direct radiative forcing at TOA is estimated to be 0.41 W/m2 (0.2 - 0.8 as inter-quartile range), which is 17% higher than that derived from the inventory adopted by IPCC-AR5 (0.34 W/m2). The estimated premature deaths induced by inhalation exposure to anthropogenic BC (0.36 million in 2007) and the percentage of high risk population are higher than those previously estimated. Ninety percents of the global total anthropogenic PD occur in Asia with 0.18 and 0.08 million deaths in China and India, respectively.

  19. The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) - a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Soja, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Fire INventory from NCAR version 1.0 (FINNv1) provides daily, 1 km resolution, global estimates of the trace gas and particle emissions from open burning of biomass, which includes wildfire, agricultural fires, and prescribed burning and does not include biofuel use and trash burning. Emission factors used in the calculations have been updated with recent data, particularly for the non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). The resulting global annual NMOC emission estimates are as much as a factor of 5 greater than some prior estimates. Chemical speciation profiles, necessary to allocate the total NMOC emission estimates to lumped species for use by chemical transport models, are provided for three widely used chemical mechanisms: SAPRC99, GEOS-CHEM, and MOZART-4. Using these profiles, FINNv1 also provides global estimates of key organic compounds, including formaldehyde and methanol. The uncertainty in the FINNv1 emission estimates are about a factor of two; but, the estimates agree closely with other global inventories of biomass burning emissions for CO, CO2, and other species with less variable emission factors. FINNv1 emission estimates have been developed specifically for modeling atmospheric chemistry and air quality in a consistent framework at scales from local to global. The product is unique because of the high temporal and spatial resolution, global coverage, and the number of species estimated. FINNv1 can be used for both hindcast and forecast or near-real time model applications and the results are being critically evaluated with models and observations whenever possible.

  20. The 1977 emissions inventory for southeastern Virginia. [environment model of air quality based on exhaust emission from urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, D. A.; Remsberg, E. E.; Woodbury, G. E.; Quinn, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    Regional tropospheric air pollution modeling and data compilation to simulate the time variation of species concentrations in and around an urban area is discussed. The methods used to compile an emissions inventory are outlined. Emissions factors for vehicular travel in the urban area are presented along with an analysis of the emission gases. Emission sources other than vehicular including industrial wastes, residential solid waste disposal, aircraft emissions, and emissions from the railroads are investigated.

  1. [Standardization of the German 16-item short version of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-16)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Johannes; Benecke, Cord; Hörz-Sagstetter, Susanne; Dammann, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Standardization of the German 16-item short version of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-16). The 16-item short version of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-16) is a self-report measure assessing the severity of personality dysfunction. This study provides representative norms and determines the smallest real difference value for the IPO-16. Standardization of the IPO-16 was based on a representative survey among the German general population (N = 2502). Retest reliability and the smallest real difference were assessed in a separate longitudinal online survey, whereby participants completed the IPO-16 three times at time intervals of 2 months (N = 495). The average IPO-16-mean score in the general population was 1.87. The influence of age and sex was small, albeit statistically significant.We therefore developed sex- and age-specific norms. The average retest reliability across 2 months was .85, and the smallest real difference was 0.66. The IPO-16 is a well-validated, and now standardized, screening instrument for the assessment of severity of personality dysfunction. It can be recommended for use in research and practice.

  2. Compilation and evaluation of a Paso del Norte emission inventory for use in photochemical dispersion modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haste, T.L.; Kumar, N.; Chinkin, L.R.; Roberts, P.T.; Saeger, M.; Mulligan, S.; Yarbrough, J.

    1999-07-01

    Emission inventories are routinely used for planning purposes and as input to comprehensive photochemical air quality models. Photochemical model performance and the development of an effective control strategy are predicated on the accuracy of an underlying emission inventory. The purpose of this study was to compile an ozone precursor emission inventory for the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez/Southern Dona Ana region; generate a spatially and temporally resolved, speciated emission inventory; and evaluate the accuracy and representativeness of the inventory. Existing point, area, and mobile source emissions data were obtained from local government agencies. Emissions were spatially and temporally allocated to a gridded domain using region-specific demographic and land cover information. The inventory was processed using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended Urban Airshed Model Emissions Preprocessor System 2.0 (UAM-EPS 2.0) which generates emissions files that can be directly used as input to the Urban Airshed Model. An evaluation of the emission inventory was then performed by comparing inventory non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC)/NO{sub x} and CO/NO{sub x} ratios to ambient ratios using air quality data collected during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Detailed NMHC species comparisons were also made in order to investigate the relative composition of individual hydrocarbon species in the emission inventory and in the ambient data. This initial emission inventory is expected to undergo substantial revisions during the upcoming photochemical modeling phase of the effort to better understand and improve the air quality of the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez/Southern Dona Ana region.

  3. Constructing the Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey: Confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubakita, Takashi; Shimazaki, Kazuyo

    2016-01-01

    To examine the factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey, using a sample of 2061 Japanese university students majoring in the medical and natural sciences (67.9% male, 31.8% female; Mage  = 19.6 years, standard deviation = 1.5). The back-translated scale used unreversed items to assess inefficacy. The inventory's descriptive properties and Cronbach's alphas were calculated using SPSS software. The present authors compared fit indices of the null, one factor, and default three factor models via confirmatory factor analysis with maximum-likelihood estimation using AMOS software, version 21.0. Intercorrelations between exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy were relatively higher than in prior studies. Cronbach's alphas were 0.76, 0.85, and 0.78, respectively. Although fit indices of the hypothesized three factor model did not meet the respective criteria, the model demonstrated better fit than did the null and one factor models. The present authors added four paths between error variables within items, but the modified model did not show satisfactory fit. Subsequent analysis revealed that a bi-factor model fit the data better than did the hypothesized or modified three factor models. The Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey needs minor changes to improve the fit of its three factor model, but the scale as a whole can be used to adequately assess overall academic burnout in Japanese university students. Although the scale was back-translated, two items measuring exhaustion whose expressions overlapped should be modified, and all items measuring inefficacy should be reversed in order to statistically clarify the factorial difference between the scale's three factors. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  4. Empirical validation of the English version of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Sophie; Simard, Sebastien; Harris, Cheryl; Feldstain, Andrea; Beattie, Sara; McCallum, Megan; Lefebvre, Monique; Savard, Josée; Devins, Gerald M

    2016-02-01

    Cancer patients report that help in managing fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is one of their greatest unmet needs. Research on FCR has been limited by the very few validated, multi-dimensional measures of this construct. One exception is the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory (FCRI), originally developed and empirically validated in French. The present study validated the English version of the FCRI. The FCRI was translated into English using a forward-backward translation procedure and pilot-tested with 17 English-speaking cancer patients. Cross-cultural equivalency of the French and English versions was established by administering both forms to 42 bilingual cancer patients. Last, 350 English-speaking breast, colon, prostate, or lung cancer patients were asked to complete the FCRI. A subsample (n = 135) was mailed the FCRI again one month later to evaluate test-retest reliability. The English translation of the FCRI was well accepted by participants. There was no item-bias when comparing bilingual participants' answers on both versions. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized seven-factor structure. The English version has high internal consistency (α = .96 for the total scale and .71-.94 for the subscales) and test-retest reliability (r = .88 for the total scale and 56-.87 for the subscales). The English version of the FCRI is a reliable and valid measure of FCR applicable to breast, colon, prostate, and lung cancer patients. Its multi-dimensional nature makes it an attractive research and clinical tool to further our knowledge of FCR.

  5. Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Baka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI – its factor structure, reliability, validity and standard norms. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 3 independent samples of 1804, 366 and 48 workers employed in social service and general service professions. To test the OLBI structure the exploratory factor analysis was conducted. The reliability was assessed by means of Cronbach’s α coefficient (the internal consistent and test–retest (the stability over time method, with a 6-week follow-up. The construct validity of the OLBI was tested by means of correlation analysis, using perceived stress and work engagement as the criterion variables. Results: The result of the factor analysis confirmed a 2-factor structure of the Inventory but the construction of each factor differed from that in the OLBI original version. Therefore, 2 separate factor analyses – each for the single component of job burnout (exhaustion and disengagement from work – were conducted. The analyses revealed that each of the components consisted of 2 subscales. The reliability of the OLBI was supported by 2 methods. It was also proved that job burnout and its 2 components, exhaustion and disengagement from work, were positively correlated with perceived stress and negatively correlated with work engagement and its 3 components – vigor, absorption and dedication. Conclusions: Despite certain limitations the Polish version of the OLBI shows satisfactory psychometric properties and it can be used to measure job burnout in Polish conditions. Med Pr 2016;67(1:29–41

  6. [Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Łukasz; Basińska, Beata A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) - its factor structure, reliability, validity and standard norms. The study was conducted on 3 independent samples of 1804, 366 and 48 workers employed in social service and general service professions. To test the OLBI structure the exploratory factor analysis was conducted. The reliability was assessed by means of Cronbach's α coefficient (the internal consistent) and test-retest (the stability over time) method, with a 6-week follow-up. The construct validity of the OLBI was tested by means of correlation analysis, using perceived stress and work engagement as the criterion variables. The result of the factor analysis confirmed a 2-factor structure of the Inventory but the construction of each factor differed from that in the OLBI original version. Therefore, 2 separate factor analyses - each for the single component of job burnout (exhaustion and disengagement from work) - were conducted. The analyses revealed that each of the components consisted of 2 subscales. The reliability of the OLBI was supported by 2 methods. It was also proved that job burnout and its 2 components, exhaustion and disengagement from work, were positively correlated with perceived stress and negatively correlated with work engagement and its 3 components - vigor, absorption and dedication. Despite certain limitations the Polish version of the OLBI shows satisfactory psychometric properties and it can be used to measure job burnout in Polish conditions. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Development and validation of the Chinese-language version of the eating pathology symptoms inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoqi; Forbush, Kelsie T; Lui, P Priscilla

    2015-11-01

    Eating disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent among individuals from non-Western countries, yet few non-English-language measures of eating pathology exist. The current study sought to develop and validate a Chinese version of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory(1) with cross-cultural equivalence. The Chinese version of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (CEPSI) was translated and back-translated by native Chinese speakers, and administered to a pilot sample of native Chinese speaking students (N = 45) from a Midwestern university in the United States. The measure was revised based on participant's feedback, and administrated to a large sample of native Chinese speakers recruited from a Midwestern community (N = 195; 49.2% women) to test the factor structure and convergent and discriminant validity of the measure. As hypothesized, the CEPSI had a robust eight-factor structure, and demonstrated evidence for acceptable internal consistency (median coefficient alphas were 0.80 for men and 0.79 for women, and alpha values ranged from 0.36 to 0.85 in men and 0.70 to 0.89 in women), and good convergent validity (correlations with relevant translated scales from the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test-26 ranged from 0.22 to 0.58) and discriminate validity (correlations with a translated version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale ranged from .12 to .30). Results indicate that the CEPSI has high potential value as a new self-report measure of eating pathology that can be used in future research and clinical settings to assess eating disorder-related psychopathology among Chinese speaking individuals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The IGAC activity for the development of global emissions inventories: Description and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovitz, C.M.; Graedel, T.E.

    1992-02-01

    Modeling assessments of the atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climatic conditions of the past, present and future require as input inventories of emissions of the appropriate chemical species constructed on appropriate spatial and temporal scales. The task of the Global Emissions Inventories Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) is the production of global inventories suitable for a range of research applications. Current GEIA programs are generally based on addressing emissions by species; these include CO 2 , NH 3 /N 2 O, SO 2 /NO x , CFC, volatile organic compounds and radioisotopes. In addition a separate program to inventory emissions from biomass burning is also being structured, plus an additional program to address data management issues for all the developing inventories. Program priorities are based on current knowledge and tasks needed to produce the desired inventories. This paper will discuss the different types of global inventories to be developed by the GEIA programs, their key characteristics, and areas to be addressed in the compilation of such inventories. Results of the first GEIA task, a survey of existing inventories and auxiliary data, will be presented. The survey included status assessments for the available inventory information for nineteen different atmospheric species or groups of species on global and regional scales and over time. Of this entire body of information, the only inventory regarded as satisfactory was that for the global emissions of CFCs. An implication of the results of these assessments is that properly gridded emissions inventories are badly needed to support atmospheric modeling calculations on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Initial studies in the development of global inventories of sulfur dioxide, currently the most advanced GEIA program, will be presented and discussed

  9. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    View the 2002 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This version of the inventory covers the period from 1990 to 2000.

  10. Good practice in greenhouse gas emission inventories. Agricultural emissions of methane and nitrous oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Amstel, A.; Kroeze, C.; Van Aardenne, J.; Mosier, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    Transparent reporting of internationally acceptable estimates of national greenhouse gas emissions will be essential for the success of the Kyoto Protocol. Review and quality control of annual reports of emissions is foreseen in this protocol. This is necessary, not only to check compliance, but also for the application of the flexible mechanisms, agreed in the protocol. The use of the IPCC 1996 Revised Guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories is mandatory for reporting to the Climate Convention, but at the same time countries are encouraged to use best methodology available and country specific emission factors. To improve comparability across countries the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice to the Climate Convention requested the IPCC to advise on improvements in the reporting framework by developing 'Good Practice Guidelines' preferably before the fifth Conference of the Parties to the Climate Convention at the end of 1999. Therefore in 1999 a series of IPCC expert meetings were scheduled with groups of experts for sources of greenhouse gas emissions from Agriculture, Industry, Energy, and Waste. In this paper a summary of results will be given from the meeting 'Good Practice in Inventory Preparation: Agricultural Sources of Methane and Nitrous Oxide', which was held in Wageningen, Netherlands, 24-26 February 1999

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version of the Patient Dignity Inventory in Advanced Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpa, Efi; Kostopoulou, Sotiria; Tsilika, Eleni; Galanos, Antonis; Katsaragakis, Stylianos; Mystakidou, Kyriaki

    2017-09-01

    The patient dignity inventory (PDI) is an instrument to measure dignity distressing aspects at the end of life. The aims of the present study were the translation of the PDI in Greek language as well as to measure its psychometric aspects in a palliative care unit. A back-translation method was obtained at the Greek version. One hundred twenty advanced cancer patients completed the Greek version of the PDI, the Greek hospital anxiety and depression scale, the Greek schedule of attitudes toward hastened death (SAHD-Gr), and the Greek 12-item short form health survey. Confirmatory factor analysis failed to fit to the original instrument's structure and exploratory factor analysis was conducted revealing five factors ("Psychological Distress," "Body Image and Role Identity," "Self-Esteem," "Physical Distress and Dependency," and "Social Support"). The psychometric analysis of the PDI-Gr demonstrated a good concurrent validity, and the instrument discriminated well between subgroups of patients regarding age differences. Cronbach α were between 0.71 and 0.9 showing a good internal consistency. The Greek version of the PDI showed good psychometric properties in advanced cancer patients, supported the usefulness of the instrument assessing the sense of dignity distressing aspects of the terminally ill cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Validity of the Brazilian version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q

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    Ana Luiza Camozzato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The NPI-Q (Neuropsychiatry Inventory-Questionnaire was developed to facilitate the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms. This study evaluated the internal consistency, the test-retest reliability of the Brazilian NPI-Q version and its convergent validity with the original NPI. Method The NPI-Q and the NPI were administered to 64 caregivers of dementia patients. Thirteen informants were asked to complete a second NPI-Q form. Results The internal consistency of the Brazilian NPI-Q version was 0.67 for the severity scale and 0.81 for the distress scale. The test-retest reliability of the total NPI-Q severity and the distress scales were 0.97 and 0.92, respectively (p < 0.001. There were significant correlations between the total NPI-Q severity score and the NPI (r = 0.75 and between the total NPI-Q distress score and the total NPI standard distress (r = 0.74. Conclusion The Brazilian NPI-Q version showed evidence of good psychometric properties and can be used in general clinical practice.

  13. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2012. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, Trond (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry) is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2012) for documentation on this topic.This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2011), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: Minor NOx emissions from production of rock wool, which previously not have been estimated, have been included, Some factors for estimation of N2O from agriculture have been altered

  14. Improving the City-scale Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Wang, H.; Qin, H.; Wu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the improvement of city-scale emission inventory, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants for Nanjing is first developed combining detailed source information, and then justified through quantitative analysis with observations. The best available domestic emission factors and unit-/facility-based activity level data were compiled based on a thorough field survey on major emission sources. Totally 1089 individual emission sources were identified as point sources and all the emission-related parameters including burner type, combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of pollution control devices, are carefully investigated and analyzed. Some new data such as detailed information of city fueling-gas stations, construction sites, monthly activity level, data from continuous emission monitoring systems and traffic flow information were combined to improve spatiotemporal distribution of this inventory. For SO2, NOX and CO, good spatial correlations were found between ground observation (9 state controlling air sampling sites in Nanjing) and city-scale emission inventory (R2=0.34, 0.38 and 0.74, respectively). For TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, however, poorer correlation was found due to relatively weaker accuracy in emission estimation and spatial distribution of road dust. The mixing ratios between specific pollutants including OC/EC, BC/CO and CO2/CO, are well correlated between those from ground observation and emission. Compared to MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China), there is a better spatial consistence between this city-scale emission inventory and NO2 measured by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). In particular, the city-scale emission inventory still correlated well with satellite observations (R2=0.28) while the regional emission inventory showed little correlation with satellite observations (R2=0.09) when grids containing power plants are excluded. It thus confirms the improvement of city-scale emission

  15. Development and validation of the Spanish version of the Team Climate Inventory: a measurement invariance test

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    Mirko Antino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the psychometric properties and the validity of the Spanish version of the Team Climate Inventory (TCI. The TCI is a measure of climate for innovation within groups at work and is based on the four-factor theory of climate for innovation (West, 1990. Cronbach's alpha and omega indexes revealed satisfactory reliabilities and exploratory factor analysis extracted the four original factors with the fifth factor as reported in other studies. Confirmatory factorial analysis confirmed that the five-factor solution presented the best fit to our data. Two samples (Spanish health care teams and Latin American software development teams for a total of 1099 participants were compared, showing metric measurement invariance. Evidences for validity based on team performance and team satisfaction prediction are offered.

  16. Validity Evidence for the Reduced Version of the Young Parenting Inventory (YPI

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    Felipe Valentini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To gain more insight in family processes, psychometrically tests are required. The present study aimed to adapt a reduced version of the Young Parenting Inventory (YPI to the Portuguese language and to obtain evidence of its validity. The instrument was administered to a sample of 920 persons (59% female with an average age of 21.3 years. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the existence of five factors explaining approximately 45% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis showed fit indices above.80. In comparison with other models, the five factor model showed a better fit to the data. Between the YPI and Familiograma (another test of family processes moderate correlations were observed. The results of this study suggest satisfactory evidence of the validity for the YPI in Brazil.

  17. Psychometric test of the Team Climate Inventory-short version investigated in Dutch quality improvement teams

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    Nieboer Anna P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although some studies have used the Team Climate Inventory within teams working in health care settings, none of these included quality improvement teams. The aim of our study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the 14-item version of the Team Climate Inventory in healthcare quality improvement teams participating in a Dutch quality collaborative. Methods This study included quality improvement teams participating in the Care for Better improvement program for home care, care for the handicapped and the elderly in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2008. As part of a larger evaluation study 270 written questionnaires from team members were collected at baseline and 139 questionnaires at end measurement. Confirmatory factor analyses, reliability, Pearson correlations and paired samples t-tests were conducted to investigate construct validity, reliability, predictive validity and temporal stability. Results Confirmatory factor analyses revealed the expected four-factor structure and good fit indices. For the four subscales – vision, participative safety, task orientation and support for innovation – acceptable Cronbach's alpha coefficients and high inter-item correlations were found. The four subscales all proved significant predictors of perceived team effectiveness, with participatory safety being the best predictor. As expected the four subscales were found to be stable over time; i.e. without significant changes between baseline and end measurement. Conclusion The psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the TCI-14 are satisfactory. Together these results show that the TCI-14 is a useful instrument to assess to what extent aspects of team climate influence perceived team effectiveness of quality improvement teams.

  18. Psychometric test of the Team Climate Inventory-short version investigated in Dutch quality improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strating, Mathilde M H; Nieboer, Anna P

    2009-07-24

    Although some studies have used the Team Climate Inventory within teams working in health care settings, none of these included quality improvement teams. The aim of our study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the 14-item version of the Team Climate Inventory in healthcare quality improvement teams participating in a Dutch quality collaborative. This study included quality improvement teams participating in the Care for Better improvement program for home care, care for the handicapped and the elderly in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2008. As part of a larger evaluation study 270 written questionnaires from team members were collected at baseline and 139 questionnaires at end measurement. Confirmatory factor analyses, reliability, Pearson correlations and paired samples t-tests were conducted to investigate construct validity, reliability, predictive validity and temporal stability. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed the expected four-factor structure and good fit indices. For the four subscales--vision, participative safety, task orientation and support for innovation--acceptable Cronbach's alpha coefficients and high inter-item correlations were found. The four subscales all proved significant predictors of perceived team effectiveness, with participatory safety being the best predictor. As expected the four subscales were found to be stable over time; i.e. without significant changes between baseline and end measurement. The psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the TCI-14 are satisfactory. Together these results show that the TCI-14 is a useful instrument to assess to what extent aspects of team climate influence perceived team effectiveness of quality improvement teams.

  19. Psychometric validation of the Portuguese version of the Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Inventory

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    de Andrade Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud It has been shown that different symptoms or symptom combinations of neuropathic pain (NeP may correspond to different mechanistic backgrounds and respond differently to treatment. The Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI is able to detect distinct clusters of symptoms (i.e. dimensions with a putative common mechanistic background. The present study described the psychometric validation of the Portuguese version (PV of the NPSI. Methods Patients were seen in two consecutive visits, three to four weeks apart. They were asked to: (i rate their mean pain intensity in the last 24 hours on an 11-point (0-10 numerical scale; (ii complete the PV-NPSI; (iii provide the list of pain medications and doses currently in use. VAS and Global Impression of Change (GIC were filled out in the second visit. Results PV-NPSI underwent test-retest reliability, factor analysis, analysis of sensitivity to changes between both visits. The PV-NPSI was reliable in this setting, with a good intra-class correlation for all items. The factorial analysis showed that the PV-NPSI inventory assessed different components of neuropathic pain. Five different factors were found. The PV-NPSI was adequate to evaluate patients with neuropathic pain and to detect clusters of NeP symptoms. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the PV-NPSI rendered it adequate to evaluate patients with both central and peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes and to detect clusters of NeP symptoms.

  20. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reidy, B; Dämmgen, U; Döhler, H

    2008-01-01

    a co-ordinated implementation of the Protocol, different national inventories should be comparable. A core group of emission inventory experts therefore developed a network and joint programme to achieve a detailed overview of the best inventory techniques currently available and compiled...... and harmonized the available knowledge on emission factors (EFs) for nitrogen (N)-flow emission calculation models and initiated a new generation of emission inventories. As a first step in summarizing the available knowledge, six N-flow models, used to calculate national NH3 emissions from agriculture...... the variation in the results generated awareness and consensus concerning available scientific data and the importance of specific processes not yet included in some models...

  1. Are ammonia emissions from field-applied slurry substantially over-estimated in European emission inventories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP/EEA guidebook 2009 for agricultural emission inventories reports an average ammonia (NH3 emission factor (EF by volatilisation of 55% of the applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN content for cattle slurry, and 35% losses for pig slurry, irrespective of the type of surface or slurry characteristics such as dry matter content and pH. In this review article, we compiled over 350 measurements of EFs published between 1991 and 2011. The standard slurry application technique during the early years of this period, when a large number of measurements were made, was spreading by splash plate, and as a result reference EFs given in many European inventories are predominantly based on this technique. However, slurry application practices have evolved since then, while there has also been a shift in measurement techniques and investigated plot sizes. We therefore classified the available measurements according to the flux measurement technique or measurement plot size and year of measurement. Medium size plots (usually circles between 20 to 50 m radius generally yielded the highest EFs. The most commonly used measurement setups at this scale were based on the Integrated Horizontal Flux method (IHF or the ZINST method (a simplified IHF method. Several empirical models were published in the years 1993 to 2003 predicting NH3 EFs as a function of meteorology and slurry characteristics (Menzi et al., 1998; Søgaard et al., 2002. More recent measurements show substantially lower EFs which calls for new measurement series in order to validate the various measurement approaches against each other and to derive revised inputs for inclusion into emission inventories.

  2. Progress Towards Improved MOPITT-based Biomass Burning Emission Inventories for the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeter, M. N.; Emmons, L. K.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Arellano, A. F.; Fischer, E. V.; González-Alonso, L.; Val Martin, M.; Gatti, L. V.; Miller, J. B.; Gloor, M.; Domingues, L. G.; Correia, C. S. D. C.

    2016-12-01

    The 17-year long record of carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations from the MOPITT satellite instrument is uniquely suited for studying the interannual variability of biomass burning emissions. Data assimilation methods based on Ensemble Kalman Filtering are currently being developed to infer CO emissions within the Amazon Basin from MOPITT measurements along with additional datasets. The validity of these inversions will depend on the characteristics of the MOPITT CO retrievals (e.g., retrieval biases and vertical resolution) as well as the representation of chemistry and dynamics in the chemical transport model (CAM-Chem) used in the data assimilation runs. For example, the assumed vertical distribution ("injection height") of the biomass burning emissions plays a particularly important role. We will review recent progress made on a project to improve biomass burning emission inventories for the Amazon Basin. MOPITT CO retrievals over the Amazon Basin are first characterized, focusing on the MOPITT Version 6 "multispectral" retrieval product (exploiting both thermal-infrared and near-infrared channels). Validation results based on in-situ vertical profiles measured between 2010 and 2013 are presented for four sites in the Amazon Basin. Results indicate a significant negative bias in MOPITT retrieved lower-tropospheric CO concentrations. The seasonal and geographical variability of smoke injection height over the Amazon Basin is then analyzed using a MISR plume height climatology. This work has led to the development of a new fire emission injection height parameterization that was implemented in CAM-Chem and GEOS-Chem.. Finally, we present initial data assimilation results for the Amazon Basin and evaluate the results using available field campaign measurements.

  3. Psychometric analysis of the Spanish and Catalan versions of the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory-Revised version questionnaire

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    Jansà M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Margarida Jansà,1 Mercè Vidal,1 Marga Giménez,1 Ignacio Conget,1 Mercedes Galindo,2 Daria Roca,1 Cristina Colungo,3 Enric Esmatjes,1 Manel Salamero4 1Diabetes Unit, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, 2Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Clinico, Madrid, 3Primary Care Centre, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, 4Psychology Department, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain Background: The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish and Catalan versions of the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory-Revised Version (SCI-R questionnaire to assess the degree of adherence to self-care among adults with diabetes. Methods: We validated the Spanish and Catalan translation from, and back translation to, English and cultural adaptation of the SCI-R in type 1 diabetes patients on multiple insulin doses or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and in type 2 diabetes patients on oral agents and/or insulin. Internal reliability, structural validity, and external validity (correlation with glycated hemoglobin were evaluated. Responsiveness to change was assessed in patients 1 year after onset of type 1 diabetes and following a structured education program. Results: The SCI-R presented good internal reliability Cronbach's α: 0.75, test-retest reliability (r = 0.82 and structural validity (r > 0.40. The external validity was also good; the SCI-R correlated with HbA1c in patients with type 1 diabetes on multiple insulin doses (r = -0.50 or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (r = -0.66 and in patients with type 2 diabetes on multiple insulin doses (r = -0.62. However, it was not satisfactory in patients on oral agents (r = -0.20 and/or bedtime insulin (r = -0.35. Responsiveness to change was analyzed in 54 patients (age 27.3±7.4 years, 26% men, HbA1c 6.8% ±1.1%; the SCI-R score was 72.3% ±13.7% and correlated negatively with glycated hemoglobin (r = -0.42 and 3 scales of the Diabetes Quality of Life questionnaire (lower score

  4. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2011. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, Trond

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2011b) for documentation on this topic. This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2010), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: To define the different economic sectors in the Norwegian emission model, the standard industrial classification SIC2007 has replaced the previous SIC2002 (Appendix F) A new model for calculating emissions to air (HBEFA

  5. The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN): a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Soja, A. J.

    2011-07-01

    The Fire INventory from NCAR version 1.0 (FINNv1) provides daily, 1 km resolution, global estimates of the trace gas and particle emissions from open burning of biomass, which includes wildfire, agricultural fires, and prescribed burning and does not include biofuel use and trash burning. Emission factors used in the calculations have been updated with recent data, particularly for the non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). The resulting global annual NMOC emission estimates are as much as a factor of 5 greater than some prior estimates. Chemical speciation profiles, necessary to allocate the total NMOC emission estimates to lumped species for use by chemical transport models, are provided for three widely used chemical mechanisms: SAPRC99, GEOS-CHEM, and MOZART-4. Using these profiles, FINNv1 also provides global estimates of key organic compounds, including formaldehyde and methanol. Uncertainties in the emissions estimates arise from several of the method steps. The use of fire hot spots, assumed area burned, land cover maps, biomass consumption estimates, and emission factors all introduce error into the model estimates. The uncertainty in the FINNv1 emission estimates are about a factor of two; but, the global estimates agree reasonably well with other global inventories of biomass burning emissions for CO, CO2, and other species with less variable emission factors. FINNv1 emission estimates have been developed specifically for modeling atmospheric chemistry and air quality in a consistent framework at scales from local to global. The product is unique because of the high temporal and spatial resolution, global coverage, and the number of species estimated. FINNv1 can be used for both hindcast and forecast or near-real time model applications and the results are being critically evaluated with models and observations whenever possible.

  6. The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN: a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wiedinmyer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Fire INventory from NCAR version 1.0 (FINNv1 provides daily, 1 km resolution, global estimates of the trace gas and particle emissions from open burning of biomass, which includes wildfire, agricultural fires, and prescribed burning and does not include biofuel use and trash burning. Emission factors used in the calculations have been updated with recent data, particularly for the non-methane organic compounds (NMOC. The resulting global annual NMOC emission estimates are as much as a factor of 5 greater than some prior estimates. Chemical speciation profiles, necessary to allocate the total NMOC emission estimates to lumped species for use by chemical transport models, are provided for three widely used chemical mechanisms: SAPRC99, GEOS-CHEM, and MOZART-4. Using these profiles, FINNv1 also provides global estimates of key organic compounds, including formaldehyde and methanol. Uncertainties in the emissions estimates arise from several of the method steps. The use of fire hot spots, assumed area burned, land cover maps, biomass consumption estimates, and emission factors all introduce error into the model estimates. The uncertainty in the FINNv1 emission estimates are about a factor of two; but, the global estimates agree reasonably well with other global inventories of biomass burning emissions for CO, CO2, and other species with less variable emission factors. FINNv1 emission estimates have been developed specifically for modeling atmospheric chemistry and air quality in a consistent framework at scales from local to global. The product is unique because of the high temporal and spatial resolution, global coverage, and the number of species estimated. FINNv1 can be used for both hindcast and forecast or near-real time model applications and the results are being critically evaluated with models and observations whenever possible.

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Brief Version of the Social Skills Inventory for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera Leme, Vanessa Barbosa; Valentini, Felipe; Campos, Josiane Rosa; Del Prette, Almir; Del Prette, Zilda A P

    2017-07-31

    The present study aimed to evaluate the evidence of internal structure and scores reliability of the Social Skills Inventory for adolescents - brief version (IHSA-Del-Prette). The following analyses were performed: (1) Exploratory Factor Analysis - EFA; (2) Confirmatory Factor Analysis - CFA; (3) Reliability; (4) Multigroup Analysis (invariance). The participants were 2,291 students of the Middle and High Schools, both sexes aged 12 to 17 years old divided into two sample groups: 1,172 participants in sample group 1 (collected 2006-2007) and 1,119 in sample group 2 (collected 2011-2012). The results of the EFA (group 1) support the four subscales structure (Self-control, Affective Approach, Empathy and Assertiveness) for 16 items (loadings > .30). The structure was confirmed by the CFA performed on the second group (CFI = .96, TLI = .95, RMSEA = .05, 90% CI [.04, .05], loadings > .50); and showed scalar invariance (samples 1 and 2) due to group and age, as well as partial scalar invariance due to gender (ΔCFI < .01; ΔNCI < .02). It was concluded the brief version of IHSA-Del-Prette presents psychometric properties for use in the Brazilian context.

  8. Validez Convergente de la Version Espanola Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depresion y Aduste Marital (Convergent Validity of the Preliminary Spanish Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depression and Marital Adjustment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia; de Paul, Joaquin

    1992-01-01

    "Convergent validity" of preliminary Spanish version of Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was studied. CAP uses ecological-systemic model of child maltreatment to evaluate individual, family, and social factors facilitating physical child abuse. Depression and marital adjustment were measured in three groups of mothers. Results found…

  9. Validation Study of the Korean Version of the Brief Clinical Form of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jin Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to provide a brief questionnaire form of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-Q in Korean translated from the original NPI-Q that is intended for the evaluation of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in routine clinical practice. Patients and Methods: We developed a Korean version of the NPI-Q (KNPI-Q and compared subitems with those of the Korean version of the NPI (KNPI in 63 dementia patients; 47 patients had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease with dementia, 8 with vascular dementia, and 8 with dementia with Lewy body disease. The diagnosis was based on the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke - Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for possible and probable Alzheimer's disease and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, criteria for vascular dementia and other dementing diseases. All patients received the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clinical Dementia Rating within 1 month of the KNPI-Q. Results: Test-retest reliability of the KNPI-Q using a Pearson correlation index was r = 0.89 for the total symptom scale and r = 0.90 for the distress scale. The prevalence of analogous symptom ratings differed by less than 6.7%. Convergent validity between the KNPI-Q and the NPI using a Pearson correlation index was r = 0.879 for the total symptom scale and r = 0.92 for the distress scale. Conclusions: The KNPI-Q is a reliable and brief instrument that can be employed for screening in the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia and associated caregiver distress. It may be suitable for use in general clinical practice and could be administered as a brief neuropsychiatric interview.

  10. Standardization and normative data of the Greek version of the temperament and character inventory (TCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Rozsa, Sandor; Siamouli, Melina; Moutou, Katerina; Pantoula, Eleonora; Cloninger, Claude Robert

    2015-01-01

    Robert Cloninger's psychobiological model of temperament and character is a dimensional approach to personality assessment and gave birth to the temperament and character inventory (TCI). The aim of the present report is to examine the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the TCI, and to replicate its postulated structure and provide preliminary normative data for the Greek population. The study sample included 734 subjects from the general Greek population (436 females; 59.4 % and 298 males; 40.6 %). Their mean age was 40.80 ± 11.48 years (range 25-67 years). The mean age for females was 39.43 ± 10.87 years (range 25-65 years), while the mean age for males was 42.82 ± 12.06 years (range 25-67 years). Descriptive statistics tables concerning age, gender and occupational status distribution in the sample were created. The analysis included the calculation of Cronbach's alpha, factor analysis with promax rotation and the calculation of Pearson correlation coefficients between the subscales scores. Analysis of Covariance with age as covariate and t test and Cohen's d as post hoc tests was used to search for differences in subscales scores between males and females. The overall psychometric properties of the Greek version of the TCI proved to be satisfactory, with acceptable consistencies of the subscales. The factor analysis of temperament identified four factors which together explained 58.56 % of total variance, while the factor analysis of the three-factor solution of the character explained 52.24 % of total variance. The TCI scales correlate significantly but weakly between each other and with age. The Greek version of the TCI exhibits psychometric properties similar to its original English counterpart and to other national translations and it is suitable for use in research and clinical practice.

  11. Development and validation of a lead emission inventory for the Greater Cairo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Safar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate the environmental health risks to Cairo residents invariably conclude that lead is one of the area’s major health hazards. The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP, which was implemented by a team led by Chemonics International, funded by USAID in partnership with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA, started developing a lead emission inventory for the greater Cairo (GC area in 1998. The inventory contains a list by major source of the annual lead emissions in the GC area. Uses of the inventory and associated database include developing effective regulatory and control strategies, assessing emissions trends, and conducting modeling exercises. This paper describes the development of the current lead emissions inventory (1999–2010, along with an approach to develop site specific emission factors and measurements to validate the inventory. This paper discusses the major sources of lead in the GC area, which include lead smelters, Mazout (heavy fuel oil combustion, lead manufacturing batteries factories, copper foundries, and cement factories. Included will be the trend in the lead emissions inventory with regard to the production capacity of each source category. In addition, the lead ambient measurements from 1999 through 2010 are described and compared with the results of Source Attribution Studies (SAS conducted in 1999, 2002, and 2010. Due to EEAA/CAIP efforts, a remarkable decrease in more than 90% in lead emissions was attained for 2007.

  12. Industrial emissions of trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and dichloromethane: Reactive Chlorine Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Archie; Aucott, Michael L.; Graedel, Thomas E.; Kleiman, Gary; Midgley, Pauline M.; Li, Yi-Fan

    1999-04-01

    The identified emissions of the title compounds come predominantly from their use in industrial and commercial processes. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene have also been found as byproducts of gasoline and coal combustion; these sources were also considered but shown to be insignificant compared with industrial releases. Global emissions during 1990, amounting to 0.241±0.013 Tg of trichloroethene, 0.366±0.020 Tg of tetrachloroethene, and 0.583±0.032 Tg of dichloromethane (0.195±0.010, 0.313±0.017, and 0.487±0.027 Tg as chlorine, respectively) have been assigned to individual countries and thence to a 1° latitude × 1° longitude grid based on a combination of three data sets: regional sales data that were available on a continental scale; economic activity in the form of national Gross Domestic Products; and the population distribution within each country. For those countries where they were available, data for the quantities and locations of reported emissions were also incorporated. Uncertainty in the distributed emissions is ±4% relative to countries with the largest emissions. The results, which are complementary to the marine fluxes and releases from biomass burning reported by Khalil et al [this issue] and Lobert et al [this issue], respectively, are recorded here as maps and are also available from the Global Emissions Inventory Activity web site at http://groundhog.sprl.umich.edu/geia/rcei. While the industrial regions of North America, Europe, and Japan are the largest sites of anthropogenic emissions, there are also significant sources in the developing nations of Asia; in contrast, anthropogenic emissions within the southern hemisphere are much smaller and more widely dispersed. The total emissions of dichloromethane appear to match the observed atmospheric concentrations, but about 25% of the flux of tetrachloroethene calculated from observations remains unaccounted, and significant extra emissions of trichloroethene are necessary to effect

  13. National Emissions Inventory (NEI) 2011 Point Facility Data for the US (US EPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays 2011 USEPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) point facility information for the United States. The map service was created for inclusion...

  14. NACP MCI: CO2 Emissions Inventory, Upper Midwest Region, USA., 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides a bottom-up CO2 emissions inventory for the mid-continent region of the United States for the year 2007. The study was undertaken as...

  15. NACP MCI: CO2 Emissions Inventory, Upper Midwest Region, USA., 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a bottom-up CO2 emissions inventory for the mid-continent region of the United States for the year 2007. The study was undertaken as part of...

  16. National Emissions Inventory (NEI) 2005 Point Facility Data for the US (US EPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays 2005 USEPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) point facility information for the United States. The map service was created for inclusion...

  17. National Emissions Inventory Vehicle Miles Traveled, U.S., 2014, EPA/OAR/OAQPS/AQAD

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains layers that depict gridded Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) for 2014 from the National Emission Inventory (NEI). The default 2014 National...

  18. Agitation in Dutch institutionalized patients with dementia: factor analysis of the Dutch version of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, S.U.; Jonghe, J.F. de; Verhey, F.R.J.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To establish the construct validity of the Dutch version of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI-D) in institutionalized patients with dementia. METHODS: The CMAI-D was administered to a large sample of 1,437 patients with moderate to severe dementia, receiving nursing home

  19. A Comparison of the Psychometric Properties of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Full-Length and Short-Form Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Rebecca M.; Sellbom, Martin; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2012-01-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) has shown promising construct validity as a measure of psychopathy. Because of its relative efficiency, a short-form version of the PPI (PPI-SF) was developed and has proven useful in many psychopathy studies. The validity of the PPI-SF, however, has not been thoroughly examined, and no studies have…

  20. The Milwaukee Inventory for Styles of Trichotillomania-Child Version (MIST-C): Initial Development and Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Franklin, Martin E.; Keuthen, Nancy J.; Piacentini, John; Cashin, Susan E.; Moore, Phoebe S.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Milwaukee Inventory for Styles of Trichotillomania-Child Version (MIST-C), a self-report scale designed to assess styles of hair pulling in children and adolescents diagnosed with trichotillomania (TTM). Using Internet sampling procedures, the authors recruited 164…

  1. First Steps in the Development of the Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio: The Spanish Version of the Study Behavior Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Leonard B.; Vinay, Diana Maria Alejandra

    2004-01-01

    The Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio (ICE), a Spanish version of the Study Behavior Inventory (SBI), was developed and tested using 594 undergraduate students at la Universidad de las Americas, in the state of Puebla, Mexico. A team of bilingual specialists was assembled to produce a translation that might be generic enough to be understood…

  2. On the Use of Two Versions of the Force Concept Inventory to Test Conceptual Understanding of Mechanics in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangrath, Phimpho; Pettersson, Sune; Benckert, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated why Laotian students had a low score, when they were tested by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). About 400 first year university students answered the FCI or a Lao version of the FCI (LFCI) with the contexts of some questions changed. The students answered a questionnaire and 34 of the students were interviewed. The…

  3. The Reliability and Validity of the Chinese Version of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI-C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) is widely used in assessing students' learning and study strategies at both university and high school levels. The present study developed a Chinese version of LASSI (LASSI-C) and then further investigated the reliability, factor structure, and validity of LASSI-C scores, using a sample of 612…

  4. Applying a Danish version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory and testing it for different types of education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; Stegeager, Nikolaj W.M.; Bates, Reid

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to answer two research questions. First, will an exploratory factor analysis of a Danish version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) result in a factor structure which is consistent with the original American LTSI factor structure? Second, does the mean...

  5. The psychometrical properties of translated versions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Marais

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The investigation of the psychometric properties of translated versions of a burnout measure. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of translated versions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey (MBI-GS and the Cognitive Weariness Scale. Motivation for the study: To adhere to Section 8 of the Employment Equity Act, Act No. 55 of 1998 (p. 7, which stipulates that ‘Psychological testing and other similar assessments are prohibited unless the test or assessment being used (a has been scientifi cally shown to be valid and reliable, (b can be applied fairly to all employees, and (c is not biased against any employee or group.’ Research design, approach and method: The current study follows the quantitative research tradition. This study was conducted with a convenience sample of members of the South African Police Service (SAPS; N = 685. The questionnaires were translated into Afrikaans and Setswana and were administered together with the original English version. Main findings: The results indicated that a four-factor model, consisting of Exhaustion, Cynicism, Professional Effi cacy, and Cognitive Weariness or Burnout, fi tted the data best. The scales did not show measurement invariance for Afrikaans, Setswana and English samples. The reliabilities of the Exhaustion and Professional Effi cacy subscales were acceptable in the three samples. Practical/managerial implications: The implication of the results of the study under review is that the adapted MBI-GS scores obtained by the English, Afrikaans and Setswana home language speaking participants were not comparable in terms of the different translations of the instrument. Therefore, separate norms have to be developed to assess the extent of burnout experienced by the English, Afrikaans and Setswana home language speaking members of the SAPS who participated in the study. As the translated versions of the adapted MBI

  6. Review, improvement and harmonisation of the Nordic particulate matter air emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Boll Illerup, J. (Aarhus Univ. National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) (Denmark)); Kindbom, K.; Sjodin, AA. (Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) (Sweden)); Saarinen, K.; Mikkola-Pusa, J. (Finlands Miljoecentral (SYKE) (Finland)); Aasestad, K. (Statistisk Sentralbyraa (SSB) (Norway)); Hallsdottir, B. (Environmental and Food Agency Iceland (IS)); Makela, K. (Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland))

    2010-12-15

    In this study the Nordic particulate matter (PM) emission inventories are compared and for the most important sources - residential wood burning and road transport - a quality analysis is carried out based on PM measurements conducted and models used in the Nordic countries. All the institutions in charge of the work on emission inventories in the Nordic countries have participated in this project together with researchers performing PM measurements in the residential and transport sectors in the Nordic countries in order to increase the quality of the PM national inventories. The ratio between the reported emissions of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} was calculated for each country. Norway has the largest share of PM{sub 2.5} compared to PM{sub 10} (88 %), whereas Finland has the lowest (66 %). Denmark and Sweden are right in the middle with 73 and 76 %, respectively. The completeness of the inventories was assessed with particular emphasis on the categories where emissions were reported by one or more countries, while the other categories reported notation keys. It is found that the PM emission inventories generally are complete and that the sources reported as not estimated only are expected to have minor contributions to the total PM emissions. The variability of emission factors for residential wood combustion is discussed and it is illustrated that the emission factors can vary by several orders of magnitude. (Author)

  7. Final method evaluation: development of spatially resolved emission inventories for Milan and Athens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiwarter, W.; Vlachogiannis, D.; Gounaris, N.; Bartzis, J.; Ekstrand, S.; Tamponi, M.; Licotti, C.; Maffeis, G.; Dore, C.; Hayman, G.

    2001-10-01

    Emission inventories have been prepared for the Milan province, Italy, and for the greater Athens area, Greece using the methodology developed and refined in earlier work packages of the EC-funded IMPRESAREO project. Emission totals have been spatially-disaggregated onto a 1x1 km 2 grid CORINE land-cover data derived from earth observation (EO) was used as the main input for distributing the emission totals (taken as the totals of the bottom-up inventory). As in the earlier applications of the IMPRESAREO methodology, additional non-EO information was included to improve the spatial disaggregation - this was specifically census data, the road network and traffic counts, and centrally available data on point source emissions. Emission inventories for Milan were generated for three compounds (NO x , NMVOC and CO), while emission inventories of SO 2 and CO 2 were prepared for Athens in addition to these three pollutants. Distributing emissions to the respective land use type was based on the use of 'emission weighting factors' which had been derived in previous work packages of the IMPRESAREO project. The resulting top-down inventories were compared to the existing bottom up inventories using a number of quantitative and qualitative methods, which had been developed during previous stages of the project, or newly developed here. The results prove that the IMPRESAREO methodology provides useful emission inventories. The needs of a user can be taken to steer the effort (and the costs) which have to be put into the inventory. Tables are provided that describe the return in number of 'acceptable' grid cells depending on the detail level of the inventory. Also, the high importance of the traffic grid to a map representation of the inventory is shown, and the influence single point sources may have on the overall emission total, even of an urban region, is indicated. For environmental assessment purposes, this emphasises the need for a proper assessment of these point source

  8. Validation of the Japanese version of the Central Sensitization Inventory in patients with musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsuyoshi; Nishigami, Tomohiko; Mibu, Akira; Manfuku, Masahiro; Yono, Satoko; Shinohara, Yoshikazu; Tanabe, Akihito; Ono, Rei

    2017-01-01

    Many musculoskeletal pain conditions are characterized by hypersensitivity, which is induced by central sensitization (CS). A questionnaire, the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI), was recently developed to help clinicians identify patients whose presenting symptoms may be related to central sensitivity syndrome (CSS). The aims of the present study were to examine criterion validity and construct validity of the Japanese version of the CSI (CSI-J), and to investigate prevalence rates of CS severity levels in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Translation of the CSI into Japanese was conducted using a forward-backward method. Two hundred and ninety patients with musculoskeletal pain disorders completed the resultant CSI-J. A subset of the patients (n = 158) completed the CSI-J again one week later. The relationships between CSI and clinical symptoms, EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D) and Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), were examined for criterion validity. EQ-5D assesses Health-related QOL and BPI measures pain intensity and pain interference. The psychometric properties were evaluated with analyses of construct validity, factor structure and internal consistency, and subsequently investigate the prevalence rates of CS severity levels. The CSI-J demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.89) and test-retest reliability was excellent value (ICC = 0.85). The CSI-J was significantly correlated with EQ-5D (r = -0.44), pain intensity (r = 0.42), and pain interference (r = 0.48) (p < 0.01 for all). Ten percent of the participants were above the cutoff "40". The exploratory factor analysis resulted in 5-factor model. This study reported that the CSI-J was a useful and psychometrically sound tool to assess CSS in Japanese patients with musculoskeletal disorders. The finding of the prevalence rates of CS severity levels in patients with musculoskeletal disorders may help clinicians to decide strategy of treatment.

  9. Comparing emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouliot, G.; Pierce, T.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.; Moran, M.; Nopmongcol, U.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the two domains. We

  10. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten

    have increased by 36 %, and CH4 emissions have decreased by 51 %. A N2O emission increase of 29 % is related to the relatively high emissions from older gasoline catalyst cars. The 1985-2006 emission decreases for PM (exhaust only), CO, NOX and NMVOC are 30, 69, 28 and 71 % respectively, due...

  11. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Morten

    for road transport increased by 30 %, and CH4 emissions have decreased by 74 %. A N2O emission increase of 29 % is related to the relatively high emissions from older gasoline catalyst cars. The 1985-2010 emission decrease for NOX, NMVOC, CO and particulates (exhaust only: Size is below PM2.5) -52, -84...

  12. [Psychometric properties of the French version of the prenatal attachment inventory in 112 pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, M A; Levy-Rueff, M; Goffinet, F; Golse, B; Beauquier-Macotta, B

    2010-06-01

    Maternal-foetal attachment is the term used to describe the relationship between a pregnant woman and her foetus. This concept, created in 1981 and based on maternal cognitive representations of the foetus, describes the degree to which a woman engages in attachment behaviours toward her unborn baby. Three scales have been developed to quantify maternofoetal attachment and only a few studies have been published (72 since 1981). None of theses three scales is available in French language. The aim of the study is to provide psychometric data concerning the Prenatal Attachment Inventory when administered to healthy pregnant women. This scale was developed and revised by Müller in 1993 and consists of 21 items. The items describe the mother's troughs, feelings and relationship to the foetus. Each item has four Likert-type options: 4=almost always, 3=often, 2=sometimes, and 1=almost never. Examples of the PAI items are "I feel love for the baby", "I dream about the baby" and "I enjoy feeling the baby move". Furthermore, this present study explores the prenatal attachment for the first time in a French population. The current study was based on 112 mothers and their babies. Pregnant women were recruited during the 34(th) and 38(th) weeks of gestation from the Port-Royal Maternity Hospital in Paris. Social and medical data were assessed by an auto-questionnaire. Prenatal attachment was measured by the Prenatal Attachment Inventory. The translation of the scale into French followed established guidelines, including appropriate use of independent back translation. The reliability of the instrument was tested using the Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency. This proved to be satisfactory for the PAI total score, i.e. 0.86. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that the data fitted well to the one factor model of the PAI. The results of this validation show that the French version of the PAI has psychometric characteristics similar to the original

  13. Measuring comprehensive outcomes in palliative care: validation of the Korean version of the Good Death Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Wook; Choi, JiEun; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Choi, Jin Young; Kang, Jina; Baik, Young Ji; Mo, Ha Na; Choi, Jong Soon; Son, Young Sun; Lee, Hae Sook

    2011-10-01

    No systematic or comprehensive attempts have yet been made to assess quality of death as an indicator of palliative care outcomes in Korea, and no validated instruments exist for the assessment of a good death in Koreans. This study examined the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Good Death Inventory (GDI), which was developed in Japan to evaluate the quality of death from the perspective of bereaved family members. Forward and backward translations and a pilot test were conducted. In a multicenter cross-sectional survey, a questionnaire packet, including the GDI, overall quality of life during the last week, and overall satisfaction with care, was mailed to bereaved family members (n=501) of patients who had died from cancer two to six months before the study. Descriptive analyses were performed, including response rate, mean, median, skewness, and kurtosis for each item. The reliability of the GDI was tested by Cronbach's alpha. The dimensional structure was assessed using confirmatory factor analyses. Concurrent validity was tested by correlation with the overall quality of life and overall satisfaction with care. Participants were able to complete the GDI, and the compliance rates were satisfactory. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency was 0.93 overall and ranged from 0.69 to 0.94 for subdomains. The hypothesized 18-factor model of a good death appeared to fit the data (goodness of fit index [GFI]=0.964; adjusted GFI index=0.960; normal fit index=0.952). The overall scores on the GDI correlated with patients' quality of life (0.56; P<0.001) and overall satisfaction with care (0.44; P<0.001). The Korean version of the GDI is a reliable and valid measure of the comprehensive outcomes of palliative care from the perspective of bereaved Korean family members. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Translation and validation of a Spanish version of the xerostomia inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Carlos; Fariña, María P; Pérez, Cristhian; Fernández, Marcos; Forman, Katherine; Carrasco, Mauricio

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish cross-cultural adaptation of the xerostomia inventory (XI). The original English version of XI was translated into Spanish, cross-culturally adapted and field tested. The Spanish version of XI (XI-Sp) was tested with a sample of 41 patients with xerostomia. The reliability of the XI-Sp was determined through internal consistency and test-retest methods. The construct validity of XI-Sp was determined by means of correlation between XI-Sp scores and salivary flow measurements. Overall XI-Sp scores were 40.8 (SD = 10) for the first application and 40.2 (SD = 9.5) for the second. Cronbach's alpha value for the XI-Sp was 0.89 and 0.87, respectively, while interitem correlation averages were r = 0.44 and r = 0.39 for each application. Interitem correlation and corrected total was r c ≥0.30. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient value for the XI-Sp score was 0.59 and 0.91. Convergent validity for construct validity correlation with salivary flow showed a medium effect size (r 2  = 0.10) for the first application but did not make a statistically significant prediction for the second (r 2  = 0.7). This study provides evidence concerning the reliability of the XI-Sp, showing that it may be a useful tool for Spanish-speaking xerostomia patients for both clinical and epidemiologic research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the French Version of the Savoring Beliefs Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Golay

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Savoring Beliefs Inventory (SBI is a measure designed to assess attitudes toward savoring positive experience within three temporal orientations: the past (reminiscence, the present moment (present enjoyment, and the future (anticipation. The aim of this study was to validate the structure of the SBI—French version. The scale was tested with 335 French-speaking participants. Two models were estimated: a one-factor model representing a general construct of savoring and a three-factor model differentiating between anticipation, present enjoyment, and reminiscence. Several indicators of model fit were used: the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA, the comparison fit index (CFI, the Tucker–Lewis fit index (TLI, and the standardized root mean residual (SRMR. A chi-square difference test was used to compare the two models. The model fit of the three-factor model assessed by the SRMR showed to be excellent, while it could be considered as satisfactory according to the CFI and TLI coefficients. RMSEA, however, was slightly less adequate. The model fit for the one-factor model seemed less adequate than the three-factor solution. Further, the chi-square difference test revealed that the three-factor model had significantly better fit than the one-factor model. Finally, the reliability of the four scores (anticipating pleasure, present moment pleasure, reminiscing pleasure, and total score was very good. These results show that the French version of the SBI is a valid and valuable scale to measure attitudes regarding the ability to savor positive experience, whether it be in anticipation, reminiscence, or the present moment.

  16. Psychometric Properties of The Persian Version of The Prenatal Attachment Inventory in Pregnant Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omani Samani Reza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In 1993, Muller developed the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI which has been used widely in many studies and translated into several languages. The current study aimed to translate the PAI into Persian, assess the underlying structure of the PAI, and the appropriateness of the one-factor solution proposed by Muller. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we recruited a total of 322 primi- gravidae in their 27th to 34th gestational weeks that referred to private and governmental prenatal clinics in Tehran, Iran. All participants completed the Persian versions of the PAI and a demographic questionnaire. Participants were re-tested 2 weeks after the initial test- ing. The following psychometric properties of the PAI were investigated: construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, internal consistency reliability with Cronbach’s alpha, and test-retest reliability according to the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results The CFA results indicated that a single-factor model provided good fit to the data, which confirmed the original model by its developer. The Cronbach’s alpha coef- ficient for PAI was 0.856 and the test-retest reliability with ICC was 0.784. Consider- ing the duration between marriage and pregnancy, women with low duration scored significantly higher than women with high duration on PAI (P=0.043. Conclusion The Persian version of the PAI showed that one factor structure was ad- equate and could be used for measuring psychological affectionate attachment between Iranian mothers and their fetuses.

  17. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Validation of the Serbian Version of the Central Sensitization Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Aleksandar; Neblett, Randy; Jeremic-Knezevic, Milica; Tomasevic-Todorovic, Snezana; Boskovic, Ksenija; Colovic, Petar; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio

    2017-08-04

    It has been increasingly recognized that many chronic pain conditions are associated with central sensitization (CS). The Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI) is a potentially useful tool for screening patients whose presenting symptoms are suspected of being related to CS, so that additional diagnostic evaluation can be performed and appropriate treatment can be initiated. The original English version is currently not available in Serbian. The CSI was translated into Serbian (CSI-Serb) and then psychometrically evaluated in a sample of 363 chronic pain subjects. The CSI-Serb showed a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.909), excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient type 2.1 = 0.947), and a significant goodness of fit test result (χ 2  = 888.44; P < 0.001). A factor analysis confirmed a 4-factor solution, as found by the original authors of the CSI, with all items retained. Higher CSI-Serb scores were associated with higher pain severity and longer pain duration. Total CSI scores distinguished between 3 subject groups with presumably different levels of CS, including fibromyalgia (53.3, SD = 11.2), chronic regional pain only (29.7, SD = 11.6), and a pain-free control group (20.9, SD = 9.1). The results of the present study indicate strong psychometric properties, including evidence of convergent and discriminant validity, of the CSI-Serb. These results correspond with those of other translated versions of the CSI that have been psychometrically evaluated and published. Due to the current interest in CS, and its relationship with many chronic pain conditions, it is anticipated that the CSI-Serb will benefit Serbian-speaking clinicians in the evaluation of patients with chronic pain conditions. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  18. The Development of the Planet Formation Concept Inventory: A Preliminary Analysis of Version 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Molly; Impey, Chris David; Buxner, Sanlyn

    2018-01-01

    The topic of planet formation is poorly represented in the educational literature, especially at the college level. As recently as 2014, when developing the Test of Astronomy Standards (TOAST), Slater (2014) noted that for two topics (formation of the Solar System and cosmology), “high quality test items that reflect our current understanding of students’ conceptions were not available [in the literature]” (Slater,2014, p. 8). Furthermore, nearly half of ASTR 101 enrollments are at 2 year/community colleges where both instructors and students have little access to current research and models of planet formation. In response, we administered six student replied response (SSR) short answer questions on the topic of planet formation to n = 1,050 students enrolled in introductory astronomy and planetary science courses at The University of Arizona in the Fall 2016 and Spring 2017 semesters. After analyzing and coding the data from the SSR questions, we developed a preliminary version of the Planet Formation Concept Inventory (PFCI). The PFCI is a multiple-choice instrument with 20 planet formation-related questions, and 4 demographic-related questions. We administered version 1 of the PFCI to six introductory astronomy and planetary science courses (n ~ 700 students) during the Fall 2017 semester. We provided students with 7-8 multiple-choice with explanation of reasoning (MCER) questions from the PFCI. Students selected an answer (similar to a traditional multiple-choice test), and then briefly explained why they chose the answer they did. We also conducted interviews with ~15 students to receive feedback on the quality of the questions and clarity of the instrument. We will present an analysis of the MCER responses and student interviews, and discuss any modifications that will be made to the instrument as a result.

  19. Emission Inventory for PFOS in China: Review of Past Methodologies and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Chao Lim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemical that has the potential for long-range transport in the environment. Its use in a wide variety of consumer products and industrial processes makes a detailed characterization of its emissions sources very challenging. These varied emissions sources all contribute to PFOS' existence within nearly all environmental media. Currently, China is the only country documented to still be producing PFOS, though there is no China PFOS emission inventory available. This study reviews the inventory methodologies for PFOS in other countries to suggest a China-specific methodology framework for a PFOS emission inventory. The suggested framework combines unknowns for PFOS-containing product penetration into the Chinese market with product lifecycle assumptions, centralizing these diverse sources into municipal sewage treatment plants. Releases from industrial sources can be quantified separately using another set of emission factors. Industrial sources likely to be relevant to the Chinese environment are identified.

  20. Modelling of pesticide emissions for Life Cycle Inventory analysis: Model development, applications and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes

    The work presented in this thesis deals with quantification of pesticide emissions in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) analysis phase of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The motivation to model pesticide emissions is that reliable LCA results not only depend on accurate impact assessment models, but also...... good emission inventories. Recent LCA studies of agricultural products that take toxicity impacts into account show that pesticide emissions considerably contribute to toxicity impacts. At the same time, such conclusions are derived using a simplified approach to quantify pesticide emissions...... and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts obtained with two inventory approaches were compared. The first approach was PestLCI 2.0, the second is the currently prevalent approach (the Ecoinvent approach), which assumes that 100% of the applied mass is emitted to agricultural soil. For both impact categories...

  1. A comparative analysis of two highly spatially resolved European atmospheric emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J.; Guevara, M.; Baldasano, J. M.; Tchepel, O.; Schaap, M.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.

    2013-08-01

    A reliable emissions inventory is highly important for air quality modelling applications, especially at regional or local scales, which require high resolutions. Consequently, higher resolution emission inventories have been developed that are suitable for regional air quality modelling. This research performs an inter-comparative analysis of different spatial disaggregation methodologies of atmospheric emission inventories. This study is based on two different European emission inventories with different spatial resolutions: 1) the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) inventory and 2) an emission inventory developed by the TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research). These two emission inventories were converted into three distinct gridded emission datasets as follows: (i) the EMEP emission inventory was disaggregated by area (EMEParea) and (ii) following a more complex methodology (HERMES-DIS - High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System - DISaggregation module) to understand and evaluate the influence of different disaggregation methods; and (iii) the TNO gridded emissions, which are based on different emission data sources and different disaggregation methods. A predefined common grid with a spatial resolution of 12 × 12 km2 was used to compare the three datasets spatially. The inter-comparative analysis was performed by source sector (SNAP - Selected Nomenclature for Air Pollution) with emission totals for selected pollutants. It included the computation of difference maps (to focus on the spatial variability of emission differences) and a linear regression analysis to calculate the coefficients of determination and to quantitatively measure differences. From the spatial analysis, greater differences were found for residential/commercial combustion (SNAP02), solvent use (SNAP06) and road transport (SNAP07). These findings were related to the different spatial disaggregation that was conducted by the TNO and HERMES

  2. Modelling African aerosol using updated fossil fuel and biofuel emission inventories for 2005 and 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liousse, C.; Penner, J. E.; Assamoi, E.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.; Mima, S.; Guillaume, B.; Rosset, R.

    2010-12-01

    A regional fossil fuel and biofuel emission inventory for particulates has been developed for Africa at a resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° for the year 2005. The original database of Junker and Liousse (2008) was used after modification for updated regional fuel consumption and emission factors. Consumption data were corrected after direct inquiries conducted in Africa, including a new emitter category (i.e. two-wheel vehicles including “zemidjans”) and a new activity sector (i.e. power plants) since both were not considered in the previous emission inventory. Emission factors were measured during the 2005 AMMA campaign (Assamoi and Liousse, 2010) and combustion chamber experiments. Two prospective inventories for 2030 are derived based on this new regional inventory and two energy consumption forecasts by the Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems (POLES) model (Criqui, 2001). The first is a reference scenario, where no emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 are taken into account, and the second is for a "clean" scenario where possible and planned policies for emission control are assumed to be effective. BC and OCp emission budgets for these new inventories will be discussed and compared to the previous global dataset. These new inventories along with the most recent open biomass burning inventory (Liousse et al., 2010) have been tested in the ORISAM-TM5 global chemistry-climate model with a focus over Africa at a 1° x 1° resolution. Global simulations for BC and primary OC for the years 2005 and 2030 are carried out and the modelled particulate concentrations for 2005 are compared to available measurements in Africa. Finally, BC and OC radiative properties (aerosol optical depths and single scattering albedo) are calculated and the direct radiative forcing is estimated using an off line model (Wang and Penner, 2009). Results of sensitivity tests driven with different emission scenarios will be presented.

  3. The psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Rute; Sousa Ferreira, Ana; Guedes, David

    2017-10-01

    The DSM-5 Section III proposes a hybrid dimensional-categorical model of conceptualizing personality and its disorders that includes assessment of impairments in personality functioning (criterion A) and maladaptive personality traits (criterion B). The Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 is a new dimensional tool, composed of 220 items organized into 25 facets that delineate five higher order domains of clinically relevant personality differences, and was developed to operationalize the DSM-5 model of pathological personality traits. The current studies address the internal consistency (study 1), the test-retest reliability (study 2) and the criterion validity (studies 3 and 4) of the Portuguese version of the PID-5 in samples of native speaking psychology students. Results indicated good internal consistency reliabilities and good temporal stability reliabilities for the majority of the PID-5 traits. The correlational pattern of the PID-5 traits with two measures of personality was in accordance with theoretical expectations and showed its concurrent validity. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Adaptation and Validation of the Basque Version of the Emotional Creativity Inventory in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroa, Goretti; Aritzeta, Aitor; Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa

    2016-06-03

    Emotional creativity is defined as the ability to feel and express emotions in a new, effective and authentic way. There are currently no Basque-language self-report instruments to provide valid and reliable measures of this construct. Thus, this paper describes the process of adapting and validating the Emotional Creativity Inventory (ECI) for the Basque-speaking population. The sample was comprised of 594 higher education students (388 women and 206 men) aged between 18 and 32 years old (Mage = 20.47; SD = 2.48). The Basque version of the ECI was administered along with the TMMS-23, NEO PI-R, and PANAS. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the Basque ECI corroborated the original scale's three-factor structure (preparedness, novelty, and effectiveness/authenticity). Those dimensions showed acceptable indexes of internal consistency (α = .80, .83, and .83) and temporal stability (r = .70, .69, and .74). The study also provided some evidence of external validity (p emotional creativity and emotional intelligence, personality, affect, and sex. The Basque ECI can be regarded as a useful tool to evaluate perceived emotional creativity during the preparation and verification phases of the creative process.

  5. Psychometric properties of the French Canadian version of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Alexandra; Landreville, Philippe; Gosselin, Patrick; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues

    2018-01-01

    The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and a short form of this instrument (GAI-SF) were developed to assess the severity of anxiety symptoms in older adults in order to compensate for the lack of validated screening tools adapted to the elderly population. This study examined the psychometric properties of the French Canadian version of the GAI, in its complete (GAI-FC) and short form (GAI-FC-SF). A total of 331 community-dwelling seniors between 65 and 92 years old participated in this study. Both the GAI-FC and the GAI-FC-SF have sound psychometric properties with, respectively, a high internal consistency (α = .94 and .83), an adequate convergent validity (r = .50 to .86 with instruments known to evaluate constructs similar to the GAI or related to anxiety), a good test-retest reliability (r = .89 and .85), in addition to a single-factor structure. The results support the use of both the GAI-FC and the GAI-FC-SF. The GAI-FC-SF seems to be an interesting alternative to the GAI-FC as a screening tool when time available for assessment is limited.

  6. The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version in a general population sample of emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colins, Olivier F; Andershed, Henrik

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies with children and adolescents have shown that Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) scores are internally consistent and manifest expected relations with external variables of interest. In the present study, the factor structure and the internal consistency of YPI-S scores, and the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores were tested in a sample of 2,500 emerging adults from the general population in Sweden (aged 20-24 years; 52.6% women). Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support a 3-factor structure among both men and women that is similar to prior YPI-S studies conducted with children and adolescents. The YPI-S total score and the 3 factor scores were internally consistent. Correlations with external variables, including aggression and delinquency, support the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores. Finally, the strength of these zero-order and partial correlations, overall, was not significantly different across gender. In conclusion, this study provides initial evidence that the YPI-S may hold promise as a brief and time-effective self-report tool for assessing psychopathic traits in emerging adults. The present findings also suggest that the YPI-S performs in a consistent manner across gender. Recommendations for future research with the YPI-S are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Building and characterizing regional and global emission inventories of toxic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurachi, Stefano; Sala, Serenella; Laurent, Alexis; Heijungs, Reinout

    2014-05-20

    To define consistent strategies for managing the environmental sustainability of chemicals, it is important to quantify the magnitude of their emissions and their associated impacts. Not all countries monitor and report emissions related to their activities. This is particularly the case for chemical emissions, whose toxic impacts on human health and ecosystems cannot be readily determined because of gaps in the available data. Emission data that can be retrieved from publicly available databases are typically restricted to a limited number of toxic substances, for a few countries, or for aggregated regions. Extrapolation strategies are thus needed to fill in those data gaps and to move from the consideration of single countries or regions to the world scale. Little is known about how effective these strategies are in extrapolating emissions. With the use of emission data available in public databases in the world, the current work explores different opportunities to compile representative inventories of toxic emissions. In this study, we build global and European emission inventories using three extrapolation proxies, namely the gross domestic product, the emissions of carbon dioxide, and the emissions of mercury. The three proxies are compared and their efficacies are tested statistically to identify the best performer for specific classes of substances. The potential impacts associated with the emissions in the European and global inventory are further tested by using an impact system adopted for the comparative assessment of chemicals in the field of life cycle assessment.

  8. Updated emission inventories of power plants in simulating air quality during haze periods over East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Tianliang; Gong, Sunling; Kong, Shaofei; Tang, Lili; Liu, Duanyang; Wang, Yongwei; Jin, Lianji; Shan, Yunpeng; Tan, Chenghao; Zhang, Yingjie; Guo, Xiaomei

    2018-02-01

    Air pollutant emissions play a determinant role in deteriorating air quality. However, an uncertainty in emission inventories is still the key problem for modeling air pollution. In this study, an updated emission inventory of coal-fired power plants (UEIPP) based on online monitoring data in Jiangsu Province of East China for the year of 2012 was implemented in the widely used Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC). By employing the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), two simulation experiments were executed to assess the atmospheric environment change by using the original MEIC emission inventory and the MEIC inventory with the UEIPP. A synthetic analysis shows that power plant emissions of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NOx were lower, and CO, black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) were higher in UEIPP relative to those in MEIC, reflecting a large discrepancy in the power plant emissions over East China. In accordance with the changes in UEIPP, the modeled concentrations were reduced for SO2 and NO2, and increased for most areas of primary OC, BC, and CO. Interestingly, when the UEIPP was used, the atmospheric oxidizing capacity significantly reinforced. This was reflected by increased oxidizing agents, e.g., O3 and OH, thus directly strengthening the chemical production from SO2 and NOx to sulfate and nitrate, respectively, which offset the reduction of primary PM2.5 emissions especially on haze days. This study indicates the importance of updating air pollutant emission inventories in simulating the complex atmospheric environment changes with implications on air quality and environmental changes.

  9. Modeling and validation of on-road CO2 emissions inventories at the urban regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondfield, Max N.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Gately, Conor K.; Raciti, Steve M.; Peterson, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    On-road emissions are a major contributor to rising concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. In this study, we applied a downscaling methodology based on commonly available spatial parameters to model on-road CO 2 emissions at the 1 × 1 km scale for the Boston, MA region and tested our approach with surface-level CO 2 observations. Using two previously constructed emissions inventories with differing spatial patterns and underlying data sources, we developed regression models based on impervious surface area and volume-weighted road density that could be scaled to any resolution. We found that the models accurately reflected the inventories at their original scales (R 2 = 0.63 for both models) and exhibited a strong relationship with observed CO 2 mixing ratios when downscaled across the region. Moreover, the improved spatial agreement of the models over the original inventories confirmed that either product represents a viable basis for downscaling in other metropolitan regions, even with limited data. - Highlights: ► We model two on-road CO 2 emissions inventories using common spatial parameters. ► Independent CO 2 observations are used to validate the emissions models. ► The downscaled emissions models capture the urban spatial heterogeneity of Boston. ► Emissions estimates show a strong non-linear relationship with observed CO 2 . ► Our study is repeatable, even in areas with limited data. - This work presents a new, reproducible methodology for downscaling and validating on-road CO 2 emissions estimates.

  10. Development of the Flame Test Concept Inventory: Measuring Student Thinking about Atomic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Murata Mayo, Ana Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    This study reports the development of a 19-item Flame Test Concept Inventory, an assessment tool to measure students' understanding of atomic emission. Fifty-two students enrolled in secondary and postsecondary chemistry courses were interviewed about atomic emission and explicitly asked to explain flame test demonstrations and energy level…

  11. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Kenneth Davis; Thomas Lauvaux; Andrew Schuh; Dan Cooley; Tristram O West; Linda S Heath; Natasha L Miles; Scott Richardson; F Jay Breidt; James E Smith; Jessica L McCarty; Kevin R Gurney; Pieter Tans; A Scott. Denning

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country's contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated...

  12. Danish emission inventories for road transport and other mobile sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.

    gasoline catalyst cars. For other mobile sources the fuel use, CO2 and NOX emissions have decreased with 15% from 1985 to 2002, and the PM emission decline is in the order of 13%. For SO2 the emission drop is 74% from 1985 to 2002, due to gradually lower fuel sulphur contents. In the same period...... the emissions of NMVOC and CO has increased with 32 and 6%, mainly due to the increased use of small gasoline boats. Uncertainties for the emissions and trends have been estimated...

  13. Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    -2009. The report also include methodology, references and an uncertainty estimate. In Denmark, stationary combustion plants are among the most important emission sources for heavy metals. Emissions of all heavy metals have decreased considerably (73 % - 92 %) since 1990. The main HM emission sources are coal...... combustion, waste incineration, residual oil combustion and in 2009 also combustion of biomass. The emission from waste incineration plants has decreased profoundly also in recent years due to installation and improved performance of flue gas cleaning devices. The emission from power plants have also...

  14. Inventory of anthropogenic methane emissions in mainland China from 1980 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Peng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 has a 28-fold greater global warming potential than CO2 over 100 years. Atmospheric CH4 concentration has tripled since 1750. Anthropogenic CH4 emissions from China have been growing rapidly in the past decades and contribute more than 10 % of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions with large uncertainties in existing global inventories, generally limited to country-scale statistics. To date, a long-term CH4 emission inventory including the major sources sectors and based on province-level emission factors is still lacking. In this study, we produced a detailed annual bottom-up inventory of anthropogenic CH4 emissions from the eight major source sectors in China for the period 1980–2010. In the past 3 decades, the total CH4 emissions increased from 24.4 [18.6–30.5] Tg CH4 yr−1 in 1980 (mean [minimum–maximum of 95 % confidence interval] to 44.9 [36.6–56.4] Tg CH4 yr−1 in 2010. Most of this increase took place in the 2000s decade with averaged yearly emissions of 38.5 [30.6–48.3] Tg CH4 yr−1. This fast increase of the total CH4 emissions after 2000 is mainly driven by CH4 emissions from coal exploitation. The largest contribution to total CH4 emissions also shifted from rice cultivation in 1980 to coal exploitation in 2010. The total emissions inferred in this work compare well with the EPA inventory but appear to be 36 and 18 % lower than the EDGAR4.2 inventory and the estimates using the same method but IPCC default emission factors, respectively. The uncertainty of our inventory is investigated using emission factors collected from state-of-the-art published literatures. We also distributed province-scale emissions into 0.1°  ×  0.1° maps using socioeconomic activity data. This new inventory could help understanding CH4 budgets at regional scale and guiding CH4 mitigation policies in China.

  15. Spatial inter-comparison of Top-down emission inventories in European urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetti, Marco; Thunis, Philippe; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Clappier, Alain; Couvidat, Florian; Guevara, Marc; Kuenen, Jeroen; López-Aparicio, Susana

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an inter-comparison of the main Top-down emission inventories currently used for air quality modelling studies at the European level. The comparison is developed for eleven European cities and compares the distribution of emissions of NOx, SO2, VOC and PPM2.5 from the road transport, residential combustion and industry sectors. The analysis shows that substantial differences in terms of total emissions, sectorial emission shares and spatial distribution exist between the datasets. The possible reasons in terms of downscaling approaches and choice of spatial proxies are analysed and recommendations are provided for each inventory in order to work towards the harmonisation of spatial downscaling and proxy calibration, in particular for policy purposes. The proposed methodology may be useful for the development of consistent and harmonised European-wide inventories with the aim of reducing the uncertainties in air quality modelling activities.

  16. Atmospheric emission data inventory for air quality planning at a regional scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosmi, C. [C.N.R., Ist. di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Cuomo, V. [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente, Potenza (Italy)]|[C.N.R., Ist. di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Unita di Napoli, Ist. Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Napoli (Italy); Mangiamele, L.; Marmo, G.; Salvia, M. [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente, Potenza (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    The inventory of pollutant emissions data and its management is the first step to assess the potential environmental impacts and the social-economic implications of different planning strategies. This requires to prepare a very flexible database which allows the user an easy querying of data, their up-grading, the possibility of comparing different information and to use software tools based on Geographical Information Systems to represent the localisation of emissions sources and their fallout on the territory. This paper describes the pollutant emissions inventory carried out for the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) in the framework of a regional plan for air quality and environmental recovery. This inventory was built up taking into account the most recent normative framework, and points out the most important features of the emissions sources relatively to the investigated pollutants and to the different territorial areas. (Author)

  17. Validation of the Chinese version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Cancer Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Xiao-nan; Chu, Yvonne; Shing, Matthew M K; Wong, Eric M C; Leung, Ting Fan; Li, Chi Kong; Fok, Tai Fai; Mak, Winnie W S

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Cancer Module were investigated. This instrument and the Generic Core Scales were administered to 359 pediatric patients with cancer (5-18 years) and 413 parents of such patients (2-18 years old). Seven and eight factors were, respectively, identified for the patient and parent versions. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were respectively .89 and .92 for the total scale, and respectively .75-.90 and .76-.93 for the subscales of the patient and parent versions. Test-retest reliability coefficients exceeded .60 for most cases. The total/subscale scores of the Cancer Module significantly correlated with those of the Generic Core Scales. Some of the subscales could distinguish between on-treatment and off-treatment patients. The psychometric properties of the patient and parent versions of the Chinese PedsQL Cancer Module were found acceptable.

  18. Development of a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai using pollution source census data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianzhe; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Weichun

    2016-12-01

    This study utilizes 521,631 activity data points from the 2007 Shanghai Pollution Source Census to compile a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai. The inventory generated from our dataset shows that a large portion of Shanghai's total energy use consists of coal-oriented energy consumption. The electricity and heat production industries, iron and steel mills, and the petroleum refining industry are the main carbon emitters. In addition, most of these industries are located in Baoshan District, which is Shanghai's largest contributor of carbon emissions. Policy makers can use the enterpriselevel carbon emission inventory and the method designed in this study to construct sound carbon emission reduction policies. The carbon trading scheme to be established in Shanghai based on the developed carbon inventory is also introduced in this paper with the aim of promoting the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon trading. Moreover, we believe that it might be useful to consider the participation of industries, such as those for food processing, beverage, and tobacco, in Shanghai's carbon trading scheme. Based on the results contained herein, we recommend establishing a comprehensive carbon emission inventory by inputting data from the pollution source census used in this study.

  19. The Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version: Validity and reliability in Spanish non-clinical population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Canals Sans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue estudiar la estructura factorial, la validez y la fiabilidad de la versión española del Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version (LOI-CV, así como determinar el mejor punto de corte para detectar el trastorno obsesivo compulsivo (TOC. Un total de 1.514 escolares (8-12 años participaron en la primera fase del estudio y 562 de estos en la segunda (participantes con riesgo de trastornos del estado de ánimo y ansiedad y controles sin riesgo. El LOI-CV fue administrado en ambas fases y el diagnóstico de TOC se obtuvo en la segunda fase. Mediante análisis factorial exploratorio se obtuvieron tres factores que explicaron el 45,84% de la variancia: Orden/ comprobación/contaminación, Preocupaciones obsesivas y Superstición/compulsión mental. La fiabilidad fue buena (0,79-0,90. Para detectar TOC, los puntos de corte seleccionados fueron 21 para la puntuación total y 10 para la interferencia, presentando ambos una sensibilidad del 82,4% y una especificidad del 84,1% y 83,8% respectivamente. Las puntuaciones del LOI-CV fueron significativamente mayores en sujetos con diagnóstico de TOC que en sujetos con diagnóstico subclínico y sin diagnóstico. No hemos hallado diferencias según sexo y edad. Nuestros resultados apoyan la validez y fiabilidad del LOI-CV como herramienta de detección del TOC en población no clínica.

  20. A 2009 Mobile Source Carbon Dioxide Emissions Inventory for the University of Central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Johanna M; Cooper, C David

    2012-09-01

    A mobile source carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the University of Central Florida (UCF) has been completed. Fora large urban university, more than 50% of the CO2 emissions can come from mobile sources, and the vast majority of mobile source emissions come from on-road sources: personal vehicles and campus shuttles carrying students, faculty, staff and administrators to and from the university as well as on university business trips. In addition to emissions from on-road vehicles, emissions from airplane-based business travel are significant, along with emissions from nonroad equipment such as lawnmowers, leaf blowers, and small maintenance vehicles utilized on campus. UCF has recently become one of the largest universities in the nation (with over 58,000 students enrolled in the fall 2011 semester) and emits a substantial amount of CO2 in the Central Florida area. For this inventory, students, faculty, staff and administrators were first surveyed to determine their commuting distances and frequencies. Information was also gathered on vehicle type and age distribution of the personal vehicles of students, faculty, administrators, and staff as well as their bus, car-pool, and alternate transportation usage. The latest US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved mobile source emissions model, Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES2010a), was used to calculate the emissions from on-road vehicles, and UCF fleet gasoline consumption records were used to calculate the emissions from nonroad equipment and from on-campus UCF fleet vehicles. The results of this UCF mobile source emissions inventory were compared with those for another large U.S. university. With the growing awareness of global climate change, a number of colleges/universities and other organizations are completing greenhouse gas emission inventories. Assumptions often are made in order to calculate mobile source emissions, but without field data or valid reasoning, the accuracy of those

  1. Verification of the Danish emission inventory data by national and international data comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauser, P.; Thomsen, Marianne; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Hoffmann, L.; Lyck, E.; Boll Illerup, J.

    2007-08-15

    Danish emission intensity values, activity values and implied emission factors for identified key source categories are compared with corresponding values for the EU-15 countries (excluding Luxemburg). The emission values for all countries are based on national greenhouse gas inventories for the years 1990 (base year), 1997 and 2003 provided by the UNFCCC. The comparison is based on a proposed verification procedure that is designed for identifying emission indicators and evaluating data consistency and reliability for the energy and industry sectors. For all sectors the method gives good possibility for checking emission levels and consistency in time trends. (au)

  2. Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 3.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides monthly burned area, and monthly, and annual fire emissions data from July 1996 to February 2012. Emissions data are available for carbon (C),...

  3. GLOBAL FIRE EMISSIONS DATABASE, VERSION 3.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides monthly burned area, and monthly, and annual fire emissions data from July 1996 to February 2012. Emissions data are available for...

  4. Evaluating policy-relevant emission inventories for transportation and electricity (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Meier, P.; Bickford, E. E.

    2013-12-01

    We explore the challenges and opportunities in evaluating bottom-up emission inventories for transportation and electricity. These anthropogenic emissions respond in complex ways to technology and activity changes. Thus, it is essential that inventories capture historic emissions consistent with observations, as well as future emissions consistent with policy scenarios. For transportation, we focus on freight-related trucking emissions, represented by the Wisconsin Inventory for Freight Emissions (WIFE), developed with activity data from the U.S. Federal Highway Administration Freight Analysis Framework and emission factors from the EPA MOVES model. Because WIFE is linked to commodity flows and roadway speeds, it offers a useful data set to evaluate policy changes such as truck-to-rail modal shifts and alternative fuel choices. However, the value of the inventory in assessing these scenarios depends on its skill in calculating frieght-related emissions. Satellite data of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the OMI instrument aboard the NASA Aura satellite is used to evaluate truck and rail NOx emissions, especially on rural highways away from ground-based monitors. For electricity, we use the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and power generation in response to policy and technology changes. These include renewable portfolio standards, conservation, increased natural gas, and response to building demand. To evaluate MyPower, we compare with the Clean Air Markets database, and 2007 calculated daily afternoon emissions with satellite-derived NO2 from OMI. Drawing on the results of these studies, we discuss strategies to meet the information demands of both historically correct air quality inputs and future-relevant policy scenarios.

  5. Challenges and Approaches for Developing Ultrafine Particle Emission Inventories for Motor Vehicle and Bus Fleets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane U. Keogh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles in urban areas are the main source of ultrafine particles (diameters < 0.1 µm. Ultrafine particles are generally measured in terms of particle number because they have little mass and are prolific in terms of their numbers. These sized particles are of particular interest because of their ability to enter deep into the human respiratory system and contribute to negative health effects. Currently ultrafine particles are neither regularly monitored nor regulated by ambient air quality standards. Motor vehicle and bus fleet inventories, epidemiological studies and studies of the chemical composition of ultrafine particles are urgently needed to inform scientific debate and guide development of air quality standards and regulation to control this important pollution source. This article discusses some of the many challenges associated with modelling and quantifying ultrafine particle concentrations and emission rates for developing inventories and microscale modelling of motor vehicles and buses, including the challenge of understanding and quantifying secondary particle formation. Recommendations are made concerning the application of particle emission factors in developing ultrafine particle inventories for motor vehicle fleets. The article presents a précis of the first published inventory of ultrafine particles (particle number developed for the urban South-East Queensland motor vehicle and bus fleet in Australia, and comments on the applicability of the comprehensive set of average particle emission factors used in this inventory, for developing ultrafine particle (particle number and particle mass inventories in other developed countries.

  6. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Liquid manure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, B.; Dämmgen, U.; Döhler, H.; Eurich-Menden, B.; van Evert, F. K.; Hutchings, N. J.; Luesink, H. H.; Menzi, H.; Misselbrook, T. H.; Monteny, G.-J.; Webb, J.

    Ammonia (NH 3) emissions from agriculture commonly account for >80% of the total NH 3 emissions. Accurate agricultural NH 3 emission inventories are therefore required for reporting within the framework of the Gothenburg Protocol of the UN Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. To allow a co-ordinated implementation of the Protocol, different national inventories should be comparable. A core group of emission inventory experts therefore developed a network and joint programme to achieve a detailed overview of the best inventory techniques currently available and compiled and harmonized the available knowledge on emission factors (EFs) for nitrogen (N)-flow emission calculation models and initiated a new generation of emission inventories. As a first step in summarizing the available knowledge, six N-flow models, used to calculate national NH 3 emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard datasets. Two scenarios for slurry-based systems were run separately for dairy cattle and for pigs, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardised inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for EFs (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario showed very good agreement among models, indicating that the underlying N flows of the different models are highly similar. As a result of the different national EFs and N excretion rates, larger differences among the results were observed for the FN and the NN scenarios. Reasons for the differences were primarily attributed to differences in the agricultural practices and climatic factors reflected in the EFs and the N excretion rates. The scientific debate necessary to understand the variation in the results generated awareness and consensus concerning available scientific data and the importance of specific processes not yet included in some models.

  7. Comparison of seasonal variation between anthropogenic and natural emission inventory and Satellite observation in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, G.; Lalitaporn, P.

    2012-12-01

    Since the economic growth of the countries in Southeast Asia is significantly rapid, the emission of air pollutant from the anthropogenic activity, such as industry, power generation and transportation is rapidly increasing. Moreover, biomass burning due to unsuitable agricultural management, deforestation and expansion of farmland are discharging large amount of pollutants, such as Carbon monoxide, volatile organic compound and particulate matter. Especially, the particulate matter from biomass burning causes the serious haze pollution in surrounding area in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, the biomass fuel used for cooking at residential sector discharges harmful pollutants including a particulate matter, and causes the adverse health impact to people on indoor and outdoor. In this study, we evaluated the spatial distribution and the seasonal variation of emission inventory for Southeast Asia region by comparing with satellite observation data in order to improve the accuracy of the impact assessment of air pollution by regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF and CMAQ). As an emission inventory data, we used our original regional emission inventory for Southeast Asia region developed from detail transportation and industry data sets as well as a several existing emission inventories. As satellite observation data, the vertical column density of NO2, Particulate matter and Carbon monoxide obtained by various satellite, such as GOME, GOME2, SCIAMACY, OMI and so on. As a result of comparisons between satellite observation and emission inventories from 1996 to 2011, in the case of anthropogenic emission, seasonal variation was comparatively well in agreement with the seasonal variation of satellite data. However, the uncertainty of the seasonal variation was large on several large cities. In the case of emission from biomass burning, the seasonal variation was clear, but inter-annual variation was also large due to large scale climate condition.

  8. An atmospheric emission inventory of anthropogenic and biogenic sources for Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waked, Antoine; Afif, Charbel; Seigneur, Christian

    2012-04-01

    A temporally-resolved and spatially-distributed emission inventory was developed for Lebanon to provide quantitative information for air pollution studies as well as for use as input to air quality models. This inventory covers major anthropogenic and biogenic sources in the region with 5 km spatial resolution for Lebanon and 1 km spatial resolution for its capital city Beirut and its suburbs. The results obtained for CO, NOx, SO2, NMVOC, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for the year 2010 were 563, 75, 62, 115, 4, 12, and 9 Gg, respectively. About 93% of CO emissions, 67% of NMVOC emissions and 52% of NOx emissions are calculated to originate from the on-road transport sector while 73% of SO2 emissions, 62% of PM10 emissions and 59% of PM2.5 emissions are calculated to originate from power plants and industrial sources. The spatial allocation of emissions shows that the city of Beirut and its suburbs encounter a large fraction of the emissions from the on-road transport sector while urban areas such as Zouk Mikael, Jieh, Chekka and Selaata are mostly affected by emissions originating from the industrial and energy production sectors. Temporal profiles were developed for several emission sectors.

  9. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory (EV-GHG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  10. A global inventory of aircraft NO{sub x} emissions (ANCAT/EC 2). A revised inventory (1996) by the ECAC/ANCAT and EC working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, R.M. [Great Minister House, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Transfert London

    1997-12-31

    Results of the ANCAT/EC 2 inventory produced by the European ANCAT/EC emissions inventory group is reported. The base year inventory has been completed and is currently being written up for report publication. The ANCAT/EC 2 inventory in the base year, 1991/92, has accounted for a total fuel burn of 132.5 Tg/yr and a NO{sub x} mass of 1.82 Tg/yr. The civil subsonic fleet average emissions index is EI NO{sub x} 13.9. The inventory has accounted for 80% of the IEA refined jet fuel total for 1992. The forecast 2015 inventory accounts for 289.4 Tg/yr fuel and 3.48 Tg/yr NO{sub x}, increases of 118% and 91% respectively. Both datasets will be reported fully in the next few months. (author) 5 refs.

  11. IPCC IS92 Emissions Scenarios (A, B, C, D, E, F) Dataset Version 1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) IS92 Emissions Scenarios (A, B, C, D, E, F) Dataset Version 1.1 consists of six global and regional greenhouse...

  12. A high-resolution regional emission inventory of atmospheric mercury and its comparison with multi-scale inventories: a case study of Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the discrepancies in multi-scale inventories could give an insight into their approaches and limitations as well as provide indications for further improvements; international, national, and plant-by-plant data are primarily obtained to compile those inventories. In this study we develop a high-resolution inventory of Hg emissions at 0.05°  ×  0.05° for Jiangsu, China, using a bottom-up approach and then compare the results with available global/national inventories. With detailed information on individual sources and the updated emission factors from field measurements applied, the annual Hg emissions of anthropogenic origin in Jiangsu in 2010 are estimated at 39 105 kg, of which 51, 47, and 2 % were Hg0, Hg2+, and Hgp, respectively. This provincial inventory is thoroughly compared to three downscaled national inventories (NJU, THU, and BNU and two global ones (AMAP/UNEP and EDGARv4.tox2. Attributed to varied methods and data sources, clear information gaps exist in multi-scale inventories, leading to differences in the emission levels, speciation, and spatial distributions of atmospheric Hg. The total emissions in the provincial inventory are 28, 7, 19, 22, and 70 % larger than NJU, THU, BNU, AMAP/UNEP, and EDGARv4.tox2, respectively. For major sectors, including power generation, cement, iron and steel, and other coal combustion, the Hg contents (HgC in coals/raw materials, abatement rates of air pollution control devices (APCDs and activity levels are identified as the crucial parameters responsible for the differences in estimated emissions between inventories. Regarding speciated emissions, a larger fraction of Hg2+ is found in the provincial inventory than national and global inventories, resulting mainly from the results by the most recent domestic studies in which enhanced Hg2+ were measured for cement and iron and steel plants. Inconsistent information on large power and industrial plants is

  13. The use of continuous functions for a top-down temporal disaggregation of emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalchmayr, M.; Orthofer, R.

    1997-11-01

    This report is a documentation of a presentation at the International Speciality Conference 'The Emission Inventory: Planning for the Future', October 28-30, 1997 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA. The Conference was organized by the Air and Waste Management Association (AWMA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Emission data with high temporal resolution are necessary to analyze the relationship between emissions and their impacts. In many countries, however, emission inventories refer only to the annual countrywide emission sums, because underlying data (traffic, energy, industry statistics) are available for statistically relevant territorial units and for longer time periods only. This paper describes a method for the temporal disaggregation of yearly emission sums through application of continuous functions which simulate emission generating activities. The temporal patterns of the activities are derived through overlay of annual, weekly and diurnal variation functions which are based on statistical data of the relevant activities. If applied to annual emission data, these combined functions describe the dynamic patterns of emissions over year. The main advantage of the continuous functions method is that temporal emission patterns can be smoothed throughout one year, thus eliminating some of the major drawbacks from the traditional standardized fixed quota system. For handling in models, the continuous functions and their parameters can be directly included and the emission quota calculated directly for a certain hour of the year. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated with NMVOC emission data for Austria. Temporally disaggregated emission data can be used as input for ozone models as well as for visualization and animation of the emission dynamics. The analysis of the temporal dynamics of emission source strengths, e.g. during critical hours for ozone generation in summer, allows the implementation of efficient emission reduction

  14. The forest inventory and analysis database description and users manual version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; Gary J. Brand; Carol L. Alerich; Larry F. Bednar; Sharon W. Woudenberg; Joseph F. Glover; Edward N. Ezell

    2001-01-01

    Describes the structure of the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIADB) and provides information on generating estimates of forest statistics from these data. The FIADB structure provides a consistent framework for storing forest inventory data across all ownerships across the entire United States. These data are available to the public.

  15. A methodology for elemental and organic carbon emission inventory and results for Lombardy region, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Ozgen, Senem; Cucco, Sara; Gregorio, Katia de; Moretti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology and its application for the compilation of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) emission inventories. The methodology consists of the estimation of EC and OC emissions from available total suspended particulate matter (TSP) emission inventory data using EC and OC abundances in TSP derived from an extensive literature review, by taking into account the local technological context. In particular, the method is applied to the 2008 emissions of Lombardy region, Italy, considering 148 different activities and 30 types of fuels, typical of Western Europe. The abundances estimated in this study may provide a useful basis to assess the emissions also in other emission contexts with similar prevailing sources and technologies. The dominant sources of EC and OC in Lombardy are diesel vehicles for EC and the residential wood combustion (RWC) for OC which together account for about 83% of the total emissions of both pollutants. The EC and OC emissions from industrial processes and other fuel (e.g., gasoline, kerosene and LPG) combustion are significantly lower, while non-combustion sources give an almost negligible contribution. Total EC + OC contribution to regional greenhouse gas emissions is positive for every sector assuming whichever GWP100 value within the range proposed in literature. An uncertainty assessment is performed through a Monte Carlo simulation for RWC, showing a large uncertainty range (280% of the mean value for EC and 70% for OC), whereas for road transport a qualitative analysis identified a narrower range of uncertainty. - Highlights: ► Diesel and wood combustion contribute to more than 80% of total EC and OC. ► More than 50% of EC emissions come from road transport. ► Monte Carlo method is used to assess the uncertainty of wood combustion emissions. ► Residential wood combustion is the main source of uncertainty of EC OC inventory. ► In terms of CO 2 eq, EC and OC correspond to 3% of CO 2 emission in

  16. Development of emissions inventories for the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, A.K.; Fieber, J.L.; Lauer, G.; Dunker, A.M.; Noda, A.M.; Schleyer, C.H.; Chock, D.P.; Hertz, M.; Metcalfe, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The air quality effects of different reformulated gasolines, various other alternative fuels, and developments in automotive technologies are being studied as part of a joint research project conducted by a consortium of three domestic auto companies and fourteen petroleum companies. As part of the air quality modeling effort, emission inventories are being developed in a near-term year (1995), and 21 fuels in a long-term year (2005 or 2010). A distinctive feature of this effort is that these inventories are the first used in an air quality study that treat light duty vehicle emissions by operating mode as well as by class, and base the speciation characteristics of each operating mode on actual vehicle test results. This incorporates an unusual amount of detail on the relative importance of each of the three vehicle exhaust, two evaporative, and running loss operating modes, both in terms of overall mass emission amounts and in terms of the hydrocarbon speciation and ozone reactivity. This study also allows a better estimate of the relative importance of each vehicle class and technology type to an overall emission inventory, and of the differences in the effects of alternative fuels between vehicle technologies and classes. In addition, the role of mobile source emissions relative to other sources of emissions for both short-term and long-term emission projections, and across a wide geographic range is being assessed. This paper first describes the techniques used in developing these emission inventories, and then examines regional, temporal, and fuel/vehicle effects on emissions

  17. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Davis, Kenneth; Lauvaux, Thomas; Miles, Natasha L; Richardson, Scott; Schuh, Andrew; Cooley, Dan; Breidt, F Jay; West, Tristram O; Heath, Linda S; Smith, James E; McCarty, Jessica L; Gurney, Kevin R; Tans, Pieter; Denning, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated emissions associated with managing lands for carbon sequestration and other activities, which often have large uncertainties. We report here on the challenges and results associated with a case study using atmospheric measurements of CO 2 concentrations and inverse modeling to verify nationally-reported biogenic CO 2 emissions. The biogenic CO 2 emissions inventory was compiled for the Mid-Continent region of United States based on methods and data used by the US government for reporting to the UNFCCC, along with additional sources and sinks to produce a full carbon balance. The biogenic emissions inventory produced an estimated flux of −408 ± 136 Tg CO 2 for the entire study region, which was not statistically different from the biogenic flux of −478 ± 146 Tg CO 2 that was estimated using the atmospheric CO 2 concentration data. At sub-regional scales, the spatial density of atmospheric observations did not appear sufficient to verify emissions in general. However, a difference between the inventory and inversion results was found in one isolated area of West-central Wisconsin. This part of the region is dominated by forestlands, suggesting that further investigation may be warranted into the forest C stock or harvested wood product data from this portion of the study area. The results suggest that observations of atmospheric CO 2 concentration data and inverse modeling could be used to verify biogenic emissions, and provide more confidence in biogenic GHG emissions reporting to the UNFCCC. (letter)

  18. Denmark's national inventory report 2009. Emission inventories 1990-2007 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M. (and others)

    2009-04-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2007 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub X}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  19. Denmark's national inventory report 2010. Emission inventories 1990-2008 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, E.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M. (and others)

    2010-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  20. Denmark's national inventory report 2011. Emission inventories 1990-2009 - submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L. (and others)

    2011-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2011. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2009 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  1. Denmark's national inventory report 2012. Emission inventories 1990-2010 - submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L. (and others)

    2012-05-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2012. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2010 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (Author)

  2. Methodology for methane emission inventory from Snam transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premoli, M.; Riva, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methane, the main component of natural gas, is recognised as one of the most important contributors of the greenhouse effect, responsible for about 22% of the total. Several industries of natural gas, among which Snam, have undertaken intensive programs focused on the quantification of the total amounts of methane emitted in their operating activities. Snam elaborated a scientifically reliable methodology, for evaluating the annual methane emissions from its transmission system, based on a statistic approach using specific 'activity factors', that are the emitting equipment population and the frequency of emitting events, and emission factors. Part of the latter are based on GRI-EPA emission factors calculated for natural gas systems in the U.S. and adjusted to Snam system, and the other were measured during a field campaign on a random sample of previously identified large emission sources in Snam compressor and metering and regulating stations. The study showed that the methane release to the air from Snam natural gas transmission system was only the 0.1% of the total amount of methane in the natural gas imported and produced in Italy in 1993. (au)

  3. Inventory of Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Gasoline and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    Apart from global warming, GHGs are also responsible for the phenomenon known as ozone layer depletion. The rise in. GHG is more rapid than at any time in the past because of the increase in industrial activities (Houghton et al., 2001). Emission of GHGs is due to an increased dependence on machines and equipment ...

  4. Improved road traffic emission inventories by adding mean speed distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R.; Poelman, M.; Schrijver, J.

    2008-01-01

    Does consideration of average speed distributions on roads-as compared to single mean speed-lead to different results in emission modelling of large road networks? To address this question, a post-processing method is developed to predict mean speed distributions using available traffic data from a

  5. 40 CFR 52.2036 - 1990 base year emission inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Oxygen Furnace Shop, Blast Furnace Casthouse), submitted June 10, 1996, are approved. Sharon Steel... cars, flare stack, tuyeres) are 0.4 TPY and 49.3 TPY, respectively. The 1990 VOC and NOX emissions from the Basic Oxygen Furnace Shop (scrap preheating, ladle preheating and heaters) are 1.4 TPY and 39.6...

  6. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September–31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p  >  0.05 level, Student t test between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2006. National Inventory Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Ruyssenaars, P.G.; Van den Born, G.J.; Brandes, L.J.; Hoen, A.; Te Molder, R.; Nijdam, D.S.; Olivier, J.G.J.; Peek, C.J.; Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Vreuls, H.H.J.; Van den Berghe, G.; Baas, K.; Guis, B.

    2008-01-01

    This report represents the 2008 Netherlands' annual inventory submission under the Kyoto Protocol and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), as well as the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. It has been prepared following the relevant guidelines, which also refer to Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines and IPCC Good Practice guidance and Uncertainty Management reports, provide a format for the definition of source categories and for calculation, documentation and reporting of emissions. The guidelines aim at facilitating verification, technical assessment and expert review of the inventory information by independent Expert Review Teams of the UNFCCC. Therefore, the inventories should be transparent, consistent, comparable, complete and accurate as elaborated in the UNFCCC Guidelines for reporting and be prepared using good practice as described in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance. This National Inventory Report (NIR) 2008 therefore provides explanations of the trends in greenhouse gas emissions, activity data and (implied) emission factors for the period 1990-2006. It also summarises descriptions of methods and data sources of Tier 1 assessments of the uncertainty in annual emissions and in emission trends; it presents an assessment of key sources following the Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC Good Practice Guidance; and describes Quality Assurance and Quality Control activities. This report provides no specific information on the effectiveness of government policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This information can be found in the annual Environmental Balance (in Dutch: 'Milieubalans') prepared by the Netherlands' Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and the 4th National Communication (NC4) prepared by the government of the Netherlands. So-called Common Reporting Format (CRF) spreadsheet files, containing data on emissions, activity data and implied emission factors, accompany this report. The complete set

  8. Milk production Life Cycle Assessment: A comparison between estimated and measured emission inventory for manure handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Cecilia; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Guarino, Marcella

    2018-06-01

    Measuring emissions from manure management operations (from the barns to the land) is a challenging task, subject to different uncertainties related to the spatial-temporal variability in the process leading to gaseous release. At the same time, emissions inventory is a prerequisite of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies. Manure management emissions are usually estimated using equations developed by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, in the case of greenhouse gases emissions) and European Environmental Agency (EEA) for Nitrogen-related emissions. In the present study, the environmental impacts associated to three Italian dairy farms were calculated through a comparative LCA using two different approaches for complying the emission inventory. In the "estimated" approach (E) the commonly adopted IPCC and EEA equations were used, while in the "measured" approach (M) emissions actually measured were taken as input data to quantify the emissions associated to manure management. The results showed that the IPCC equation underestimates the manure management emissions, leading to a 10-42% lower global warming potential comparing E to M approach. On the other hand, ammonia related impact categories showed higher values if they were calculated using the estimated approach, underling that a safer level of estimation is maintained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Water emission inventory for the Federal Republic of Germany; Emissionsinventar Wasser fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Schempp, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, S.; Scherer, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Luettgert, M. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Within the frame of this project, a concept for setting up exemplary emission inventories for water was put forward. An overview is given of the international activities on emission inventories and the status of national emission inventories. Based on the data situation in Germany, it was necessary to include both plant-specific, aggregated and calculated data of the point sources in the inventories. Due to their increasing significance, diffuse material emissions into water were also taken into account. Based on the conceptual work, exemplary emission inventories were compiled for nitrogen, phosphorous and adsorbable organic combined halides (AOX) as well as the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. These were evaluated according to the areas of origin (sectors) or the emission paths as well as according to the large river basins Danube, Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, North Sea and Baltic Sea. In addition, lists of the ten largest industrial direct dischargers were compiled. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurde ein Konzept fuer die Erstellung von beispielhaften Emissionsinventaren fuer Gewaesser erarbeitet. Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die internationalen Aktivitaeten zu Emissionsinventaren und den Stand beim Aufbau von nationalen Emissionsinventaren gegeben. Auf Grund der Datensituation in Deutschland war es erforderlich, dass sowohl anlagenspezifische als auch aggregierte sowie berechnete Daten der Punktquellen in die Inventare einbezogen wurden. Wegen ihrer zunehmenden Bedeutung werden die diffusen Stoffeintraege in die Gewaesser ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Aufbauend auf den konzeptionellen Arbeiten wurden beispielhafte Emissionsinventare fuer Stickstoff, Phosphor und adsorbierbare organisch gebundene Halogene (AOX) sowie die Schwermetalle Arsen, Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink zusammengestellt. Die Auswertung erfolgte sowohl nach den Herkunftsbereichen (Branchen) bzw. den

  10. Fairbanks North Star borough rural roads upgrade inventory and cost estimation software user guide : version I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Rural Road Upgrade Inventory and Cost Estimation Software is designed by the AUTC : research team to help the Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) estimate the cost of upgrading : rural roads located in the Borough's Service Areas. The Software pe...

  11. Energy-dominated local carbon emissions in Beijing 2007: inventory and input-output analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shan; Liu, J B; Shao, Ling; Li, J S; An, Y R

    2012-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO(2)-eq, of which energy-related CO(2) emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO(2) emissions 6.35%, CH(4) emissions 2.33%, and N(2)O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO(2) emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry) holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO(2)-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage) and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals). The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO(2)-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers.

  12. Energy-Dominated Local Carbon Emissions in Beijing 2007: Inventory and Input-Output Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shan; Liu, J. B.; Shao, Ling; Li, J. S.; An, Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO2-eq, of which energy-related CO2 emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO2 emissions 6.35%, CH4 emissions 2.33%, and N2O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO2 emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry) holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO2-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage) and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals). The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO2-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers. PMID:23193385

  13. Energy-Dominated Local Carbon Emissions in Beijing 2007: Inventory and Input-Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO2-eq, of which energy-related CO2 emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO2 emissions 6.35%, CH4 emissions 2.33%, and N2O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO2 emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO2-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals. The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO2-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers.

  14. High-resolution atmospheric emission inventory of the argentine energy sector. Comparison with edgar global emission database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliafito, S Enrique; Allende, David G; Castesana, Paula S; Ruggeri, Maria F

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a 2014 high-resolution spatially disaggregated emission inventory (0.025° × 0.025° horizontal resolution), of the main activities in the energy sector in Argentina. The sub-sectors considered are public generation of electricity, oil refineries, cement production, transport (maritime, air, rail and road), residential and commercial. The following pollutants were included: greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O), ozone precursors (CO, NOx, VOC) and other specific air quality indicators such as SO 2 , PM10, and PM2.5. This work could contribute to a better geographical allocation of the pollutant sources through census based population maps. Considering the sources of greenhouse gas emissions, the total amount is 144 Tg CO2eq, from which the transportation sector emits 57.8 Tg (40%); followed by electricity generation, with 40.9 Tg (28%); residential + commercial, with 31.24 Tg (22%); and cement and refinery production, with 14.3 Tg (10%). This inventory shows that 49% of the total emissions occur in rural areas: 31% in rural areas of medium population density, 13% in intermediate urban areas and 7% in densely populated urban areas. However, if emissions are analyzed by extension (per square km), the largest impact is observed in medium and densely populated urban areas, reaching more than 20.3 Gg per square km of greenhouse gases, 297 Mg/km 2 of ozone precursors gases and 11.5 Mg/km 2 of other air quality emissions. A comparison with the EDGAR global emission database shows that, although the total country emissions are similar for several sub sectors and pollutants, its spatial distribution is not applicable to Argentina. The road and residential transport emissions represented by EDGAR result in an overestimation of emissions in rural areas and an underestimation in urban areas, especially in more densely populated areas. EDGAR underestimates 60 Gg of methane emissions from road transport sector and fugitive emissions from refining activities.

  15. Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 4.1 (GFEDv4)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset provides global estimates of monthly burned area, monthly emissions and fractional contributions of different fire types, daily or 3-hourly fields to...

  16. Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 2.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set consists of 1 degree x 1 degree gridded monthly burned area, fuel loads, combustion completeness, and fire emissions of carbon (C), carbon...

  17. High-Resolution Atmospheric Emission Inventory of the Argentine Enery Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliafito, Salvador Enrique; Castesana, Paula; Allende, David; Ruggeri, Florencia; Pinto, Sebastián; Pascual, Romina; Bolaño Ortiz, Tomás; Fernandez, Rafael Pedro

    2017-04-01

    This study presents a high-resolution spatially disaggregated inventory (2.5 km x 2.5 km), updated to 2014, of the main emissions from energy activities in Argentina. This inventory was created with the purpose of improving air quality regional models. The sub-sectors considered are public electricity and heat production, cement production, domestic aviation, road and rail transportation, inland navigation, residential and commercial, and fugitive emissions from refineries and fuel expenditure. The pollutants considered include greenhouse gases and ozone precursors: CO2, CH4, NOx, N2O VOC; and other gases specifically related to air quality including PM10, PM2.5, SOx, Pb and POPs. The uncertainty analysis of the inventories resulted in a variability of 3% for public electricity generation, 3-6% in the residential, commercial sector, 6-12% terrestrial transportation sector, 10-20% in oil refining and cement production according to the considered pollutant. Aviation and maritime navigation resulted in a higher variability reaching more than 60%. A comparison with the international emission inventory EDGAR shows disagreements in the spatial distribution of emissions, probably due to the finer resolution of the map presented here, particularly as a result of the use of new spatially disaggregated data of higher resolution that is currently available.

  18. Review, improvement and harmonisation of the Nordic particulate matter air emission inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Kindbom, Karin

    the reported emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 was calculated for each country. Norway has the largest share of PM2.5 compared to PM10 (88 %), whereas Finland has the lowest (66 %). Denmark and Sweden are right in the middle with 73 and 76 %, respectively. The completeness of the inventories was assessed...

  19. Integrated Farm System Model Version 4.3 and Dairy Gas Emissions Model Version 3.3 Software development and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling routines of the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM version 4.2) and Dairy Gas Emission Model (DairyGEM version 3.2), two whole-farm simulation models developed and maintained by USDA-ARS, were revised with new components for: (1) simulation of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas emissions gene...

  20. Vulnerability and Adaptation to Potential Impacts of Climate Change and Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King'uyu, S.M.; Mbuthi, P.N.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of two workshops organized by the Kenya Country Study on Climate change Project (KCSCCP) of the Ministry of Research and Technology. The first workshop dealt with the Vulnerability and Adaptation to the Impacts of climate Change whilst the second was on the inventory of Greenhouse gas emissions and sinks in Kenya. These were for culmination and socio-economic development in Kenya. this efforts were made possible through financial support from the US government, which was channelled through the US Country studies program. The US country studies program also supervised the expeditious peer review of the consultancy work to facilitate refining of the final reports by the consultants. These proceedings therefore, contain only summarized versions of the papers presented at the workshops

  1. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Environmental Stewardship Group

    2010-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2009. LANL's 2009 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  2. Emissions inventory report summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for calendar year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory’s potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2008. LANL’s 2008 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  3. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Stockton

    2005-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), ''Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements''. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2004. LANL's 2004 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  4. Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2007-09-28

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. Modification Number 1 to this Title V Operating Permit was issued on June 15, 2006 (Permit No P-100M1) and includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2006. LANL's 2006 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

  5. Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) Emissions in China: An Inventory for 2005-2013 and Projections to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xuekun; Velders, Guus J M; Ravishankara, A R; Molina, Mario J; Hu, Jianxin; Prinn, Ronald G

    2016-02-16

    Many hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) that are widely used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (now regulated under the Montreal Protocol) are very potent greenhouse gases (GHGs). China's past and future HFC emissions are of great interest because China has emerged as a major producer and consumer of HFCs. Here, we present for the first time a comprehensive inventory estimate of China's HFC emissions during 2005-2013. Results show a rapid increase in HFC production, consumption, and emissions in China during the period and that the emissions of HFC with a relatively high global warming potential (GWP) grew faster than those with a relatively low GWP. The proportions of China's historical HFC CO2-equivalent emissions to China's CO2 emissions or global HFC CO2-equivalent emissions increased rapidly during 2005-2013. Using the "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario, in which HFCs are used to replace a significant fraction of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in China (to date, there are no regulations on HFC uses in China), emissions of HFCs are projected to be significant components of China's and global future GHG emissions. However, potentials do exist for minimizing China's HFC emissions (for example, if regulations on HFC uses are established in China). Our findings on China's historical and projected HFC emission trajectories could also apply to other developing countries, with important implications for mitigating global GHG emissions.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2002. National Inventory Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein Goldewijk, K.; Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W.; Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Vreuls, H.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the 2004 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. These guidelines, which also refer to Revised 1997 IPCC Guidelines and IPCC Good Practice Guidance reports, provide a format for the definition of source categories and for calculation, documentation and reporting of emissions. The guidelines aim at facilitating verification, technical assessment and expert review of the inventory information by independent Expert Review Teams by the UNFCCC. Therefore, the inventories should be transparent, consistent, comparable, complete and accurate as elaborated in the UNFCCC Guidelines for reporting and be prepared using good practice as described in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance. This National Inventory Report (NIR) 2004 therefore provides explanations of the trends in greenhouse gas emissions for the 1990-2001 period and summary descriptions of methods and data sources of (a) Tier 1 assessments of the uncertainty in annual emissions and in emission trends; (b) a preliminary assessment of key sources following the Tier 1 and Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC Good Practice Guidance; and (c) Quality Assurance and Quality Control activities. This report gives no specific information on the effectiveness of government policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions; this information can be found in RIVM's Environmental Balance 2003. Please note that the emissions presented in this dataset for 2002, i.e. for the most recent year, have been compiled using sometimes estimated activity data and may therefore have been calculated somewhat differently than the emissions of other years (see Annexes 2.1 and 3). So-called Common Reporting Format (CRF) spreadsheet files, containing data on emissions, activity data and implied emission factors, accompany this report. The

  7. Emissions inventory and scenario analyses of air pollutants in Guangdong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Meng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Air pollution, causing significantly adverse health impacts and severe environmental problems, has raised great concerns in China in the past few decades. Guangdong Province faces major challenges to address the regional air pollution problem due to the lack of an emissions inventory. To fill this gap, an emissions inventory of primary fine particles (PM2.5) is compiled for the year 2012, and the key precursors (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) are identified. Furthermore, policy packages are simulated during the period of 2012‒2030 to investigate the potential mitigation effect. The results show that in 2012, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions in Guangdong Province were as high as (951.7, 1363.6, and 294.9) kt, respectively. Industrial production processes are the largest source of SO2 and PM2.5 emissions, and transport is the top contributor of NO x emissions. Both the baseline scenario and policy scenario are constructed based on projected energy growth and policy designs. Under the baseline scenario, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions will almost double in 2030 without proper emissions control policies. The suggested policies are categorized into end-of- pipe control in power plants (ECP), end-of-pipe control in industrial processes (ECI), fuel improvement (FI), energy efficiency improvement (EEI), substitution-pattern development (SPD), and energy saving options (ESO). With the implementation of all these policies, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions are projected to drop to (303.1, 585.4, and 102.4) kt, respectively, in 2030. This inventory and simulated results will provide deeper insights for policy makers to understand the present situation and the evolution of key emissions in Guangdong Province.

  8. A comprehensive biomass burning emission inventory with high spatial and temporal resolution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Xing, Xiaofan; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wei, Lin; Wei, Xiao; Liu, Chao

    2017-02-01

    Biomass burning injects many different gases and aerosols into the atmosphere that could have a harmful effect on air quality, climate, and human health. In this study, a comprehensive biomass burning emission inventory including domestic and in-field straw burning, firewood burning, livestock excrement burning, and forest and grassland fires is presented, which was developed for mainland China in 2012 based on county-level activity data, satellite data, and updated source-specific emission factors (EFs). The emission inventory within a 1 × 1 km2 grid was generated using geographical information system (GIS) technology according to source-based spatial surrogates. A range of key information related to emission estimation (e.g. province-specific proportion of domestic and in-field straw burning, detailed firewood burning quantities, uneven temporal distribution coefficient) was obtained from field investigation, systematic combing of the latest research, and regression analysis of statistical data. The established emission inventory includes the major precursors of complex pollution, greenhouse gases, and heavy metal released from biomass burning. The results show that the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC, NH3, CO, EC, OC, CO2, CH4, and Hg in 2012 are 336.8 Gg, 990.7 Gg, 3728.3 Gg, 3526.7 Gg, 3474.2 Gg, 401.2 Gg, 34 380.4 Gg, 369.7 Gg, 1189.5 Gg, 675 299.0 Gg, 2092.4 Gg, and 4.12 Mg, respectively. Domestic straw burning, in-field straw burning, and firewood burning are identified as the dominant biomass burning sources. The largest contributing source is different for various pollutants. Domestic straw burning is the largest source of biomass burning emissions for all the pollutants considered, except for NH3, EC (firewood), and NOx (in-field straw). Corn, rice, and wheat represent the major crop straws. The combined emission of these three straw types accounts for 80 % of the total straw-burned emissions for each specific pollutant mentioned in this study

  9. Replication Study of the Milwaukee Inventory for Subtypes of Trichotillomania–Adult Version in a Clinically Characterized Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuthen, Nancy J.; Tung, Esther S.; Woods, Douglas W.; Franklin, Martin E.; Altenburger, Erin M.; Pauls, David L.; Flessner, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the Milwaukee Inventory for Subtypes of Trichotillomania–Adult Version (MIST-A) in a replication sample of clinically characterized hair pullers using exploratory factor analysis (EFA; N = 193). EFA eigenvalues and visual inspection of our scree plot revealed a two-factor solution. Factor structure coefficients and internal consistencies suggested a 13-item scale with an 8-item “Intention” scale and a 5-item “Emotion” scale. Both scales displayed good construct and discriminant validity. These findings indicate the need for a revised scale that provides a more refined assessment of pulling phenomenology that can facilitate future treatment advances. PMID:25868534

  10. Replication study of the milwaukee inventory for subtypes of trichotillomania-adult version in a clinically characterized sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuthen, Nancy J; Tung, Esther S; Woods, Douglas W; Franklin, Martin E; Altenburger, Erin M; Pauls, David L; Flessner, Christopher A

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the Milwaukee Inventory for Subtypes of Trichotillomania-Adult Version (MIST-A) in a replication sample of clinically characterized hair pullers using exploratory factor analysis (EFA; N = 193). EFA eigenvalues and visual inspection of our scree plot revealed a two-factor solution. Factor structure coefficients and internal consistencies suggested a 13-item scale with an 8-item "Intention" scale and a 5-item "Emotion" scale. Both scales displayed good construct and discriminant validity. These findings indicate the need for a revised scale that provides a more refined assessment of pulling phenomenology that can facilitate future treatment advances. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. National inventory of anhyd ric carbonic emissions providing of fuels consumption as energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Convention of the United Nations about Climatic Change, carried out in 1992, and whose ratification this being considerate d at level Parliament in the Republica Oriental del Uruguay, it has as objective to achieve the stabilization of the concentrations of gases of effect hot house in the atmosphere at a level that impedes interferences dangerous antropogenias. The National Direction of environment has carried out and Inventory of the Emissions of gas carbonic anhydride in the execution of the arisen commitments of the mentioned Convention. It being this the first step for the realization of a national inventory, which will not include the rest of the gases of effect hothouse controlled by the Protocols of Montreal. The inventory of the emissions carried out by the Division of Global and Regional Matters, it has been carried out for each one of the years understood in the period from 1987 to 1992 being studied the contribution of each sector of the national activity in the Emissions of carbonic anhydride.The results show that the total emissions estimated for Uruguay reach only the 6655 gigagrames of annual for the year 1992, being a light increase of the emission values among the years 1989 at 1992

  12. Testing the Factorial Invariance of the English and Filipino Versions of the Inventory of School Motivation with Bilingual Students in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganotice, Fraide A., Jr.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.; King, Ronnel B.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the invariance of Filipino and English versions of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM) for Filipino-English bilingual students. There was invariance in the factor structure and factor loadings across the two language versions. Between-network construct validation showed consistent associations between ISM-mastery goals and…

  13. Aircraft emission inventories for scheduled air traffic for the 1976-92 time period. Historical trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baughcum, S.L.; Henderson, S.C.; Tritz, T.G. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Emission inventories of fuel burned, NO{sub x}, CO, and hydrocarbons have been calculated for scheduled air traffic in 1976, 1984, 1990 and 1992 on a 1 deg latitude x 1 deg longitude x 1 km pressure altitude grid. Using this database, the seasonal variation and historical trends in aircraft emissions have been calculated for selected geographical regions (e.g., North Atlantic, Europe, North America, North Pacific). The trend in emissions is a combination of the effects of passenger demand growth, improved aircraft efficiency, changes in combustor characteristics, and aircraft size. (author) 8 refs.

  14. Validation of the Swiss methane emission inventory by atmospheric observations and inverse modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric inverse modelling has the potential to provide observation-based estimates of greenhouse gas emissions at the country scale, thereby allowing for an independent validation of national emission inventories. Here, we present a regional-scale inverse modelling study to quantify the emissions of methane (CH4 from Switzerland, making use of the newly established CarboCount-CH measurement network and a high-resolution Lagrangian transport model. In our reference inversion, prior emissions were taken from the "bottom-up" Swiss Greenhouse Gas Inventory (SGHGI as published by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment in 2014 for the year 2012. Overall we estimate national CH4 emissions to be 196 ± 18 Gg yr−1 for the year 2013 (1σ uncertainty. This result is in close agreement with the recently revised SGHGI estimate of 206 ± 33 Gg yr−1 as reported in 2015 for the year 2012. Results from sensitivity inversions using alternative prior emissions, uncertainty covariance settings, large-scale background mole fractions, two different inverse algorithms (Bayesian and extended Kalman filter, and two different transport models confirm the robustness and independent character of our estimate. According to the latest SGHGI estimate the main CH4 source categories in Switzerland are agriculture (78 %, waste handling (15 % and natural gas distribution and combustion (6 %. The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of our posterior emissions suggest an overestimation of agricultural CH4 emissions by 10 to 20 % in the most recent SGHGI, which is likely due to an overestimation of emissions from manure handling. Urban areas do not appear as emission hotspots in our posterior results, suggesting that leakages from natural gas distribution are only a minor source of CH4 in Switzerland. This is consistent with rather low emissions of 8.4 Gg yr−1 reported by the SGHGI but inconsistent with the much higher value of 32 Gg yr−1 implied by the

  15. Correlation between hearing loss and the results of the following questionnaires: Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Adults - Screening Version HHIA-S and Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly - Screening Version - HHIE-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menegotto, Isabela Hoffmeister

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The self-assessment questionnaires are useful to measure the emotional and social/transient consequences resulting from hearing loss, and they can be used in a wide range of situations in the clinical routine, such as auditory screening. Objective: Check the sensitivity and specificities of HHIA-S and HHIE-S questionnaires to identify a hearing loss and their usages in auditory screenings, as well as analyze the ability of these questionnaires to detect different degrees of hearing impairments in the studied people. Method: Retrospective study with 51 individuals aged between 18 and 88, who filled out the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults Screening Version - HHIA-S and Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly Screening Version - HHIE-S questionnaires at the waiting room of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS's otorhinolaryngology infirmary. Results: The instruments showed a low sensitivity (47%, not identifying individuals with a hearing loss; however, they showed a high specificity (75%, accurately identifying individuals with no hearing disorder. Moreover, no significant association between the degree of hearing loss and the constraint degree for participation was found. Conclusion: the aforementioned questionnaires revealed a low sensitivity and a high specificity, proving to be ineffective for auditory screenings in a group with previous hearing complaints in addition to being unable to detect different types and degrees of hearing impairment.

  16. [Technology-based emission inventory of particulate matters (PM) from cement industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; He, Ke-bin; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Zuo-yi

    2008-08-01

    A bottom-up PM emission model was developed based on the production technologies and PM emission control devices in Chinese cement industry. Through analyzing the historical distribution of technologies in cement producing and the impact of standards on PM emission control from cement industry, emission factors of cement industry in China during 1990-2004 were generated by this technology-based model, and emission inventories were developed thereby. Emission factor decreased from 27.9 kg x t(-1) cement in 1990 to 8.05 kg x t(-1) cement in 2004. Emissions of PM from cement industry in China reached the peak value in 1997, with 1044 x 10(4) t of TSP, 716 x 10(4) t of PM10, 436 x 10(4) t of PM2.5 emitted, then decreased until 2001, and increased slowly again during 2001-2004. The distribution of PM emissions among provinces is uneven. Shandong, Guangdong, Hebei, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Henan contribute more than 50% of emissions of China. Rapid spread of pre-calcining kilns in China and implementation of Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Cement Industry in 2004 will probably decrease PM emissions from cement industry to a large extent, leading to obvious variation on PM pollution characteristics in China.

  17. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China 2012: Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yaowen; Zhao, Xueli; Meng, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Reliable inventory information is critical in informing emission mitigation efforts. Using the latest officially released emission data, which is production based, we take a consumption perspective to estimate the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for China in 2012. The non-CO2 GHG emissions, which cover CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6, amounted to 2003.0 Mt. CO2-eq (including 1871.9 Mt. CO2-eq from economic activities), much larger than the total CO2 emissions in some developed countries. Urban consumption (30.1%), capital formation (28.2%), and exports (20.6%) derived approximately four fifths of the total embodied emissions in final demand. Furthermore, the results from structural path analysis help identify critical embodied emission paths and key economic sectors in supply chains for mitigating non-CO2 GHG emissions in Chinese economic systems. The top 20 paths were responsible for half of the national total embodied emissions. Several industrial sectors such as Construction, Production and Supply of Electricity and Steam, Manufacture of Food and Tobacco and Manufacture of Chemicals, and Chemical Products played as the important transmission channels. Examining both production- and consumption-based non-CO2 GHG emissions will enrich our understanding of the influences of industrial positions, final consumption demands, and trades on national non-CO2 GHG emissions by considering the comprehensive abatement potentials in the supply chains.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory applied to college students: factor analysis and relation to the Beck Depression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the trait form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T and its relation to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were evaluated in a large Brazilian college student sample containing 845 women and 235 men. STAI-T scores tended to be higher for women, singles, those who work, and subjects under 30 years. Factor analysis of the STAI-T for total sample and by gender yielded two factors: the first representing a mood dimension and the second being related to worrying or cognitive aspects of anxiety. In order to study the relation between anxiety and depression measures, factor analysis of the combination of the 21 BDI items and the 20 STAI-T items was also carried out. The analysis resulted in two factors that were analyzed according to the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. Most of the BDI items (measuring positive affectivity and nonspecific symptoms of depression were loaded on the first factor and four STAI-T items that measure positive affectivity. The remaining STAI-T items, all of them measuring negative affect, remained in the second factor. Thus, factor 1 represents a depression dimension and factor 2 measures a mood-worrying dimension. The findings of this study suggest that, although widely used as an anxiety scale, the STAI-T in fact measures mainly a general negative affect.

  19. Simulating ozone concentrations using precursor emission inventories in Delhi - National Capital Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Khare, Mukesh

    2017-02-01

    This study simulates ground level ozone concentrations in a heavily populated and polluted National Capital Region (NCR- Delhi) in India. Multi-sectoral emission inventories of ozone precursors are prepared at a high resolution of 4 × 4 km2 for the whole region covering the capital city of Delhi along with other surrounding towns and rural regions in NCR. Emission inventories show that transport sector accounts for 55% of the total NOx emissions, followed by power plants (23%) and diesel generator sets (7%). In NMVOC inventories, transport sector again accounts for 33%, followed by evaporative emissions released from solvent use and fuel handling activities (30%), and agricultural residue burning (28%). Refuse burning contributes to 73% of CO emissions mainly due to incomplete combustion, followed by agricultural residue burning (14%). These emissions are spatially and temporally distributed across the study domain and are fed into the WRF-CMAQ models to predict ozone concentrations for the year 2012. Model validations are carried out with the observed values at different monitoring stations in Delhi. The performance of the models over various metrics used for evaluation was found to be satisfactory. Summers and post-monsoon seasons were better simulated than monsoon and winter seasons. Simulations have shown higher concentrations of ozone formation during summers and lesser during winters and monsoon seasons, mainly due to varying solar radiation affecting photo-chemical activities. Ozone concentrations are observed lower at those locations where NOx emissions are higher, and concentrations increase close to the boundary of study domain when compared to the center of Delhi city. Downwind regions to Delhi are influenced by the ozone formed due to plume of precursor emissions released from Delhi. Considering significant background contributions, regional scale controls are required for reducing ozone in NCR.

  20. Developing a historical energy and GHG emission inventory for the New York City Metro area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotullio, P. J.; Sarznski, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the vital importance of 21st Century urbanization, energy use and GHG emissions trends our understanding of the relationship between these variables is poor. Addressing these research lacunae is crucial for the success of policies, inter alia, to limit GHG emissions, as per the Paris Agreement (2015). Two reasons for the limited understanding of the relationships between urbanization, energy use and GHG emissions is the lack of longitudinal studies (longer than 10 years) and the limited spatial treatment of cities. Most research on urban GHGs is at a specific point in time and covers urban areas as single units. There are a number of studies performed at the individual city or metropolitan level at specific points in time. Exceptions to the first limitation include the Gurney, et al (2009) team that have developed the high resolution Vulcan dataset (now Hestia) that identifies emissions at high resolution (10 km) and has examined GHG emissions at the country level and studies from California, such as those in Los Angeles that examined GHG emissions at the census block level (Pincetl et al, 2015) and the Bay area (Jones and Kammen, 2014). All of these research teams, however, examined emissions at a single point in time or have not provided historical trends. To address these challenges we present a preliminary framework to develop a historical spatially disaggregated inventory of energy use and GHG emissions for selected sources at the county or finer scale for the New York City Metropolitan (31 county) region. The high-resolution and historical inventory could be provided as far back as 30 years. We describe the data and methods used and both the potential and limitations of these inventories.

  1. National- to port-level inventories of shipping emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingliang; Liu, Huan; Jin, Xinxin; He, Kebin

    2017-11-01

    Shipping in China plays a global role, and has led worldwide maritime transportation for the last decade. However, without taking national or local port boundaries into account, it is impossible to determine the responsibility that each local authority has on emission controls, nor compare them with land-based emissions to determine the priority for controlling these emissions. In this study, we provide national- to port-level inventories for China. The results show that in 2013, the total emissions of CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), particulate matter (PM), SO2 and CO2 were 0.0741 ± 0.0004 Tg•yr-1, 0.0691 ± 0.0004 Tg•yr-1, 1.91 ± 0.01 Tg•yr-1, 0.164 ± 0.001 Tg•yr-1, 1.30 ± 0.01 Tg•yr-1 and 86.3 ± 0.3 Tg•yr-1 in China, respectively. By providing high-resolution spatial distribution maps of these emissions, we identify three hotspots, centered on the Bohai Rim Area, the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. These three hotspots account for 8% of the ocean area evaluated in this study, but contribute around 37% of total shipping emissions. Compared with on-road mobile source emissions, NO x and PM emissions from ships are equivalent to about 34% and 29% of the total mobile vehicle emissions in China. Moreover, this study provides detailed emission inventories for 24 ports in the country, which also greatly contributes to our understanding of global shipping emissions, given that eight of these ports rank within the top twenty of the port league table. Several ports in China suffer emissions 12-147 times higher than those at Los Angeles port. The ports of Ningbo-Zhou Shan, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Dalian dominate the port-level inventories, with individual emissions accounting for 28%-31%, 10%-14%, 10%-12% and 8%-14% of total emissions, respectively.

  2. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in Fujian, China, 2009-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shui-Ping; Zhang, Yin-Ju; Schwab, James J.; Li, Yang-Fan; Liu, Yuan-Long; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2017-08-01

    A high-resolution NH3 emission inventory was developed based on the corrected emission factors and county-level activity data. To provide model-ready emission input, the NH3 emission inventory was gridded for the modeling domain at 1 × 1 km resolution using source-based spatial surrogates and a GIS system. The best estimate of total NH3 emission for the province was 228.02 kt in 2015 with a percentage uncertainty of ±16.3%. Four major contributors were farmland ecosystem, livestock wastes, humans and waste treatment, which contributed 39.4%, 43.1%, 4.9%, and 4.2% of the total emissions, respectively. The averaged NH3 emission density for the whole region was 1.88 t km-2 yr-1 and the higher values were found in coastal areas with higher dense populations. The seasonal patterns, with higher emissions in summer, were consistent with the patterns of temperature and planting practices. From 2009 to 2015, annual NH3 emissions increased from 218.49 kt to 228.02 kt. All of these changes are insignificant compared to the estimated overall uncertainties in the analysis, but indicative of changes in the source categories over this period. Between 2009 and 2015, the largest changes occurred in human emissions and waste treatment plants, which were consistent with the process of rapid urbanization. Meanwhile, the decrease of emissions from pigs was slightly higher than the increased emissions from broilers and the increased emissions from meat goats and beef cattle due to the combine effects of increasingly stringent environmental requirements for pig farms and shift away from pork consumption to beef, chicken and mutton. The validity of the estimates was further evaluated using uncertainty analysis, comparison with previous studies, and correlation analysis between emission density and observed ground ammonia. The inventories reflect the changes in economic progress and environmental protection and can provide scientific basis for the establishment of effective PM2.5 control

  3. Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

    2014-08-01

    The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263 t, also other emissions were 48,853 t PM, 24,533 t SOx, 79,943 t NOx, 31,908 t VOC, 454 t NH3 and 2264 t N2O under controlled conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Meta-Analysis of the English Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Johnson, Erin; Bardoshi, Gerta

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviewed 144 studies from 1996 to 2013 using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition. Internal consistency was 0.89 and test-retest reliability 0.75. Convergent comparisons were robust across 43 depression instruments. Structural validity supported both one- and two-factor solutions and diagnostic accuracy varied according…

  5. Validacion de Una Version Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory para su Uso en Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringiotti, Maria Ines; Barbich, Alejandra; De Paul, Joaquin

    1998-01-01

    The validity of the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was tested with a sample of 40 child physical abusers and 40 nonabusers in Argentina. More than 97% of subjects were correctly classified as abusing or nonabusing individuals. The article is in Spanish. (CR)

  6. Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of the Behaviour Problems Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Byounglock; Yoo, Eunyoung; Jung, Minye; Kang, Daehyuk; Park, Soyeon; Park, Soo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the Korean Behaviour Problems Inventory (BPI-01). Methods: Fifty-five allied professionals completed a content validity questionnaire about the Korean BPI-01. To examine reliability, 52 individuals with intellectual disabilities residing in a medium-sized residential…

  7. A temporally and spatially resolved validation of emission inventories by measurements of ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Shao, M.; Chen, W.; Yuan, B.; Lu, S.; Zhang, Q.; Zeng, L.; Wang, Q.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is essential for ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) abatement measures. We made VOC measurements at 27 sites and online observations at an urban site in Beijing from July 2009 to January 2012. Based on these measurement data, we determined the spatial and temporal distribution of VOCs, estimated their annual emission strengths based on their emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO), and quantified the relative contributions of various sources using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model. These results from ambient measurements were compared with existing emission inventories to evaluate the spatial distribution, species-specific emissions, and source structure of VOCs in Beijing. The measured VOC distributions revealed a hotspot in the southern suburban area of Beijing, whereas current emission inventories suggested that VOC emissions were concentrated in downtown areas. Compared with results derived from ambient measurements, the annual inventoried emissions of oxygenated VOC (OVOC) species and C2-C4 alkanes may be underestimated, while the emissions of styrene and 1,3-butadiene may be overestimated by current inventories. Source apportionment using the CMB model identified vehicular exhaust as the most important VOC source, with the relative contribution of 49%, in good agreement with the 40-51% estimated by emission inventories. The relative contribution of paint and solvent utilization obtained from the CMB model was 14%, significantly lower than the value of 32% reported by one existing inventory. Meanwhile, the relative contribution of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage calculated using the CMB model was 6%, whereas LPG usage contribution was not reported by current emission inventories. These results suggested that VOC emission strengths in southern suburban area of Beijing, annual emissions of C2-C4 alkanes, OVOCs and some alkenes, and the contributions of solvent and

  8. Air pollution in Latin America: Bottom-up Vehicular Emissions Inventory and Atmospheric Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra Espinosa, S.; Vela, A. V.; Calderon, M. G.; Carlos, G.; Ynoue, R.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution is a global environmental and health problem. Population of Latin America are facing air quality risks due to high level of air pollution. According to World Health Organization (WHO; 2016), several Latin American cities have high level of pollution. Emissions inventories are a key tool for air quality, however they normally present lack of quality and adequate documentation in developing countries. This work aims to develop air quality assessments in Latin American countries by 1) develop a high resolution emissions inventory of vehicles, and 2) simulate air pollutant concentrations. The bottom-up vehicular emissions inventory used was obtained with the REMI model (Ibarra et al., 2016) which allows to interpolate traffic over road network of Open Street Map to estimate vehicular emissions 24-h, each day of the week. REMI considers several parameters, among them the average age of fleet which was associated with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. The estimated pollutants are CO, NOx, HC, PM2.5, NO, NO2, CO2, N2O, COV, NH3 and Fuel Consumption. The emissions inventory was performed at the biggest cities, including every capital of Latin America's countries. Initial results shows that the cities with most CO emissions are Buenos Aires 162800 (t/year), São Paulo 152061 (t/year), Campinas 151567 (t/year) and Brasilia 144332 (t/year). The results per capita shows that the city with most CO emissions per capita is Campinas, with 130 (kgCO/hab/year), showed in figure 1. This study also cover high resolution air quality simulations with WRF-Chem main cities in Latin America. Results will be assessed comparing: fuel estimates with local fuel sales, traffic count interpolation with available traffic data set at each city, and comparison between air pollutant simulations with air monitoring observation data. Ibarra, S., R. Ynoue, and S. Mhartain. 2016: "High Resolution Vehicular Emissions Inventory for the Megacity of São Paulo." Manuscript submitted to

  9. Measuring psychopathic traits in children through self-report. The development of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Child Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baardewijk, Yoast; Stegge, Hedy; Andershed, Henrik; Thomaes, Sander; Scholte, Evert; Vermeiren, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The current article investigates whether self-reports of children provide reliable and valid information concerning psychopathic personality traits and behaviours. For this purpose, we developed a downward extension of an existing adolescent self-report measure; the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory [YPI; Andershed, H., Kerr, M., Stattin, H., & Levander, S. (2002). Psychopathic traits in non-referred youths: Initial test of a new assessment tool. In E.S. Blaauw, L. (Ed.), Psychopaths: Current international perspectives (pp. 131-158): The Hague: Elsevier], called the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory-Child Version (YPI-CV). The reliability and validity of the YPI-CV were tested in n=360 children from the general population. The YPI-CV had good internal consistency and a three factor structure similar to the original adolescent version. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month period was adequate. In validating the instrument, both self, teacher and peer report were used. The convergent and divergent validity of the three YPI-CV dimensions was examined by relating each of them to an external criterion measures assessing the same construct. It was concluded that psychopathic traits can be measured reliably and meaningfully through self-report in 9 to 12 year olds and that the YPI-CV is potentially a useful instrument for doing so.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions in China 2007: Inventory and input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.Q.; Zhang Bo

    2010-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the Chinese economy in 2007 with the most recent statistics availability, a concrete inventory covering CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O is composed and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the emission embodiment in final consumption and international trade. The estimated total direct GHG emission amounts to 7456.12 Mt CO 2 -eq by the commonly referred IPCC global warming potentials, with 63.39% from energy-related CO 2 , 22.31% from non-energy-related CO 2 , 11.15% from CH 4 and 3.15% from N 2 O. Responsible for 81.32% of the total GHG emissions are the five sectors of the Electric Power/Steam and Hot Water Production and Supply, Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals, Nonmetal Mineral Products, Agriculture, and Coal Mining and Dressing, with distinctive emission structures. The sector of Construction holds the top GHG emissions embodied in both domestic production and consumption, and the emission embodied in gross capital formation is prominently more than those in other components of the final consumption characterized by extensive investment in contrast to limited household consumption. China is a net exporter of embodied GHG emissions, with emissions embodied in exports of 3060.18 Mt CO 2 -eq, in magnitude up to 41.04% of the total direct emission.

  11. NICKEL SPECIES EMISSION INVENTORY FOR OIL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Richard L. Schulz; Donald L. Toman; Carolyn M. Nyberg

    2004-01-01

    Representative duplicate fly ash samples were obtained from the stacks of 400-MW and 385-MW utility boilers (Unit A and Unit B, respectively) using a modified U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 17 sampling train assembly as they burned .0.9 and 0.3 wt% S residual oils, respectively, during routine power plant operations. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) samples were analyzed for nickel (Ni) concentrations and speciation using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and a water-soluble Ni extraction method. ROFA water extraction residues were also analyzed for Ni speciation using XAFS and XRD. Total Ni concentrations in the ROFAs were similar, ranging from 1.3 to 1.5 wt%; however, stack gas Ni concentrations in the Unit A were {approx}990 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} compared to {approx}620 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} for Unit B because of the greater residual oil feed rates employed at Unit A to attain higher load (i.e., MW) conditions with a lower heating value oil. Ni speciation analysis results indicate that ROFAs from Unit A contain about 3 wt% NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O (where x is assumed to be 6 for calculation purposes) and a Ni-containing spinel compound, similar in composition to (Mg,Ni)(Al,Fe){sub 2}O{sub 4}. ROFAs from Unit B contain on average 2.0 wt% NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O and 1.1 wt% NiO. XAFS and XRD analyses did not detect any nickel sulfide compounds, including nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) (XAFS detection limit is 5% of the total Ni concentration). In addition, XAFS measurements indicated that inorganic sulfate and organic thiophene species account for >97% of the total sulfur in the ROFAs. The presence of NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O and nickel oxide compound mixtures and lack of carcinogenic Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} or nickel sulfide compounds (e.g., NiS, NiS{sub 2}) in ROFAs stack-sampled from 400- and 385-MW boilers are contrary

  12. The Glasgow consensus on the delineation between pesticide emission inventory and impact assessment for LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Anton, Assumpció; Bengoa, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides are applied to agricultural fields to optimise crop yield and their global use is substantial. Their consideration in life cycle assessment (LCA) is affected by important inconsistencies between the emission inventory and impact assessment phases of LCA. A clear definition of the delin......Pesticides are applied to agricultural fields to optimise crop yield and their global use is substantial. Their consideration in life cycle assessment (LCA) is affected by important inconsistencies between the emission inventory and impact assessment phases of LCA. A clear definition...... of the delineation between the product system model (life cycle inventory—LCI, technosphere) and the natural environment (life cycle impact assessment—LCIA, ecosphere) is missing and could be established via consensus building.A workshop held in 2013 in Glasgow, UK, had the goal of establishing consensus...... and creating clear guidelines in the following topics: (1) boundary between emission inventory and impact characterisation model, (2) spatial dimensions and the time periods assumed for the application of substances to open agricultural fields or in greenhouses and (3) emissions to the natural environment...

  13. Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M

    2015-01-06

    Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty.

  14. Ship Emission Inventories in Estuary of the Yangtze River Using Terrestrial AIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Estuary forms a transition zone between inland river and open sea. In China, the estuary of the Yangtze River plays a vital role in connecting the inland and oversea shipping, and witnesses heavy vessel traffic in the recent decades. Nowadays, more attentions have been directed to the issue of ship pollution in busy waterways. In order to investigate the ship emission inventory, this paper presents an Automatic Identification System(AIS based method. AIS data is the realistic data of vessel traffic including dynamic information (position, speed, course, etc. and static information (ship type, dimensions, name, etc.. According to ship dimensions, the power of engines is estimated for different ship types. By using AIS based bottom-up approach, ship emission inventories and shares of air pollutants and GHGs (Greenhouse gases are developed. Spatial distribution of ship emissions is illustrated in the form of heat map. As a case study, the emission inventories are analyzed using AIS data of 2010 in the estuary, and following results are made:(1 shares of the emission are cruise ships 6.59%, bulk carriers 5.16%, container ships 52.96%, tankers 15.16%, fishing ships 9.16%, other ships 10.97%; (2 CO2 is the dominant part of the emission. (3 Areas of highest emission intensity are generally clustered around the South Channel, the North Channel and ports in the vicinity. The proposed method is promising because it is derived from the AIS data which contains not only real data of individual ship but also vessel traffic situation in the study area. It can server as a reference for other researchers and policy makers working in this field.

  15. Validity and reliability of the Portuguese-Brazilian version of the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Auro Mauro; Alonso, Neide Barreira; Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Noffs, Maria Helena da Silva; Pascalicchio, Tatiana Frascarelli; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to report the translation of the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-89 (QOLIE-89) into a Portuguese-Brazilian version and evaluate its reliability and validity. This study involved 105 outpatients: 54 patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and 51 with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Reliability and test-retest reliability were assessed. Relationships between QOLIE-89 domains and other questionnaires (Nottingham Health Profile, Beck Depression Inventory, Adverse Event Profile, Neuropsychological Evaluation), and external measures such as demographic and clinical variables were analyzed to examine construct validity. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.73-0.92) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.60-0.84) for individual domains were acceptable. For construct validity, we verified high correlations between the QOLIE-89 and the Nottingham Health Profile, Beck Depression Inventory, Adverse Event Profile, and Neuropsychological Evaluation. For clinical characteristics, the patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy had better quality-of-life scores on 11 of 17 QOLIE-89 subscales compared with patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (P<0.05). These results support the reliability and validity of the Portuguese-Brazilian translation of QOLIE-89.

  16. Validity and reliability of the Portuguese version of the quality of life in epilepsy inventory (QOLIE-31) for Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Tatiana Indelicato; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita; Alonso, Neide Barreira; Azevedo, Auro Mauro; Westphal-Guitti, Ana Carolina; Pascalicchio, Tatiana Frascarelli; Marques, Carolina Mattos; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Cramer, Joyce A; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2007-03-01

    We report the cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 Inventory (QOLIE-31) for the Portuguese language and Brazilian culture. This study involved 150 outpatients: 50 presurgical patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) related to mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), 50 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), and 50 seizure-free patients with TLE. They completed the QOLIE-31, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Adverse Events Profile (AEP) and underwent a neuropsychological evaluation (NE). Internal consistency reliability, interrater and test-retest reliability, and construct validity were assessed. QOLIE-31 mean scores were 33.1 (Social Function), 68.9 (Overall Quality of Life), 56.5 (Seizure Worry), 64.1 (Emotional Well-Being), 63.7 (Energy/Fatigue), 38.9 (Cognitive Function), and 49.7 (Medication Effects). Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha), as were the associations between QOLIE-31 and the BDI, NHP, AEP, and NE. The Portuguese/Brazilian version of the QOLIE-31 inventory showed good reliability, validity, and construct validity.

  17. Estimation of vehicular emission inventories in China from 1980 to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Caia; Shaodong Xie

    2007-01-01

    Multi-year inventories of vehicular emissions at a high spatial resolution of 40 km x 40 km were established in China using the GIS methodology for the period 1980-2005, based on provincial statistical data from yearbooks regarding vehicles and roads, and on the emission factors for each vehicle category in each province calculated by COPERT III program. Results showed that the emissions of CH 4 , CO, CO 2 , NMVOC, NO x , PM 10 , and SO 2 increased from 5, 1066, 19,893, 169, 174, 26, and 16 thousand tons in 1980 to 377, 36,197, 674,629, 5911, 4539, 983, and 484 thousand tons in 2005 at an annual average rate of 19%, 15%, 15%, 15%, 14%, 16%, and 15%, respectively. Statistical analysis of vehicular emissions and GDP showed that they were well positively correlated, which revealed that increase of pollutant emissions has been accompanying the growth of GDP. Spatial distribution of pollutant emissions was rather unbalanced: over three-quarters of the total emissions concentrated in developed regions of China's southeastern, northern and central areas covering only 35.2% of China's territory, while the remaining emissions were distributed over the southwestern, northwestern and northeastern regions covering as much as 64.8% of the territory. In 2005, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta covering only 2.3%, 2.2%, and 1.9%, respectively, of the territory, generated about 10%, 19%, and 12%, respectively, of the total emissions. Since 1990, motorcycles have been the major contributors to the CH 4 , CO, NMVOC, and PM 10 emissions, due to the large population. Heavy-duty vans were the major contributors to the NO x and SO 2 emissions because of high emission factors. Passenger cars contributed about one third of the emissions of each pollutant. Contributions of vehicle categories to emissions varied from province to province, due to the diversity of vehicle compositions among provinces. (Author)

  18. An updated emission inventory of vehicular VOCs and IVOCs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Man, Hanyang; Cui, Hongyang; Wang, Yanjun; Deng, Fanyuan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Xiaofan; Xiao, Qian; Zhang, Qiang; Ding, Yan; He, Kebin

    2017-10-01

    Currently, the emission inventory of vehicular volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of those with the largest errors and uncertainties due to suboptimal estimation methods and the lack of first-hand basic data. In this study, an updated speciated emission inventory of VOCs and an estimation of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from vehicles in China at the provincial level for the year of 2015 are developed based on a set of state-of-the-art methods and an abundance of local measurement data. Activity data for light-duty vehicles are derived from trajectories of more than 70 000 cars for 1 year. The annual mileage of trucks are calculated from reported data by more than 2 million trucks in China. The emission profiles are updated using measurement data. Vehicular tailpipe emissions (VTEs) and four types of vehicular evaporation emissions (VEEs), including refueling, hot soak, diurnal and running loss, are taken into account. Results show that the total vehicular VOC emissions in China are 4.21 Tg (with a 95 % confidence interval range from 2.90 to 6.54 Tg) and the IVOC emissions are 200.37 Gg in 2015. VTEs are still the predominant contributor, while VEEs are responsible for 39.20 % of VOC emissions. The control of VEEs is yet to be optimized in China. Among VTEs, passenger vehicles emissions have the largest share (49.86 %), followed by trucks (28.15 %) and motorcycles (21.99 %). Among VEEs, running loss is the largest contributor (81.05 %). For both VTEs and VEEs, Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu province are three of the highest, with a respective contribution of 10.66, 8.85 and 6.54 % to the total amounts of VOCs from vehicles. 97 VOC species are analyzed in this VOC emission inventory. i-Pentane, toluene and formaldehyde are found to be the most abundant species in China's vehicular VOC emissions. The estimated IVOCs are another inconvenient truth, concluding that precursor emissions for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from vehicles are much

  19. A methodology for elemental and organic carbon emission inventory and results for Lombardy region, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caserini, Stefano [Politecnico di Milano, DICA Environmental Engineering Section, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Galante, Silvia, E-mail: silvia1.galante@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, DICA Environmental Engineering Section, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ozgen, Senem; Cucco, Sara; Gregorio, Katia de [Politecnico di Milano, DICA Environmental Engineering Section, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Moretti, Marco [Environmental Protection Agency of Lombardia Region, ARPA, 20124 Milano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    This paper presents a methodology and its application for the compilation of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) emission inventories. The methodology consists of the estimation of EC and OC emissions from available total suspended particulate matter (TSP) emission inventory data using EC and OC abundances in TSP derived from an extensive literature review, by taking into account the local technological context. In particular, the method is applied to the 2008 emissions of Lombardy region, Italy, considering 148 different activities and 30 types of fuels, typical of Western Europe. The abundances estimated in this study may provide a useful basis to assess the emissions also in other emission contexts with similar prevailing sources and technologies. The dominant sources of EC and OC in Lombardy are diesel vehicles for EC and the residential wood combustion (RWC) for OC which together account for about 83% of the total emissions of both pollutants. The EC and OC emissions from industrial processes and other fuel (e.g., gasoline, kerosene and LPG) combustion are significantly lower, while non-combustion sources give an almost negligible contribution. Total EC + OC contribution to regional greenhouse gas emissions is positive for every sector assuming whichever GWP100 value within the range proposed in literature. An uncertainty assessment is performed through a Monte Carlo simulation for RWC, showing a large uncertainty range (280% of the mean value for EC and 70% for OC), whereas for road transport a qualitative analysis identified a narrower range of uncertainty. - Highlights: ► Diesel and wood combustion contribute to more than 80% of total EC and OC. ► More than 50% of EC emissions come from road transport. ► Monte Carlo method is used to assess the uncertainty of wood combustion emissions. ► Residential wood combustion is the main source of uncertainty of EC OC inventory. ► In terms of CO{sub 2}eq, EC and OC correspond to 3% of CO{sub 2

  20. An updated emission inventory of vehicular VOCs and IVOCs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the emission inventory of vehicular volatile organic compounds (VOCs is one of those with the largest errors and uncertainties due to suboptimal estimation methods and the lack of first-hand basic data. In this study, an updated speciated emission inventory of VOCs and an estimation of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs from vehicles in China at the provincial level for the year of 2015 are developed based on a set of state-of-the-art methods and an abundance of local measurement data. Activity data for light-duty vehicles are derived from trajectories of more than 70 000 cars for 1 year. The annual mileage of trucks are calculated from reported data by more than 2 million trucks in China. The emission profiles are updated using measurement data. Vehicular tailpipe emissions (VTEs and four types of vehicular evaporation emissions (VEEs, including refueling, hot soak, diurnal and running loss, are taken into account. Results show that the total vehicular VOC emissions in China are 4.21 Tg (with a 95 % confidence interval range from 2.90 to 6.54 Tg and the IVOC emissions are 200.37 Gg in 2015. VTEs are still the predominant contributor, while VEEs are responsible for 39.20 % of VOC emissions. The control of VEEs is yet to be optimized in China. Among VTEs, passenger vehicles emissions have the largest share (49.86 %, followed by trucks (28.15 % and motorcycles (21.99 %. Among VEEs, running loss is the largest contributor (81.05 %. For both VTEs and VEEs, Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu province are three of the highest, with a respective contribution of 10.66, 8.85 and 6.54 % to the total amounts of VOCs from vehicles. 97 VOC species are analyzed in this VOC emission inventory. i-Pentane, toluene and formaldehyde are found to be the most abundant species in China's vehicular VOC emissions. The estimated IVOCs are another inconvenient truth, concluding that precursor emissions for secondary organic

  1. Analysis of uncertainties in the estimates of nitrous oxide and methane emissions in the UK's greenhouse gas inventory for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice E.; Glendining, Margaret J.; Bellamy, Pat; Misselbrook, Tom; Gilhespy, Sarah; Rivas Casado, Monica; Hulin, Adele; van Oijen, Marcel; Whitmore, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's greenhouse gas inventory for agriculture uses a model based on the IPCC Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods to estimate the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from agriculture. The inventory calculations are disaggregated at country level (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland). Before now, no detailed assessment of the uncertainties in the estimates of emissions had been done. We used Monte Carlo simulation to do such an analysis. We collated information on the uncertainties of each of the model inputs. The uncertainties propagate through the model and result in uncertainties in the estimated emissions. Using a sensitivity analysis, we found that in England and Scotland the uncertainty in the emission factor for emissions from N inputs (EF1) affected uncertainty the most, but that in Wales and Northern Ireland, the emission factor for N leaching and runoff (EF5) had greater influence. We showed that if the uncertainty in any one of these emission factors is reduced by 50%, the uncertainty in emissions of nitrous oxide reduces by 10%. The uncertainty in the estimate for the emissions of methane emission factors for enteric fermentation in cows and sheep most affected the uncertainty in methane emissions. When inventories are disaggregated (as that for the UK is) correlation between separate instances of each emission factor will affect the uncertainty in emissions. As more countries move towards inventory models with disaggregation, it is important that the IPCC give firm guidance on this topic.

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI-P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mir Mohammad; Soleimani, Robabeh; Fallahi, Mahnaz; Aghajanpour, Mohammad; Elahi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tinnitus can have a significant effect on an individual’s quality of life, and is very difficult quantify. One of the most popular questionnaires used in this area is the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of a Persian translation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI-P). Materials and Methods: This prospective clinical study was performed in the Otolaryngology Department of Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A total of 102 patients aged 23–80 years with tinnitus completed the (THI-P). The patients were instructed to complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Audiometry was performed. Eight-five patients were asked to complete the THI-P for a second time 7–10 days after the initial interview. We assessed test–retest reliability and internal reliability of the THI-P. Validity was assessed by analyzing the THI-P of patients according to their age, tinnitus duration and psychological distress (BDI and STAI). A factor analysis was computed to verify if three subscales (functional, emotional, and catastrophic) represented three distinct variables. Results: Test–retest correlation coefficient scores were highly significant. The THI-P and its subscales showed good internal consistency reliability (α = 0.80 to 0.96). High-to-moderate correlations were observed between THI-P and psychological distress and tinnitus symptom ratings. A confirmatory factor analysis failed to validate the three subscales of THI, and high inter-correlations found between the subscales question whether they represent three distinct factors. Conclusion: The results suggest that the THI-P is a reliable and valid tool which can be used in a clinical setting to quantify the impact of tinnitus on the quality of life of Iranian patients. PMID:25938079

  3. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI-P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Jalali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tinnitus can have a significant effect on an individual’s quality of life, and is very difficult quantify. One of the most popular questionnaires used in this area is the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of a Persian translation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI-P.   Materials and Methods: This prospective clinical study was performed in the Otolaryngology Department of Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A total of 102 patients aged 23–80 years with tinnitus completed the (THI-P. The patients were instructed to complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Audiometry was performed. Eight-five patients were asked to complete the THI-P for a second time 7–10 days after the initial interview. We assessed test–retest reliability and internal reliability of the THI-P. Validity was assessed by analyzing the THI-P of patients according to their age, tinnitus duration and psychological distress (BDI and STAI. A factor analysis was computed to verify if three subscales (functional, emotional, and catastrophic represented three distinct variables.   Results: Test–retest correlation coefficient scores were highly significant. The THI-P and its subscales showed good internal consistency reliability (α = 0.80 to 0.96. High-to-moderate correlations were observed between THI-P and psychological distress and tinnitus symptom ratings. A confirmatory factor analysis failed to validate the three subscales of THI, and high inter-correlations found between the subscales question whether they represent three distinct factors. Conclusion:  The results suggest that the THI-P is a reliable and valid tool which can be used in a clinical setting to quantify the impact of tinnitus on the quality of life of Iranian patients.

  4. Determining Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version of Software Usability Measurements Inventory (SUMI) Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    seyed abolfazl zakerian; Roya Azizi; Mehdi Rahgozar

    2013-01-01

    The term usability refers to a special index for success of an operating system. This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the Software Usability Measurements Inventory (SUMI) questionnaire as one of the valid and common questionnaires about usability evaluation. The back translation method was used to translate the questionnaire from English to Persian back to English. Moreover, repeatability or test-retest reliability was practically used to determine the reliability of ...

  5. Evaluation of a Modified Version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-20

    psychological well-being at a single time point. Methods: The study population (N = 135,843) was randomly and equally split into exploratory and confirmatory...with social support and personal mastery. Conclusions: The modified PTGI-SF in this study captures psychological well-being in cross-sectional...Keywords: Psychological well-being, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Military, Psychometrics Background Posttraumatic growth refers to the positive

  6. Diagnosis of Complicated Grief Using the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief, Brazilian Portuguese Version

    OpenAIRE

    Alves TM; Oliveira MC; Lotufo-Neto F

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complicated grief is characterized by persistent yearning for the deceased, intense sorrow and emotional pain in response to death causing significant distress. Complicated grief is often under recognized and undertreated. The Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG) is a questionnaire that has been demonstrated to have high validity and reliability in the assessment of grief. Our objective was to translate, adapt, and validate the TRIG to Brazilian Portuguese and to verify whether...

  7. Life cycle inventory energy consumption and emissions for biodiesel versus petroleum diesel fueled construction vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shih-Hao; Frey, H Christopher; Rasdorf, William J

    2009-08-15

    Substitution of soy-based biodiesel fuels for petroleum diesel will alter life cycle emissions for construction vehicles. A life cycle inventory was used to estimate fuel cycle energy consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases. Real-world measurements using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) were made forfive backhoes, four front-end loaders, and six motor graders on both fuels from which fuel consumption and tailpipe emission factors of CO, HC, NO(x), and PM were estimated. Life cycle fossil energy reductions are estimated it 9% for B20 and 42% for B100 versus petroleum diesel based on the current national energy mix. Fuel cycle emissions will contribute a larger share of total life cycle emissions as new engines enter the in-use fleet. The average differences in life cycle emissions for B20 versus diesel are: 3.5% higher for NO(x); 11.8% lower for PM, 1.6% higher for HC, and 4.1% lower for CO. Local urban tailpipe emissions are estimated to be 24% lower for HC, 20% lower for CO, 17% lower for PM, and 0.9% lower for NO(x). Thus, there are environmental trade-offs such as for rural vs urban areas. The key sources of uncertainty in the B20 LCI are vehicle emission factors.

  8. Global high-resolution nitrous oxide emission inventory for energy combustion sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Huang, T.; Zhou, F.; Canadell, J.; Janssens-Maenhout, G. G. A.; Tao, S.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of most important greenhouse gases, where emission from energy combustion is still largely uncertain. High-resolution mapping of N2O emission provides valuable information for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This study adopted an update fuel consumption database, collected experimental emission factors from the literature, took into account the impacts of combustion technologies, combustion equipment and emission reduction measures on emission factors, and used the methods recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Based on these, a global emission inventory was compiled with high spatial (0.1° × 0.1°), temporal (monthly), and source (65 sources) resolutions for the period 1960 to 2014. The estimated emissions for period 1970-2008 were three times higher than EDGAR. N2O emissions experience an increasing trend (38 Gg N yr-2), especially in developing countries, which is likely due to a growing use of circulation fluidized bed combustion technology in the industry sector and the application of new stove in the residential sector.

  9. High-Resolution Spatially Gridded Biomass Burning Emissions Inventory In Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrevu, K. P.; Lau, W. K.; da Silva, A.; Justice, C. O.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass burning is long recognized an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, CO, CH4, H2, CH3Cl, NO, HCN, CH3CN, COS, etc) and aerosols. In the Asian region, the current estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols from biomass burning are severely constrained by the lack of reliable statistics on fire distribution and frequency, and the lack of accurate estimates of area burned, fuel load, etc. As a part of NASA funded interdisciplinary research project entitled "Effects of biomass burning on water cycle and climate in the monsoon Asia", we initially developed a high resolution spatially gridded emissions inventory from the biomass burning for Indo-Ganges region and then extended the inventory to the entire Asia. Active fires from MODIS as well as high resolution LANDSAT data have been used to fine-tune the MODIS burnt area products for estimating the emissions. Locally based emission factors were used to refine the gaseous emissions. The resulting emissions data has been gridded at 5-minute intervals. We also compared our emission estimates with the other emission products such as Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS), Quick fire emissions database (QFED) and Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Our results revealed significant vegetation fires from Myanmar, India, Indonesia, China, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. These seven countries accounted for 92.4% of all vegetation fires in the Asian region. Satellite-based vegetation fire analysis showed the highest fire occurrence in the closed to open shrub land category, (19%) followed by closed to open, broadleaved evergreen-semi deciduous forest (16%), rain fed croplands (17%), post flooded or irrigated croplands (12%), mosaic cropland vegetation (11%), mosaic vegetation/cropland (10%). Emission contribution from agricultural fires was significant, however, showed discrepancies due to low confidence in burnt areas and lack of crop specific emission factors. Further, our results

  10. A methodology for elemental and organic carbon emission inventory and results for Lombardy region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Ozgen, Senem; Cucco, Sara; de Gregorio, Katia; Moretti, Marco

    2013-04-15

    This paper presents a methodology and its application for the compilation of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) emission inventories. The methodology consists of the estimation of EC and OC emissions from available total suspended particulate matter (TSP) emission inventory data using EC and OC abundances in TSP derived from an extensive literature review, by taking into account the local technological context. In particular, the method is applied to the 2008 emissions of Lombardy region, Italy, considering 148 different activities and 30 types of fuels, typical of Western Europe. The abundances estimated in this study may provide a useful basis to assess the emissions also in other emission contexts with similar prevailing sources and technologies. The dominant sources of EC and OC in Lombardy are diesel vehicles for EC and the residential wood combustion (RWC) for OC which together account for about 83% of the total emissions of both pollutants. The EC and OC emissions from industrial processes and other fuel (e.g., gasoline, kerosene and LPG) combustion are significantly lower, while non-combustion sources give an almost negligible contribution. Total EC+OC contribution to regional greenhouse gas emissions is positive for every sector assuming whichever GWP100 value within the range proposed in literature. An uncertainty assessment is performed through a Monte Carlo simulation for RWC, showing a large uncertainty range (280% of the mean value for EC and 70% for OC), whereas for road transport a qualitative analysis identified a narrower range of uncertainty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions constrained by space-based observations of NO2 columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Palmer, Paul I.; Evans, Mathew J.

    2003-09-01

    We use tropospheric NO2 columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument to derive top-down constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2), and combine these with a priori information from a bottom-up emission inventory (with error weighting) to achieve an optimized a posteriori estimate of the global distribution of surface NOx emissions. Our GOME NO2 retrieval improves on previous work by accounting for scattering and absorption of radiation by aerosols; the effect on the air mass factor (AMF) ranges from +10 to -40% depending on the region. Our AMF also includes local information on relative vertical profiles (shape factors) of NO2 from a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-CHEM); assumption of a globally uniform shape factor, as in most previous retrievals, would introduce regional biases of up to 40% over industrial regions and a factor of 2 over remote regions. We derive a top-down NOx emission inventory from the GOME data by using the local GEOS-CHEM relationship between NO2 columns and NOx emissions. The resulting NOx emissions for industrial regions are aseasonal, despite large seasonal variation in NO2 columns, providing confidence in the method. Top-down errors in monthly NOx emissions are comparable with bottom-up errors over source regions. Annual global a posteriori errors are half of a priori errors. Our global a posteriori estimate for annual land surface NOx emissions (37.7 Tg N yr-1) agrees closely with the GEIA-based a priori (36.4) and with the EDGAR 3.0 bottom-up inventory (36.6), but there are significant regional differences. A posteriori NOx emissions are higher by 50-100% in the Po Valley, Tehran, and Riyadh urban areas, and by 25-35% in Japan and South Africa. Biomass burning emissions from India, central Africa, and Brazil are lower by up to 50%; soil NOx emissions are appreciably higher in the western United States, the Sahel, and southern Europe.

  12. Translation and Validation of a Korean Version of the Xerostomia Inventory in Patients with Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer; Koh, Jung Hee; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Park, Sung-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to generate and validate a cross-culturally adapted Korean version of the xerostomia inventory (XI), an 11-item questionnaire designed to measure the severity of xerostomia. The original English version of the XI was translated into Korean according to the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality-of-life measures. Among a prospective cohort of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) in Korea, 194 patients were analyzed. Internal consistency was evaluated by using Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest reliability was obtained by using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis. Construct validity was investigated by performing a correlation analysis between XI total score and salivary flow rate (SFR). Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency was 0.868, and the ICC for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.48 to 0.827, with a median value of 0.72. Moderate negative correlations between XI score and stimulated SFR, unstimulated SFR, and differential (stimulated minus unstimulated) SFR were observed (Spearman's rho, ρ = -0.515, -0.447, and -0.482, respectively; P xerostomia in the pSS patients. In conclusion, the Korean version of the XI is a reliable tool to estimate the severity of xerostomia in patients with pSS.

  13. Psychometric properties and validation of Persian version of quality of life in epilepsy inventory (QOLIE-89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrollah Ebrahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several epilepsy-specific quality of life questionnaires have been developed. One of them is quality of life in epilepsy-89 version. The objective of this study was to develop a Persian version of QOLE-89 and confirm its psychometric properties. Materials and Methods: Participants were 75 patients with epilepsy. The quality of life questionnaire was adapted to Persian language through a translation and translation-back procedure. Internal consistency by Cronbach′s α, was determined and construct validity was assessed by correlation with GHQ-12 and BDI-PC and discriminant validity was confirmed by comparing scores for known groups. Results: Reliability based on internal consistency (Cronbach›s α for QOIE-89 was 0/96 and for 17 subscales was varied form 0/70 to 0/89 and Test-retest reliability (Pearson′s correlation coefficient for the Farsi version of the QOLIE-89 ranged from 0.75 to 0.88. Total score of QOLIE-89 discriminated well between the patients according to depression severity and drug resistance and seizure controllability. Correlation between the total scores, BDI-PC and GHQ-R to confirm construct validity was 0/55 and 0/63, respectively. Conclusion: In this cross-sectional survey, Persian version of the QOLIE-89 was reliable and showed properties supporting the construct and discriminant validity at a level comparable with the original and some other versions. Thus, this questionnaire has suitable properties in Iranian population and can be used in clinical trials with epileptic patients.

  14. High-resolution atmospheric emission inventory of the argentine energy sector. Comparison with edgar global emission database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Enrique Puliafito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a 2014 high-resolution spatially disaggregated emission inventory (0.025° × 0.025° horizontal resolution, of the main activities in the energy sector in Argentina. The sub-sectors considered are public generation of electricity, oil refineries, cement production, transport (maritime, air, rail and road, residential and commercial. The following pollutants were included: greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, ozone precursors (CO, NOx, VOC and other specific air quality indicators such as SO2, PM10, and PM2.5. This work could contribute to a better geographical allocation of the pollutant sources through census based population maps. Considering the sources of greenhouse gas emissions, the total amount is 144 Tg CO2eq, from which the transportation sector emits 57.8 Tg (40%; followed by electricity generation, with 40.9 Tg (28%; residential + commercial, with 31.24 Tg (22%; and cement and refinery production, with 14.3 Tg (10%. This inventory shows that 49% of the total emissions occur in rural areas: 31% in rural areas of medium population density, 13% in intermediate urban areas and 7% in densely populated urban areas. However, if emissions are analyzed by extension (per square km, the largest impact is observed in medium and densely populated urban areas, reaching more than 20.3 Gg per square km of greenhouse gases, 297 Mg/km2 of ozone precursors gases and 11.5 Mg/km2 of other air quality emissions. A comparison with the EDGAR global emission database shows that, although the total country emissions are similar for several sub sectors and pollutants, its spatial distribution is not applicable to Argentina. The road and residential transport emissions represented by EDGAR result in an overestimation of emissions in rural areas and an underestimation in urban areas, especially in more densely populated areas. EDGAR underestimates 60 Gg of methane emissions from road transport sector and fugitive emissions from refining

  15. Inventory and action plan for greenhouse gas emissions and capture in the Lower Saint Lawrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, F.; Avoine, G.; Michon, P.-Y.; Drainville, L.

    2003-01-01

    The authors reported on a project designed to provide farmers with concrete information based on data from their enterprise to develop an action plan for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This project involved completing an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions and capture for seven farms located in the Lower Saint Lawrence region of Quebec. The authors presented a balance sheet and action plan for the region under study. A total of six priorities were identified. They encompassed measures such as the optimization of nitrogen management in agricultural soils, to increasing the capture rate of carbon dioxide, and reducing the use of fossil fuels. 6 refs., 6 figs

  16. Inventory of conventional atmospheric pollutant emissions in the Cali-Yumbo zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo, Mauricio; Nunez, Maria Eugenia; Ocampo, William; Perez, Diego; Portilla, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    This work presents the results of the emission inventory of criteria pollutants (VOC's, PM 1 0, CO, NO x and SO x ) from anthropogenic sources for the Cali-Yumbo urban area in Colombia in 1997. Area, point and mobile sources, were considered in the study. Four point sources; reports to environmental authorities from 108 industries in the area were analyzed. The method of emission factors was employed to relate production activity with pollutant emissions, and the MOBILE 6.0 model was applied to calculate vehicular emissions. This analysis will be useful to generate urban environmental management projects, to develop pollutant dispersion models, and to contribute criteria for improved air quality monitoring and prediction in the zone of interest

  17. Development of a United States-Mexico Emissions Inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Hampden; Knipping, Eladio M; Vukovich, Jeffrey M

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study was commissioned to investigate the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain of the BRAVO Study includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The first regional-scale Mexican emissions inventory designed for air-quality modeling applications was developed for 10 northern Mexican states, the Tula Industrial Park in the state of Hidalgo, and the Popocatépetl volcano in the state of Puebla. Emissions data were compiled from numerous sources, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (now Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), the Eastern Research Group, the Minerals Management Service, the Instituto Nacional de Ecología, and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía y Informática. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and PM < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter. Wind-blown dust and biomass burning were not included in the inventory, although high concentrations of dust and organic PM attributed to biomass burning have been observed at Big Bend National Park. The SMOKE modeling system was used to generate gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions

  18. Evaluating NOx emission inventories for regulatory air quality modeling using satellite and air quality model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Yarwood, Greg; Johnson, Jeremiah; Dornblaser, Bright; Estes, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of NOx emissions in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ) State Implementation Plan (SIP) modeling inventories of the southeastern U.S. We used retrieved satellite tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) together with NO2 columns from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to make top-down NOx emissions estimates using the mass balance method. Two different top-down NOx emissions estimates were developed using the KNMI DOMINO v2.0 and NASA SP2 retrievals of OMI NO2 columns. Differences in the top-down NOx emissions estimates made with these two operational products derived from the same OMI radiance data were sufficiently large that they could not be used to constrain the TCEQ NOx emissions in the southeast. The fact that the two available operational NO2 column retrievals give such different top-down NOx emissions results is important because these retrievals are increasingly being used to diagnose air quality problems and to inform efforts to solve them. These results reflect the fact that NO2 column retrievals are a blend of measurements and modeled data and should be used with caution in analyses that will inform policy development. This study illustrates both benefits and challenges of using satellite NO2 data for air quality management applications. Comparison with OMI NO2 columns pointed the way toward improvements in the CAMx simulation of the upper troposphere, but further refinement of both regional air quality models and the NO2 column retrievals is needed before the mass balance and other emission inversion methods can be used to successfully constrain NOx emission inventories used in U.S. regulatory modeling.

  19. Adequacy of the Simplified Version of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI-S) to Measure Tinnitus Handicap and Relevant Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hee; Ra, Jin-Ju; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-04-01

    The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) often requires patients to devote their time to complete the questionnaire than they expect. Given that it limits the effectiveness of THI in a busy clinical practice that desires a quick and easy assessment of tinnitus handicap, this study evaluated clinical usefulness of a Simplified version of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI-S) in measuring the severity of tinnitus handicap as well as predicting the psychological distress associated with tinnitus. A total of 129 outpatients suffering from tinnitus (61 with normal hearing and 68 with hearing loss) participated in this study. The responses of THI-S (10 items) and THI (25 items) were evaluated to quantify the subjective handicap of tinnitus. The self-perceived level of stress, anxiety, and depression of all participants was measured with a series of self-report questionnaires such as Korean version of Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument (BEPSI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), respectively. All the questionnaire responses were analyzed using non-parametric analyses to examine the convergence, comparability, internal consistency reliability and validity of THI-S. The severity of tinnitus handicap and the relevant psychological distress greatly varied across individuals. The THI-S responses were comparable to original THI responses, regardless of hearing status of patients. The internal consistency of THI-S responses was found to be good for total score (Cronbach's α=0.83-0.91), with moderately high consistency for the emotional, functional, and catastrophic subscales. Significant (pwell as with the BEPSI, STAI, BDI questionnaires (rs =0.40-0.45) suggest that the THI-S questionnaire appeared to be useful to provide objective data of subjective tinnitus handicap as well as predict psychological distress. Three factors were extracted through factor analysis, which explained 73% of the total variance. Despite reducing the length of 25

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2010. National Inventory Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Zijlema, P.J.; Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emission Authority, P.O. Box 91503, IPC 652, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J.; Van den Wyngaert, I. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2010 increased by approximately 6% compared to the emission in 2009. This increase is mainly the result of increased fuel combustion in the energy sector and space heating. In 2010, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF - land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amounted to 210.1 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 1.5% below the emissions in the base year (213.3 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the 2012 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2009. National Inventory Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Zijlema, P.J.; Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emission Authority, P.O. Box 91503, IPC 652, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J.; Van den Wyngaert, I. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2010 increased by approximately 6% compared to the emission in 2009. This increase is mainly the result of increased fuel combustion in the energy sector and space heating. In 2010, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF - land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amounted to 210.1 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 1.5% below the emissions in the base year (213.3 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the 2012 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  2. A Commercial Aircraft Fuel Burn and Emissions Inventory for 2005–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata K. Wasiuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The commercial aircraft fuel burn and emission estimates of CO2, CO, H2O, hydrocarbons, NOx and SOx for 2005–2011 are given as the 4-D Aircraft Fuel Burn and Emissions Inventory. On average, the annual fuel burn and emissions of CO2, H2O, NOx, and SOx increased by 2%–3% for 2005–2011, however, annual CO and HC emissions decreased by 1.6% and 8.7%, respectively because of improving combustion efficiency in recent aircraft. Approximately 90% of the global annual aircraft NOx emissions were emitted in the NH between 2005 and 2011. Air traffic within the three main industrialised regions of the NH (Asia, Europe, and North America alone accounted for 80% of the global number of departures, resulting in 50% and 45% of the global aircraft CO2 and NOx emissions, respectively, during 2005–2011. The current Asian fleet appears to impact our climate strongly (in terms of CO2 and NOx when compared with the European and North American fleet. The changes in the geographical distribution and a gradual shift of the global aircraft NOx emissions as well as a subtle but steady change in regional emissions trends are shown in particular comparatively rising growth rates between 0 and 30°N and decreasing levels between 30 and 60°N.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2011. National Inventory Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Zijlema, P.J. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Arets, E.J.M.M. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [Rijkswaterstaat, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emissions Authority NEa, P.O. Box 91503, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Total greenhouse gas emissions from The Netherlands in 2011 decreased by approximately 7 per cent compared with 2010 emissions. This decrease is mainly the result of decreased fuel combustion in the Energy sector (less electricity production) and in the petrochemical industry. Fuel use for space heating decreased due to the mild winter compared with the very cold 2010 winter. In 2011, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF (land use, land use change and forestry) in The Netherlands amounted to 194.4 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 9 per cent below the emissions in the base year 2 (213.2 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the Netherlands' 2012 annual submission of its greenhouse gas emissions inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  4. Constructing an even shorter version of the “Short Five” personality inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Konstabel, Kenn; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Leikas, Sointu Sofia; Garcia Velazquez, Regina; Qin, Hiaying; Verkasalo, Markku Johannes; Walkowitz, Gari

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item ?Short Five? (S5) by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the f...

  5. Methane and nitrous oxide: Methods in national emissions inventories and options for control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Amstel, A.R. (ed.)

    1993-07-01

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change signed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, calls for the return of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000 in industrialized countries. It also calls for a monitoring of the emissions of greenhouse gases. It is important that reliable and scientifically credible national inventories are available for the international negotiations. Therefore a consistent methodology and a transparent reporting format is needed. The title workshop had two main objectives: (1) to support the development a methodology and format for national emissions inventories of greenhouse gases by mid 1993, as coordinated by the Science Working Group of the IPCC and the OECD; and (2) the development of technical options for reduction of greenhouse gases and the assessment of the socio-economic feasibility of these options. The workshop consisted of key note overview presentations, and two rounds of working group sessions, each covering five parallel sessions on selected sources. In the first round of each working group session the literature, existing methods for methane and nitrous oxide inventories, and the OECD/IPCC guidelines have been addressed. Then, in the second round, options for emission reductions have been discussed, as well as their socio-economic implications. The methane sources discussed concern oil and gas, coal mining, ruminants, animal waste, landfills and sewage treatment, combustion and industry, rice production and wetlands, biomass burning. The nitrous oxide sources discussed are agricultural soils and combustion and industry. The proceedings on methane comprise 16 introductory papers and 7 papers on the results of the working groups, while in part two four introductory papers and two papers on the results of working groups on nitrous oxide are presented. In part three future emission reduction policy options are discussed. Finally, 16 poster contributions are included

  6. Identification of urban gas leaks and evaluation of methane emission inventories using mobile measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzeri, Giulia; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Butler, Dominique; Lanoisellé, Mathias; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2017-04-01

    Leakages from the natural gas distribution network, power plants and refineries account for the 10% of national methane emissions in the UK (http://naei.defra.gov.uk/), and are identified as a major source of methane in big conurbations (e.g. Townsend-Small et al., 2012; Phillips et al., 2013). The National Atmospheric Emission Inventories (NAEI) website provides a list of gas installations, but emissions from gas leakage, which in the inventories are estimated on the basis of the population distribution, are difficult to predict, which makes their estimation highly uncertain. Surveys with a mobile measurement system (Zazzeri et al., 2015) were carried out in the London region for detection of fugitive natural gas and in other sites in the UK (i.e. Bacton, Southampton, North Yorkshire) to identify emissions from various gas installations. The methane isotopic analysis of air samples collected during the surveys, using the methodology in Zazzeri et al. (2015), allows the calculation of the δ13C signature characterising natural gas in the UK. The isotopic value of the natural gas supply to SE London has changed a little in recent years, being close to -34 ‰ over 1998-99 period (Lowry et al., 2001) and close to -36 ‰ since at least 2002. Emissions from gas installations, such as pumping stations in NE England (-41 ± 2 ‰ ) were detected, but some of them were not listed in the inventories. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the gas leaks identified during the surveys in the London region does not coincide with the distribution suggested by the inventories. By locating both small gas leaks and emissions from large gas installations, we can verify how these methane sources are targeted by national emission inventories. Lowry, D., Holmes, C.W., Rata, N.D., O'Brien, P., and Nisbet, E.G., 2001, London methane emissions: Use of diurnal changes in concentration and δ13C to identify urban sources and verify inventories: Journal of Geophysical Research

  7. Forest carbon accounting methods and the consequences of forest bioenergy for national greenhouse gas emissions inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; MacLean, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Forest carbon accounting influences the national GHG inventory impacts of bioenergy. • Current accounting rules may overlook forest carbon trade-offs of bioenergy. • Wood pellet trade risks creating an emissions burden for exporting countries. - Abstract: While bioenergy plays a key role in strategies for increasing renewable energy deployment, studies assessing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forest bioenergy systems have identified a potential trade-off of the system with forest carbon stocks. Of particular importance to national GHG inventories is how trade-offs between forest carbon stocks and bioenergy production are accounted for within the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector under current and future international climate change mitigation agreements. Through a case study of electricity produced using wood pellets from harvested forest stands in Ontario, Canada, this study assesses the implications of forest carbon accounting approaches on net emissions attributable to pellets produced for domestic use or export. Particular emphasis is placed on the forest management reference level (FMRL) method, as it will be employed by most Annex I nations in the next Kyoto Protocol Commitment Period. While bioenergy production is found to reduce forest carbon sequestration, under the FMRL approach this trade-off may not be accounted for and thus not incur an accountable AFOLU-related emission, provided that total forest harvest remains at or below that defined under the FMRL baseline. In contrast, accounting for forest carbon trade-offs associated with harvest for bioenergy results in an increase in net GHG emissions (AFOLU and life cycle emissions) lasting 37 or 90 years (if displacing coal or natural gas combined cycle generation, respectively). AFOLU emissions calculated using the Gross-Net approach are dominated by legacy effects of past management and natural disturbance, indicating near-term net forest carbon increase but

  8. Atmospheric toxic metals emission inventory and spatial characteristics from anthropogenic sources of Guangdong province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, S.; Menghua, L.; Xiao, X.; Yuqi, W.; Zhuangmin, Z.; Zhijiong, H.; Cheng, L.; Guanglin, J.; Zibing, Y.; Junyu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric toxic metals (TMs) are part of particulate matters, and may create adverse effects on the environment and human health depending upon their bioavailability and toxicity. Localized emission inventory is fundamental for parsing of toxic metals to identify key sources in order to formulate efficient toxic metals control strategies. With the use of the latest municipal level environment statistical data, this study developed a bottom-up emission inventory of five toxic metals (Hg, As, Pb, Cd, Cr) from anthropogenic activities in Guangdong province for the year of 2014. Major atmospheric toxic metals sources including combustion sources (coal, oil, biomass, municipal solid waste) and industrial process sources (cement production, nonferrous metal smelting, iron and steel industry, battery and fluorescent lamp production) were investigated. Results showed that: (1) The total emissions of Hg, As, Pb, Cd, Cr in Guangdong province were 18.14, 32.59, 411.34, 13.13, 84.16 t, respectively. (2) Different pollutants have obvious characteristics of emission sources. For total Hg emission, 46% comes from combustion sources, of which 32% from coal combustion and 8% from MSW combustion. Other 54% comes from industrial processes, which dominated by the cement (19%), fluorescent lamp (18%) and battery production (13%). Of the total Hg emission, 69% is released as Hg0 , 29% as Hg2+ , and only 2% as Hgp due to strict particulate matters controls policies. For As emissions, coal combustion, nonferrous metal smelting and iron and steel industry contributed approximate 48%, 25% and 24%, respectively. Pb emissions primarily come from battery production (42%), iron and steel industry (21%) and on-road mobile gasoline combustion (17%). Cd and Cr emissions were dominated by nonferrous metal smelting (71%) and iron and steel industry (82%), respectively. (3) In term of the spatial distribution, emissions of atmospheric toxic metals are mainly concentrated in the central region of

  9. Is the Short Version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-S Applicable for Use in Telephone Surveys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brust Oliver A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of psychological indicators in survey research has become more common because they offer the possibility of explaining much of the variance in sociological variables. The Big Five personality dimensions in particular are often used to explain opinions, attitudes, and behavior. However, the short versions of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-S were developed for face-to-face surveys. Studies have shown distortions in the identification of the Big Five factor structure in subsamples of older respondents in landline telephone surveys. We applied the same BFI-S but with a shorter rating scale in a telephone survey with two subsamples (landline and mobile phone. Using exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM, we identified the Big Five structure in the subsamples and the age groups. This finding leads us to conclude that the BFI-S is a powerful means of including personality characteristics in telephone surveys.

  10. What does the Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory measure in Chinese students--general psychopathology or depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1991-05-01

    The Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory (C-BDI) was administered to 2,150 Chinese secondary-school students, along with other measures of psychological well-being. While C-BDI scores were found to correlate significantly with all other measures of psychological well-being for the various samples, the results showed that they correlated most strongly with the Depression factor of the Chinese General Health Questionnaire. The Depression factor of the Chinese GHQ was observed to be most predictive of C-BDI scores. These data are generally consistent with the empirical data on the relationship between the BDI and other measures of psychological well-being; the claim that the BDI is more a measure of "general psychopathology" is not supported by the present findings.

  11. Comparison of global inventories of CO emissions from biomass burning derived from remotely sensed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stroppiana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We compare five global inventories of monthly CO emissions named VGT, ATSR, MODIS, GFED3 and MOPITT based on remotely sensed active fires and/or burned area products for the year 2003. The objective is to highlight similarities and differences by focusing on the geographical and temporal distribution and on the emissions for three broad land cover classes (forest, savanna/grassland and agriculture. Globally, CO emissions for the year 2003 range between 365 Tg CO (GFED3 and 1422 Tg CO (VGT. Despite the large uncertainty in the total amounts, some common spatial patterns typical of biomass burning can be identified in the boreal forests of Siberia, in agricultural areas of Eastern Europe and Russia and in savanna ecosystems of South America, Africa and Australia. Regionally, the largest difference in terms of total amounts (CV > 100% and seasonality is observed at the northernmost latitudes, especially in North America and Siberia where VGT appears to overestimate the area affected by fires. On the contrary, Africa shows the best agreement both in terms of total annual amounts (CV = 31% and of seasonality despite some overestimation of emissions from forest and agriculture observed in the MODIS inventory. In Africa VGT provides the most reliable seasonality. Looking at the broad land cover types, the range of contribution to the global emissions of CO is 64–74%, 23–32% and 3–4% for forest, savanna/grassland and agriculture, respectively. These results suggest that there is still large uncertainty in global estimates of emissions and it increases if the comparison is carried by out taking into account the temporal (month and spatial (0.5° × 0.5° cell dimensions. Besides the area affected by fires, also vegetation characteristics and conditions at the time of burning should also be accurately parameterized since they can greatly influence the global estimates of CO emissions.

  12. [Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues combustion: a case study of Jiangsu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-hua; Jiang, Jing-yan; Zong, Liang-gang

    2011-05-01

    Burning of agricultural crop residues was a major source greenhouse gases. In this study, the proportion of crop straws (rice, wheat, maize, oil rape, cotton and soja) in Jiangsu used as household fuel and direct open burning in different periods (1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2008) was estimated through questionnaire. The emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and NO20 from the above six types of crop straws were calculated by the simulated burning experiment. Thus the emission inventory of greenhouse gases from crop straws burning was established according to above the burning percentages and emission factors, ratios of dry residues to production and crop productions of different periods in Jiangsu province. Results indicated that emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O depended on crop straw type. The emission factors of CO2 and CH4 were higher for oil rape straw than the other straws, while the maize and the rice straw had the higher N2O and CO emission factor. Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues burning in Jiangsu province showed, the annual average global warming potential (GWP) of six tested crop straws were estimated to be 9.18 (rice straw), 4.35 (wheat straw), 2.55 (maize straw), 1.63 (oil rape straw), 0.55 (cotton straw) and 0. 39 (soja straw) Tg CO2 equivalent, respectively. Among the four study periods, the annual average GWP had no obvious difference between the 1990-1995 and 2006-2008 periods, while the maximal annual average GWP (23.83 Tg CO2 equivalent) happened in the 1996-2000 period, and the minimum (20.30 Tg CO2 equivalent) in 1996-2000 period.

  13. Emission inventory of anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an emission inventory for major anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region for the year 2007. A "bottom-up" methodology was adopted to compile the inventory based on major emission sources in the sixteen cities of this region. Results show that the emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 in the YRD region for the year 2007 are 2392 kt, 2293 kt, 6697 kt, 3116 kt, 1511 kt, 2767 kt, and 459 kt, respectively. Ethylene, mp-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2,4-dimethylpentane, ethyl benzene, propylene, 1-pentene, and isoprene are the key species contributing 77 % to the total ozone formation potential (OFP. The spatial distribution of the emissions shows the emissions and OFPs are mainly concentrated in the urban and industrial areas along the Yangtze River and around Hangzhou Bay. The industrial sources, including power plants other fuel combustion facilities, and non-combustion processes contribute about 97 %, 86 %, 89 %, 91 %, and 69 % of the total SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and VOC emissions. Vehicles take up 12.3 % and 12.4 % of the NOx and VOC emissions, respectively. Regarding OFPs, the chemical industry, domestic use of paint & printing, and gasoline vehicles contribute 38 %, 24 %, and 12 % to the ozone formation in the YRD region.

  14. Assessment of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases Emission Over East Asia : A Bottom-up Inventory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, Y. M.; Choi, K. C.; Zhang, Q.; Kurokawa, J. I.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols are mainly affected by meteorological variables and emissions. East Asia is one of important source regions of both anthropogenic and natural air pollutants and GHGs. Therefore, significant environmental changes are expected in the future and air quality modeling is the important methodology to quantitatively evaluate them. Multiple emission inventories with various spatio-temporal resolutions are necessary in support of many different air quality modeling and future climate chage researches. Many emission inventories have been developed for Asia and for Globe, such as TRACE-P, INTEX, REAS, CREATE, MICS-Asia, HTAP, SRES, RCP. Those inventories have been successfully used for many international researches, but also have several limitations including relatively old base year, limited number of pollutants/types, and low transparency of sector/fuel information. Understanding discrepancies and similarities among those intentories would give us a better insights to understand not only present status regional emissions amounts but structures of society and policy that link to the future emissions. To understand these, we; 1) selected several base-year bottom-up anthropogenic emission inventories over East Asia, 2) inter-compare emission inventories with more comprehensive sector/fuel classification, 3) explorer emissions change with more updated acvities, emission factors, and control options. The tentative results show that more than 50% of emission amount could be differ by inventory selection and more than 30% of emissions could be changed by emissions factor and/or control options. More findings regarding to these objectives will be presented on site

  15. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan K. Larkin; Sean M. Raffuse; Tara M. Strand

    2014-01-01

    Emissions from wildland fire are both highly variable and highly uncertain over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Wildland fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season severity, from season to season as different regions pass in and out of wildfire and prescribed fire periods, and from day to day as...

  16. A hearing self-reported survey in people over 80 years of age in China by hearing handicap inventory for the elderly-complete version vs screening version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Ying; Han, Ying; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2016-12-01

    HHIE-S can be a useful tool in investigating hearing loss among people over 80 years old, with the same validity as HHIE. To investigate the effect of hearing loss on the quality-of-life in people over 80 years of age in China, and to compare the results of the Chinese mandarin version Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE) and its screening version (HHIE-S). Eighty-four people over 80 years participated in the study. Both HHIE and HHIE-S were completed, and the hearing handicap degrees were rated according to HHIE scores and HHIE-S scores, respectively. Results obtained by HHIE and HHIE-S were compared. Multi-factor analysis of variance was used to analyze the impact of eight factors on hearing handicap in the oldest old people over 80 years of age, including age, noise exposure, ear surgery, infection, ototoxic drugs use, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and tumors. Both HHIE and HHIE-S revealed 48 subjects (57.1%) with no self-perceived hearing problem, and 36 subjects (42.9%) with hearing handicap. No statistical difference was found between results of the functional hearing handicap rating by HHIE and HHIE-S (Chi-square = 1.532, p = 0.465). The HHIE and HHIE-S were in agreement with each other (kappa = 0.772, p  0.05), except noise exposure on S-score of HHIE-S (p = 0.032), and the R-squares of these factors were less than 5%.

  17. Denmark's national inventory report 2005 - submitted under the United Nations frameword convention on climate change. 1990-2003. Emission Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    This report is Denmkark's National Inventory Report (NIR) due by 15 April 2005 to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). the report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 2003. The structure of the report is in accordance with the UNFCCC Guidelines on reporting and review and the report includes detailed information on the inventories for all years from the base year to the year of the current annual inventory submission, in order to ensure the transparency of the inventory. (au)

  18. Validation of an Italian version of the Oxford happiness inventory in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleddu, Mauro; Guicciardi, Marco; Scalas, L Francesca; Fadda, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    An Italian adaptation of the Oxford Happiness Inventory was administered to 782 adolescents. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was used to examine the first- and second-order factorial structure of the scale and its invariance across gender; internal consistency and construct validity were also investigated. ESEM underlined a 5-factor structure (mastery and self-fulfillment, satisfaction with life, vigor, social interest, and social cheerfulness) that measures positive psychological functioning. These dimensions form a single latent construct of general psychological well-being. The scale showed adequate internal consistency values and strong measurement invariance across gender. Finally, regarding convergent validity, both total scale and subscales were positively correlated with extraversion and self-esteem, were negatively correlated with neuroticism, and displayed no correlation with psychoticism.

  19. Measuring stress in medical education: validation of the Korean version of the higher education stress inventory with medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Shim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students face a variety of stressors associated with their education; if not promptly identified and adequately dealt with, it may bring about several negative consequences in terms of mental health and academic performance. This study examined psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Higher Education Stress Inventory (K-HESI. Methods The reliability and validity of the K-HESI were examined in a large scale multi-site survey involving 7110 medical students. The K-HESI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and questions regarding quality of life (QOL and self-rated physical health (SPH were administered. Results Exploratory factor analysis of the K-HESI identified seven factors: Low commitment; financial concerns; teacher-student relationship; worries about future profession; non-supportive climate; workload; and dissatisfaction with education. A subsequent confirmatory factor analysis supported the 7-factor model. Internal consistency of the K-HESI was satisfactory (Cronbach’s α = .78. Convergent validity was demonstrated by its positive association with the BDI. Known group validity was supported by the K-HESI’s ability to detect significant differences on the overall and subscale scores of K-HESI according to different levels of QOL and SPH. Conclusions The K-HESI is a psychometrically valid tool that comprehensively assesses various relevant stressors related to medical education. Evidence-based stress management in medical education empirically guided by the regular assessment of stress using reliable and valid measure is warranted.

  20. Measuring stress in medical education: validation of the Korean version of the higher education stress inventory with medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eun-Jung; Jeon, Hong Jin; Kim, Hana; Lee, Kwang-Min; Jung, Dooyoung; Noh, Hae-Lim; Roh, Myoung-Sun; Hahm, Bong-Jin

    2016-11-24

    Medical students face a variety of stressors associated with their education; if not promptly identified and adequately dealt with, it may bring about several negative consequences in terms of mental health and academic performance. This study examined psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Higher Education Stress Inventory (K-HESI). The reliability and validity of the K-HESI were examined in a large scale multi-site survey involving 7110 medical students. The K-HESI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and questions regarding quality of life (QOL) and self-rated physical health (SPH) were administered. Exploratory factor analysis of the K-HESI identified seven factors: Low commitment; financial concerns; teacher-student relationship; worries about future profession; non-supportive climate; workload; and dissatisfaction with education. A subsequent confirmatory factor analysis supported the 7-factor model. Internal consistency of the K-HESI was satisfactory (Cronbach's α = .78). Convergent validity was demonstrated by its positive association with the BDI. Known group validity was supported by the K-HESI's ability to detect significant differences on the overall and subscale scores of K-HESI according to different levels of QOL and SPH. The K-HESI is a psychometrically valid tool that comprehensively assesses various relevant stressors related to medical education. Evidence-based stress management in medical education empirically guided by the regular assessment of stress using reliable and valid measure is warranted.

  1. Discriminative validity of the Danish version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Michelle; Gard, Gunvor; Aadahl, Mette

    2011-01-01

    . The PEDI was administered as a questionnaire completed by the parents. Results from receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis showed that in the case of discrimination between children with CP and nondisabled children, the sensitivity and specificity were 77.3 and 97.8%, respectively....... In the discrimination between children with JIA and nondisabled children, the sensitivity and specificity were 99.8 and 81.7%, respectively. Study results indicate that the Danish version of the PEDI shows good discriminative validity. Further studies of the discriminative validity are recommended....

  2. A new inventory for two-wheel vehicle emissions in West Africa for 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Liousse, Catherine

    2010-10-01

    Rather surprisingly, urban atmospheric particulate levels in West Africa compare with measured concentrations in Europe and Asia megacities (Liousse, C., Galy-Lacaux, C., Assamoi, E.-M., Ndiaye, A., Diop, B., Cachier, H., Doumbia, T., Gueye, P., Yoboue, V., Lacaux, J.-P., Guinot, B., Guillaume, B., Rosset, R., Castera, P., Gardrat, E., Zouiten, C., Jambert, C., Diouf, A., Koita, O., Baeza, A., Annesi-Maesano, I., Didier, A., Audry, S., Konare, A., 2009. Integrated Focus on West African Cities (Cotonou, Bamako, Dakar, Ouagadougou, Abidjan, Niamey): Emissions, Air Quality and Health Impacts of Gases and Aerosols. Third International AMMA Conference on Predictability of the West African Moosoon Weather, Climate and Impacts. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. July 20-24). This pollution mainly derives from road traffic emissions with, in some capitals (e.g. Cotonou), the strong contribution of two-wheel vehicles. Two key questions arise: are presently available emission inventories (e.g. Junker, C., Liousse, C., 2008. A global emission inventory of carbonaceous aerosol from historic records of fossil fuel and biofuel consumption for the period 1860-1997. Atmospheric Chemistry Physics, 8, 1-13; Bond, T.C., Streets, D.G., Yarber, K.F., Nelson, S.M., Woo, J.H., Klimont, Z., 2004. A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1009, D14203, DOI:10.1029/2003JD003697) able to account for these emissions? And, if not, how can we remedy this? The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology to estimate emissions produced by two-wheel vehicles in West Africa for 2002 in a context where reliable information is hardly available. Fuel consumption ratios between two-wheel engines (in this work) and all vehicles issued from UN database ( http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=EDATA&f=cmID%3aMO%3btrID%3a1221) are as high as 169%, 264% and 628%, for Burkina Faso, Mali and Chad respectively, indicating that this global

  3. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montelongo-Reyes, M.M.; Otazo-Sánchez, E.M.; Romo-Gómez, C.; Gordillo-Martínez, A.J.; Galindo-Castillo, E.

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO{sub 2} emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO{sub 2} sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO{sub 2} gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO{sub 2} (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. - Highlights: • First GHG & black carbon inventory for Mezquital Valley: Mexico City energy supplier • Energy industries caused the largest CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions from residual fuel oil. • Diesel

  4. SewageLCI 1.0 - A first generation inventory model for quantification of chemical emissions via sewage systems. Application on chemicals of concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallice, Aurélie; Birkved, Morten; Kech, Sébastien

    Lack of inventory data on chemical emissions often forces life cycle assessors to rely on crude emissions estimates (e.g. 100 % of the applied chemical mass is assumed emitted) or in the worst case to omit chemical emissions due to lack of emission data. The inventory model SewageLCI 1.0, provides...

  5. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yaning; Liu, Mingxu; Song, Yu; Huang, Xin; Yao, Huan; Cai, Xuhui; Zhang, Hongsheng; Kang, Ling; Liu, Xuejun; Yan, Xiaoyuan; He, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Shao, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2016-02-01

    Ammonia (NH3) can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980-2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs) considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.1 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.7 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80-90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.86 Tg (1980) to 6.16 Tg (2005), and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012); beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980) to 4.7 Tg (1996), and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012). Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1000

  6. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y.; Liu, M.; Song, Y.; Huang, X.; Yao, H.; Cai, X.; Zhang, H.; Kang, L.; Liu, X.; Yan, X.; He, H.; Shao, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-10-01

    Ammonia (NH3) can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980-2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs) considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.2 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.5 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80-90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.87 Tg (1980) to 6.17 Tg (2005), and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012); beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980) to 4.7 Tg (1996), and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012). Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1000

  7. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980–2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.1 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.7 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80–90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.86 Tg (1980 to 6.16 Tg (2005, and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012; beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980 to 4.7 Tg (1996, and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012. Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial

  8. Including indoor offgassed emissions in the life cycle inventories of wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Abhishek; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-12-16

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that negatively affect human health are emitted from wood products used indoors. However, the existing life cycle inventories of these products only document the emissions occurring during production and disposal phases. Consequently, the life cycle assessment (LCA) of indoor wooden products conducted using these inventories neglect the use-phase impacts from exposure to offgassed VOCs and therefore underestimate the product's total environmental impact. This study demonstrates a methodology to calculate the use phase inventory and the corresponding human health impacts resulting from indoor use of any VOC emitting product. For the five most commonly used types of boards used in indoor wood products, the mass of each VOC emitted into the indoor compartment over their service life was calculated by statistically analyzing data from 50 published chamber testing studies. Uncertainty was assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. The calculated inventory data were used in a case study to calculate and compare the health impacts of five different wooden floorings made of above materials. The results show that the use-phase human-toxicity impacts are an order of magnitude higher than those occurring during the rest of the flooring's life cycle. The factors influencing the offgassing of VOCs from wood products and measures to reduce exposure are discussed.

  9. Comparison of emission inventory and ambient concentration ratios of CO, NMOG, and NOx in California South Coast Air Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, E.M.; Croes, B.E.; Bennett, C.L.; Lawson, D.R.; Lurmann, F.W.; Main, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, the author performed a top-down validation of the reactive organic gas and carbon monoxide emission inventories for California's South Coast Air Basin by comparing speciation profiles for nonmethane organic gases (NMOG) and ratios of CO/NO x and NMOG/NO x derived from early-morning (0700 to 0800) ambient measurements taken during the 1987 Southern California Air Quality Study with the corresponding ratios and speciation profiles derived from day-specific, hourly, gridded emission inventories. Twenty separate comparisons were considered for each ratio, each representing a different combination of season, emission category, and spatial and temporal averaging of emissions. It was determined that the most appropriate comparison in summer was ambient pollutant ratios with ratios derived from morning on-road motrovehicle emission inventories, and in the fall, ambient ratios with ratios derived from overnight on-road motor vehicle emission inventories with some contribution from overnight stationary-source NO x emission inventories. From these comparisons, the ambient CO/CO x and NMOG/NO x ratios are about 1.5 and 2 to 2.5 times higher, respectively, than the corresponding inventory ratios. On the assumption that inventories of NO x emissions are reasonably correct, these results indicate that on-road motor vehicle CO and NMOG emissions are significantly underestimated. Comparisons of measured CO, NMOG, and NO x concentrations and CO/NO x and NMOG/NO x ratios with air quality model predictions obtained by the California Air Resources Board show similar differences

  10. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo-Reyes, M M; Otazo-Sánchez, E M; Romo-Gómez, C; Gordillo-Martínez, A J; Galindo-Castillo, E

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO2 emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO2 sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO2 gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO2 (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hierarchical Structure and Cross-Cultural Measurement Invariance of the Norwegian Version of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimm, Jens C; Jordan, Stian; Bach, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was created to aid a trait-based diagnostic system for personality disorders (PDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a ). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the Norwegian version of the PID-5 by examining its score reliability, hierarchical structure, congruency with international findings, and cross-cultural measurement invariance with a matched U.S. For this purpose, 503 university students (76% females) were administered the PID-5. The Norwegian PID-5 showed good score reliability and structural validity from 1 to 5 factors. The 5-factor structure was generally congruent with international findings, and support for measurement invariance across the Norwegian and a matched U.S. sample was found. Conclusively, the results indicate that scores on the Norwegian PID-5 have sound psychometric properties, which are substantially comparable with the original U.S. version, supporting its use in a Norwegian population.

  12. Teacher Stress Inventory: validation of the Greek version and perceived stress levels among 3,447 educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmousi, Ntina; Darviri, Christina; Varvogli, Liza; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C

    2015-01-01

    The Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI) is an instrument for measuring occupational stress in teachers. This study aimed to translate and adapt it for use in Greece, and then assess its reliability and validity. The Greek versions of the TSI and the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) were posted on all Greek educators' official sites during May 2012. A nationwide sample of 3,447 teachers of all levels and specialties completed the questionnaires via the Internet. Reliability was determined by the calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and validity was further examined by investigating the correlation of the TSI with the PSS-14 and their association with demographics and work-related factors. Satisfactory Cronbach's alpha values (above 0.70) were found for all TSI dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor construct of TSI (root mean square error of approximation, comparative fit index, and goodness-of-fit index values were 0.079, 0.956, and 0.951, respectively), confirming the pre-established theory for the two latent variables, Stress Sources and Stress Manifestations. Significant correlations were found between TSI subscales, PSS-14 sex, age, lack of support, and students' difficulties. The Greek version of the TSI was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties, and its use for assessing stress in Greek teachers is warranted.

  13. The team climate inventory as a measure of primary care teams' processes: validation of the French version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Dragieva, Nataliya; Del Grande, Claudio; Dawson, Jeremy; Haggerty, Jeannie L; Barnsley, Jan; Hogg, William E; Tousignant, Pierre; West, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the short 19-item Team Climate Inventory (TCI) and explore the contributions of individual and organizational characteristics to perceived team effectiveness. The TCI was completed by 471 of the 618 (76.2%) healthcare professionals and administrative staff working in a random sample of 37 primary care practices in the province of Quebec. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the original four-factor model. Cronbach's alphas were excellent (from 0.88 to 0.93). Latent class analysis revealed three-class response structure. Respondents in practices with professional governance had a higher probability of belonging to the "High TCI" class than did practices with community governance (36.7% vs. 19.1%). Administrative staff tended to fall into the "Suboptimal TCI" class more frequently than did physicians (36.5% vs. 19.0%). Results confirm the validity of our French version of the short TCI. The association between professional governance and better team climate merits further exploration. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  14. Portuguese version of the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI among assembly workers: Cultural adaptation, reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reliable and valid instruments are essential for understanding fatigue in occupational settings. This study analyzed the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 218 workers from an automotive industry involved in assembly tasks for fabrication of mechanical cables. Convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. Results: Results showed adequate fit to data, yielding a 20-item, 5-factor structure (all intercorrelated: Chi2/df (ratio Chi2 and degrees of freedom = 2.530, confirmatory fit index (CFI = 0.919, goodness of fit index (GFI = 0.845, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.084. The SOFI presented an adequate internal consistency, with the sub-scales and total scale presenting good reliability values (Cronbach’s α values from 0.742 to 0.903 and 0.943 respectively. Conclusions: Findings suggest that the Portuguese version of the SOFI may be a useful tool to assess fatigue and prevent work-related injuries. In future research, other instruments should be used as an external criterion to correlate with the SOFI dimensions. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3:407–417

  15. Assessment of fatigue in cancer patients and community dwellers: validation study of the Filipino version of the brief fatigue inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Tito R; Laudico, Adriano V; Wang, Xin Shelley; Guo, Hong; Matsuda, Maria Lourdes; Yosuico, Victor D; Fragante, Edilberto P; Cleeland, Charles S

    2010-01-01

    Clinical trials that might identify effective therapies for cancer-related fatigue, one of the most distressing symptoms experienced by patients, require a validated fatigue assessment tool. We developed and validated a Filipino language version of the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI-F) for describing the prevalence and severity of fatigue among Filipino patients with cancer. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Manila, Philippines, in 206 patients with cancer and 170 age-matched community-dwelling adults who had never had a diagnosis of cancer. Validity and reliability were evaluated by principal factor analysis and Cronbach's α coefficients. Factor analysis extracted 1 factor, i.e. fatigue severity, with a Cronbach's α of 0.95; this is consistent with the original BFI English version validation study. Approximately 49% of the patients with cancer had mild fatigue, 34% had moderate fatigue, and 17% had severe fatigue. Patients with a poorer performance status had significantly worse fatigue than patients with a better performance status (5.0 ± 2.8 vs. 3.8 ± 2.2; p Filipino cancer patients. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India. Part 1 - Fossil fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekar Reddy, M.; Venkataraman, C.

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25 o x 0.25 o ) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996-1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998-1999). District level consumption of coal/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors was 9411 PJ, with major contributions from coal (54%) followed by diesel (18%). Emission factors for various pollutants were derived using India specific fuel characteristics and information on combustion/air pollution control technologies for the power and industrial sectors. Domestic and transportation emission factors, appropriate for Indian source characteristics, were compiled from literature. SO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion for 1996-1997 were 4.0Tg SO 2 yr -1 , with 756 large point sources (e.g. utilities, iron and steel, fertilisers, cement, refineries and petrochemicals and non-ferrous metals), accounting for 62%. PM 2.5 emitted was 0.5 and 2.0Tgyr -1 for the 100% and the 50% control scenario, respectively, applied to coal burning in the power and industrial sectors. Coal combustion was the major source of PM 2.5 (92%) primarily consisting of fly ash, accounting for 98% of the 'inorganic fraction' emissions (difference between PM 2.5 and black carbon + organic matter) of 1.6Tgyr -1 . Black carbon emissions were estimated at 0.1Tgyr -1 , with 58% from diesel transport, and organic matter emissions at 0.3Tgyr -1 , with 48% from brick-kilns. Fossil fuel consumption and emissions peaked at the large point industrial sources and 22 cities, with elevated area fluxes in northern and western India. The spatial resolution of this inventory makes it suitable for regional-scale aerosol-climate studies. These results are compared to previous studies and differences discussed. Measurements of

  17. Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India: I—Fossil fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. Shekar; Venkataraman, Chandra

    A comprehensive, spatially resolved (0.25°×0.25°) fossil fuel consumption database and emissions inventory was constructed, for India, for the first time. Emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents were estimated for 1996-1997 and extrapolated to the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) study period (1998-1999). District level consumption of coal/lignite, petroleum and natural gas in power plants, industrial, transportation and domestic sectors was 9411 PJ, with major contributions from coal (54%) followed by diesel (18%). Emission factors for various pollutants were derived using India specific fuel characteristics and information on combustion/air pollution control technologies for the power and industrial sectors. Domestic and transportation emission factors, appropriate for Indian source characteristics, were compiled from literature. SO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion for 1996-1997 were 4.0 Tg SO 2 yr -1, with 756 large point sources (e.g. utilities, iron and steel, fertilisers, cement, refineries and petrochemicals and non-ferrous metals), accounting for 62%. PM 2.5 emitted was 0.5 and 2.0 Tg yr -1 for the 100% and the 50% control scenario, respectively, applied to coal burning in the power and industrial sectors. Coal combustion was the major source of PM 2.5 (92%) primarily consisting of fly ash, accounting for 98% of the "inorganic fraction" emissions (difference between PM 2.5 and black carbon+organic matter) of 1.6 Tg yr -1. Black carbon emissions were estimated at 0.1 Tg yr -1, with 58% from diesel transport, and organic matter emissions at 0.3 Tg yr -1, with 48% from brick-kilns. Fossil fuel consumption and emissions peaked at the large point industrial sources and 22 cities, with elevated area fluxes in northern and western India. The spatial resolution of this inventory makes it suitable for regional-scale aerosol-climate studies. These results are compared to previous studies and differences discussed. Measurements of

  18. High-resolution inventory of ammonia emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China from 1978 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Liao, Y. J.; Lin, Y. H.; Zhao, C. X.; Yan, C. H.; Cao, M. N.; Wang, G. S.; Luan, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new Chinese agricultural fertilizer NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 × 1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008; (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters; (3) the temporal patterns of historical time trends for 1978-2008 were estimated and the uncertainties were quantified for the inventories; and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 TgNH3 yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0 %. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0 to 45.5 % because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk, and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3 % (minimum: 33.4 %; maximum: 42.7 %). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3 % and 8.5 %. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8 and 4.5 %, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF_NH3 emissions reflect the nation's agricultural policy to a certain extent. An effective approach to

  19. High-resolution inventory of ammonia emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China from 1978 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of ammonia (NH3 emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new Chinese agricultural fertilizer NH3 (CAF_NH3 emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1 a 1  ×  1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008; (2 a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs and parameters; (3 the temporal patterns of historical time trends for 1978–2008 were estimated and the uncertainties were quantified for the inventories; and (4 a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 TgNH3 yr−1 (a 6.6–9.8 Tg interquartile range. From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005, and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0 %. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0 to 45.5 % because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk, and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3 % (minimum: 33.4 %; maximum: 42.7 %. With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3 % and 8.5 %. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8 and 4.5 %, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF_NH3 emissions reflect the nation's agricultural

  20. [French translation and validation of a short version of the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory-2 (SIRI-2-VF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp-Bigault, C; Audouard-Marzin, Y; Scouarnec, P; Beauchamp, G; Séguin, M; Walter, M

    2017-10-30

    Training health professionals about suicidal crisis is one major line of suicide prevention worldwide. France has one of the highest suicide rates in Europe, and although crisis intervention training has been set up since 2001, there presently is no training assessment tool in the French language for health professionals trained in suicide prevention. In the four levels of Kirpatrick's education pyramid, training that takes place in France today solely assesses level one status, that is to say relative to the level of satisfaction of participants (self-report). This study proposes a validated short French version of the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory-2 (SIRI-2) of Neimeyer & Mc Innes. The SIRI-2 questionnaire assesses the ability of first line intervention in dealing with suicidal individuals. The translation methodology was inspired from Vallerand's model of cross-cultural back translation. This method is regularly used for translating from the English language to a French version. In order to translate the English version, we used an extensive 7-step methodology implicating several bilingual translators, expert reviewers (psychologists and psychiatrists) and a scientific committee. Participants were 107 students from different French universities and study programs: psychology, medicine and nursing (17 were men; average age was 26.6). Fifteen of these participants answered the SIRI-2-VF on two occasions (separated by a 15-day interval) in order to estimate the temporal stability of the instrument. The scores of the students were compared to six French experts in suicide prevention and with the original expert group who worked on the development of SIRI-2 (n=7). We used Student t Test for construct validity, Cronbach's Alpha for internal consistency and Pearson's correlation coefficient for temporal stability. Following a fidelity comparison of the results of the French experts with those of the American experts, ten items presenting the least good

  1. Validation of the Korean Version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2: Psychometric Properties and Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Mi-Yeon; Jo, Hye-Hyeon; Jung, Young-Chul; Kim, Joon-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) in Korean patients with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to investigate cultural differences of EDI-2 between a Korean group and a North American standardization sample. Materials and Methods The Korean version of the EDI-2 was prepared after comprehensive clinical assessment of Korean patients with eating disorders (n=327) as well as female undergraduates (n=176). Results were compared between eating disorder subgroups (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified) and those of a North American standardization sample and healthy controls. Results The results showed that the Korean EDI-2 had adequate internal consistency (0.77-0.93) and discriminated well between patients with eating disorders and healthy controls on all subscales. Significant differences in EDI-2 subscale scores between the eating disorder groups and the healthy control group were observed; however, there was no discernible difference among the eating disorder subgroups. When compared with a North American standardization sample, the Korean control group showed significantly higher scores for drive for thinness and asceticism. When patient groups were compared, the Korean group showed significantly lower scores for perfectionism. Conclusion As expected, the results accurately reflected psychometric properties of the Korean version of EDI-2 for eating disorder patients in Korea. These findings also suggest that common characteristics for the eating disorder exist as a whole rather than with significant difference between each subgroup. In addition, significant differences between the Korean and the North American groups for both patients and controls also demonstrated specific cultural differences. PMID:23074108

  2. Quebec inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 and their evolution since 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, V.; Paradis, J.; Bougie, R.; Goulet, M.; Leclerc, N.; Nolet, E.

    2010-11-01

    This document presented an inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced by human activity in Quebec between 1990 and 2008. In 2008, 82.7 Mt of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent were released in Quebec, which represents a 1.2 percent reduction from 1990 levels. Quebec had the second lowest GHG emissions per capita in 2008 and was 1 of only 3 only provinces in Canada to have a reduction in GHG emissions since 1990. This document also presented data regarding GHG emissions released by sector, notably from industrial combustion such as the TransCanada Energy cogeneration facilities; industrial processes; residential, commercial and institutional buildings; agriculture; sanitary landfills; and electric power production. Quebec's reduction in GHG emissions can be attributed primarily to advances in energy efficiency technology that have been adopted by the industrial sector. In addition, some industrial combustion facilities have been closed and landfill facilities have begun to use systems to capture methane gas. In contrast, automobile traffic increased over the study period, and was responsible for an important increase in GHG emissions since 1990. 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  3. Further Validation of a Portuguese Version of the Brief Pain Inventory Interference Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alexandra Ferreira-Valente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El dolor crónico es un importante problema de salud que afecta al funcionamiento diario de la persona con dolor, a su bienestar psicológico y a la calidad de vida. Con el fin de prestar cuidados sanitarios adecuados, a monitorear los cambios en el dolor y en el funcionamiento y en vista a la investigación transcultural, se necessitan instrumentos válidos y fiables de evaluación de la interferencia del dolor. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la fiabilidad y validez de la versión portuguesa de la Escala de Interferencia de lo Brief Pain Inventory (P-BPI. Doscientos catorze participantes con dolor crónico músculoesquelético respondieron al P-BPI, al 0-10 NRS, al Short Form-12 Health Status Questionnaire (SF-12 y al Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. El P-BPI mostró una excelente consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach = 0.91 y correlaciones moderadas con las medidas de critério (rs ¿ 0.30. El análisis factorial confirmatorio apoyó la solución de un factor. Los resultados apoyan la fiabilidad y validez de construto de la Escala de Interferencia del P-BPI. Es necesario que futuras investigaciónes evaluen la responsividad de la escala a los cambios en la interferencia del dolor a lo largo del tiempo.

  4. Factor Structure and Gender Stability of the Brazilian Version of the Pornography Consumption Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; de Oliveira, Vitor Henrique; de Souza Gatti, Ana Luísa; Junqueira Aguiar, Ana Saito; de Souza Aranha E Silva, Renata Almeida

    2016-10-02

    There are a few instruments available to measure pornograhy consumption-related constructs, and this lack of instruments can compromise the validity of research findings. The Pornography Consumption Inventory (PCI) assesses four motivations for pornography consumption, and it has been validated in hypersexual men and medical students. However, whether the psychometric properties of this instrument are comparable across genders remains unclear. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was used to verify the invariance of the structure of the PCI across male (100) and female (105) university students. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for each group showed a reasonably good fit of the data to the four-factor model. The MGCFA model included only factor loadings constrained to be equal between both genders (ΔCFI 0.05). However, the ΔCFI did not support a strong and strict factorial invariance, ΔCFI > 0.01. Although both genders seemed to agree with the conceptualization of pornography and motivations for consuming it, the PCI was not gender-invariant, as men showed a stronger degree of motivation to consume pornographic material than women did. The implications of these findings regarding the measurement of motivations for pornography use are outlined.

  5. Study of carbon dioxide emission inventory from transportation sector at Kualanamu International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryati, I.; Indrawan, I.; Alihta, K. N.

    2018-02-01

    Transportation includes sources of greenhouse gas emission contributor in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 is one of the air pollutant gases that cause climate change. The source of CO2 emissions at airports comes from road and air transportation. Kualanamu International Airport is one of the public service airports in North Sumatera Province. The purpose of this study is to inventory the emission loads generated by motor vehicles and aircraft and to forecast contributions of CO2 emissions from motor vehicles and aircraft. The research method used is quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method used is to estimate emission loads of motor vehicles based on vehicle volume and emission factors derived from the literature and using the Tier-2 method to calculate the aircraft emission loads. The results for the maximum CO2 concentration were 6,206,789.37 μg/m3 and the minimal CO2 concentration was 4,070,674.84 μg/Nm3. The highest aircraft CO2 emission load is 200,164,424.5 kg/hr (1.75 x 109 ton/year) and the lowest is 38,884,064.5 kg/hr (3.40 x 108 ton/year). Meanwhile, the highest CO2 emission load from motor vehicles was 51,299.25 gr/hr (449,38 ton/year) and the lowest was 38,990.42 gr/hr (341,55 ton/year). CO2 contribution from a motor vehicle is 65% and 5% from aircraft in Kualanamu International Airport.

  6. Development and evaluation of high-resolution regional emission inventory: A case study for Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Mao, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Improved emission inventories are crucial for better understanding atmospheric chemistry with air quality simulation at regional or local scales. Using the bottom-up approach, a high-resolution emission inventory was developed for Jiangsu China. Key parameters for over 6000 industrial sources were investigated, compiled and revised at plant level based on various data sources and on-site survey. Totally 56 NMVOCs samples were collected in 9 chemical plants and analyzed with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Source profiles of stack emissions from synthetic rubber, acetate fiber, polyether, vinyl acetate, and ethylene production, and those of fugitive emissions from ethylene, butanol and octanol, propylene epoxide, polyethylene and glycol production were obtained. Improvement of this provincial inventory was evaluated through comparisons with other inventories at larger spatial scales, using satellite observation and air quality modeling. Three inventories (national, regional, and provincial by this work) were applied in the Models-3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system to evaluate the model performances with different emission inputs. The best agreement between available ground observation and simulation was found when the provincial inventory was applied, indicated by the smallest normalized mean bias (NMB) and normalized mean errors (NME) for all the concerned species SO2, NO2, O3 and PM2.5. The result thus implied the advantage of improved emission inventory at local scale for high resolution air quality modeling. Under the unfavorable meteorology in which horizontal and vertical movement of atmosphere was limited, the simulated SO2 concentrations at downtown Nanjing (the capital city of Jiangsu) using the regional or national inventories were much higher than observation, implying overestimated urban emissions when economy or population densities were applied to downscale or allocate the emissions. With more accurate spatial distribution

  7. National inventories of air emissions in France: organisation and methodology - 8. edition - OMINEA, February 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontelle, Jean-Pierre; Allemand, Nadine; Andre, Jean-Marc; Bastide, Aurelie; Chang, Jean-Pierre; Deflorenne, Emmanuel; Druart, Ariane; Gavel, Antoine; Gueguen, Celine; Jabot, Julien; Jacquier, Guillaume; Joya, Romain; Kessouar, Sabrina; Martinet, Yann; Mathias, Etienne; Nicco, Laetitia; Prouteau, Emilie; Serveau, Laetitia; Tuddenham, Mark; Vincent, Julien

    2011-01-01

    Usually, various methods are used to estimate emissions of atmospheric pollutants from anthropogenic or natural sources. These methods which are more or less specific, require large quantities of data to carry out what is commonly named 'emission inventories', 'cadastres' or 'registers' depending on characteristics of the collection in terms of spatial and sectoral resolution. The OMINEA report includes a description of the national inventory system of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere (SNIEPA) which deals with the following topics: organisation, break down of responsibilities and coverage. Technical operational arrangements are described and various elements relating to reference documents and definitions, control and quality assurance, estimation of uncertainties are provided. A description is given for each emitting source category and for several substances classified in the following topics: 'greenhouse gases', 'acidification and photochemical pollution', 'eutrophication', 'heavy metals', 'persistent organic pollutants', 'particulate matter', 'other'. The plan is based on the international reporting format defined by the United Nations within the framework of conventions on climate change and long range transboundary air pollution (sources categories listed in CRFI/NFR)

  8. National inventories of air emissions in France: organisation and methodology - 9. edition - OMINEA, February 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontelle, Jean-Pierre; Andre, Jean-Marc; Bastide, Aurelie; Bort, Romain; Chang, Jean-Pierre; Deflorenne, Emmanuel; Druart, Ariane; Gavel, Antoine; Gueguen, Celine; Jabot, Julien; Jacquier, Guillaume; Jeannot, Coralie; Joya, Romain; Kessouar, Sabrina; Martinet, Yann; Mathias, Etienne; Nicco, Laetitia; Serveau, Laetitia; Tuddenham, Mark; Vasudeva, Divya; Vincent, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Usually, various methods are used to estimate emissions of atmospheric pollutants from anthropogenic or natural sources. These methods which are more or less specific, require large quantities of data to carry out what is commonly named 'emission inventories', 'cadastres' or 'registers' depending on characteristics of the collection in terms of spatial and sectoral resolution. The OMINEA report includes a description of the national inventory system of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere (SNIEPA) which deals with the following topics: organisation, break down of responsibilities and coverage. Technical operational arrangements are described and various elements relating to reference documents and definitions, control and quality assurance, estimation of uncertainties are provided. A description is given for each emitting source category and for several substances classified in the following topics: 'greenhouse gases', 'acidification and photochemical pollution', 'eutrophication', 'heavy metals', 'persistent organic pollutants', 'particulate matter', 'other'. The plan is based on the international reporting format defined by the United Nations within the framework of conventions on climate change and long range transboundary air pollution (sources categories listed in CRFI/NFR)

  9. Evaluation of a modified version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Kaur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posttraumatic growth is the positive change resulting from traumatic experiences and is typically assessed with retrospective measures like the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI. The PTGI was designed to include reference to a specific traumatic event, making it difficult to implement, without change, in prospective survey studies. Thus, a modified Posttraumatic Growth Inventory–Short Form (PTGI-SF was included in a large prospective study of current and former U.S. military personnel. The current study provides preliminary psychometric data for this modified measure and its ability to assess psychological well-being at a single time point. Methods The study population (N = 135,843 was randomly and equally split into exploratory and confirmatory samples that were proportionately balanced on trauma criterion. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were performed to assess the psychometric validity of the modified measure. The final model was also assessed in a subset of the confirmatory sample with a history of trauma using CFA. Results Results supported a single-factor model with two additional correlations between items assessing spirituality and items assessing compassion/appreciation for others. This model also fits among the subset with a history of trauma. The resulting measure was strongly associated with social support and personal mastery. Conclusions The modified PTGI-SF in this study captures psychological well-being in cross-sectional assessments, in addition to being able to measure posttraumatic growth with multiple assessments. Results indicate that the modified measure is represented by a single factor, but that items assessing spirituality and compassion/appreciation for others may be used alone to better capture these constructs.

  10. A new emission inventory for nonagricultural open fires in Asia from 2000 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yu; Chang Di; Liu Bing; Miao Weijie; Zhu Lei; Zhang Yuanhang

    2010-01-01

    Open fires play a significant role in atmospheric pollution and climatic change. This work aims to develop an emission inventory for nonagricultural open fires in Asia using the newly released MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) burned area product (MCD45A1), as the MODIS sensor cannot efficiently detect field crop residue burning. Country-level or province-specific biomass density data were used as fuel loads. Moisture contents were taken into account when calculating combustion factors for grass fuel. During the nine fire years 2000-2008, both burned areas and fire emissions clearly presented spatial and seasonal variations. Extensive nonagricultural open fires were concentrated in the months of February and March, while another peak was between August and October. Indonesia was the most important contributor to fire emission, which was largely attributable to peat burning. Myanmar, India, and Cambodia together contributed approximately half of the total burned area and emission. The annual emissions for CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , NMHC s , NO x , NH 3 , SO 2 , BC, OC, PM 2.5 , and PM 10 were 83 (69-103), 6.1 (4.6-8.2), 0.38 (0.24-0.57), 0.64 (0.36-1.0), 0.085 (0.074-0.10), 0.31 (0.17-0.48), 0.030 (0.024-0.037), 0.023 (0.020-0.028), 0.27 (0.22-0.33), 2.0 (1.6-2.6), and 2.2 (1.7-2.9) Tg yr -1 , respectively. This inventory has a daily temporal resolution and 500 m spatial resolution, and covers a long period, from April 2000 to February 2009. It could be used in global and regional air quality modeling.

  11. Developing a Valid Version of an Inventory to Measure Anger in Mexican Adolescents of Middle School Level: The ML-STAXI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Olán, Raúl J.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Escamilla-Tecalco, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    The goals were to develop a valid version of the Multicultural Latin American Inventory of Anger Expression and Hostility (ML-STAXI) for middle school Mexican youth (ML-STAXI-MS) and to test a new Questionnaire about Anger Expression with Physical Aggression (QAEPA). Five hundred and four adolescents (258 males, 246 females); (M[subscript age] =…

  12. Assessment of Mindfulness with the French Version of the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills in Community and Borderline Personality Disorder Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Rosetta; Jermann, Francoise; Bondolfi, Guido; McQuillan, Annabel

    2010-01-01

    This article explores mindfulness skills in community and borderline personality disorder (BPD) samples. Study 1 includes 173 community volunteers and explores the psychometric properties of the French version of the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS). Study 2 explores the KIMS factor structure in 130 BPD patients and compares KIMS…

  13. The Effects of Institutional Culture on Study Strategies of Hispanic Students as Measured by the "Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio": The Spanish Version of the "Study Behavior Inventory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Leonard B.; Sandiford, Janice R.

    The study behaviors of Spanish-speaking students at a large two-year public college in the United States were studied using the Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio (ECI) (L. Bliss, D. Vinay, and F. Koenigner), the Spanish version of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (C. Weinstein, 1987). Behaviors of these students were compared with…

  14. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home patients: factor structure invariance of the Dutch nursing home version of the neuropsychiatric inventory in different stages of dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, S.U.; Jonghe, J.F. de; Verhey, F.R.J.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To examine the influence of dementia stage and psychoactive medication use on the factor structure of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH) in Dutch nursing home patients. METHODS: The NPI-NH was administered to a large sample of 1,437 patients with mild to

  15. The Factorial Structure of the Dutch Translation of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems: A Test of the Long and Short Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Stijn; Desmet, Mattias; Rosseel, Yves

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors study the factorial structure of 2 versions (64 items and 32 items) of the Dutch translation of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP; L. M. Horowitz, L. E. Alden, J. S. Wiggins, & A. L. Pincus, 2000) in both a clinical sample (n = 382) and a student sample (n = 287). First, the authors test whether both…

  16. Reliability of the modified Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, Dutch version (PEDI-NL) for children with cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Waninge, A.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; de Blecourt, A. C. E.; Krijnen, W. P.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, C. P.

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to adapt the Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, Dutch version (PEDI-NL) for children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI) and cerebral palsy (CP) and determine test-retest and inter-respondent reliability. Method: The Delphi method was used to gain

  17. Psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (UBOS) in individuals with work-related problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Bruin, M.B.N. de; Schmidt, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey, the MBI-DV, were examined in individuals with and without clinical burnout. The factor structure, the utility of the MBI-DV as a screening instrument in addition to a clinical interview for diagnosing

  18. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  19. Global Inventory of Gas Geochemistry Data from Fossil Fuel, Microbial and Burning Sources, version 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Schwietzke, Stefan; Arling, Victoria A.; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    The concentration of atmospheric methane (CH4) has more than doubled over the industrial era. To help constrain global and regional CH4 budgets, inverse (top-down) models incorporate data on the concentration and stable carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δ2H) isotopic ratios of atmospheric CH4. These models depend on accurate δ13C and δ2H end-member source signatures for each of the main emissions categories. Compared with meticulous measurement and calibration of isotopic CH4 in the atmosphere, there has been relatively less effort to characterize globally representative isotopic source signatures, particularly for fossil fuel sources. Most global CH4 budget models have so far relied on outdated source signature values derived from globally nonrepresentative data. To correct this deficiency, we present a comprehensive, globally representative end-member database of the δ13C and δ2H of CH4 from fossil fuel (conventional natural gas, shale gas, and coal), modern microbial (wetlands, rice paddies, ruminants, termites, and landfills and/or waste) and biomass burning sources. Gas molecular compositional data for fossil fuel categories are also included with the database. The database comprises 10 706 samples (8734 fossil fuel, 1972 non-fossil) from 190 published references. Mean (unweighted) δ13C signatures for fossil fuel CH4 are significantly lighter than values commonly used in CH4 budget models, thus highlighting potential underestimation of fossil fuel CH4 emissions in previous CH4 budget models. This living database will be updated every 2-3 years to provide the atmospheric modeling community with the most complete CH4 source signature data possible. Database digital object identifier (DOI): https://doi.org/10.15138/G3201T.

  20. Initial Analysis of VOCs Speciation in CREATE Emissions Inventory using the MAPS-Seoul Aircraft Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, C.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, Y.; Kim, J.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Jang, Y. K.; Kim, S.

    2016-12-01

    As the first international cooperative air quality field study, the MAPS-Seoul (Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul) aircraft mission was conducted in May - June 2016 over the South Korea, to understand of climate and atmospheric environment. The aircraft carried observation instruments for measurements of GHGs, ozone and its precursors, aerosols, and chemical tracers. The CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Environment) emissions inventory and SMOKE-Asia emission processing system were used to support chemical forecasting and to serve as a priori for evaluation. Initial results of comparison studies show large discrepancies in VOC species over the South Korea - especially over urban regions. Several VOC species observed high near megacities and petro-chemical plants but under-predicted by chemical transport models (CTMs) - possibly due to relatively low emissions. The chemical speciation profiles and emissions inventory for each emission sources, therefore, have to be re-visited to improve emissions information. In this study, we have; 1) re-examined our emissions inventory and emission speciation processes, 2) and tried to find possible missing sources and alternative chemical speciation profiles, to improve our modelling emissions inventory. Initial review of the mapping and classification profiles, the original US chemical speciation profiles were found to be low in partitioning painting and surface coating sources, although they are the very significant contributors. Unlike other major national cities in China, Shanghai's VOC emissions fraction seems very similar to that of Seoul. Continuous analysis of major urban and industrial areas of the country will be presented at site.Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment

  1. Evaluation of a Fuel-Based Oil and Gas Inventory of Nitrogen Oxides with Top-Down Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, B. C.; Gorchov Negron, A.; McKeen, S. A.; Peischl, J.; Gilman, J.; Ahmadov, R.; Frost, G. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Thompson, C. R.; Trainer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have highlighted overestimates in anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the U.S., with particular attention on the mobile source sector. In this study, we explore whether there could be overestimates in the emissions of NOx from oil and gas production regions. We construct a bottom-up inventory using publicly available fuel use records of the industry and emission factors reported in the literature. We compare both the NEI 2011 and the fuel-based inventory with top-down emission fluxes derived by aircraft and ground-based field measurement campaigns by NOAA that occurred in 2012-13, including for basins located in Uintah, Haynesville, Marcellus, and Fayetteville. Compared to the top-down fluxes, the NEI overestimates NOx by a factor of 2 across the four basins. However, the discrepancies are not uniform, reflecting variability in oil and gas engine activity and NOx emission factors. We explore this variability with our fuel-based inventory and perform a Monte Carlo analysis to assess uncertainties in emissions. We find that on average the fuel-based inventory improves the agreement with the top-down emissions, and that the top-down emissions are within the uncertainties of our analysis.

  2. European Union emission inventory report 1990-2008 : under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This report describes the EU27 emission trends for : a number of air pollutants for the period 19902008. : An improved gap-filling methodology used in : compiling this year's EU27 emission inventory : means that for the first time a complete...

  3. Odour emission inventory of German wastewater treatment plants--odour flow rates and odour emission capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechen, F-B

    2004-01-01

    Wastewater Treatment plants can cause odour emissions that may lead to significant odour annoyance in their vicinity. Thus, over the past 20 years, several measurements were taken of the odour emissions that occur at WWTPs of different sizes, treatment technology, plant design and under different operating conditions. The specific aspects of odour sampling and measurement have to be considered. I presented some of the results of my odour emission measurements 11 years ago. However, it is now necessary to update the figures by evaluating newer measurement results obtained from measurements taken from 1994 to 2003. These are presented in this paper. Also, the paper highlights the odour emission capacity (OEC) measurement technique which characterises liquids and can be used to assess the results achieved by different types of treatment in the liquid phase, e.g. in a sewerage system. In addition, the OEC is a suitable parameter to set standards for the odorant content of industrial wastewaters that are discharged into the publicly owned sewerage system.

  4. Denmark's national inventory report. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2001. Emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due bye 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, CO, NMVOC, SO 2 , HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 . (au)

  5. Denmark's national inventory report 2006 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2004. Emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 , CO, NMVOC, SO 2 . (au)

  6. Greenhouse gases emissions from waste management practices using Life Cycle Inventory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.-C.; Lin, C.-F.

    2008-01-01

    When exploring the correlation between municipal solid waste management and green house gas emission, the volume and physical composition of the waste matter must be taken into account. Due to differences in local environments and lifestyles the quantity and composition of waste often vary. This leads to differences in waste treatment methods and causes different volumes of greenhouse gases (GHGs), highlighting the need for local research. In this study the Life Cycle Inventory method was used with global warming indicator GHGs as the variables. By quantifying the data and adopting a region-based approach, this created a model of household MSWM in Taipei City, a metropolitan region in Taiwan. To allow analysis and comparison a compensatory system was then added to expand the system boundary. The results of the analysis indicated that out of all the solid waste management sub-models for a function unit, recycling was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions while using kitchen food waste as swine feeding resulted in the most GHG emissions. As for the impact of waste collection vehicles on emissions, if the efficiency of transportation could be improved and energy consumption reduced, this will help solid waste management to achieve its goal of reducing GHG emissions

  7. Inventories of N2O and NO emissions from European forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesik, M.; Ambus, Per; Baritz, R.

    2005-01-01

    .9 kt N yr(-1) for N2O, for year 2000 meteorology. The results show that process-oriented models coupled to a GIS are useful tools for the calculation of regional, national, or global inventories of biogenic N trace gas emissions from soils. This work represents the most comprehensive effort to date...... and emission of N trace gases. This model was validated against field observations of N trace gas fluxes from 19 sites obtained within the EU project NOFRETETE, and shown to perform well for N2O (r(2) = 0.68, slope = 0.76) and NO (r(2) = 0.78, slope = 0.73). For the calculation of a European-wide emission...... vary substantial from year to year and that distinct regional patterns can be observed. Our central estimate of NO emissions from forest soils in the EU amounts to 98.4, 84.9 and 99.2 kt N yr(-1) 1, using meteorology from 1990, 1995 and year 2000, respectively. This is emissions...

  8. Emission Inventories for Ocean-Going Vessels Using Category 3 Propulsion Engines in or Near the United States; Technical Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the development of emission inventories for ocean-going vessels using Category 3 propulsion engines within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. Inventories are presented for the 2002, 2020, and 2030 calendar years.

  9. International Assistance for Low-Emission Development Planning: Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) Inventory of Activities and Tools--Preliminary Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, S.; Benioff, R.

    2011-05-01

    The Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) is a voluntary network of international practitioners supporting low-emission planning in developing countries. The network seeks to improve quality of support through sharing project information, tools, best practices and lessons, and by fostering harmonized assistance. CLEAN has developed an inventory to track and analyze international technical support and tools for low-carbon planning activities in developing countries. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the inventory to help identify trends in assistance activities and tools available to support developing countries with low-emission planning.

  10. Application of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory-Chinese Version (GAI-CV) to older people in Beijing communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yue; Xin, Tao; Wang, Dahua; Tang, Dan

    2014-03-01

    The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) was developed to assess anxiety in older adults. The objectives of this work were as follows: (a) to analyze the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the GAI (GAI-CV), and (b) to explore the extent of anxiety and related factors in the elderly Chinese residents of Beijing. Participants in this study included 1,047 people (59.4% female) more than 60 years old who were living in the community. They were randomly selected from 15 communities in Beijing. Basic information was collected. Anxiety was measured using the GAI-CV, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The GAI-CV exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.94) and demonstrated good concurrent validity against the SAS (r = 0.52, p = 0.018) and the BAI (r = 0.560, p = 0.000). Item response theory (IRT) analyses showed that the items of the GAI-CV exhibited high difficulty (0.97-2) and discrimination parameters (1.91-5.33). The items exhibited information parameters greater than 1.25 with the exceptions of items 2, 12, and 18. The GAI-CV scores were significantly associated with gender, age, and chronic disease. However, no significant differences due to marriage or education were found. The GAI is a new scale that was specifically designed to measure anxiety in older people. The results of this study suggest that the GAI-CV had good psychometric properties, but some items need to be modified. IRT analyses indicated that the GAI-CV provided good measures of anxiety across the moderately high to very high levels. The GAI-CV may be a useful instrument for further research studies aimed at analyzing high-level anxiety among older adults in China.

  11. Verification of the Danish 1990, 2000 and 2010 emission inventory data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Nielsen, Malene; Winther, Morten

    , agriculture, industry and waste. The data are based on the national greenhouse gas inventories for the years 1990 (base year), 2000 and 2010, as reported in 2012, and provided by the UNFCCC and EU. Inter-country comparison and time series consistency check of emissions and implied emission factors is made...... is made with data for energy consumption (Eurostat), agricultural statistics (Eurostat), industrial processes (UN) and waste disposal (OECD). Verification in this approach is a combination of qualitative and quantitative assessments and can assist to identify sectors and categories that require more...... for EU15 countries, excluding Luxemburg and including Norway and Switzerland and for some verification steps also including Australia, Canada, Japan, Russian Federation, USA and aggregated values for EU15 and EU27. National and inter-country verification and time trend consistency check of activity data...

  12. The Portuguese version of the Epilepsy Surgery Inventory (ESI-55): cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Neide Barreira; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita; da Silva, Tatiana Indelicato; Westphal-Guitti, Ana Carolina; Azevedo, Auro Mauro; da Silva Noffs, Maria Helena; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Targas Yacubian, Elza Márcia

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Portuguese version of the Epilepsy Surgery Inventory (ESI-55) and to assess its psychometric properties. Sixty patients with temporal lobe epilepsy related to unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis who underwent presurgical evaluation at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) formed the sample for this study. The psychometric properties of the ESI-55 included: reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Internal consistency was high in all domains (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.76 for Social Function to 0.88 for Physical Function) except Overall Quality of Life (alpha=0.45). Test-retest reliability after 1 week was good, with the intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.79 (Energy/Fatigue) to 0.92 (Role Limitations due to Emotional Problems). Interrater reliability ranged from 0.84 (Cognitive Function) to 0.94 (Role Limitations due to Physical Problems). For construct validity, we verified a high correlation between the ESI-55 and Health Assessment Questionnaire-8 for the Physical Function domain (Pearson linear correlation=-0.84), and a moderate correlation for the Pain domain (P=-0.58), but for the other subscales no correlation was detected. Beck Depression Inventory and ESI-55 domains were highly statistically correlated (ANOVA: P0.05). With respect to demographic characteristics, a statistically significant correlation was observed for the variable educational level (Student t, P<0.005) and ESI-55 scores. There was a high correlation between seizure frequency and ESI-55 domains for clinical variables (ANOVA, P<0.005). Surgical treatment in this series improved health-related quality of life in the seizure-free group in three domains--Health Perception (1.24), Emotional Well-Being (1.32), and Energy/Fatigue (1.48)-as reflected by the standard response mean and the effect size of the sample. Our results support the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the ESI-55 as a measure of health

  13. The influence of the waterjet propulsion system on the ships' energy consumption and emissions inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Grados, Vanesa; Mejías, Javier; Musina, Liliya; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Juan

    2018-03-09

    In this study we consider the problems associated with calculating ships' energy and emission inventories. Various related uncertainties are described in many similar studies published in the last decade, and applying to Europe, the USA and Canada. However, none of them have taken into account the performance of ships' propulsion systems. On the one hand, when a ship uses its propellers, there is no unanimous agreement on the equations used to calculate the main engines load factor and, on the other, the performance of waterjet propulsion systems (for which this variable depends on the speed of the ship) has not been taken into account in any previous studies. This paper proposes that the efficiency of the propulsion system should be included as a new parameter in the equation that defines the actual power delivered by a ship's main engines, as applied to calculate energy consumption and emissions in maritime transport. To highlight the influence of the propulsion system on calculated energy consumption and emissions, the bottom-up method has been applied using data from eight fast ferries operating across the Strait of Gibraltar over the course of one year. This study shows that the uncertainty about the efficiency of the propulsion system should be added as one more uncertainty in the energy and emission inventories for maritime transport as currently prepared. After comparing four methods for this calculation, the authors propose a new method for eight cases. For the calculation of the Main Engine's fuel oil consumption, differences up to 22% between some methods were obtained at low loads. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Teacher Stress Inventory: validation of the Greek version and perceived stress levels among 3,447 educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourmousi N

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ntina Kourmousi, Christina Darviri, Liza Varvogli, Evangelos C Alexopoulos School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Background: The Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI is an instrument for measuring occupational stress in teachers. This study aimed to translate and adapt it for use in Greece, and then assess its reliability and validity. Methods: The Greek versions of the TSI and the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14 were posted on all Greek educators' official sites during May 2012. A nationwide sample of 3,447 teachers of all levels and specialties completed the questionnaires via the Internet. Reliability was determined by the calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and validity was further examined by investigating the correlation of the TSI with the PSS-14 and their association with demographics and work-related factors. Results: Satisfactory Cronbach's alpha values (above 0.70 were found for all TSI dimensions. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor construct of TSI (root mean square error of approximation, comparative fit index, and goodness-of-fit index values were 0.079, 0.956, and 0.951, respectively, confirming the pre-established theory for the two latent variables, Stress Sources and Stress Manifestations. Significant correlations were found between TSI subscales, PSS-14 sex, age, lack of support, and students' difficulties. Conclusion: The Greek version of the TSI was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties, and its use for assessing stress in Greek teachers is warranted. Keywords: TSI, reliability, validity, Greek educators, occupational stress, psychosocial factors

  15. Exercise addiction in adolescents and emerging adults - Validation of a youth version of the Exercise Addiction Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Griffiths, Mark D; Hemmingsen, Simone Daugaard; Støving, René Klinkby

    2018-02-07

    Background Behavioral addictions often onset in adolescence and increase the risk of psychological and social problems later in life. The core symptoms of addiction are tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, lack of control, and compulsive occupation with the behavior. Psychometrically validated tools are required for detection and early intervention. Adolescent screening instruments exist for several behavioral addictions including gambling and video gaming addiction but not for exercise addiction. Given recent empirical and clinical evidence that a minority of teenagers appear to be experiencing exercise addiction, a psychometrically robust screening instrument is required. Aims The aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a youth version of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) - a robust screening instrument that has been used across different countries and cultures - and to assess the prevalence of exercise addiction and associated disturbed eating. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to three high-risk samples (n = 471) aged 11-20 years (mean age: 16.3 years): sport school students, fitness center attendees, and patients with eating disorder diagnoses. A youth version of the EAI (EAI-Y) was developed and distributed. Participants were also screened for disordered eating with the SCOFF Questionnaire. Results Overall, the EAI-Y demonstrated good reliability and construct validity. The prevalence rate of exercise addiction was 4.0% in school athletes, 8.7% in fitness attendees, and 21% in patients with eating disorders. Exercise addiction was associated with feelings of guilt when not exercising, ignoring pain and injury, and higher levels of body dissatisfaction.

  16. Linguistic Validation of the Turkish Version of the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory - Head and Neck Cancer Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brandon Gunn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of patient symptom reports with frequent symptom assessment may be preferred over the more commonly used health-related quality of life questionnaires. Aims: We sought to linguistically validate the Turkish version of the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck module (MDASI-HN patient reported outcome questionnaire. Study Design: Validation study. Methods: Following standard forward and backward translation of the original and previously validated English MDASI-HN into a Turkish version (T-MDASI-HN, it was administered to patients with head and neck cancer able to read and understand Turkish. Patients were then cognitively debriefed to evaluate their understanding and comprehension of the T-MDASI-HN. Individual and group responses are presented using descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-six participants with head and neck cancer completed the T-MDASIHN and accompanying cognitive debriefing. Overall, 97 percent of the individual TMDASI-HN items were completed. Average recorded time to complete the 28 item TMDASI-HN questionnaire was 5.4 minutes (range 2-10. Average overall ease of completion, understandability, and acceptability were favorably rated at 1.0, 1.1, and 0.2, respectively, on scales from 0 to 10. Only 5 of the 26 of participants reported trouble completing any single questionnaire items, namely the “difficulty remembering” item for 3 individuals. Conclusion: The T-MDASI-HN is linguistically valid with ease of completion, relevance, comprehensibility, and applicability and it can be a useful clinical and research tool.

  17. Emissions inventories for urban airshed model application in the Philadelphia Aqcr (Air Quality Control Region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    This report documents the procedures used to develop emissions input required by the Urban Airshed photochemical oxidant model. Ambient air quality data were gathered as part of another effort during the summer of 1979 in Philadelphia to be used in the model validation effort. For 1979 and the 1987 projection year, ES compiled hour by hour emissions data for a representative weekday in the oxidant season. The pollutants inventoried are five categories of VOC required by the Airshed model, four categories of VOC defined in RAPS, NO, NO2, CO, SO2, and TSP. Point and area sources were considered with the highway vehicle portion of the inventory being subcontracted to DVRPC. County level area source data were allocated to a 502-cell grid system. Projections were made so that ozone air quality in 1987 could be investigated. ES developed annualized EIS/PandR data and data files containing temporal and VOC/NOx profiles in order to generate the data packets required by the Airshed model.

  18. A Psychometric Evaluation of a Swedish Version of the Positive–Negative Sex-Role Inventory (PN-SRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Rydberg Sterner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Positive–Negative Sex-Role Inventory (PN-SRI assesses gender identity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a Swedish version of the PN-SRI in a population of 70-year-olds within the Gothenburg H70-study in Sweden. The overarching objective of testing the PN-SRI within the H70-study was to evaluate its usability to further study gender identity in large population-based samples of older adults. A total of 1124 individuals participated in the psychometric testing. A sub-sample of these (n = 406 provided a comprehensive survey regarding societal norms on femininity and masculinity. Reliability and validity tests were performed using Cronbach’s Alpha and factor analyses. The Cronbach’s α coefficients (0.734–0.787 indicated a satisfactory level of internal consistency, and the four-factor model (Model 2 fitted the data at an acceptable level (root-mean-square error of approximation, RMSEA = 0.068, standardized root-mean-square residual, SRMR = 0.07. This cross-cultural adaptation of the PN-SRI indicates that it may be applicable in a Swedish research setting comprising older adults. Future research is needed to further test the psychometric properties of this scale. Adding the PN-SRI to population-based studies will contribute to providing a nuanced way of analyzing differences and similarities among men and women.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory for Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Juan; Jiang, Nan; Li, Zheng; Chen, Xi-Wei; Wang, Pei-Guo; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Yue

    Dysphagia is a common side effect of anticancer treatments in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) and can worsen patients' quality of life. A well-established measure is essential to evaluate dysphagia in HNC patients. The aim of this study is to determine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI-C) for HNC patients. A total of 220 subjects were included in the study. Reliability was examined by internal consistency (Cronbach's α) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient). Validity was evaluated with Spearman correlations (r). The Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficient of the MDADI-C were .923 and 0.942, respectively. The criterion validity of the MDADI-C was 0.777. The Spearman correlation coefficients of the MDADI-C with the European Organization for Research Into the Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire for Head and Neck Cancer (r = -0.851), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (r = -0.424), radiotherapy dose (r = -0.553), and treatment regimens (r = -0.407) demonstrated good construct validity (all P dysphagia rapidly and evaluate its impact on the quality of life of HNC patients. The MDADI-C could be used to document and monitor the dysphagia level of HNC patients for clinicians, nurses, and researchers. This validated questionnaire will help nurses and doctors to improve dysphagia management in HNC patients and will allow researchers to compare the study results across different countries.

  20. Feasibility, reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the Diabetes Quality of Life Brief Clinical Inventory (IDQOL-BCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfeizi, Mani; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Toorzani, Zahra Mehdizadeh; Mohammadi, Seyede Momeneh; Azad, Mozhgan Dehghan; Mohammadi, Adeleh Vizheh; Teimori, Ziba

    2012-05-01

    To validate and culturally adapt the Diabetes-specific Quality of Life Brief Clinical Inventory (DQOL-BCI) for the Iranian population. After translation - back translation, content validity was assessed utilizing a panel of six experts. Based on a sample of 180 diabetic patients referred to two Diabetics Clinic Centers from September to May 2011 in Karaj, Iran, construct validity via detecting the factor structure, and convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by scale-item correlations and known group analyses. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed in sample of 30 patients by Cronbach's and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The IDQOL-BCI showed good content validity (CVI values>0.75 and CVR values>0.99), internal consistency (α=0.75) and test-retest reliability (ICC=0.81). A 3-factor solution was found. In addition, high values of item-scale correlations confirmed the convergence validity, and some subscales and total scores differentiate between groups defined by sex, disease duration, income levels, drug using status and physical activity demonstrated the discriminant validity. Our findings demonstrate the initial feasibility, reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the IDQOL-BCI as a measure of diabetic-specific QOL measure in Iranian patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inventories and reduction scenarios of urban waste-related greenhouse gas emissions for management potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dewei; Xu, Lingxing; Gao, Xueli; Guo, Qinghai; Huang, Ning

    2018-06-01

    Waste-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been recognized as one of the prominent contributors to global warming. Current urban waste regulations, however, face increasing challenges from stakeholders' trade-offs and hierarchic management. A combined method, i.e., life cycle inventories and scenario analysis, was employed to investigate waste-related GHG emissions during 1995-2015 and to project future scenarios of waste-driven carbon emissions by 2050 in a pilot low carbon city, Xiamen, China. The process-based carbon analysis of waste generation (prevention and separation), transportation (collection and transfer) and disposal (treatment and recycling) shows that the main contributors of carbon emissions are associated with waste disposal processes, solid waste, the municipal sector and Xiamen Mainland. Significant spatial differences of waste-related CO 2e emissions were observed between Xiamen Island and Xiamen Mainland using the carbon intensity and density indexes. An uptrend of waste-related CO 2e emissions from 2015 to 2050 is identified in the business as usual, waste disposal optimization, waste reduction and the integrated scenario, with mean annual growth rates of 8.86%, 8.42%, 6.90% and 6.61%, respectively. The scenario and sensitivity analysis imply that effective waste-related carbon reduction requires trade-offs among alternative strategies, actions and stakeholders in a feasible plan, and emphasize a priority of waste prevention and collection in Xiamen. Our results could benefit to the future modeling of urban multiple wastes and life-cycle carbon control in similar cities within and beyond China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Contributing to local policy making on GHG emission reduction through inventorying and attribution: A case study of Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Fengming; Geng Yong; Chen Xudong; Zhang Yunsong; Wang Xinbei; Xue Bing; Dong Huijuan; Liu Zhu; Ren Wanxia; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Zhu Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Cities consumed 84% of commercial energy in China, which indicates cities should be the main areas for GHG emissions reduction. Our case study of Shenyang in this paper shows how a clear inventory analysis on GHG emissions at city level can help to identify the major industries and societal sectors for reduction efforts so as to facilitate low-carbon policy-making. The results showed total carbon emission in 2007 was 57 Mt CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 e), of which 41 Mt CO 2 e was in-boundary emissions and 16 Mt CO 2 e was out-of-boundary emissions. The energy sector was dominant in the emission inventory, accounting for 93.1% of total emissions. Within energy sector, emissions from energy production industry, manufacturing and construction industry accounted for 88.4% of this sector. Our analysis showed that comparing with geographical boundary, setting system boundary based on single process standard could provide better information to decision makers for carbon emission reduction. After attributing electricity and heating consumption to final users, the resident and commercial sector became the largest emitter, accounting for 28.5% of total emissions. Spatial analysis of emissions showed that industrial districts such as Shenbei and Tiexi had the large potential to reduce their carbon emissions. Implications of results are finally discussed. - Highlights: → An inventory analysis can help identify key industries and societal sectors for reduction efforts. → Setting system boundary can provide better information for carbon emission reduction. → Urban districts with heavy industrial plants have potential to reduce their carbon emissions. → Policies that support urban energy structure optimization can accelerate low-carbon development.

  3. A Global Emission Inventory of Black Carbon and Primary Organic Carbon from Fossil-Fuel and Biofuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, T. C.; Streets, D. G.; Nelson, S. M.

    2001-12-01

    Regional and global climate models rely on emission inventories of black carbon and organic carbon to determine the climatic effects of primary particulate matter (PM) from combustion. The emission of primary carbonaceous particles is highly dependent on fuel type and combustion practice. Therefore, simple categories such as "domestic" or "industrial" combustion are not sufficient to quantify emissions, and the black-carbon and organic-carbon fractions of PM vary with combustion type. We present a global inventory of primary carbonaceous particles that improves on previous "bottom-up" tabulations (e.g. \\textit{Cooke et al.,} 1999) by considering approximately 100 technologies, each representing one combination of fuel, combustion type, and emission controls. For fossil-fuel combustion, we include several categories not found in previous inventories, including "superemitting" and two-stroke vehicles, steel-making. We also include emissions from waste burning and biofuels used for heating and cooking. Open biomass burning is not included. Fuel use, drawn from International Energy Agency (IEA) and United Nations (UN) data, is divided into technologies on a regional basis. We suggest that emissions in developing countries are better characterized by including high-emitting technologies than by invoking emission multipliers. Due to lack of information on emission factors and technologies in use, uncertainties are high. We estimate central values and uncertainties by combining the range of emission factors found in the literature with reasonable estimates of technology divisions. We provide regional totals of central, low and high estimates, identify the sources of greatest uncertainty to be targeted for future work, and compare our results with previous emission inventories. Both central estimates and uncertainties are given on a 1\\deg x1\\deg grid. As we have reported previously for the case of China (\\textit{Streets et al.,} 2001), low-technology combustion

  4. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Davis, S. J.; Guan, D.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2014-10-01

    High anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and it has attracted considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated, however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutants were transferred through economic and trade activities remains challenge. In this work, we assessed China's virtual air pollutant transport embodied in trade, by using consumption-based accounting approach. We first constructed a consumption-based emission inventory for China's four key air pollutants (primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)) in 2007, based on the bottom-up sectoral emission inventory concerning their production activities - a production-based inventory. We used a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to integrate the sectoral production-based emissions and the associated economic and trade activities, and finally obtained consumption-based inventory. Unlike the production-based inventory, the consumption-based inventory tracked emissions throughout the supply chain related to the consumption of goods and services and hereby identified the emission flows followed the supply chains. From consumption-based perspective, emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces due to interprovincial trade. Large amount of emissions were embodied in the net imports of east regions from northern and central regions; these were determined by differences in the regional economic status and environmental policies. We also calculated the emissions embodied in exported and imported goods and services. It is found that 15-23% of China's pollutant emissions were related to exports for foreign consumption; that proportion was much higher for central and export-oriented coastal regions. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers

  5. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory of Natural Gas Production and Distribution over Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Omara, M.; Adams, P. J.; Presto, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Methane is the second most powerful greenhouse gas after Carbon Dioxide. The natural gas production and distribution accounts for 23% of the total anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States. The boost of natural gas production in U.S. in recent years poses a potential concern of increased methane emissions from natural gas production and distribution. The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (Edgar) v4.2 and the EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) are currently the most commonly used methane emission inventories. However, recent studies suggested that both Edgar v4.2 and the EPA GHGI largely underestimated the methane emission from natural gas production and distribution in U.S. constrained by both ground and satellite measurements. In this work, we built a gridded (0.1° Latitude ×0.1° Longitude) methane emission inventory of natural gas production and distribution over the contiguous U.S. using emission factors measured by our mobile lab in the Marcellus Shale, the Denver-Julesburg Basin, and the Uintah Basin, and emission factors reported from other recent field studies for other natural gas production regions. The activity data (well location and count) are mostly obtained from the Drillinginfo, the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) and the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Results show that the methane emission from natural gas production and distribution estimated by our inventory is about 20% higher than the EPA GHGI, and in some major natural gas production regions, methane emissions estimated by the EPA GHGI are significantly lower than our inventory. For example, in the Marcellus Shale, our estimated annual methane emission in 2015 is 600 Gg higher than the EPA GHGI. We also ran the GEOS-Chem methane simulation to estimate the methane concentration in the atmosphere with our built inventory, the EPA GHGI and the Edgar v4.2 over the nested North American Domain. These simulation results showed differences in

  6. Land cover change mapping using MODIS time series to improve emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Saldaña, Gerardo; Quaife, Tristan; Clifford, Debbie

    2016-04-01

    MELODIES is an FP7 funded project to develop innovative and sustainable services, based upon Open Data, for users in research, government, industry and the general public in a broad range of societal and environmental benefit areas. Understanding and quantifying land surface changes is necessary for estimating greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, and for meeting air quality limits and targets. More sophisticated inventories methodologies for at least key emission source are needed due to policy-driven air quality directives. Quantifying land cover changes on an annual basis requires greater spatial and temporal disaggregation of input data. The main aim of this study is to develop a methodology for using Earth Observations (EO) to identify annual land surface changes that will improve emissions inventories from agriculture and land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in the UK. First goal is to find the best sets of input features that describe accurately the surface dynamics. In order to identify annual and inter-annual land surface changes, a times series of surface reflectance was used to capture seasonal variability. Daily surface reflectance images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 500m resolution were used to invert a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model to create the seamless time series. Given the limited number of cloud-free observations, a BRDF climatology was used to constrain the model inversion and where no high-scientific quality observations were available at all, as a gap filler. The Land Cover Map 2007 (LC2007) produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) was used for training and testing purposes. A land cover product was created for 2003 to 2015 and a bayesian approach was created to identified land cover changes. We will present the results of the time series development and the first exercises when creating the land cover and land cover changes products.

  7. The Italian Version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-32): Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure in Clinical and Non-clinical Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Coco, Gianluca; Mannino, Giuseppe; Salerno, Laura; Oieni, Veronica; Di Fratello, Carla; Profita, Gabriele; Gullo, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    All versions of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) are broadly used to measure people's interpersonal functioning. The aims of the current study are: (a) to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Italian version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-short version (IIP-32); and (b) to evaluate its associations with core symptoms of different eating disorders. One thousand two hundred and twenty three participants ( n = 623 non-clinical and n = 600 clinical participants with eating disorders and obesity) filled out the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-short version (IIP-32) along with measures of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, RSES), psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire, OQ-45), and eating disorders (Eating Disorder Inventory, EDI-3). The present study examined the eight-factor structure of the IIP-32 with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM). ESEM was also used to test the measurement invariance of the IIP-32 across clinical and non-clinical groups. It was found that CFA had unsatisfactory model fit, whereas the corresponding ESEM solution provided a better fit to the observed data. However, six target factor loadings tend to be modest, and ten items showed cross-loadings higher than 0.30. The configural and metric invariance as well as the scalar and partial strict invariance of the IIP-32 were supported across clinical and non-clinical groups. The internal consistency of the IIP-32 was acceptable and the construct validity was confirmed by significant correlations between IIP-32, RSES, and OQ-45. Furthermore, overall interpersonal difficulties were consistently associated with core eating disorder symptoms, whereas interpersonal styles that reflect the inability to form close relationships, social awkwardness, the inability to be assertive, and a tendency to self-sacrificing were positively associated with general psychological maladjustment

  8. Colorado State Emissions Inventory Trends 2000-2011 and relevance to the FRAPPE/Discover-AQ Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, D.; Adelman, Z.; Moore, T.; Wells, D.; Briggs, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Intermountain West Data Warehouse (IWDW) was created through joint efforts of Federal agencies (Land Managers and EPA), and State Air Quality Program Managers to address regional scale modeling analysis and planning needs. The IWDW contains monitoring, emissions, and air quality modeling data and analysis tools to support regulatory, research, and academic applications. As one of the participants, the State of Colorado uses the data from the IWDW for a variety of regulatory efforts including modeling efforts to support the development of State Implementation Plans and for air quality research efforts such as the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE). The emissions inventories developed for the IWDW are highly detailed and much more suitable to local modeling efforts than the EPA National Emission Inventory. Here we present an overview of the 2011 statewide IWDW emissions inventory for Colorado and examine historic trends in statewide inventories used for modeling, planning and analysis. The IWDW 2011 inventory should prove highly useful to modeling, regulatory, research and policy needs for participating agencies.

  9. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86 provides annual estimates of anthropogenic...

  10. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-06-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. In this study, we evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries, and the consistency of emissions inventories among different countries. We also evaluated the success of individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. In our approach, we combined global high-resolution maps of crop harvest area and production, derived from satellite maps and ground-based census data, with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements of active fires. At a global scale, we found that adding ground nuts (e.g., peanuts), cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, rye, and pulse other from the list of 14 crops targeted by the UNFCCC increased the percentage of active fires covered by the reporting system by 9%. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries, requiring the addition of sunflower, cotton, rapeseed, and alfalfa and the removal of beans, sugarcane, pulse others, and tuber-root others. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 6% to 15%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico, and Nigeria) would capture over 55% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the United States and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year

  11. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the “Short Five” personality inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstabel, Kenn; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Leikas, Sointu; García Velázquez, Regina; Qin, Hiaying; Verkasalo, Markku; Walkowitz, Gari

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item “Short Five” (S5) by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model) in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China), and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours), there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the full version

  12. A Turkish Version of the Cardiac Patients’ Learning Needs Inventory; Patient Questionnaire (TR-CPLNI: Reliability-Validity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Enç

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The knowledge obtained from the tools for identifying patients' educational needs may form the basis for devising an individualized cardiac educational program. New approaches should prioritize educational planning oriented towards AMI patients' educational needs.Aim: This study was designed to investigate the validity and reliability of the Turkish adaptation of The Cardiac Patients' Learning Needs Inventory(TR-CPLNI; Patient Questionnaire to determine the educational needs of patients admitted to hospital following their first MI.Methodology: The study included 143 patients (21 women, 122 men; age ≤70 years who were treated for their first MI, with recovery from the acute period without chest pain. Data were collected using a questionnaire on sociodemographic features and the Turkish version of the CPLNI. Validity studies included language and content validity. For reliability analyses, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were calculated and, for test-retest reliability, the scale was re-administered after a two-week interval.Results: The age groups of the participants were; 30-39 years (7.0%, 40-49 years (40.6%, 50-59 years (24.5%, and 60-70 years (28.0%. Content validity index of the scale was 0.96. The overall Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated as 0.96, ranging from 0.78 to 0.92 for eight subscales. Item total correlations werebetween 0.65 and 0.85 (p<0.01. The overall test-retest reliability was 0.77 (p=0.00, ranging from 0.42 to 0.75 for eight subscales. Patients admitted to the clinic determined the important subjects which they wanted to gain information as “medication information”, “anatomy and physiology of heart”, “symptom management”respectively. After being discharged, they arranged the important subjects as life-style factors, anatomy and physiology of heart, dietary information respectively. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the Turkish version of the CPLNI can be used as a valid and

  13. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the "Short Five" personality inventory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenn Konstabel

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item "Short Five" (S5 by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China, and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours, there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the

  14. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the "Short Five" personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstabel, Kenn; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Leikas, Sointu; García Velázquez, Regina; Qin, Hiaying; Verkasalo, Markku; Walkowitz, Gari

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item "Short Five" (S5) by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model) in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China), and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours), there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the full version of

  15. What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marmer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship emission estimates diverge widely for all chemical compounds for several reasons: use of different methodologies (bottom-up or top-down, activity data and emission factors can easily result in a difference ranging from a factor of 1.5 to even an order of magnitude. Combining three sets of observational data – ozone and black carbon measurements sampled at three coastal sites and on board of a Mediterranean cruise ship, as well as satellite observations of atmospheric NO2 column concentration over the same area – we assess the accuracy of the three most commonly used ship emission inventories, EDGAR FT (Olivier et al., 2005, emissions described by Eyring et al. (2005 and emissions reported by EMEP (Vestreng et al., 2007. Our tool is a global atmospheric chemistry transport model which simulates the chemical state of the Mediterranean atmosphere applying different ship emission inventories. The simulated contributions of ships to air pollutant levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere are significant but strongly depend on the inventory applied. Close to the major shipping routes relative contributions vary from 10 to 50% for black carbon and from 2 to 12% for ozone in the surface layer, as well as from 5 to 20% for nitrogen dioxide atmospheric column burden. The relative contributions are still significant over the North African coast, but less so over the South European coast because densely populated regions with significant human activity contribute relatively more to air pollution than ships, even if these regions attract a lot of ship traffic. The observations poorly constrain the ship emission inventories in the Eastern Mediterranean where the influence of uncertain land based emissions, the model transport and wet deposition are at least as important as the signal from ships. In the Western Mediterranean, the regional EMEP emission inventory gives the best match with most measurements, followed by Eyring for NO2

  16. On the influence of temporal and spatial resolution of aircraft emission inventories for mesoscale modeling of pollutant dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzkowiak, V.; Petry, H.; Ebel, A. [Cologne Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Geophysics and Meteorology

    1997-12-31

    The sensitivity of a mesoscale chemistry transport model to the temporal and spatial resolution of aircraft emission inventories is evaluated. A statistical analysis of air traffic in the North-Atlantic flight corridor is carried out showing a highly variable, fine structured spatial distribution and a pronounced daily variation. Sensitivity studies comparing different emission scenarios reveal a strong dependency to the emission time and location of both transport and response in chemical formation of subsequent products. The introduction of a pronounced daily variation leads to a 30% higher ozone production in comparison to uniformly distributed emissions. (author) 9 refs.

  17. Towards an inventory of methane emissions from manure management that is responsive to changes on Canadian farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanderZaag, A C; Evans, L; Vergé, X P C; Desjardins, R L; MacDonald, J D

    2013-01-01

    Methane emissions from manure management represent an important mitigation opportunity, yet emission quantification methods remain crude and do not contain adequate detail to capture changes in agricultural practices that may influence emissions. Using the Canadian emission inventory methodology as an example, this letter explores three key aspects for improving emission quantification: (i) obtaining emission measurements to improve and validate emission model estimates, (ii) obtaining more useful activity data, and (iii) developing a methane emission model that uses the available farm management activity data. In Canada, national surveys to collect manure management data have been inconsistent and not designed to provide quantitative data. Thus, the inventory has not been able to accurately capture changes in management systems even between manure stored as solid versus liquid. To address this, we re-analyzed four farm management surveys from the past decade and quantified the significant change in manure management which can be linked to the annual agricultural survey to create a continuous time series. In the dairy industry of one province, for example, the percentage of manure stored as liquid increased by 300% between 1991 and 2006, which greatly affects the methane emission estimates. Methane emissions are greatest from liquid manure, but vary by an order of magnitude depending on how the liquid manure is managed. Even if more complete activity data are collected on manure storage systems, default Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidance does not adequately capture the impacts of management decisions to reflect variation among farms and regions in inventory calculations. We propose a model that stays within the IPCC framework but would be more responsive to farm management by generating a matrix of methane conversion factors (MCFs) that account for key factors known to affect methane emissions: temperature, retention time and inoculum. This

  18. Biogenic emissions of greenhouse gases caused by arable and animal agriculture. Task 3. Overall biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. National Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensen, A.

    1999-12-01

    The aim of the concerted action 'Biogenic Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Caused by Arable and Animal Agriculture' is to obtain an overview of the current knowledge on the emissions of greenhouse gases related to agricultural activities. This task 3 report summarises the activities that take place in the Netherlands with respect to agriculture emission inventories. This 'national' report was compiled using information from a number of Dutch groups. Therefore, from a national point of view the compilation does not contain new information. The paper can however be useful for other European partners to get an overview of how emission estimates are obtained in the Netherlands. 14 p

  19. The Uganda version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Part I: Cross-cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooza-Mwesige, A; Tumwine, J K; Forssberg, H; Eliasson, A-C

    2018-03-12

    The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) was developed and standardized to measure functional performance in American children. So far, no published study has examined the use of the PEDI in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the adaptation, translation, and validation process undertaken to develop a culturally relevant PEDI for Uganda (PEDI-UG). The cross-cultural adaptation and translation of the PEDI was performed in a series of steps. A project manager and a technical advisory group were involved in all steps of adaptation, translation, cognitive debriefing, and revision. Translation and back-translation between English and Luganda were performed by professional translators. Cognitive debriefing of two subsequent adapted revisions was performed by a field-testing team on a total of 75 caregivers of children aged 6 months to 7.5 years. The PEDI-UG was established in both English (the official language) and Luganda (a local language) and comprises 185 items. Revisions entailed deleting irrelevant items, modifying wording, inserting new items, and incorporating local examples while retaining the meaning of the original PEDI. Item statements were rephrased as questions. Seven new items were inserted and 19 items deleted. To accommodate major differences in living conditions between rural and urban areas, 10 alternative items were provided. The PEDI-UG is to be used to measure functional limitations in both clinical practice and research, in order to assess and evaluate rehabilitative procedures in children with developmental delay and disability in Uganda. In this study, we take the first step by translating and adapting the original PEDI version to the culture and life conditions in both rural and urban Uganda. In subsequent studies, the tool's psychometric properties will be examined, and the tool will be tested in children with developmental delay and disability. © 2018 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development Published by John

  20. Quality of Life in Oncological Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: Validity and Reliability of the Dutch Version of the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory and the Deglutition Handicap Index

    OpenAIRE

    Speyer, Ren?e; Heijnen, Bas J.; Baijens, Laura W.; Vrijenhoef, Femke H.; Otters, Elsemieke F.; Roodenburg, Nel; Bogaardt, Hans C.

    2011-01-01

    Quality of life is an important outcome measurement in objectifying the current health status or therapy effects in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. In this study, the validity and reliability of the Dutch version of the Deglutition Handicap Index (DHI) and the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) have been determined for oncological patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. At Maastricht University Medical Center, 76 consecutive patients were selected and asked to fill in three questio...

  1. A Sub-category Disaggregated Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory for the Bogota Region, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Guio, A. D.; Rojas, A. M.; Ossma, L. J.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.

    2012-12-01

    estimated at 22.96±1.25 (1-sigma) Tg of CO2 equivalent (10.46±0.93 Tg CO2-e from Cundinamarca and 12.51±0.83 Tg CO2-eq from Bogota). 63% of Cundinamarca's GHG emissions are due to road transportation, agricultural soil management, enteric fermentation and fuel use in the cement industry. The road transportation and waste disposal sectors share 62% of emissions in Bogota. These activity sectors are considered to be the main GHG mitigation assessment targets. The calculated per capita emissions, 1.7 ton CO2-eq/hab-year for Bogota and 4.4 ton CO2-eq/hab-year for Cundinamarca (excluding emissions due to land-use change), do not reflect the fact that Cundinamarca provides goods and services to the city of Bogota. A deeper analysis is thus required to quantitatively account for Bogota's urban metabolism, including GHG emissions associated with consumption patterns. It is expected that the developed and applied methodologies, and the systematic compilation of the gathered information, will facilitate the development of GHG inventories for other regions of Colombia.

  2. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China&a